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Sample records for glycolipid biosurfactants mannosylerythritol

  1. [Advance in glycolipid biosurfactants--mannosylerythritol lipids].

    PubMed

    Fan, Linlin; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Jin; Dong, Yachen; Xu, Tengyang; He, Guoqing; Chen, Qihe

    2013-09-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), mainly produced by Ustilago and Pseudozyma, are surface active compounds that belong to the glycolipid class of biosurfactants. MELs have potential application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries due to their excellent surface activities and other peculiar bioactivities. In recent years, the research field of MELs has regained much attention abroad. However, MELs are rarely studied in China. In this review, the producing microorganisms and production conditions, diverse structures, biochemical properties, structure-function relationship and biosynthetic pathways of MELs are described. Some research problems and prospects are summarized and discussed as well. PMID:24409686

  2. Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, repair the damaged hair.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced from feedstock by the genus Pseudozyma, and are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics, the hair care properties of MELs were investigated using damaged hair. On electron microscopic observation, the damaged hair was dramatically recovered with applying MEL-A and MEL-B. The tensile strength of the damaged hair increased by treatment with MEL-A (122.0 +/- 13.5 gf/p), MEL-B (119.4 +/- 7.6 gf/p) and ceramide (100.7 +/- 15.9 gf/p) compared with only lauryl glucoside (96.7 +/- 12.7 gf/p), indicating the advantage of MELs on hair care treatment. In addition, the average friction coefficient of the damaged hair was maintained after treatment with MEL-A (0.108 +/- 0.002), MEL-B (0.107 +/- 0.003) and the ceramide (0.111 +/- 0.003), although lauryl glucoside treatment increased the average friction coefficient (0.126 +/- 0.003). The increase of bending rigidity by treatment with lauryl glucoside (0.204 +/- 0.002) was prevented by treatment with MEL-A (0.129 +/- 0.002), MEL-B (0.176 +/- 0.003) and the ceramide (0.164 +/- 0.002). Consequently, MELs are proposed to be the new hair care ingredient, which are the highly useful agent for not only for the recovery of damaged hair but also for providing the smooth and flexible hair. PMID:20431244

  3. A basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma crassa, produces novel diastereomers of conventional mannosylerythritol lipids as glycolipid biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kawamura, Mayo; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-11-24

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These compounds show not only excellent surface-active properties, but also versatile biochemical actions. During a survey of new MEL producers, we found that a basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma crassa, extracellularly produces three glycolipids. When glucose and oleic acid were used as the carbon source, the total amount of glycolipids reached approximately 4.6g/L in the culture medium. The structures of these glycolipids were similar to those of well-known MEL-A, -B, and -C, respectively. Very interestingly, in all the present glycolipids, the configuration of the erythritol moiety was entirely opposite to that of conventional MELs. The present glycolipids were identified to have the carbohydrate structure of 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-erythritol, stereochemically different from 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R)-erythritol of conventional MELs. Furthermore, these new glycolipids possessed both short-chain acids (C(2) or C(4)) and long-chain acids (C(14), C(16), or C(18)) on the mannose moiety. The major component of the present glycolipids clearly showed different interfacial and biological properties, compared to conventional MELs comprising two medium-chain acids on the mannose moiety. Accordingly, the novel MEL diastereomers produced by P. crassa should provide us with different glycolipid functions, and facilitate a broad range of applications of MELs. PMID:18805521

  4. Formation of W/O microemulsion based on natural glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-a.

    PubMed

    Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Chavadej, Sumaeth; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) is a glycolipid biosurfactant abundantly produced from soybean oil by microorganisms at a yield of up to 100 g/L. In this study, the formation of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion based on the single component of MEL-A was confirmed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and freeze fracture electron microscopy (FF-EM). DLS and FF-EM measurements revealed that the diameter of the microemulsion increases with an increase in water-to-surfactant mole ratio (W(0)) ranging from 20 to 60 nm, and the maximum W(0) value was found to be 20, which is as high as that of soybean lecithin. Glycolipid biosurfactant has a great potential for the formation of W/O microemulsion without using any cosurfactants. PMID:18075224

  5. Characterization of new glycolipid biosurfactants, tri-acylated mannosylerythritol lipids, produced by Pseudozyma yeasts.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-07-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudozyma yeasts. They show not only the excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In the course of MEL production from soybean oil by P. antarctica and P. rugulosa, some new extracellular glycolipids (more hydrophobic than the previously reported di-acylated MELs) were found in the culture medium. The most hydrophobic one was identified as 1-O-alka(e)noyl-4-O-[(4',6'-di-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, namely tri-acylated MEL. Others were tri-acylated MELs bearing only one acetyl group. The tri-acylated MEL could be prepared by the lipase-catalyzed esterification of a di-acylated MEL with oleic acid implying that the new glycolipids are synthesized from di-acylated MELs in the culture medium containing the residual fatty acids. PMID:17417694

  6. Microbial conversion of glycerol into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317(T).

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-07-01

    Microbial conversion of glycerol into functional bio-based materials was investigated, aiming to facilitate the utilization of waste glycerol. A basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, efficiently produced mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) as glycolipid biosurfactants from glycerol. The amount of MEL yield reached 16.3 g l(-1) by intermittent feeding of glycerol. PMID:17697987

  7. Reverse vesicle formation from the yeast glycolipid biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-D.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yanagihara, Takashi; Ito, Seya; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are secreted by yeasts and are promising glycolipid biosurfactants. In our study on the non-aqueous phase behaviors of MEL homologues, we found that MEL-D (4-O-[2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-β-D-mannopyranosyl]-(2R,3S)-erythritol) forms aggregates in decane. The microscopic observation and the X-ray scattering measurement of these aggregates revealed that they are reverse vesicles that consist of bilayers whose hydrophilic domains are located in the interior of the bilayers. In addition, MEL-D formed reverse vesicles without co-surfactants and co-solvents in various oily solutions, such as n-alkanes, cyclohexane, squalane, squalene, and silicone oils at a concentration below 10 mM. This is the first report on the reverse vesicle formation from biosurfactants. PMID:22531056

  8. Application of yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, as agrospreaders.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Nakamura, Junichi; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The spreading property of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) was investigated in connection with our search for new application in agriculture. The wetting ability of MEL solutions for hydrophobic surfaces was evaluated based on contact angle measurements for several surfactant solutions on abiotic and biotic surfaces. The contact angle of MEL-A solution on a hydrophobic plastic surface at 100 s after placement decreased to 8.4°, and those of other MEL solutions decreased more significantly compared to those of commonly-used nonionic surfactants. In addition, the contact angle of MEL solutions also dropped down to around 10° on various plant leaf surfaces. MEL solutions, in particular, efficiently spread even on poorly wettable Gramineae plant surfaces on which general nonionic surfactant solutions could not. Moreover, the wetting ability of MEL solutions was found to be greatly affected by the structural difference in their carbohydrate configuration. Furthermore, surface pretreatment with MEL solution led to more efficient spreading and fixing of microbial cells onto plant leaf surface compared to several conventional surfactants used in this study. These results suggested that MELs have a potential to use as a natural bio-based spreading agent, particularly as agrochemical spreader for biopesticides. PMID:25891117

  9. Aqueous-phase behavior of natural glycolipid biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid A: sponge, cubic, and lamellar phases.

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomohiro; Hikosaka, Yusuke; Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Konishi, Masaaki; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-02-13

    The aqueous-phase behavior of mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A), which is a glycolipid biosurfactant produced from vegetable oils by yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma, was investigated using polarized optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). MEL-A was found to self-assemble into a variety of distinctive lyotropic liquid crystals including sponge (L3), bicontinuous cubic (V2), and lamella (Lalpha) phases. On the basis of SAXS measurements, we determined the structure of the liquid crystals. The estimated lattice constant for Lalpha was 3.58 nm. DSC measurement revealed that the phase transition enthalpies from the liquid crystal to the fluid isotropic phase were in the range of 0.22-0.44 kJ/mol. Although the present MEL-A phase diagram closely resembled that obtained from relatively hydrophobic poly(oxyethylene) or fluorinated surfactants, the MEL-A L3 region was spread considerably over a wide temperature range (20-65 degrees C) compared to L3 of those surfactants: this is probably due to the unique structure which is molecularly engineered by microorganisms. In this paper, we clarify the aqueous phase diagram of the natural glycolipid biosurfactant MEL-A, and we suggest that the obtained lyotropic crystals are potentially useful as novel nanostructured biomaterials. PMID:17279642

  10. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, using sucrose by fungal and yeast strains, and their interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-10-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were produced from glucose and sucrose without vegetable oils. Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, Ustilago maydis NBRC 5346, U. scitaminea NBRC 32730, and P. siamensis CBS 9960 produced mainly MEL-A, MEL-A, MEL-B, and MEL-C respectively. The sucrose-derived MELs showed excellent interfacial properties: low critical micelle concentration as well as that of oil-derived MELs. PMID:19809166

  11. Characterization of the genus Pseudozyma by the formation of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-03-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica is one of the best producers of the glycolipid biosurfactants known as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In order to obtain a variety of producers, all the species of the genus were examined for their production of MELs from soybean oil. Pseudozyma fusiformata, P. parantarctica and P. tsukubaensis were newly identified to be MEL producers. Of the strains tested, P. parantarctica gave the best yield of MELs (30 g L(-1)). The obtained yield corresponded to those of P. antarctica, P. aphidis and P. rugulosa, which are known high-level MEL producers. Interestingly, P. parantarctica and P. fusiformata produced mainly 4-O-[(4',6'-di-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-A), whereas P. tsukubaensis produced mainly 4-O-[(6'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-B). Consequently, six of the nine species clearly produced MELs. Based on the MEL production pattern, the nine species seemed to fall into four groups: the first group produces large amounts of MELs; the second produces both MELs and other biosurfactants; the third mainly produces MEL-B; and the fourth is non-MEL-producing. Thus, MEL production may be an important taxonomic index for the Pseudozyma yeasts. PMID:17328742

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of a novel glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-D and its aqueous phase behavior.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yanagihara, Takashi; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-02-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by yeasts are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants. In this study, we succeeded in the preparation of a novel MEL homolog having no acetyl groups, namely MEL-D. MEL-D was synthesized by lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetyl groups from a known MEL, and identified as 4-O-[2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-β-d-mannopyranosyl]-(2R,3S)-erythritol. The obtained MEL-D showed a higher critical aggregation concentration (CAC=1.2 × 10(-5)M) and hydrophilicity compared to known MELs, retaining an excellent surface tension lowering activity (the surface tension at the CAC was 24.5mN/m). In addition, we estimated the binary phase diagram of the MEL-D-water system based on a combination of visual inspection, polarized optical microscopy, and SAXS measurement. From these results, MEL-D was found to self-assemble into a lamellar (L(α)) structure over all ranges of concentration. Meanwhile, the one-phase L(α) region of MEL-D was extended wider than those of known MELs. MEL-D might keep more water between the polar layers in accordance with the extension of the interlayer spacing (d). These results suggest that the newly obtained MEL-D would facilitate the application of MELs in various fields as a lamellar-forming glycolipid with higher hydrate ability. PMID:21163471

  13. The moisturizing effects of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on human skin.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products. PMID:22790172

  14. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma siamensis CBS 9960 and their interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-05-01

    The search for a novel producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), was undertaken on the basis of the analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences of yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. In the course of the investigation, Pseudozyma siamensis CBS 9960, which is closely related to Pseudozyma shanxiensis, a known MEL-C producer but with a different morphology, was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids. On thin layer chromatography, the extracellular glycolipids showed nearly the same spots as those of the MELs produced by P. shanxiensis. However, the result of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the present strain has a much higher glycolipid production yield than P. shanxiensis. From the structural characterization by (1)H and (13)C NMR, the major glycolipid (more than 84% of the total) was identified as a mixture of 4-O-[(2',4'-di-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol and 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, both of which are types of MEL-C. The present MEL-C possessed a short-chain acid (C(2) or C(4)) at the C-2' position and a long-chain acid (C(16)) at the C-3' position of the mannose moiety, and thus, the hydrophobic part was considerably different from that of conventional MELs, which mainly possess two medium-chain acids (C(10)) at the C-2' and C-3' positions. Under optimal growth conditions with safflower oil in a shake culture, the total amount of MELs reached approximately 19 g/l after 9 d at 25 degrees C. We further investigated the interfacial properties of the present MEL-C, considering its unique hydrophobic structure. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at the CMC of the MEL were 4.5 x 10(-6) M and 30.7 mN/m, respectively. In addition, on a water penetration scan, the MEL efficiently formed the liquid crystal phases such as hexagonal (H) and lamella (L(a)) at a wide range of

  15. Aqueous-phase behavior and vesicle formation of natural glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-B.

    PubMed

    Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Chavadej, Sumaeth; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-08-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants produced by yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. In this study, the aqueous-phase behavior of a new monoacetyl MEL derivative, 1-O-beta-(2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-d-mannopyranosyl)-d-erythritol (MEL-B), was investigated using polarized optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The present MEL-B was found to self-assemble into a lamellar (L(alpha)) phase over remarkably wide concentration and temperature ranges. According to SAXS measurement, the interlayer spacing (d) was estimated to be almost constant (about 4.7 nm) at the low MEL-B concentration (60 wt.%) region, the d-spacing gradually decreased to 3.1 nm with an increase in the MEL-B concentration. The thermal stability of the liquid crystalline phase was investigated by DSC measurement. The obtained L(alpha) phase was found to be stable up to 95 degrees C below a MEL-B concentration of 85 wt.%; then, the melting temperature of the liquid crystalline phase dramatically decreased with an increase in MEL-B concentration (above 85 wt.%). Furthermore, we found relatively large vesicles (1-5 microm) at the low MEL-B concentration using CLSM observation. The trapped volume of the obtained MEL-B vesicle was estimated to be about 0.42 microL/mumol by glucose dialysis method. These results suggest that the natural glycolipid biosurfactant, the newly found MEL-B, would be useful in various fields of applications as an L(alpha) phase- and/or vesicle-forming lipid. PMID:18456469

  16. Activation of fibroblast and papilla cells by glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Suzuki, Michiko; Sogabe, Atsushi; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), the extracellular glycolipids produced from feedstock by yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma, are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics, the cell activating property of MELs was investigated using cultured fibroblast and papilla cells, and a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. The di-acetylated MEL (MEL-A) produced from soybean oil significantly increased the viability of the fibroblast cells over 150% compared with that of control cells. On the other hand, no cell activation was observed by the treatment with MEL-A produced from olive oil. The mono-acetylated MEL (MEL-B) hardly increased the cell viability. The viability of the fibroblast cells decreased with the addition of more than 1 microg/L of MELs, whereas the cultured human skin cells showed high viability with 5 microg/L of MELs. Interestingly, the papilla cells were dramatically activated with 0.001 microg/L of MEL-A produced from soybean oil: the cell viability reached at 150% compared with that of control cells. Consequently, the present MEL-A produced from soybean oil should have a potential as a new hair growth agent stimulating the papilla cells. PMID:20625237

  17. Identification of Pseudozyma graminicola CBS 10092 as a producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    A basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma graminicola CBS 10092, was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids in the cultured medium when grown on soybean oil as the sole carbon source. Based on thin layer chromatography, the extracellular glycolipids gave spots corresponding to those of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are highly functional and promising biosurfactants. From the structural characterization by 1H and 13C NMR, the main product was identified as 4-O-[(4'-mono-O-acetyl-2', 3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, which is a highly hydrophilic derivative of MELs known as MEL-C. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the main product, MEL-C, comprised approximately 85% of all the MELs, and the total amount reached approximately 10 g/L for 7 days. The fatty acids of the present MEL-C consisted of mainly C6, C8 and C14 acids, considerably different from those of MEL-C produced by other Pseudozyma strains such as P. antarctica and P. shanxiensis. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface-tension at CMC of the MEL-C were 4.0 x 10(-6) M and 24.2 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A, the most intensively studied MEL, were 2.7 x 10(-6) M and 28.4 mN/m, respectively. This implied that the MEL-C has higher hydrophilicity than conventional MELs hitherto reported. In addition, on a water-penetration scan, the MEL-C efficiently formed the lamella phase (Lalpha) at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent self-assembling properties. From these results, the newly identified MELs produced by P. graminicola are likely to have great potential for use in oil-in-water type emulsifiers and/or washing detergents, and would thus facilitate a broad range of applications for the promising yeast biosurfactants. PMID:18198469

  18. Direct xylan conversion into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma antarctica PYCC 5048(T).

    PubMed

    Faria, Nuno Torres; Marques, Susana; Fonseca, César; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo

    2015-04-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are glycolipid biosurfactants, produced by Pseudozyma spp., with increasing commercial interest. While MEL can be produced from d-glucose and d-xylose, the direct conversion of the respective lignocellulosic polysaccharides, cellulose and xylan, was not reported yet. The ability of Pseudozyma antarctica PYCC 5048(T) and Pseudozyma aphidis PYCC 5535(T) to use cellulose (Avicel(®)) and xylan (beechwood) as carbon and energy source has been assessed along with their capacity of producing cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes, toward a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) for MEL production. The yeasts assessed were neither able to grow in medium containing Avicel(®) nor produce cellulolytic enzymes under the conditions tested. On contrary, both yeasts were able to efficiently grow in xylan, but MEL production was only detected in P. antarctica PYCC 5048(T) cultures. MEL titers reached 1.3g/l after 10 days in batch cultures with 40g/l xylan, and 2.0g/l in fed-batch cultures with xylan feeding (additional 40g/l) at day 4. High levels of xylanase activities were detected in xylan cultures, reaching 47-62U/ml (31-32U/mg) at 50°C, and still exhibiting more than 10U/ml under physiological temperature (28°C). Total β-xylosidase activities, displayed mainly as wall-bounded and extracellular activity, accounted for 0.154 and 0.176U/ml in P. antarctica PYCC 5048(T) and P. aphidis PYCC 5535(T) cultures, respectively. The present results demonstrate the potential of Pseudozyma spp. for using directly a fraction of lignocellulosic biomass, xylan, and combining in the same bioprocess the production of xylanolytic enzymes with MEL production. PMID:25765311

  19. Identification of Ustilago cynodontis as a new producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, based on ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants known because of their multifunctionality and biocompatibility. The search for novel producers of MELs was undertaken based on the analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences on basidiomycetous yeasts. The bermuda grass smut fungus Ustilago cynodontis NBRC 7530, which taxonomically relates to Pseudozyma shanxiensis known as a MEL-C producer, was found to accumulate glycolipids in the cultured medium. Under a shake flask culture with soybean oil, the amount of the glycolipids was 1.4 g/L for 7 days at 25 degrees C. As a result of the structural characterization, the main glycolipids was identified as 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, and the major fatty acids were C(14) and C(16) ones. The glycolipid was highly hydrophilic MEL-C, and very similar to those produced by P. shanxiensis. The fungi of the genus Ustilago are thus likely to be potential producers of MELs as well as the yeasts of the genus Pseudozyma. PMID:18781055

  20. Isolation of Pseudozyma churashimaensis sp. nov., a novel ustilaginomycetous yeast species as a producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ogura, Yuki; Takashima, Masako; Hirose, Naoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kondo, Yukishige; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-08-01

    An ustilaginomycetous anamorphic yeast species isolated from the leaves of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) in Okinawa, Japan, was identified as a novel Pseudozyma species based on morphological and physiological aspects and molecular taxonomic analysis using the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2 regions. The name Pseudozyma churashimaensis sp. nov. was proposed for the novel species, with JCM 16988(T) as the type strain. Interestingly, P. churashimaensis was found to produce glycolipid biosurfactants, a mixture of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), including a novel tri-acetylated derivative (MEL-A2), from glucose. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at CMC of MEL-A2 were 1.7 × 10⁻⁶ M and 29.2 mN/m, respectively. Moreover, on a water-penetration scan, MEL-A2 efficiently formed different lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, including the lamella phase at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. The novel strain of the genus Pseudozyma should thus facilitate the application of glycolipid biosurfactants in combination with other MEL producers. PMID:21606002

  1. Production and characterization of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid B, from sugarcane juice by Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Hirose, Naoto; Wada, Koji; Takahashi, Makoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants excreted by fungal strains. They show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730 has been reported mainly to produce a mono-acetylated and di-acylated MEL, MEL-B, from sucrose as sole carbon source. In order to make biosurfactant production more efficient, we focused our attention on the use of sugarcane juice, one of the most economical resources. The fungal strain produced MEL-B at the yield of 12.7 g/L from only sugarcane juice containing 22.4% w/w sugars. Supplementation with organic (yeast extract, peptone, and urea) and inorganic (sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate) nitrogen sources markedly enhanced the production yield. Of the nitrogen sources, urea gave the best yield. Under optimum conditions, the strain produced 25.1 g/L of MEL-B from the juice (19.3% sugars) supplemented with 1 g/L of urea in a jar fermenter at 25 °C over 7 d. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface-tension at the CMC for the present MEL-B were 3.7×10(-6) M and 25.2 mN/m respectively. On water-penetration scan, the biosurfactant efficiently formed the lamella phase (L(α)) and myelins over a wide range of concentrations, indicating excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. More significantly, the biosurfactant showed a ceramide-like skin-care property in a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. Thus, sugarcane juice is likely to be effective in glycolipid production by U. scitaminea NBRC 32730, and should facilitate the application of MELs. PMID:21737925

  2. Isolation of basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and production of glycolipid biosurfactant, a diastereomer type of mannosylerythritol lipid-B.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Takashima, Masako; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-10-01

    The producers of glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B), were isolated from leaves of Perilla frutescens on Ibaraki in Japan. Four isolates, 1D9, 1D10, 1D11, and 1E5, were identified as basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis by rDNA sequence and biochemical properties. The structure of MEL-B produced by these strains was analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, and was determined to be the same as the diastereomer MEL-B produced by P. tsukubaensis NBRC 1940. Of these isolates, P. tsukubaensis 1E5 (JCM 16987) is capable of producing the largest amount of the diastereomer MEL-B from vegetable oils. In order to progress the diastereomer MEL-B production by strain 1E5, factors affecting the production, such as carbon and organic nutrient sources, were further examined. Olive oil and yeast extract were the best carbon and nutrient sources, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, a maximum yield, productivity, and yield coefficient of 73.1 g/L, 10.4 g L(-1) day(-1), and 43.5 g/g were achieved by feeding of olive oil in a 5-L jar-fermenter culture using strain 1E5. PMID:20652239

  3. A yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, shows high binding affinity towards lectins on a self-assembled monolayer system.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-03-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are glycolipid biosurfactants secreted by the Pseudozyma yeasts, show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions including antitumor and cell-differentiation activities. In order to address the biochemical actions, interactions between MEL-A, the major component of MEL, and different lectins were investigated using the surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. The monolayer of MEL-A showed high binding affinity to concanavalin A (ConA) and Maackia amurensis lectin-I (MAL-I). The observed affinity constants for ConA and MAL-I were estimated to be 9.48 +/- 1.31 x 10(6) and 3.13 +/- 0.274 x 10(6) M(-1), respectively; the value was comparable to that of Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3)Man, which is one of the most specific probe to ConA. Significantly, alpha-methyl-D-mannopyranoside (1 mM) exhibited no binding inhibition between MEL-A and ConA. MEL-A is thus likely to self-assemble to give a high affinity surface, where ConA binds to the hydrophilic headgroup in a different manner from that generally observed in lectin-saccharide interactions. The binding manner should be related with the biochemical actions of MEL toward mammalian cells via protein-carbohydrate interactions. PMID:17205206

  4. Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica T-34, a Producer of the Glycolipid Biosurfactants Mannosylerythritol Lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Koyama, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Ito, Emi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Machida, Masayuki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 is an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), members of the multifunctional extracellular glycolipids, from various feedstocks. Here, the genome sequence of P. antarctica T-34 was determined and annotated. Analysis of the sequence might provide insights into the properties of this yeast that make it superior for use in the production of functional glycolipids, leading to the further development of P. antarctica for industrial applications. PMID:23558529

  5. Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica T-34, a Producer of the Glycolipid Biosurfactants Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Koyama, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Ito, Emi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Machida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 is an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), members of the multifunctional extracellular glycolipids, from various feedstocks. Here, the genome sequence of P. antarctica T-34 was determined and annotated. Analysis of the sequence might provide insights into the properties of this yeast that make it superior for use in the production of functional glycolipids, leading to the further development of P. antarctica for industrial applications. PMID:23558529

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica Type Strain JCM10317, a Producer of the Glycolipid Biosurfactants, Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Saika, Azusa; Koike, Hideaki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica is known as a producer of industrial enzymes and the extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain JCM10317. The draft genome assembly has a size of 18.1 Mb and a G+C content of 60.9%, and it consists of 197 scaffolds. PMID:25291760

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica Type Strain JCM10317, a Producer of the Glycolipid Biosurfactants, Mannosylerythritol Lipids.

    PubMed

    Saika, Azusa; Koike, Hideaki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai; Morita, Tomotake

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica is known as a producer of industrial enzymes and the extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain JCM10317. The draft genome assembly has a size of 18.1 Mb and a G+C content of 60.9%, and it consists of 197 scaffolds. PMID:25291760

  8. Extracellular production of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, by Candida sp. SY16 using fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Sik; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Yoon, Byung-Dae

    2006-04-01

    Candida sp. strain SY16 produces a glycolipid-type biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL-SY16), which can reduce the surface tension of a culture broth from 72 to 30 dyne cm(-1) and highly emulsify hydrocarbons when cultured in soybean-oil-containing media. As such, laboratory-scale fermentation for MEL-SY16 production was performed using optimized conditions. In batch fermentation, MEL-SY16 was mainly produced during the stationary phase of growth, and the concentration of MEL-SY16 reached 37 g l(-1) after 200 h. The effect of pH control on the production of MEL-SY16 was also examined in batch fermentation. The highest production yield of MEL-SY16 was when the pH was controlled at 4.0, and the production was significantly improved compared to batch fermentation without pH control. In fed-batch fermentation, glucose and soybean oil (1:1, w/w) were used in combination as the initial carbon sources for cell growth, and soybean oil was used as the feeding carbon source during the MEL production phase. The feeding of soybean oil resulted in the disappearance of any foam and a sharp increase in the MEL production until 200 h, at which point the concentration of MEL-SY16 was 95 g l(-1). Among the investigated culture systems, the highest MEL-SY16 production and volumetric production rate were achieved with fed-batch fermentation. PMID:16133323

  9. Yeast extract stimulates production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Nagahama, Takahiko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai; Hatada, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    We improved the culture conditions for a biosurfactant producing yeast, Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62. We found that yeast extract greatly stimulates MEL production. Furthermore, we demonstrated a highly efficient production of MELs in the improved medium by fed-batch cultivation. The final concentration of MELs reached 129 ± 8.2g/l for one week. PMID:21393057

  10. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a smut fungus, Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-03-23

    A smut fungus Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730 on sugar cane (Saccharum) was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids in the culture medium. As a result of structural characterization, the main glycolipid was identified as MEL-B, 4-O-beta-(2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-erythritol. The MEL-B was sufficiently produced from a variety of sugars such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, and mannose. Olive oil and methyl oleate were also available as carbon sources to produce MEL-B. However, these residual oils made product recovery very complicated. Under optimal conditions, a maximum MEL yield of 12.8 g/l was achieved by feeding of sucrose. PMID:19270362

  11. Efficient production of di- and tri-acylated mannosylerythritol lipids as glycolipid biosurfactants by Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752(T).

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising biosurfactants known, because of their multifunctionality and biocompatibility. In order to attain an efficient production of MELs, Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752(T), which is a newly identified strain of the genus, was examined for the productivity of MELs at different culture conditions. The yeast strain showed significant cell growth and production of di-acylated MELs even at 36 degrees C. In contrast, on conventional high-level MEL producers including P. rugulosa, the MEL yield considerably decreased with an increase of the cultivation temperature at over 30 degrees C. On P. parantarctica, soybean oil and sodium nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Under the optimal conditions on a shake-flask culture at 34 degrees C, the amount of di-acylated MELs reached over 100 g/L by intermittent feeding of only soybean oil. Interestingly, the yeast strain produced tri-acylated MELs as well as di-acylated ones when grown on the medium containing higher soybean oil concentrations than 8% (vol/vol). The production of tri-acylated MELs was significantly accelerated at between 34 and 36 degrees C. With 20 % (vol/vol) of soybean oil at 34 degrees C, the yield of tri-acylated MELs reached 22.7 g/L. The extracellular lipase activity considerably depended on the culture temperature, and became the maximum at 34 degrees C; this would bring the accelerated production of tri-acylated MELs. Accordingly, the present strain of P. parantarctica provided high efficiency in MEL production at elevated temperatures compared to conventional MEL producers, and would thus be highly advantageous for the commercial production of the promising biosurfactants. PMID:18781056

  12. Physiological differences in the formation of the glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, between Pseudozyma antarctica and Pseudozyma aphidis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-02-01

    Vegetable oil is the usual carbon source for the production of biosurfactants (BS), mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL). To simplify the procedures of BS production and recovery, we investigated the extracellular production of MEL from water-soluble carbon sources instead of vegetable oils by using two representative yeast strains. The formation of extracellular MEL from glucose was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC analysis. On glucose cultivation, pure MEL were easily prepared by only solvent extraction of the culture medium, different from the case of soybean oil cultivation. The fatty acid profile of the major MEL produced from glucose was similar to that produced from soybean oil based on GC-MS analysis. The resting cells of Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 produced MEL by feeding of glucose only and gave a yield of 12 g l(-1). In contrast, Pseudozyma aphidis ATCC 32657 gave no MEL from glucose. Moreover, the extracellular lipase activities were detected at high levels during the cultivation regardless of the carbon sources. These results indicate that all the biosynthesis pathways for MEL in P. antarctica T-34 should constitutively function. In conclusion, P. antarctica T-34 thus has potential for BS production from glucose. PMID:17103161

  13. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica, which produces glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2006-07-15

    Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 secretes a large amount of biosurfactants (BS), mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), from different carbon sources such as hydrocarbons and vegetable oils. The detailed biosynthetic pathway of MEL remained unknown due to lack of genetic information on the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeasts, including the genus Pseudozyma. Here, in order to obtain genetic information on P. antarctica T-34, we constructed a cDNA library from yeast cells producing MEL from soybean oil and identified the genes expressed through the creation of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library. We generated 398 ESTs, assembled into 146 contiguous sequences. Based upon a BLAST search similarity cut-off of E

  14. Discovery of Pseudozyma rugulosa NBRC 10877 as a novel producer of the glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, based on rDNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2006-11-01

    The search for a novel producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) was undertaken based on the analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences on the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. Pseudozyma rugulosa NBRC 10877 was found to produce a large amount of glycolipids from soybean oil. Fluorescence microscopic observation also demonstrated that the strain significantly accumulates polar lipids in the cells. The structure of the glycolipids produced by the strain was analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, and was determined to be the same as MEL produced by Pseudozyma antarctica, a well-known MEL producer. The major fatty acids of the present MEL consisted of C8 and C10 acids. Based on high performance liquid chromatography, the composition of the produced MEL was as follows: MEL-A (68%), MEL-B (12%), and MEL-C (20%). To enhance the production of MEL by the novel strain, factors affecting the production, such as carbon and nitrogen sources, were further examined. Soybean oil and sodium nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The supplementation of a MEL precursor, such as erythritol, drastically enhanced the production yield from soybean oil at a rate of 70 to 90%. Under the optimal conditions in a shake culture, a maximum yield, productivity, and yield coefficient (on a weight basis to soybean oil supplied) of 142 g l(-1), 5.0 g l(-1) day(-1), and 0.5 g g(-1) were achieved by intermittent feeding of soybean oil and erythritol using the yeast. PMID:16733733

  15. A basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma tsukubaensis, efficiently produces a novel glycolipid biosurfactant. The identification of a new diastereomer of mannosylerythritol lipid-B.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-02-25

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These compounds show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical activities. In the course of MEL production by Pseudozyma tsukubaensis, we found an unusual MEL that had a different carbohydrate structure from that of conventional MELs. The carbohydrate structure was identified as 1-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-D-erythritol, and the MEL was confirmed to be 1-O-beta-(2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-D-erythritol. Interestingly, the configuration of the erythritol moiety in the present MEL was opposite to that of the known MEL-B, 4-O-beta-(2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-D-erythritol, and to that of all MELs hitherto reported. The present MEL should thus provide different interfacial and biochemical properties compared to conventional MELs. PMID:18083152

  16. Structural characterization and surface-active properties of a new glycolipid biosurfactant, mono-acylated mannosylerythritol lipid, produced from glucose by Pseudozyma antarctica.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-09-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, show not only excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In the course of MEL production from glucose as the sole carbon source, P. antarctica was found to produce unknown glycolipids more hydrophilic than conventional "di-acylated MELs," which have two fatty acyl esters on the mannose moiety. Based on a detailed characterization, the most hydrophilic one was identified as 4-O-(3'-O-alka(e)noyl-beta-D: -mannopyranosyl)-D: -erythritol namely, "mono-acylated MEL." The mono-acylated MEL reduced the surface tension of water to 33.8 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 3.6 x 10(-4) M, and its hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was tentatively calculated to be 12.15. The observed CMC was 100-fold higher than that of the MELs hitherto reported. Interestingly, of the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma, only P. antarctica and P. parantarctica gave the mono-acylated MEL from glucose, despite a great diversity of di-acylated MEL producers in the genus. These strains produced MELs including the mono-acylated one at a rate of 20-25%. From these results, the new MEL is likely to have great potential for use in oil-in-water-type emulsifiers and washing detergents because of its higher water solubility compared to conventional MELs and will thus contribute to facilitating a broad range of applications for the environmentally advanced surfactants. PMID:17607573

  17. Production of microbial glycolipid biosurfactants and their antimicrobial activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial glycolipids produced by bacteria or yeast as secondary metabolites, such as sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs) and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are “green” biosurfactants desirable in a bioeconomy. High cost of production is a major hurdle toward widespread commercial use of bios...

  18. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

  19. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants by basidiomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-05-01

    BSs (biosurfactants) produced by various micro-organisms show unique properties (e.g. mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared with chemically synthesized surfactants. The numerous advantages of BSs have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries but also in environmental protection and energy-saving technology. Among BSs, glycolipid types are the most promising, owing to their high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. MELs (mannosylerythritol lipids), which are glycolipid BSs abundantly produced by basidiomycetous yeasts such as strains of Pseudozyma, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties, but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukaemia cells. MELs also show high binding affinity towards different immunoglobulins and lectins. Recently, a cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BSs should broaden their application in new advanced technologies. In the present review the current status of research and development on glycolipid BSs, especially their production by Pseudozyma yeasts, is described. PMID:19341364

  20. Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, show antioxidant and protective effects against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are biosurfactants known for their versatile interfacial and biochemical properties. To broaden their application in cosmetics, we investigated the antioxidant properties of different MEL derivatives (MEL-A, -B, and -C) by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) free-radical- and superoxide anion-scavenging assay. All MEL derivatives tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro, but at lower levels than those of arbutin. Of the MELs, MEL-C, which is produced from soybean oil by Pseudozyma hubeiensis, showed the highest rates of DPPH radical scavenging (50.3% at 10 mg/mL) and superoxide anion scavenging (>50% at 1 mg/mL). The antioxidant property of MEL-C was further examined using cultured human skin fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells) under H(2)O(2) induced oxidative stress. Surprisingly, MEL-C had a higher protective activity against oxidative stress than arbutin did: 10 µg/mL of MEL-C and arbutin had protective activities of 30.3% and 13%, respectively. Expression of an oxidative stress marker, cyclooxygenase-2, in these cells was repressed by treatment with MEL-C as well as by arbutin. MEL-C was thus confirmed to have antioxidant and protective effects in cells, and we suggest that MELs have potential as anti-aging skin care ingredients. PMID:22864517

  1. Production and antimicrobial property of glycolipid biosurfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial glycolipids such as rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) are an important class of biosurfactants with excellent surface tension-lowering activity. Besides their surfactant- and environment-friendly properties, however, additional value-added property such as bacteriocidal activity is n...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Yeast-Like Fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62, Which Produces an Abundant Amount of the Biosurfactant Mannosylerythritol Lipids.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Hatada, Yuji; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast-like fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis strain SY62 is capable of producing an abundant amount of the glycolipid biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are a major component of monoacetylated MEL (MEL-C). To reveal the synthetic pathway of the MELs of strain SY62, we present the 18.44-Mb draft genome sequence. PMID:23814110

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Yeast-Like Fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62, Which Produces an Abundant Amount of the Biosurfactant Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Yuji; Horiuchi, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast-like fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis strain SY62 is capable of producing an abundant amount of the glycolipid biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are a major component of monoacetylated MEL (MEL-C). To reveal the synthetic pathway of the MELs of strain SY62, we present the 18.44-Mb draft genome sequence. PMID:23814110

  4. Mannosylerythritol lipid, a yeast extracellular glycolipid, shows high binding affinity towards human immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Im, Jae Hong; Nakane, Takashi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Toru; Kitamoto, Dai

    2001-01-01

    Background There have been many attempts to develop new materials with stability and high affinity towards immunoglobulins. Some of glycolipids such as gangliosides exhibit a high affinity toward immunoglobulins. However, it is considerably difficult to develop these glycolipids into the practical separation ligand due to their limited amounts. We thus focused our attention on the feasible use of "mannosylerythritol lipid A", a yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, as an alternative ligand for immunoglobulins, and undertook the investigation on the binding between mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A) and human immunoglobulin G (HIgG). Results In ELISA assay, MEL-A showed nearly the same binding affinity towards HIgG as that of bovine ganglioside GM1. Fab of human IgG was considered to play a more important role than Fc in the binding of HIgG by MEL-A. The bound amount of HIgG increased depending on the attached amount of MEL-A onto poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (polyHEMA) beads, whereas the amount of human serum albumin slightly decreased. Binding-amount and -selectivity of HIgG towards MEL-A were influenced by salt species, salt concentration and pH in the buffer solution. The composite of MEL-A and polyHEMA, exhibited a significant binding constant of 1.43 × 106 (M-1) for HIgG, which is approximately 4-fold greater than that of protein A reported. Conclusions MEL-A shows high binding-affinity towards HIgG, and this is considered to be due to "multivalent effect" based on the binding molar ratio. This is the first report on the binding of a natural human antibody towards a yeast glycolipid. PMID:11604104

  5. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27098847

  6. A yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, shows potential moisturizing activity toward cultured human skin cells: the recovery effect of MEL-A on the SDS-damaged human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Suzuki, Michiko; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are produced in large amounts from renewable vegetable oils by Pseudozyma antarctica, and are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, the skin care property of MEL-A, the major component of MELs, was investigated using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution of 1 wt%, and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were then evaluated on the basis of the cell viability. The viability of the damaged cells was markedly recovered by the addition of MEL-A in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control, MEL-A solutions of 5 wt% and 10 wt% gave the recovery rate of 73% and 91%, respectively, while ceramide solution of 1 wt% gave the rate of over 100%. This revealed that MEL-A shows a ceramide-like moisturizing activity toward the skin cells. Considering the drawbacks of natural ceramides, namely limited amount and high production cost, the yeast biosurfactants should have a great potential as a novel moisturizer for treating the damaged skin. PMID:19915321

  7. Production of a novel glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylmannitol lipid, by Pseudozyma parantarctica and its interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-07-01

    The development of a novel glycolipid biosurfactant was undertaken using the high-level producers of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) such as Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pseudozyma antarctica, and Pseudozyma rugulosa. Besides the conventional MELs (MEL-A, MEL-B, and MEL-C), these yeasts produced an unknown glycolipid when they were cultivated in a medium containing 4% (w/v) olive oil and 4% (w/w) mannitol as the carbon source. The unknown glycolipid extracted from the culture medium of P. parantarctica JCM 11752(T) displayed the spot with lower mobility than that of known MELs on TLC and provided mainly two peaks identical to mannose and mannitol on high-performance liquid chromatography after acid hydrolysis. Based on structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, the novel glycolipid was composed of mannose and mannitol as the hydrophilic sugar moiety and was identified as mannosylmannitol lipid (MML). Of the strains tested, P. parantarctica JCM 11752(T) gave the best yield of MML (18.2 g/L), which comprised approximately 35% of all glycolipids produced. We further investigated the interfacial properties of the MML, considering the unique hydrophilic structure. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at CMC of the MML were 2.6 x 10(-6) M and 24.2 mN/m, respectively. In addition, on a water-penetration scan, the MML efficiently formed not only the lamella phase (Lalpha) but also the myelins at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent self-assembling properties and high hydrophilicity. The present glycolipid should thus facilitate the application of biosurfactants as new functional materials. PMID:19296097

  8. Glycolipid biosurfactants: Potential related biomedical and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Inès, Mnif; Dhouha, Ghribi

    2015-10-30

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by highly structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol-lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. Moreover, their ability to form pores and destabilize biological membrane permits their use in biomedicine as antibacterial, antifungal and hemolytic agents. Their antiviral and antitumor effects enable their use in pharmaceutic as therapeutic agents. Also, glycolipids can inhibit the bioadhesion of pathogenic bacteria enabling their use as anti-adhesive agents and for disruption of biofilm formation and can be used in cosmetic industry. Moreover, they have great potential application in industry as detergents, wetting agents and for flotation. Furthermore, glycolipids can act at the surface and can modulate enzyme activity permitting the enhancement or the inhibition of the activity of certain enzymes. PMID:26359535

  9. Characterization of new types of mannosylerythritol lipids as biosurfactants produced from soybean oil by a basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma shanxiensis.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These show not only the excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In course of MEL production from soybean oil by P. shanxiensis, new extracellular glycolipids (more hydrophilic than the previously reported MELs) were found in the culture medium. As a result of the structural characterization, the glycolipids were identified as a mixture of 4-O-[(2', 4'-di-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol and 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol. Interestingly, the new MELs possessed a much shorter chain (C(2) or C(4)) at the C-2' position of the mannose moiety compared to the MELs hitherto reported, which mainly possess a medium-chain acid (C(10)) at the position. They would thus show higher hydrophilicity and/or water-solubility, and expand the development of the environmentally advanced yeast biosurfactants. PMID:17898510

  10. Lipase-catalyzed acylation of microbial mannosylerythritol lipids (biosurfactants) and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Recke, Verena K; Beyrle, Catharina; Gerlitzki, Melanie; Hausmann, Rudolf; Syldatk, Christoph; Wray, Victor; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Lang, Siegmund

    2013-05-24

    Culturing Pseudozyma aphidis on glucose as main carbon source and soybean oil as co-substrate the mannosylerythritol lipids MEL-A and MEL-B were produced. Based on their excellent surface/interfacial active behavior they possess a high potential among all known biosurfactants. The components of a microbial MEL mixture were purified by medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) and were used as substrates for in vitro enzymatic modifications. Lipase-catalyzed acylations of MEL-A and MEL-B with uncommon fatty acids from other microbial glycolipids-3-hydroxydecanoic acid from rhamnolipids and 17-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid from classical sophorolipids-yielded functionalized products at the C-1 position of the erythritol. The novel products were purified by MPLC and their structures elucidated by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In physicochemical characterization experiments two of the three new glycoconjugates lowered the surface tension of water from 72 mN m(-1) to 27-38 mN m(-1). Moreover the novel compounds inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria and showed a potential for anti-tumor-promoting activity. PMID:23584591

  11. Formation of the two novel glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylribitol lipid and mannosylarabitol lipid, by Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752T.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-11-01

    In order to develop novel glycolipid biosurfactants, Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752(T), which is known as a producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), was cultivated using different sugar alcohols with the presence of vegetable oil. When cultivated in a medium containing 4 % (w/v) olive oil and 4 % D-ribitol or D-arabitol, the yeast strain provided different glycolipids, compared to the case of no sugar alcohol. On TLC, both of the extracted glycolipid fractions gave two major spots corresponding to MEL-A (di-acetylated MEL) and MEL-B (mono-acetylated MEL). Based on (1)H NMR analysis, one glycolipid was identified as MEL-A, but the other was not MEL-B. On high-performance liquid chromatography after acid hydrolysis, the unknown glycolipid from the D-ribitol culture provided mainly two peaks identical to D-mannose and D-ribitol, and the other unknown glycolipid from the D-arabitol culture did two peaks identical to D-mannose and D-arabitol. Accordingly, the two unknown glycolipids were identified as mannosylribitol lipid (MRL) and mannosylarabitol lipid (MAL), respectively. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of MRL were 1.6 × 10(-6) M and 23.7 mN/m, and those of MAL were 1.5 × 10(-6) M and 24.2 mN/m, respectively. These surface-tension-lowering activities were significantly higher compared to conventional MEL. Furthermore, on a water-penetration scan, MRL and MAL efficiently formed not only the lamella phase (L(α)) but also the myelins at a wide range of concentrations, indicating their excellent self-assembling properties and high hydrophilicity. The present two glycolipids should thus facilitate the application of biosurfactants as new functional materials. PMID:22722912

  12. Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Fungus Pseudozyma aphidis DSM70725, an Efficient Producer of Biosurfactant Mannosylerythritol Lipids.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Stefan; Guenther, Michael; Grumaz, Christian; Rupp, Steffen; Zibek, Susanne; Sohn, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Pseudozyma aphidis is an efficient producer of mannosylerythritol lipids exceeding concentrations of >100 g/liter from renewable feed stocks. Additionally, a biosurfactant cellobiose lipid is also secreted during nitrogen limitation. Here, we describe the sequencing of P. aphidis to unravel the genomic basis of biosurfactant metabolism in P. aphidis. PMID:24526638

  13. Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Fungus Pseudozyma aphidis DSM70725, an Efficient Producer of Biosurfactant Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Stefan; Guenther, Michael; Grumaz, Christian; Rupp, Steffen; Zibek, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Pseudozyma aphidis is an efficient producer of mannosylerythritol lipids exceeding concentrations of >100 g/liter from renewable feed stocks. Additionally, a biosurfactant cellobiose lipid is also secreted during nitrogen limitation. Here, we describe the sequencing of P. aphidis to unravel the genomic basis of biosurfactant metabolism in P. aphidis. PMID:24526638

  14. Naturally engineered glycolipid biosurfactants leading to distinctive self-assembled structures.

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomohiro; Ohta, Noboru; Inoue, Katsuaki; Yagi, Naoto; Negishi, Hideyuki; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2006-03-01

    Self-assembling properties of "natural" glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosyl-erythritol lipids A and B (MEL-A, MEL-B), which are abundantly produced from yeast strains, were investigated by using the fluorescence-probe method, dynamic light-scattering (DLS) analysis, freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM), and synchrotron small/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) analysis, among other methods. Both MEL-A and MEL-B exhibit excellent self-assembly properties at extremely low concentrations; they self-assemble into large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) just above their critical-aggregation concentration (CAC). The CAC(I) value was found to be 4.0x10(-6) M for MEL-A and 6.0x10(-6) M for MEL-B. Moreover, the self-assembled structure of MEL-A above a CAC(II) value of 2.0x10(-5) M was found to drastically change into sponge structures (L3) composed of a network of randomly connected bilayers that are usually obtained from a complicated multicomponent "synthetic" surfactant system. Interestingly, the average water-channel diameter of the sponge structure was 100 nm. This is relatively large compared with those obtained from "synthetic" surfactant systems. In addition, MEL-B, which has a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position on mannose instead of an acetyl group, gives only one CAC; the self-assembled structure of MEL-B seems to gradually move from LUV to multilamellar vesicles (MLV) with lattice constants of 4.4 nm, depending on the concentration. Furthermore, the lyotropic-liquid-crystal-phase observation at high concentrations demonstrates the formation of an inverted hexagonal phase (H2) for MEL-A, together with a lamella phase (L(alpha)) for MEL-B, indicating a difference between MEL-A and MEL-B molecules in the spontaneous curvature of the assemblies. These results clearly show that the difference in spontaneous curvature caused by the single acetyl group on the head group probably decides the direction of self-assembly of glycolipid biosurfactants. The

  15. Functions and potential applications of glycolipid biosurfactants--from energy-saving materials to gene delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Dai; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakahara, Tadaatsu

    2002-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) produced by various microorganisms show unique properties (e.g., mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared to their chemical counterparts. The numerous advantages of BS have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries but in environmental protection and energy-saving technology as well. Glycolipid BS are the most promising, due to high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are glycolipid BS produced by a yeast Candida antarctrica, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukemia cells. MEL also show a potential anti-agglomeration effect on ice particles in ice slurry used for cold thermal storage. Recently, the cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BS should broaden its applications in new advanced technologies. The current status of research and development on glycolipid BS, especially their function and potential applications, is discussed. PMID:16233292

  16. Glycolipids produced by Rouxiella sp. DSM 100043 and isolation of the biosurfactants via foam-fractionation.

    PubMed

    Kügler, Johannes H; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Hansen, Silla H; Völp, Annika R; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Kühl, Boris; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Luy, Burkhard; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms produce a great variety of secondary metabolites that feature surface active and bioactive properties. Those possessing an amphiphilc molecular structure are also termed biosurfactant and are of great interest due to their often unique properties. Rouxiella sp. DSM 100043 is a gram negative enterobacter isolated from peat-bog soil and described as a new biosurfactant producing species in this study. Rouxiella sp. produces glycolipids, biosurfactants with a carbohydrate moiety in its structure. This study characterizes the composition of glycolipids with different hydrophobicities that have been produced during cultivation in a bioreactor and been extracted and purified from separated foam. Using two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the hydrophilic moieties are elucidated as glucose with various acylation sites and as talose within the most polar glycolipids. The presence of 3' hydroxy lauroleic acid as well as myristic and myristoleic acid has been detected. PMID:26698314

  17. Control of enzymatic degradation of biodegradable polymers by treatment with biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, derived from Pseudozyma spp. yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    Cutinase-like esterase from the yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) shows strong degradation activity in an agricultural biodegradable plastic (BP) model of mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). P. antarctica is known to abundantly produce a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). Here, the effects of MEL on PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs were investigated. Based on PBSA dispersion solution, the degradation of PBSA particles by PaE was inhibited in the presence of MEL. MEL behavior on BP substrates was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a sensor chip coated with polymer films. The positive SPR signal shift indicated that MEL readily adsorbed and spread onto the surface of a BP film. The amount of BP degradation by PaE was monitored based on the negative SPR signal shift and was decreased 1.7-fold by MEL pretreatment. Furthermore, the shape of PBSA mulch films in PaE-containing solution was maintained with MEL pretreatment, whereas untreated films were almost completely degraded and dissolved. These results suggest that MEL covering the surface of BP film inhibits adsorption of PaE and PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs. We applied the above results to control the microbial degradation of BP mulch films. MEL pretreatment significantly inhibited BP mulch film degradation by both PaE solution and BP-degradable microorganism. Moreover, the degradation of these films was recovered after removal of the coated MEL by ethanol treatment. These results demonstrate that the biodegradation of BP films can be readily and reversibly controlled by a physical approach using MEL. PMID:26512003

  18. Mannosylerythritol lipids: a review.

    PubMed

    Arutchelvi, Joseph Irudayaraj; Bhaduri, Sumit; Uppara, Parasu Veera; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-12-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are surface active compounds that belong to the glycolipid class of biosurfactants (BSs). MELs are produced by Pseudozyma sp. as a major component while Ustilago sp. produces them as a minor component. Although MELs have been known for over five decades, they recently regained attention due to their environmental compatibility, mild production conditions, structural diversity, self-assembling properties and versatile biochemical functions. In this review, the MEL producing microorganisms, the production conditions, their applications, their diverse structures and self-assembling properties are discussed. The biosynthetic pathways and the regulatory mechanisms involved in the production of MEL are also explained here. PMID:18716809

  19. The role of PaAAC1 encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in the biosynthesis of extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, in the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ito, Emi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-07-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica produces large amounts of the glycolipid biosurfactants known as mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. A gene homologous with a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier was dominantly expressed in P. antarctica under MEL-producing conditions on the basis of previous gene expression analysis. The gene encoding the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of P. antarctica (PaAAC1) contained a putative open reading frame of 954 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 317 amino acids. The deduced translation product shared high identity of 66%, 70%, 69%, 74%, 75% and 52% with the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AAC1), S. cerevisiae (AAC2), S. cerevisiae (AAC3), Kluyveromyces lactis (KlAAC), Neurospora crassa (NcAAC) and human (ANT1), respectively, and conserved the consensus sequences of all ADP/ATP carrier proteins. The gene expression by introducing a plasmid pUXV1-PaAAC1 into the yeast cells increased the MEL production. In addition, the expression of PaAAC1 in which the conserved arginine and leucine required for ATP transport activity were replaced with isoleucine and serine, respectively, failed to increase MEL production. Accordingly, these results suggest that PaAAC1 encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier should be involved in MEL biosynthesis in the yeast. PMID:20146402

  20. Biosurfactants: a sustainable replacement for chemical surfactants?

    PubMed

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-09-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants produced by bacteria and yeasts provide significant opportunities to replace chemical surfactants with sustainable biologically produced alternatives in bulk commercial products such as laundry detergents and surface cleaners. Sophorolipids are already available in sufficient yield to make their use feasible while rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids require further development. The ability to tailor the biosurfactant produced to the specific needs of the product formulation will be an important future step. PMID:22618240

  1. Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica Producing Extracellular Glycolipids, Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Hiroko; Ito, Emi; Machida, Masayuki; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica is a non-pathogenic phyllosphere yeast known as an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), multi-functional extracellular glycolipids, from vegetable oils. To clarify the genetic characteristics of P. antarctica, we analyzed the 18 Mb genome of P. antarctica T-34. On the basis of KOG analysis, the number of genes (219 genes) categorized into lipid transport and metabolism classification in P. antarctica was one and a half times larger than that of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (140 genes). The gene encoding an ATP/citrate lyase (ACL) related to acetyl-CoA synthesis conserved in oleaginous strains was found in P. antarctica genome: the single ACL gene possesses the four domains identical to that of the human gene, whereas the other oleaginous ascomycetous species have the two genes covering the four domains. P. antarctica genome exhibited a remarkable degree of synteny to U. maydis genome, however, the comparison of the gene expression profiles under the culture on the two carbon sources, glucose and soybean oil, by the DNA microarray method revealed that transcriptomes between the two species were significantly different. In P. antarctica, expression of the gene sets relating fatty acid metabolism were markedly up-regulated under the oily conditions compared with glucose. Additionally, MEL biosynthesis cluster of P. antarctica was highly expressed regardless of the carbon source as compared to U. maydis. These results strongly indicate that P. antarctica has an oleaginous nature which is relevant to its non-pathogenic and MEL-overproducing characteristics. The analysis and dataset contribute to stimulate the development of improved strains with customized properties for high yield production of functional bio-based materials. PMID:24586250

  2. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica producing extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Ito, Emi; Machida, Masayuki; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica is a non-pathogenic phyllosphere yeast known as an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), multi-functional extracellular glycolipids, from vegetable oils. To clarify the genetic characteristics of P. antarctica, we analyzed the 18 Mb genome of P. antarctica T-34. On the basis of KOG analysis, the number of genes (219 genes) categorized into lipid transport and metabolism classification in P. antarctica was one and a half times larger than that of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (140 genes). The gene encoding an ATP/citrate lyase (ACL) related to acetyl-CoA synthesis conserved in oleaginous strains was found in P. antarctica genome: the single ACL gene possesses the four domains identical to that of the human gene, whereas the other oleaginous ascomycetous species have the two genes covering the four domains. P. antarctica genome exhibited a remarkable degree of synteny to U. maydis genome, however, the comparison of the gene expression profiles under the culture on the two carbon sources, glucose and soybean oil, by the DNA microarray method revealed that transcriptomes between the two species were significantly different. In P. antarctica, expression of the gene sets relating fatty acid metabolism were markedly up-regulated under the oily conditions compared with glucose. Additionally, MEL biosynthesis cluster of P. antarctica was highly expressed regardless of the carbon source as compared to U. maydis. These results strongly indicate that P. antarctica has an oleaginous nature which is relevant to its non-pathogenic and MEL-overproducing characteristics. The analysis and dataset contribute to stimulate the development of improved strains with customized properties for high yield production of functional bio-based materials. PMID:24586250

  3. Packing density of glycolipid biosurfactant monolayers give a significant effect on their binding affinity toward immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomohiro; Masuda, Yuma; Ito, Seya; Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) is one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants, and abundantly produced by Pseudozyma yeasts. MEL-A gives not only excellent self-assembling properties but also a high binding affinity toward human immunoglobulin G (HIgG). In this study, three kinds of MEL-A were prepared from methyl myristate [MEL-A (m)], olive oil [MEL-A (o)], and soybean oil [MEL-A (s)], and the effect of interfacial properties of each MEL-A monolayer on the binding affinity toward HIgG was investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the measurement of surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherms. Based on GC-MS analysis, the main fatty acids were C(8) and C(10) acids in all MEL-A, and the content of unsaturated fatty acids was 0% for MEL-A (m), 9.1% for MEL-A (o), 46.3% for MEL-A (s), respectively. Interestingly, the acid content significantly influenced on their binding affinity, and the monolayer of MEL-A (o) gave a higher binding affinity than that of MEL-A (m) and MEL-A (s). Moreover, the mixed MEL-A (o)/ MEL-A (s) monolayer prepared from 1/1 molar ratio, which comprised of 27.8% of unsaturated fatty acids, indicated the highest binding affinity. At the air/water interface, MEL-A (o) monolayer exhibited a phase transition at 13 degrees C from a liquid condensed monolayer to a liquid expanded monolayer, and the area per molecule significantly expanded above 13 degrees C, while the amount of HIgG bound to the liquid expanded monolayer was much higher than that bound to liquid condensed monolayer. The binding affinity of MEL-A toward HIgG is thus likely to closely relate to the monolayer packing density, and may be partly controlled by temperature. PMID:18622124

  4. Kinetic studies on the interactions between glycolipid biosurfactant assembled monolayers and various classes of immunoglobulins using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Ito, Seya; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-08-01

    Kinetic studies on the interactions between self-assembled monolayers of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are glycolipid biosurfactants abundantly produced by microorganisms, and various classes of immunoglobulins including human IgG, IgA, and IgM were performed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The effect of the MEL structure on the binding behavior of HIgG was examined. Assembled monolayers of MEL-A having two acetyl groups on the headgroup gave a high affinity (K(d)=1.7x10(-6)M) toward HIgG, while those of MEL-B or MEL-C having only one acetyl group at C-6' or C-4' position gave little affinity. Our kinetic analysis revealed that the binding manner of HIgG, HIgA (K(d)=2.4x10(-7)M), and HIgM (K(d)=2.2x10(-7)M) to the assembled monolayers of MEL-A is not the monovalent mode but the bivalent mode, and both the first and second rate association constants (k(a1), k(a2)) increase with an increase in the number of antibody binding sites, while those for dissociation (k(d1), k(d2)) changed little. Moreover, we succeeded in directly observing great amounts of HIgG, HIgA, and HIgM bound to MEL-A monolayers using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Finally, we found that MEL-A assembled monolayer binds toward various IgG derived from mouse, pig, rabbit, horse, goat, rat, and bovine as well as human IgG (HIgG), and the only exception was sheep IgG. These results clearly demonstrate that MEL-A assembled monolayers would be useful as noble affinity ligand system for various immunoglobulins. PMID:17428643

  5. Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M

    2009-08-01

    Cosmetic surfactant performs detergency, wetting, emulsifying, solubilizing, dispersing and foaming effects. Adverse reactions of chemical synthesis surfactant have an effect on environment and humans, particularly severe in long term. Biodegradability, low toxicity and ecological acceptability which are the benefits of naturally derived surfactant that promises cosmetic safety are, therefore, highly on demand. Biosurfactant producible from microorganisms exhibiting potential surface properties suitable for cosmetic applications especially incorporate with their biological activities. Sophorolipids, rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids are the most widely used glycolipids biosurfactant in cosmetics. Literatures and patents relevant to these three glycolipids reviewed were emphasizing on the cosmetic applications including personal care products presenting the cosmetic efficiency, efficacy and economy benefits of glycolipids biosurfactant. PMID:19496839

  6. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek D N; Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric; Stavrinides, John

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID:27303689

  7. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Derek D. N.; Nickzad, Arvin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID

  8. [Naturally engineered glycolipid biosurfactants leading to distinctive self-assembling properties].

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-05-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) are functional amphiphilic compounds produced by a variety of microorganisms. They show unique properties (e.g. mild production conditions, lower toxicity, and environmental compatibility) compared to chemically synthesized counterparts. The numerous advantages of BS have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries but in energy and environmental technologies as well. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising BS known, and are produced at yields of over 100 g/l from vegetable oils by yeast strains belonging to the genus Pseudozyma. MELs exhibit excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties leading to the formation of different lyotropic liquid crystals such as sponge (L(3)), bicontinuous cubic (V(2)) and lamella (L(alpha)) phases. They also show versatile biochemical actions, including antitumor and differentiation-inducing activities against human leukemia cells, rat pheochromocytoma cells and mouse melanoma cells. MELs also display high binding affinity toward different immunoglobulins and lectins, indicating great potentials as new affinity ligands for the glycoproteins. More significantly, the cationic liposomes bearing MELs increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells via membrane fusion processes. The yeast BS should thus be novel nanobiomaterials, and broaden their applications in various advanced technologies. PMID:18451615

  9. Novel characteristics of sophorolipids, yeast glycolipid biosurfactants, as biodegradable low-foaming surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshihiko; Ryu, Mizuyuki; Oda, Yuka; Igarashi, Keisuke; Nagatsuka, Asami; Furuta, Taro; Sugiura, Masaki

    2009-08-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are a family of glycolipid type biosurfactants, which are largely produced by the non-pathogenic yeast, Candida bombicola. In order to investigate the possibility of SLs for industrial use, here we examined the interfacial activities, cytotoxicity and biodegradability of SLs, and compared these properties with those of two lipopeptide type biosurfactants (surfactin and arthrofactin), sodium laurate (soap, SP) and four kinds of chemically synthesized surfactants including two block-copolymer nonionic surfactants (BPs), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (AE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It was indicated that SLs had extremely low-foaming properties and high detergency comparable with commercially available low-foaming BPs. These interfacial activities of SLs were maintained under 100 ppm water hardness. Cytotoxicity of SLs on human keratinocytes was the same as surfactin, which has already been commercialized as cosmetic material, but higher than BPs. Moreover, biodegradability of SLs using the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals (301C, Modified MITI Test) displayed that SLs can be classified as "readily" biodegradable chemicals, which are defined as chemicals that are degraded 60% within 28 days under specified test methods. We observed 61% degradation of SLs on the eighth day of cultivation. Our results indicate that SLs are low-foaming surfactants with high detergency, which also exhibit both low cytotoxicity and readily biodegradable properties. PMID:19619862

  10. Analytical characterization of mannosylerythritol lipid biosurfactants produced by biosynthesis based on feedstock sources from the agrofood industry.

    PubMed

    Onghena, Matthias; Geens, Tinne; Goossens, Eliane; Wijnants, Marc; Pico, Yolanda; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian; Lemiere, Filip

    2011-05-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are currently one of the most promising biosurfactants because of their multifunctional applications and good biodegradability. Depending on the yeast strain and the feedstock used for the fermentation process, structural variations in the MELs obtained occur. Therefore, MELs produced by Pseudozyma aphidis DSMZ 70725 with a soybean oil feedstock were characterized by chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS). Column chromatography with silica provided fractionation of the different types of MEL. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with MS was employed for the analysis of the MEL fractions and crude mixtures. A characteristic MS pattern for the MELs was obtained and indications of the presence of new MEL homologues, showing the incorporation of longer and more unsaturated fatty acid chains than previously reported, were given. Gas chromatography-MS analysis confirmed the presence of such unsaturated fatty acid chains in the MELs, demonstrating the incorporation of fatty acids with lengths ranging from C(8) to C(14) and with up to two unsaturations per chain. The incorporation of C(16) and C(18) fatty acid chains requires further investigation. MS/MS data allowed the unambiguous identification of the fatty acids present in the MELs. The product ion spectra also revealed the presence of a new isomeric class of MELs, bearing an acetyl group on the erythritol moiety. PMID:21318245

  11. Production of mannosylerythritol lipids and their application in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-06-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants abundantly produced by different basidiomycetous yeasts such as Pseudozyma, and show not only excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. These features of MELs make their application in new technology areas possible. Recently, the structural and functional variety of MELs was considerably expanded by advanced microbial screening methods. Different types of MELs bearing different hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts have been reported. The genes responsible for MEL biosynthesis were identified, and their genetic study is now in progress, aiming to control the chemical structure. The excellent properties leading to practical cosmetic ingredients, i.e., moisturization of dry skin, repair of damaged hair, activation of fibroblast and papilla cells and antioxidant and protective effects in skin cells, have been demonstrated on the yeast glycolipid biosurfactants. In this review, the current status of research and development on MELs, particularly the commercial application in cosmetics, is described. PMID:23584242

  12. Microbial biosurfactants: challenges and opportunities for future exploitation.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-11-01

    The drive for industrial sustainability has pushed biosurfactants to the top of the agenda of many companies. Biosurfactants offer the possibility of replacing chemical surfactants, produced from nonrenewable resources, with alternatives produced from cheap renewable feedstocks. Biosurfactants are also attractive because they are less damaging to the environment yet are robust enough for industrial use. The most promising biosurfactants at the present time are the glycolipids, sophorolipids produced by Candida yeasts, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, and rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas. Despite the current enthusiasm for these compounds several residual problems remain. This review highlights remaining problems and indicates the prospects for imminent commercial exploitation of a new generation of microbial biosurfactants. PMID:22901730

  13. Production of different types of mannosylerythritol lipids as biosurfactants by the newly isolated yeast strains belonging to the genus Pseudozyma.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kakugawa, Koji; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-06-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are abundantly secreted by yeasts, are one of the most promising biosurfactants known. To obtain various types of MEL and to attain a broad range of applications for them, screening of novel producers was undertaken. Thirteen strains of yeasts were successfully isolated as potential MEL producers; they showed high production yields of MEL of around 20 g l(-1) from 40 g l(-1) of soybean oil. Based on the taxonomical study, all the strains were classified to be the genus Pseudozyma. It is interesting to note that they were categorized into three groups according to their production patterns of MEL. The first group, which included 11 strains taxonomically closely related to high-level MEL producers such as Pseudozyma antarctica and Pseudozyma aphidis, mainly produced 4-O-[(4',6'-di-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-A) together with 4-O-[(6'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-B) and 4-O-[(4'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-C) as the minor components. The second group of one strain, which was related to Pseudozyma tsukubaensis, predominantly produced MEL-B. The third group of one strain, which was closely related to Pseudozyma hubeiensis, mainly produced MEL-C; this is the first observation of the efficient production of MEL-C from soybean oil. Moreover, the major fatty acids of the obtained MEL-C were C(6), C(12), and C(16) acids, and were considerably different from those of the other MEL hitherto reported. The biosynthetic manner for MEL is thus likely to significantly vary among the Pseudozyma strains; the newly isolated strains would enable us to attain a large-scale production of MEL and to obtain various types of MEL with different hydrophobic structures. PMID:17505770

  14. Genetic analysis of biosurfactant production in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Hewald, Sandra; Josephs, Katharina; Bölker, Michael

    2005-06-01

    The dimorphic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis produces large amounts of surface-active compounds under conditions of nitrogen starvation. These biosurfactants consist of derivatives of two classes of amphipathic glycolipids. Ustilagic acids are cellobiose lipids in which the disaccharide is O-glycosidically linked to 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. Ustilipids are mannosylerythritol lipids derived from acylated beta-d-mannopyranosyl-d-erythritol. Whereas the chemical structure of these biosurfactants has been determined, the genetic basis for their biosynthesis and regulation is largely unknown. Here we report the first identification of two genes, emt1 and cyp1, that are essential for the production of fungal extracellular glycolipids. emt1 is required for mannosylerythritol lipid production and codes for a protein with similarity to prokaryotic glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of macrolide antibiotics. We suggest that Emt1 catalyzes the synthesis of mannosyl-d-erythritol by transfer of GDP-mannose. Deletion of the gene cyp1 resulted in complete loss of ustilagic acid production. Cyp1 encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase which is highly related to a family of plant fatty acid hydroxylases. Therefore we assume that Cyp1 is directly involved in the biosynthesis of the unusual 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. We could show that mannosylerythritol lipid production is responsible for hemolytic activity on blood agar, whereas ustilagic acid secretion is required for long-range pheromone recognition. The mutants described here allow for the first time a genetic analysis of glycolipid production in fungi. PMID:15932999

  15. Genetic Analysis of Biosurfactant Production in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Hewald, Sandra; Josephs, Katharina; Bölker, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The dimorphic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis produces large amounts of surface-active compounds under conditions of nitrogen starvation. These biosurfactants consist of derivatives of two classes of amphipathic glycolipids. Ustilagic acids are cellobiose lipids in which the disaccharide is O-glycosidically linked to 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. Ustilipids are mannosylerythritol lipids derived from acylated β-d-mannopyranosyl-d-erythritol. Whereas the chemical structure of these biosurfactants has been determined, the genetic basis for their biosynthesis and regulation is largely unknown. Here we report the first identification of two genes, emt1 and cyp1, that are essential for the production of fungal extracellular glycolipids. emt1 is required for mannosylerythritol lipid production and codes for a protein with similarity to prokaryotic glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of macrolide antibiotics. We suggest that Emt1 catalyzes the synthesis of mannosyl-d-erythritol by transfer of GDP-mannose. Deletion of the gene cyp1 resulted in complete loss of ustilagic acid production. Cyp1 encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase which is highly related to a family of plant fatty acid hydroxylases. Therefore we assume that Cyp1 is directly involved in the biosynthesis of the unusual 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. We could show that mannosylerythritol lipid production is responsible for hemolytic activity on blood agar, whereas ustilagic acid secretion is required for long-range pheromone recognition. The mutants described here allow for the first time a genetic analysis of glycolipid production in fungi. PMID:15932999

  16. Mannosylerythritol lipids: production and applications.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are a glycolipid class of biosurfactants produced by a variety yeast and fungal strains that exhibit excellent interfacial and biochemical properties. MEL-producing fungi were identified using an efficient screening method for the glycolipid production and taxonomical classification on the basis of ribosomal RNA sequences. MEL production is limited primarily to the genus Pseudozyma, with significant variability among the MEL structures produced by each species. Outside of Pseudozyma, one recently isolated strain, Ustilago scitaminea, has been shown to exhibit abundant MEL-B production from sugarcane juice. Structural analyses of these compounds suggest a role for MELs in numerous cosmetic applications. MELs act as effective topical moisturizers and can repair damaged hair. Furthermore, these compounds have been shown to exhibit both protective and healing activities, to activate fibroblasts and papilla cells, and to act as natural antioxidants. In this review, we provide a brief summary of MEL research over the past few decades, focusing on the identification of MEL-producing fungi, the structural characterization of MELs, the use of alternative compounds as a primary carbon source, and the use of these compounds in cosmetic applications. PMID:25748373

  17. Biosurfactant-producing yeasts widely inhabit various vegetables and fruits.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Furuta, Yoshifumi; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of biosurfactant-producing yeasts from food materials was accomplished. By a combination of a new drop collapse method and thin-layer chromatography, 48 strains were selected as glycolipid biosurfactant producers from 347 strains, which were randomly isolated from various vegetables and fruits. Of the producers, 69% were obtained from vegetables of the Brassica family. Of the 48 producers, 15 strains gave relatively high yields of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), and were identified as Pseudozyma yeasts. These strains produced MELs from olive oil at yields ranging from 8.5 to 24.3 g/L. The best yield coefficient reached 0.49 g/g as to the carbon sources added. Accordingly, MEL producers were isolated at high efficiency from various vegetables and fruits, indicating that biosurfactant producers are widely present in foods. The present results should facilitate their application in the food and related industries. PMID:25036844

  18. Biosurfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosurfactants are surfactants whose common feature is biodegradability, which provides them with a major advantage over the majority of surfactants currently in the market. Biosurfactants are produced from a wide range of raw materials, and manufactured using chemical, enzymatic, microbial, and a c...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Yeast Starmerella bombicola NBRC10243, a Producer of Sophorolipids, Glycolipid Biosurfactants

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Koike, Hideaki; Saika, Azusa; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Starmerella bombicola NBRC10243 is an excellent producer of sophorolipids (SLs) from various feedstocks. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. bombicola NBRC10243. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into the properties of this yeast that make it superior for use in the production of functional glycolipids and biomolecules, leading to the further development of S. bombicola NBRC10243 for industrial applications. PMID:25814600

  20. Effect of Fe nanoparticle on growth and glycolipid biosurfactant production under solid state culture by marine Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential element in several pathways of microbial metabolism, and therefore low iron toxicity is expected on the usage of Fe nanoparticles (NPs). This study aims to determine the effect of Fe NPs on biosurfactant production by marine actinobacterium Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A under solid state culture. Foam method was used in the production of Fe NPs which were long and fiber shaped in nature. Results The SEM observation showed non toxic nature of Fe NPs as no change in the morphology of the filamentous structure of Nocardiopsis MSA13A. The production of biosurfactant by Nocardiopsis MSA13A under solid state culture supplemented with Fe NPs increased to 80% over control. The biosurfactant produced by Nocardiopsis MSA13A was characterized as glycolipid derivative which effectively disrupted the pre-formed biofilm of Vibrio pathogen. Conclusion The use of metal NPs as supplement would reduce the impact of non-metallic ions of the metal salts in a fermentation process. This would ultimately useful to achieve greener production process for biosurfactants. The present results are first report on the optimization of biosurfactant production under SSC using Fe NPs. PMID:24885470

  1. pH-triggered formation of nanoribbons from yeast-derived glycolipid biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Cuvier, Anne-Sophie; Berton, Jan; Stevens, Christian V; Fadda, Giulia C; Babonneau, Florence; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Baccile, Niki

    2014-06-14

    In the present paper, we show that the saturated form of acidic sophorolipids, a family of industrially scaled bolaform microbial glycolipids, unexpectedly forms chiral nanofibers only at pH below 7.5. In particular, we illustrate that this phenomenon derives from a subtle cooperative effect of molecular chirality, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces and steric hindrance. The pH-responsive behaviour was shown by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), pH-titration and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) while the nanoscale chirality was evidenced by Circular Dichroism (CD) and cryo Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM). The packing of sophorolipids within the ribbons was studied using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and 2D (1)H-(1)H through-space correlations via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance under very fast (67 kHz) Magic Angle Spinning (MAS-NMR). PMID:24728486

  2. Production and identification of mannosylerythritol lipid-A homologs from the ustilaginomycetous yeast Pseudozyma aphidis ZJUDM34.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin-Lin; Dong, Ya-Chen; Fan, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Qi-He

    2014-06-17

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are mainly produced by strains of the genus Pseudozyma and by Ustilago maydis. These glycolipid biosurfactants exhibit not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile bioactivities. Mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) is worth investigating due to its self-assembling property. In this work, crude MELs were produced by resting Pseudozyma aphidis ZJUDM34 cells using different culture media. MEL-A fractions were isolated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that MEL-A homologs had long unsaturated fatty acid chains, and the chain lengths range from C8 to C20. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to confirm the chemical structures of the MEL-A homologs. Fermentation medium without NaNO3 and medium with manganese ions enhanced MEL-A production by Pseudozyma aphidis ZJUDM34. PMID:24814655

  3. Production of a novel mannosylerythritol lipid containing a hydroxy fatty acid from castor oil by Pseudozyma tsukubaensis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by various yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma, which exhibit excellent surface activities as well as versatile biochemical activities. A study on P. tsukubaensis NBRC1940 as a mono-acetylated MEL (MEL-B) producer revealed that the yeast accumulated a novel glycolipid from castor oil at a yield of 22 g/L. Its main chemical structure was identified as 1-O-β-(2'-O-alka(e)noyl-3'-O-hydroxyalka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-D-erythritol designated as "new MEL-B." The new MEL-B, comprising a hydroxy fatty acid had a reduced surface tension of 28.5 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 2.2×10⁻⁵ M in water. The observed CMC was 5-fold higher than that of conventional MEL-B. When conventional MEL-B was dispersed in water, it self-assembled to form the lamellar (L(α)) phase at a wide range of concentrations. In contrast, new MEL-B formed spherical oily droplets similar to the sponge (L₃) phase, which is observed in aqueous solutions of di-acetylated MEL (MEL-A). The data suggest that the newly identified MEL-B is likely to have a different structure and interfacial properties compared to the conventional MELs, and could facilitate an increase in the application of glycolipid biosurfactants. PMID:23728329

  4. Biosynthesis and skin health applications of antimicrobial glycolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial-produced glycolipids (MGLs) such as sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs), and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are amphiphilic molecules, and thus have been widely explored for use as surfactants/detergents, emulsifiers, and lubricants. One major hindrance to their widespread commercia...

  5. Characterization and Inducing Melanoma Cell Apoptosis Activity of Mannosylerythritol Lipids-A Produced from Pseudozyma aphidis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Linlin; Li, Hongji; Niu, Yongwu; Chen, Qihe

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are natural glycolipid biosurfactants which have potential applications in the fields of food, cosmetic and medicine. In this study, MELs were produced from vegetable oil by Pseudozyma aphidis. Their structural data through LC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis revealed that MEL-A with two acetyls was the major compound and the identified homologs of MEL-A contained a length of C8 to C14 fatty acid chains. This glycolipid exhibited a surface tension of 27.69 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC), self-assembling into particles in the water solution. It was observed to induce cell growth-inhibition and apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Further quantitative RT-PCR analysis and western blotting revealed an increasing tendency of both mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-12, CHOP, GRP78 and Caspase-3, and a down-regulation of protein Bcl-2. Combined with the up regulation of signaling IRE1 and ATF6, it can be speculated that MEL-A-induced B16 melanoma cell apoptosis was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). PMID:26828792

  6. Characterization and Inducing Melanoma Cell Apoptosis Activity of Mannosylerythritol Lipids-A Produced from Pseudozyma aphidis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Linlin; Li, Hongji; Niu, Yongwu; Chen, Qihe

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are natural glycolipid biosurfactants which have potential applications in the fields of food, cosmetic and medicine. In this study, MELs were produced from vegetable oil by Pseudozyma aphidis. Their structural data through LC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis revealed that MEL-A with two acetyls was the major compound and the identified homologs of MEL-A contained a length of C8 to C14 fatty acid chains. This glycolipid exhibited a surface tension of 27.69 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC), self-assembling into particles in the water solution. It was observed to induce cell growth-inhibition and apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Further quantitative RT-PCR analysis and western blotting revealed an increasing tendency of both mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-12, CHOP, GRP78 and Caspase-3, and a down-regulation of protein Bcl-2. Combined with the up regulation of signaling IRE1 and ATF6, it can be speculated that MEL-A-induced B16 melanoma cell apoptosis was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). PMID:26828792

  7. Identification of the gene PaEMT1 for biosynthesis of mannosylerythritol lipids in the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ito, Emi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Takegawa, Kaoru; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-11-01

    The yeast Pseudozyma antarctica produces a large amount of glycolipid biosurfactants known as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. To investigate the biosynthesis of MELs in the yeast, we recently reported expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and estimated genes expressing under MEL production conditions. Among the genes, a contiguous sequence of 938 bp, PA_004, showed high sequence identity to the gene emt1, encoding an erythritol/mannose transferase of Ustilago maydis, which is essential for MEL biosynthesis. The predicted translation product of the extended PA_004 containing the two introns and a stop codon was aligned with Emt1 of U. maydis. The predicted amino acid sequence shared high identity (72%) with Emt1 of U. maydis, although the amino-terminal was incomplete. To identify the gene as PaEMT1 encoding an erythritol/mannose transferase of P. antarctica, the gene-disrupted strain was developed by the method for targeted gene disruption, using hygromycin B resistance as the selection marker. The obtained ΔPaEMT1 strain failed to produce MELs, while its growth was the same as that of the parental strain. The additional mannosylerythritol into culture allowed ΔPaEMT1 strain to form MELs regardless of the carbon source supplied, indicating a defect of the erythritol/mannose transferase activity. Furthermore, we found that MEL formation is associated with the morphology and low-temperature tolerance of the yeast. PMID:20564650

  8. Biosurfactant gene clusters in eukaryotes: regulation and biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Sophie L K W; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Ciesielska, Katarzyna; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

    2014-04-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are a class of secondary metabolites representing a wide variety of structures that can be produced from renewable feedstock by a wide variety of micro-organisms. They have (potential) applications in the medical world, personal care sector, mining processes, food industry, cosmetics, crop protection, pharmaceuticals, bio-remediation, household detergents, paper and pulp industry, textiles, paint industries, etc. Especially glycolipid BSs like sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs), mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) and cellobioselipids (CBLs) have been described to provide significant opportunities to (partially) replace chemical surfactants. The major two factors currently limiting the penetration of BSs into the market are firstly the limited structural variety and secondly the rather high production price linked with the productivity. One of the keys to resolve the above mentioned bottlenecks can be found in the genetic engineering of natural producers. This could not only result in more efficient (economical) recombinant producers, but also in a diversification of the spectrum of available BSs as such resolving both limiting factors at once. Unraveling the genetics behind the biosynthesis of these interesting biological compounds is indispensable for the tinkering, fine tuning and rearrangement of these biological pathways with the aim of obtaining higher yields and a more extensive structural variety. Therefore, this review focuses on recent developments in the investigation of the biosynthesis, genetics and regulation of some important members of the family of the eukaryotic glycolipid BSs (MELs, CBLs and SLs). Moreover, recent biotechnological achievements and the industrial potential of engineered strains are discussed. PMID:24531239

  9. Enhanced biodegradation of lindane using oil-in-water bio-microemulsion stabilized by biosurfactant produced by a new yeast strain, Pseudozyma VITJzN01.

    PubMed

    Abdul Salam, Jaseetha; Das, Nilanjana

    2013-11-28

    Organochlorine pesticide residues continue to remain as a major environmental threat worldwide. Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide widely used as an acaricide in medicine and agriculture. In the present study, a new lindane-degrading yeast strain, Pseudozyma VITJzN01, was identified as a copious producer of glycolipid biosurfactant. The glycolipid structure and type were elucidated by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS analysis. The surface activity and stability of the glycolipid was analyzed. The glycolipids, characterized as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), exhibited excellent surface active properties and the surface tension of water was reduced to 29 mN/m. The glycolipid was stable over a wide range of pH, temperature, and salinity, showing a very low CMC of 25 mg/l. Bio-microemulsion of olive oil-in-water (O/W) was prepared using the purified biosurfactant without addition of any synthetic cosurfactants, for lindane solubilization and enhanced degradation assay in liquid and soil slurry. The O/W bio-microemulsions enhanced the solubility of lindane up to 40-folds. Degradation of lindane (700 mg/l) by VITJzN01 in liquid medium amended with bio-microemulsions was found to be enhanced by 36% in 2 days, compared with degradation in 12 days in the absence of bio-microemulsions. Lindane-spiked soil slurry incubated with bio-microemulsions also showed 20-40% enhanced degradation compared with the treatment with glycolipids or yeast alone. This is the first report on lindane degradation by Pseudozyma sp., and application of bio-microemulsions for enhanced lindane degradation. MEL-stabilized bio-microemulsions can serve as a potential tool for enhanced remediation of diverse lindanecontaminated environments. PMID:23928846

  10. Phase behavior of ternary mannosylerythritol lipid/water/oil systems.

    PubMed

    Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Chavadej, Sumaeth; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-02-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants (BS) abundantly produced from renewable resources by yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. In this study, the ternary phase behaviors of two types of MELs, i.e. MEL-A and MEL-B, mixed with water and oil were investigated at 25 degrees C based on polarized optical microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). When n-decane was used as an oil phase, diacetylated MEL-A formed single-phase water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion in a remarkably large region. MEL-A, with a negative spontaneous curvature, also formed sponge (L(3)), reverse bicontinuous cubic (V(2)), and lamellar (L(alpha)) phases. Meanwhile, monoacetylated MEL-B, with the opposite configuration of the erythritol moiety, gave single-phase bicontinuous microemulsion and showed a triangular phase diagram dominated by the L(alpha) phase, suggesting that MEL-B has an almost zero spontaneous curvature. Moreover, we succeeded in preparation of oil-in-liquid crystal (O/LC) emulsion in the biphasic L(alpha)+O region of the MEL-B/water/n-decane system. The obtained gel-like emulsion was stable for at least 1 month. These results clearly demonstrated that the difference in the number of acetyl group on the headgroup and/or the chirality of the erythritol moiety drastically changed the phase behavior of MELs. Accordingly, these MELs would be quite distinctive from conventional BS hitherto reported, and would have great potential for the preparation of microemulsion and LC-based emulsion. PMID:19070997

  11. Chemical characterization of carbohydrate-based biosurfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  12. Monolayers assembled from a glycolipid biosurfactant from Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica serve as a high-affinity ligand system for immunoglobulin G and M.

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomohiro; Ito, Seya; Azumi, Reiko; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-06-01

    A carbohydrate ligand system has been developed which is composed of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) from Pseudozyma antarctica, serving for human immunoglobulin G and M (HIgG and HIgM). The estimated binding constants from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement were Ka = 9.4 x 10(6) M(-1) for HIgG and 5.4 x 10(6) M(-1) for HIgM, respectively. The binding site was not in the Fc region of immunoglobulin but in the Fab region. Large amounts of HIgG and HIgM bound to MEL-A SAMs were directly observed by atomic force microscopy. PMID:17342348

  13. Microbial production of glycolipids from lipids and related feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycolipids are secondary metabolites produced by many microorganisms. They are environmentally "green" compounds useful as biosurfactants, cosmetic active-ingredients, antimicrobial agents, and enhancers for bioremediation and oil recovery operations. There is a need, however, to lower the cost o...

  14. The diastereomers of mannosylerythritol lipids have different interfacial properties and aqueous phase behavior, reflecting the erythritol configuration.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yanagihara, Takashi; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-04-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by yeasts are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants. There are two MEL diastereomers, in which the configurations of the erythritol moieties are opposite. The 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R)-erythritol (S-form) or 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-erythritol (R-form) is the hydrophilic domain. In this study, we prepared S- and R-form MEL homologs with similar fatty acyl groups, and compared their interfacial properties. Among the four diastereomers (S-MEL-B and -D/R-MEL-B and -D), R-form MELs showed a higher critical aggregation concentration and hydrophilicity compared to the corresponding S-form. R-form MELs also efficiently formed relatively large vesicles compared to S-form. Moreover, we estimated the binary phase diagram of the MEL-water system and compared the aqueous phase behavior among the four diastereomers. The present MELs self-assembled into a lamellar (L(α)) structure at all concentration ranges. Meanwhile, the one-phase L(α) region of R-form MELs was wider than those of S-form MELs. R-form MELs may maintain more water between the polar layers in accordance with an extension of the interlayer spacing. These results suggest that the differences in MEL carbohydrate configurations significantly affect interfacial properties, self-assembly, and hydrate ability. PMID:22341919

  15. Efficient production of mannosylerythritol lipids with high hydrophilicity by Pseudozyma hubeiensis KM-59.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kakugawa, Koji; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-02-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising biosurfactants known because of their multifunctionality and biocompatibility. A previously isolated yeast strain, Pseudozyma sp. KM-59, mainly produced a hydrophilic MEL, namely MEL-C (4-O-[4'-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-beta-D: -mannopyranosyl]-D: -erythritol). In this study, we taxonomically characterize the strain in detail and investigate the culture conditions. The genetic, morphological, and physiological characteristics of the strain coincided well with those of Pseudozyma hubeiensis. On batch culture for 4 days under optimal conditions, the yield of all MELs was 21.8 g/l; MEL-C comprised approximately 65% of the all MELs. Consequently, on fed-batch culture for 16 days, the yield reached 76.3 g/l; the volumetric productivity was approximately 4.8 g l(-1) day(-1). We further examined the surface-active and self-assembling properties of the hydrophilic MELs produced by the yeast strain. They showed higher emulsifying activities against soybean oil and a mixture of hydrocarbons (2-methylnaphtarene and hexadecane, 1:1) than the synthetic surfactants tested. On water penetration scans, they efficiently formed lyotropic liquid crystalline phases such as myelines and lamella (L alpha) in a broad range of their concentrations, indicating higher hydrophilicity than conventional MELs. More interestingly, there was little difference in the liquid crystal formation between the crude product and purified MEL-C. The present glycolipids with high hydrophilicity are thus very likely to have practical potential without further purification and to expand the application of MELs especially their use in washing detergents and oil-in-water-type emulsifiers. PMID:18071643

  16. Biotechnological opportunities in biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Geys, Robin; Soetaert, Wim; Van Bogaert, Inge

    2014-12-01

    In the recent years, biosurfactants proved to be an interesting alternative to petrochemically derived surfactants. Two classes of biosurfactants, namely glycolipids and lipopeptides, have attracted significant commercial interest. Despite their environmental advantages and equal performance, commercialization of these molecules remains a challenge due to missing acquaintance of the applicants, higher price and lack of structural variation. The latter two issues can partially be tackled by screening for novel and better wild-type producers and optimizing the fermentation process. Yet, these traditional approaches cannot overcome all hurdles. In this review, an overview is given on how biotechnology offers opportunities for increased biosurfactant production and the creation of new types of molecules, in this way enhancing their commercial potential. PMID:24995572

  17. Inhibition of pathogenic bacterial biofilm by biosurfactant produced by Lysinibacillus fusiformis S9.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Sukla, Lala Behari; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Mishra, Barda Kanta

    2014-02-01

    A biosurfactant producing microbe isolated from a river bank was identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis S9. It was identified with help of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The biosurfactant S9BS produced was purified and characterized as glycolipid. The biosurfactant showed remarkable inhibition of biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. It was interesting to note that at concentration of 40 μg ml(-1) the biosurfactant did not show any bactericidal activity but restricted the biofilm formation completely. L. fusiformis is reported for the first time to produce a glycolipid type of biosurfactant capable of inhibiting biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria. The biosurfactant inhibited bacterial attachment and biofilm formation equally well on hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic surfaces like glass and catheter tubing. This property is significant in many biomedical applications where the molecule should help in preventing biofouling of surfaces without being toxic to biotic system. PMID:23719930

  18. Identification of a Gene Cluster for Biosynthesis of Mannosylerythritol Lipids in the Basidiomycetous Fungus Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Hewald, Sandra; Linne, Uwe; Scherer, Mario; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Kämper, Jörg; Bölker, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many microorganisms produce surface-active substances that enhance the availability of water-insoluble substrates. Although many of these biosurfactants have interesting potential applications, very little is known about their biosynthesis. The basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes large amounts of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) under conditions of nitrogen starvation. We recently described a putative glycosyltransferase, Emt1, which is essential for MEL biosynthesis and whose expression is strongly induced by nitrogen limitation. We used DNA microarray analysis to identify additional genes involved in MEL biosynthesis. Here we show that emt1 is part of a gene cluster which comprises five open reading frames. Three of the newly identified proteins, Mac1, Mac2, and Mat1, contain short sequence motifs characteristic for acyl- and acetyltransferases. Mutational analysis revealed that Mac1 and Mac2 are essential for MEL production, which suggests that they are involved in the acylation of mannosylerythritol. Deletion of mat1 resulted in the secretion of completely deacetylated MELs, as determined by mass spectrometry. We overexpressed Mat1 in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that this enzyme acts as an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetyltransferase. Remarkably, Mat1 displays relaxed regioselectivity and is able to acetylate mannosylerythritol at both the C-4 and C-6 hydroxyl groups. Based on these results, we propose a biosynthesis pathway for the generation of mannosylerythritol lipids in U. maydis. PMID:16885300

  19. Identification of a gene cluster for biosynthesis of mannosylerythritol lipids in the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Hewald, Sandra; Linne, Uwe; Scherer, Mario; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Kämper, Jörg; Bölker, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Many microorganisms produce surface-active substances that enhance the availability of water-insoluble substrates. Although many of these biosurfactants have interesting potential applications, very little is known about their biosynthesis. The basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes large amounts of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) under conditions of nitrogen starvation. We recently described a putative glycosyltransferase, Emt1, which is essential for MEL biosynthesis and whose expression is strongly induced by nitrogen limitation. We used DNA microarray analysis to identify additional genes involved in MEL biosynthesis. Here we show that emt1 is part of a gene cluster which comprises five open reading frames. Three of the newly identified proteins, Mac1, Mac2, and Mat1, contain short sequence motifs characteristic for acyl- and acetyltransferases. Mutational analysis revealed that Mac1 and Mac2 are essential for MEL production, which suggests that they are involved in the acylation of mannosylerythritol. Deletion of mat1 resulted in the secretion of completely deacetylated MELs, as determined by mass spectrometry. We overexpressed Mat1 in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that this enzyme acts as an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetyltransferase. Remarkably, Mat1 displays relaxed regioselectivity and is able to acetylate mannosylerythritol at both the C-4 and C-6 hydroxyl groups. Based on these results, we propose a biosynthesis pathway for the generation of mannosylerythritol lipids in U. maydis. PMID:16885300

  20. Biosurfactants in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Iakovou, K

    2015-09-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by various micro-organisms. They show unique properties i.e. lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility compared to their chemical counterparts. Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in biotechnology and cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency, emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally, some of them can be served as antimicrobials. In this study the current status of research and development on rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosyloerythritol lipids, trehalipids, xylolipids and lipopeptides particularly their commercial application in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals, is described. PMID:25970073

  1. Characteristics of mannosylerythritol lipids and their environmental potential.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingda; Liu, Zhifeng; Zeng, Guangming; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yongbing; Li, Min; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-04-30

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are promising biosurfactants containing two glycosyl derivatives and various fatty acids, which are mainly secreted by Pseudozyma as well as Ustilago. In this review, the latest research is demonstrated on production conditions, structural diversity, self-assembling properties and versatile biochemical functions of MELs. The genetic study and synthetic pathways, which mainly influence the type and yield of MELs production. Due to the excellent surface activity, biocompatibility and restorative function, MELs can be used in enviornmental industry, which has not been widely noted. In this paper, the current status of research on enviornmental potential of MELs has been discussed including petroleum degradation, bioconversion of chemical wastes and enhanced bioremediation of amphiphilic wastes. PMID:25723622

  2. Peroxisomes contribute to biosynthesis of extracellular glycolipids in fungi.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Johannes; Ast, Julia; Linne, Uwe; Stehlik, Thorsten; Martorana, Domenica; Bölker, Michael; Sandrock, Björn

    2014-07-01

    Many microorganisms secrete surface-active glycolipids. The basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis produces two different classes of glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) and ustilagic acids (UAs). Here we report that biosynthesis of MELs is partially localized in peroxisomes and coupled to peroxisomal fatty acid degradation. The acyltransferases, Mac1 and Mac2, which acylate mannosylerythritol with fatty acids of different length, contain a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1). We demonstrate that Mac1 and Mac2 are targeted to peroxisomes, while other enzymes involved in MEL production reside in different compartments. Mis-targeting of Mac1 and Mac2 to the cytosol did not block MEL synthesis but promoted production of MEL species with altered acylation pattern. This is in contrast to peroxisome deficient mutants that produced MELs similar to the wild type. We could show that cytosolic targeting of Mac1 and Mac2 reduces the amount of UA presumably due to competition for overlapping substrates. Interestingly, hydroxylated fatty acids characteristic for UAs appear in MELs corroborating cross-talk between both biosynthesis pathways. Therefore, peroxisomal localization of MEL biosynthesis is not only prerequisite for generation of the natural spectrum of MELs, but also facilitates simultaneous assembly of different glycolipids in a single cell. PMID:24835306

  3. Production and Structural Characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus Derived Biosurfactant

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepansh; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Chauhan, Nikhil; Bansal, Anshul; Procha, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm−1 pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL−1. Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL−1 biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR (1H and 13C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. PMID:25506070

  4. Production and structural characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus derived biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepansh; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Chauhan, Nikhil; Bansal, Anshul; Procha, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm(-1) pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL(-1). Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL(-1) biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR ((1)H and (13)C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. PMID:25506070

  5. Biocatalytic production of novel glycolipids with cellodextrin phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hai Giang; Desmet, Tom; Saerens, Karen; Waegeman, Hendrik; Vandekerckhove, Stéphanie; D'hooghe, Matthias; Van Bogaert, Inge; Soetaert, Wim

    2012-07-01

    Glycolipids have gained increasing attention as natural surfactants with a beneficial environmental profile. They are typically produced by fermentation, which only gives access to a limited number of structures. Here we describe the biocatalytic production of novel glycolipids with the cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium stercorarium. This enzyme was found to display a broad donor and acceptor specificity, allowing the synthesis of five different products. Indeed, using either α-glucose 1-phosphate or α-galactose 1-phosphate as glycosyl donor, sophorolipid as well as glucolipid could be efficiently glycosylated. The transfer of a glucosyl moiety afforded a mixture of products that precipitated from the solution, resulting in near quantitative yields. The transfer of a galactosyl moiety, in contrast, generated a single product that remained in solution at thermodynamic equilibrium. These glycolipids not only serve as a new class of biosurfactants, but could also have applications in the pharmaceutical and nanomaterials industries. PMID:22000964

  6. Production and properties of biosurfactants from a newly isolated Pseudomonas fluorescens HW-6 growing on hexadecane.

    PubMed

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Galabova, Danka; Stoimenova, Emilia; Lalchev, Zdravko

    2006-01-01

    The newly isolated from industrial wastewater Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HW-6 produced glycolipid biosurfactants at high concentrations (1.4-2.0 g l(-1)) when grown on hexadecane as a sole carbon source. Biosurfactants decreased the surface tension of the air/ water interface by 35 mN m(-1) and possessed a low critical micelle concentration value of 20 mg l(-1), which indicated high surface activity. They efficiently emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons, kerosene, n-paraffins and mineral oils. Biosurfactant production contributed to a significant increase in cell hydrophobicity correlated with an increased growth of the strain on hexadecane. The results suggested that the newly isolated strain of Ps. fluorescens and produced glycolipid biosurfactants with effective surface and emulsifying properties are very promising and could find application for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites. PMID:16989316

  7. A Gene Cluster for Biosynthesis of Mannosylerythritol Lipids Consisted of 4-O-β-D-Mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-Erythritol as the Sugar Moiety in a Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis

    PubMed Central

    Saika, Azusa; Koike, Hideaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kishimoto, Takahide; Morita, Tomotake

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) belong to the glycolipid biosurfactants and are produced by various fungi. The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis produces diastereomer type of MEL-B, which contains 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-erythritol (R-form) as the sugar moiety. In this respect it differs from conventional type of MELs, which contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R)-erythritol (S-form) as the sugar moiety. While the biosynthetic gene cluster for conventional type of MELs has been previously identified in Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma antarctica, the genetic basis for MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis is unknown. Here, we identified a gene cluster involved in MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis. Among these genes, PtEMT1, which encodes erythritol/mannose transferase, had greater than 69% identity with homologs from strains in the genera Ustilago, Melanopsichium, Sporisorium and Pseudozyma. However, phylogenetic analysis placed PtEMT1p in a separate clade from the other proteins. To investigate the function of PtEMT1, we introduced the gene into a P. antarctica mutant strain, ΔPaEMT1, which lacks MEL biosynthesis ability owing to the deletion of PaEMT1. Using NMR spectroscopy, we identified the biosynthetic product as MEL-A with altered sugar conformation. These results indicate that PtEMT1p catalyzes the sugar conformation of MELs. This is the first report of a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of diastereomer type of MEL. PMID:27327162

  8. A Gene Cluster for Biosynthesis of Mannosylerythritol Lipids Consisted of 4-O-β-D-Mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-Erythritol as the Sugar Moiety in a Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis.

    PubMed

    Saika, Azusa; Koike, Hideaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kishimoto, Takahide; Morita, Tomotake

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) belong to the glycolipid biosurfactants and are produced by various fungi. The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis produces diastereomer type of MEL-B, which contains 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-erythritol (R-form) as the sugar moiety. In this respect it differs from conventional type of MELs, which contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R)-erythritol (S-form) as the sugar moiety. While the biosynthetic gene cluster for conventional type of MELs has been previously identified in Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma antarctica, the genetic basis for MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis is unknown. Here, we identified a gene cluster involved in MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis. Among these genes, PtEMT1, which encodes erythritol/mannose transferase, had greater than 69% identity with homologs from strains in the genera Ustilago, Melanopsichium, Sporisorium and Pseudozyma. However, phylogenetic analysis placed PtEMT1p in a separate clade from the other proteins. To investigate the function of PtEMT1, we introduced the gene into a P. antarctica mutant strain, ΔPaEMT1, which lacks MEL biosynthesis ability owing to the deletion of PaEMT1. Using NMR spectroscopy, we identified the biosynthetic product as MEL-A with altered sugar conformation. These results indicate that PtEMT1p catalyzes the sugar conformation of MELs. This is the first report of a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of diastereomer type of MEL. PMID:27327162

  9. Production of a Biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D. G.; Paddock, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of carbon sources—carbohydrate and vegetable oil—are necessary to obtain large yields of biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola ATCC 22214. Most of the surfactant is produced in the late exponential phase of growth. It is possible to grow the yeast on a single carbon source and then add the other type of substrate, after the exponential growth phase, and cause a burst of surfactant production. This product is a mixture of glycolipids. The maximum yield is 70 g liter−1, or 35% of the weight of the substrate used. An economic comparison demonstrated that this biosurfactant could be produced significantly more cheaply than any of the previously reported microbial surfactants. PMID:16346455

  10. Biological activity of glycolipids produced by microorganisms: new trends and possible therapeutic alternatives.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Sánchez, Alejandro de Jesús; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Jaramillo-Flores, María Eugenia

    2013-01-15

    Several biological processes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms require the presence of glycolipids (biosurfactants), compounds with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups in their structure. They constitute the backbone of different metabolic functions and biological structures such as cell membranes. Besides being structural components, glycolipids show surface activity in the interfaces and are mainly produced by microorganisms. Interest in biosurfactants has increased considerably in recent times due to their applications in the environmental, oil, food, and pharmaceutical industries, since they have unique properties such as low toxicity, high biodegradability, environmentally friendly, foaming capacity, high selectivity and specificity at extreme temperatures, pH and salinity, as well as biological activity. All of these properties are considered advantages over other chemical surfactants, and therefore glycolipids are considered a good alternative, given the current interest on sustainable development. The present work shows a general view of bio-surfactants of microbial origin, particularly of glycolipids, referring to several studies on their biological activity that have revealed their great potential in the medical-biological field, discovering interesting possibilities for their therapeutic application in the near future. PMID:22959834

  11. Evaluation of biosurfactants grown in corn oil by Rhodococcus rhodochrous on removing of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Pujiastuti, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    The potential application of biosurfactants to remove heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by batch technique was examined. The glycolipids type biosurfactants were grown in a media containing of 20% v/v corn oil with 7 days of fermentation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous. The biosurfactants reduced the surface tension of water of about 51% from 62 mN/m to 30 mN/m. The biosurfactant increased the E24 of water-palm oil emulsion of about 55% from 43% to 97% and could maintain this E24 value of above 50% for up to 9 days. Heavy metal ion removal, in this case cadmium ion, by crude and patially purified biosurfactants has been investigated from aqueous solution at pH 6. Adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 1.74 and 1.82 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by partially purified biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 0.79 and 1.34 mg/g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant was higher than that of by partially purified biosurfactant. The results suggested that the biosurfactant could be used in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

  12. Isolation and partial characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Streptococcus thermophilus A.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lígia R; Teixeira, José A; van der Mei, Henny C; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-11-01

    Isolation and characterization of the surface active components from the crude biosurfactant produced by Streptococcus thermophilus A was studied. A fraction rich in glycolipids was obtained by the fractionation of crude biosurfactant using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Molecular (by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and elemental compositions (by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) were determined. Critical micelle concentration achieved was 20 g/l, allowing for a surface tension value of 36 mJ/m(2). Moreover, this glycolipid rich fraction was found to be an anti-adhesive and antimicrobial agent against several bacterial and yeast strains isolated from explanted voice prostheses. Further purification steps should be carefully analyzed as each purification step will increase the costs and decreases the amounts of biosurfactants recovered. PMID:16987640

  13. Glycolipid transfer proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rhoderick E.; Mattjus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are small (24 kD), soluble, ubiquitous proteins characterized by their ability to accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids in vitro. GLTP specificity encompasses both sphingoid- and glycerol-based glycolipids, but with a strict requirement that the initial sugar residue be beta-linked to the hydrophobic lipid backbone. The 3D protein structures of GLTP reveal liganded structures with unique lipid binding modes. The biochemical properties of GLTP action at the membrane surface have been studied rather comprehensively, but the biological role of GLTP remains enigmatic. What is clear is that GLTP differs distinctly from other known glycolipid-binding proteins, such as nonspecific lipid transfer proteins, lysosomal sphingolipid activator proteins, lectins, lung surfactant proteins as well as other lipid binding/transfer proteins. Based on the unique conformational architecture that targets GLTP to membranes and enables glycolipid binding, GLTP is now considered the prototypical and founding member of a new protein superfamily in eukaryotes. PMID:17320476

  14. Stem cell glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety. Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will introduce glycolipids expressed in pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic-like stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and multilineage-differentiating stress enduring cells), multipotent stem cells (neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, fetal liver multipotent progenitor cells, and hematopoietic stem cells), and cancer stem cells (brain cancer stem cells and breast cancer stem cells), and discuss their availability as biomarkers for identifying and isolating stem cells. PMID:21161592

  15. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  16. Mannosylerythritol lipid increases levels of galactoceramide in and neurite outgrowth from PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, M; Zhao, X; Wakamatsu, Y; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Jin, C; Nagaso, H; Murata, T; Yokoyama, K K

    2000-07-01

    We report here that a microbial extracellular glycolipid,mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), induces the outgrowth ofneurites from and enhances the activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Furthermore, treatment ofPC12 cells with MEL increased levels of galactosylceramide(Galbeta1-1'Cer; GalCer). Exposure of PC12 cells to exogenous GalCer caused the dose-dependent outgrowth ofneurites. By contrast, treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growthfactor (NGF) did not increase the level of GalCer in the cells. The neurite-related morphological changes induced by GalCerdifferend from those induced by NGF, indicating differencesbetween the signal transduction pathways triggered by NGF and by GalCer. PMID:19002832

  17. Optimization of biosurfactant production in soybean oil by rhodococcus rhodochrous and its utilization in remediation of cadmium-contaminated solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Andriani, Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus rhodochrous in soybean oil was developed, where the effect of medium composition and fermentation time were evaluated. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved when a medium containing 30 g/L TSB (tryptic soy broth) and 20% v/v soybean oil was used as media with 7 days of fermentation. Biosurfactant was identified as glycolipids type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 896 mg/L. The biosurfactant had oil in water emulsion type and was able to reduce the surface tension of palm oil about 52% which could stabilize the emulsion up to 12 days. The batch removal of cadmium metal ion by crude and partially purified biosurfactants have been examined from synthetic aqueous solution at pH 6. The results exhibited that the crude biosurfactant had a much better adsorption ability of Cd(II) than that of partially purified biosurfactant. However, it was found that there was no significant difference in the adsorption of Cd(II) with 5 and 10 minutes of contact time. The results indicated that the biosurfactant could be used in remediation of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous solution.

  18. Characterization of biosurfactant-containing liposomes and their efficiency for gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshinobu; Hirashima, Naohide; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    Recently we showed significance of biosurfactants in the field of non-viral vectors for gene transfection. There, a biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A), especially increased the efficiency of gene transfection mediated with cationic liposomes. However, the molecular mechanism has not been well-understood yet. Here, through the examination of the ability of cationic liposomes containing an MEL (MEL-A, MEL-B or MEL-C) for important transfectional processes of the DNA capsulation and the membrane fusion with anionic liposomes, we found that MEL-A-containing liposomes increased both processes, but that MEL-B and MEL-C-containing liposomes just increased either of them. The results indicated that these kinds of the physicochemical properties in MEL-A-containing liposomes are able to increase the efficiency of liposome-mediated gene transfection. PMID:17202680

  19. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations. PMID:25300549

  20. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  1. Selective production of two diastereomers of disaccharide sugar alcohol, mannosylerythritol by Pseudozyma yeasts.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kakugawa, Koji; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol (ME) is the hydrophilic backbone of mannosylerythritol lipids as the most promising biosurfactants produced by different Pseudozyma yeasts, and has been receiving attention as a new sugar alcohol. Different Pseudozyma yeasts were examined for the sugar alcohol production using glucose as the sole carbon source. P. hubeiensis KM-59 highly produced a conventional type of ME, i.e., 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-erythritol (4-ME). Interestingly, P. tsukubaensis KM-160 produced a diastereomer of 4-ME, i.e., 1-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-erythritol (1-ME). In shake flask culture with 200 g/l of glucose, strain KM-59 produced 4-ME at a yield of 33.2 g/l (2.2 g/l/day of the productivity), while strain KM-160 produced 1-ME at 30.0 g/l (2.0 g/l/day). Moreover, the two strains were found to produce ME from glycerol; the maximum yields of 4-ME and 1-ME from 200 g/l of glycerol were 16.1 g/l (1.1 g/l/day) and 15.8 g/l (1.1 g/l/day), respectively. The production of 1-ME as the new diastereomer was further investigated in fed batch culture using a 5-l jar-fermenter. Compared to the flask culture, strain KM-160 gave three times higher productivity of 1-ME at 38.0 g/l (6.3 g/l/day) from glucose and at 31.1 g/l (3.5 g/l/day) from glycerol, respectively. This is the first report on the selective production of two diastereomers of ME, and should thus facilitate the functional development and application of the disaccharide sugar alcohol in the food and relative industries. PMID:24272368

  2. Biosurfactant-producing strains in enhancing solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Hang; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Na; Bao, Suriguge

    2014-07-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing strains designated as BS-1, BS-3, and BS-4 were screened out from crude oil-contaminated soil using a combination of surface tension measurement and oil spreading method. Thin layer chromatography and infrared analysis indicated that the biosurfactants produced by the three strains were lipopeptide, glycolipid, and phospholipid. The enhancement of solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater employing biosurfactant-producing strains was investigated. The three strain mixtures led to more solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater, and the solubilization rate was 10.5 mg l−1. The combination of biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains exhibited a higher biodegradation efficiency of 85.4 % than the petroleum-degrading strains (71.2 %). Biodegradation was enhanced the greatest with biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains in a ratio of 1:1. Fluorescence microscopy images illustrate that the oil dispersed into smaller droplets and emulsified in the presence of biosurfactant-producing strains, which attached to the oil. Thus, the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was enhanced. PMID:24659382

  3. Myelin glycolipids and their functions.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, W; Bosio, A

    1997-10-01

    During myelination, oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS synthesise myelin-specific proteins and lipids for the assembly of the axon myelin sheath. A dominant class of lipids in the myelin bilayer are the glycolipids, which include galactocerebroside (GalC), galactosulfatide (sGalC) and galactodiglyceride (GalDG). A promising approach for unravelling the roles played by various lipids in the myelin membrane involves knocking out the genes encoding important enzymes in lipid biosynthesis. The recent ablation of the ceramide galactosyltransferase ( cgt) gene in mice is the first example. The cgt gene encodes a key enzyme in glycolipid biosynthesis. Its absence causes glycolipid deficiency in the lipid bilayer, breakdown of axon insulation and loss of saltatory conduction. Additional knock-out studies should provide important insights into the various functions of glycolipids in myelinogenesis and myelin structure. PMID:9384539

  4. Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Single and Binary Mixed Rhamnolipid-Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Song, Dandan; Liang, Shengkang; Yan, Lele; Shang, Yujun; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-07-01

    Biosurfactants are promising additives for surfactant enhanced remediation (SER) technologies due to their low toxicity and high biodegradability. To develop green and efficient additives for SER, the aqueous solubility enhancements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) by rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) biosurfactants were investigated in single and binary mixed systems. The solubilization capacities were quantified in terms of the solubility enhancement factor, molar solubilization ratio (MSR), and micelle-water partition coefficient (). Rughbin's model was applied to evaluate the interaction parameters (β) in the mixed RL-SL micelles. The solubility of the PAHs increased linearly with the glycolipid concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) in both single and mixed systems. Binary RL-SL mixtures exhibited greater solubilization than individual glycolipids. At a SL molar fraction of 0.7 to 0.8, the solubilization capacity was the greatest, and the MSR and reached their maximum values, and β values became positive. These results suggest that the two biosurfactants act synergistically to increase the solubility of the PAHs. The solubilization capacity of the RL-SL mixtures increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing salinity. The aqueous solubility of phenanthrene reached a maximum value at pH of 5.5. Moreover, the mixed RL-SL systems exhibited a strong ability to solubilize PAHs, even in the presence of heavy metal ions. These mixed biosurfactant systems have the potential to improve the performance of SER technologies using biosurfactants to solubilize hydrophobic organic contaminants by decreasing the applied biosurfactant concentration, which reduces the costs of remediation. PMID:27380091

  5. Characterization of mannosylerythritol lipids containing hexadecatetraenoic acid produced from cuttlefish oil by Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kawamura, Daisuke; Morita, Naoki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are promising biosurfactants produced by Ustilaginomycetes, and their physicochemical and biochemical properties differ depending on the chemical structure of their hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic moieties. To further develop MEL derivatives and expand their potential applications, we focused our attention on the use of cuttlefish oil, which contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid, C₂₂:₆, and eicosapentaenoic acid, C₂₀:₅, as the sole carbon source. Among the microorganisms capable of producing MEL, only nine strains were able to produce them from cuttlefish oil. On gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, we observed that Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96 was particularly suitable for the production of MEL-A, a MEL containing hexadecatetraenoic acid (C₁₆:₄) (23.6% of the total unsaturated fatty acids and 7.7% of the total fatty acids). The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of the new MEL-A were 5.7×10⁻⁶ M and 29.5 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A produced from soybean oil were 2.7×10⁻⁶ M and 27.7 mN/m, respectively. With polarized optical and confocal laser scanning microscopies, the self-assembling properties of MEL-A were found to be different from those of conventional MEL. Furthermore, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the anti-oxidative activity of MEL-A was found to be 2.1-fold higher than that of MEL-A produced from soybean oil. Thus, the newly identified MEL-A is attractive as a new functional material with excellent surface-active and antioxidative properties. PMID:23648407

  6. Utilization of palm oil decanter cake as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production from a new and promising strain of Ochrobactrum anthropi 2/3.

    PubMed

    Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-03-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, isolate 2/3, was isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. It was evaluated as a potential biosurfactant producer. The highest biosurfactant production (4.52 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 25 % (v/v) palm oil decanter cake and 1 % (w/v) commercial monosodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. After microbial cultivation at 30 °C in an optimized medium for 96 h, the biosurfactant produced was found to reduce the surface tension of pure water to 25.0 mN/m with critical micelle concentrations of 8.0 mg/l. The stability of the biosurfactant at different salinities, pH and temperature and also its emulsifying activity was investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pH and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a glycolipid type biosurfactant by using a biochemical test, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, MNR and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance polyaromatic hydrocarbons solubility. PMID:24081911

  7. Streptococcus thermophilus and its biosurfactants inhibit adhesion by Candida spp. on silicone rubber.

    PubMed Central

    Busscher, H J; van Hoogmoed, C G; Geertsema-Doornbusch, G I; van der Kuijl-Booij, M; van der Mei, H C

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of yeasts, two Candida albicans and two Candida tropicalis strains isolated from naturally colonized voice prostheses, to silicone rubber with and without a salivary conditioning film in the absence and presence of adhering Streptococcus thermophilus B, a biosurfactant-releasing dairy isolate, was studied. Coverage of 1 to 4% of the surface of silicone rubber substrata with adhering S. thermophilus B gave significant reductions in the initial yeast adhesion regardless of the presence of a conditioning film. Mechanistically, this interference in yeast adhesion by S. thermophilus B was not due to direct physical effects but to biosurfactant release by the adhering bacteria, because experiments with S. thermophilus B cells that had released their biosurfactants prior to adhesion to silicone rubber and competition with yeasts did not show interference with initial yeast adhesion. The amounts of biosurfactants released were highest for mid-exponential- and early-stationary-phase bacteria (37 mg.g of cells-1 [dry weight]), but biosurfactants released by stationary-phase bacteria (14 mg.g of cells-1 [dry weight]) were the most surface active. The crude biosurfactants released were mixtures of various components, with a glycolipid-like component being the most surface active. A lipid-enriched biosurfactant fraction reduced the surface tension of an aqueous solution to about 35 mJ.m-2 at a concentration of only 0.5 mg.ml-1. The amount of biosurfactant released per S. thermophilus B cell was estimated to be sufficient to cover approximately 12 times the area of the cross section of the bacterium, making biosurfactant release a powerful defense weapon in the postadhesion competition of the bacterium with microorganisms such as yeasts. Preadsorption of biosurfactants to the silicone rubber prior to allowing yeasts to adhere was as effective against C. albicans GB 1/2 adhesion as covering 1 to 2% of the silicone rubber surface with adhering S. thermophilus B, but a

  8. Biosurfactants for microbubble preparation and application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes the type of biosurfactants based on their origin. Some of the widely used biosurfactants are introduced. The current statues and future trends in the production of biosurfactants are discus...

  9. Isolation and functional characterization of a biosurfactant produced by a new and promising strain of Oleomonas sagaranensis AT18.

    PubMed

    Saimmai, Atipan; Rukadee, Onkamon; Onlamool, Theerawat; Sobhon, Vorasan; Maneerat, Suppasil

    2012-10-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from mangrove sediment in southern Thailand. Isolates were screened for biosurfactant production by using the surface tension test. The highest reduction of surface tension was achieved with a bacterial strain which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Oleomonas sagaranensis AT18. It has also been investigated using different carbon and nitrogen sources. It showed that the strain was able to grow and reduce the surface tension of the culture supernatant to 25 mN/m. In all 5.30 g of biosurfactant yield was obtained after 54 h of cultivation by using molasses and NaNO₃ as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The biosurfactant recovery by chloroform:methanol extraction showed a small critical micelle concentration value (8 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction. It also showed emulsification activity and a high level of salt concentration. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a glycolipid by using a biochemical test, FT-IR and mass spectra. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance PAHs solubility. PMID:22806738

  10. Genetics and biochemistry of biosurfactant synthesis in Arthrobacter species H-13-A. Progress report. [Arthrobacter H-13-A

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.

    1985-10-01

    A number of microorganisms produce biosurfactants or bioemulsifiers. The chemical and physical properties of these molecules are poorly understood. Biosurfactants compare favorably and, in some cases, are superior to synthetic surfactants. Petroleum sulfonates are commonly used today in surfactant flooding processes for enhanced oil recovery. The biosynthetic pathway for several simple glycolipid-type biosurfactants has been described. The role of these molecules in the uptake or transport of water-insoluble substrates, such as alkanes, has not been firmly established. We propose to study the biosynthesis of glycolipopeptide by Arthrobacter sp H-13-A, focusing on completion of glycolipoprotein structure analysis; elucidation of enzymes involved in glycolipopeptide biosynthesis; and optimization of transformation frequencies for the recombinant shuttle vector constructed for Arthrobacter sp H-13-A with isolation of DNA sequences encoding extracellular glycolipopeptide synthesis. 67 refs., 1 fig., 16 tabs.

  11. NBD-conjugated biosurfactant (MEL-A) shows a new pathway for transfection.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshinobu; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2007-11-20

    Gene transfection is a fundamental technology for molecular and cell biology, and also clinical gene therapy. A variety of non-viral vectors have been investigated for gene transfection, but their gene delivery had remained an inefficient process. Recently, we found that a biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL)-A, dramatically increased the efficiency in transfection of plasmid DNA mediated by cationic liposomes. However, its mechanism has not been understood yet. Here we examined the mechanism of the transfection mediated by cationic liposomes with NBD-conjugated MEL-A. We found that MEL-A first gradually distributed on the intracellular membranes through the plasma membranes of target cells, while the cationic liposomes with MEL-A fused to the plasma membranes in 20-35 min. Thereafter, the oligonucleotide released from the vesicles was immediately transferred to the nucleus. The present results showed a new role of non-viral vectors in transfection. PMID:17884224

  12. The neurite-initiating effect of microbial extracellular glycolipids in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Isoda, H; Shinmoto, H; Matsumura, M; Nakahara, T

    1999-09-01

    The effects of several kinds of microbial extracellular glycolipids on neurite initiation in PC12 cells were examined. Addition of mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A), MEL-B, and sophorose lipid (SL) to PC12 cells caused significant neurite outgrowth. Other glycolipids, such as polyol lipid (PL), rhamnose lipid (RL), succinoyl trehalose lipid-A (STL-A) and STL-B caused no neurite-initiation. MEL-A increased acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity to an extent similar to nerve growth factor (NGF). However, MEL-A induced one or two long neurites from the cell body, while NGF induced many neurites. In addition, MEL-A-induced differentiation was transient, and after 48 h, percentage of cells with neurites started to decrease in contrast to neurons induced by NGF, which occurred in a time-dependent manner. MEL-A could induce neurite outgrowth after treatment of PC12 cells with an anti-NGF receptor antibody that obstructed NGF action. These results indicate that MEL-A and NGF induce differentiation of PC12 cells through different mechanisms. PMID:19003137

  13. Extracellular aromatic biosurfactant produced by Tsukamurella pseudospumae and T. spumae during growth on n-hexadecane.

    PubMed

    Kügler, Johannes H; Kraft, Axel; Heißler, Stefan; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Schwack, Wolfgang; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-10-10

    Biosurfactants are surface-active agents produced by microorganisms and show increasing significance in various industrial applications. A great variety of these secondary metabolites are described to occur within actinomycetes, amongst trehalose lipids and oligosaccharide lipids produced by the family Tsukamurellaceae. This study reports on the production of not yet described compounds with surface active behavior by non-pathogenic Tsukamurella pseudospumae and Tsukamurella spumae during growth on hydrophobic carbon sources. Extracts of the purified compounds differ in terms of structure and performance properties to other biosurfactants described within their family. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of aromatic moieties within the surfactant produced, which to date is only known to occur within phenolic glycolipids of some mycobateria. PMID:26223030

  14. The transcriptomic profile of Pseudozyma aphidis during production of mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Günther, Michael; Grumaz, Christian; Lorenz, Stefan; Stevens, Philip; Lindemann, Elena; Hirth, Thomas; Sohn, Kai; Zibek, Susanne; Rupp, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma aphidis is able to convert vegetable oils to abundant amounts of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL) with a unique product pattern of MEL-A, MEL-B, MEL-C, and MEL-D. To investigate the metabolism of MEL production, we analyzed the transcriptome of P. aphidis DSM 70725 under MEL-inducing and non-inducing conditions using deep sequencing. Following manual curation of the previously described in silico gene models based on RNA-Seq data, we were able to generate an experimentally verified gene annotation containing 6347 genes. Using this database, our expression analysis revealed that only four of the five cluster genes required for MEL synthesis were clearly induced by the presence of soybean oil. The acetyltransferase encoding gene PaGMAT1 was expressed on a much lower level, which may explain the secretion of MEL with different degrees of acetylation in P. aphidis. In parallel to MEL synthesis, microscopic observations showed morphological changes accompanied by expression of genes responsible for cell development, indicative of a coregulation between MEL synthesis and cell morphology. In addition a set of transcription factors was identified which may be responsible for regulation of MEL synthesis and cell development. The upregulation of genes required for nitrogen metabolism and other assimilation processes indicate additional metabolic pathways required under the MEL-inducing conditions used. We also searched for a conserved gene cluster for cellobiose lipids (CL) but only found seven genes with limited homology distributed over the genome. However, we detected characteristic TLC spots in fermentations using P. aphidis DSM 70725, indicative of CL secretion. PMID:25586580

  15. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSVP20 isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and its physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Adgaba, Nuru; Khan, Khalid Ali; Pruthi, Vikas; Al-Waili, Noori

    2015-11-01

    Among 348 microbial strains isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, five were selected for their ability to produce biosurfactant based on battery of screening assay including hemolytic activity, surface tension reduction, drop collapse assay, emulsification activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity studies. Of these, bacterial isolate DSVP20 was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865644) based on biochemical characterization and the 16S rDNA analysis, and it was found to be a potential candidate for biosurfactant production. Maximum biosurfactant production recorded by P. aeruginosa DSVP20 was 6.7 g/l after 72 h at 150 rpm and at a temperature of 30 °C. Chromatographic analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) revealed that it was a glycolipid in nature which was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bioremediation studies using purified biosurfactant showed that P. aeruginosa DSVP20 has the ability to degrade eicosane (97%), pristane (75%), and fluoranthene (47%) when studied at different time intervals for a total of 7 days. The results of this study showed that the P. aeruginosa DSVP20 and/or biosurfactant produced by this isolate have the potential role in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. PMID:26146372

  16. Inhibition of Candida albicans CC biofilms formation in polystyrene plate surfaces by biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA72.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Andrea S; Miranda, Tatiana T; Lula, Ivana; Denadai, Ângelo M L; Sinisterra, Rubén D; Santoro, Marcelo M; Santos, Vera L

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of glycolipid-type biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA72 in the formation of biofilms in polystyrene plate surfaces by Candida albicans CC isolated from the apical tooth canal. Biofilm formation was reduced up to 87.4% with use of biosurfactant at 16 mg/ml concentration. It has been suggested that the interaction with the cell or polystyrene plate surface could ultimately be responsible for these actions. Therefore, the interaction of C. albicans CC cells with the biosurfactant, as well as the corresponding thermodynamic parameters, have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry and zeta potential measurements. This process is endothermic (((int)H°=+1284±5 cal/mg OD(600)) occurring with a high increase of entropy (T((int)S°=+10635 cal/mg OD(600)). The caloric energy rate data released during the titulation indicates saturation of the cell-biosurfactant at 1.28 mg/ml OD(600). Also, the zeta potential of the cell surface was monitored as a function of the biosurfactant concentration added to cell suspension showing partial neutralization of net surface charge, since the value of zeta potential ranged from -16 mV to -6 mV during the titration. The changes of cell surface characteristics can contribute to the inhibition of initial adherence of cells of C. albicans in surface. The CMC of the purified biosurfactant produced from T. montevideense CLOA72 is 2.2 mg/ml, as determined both by ITC dilution experiments and by surface tension measurements. This biomolecule did not presented any cytotoxic effect in HEK 293A cell line at concentrations of 0.25-1 mg/ml. This study suggests a possible application of the referred biosurfactant in inhibiting the formation of biofilms on plastic surfaces by C. albicans. PMID:21376544

  17. Biosurfactants for Microbubble Preparation and Application

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingyi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Liu, Zengshe; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes various classes of biosurfactants based on their origin and introduces a few of the most widely used biosurfactants. The current status and future trends in biosurfactant production are discussed, with an emphasis on those derived from plants. Following a brief introduction of the properties of microbubbles, recent progress in the application of microbubble technology to molecular imaging, wastewater treatment, and aerobic fermentation are presented. Several studies on the preparation, characterization and applications of biosurfactant-based microbubbles are reviewed. PMID:21339998

  18. Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies. PMID:21340005

  19. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  20. Dehydration resistance of liposomes containing trehalose glycolipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, Kendra; Goulding, Morgan; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2010-03-01

    The pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has an unusual outer membrane containing trehalose glycolipids that may contribute to its ability to survive freezing and dehydration. Based on our recent discovery that trehalose glycolipids confer dehydration resistance to supported lipid monolayers (Biophys. J. 94: 4718-4724 (2008); Langmuir 25: 5193-5198, (2009)), we hypothesized that liposomes containing synthetic trehalose glycolipids may be dehydration-resistant as well. To test this, we measured the leakage of encapsulated fluorophores and larger macromolecular cargo from such liposomes subject to freeze drying. Both leakage assays and size measurements show that the liposomes are dehydration-resistant. In addition to demonstrating a possibly technologically useful encapsulation platform, our results corroborate the view that encapsulation in a trehalose-glycolipid-rich membrane is a biophysically viable route to protection of mycobacteria from environmental stresses.

  1. Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepansh; Singh Saharan, Baljeet

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5 min at 100°C). Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient. PMID:24669225

  2. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants. PMID:26742771

  3. Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.

  4. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J.

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  5. Genetic control of glycolipid expression.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, T; Suzuki, A; Hashimoto, Y

    1986-12-15

    A polymorphic variation of sialic acid species of sialosyllactosylceramide was found in dog erythrocytes. The analysis of the glycolipids in the erythrocytes of the individual dogs in a family of a Japanese breed of dog, Shiba-Inu, showed that the expression of sialosyllactosylceramide containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid was an autosomal dominant trait over the expression of that containing N-acetylneuraminic acid. Polymorphic variations of major liver gangliosides were also found in various strains of inbred mice. The strains were classified into three groups; the first group possessed only II3 NeuGc-LacCer, the second group possessed II3NeuGc-GgOse3Cer in addition to II3NeuGc-LacCer and the third group possessed II3NeuGc-GgOse4Cer and II3NeuGc,IV3NeuGc-GgOse4Cer as well as the above two gangliosides. By subjecting mice of these three groups to genetic analysis, the strain of the first group (WHT/Ht mice) was demonstrated to be a recessive homozygote which had a single autosomal defective gene making it unable to express N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity to produce II3NeuGc-GgOse3Cer. The strains of the second group (BALB/c and C57BL/10 mice) were also demonstrated to be recessive homozygotes which had a single autosomal defective gene making them unable to express high enough level of galactosyltransferase activity to produce II3NeuGc-GgOse4Cer. By the analysis of gangliosides and the enzyme activity of H-2 congenic mice and mice produced by a mating, this defective gene controlling the expression of II3NeuGc-GgOse4-Cer through the regulation of the transferase activity was demonstrated to be linked to H-2 complex on chromosome 17. PMID:3103940

  6. Surface properties of lipoplexes modified with mannosylerythritol lipid-a and tween 80 and their cellular association.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wuxiao; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Qi, Xianrong; Kitamoto, Dai; Maitani, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    The surface properties of cationic liposomes and lipoplexes largely determine the cellular association and gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we measured the surface properties, such as zeta potentials, surface pH and hydration levels of MHAPC- and OH-Chol-lipoplexes and their cellular association, without and with the modification of biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) or Tween 80 (MHAPC=N,N-methyl hydroxyethyl aminopropane carbamoyl cholesterol; OH-Chol=cholesteryl-3beta-carboxyamindoethylene-N-hydroxyethylamine). Compared to OH-Chol-lipoplexes, the higher cellular association of MHAPC-lipoplexes correlated with the significantly higher zeta potentials, lower surface pH levels and "drier" surface, as evaluated by the generalized polarization of laurdan. Both MEL-A and Tween 80 modification of MHAPC-lipoplexes did not significantly change zeta potentials and surface pH levels, while MEL-A modification of OH-Chol-lipoplexes seriously decreased them. MEL-A hydrated the liposomal surface of MHAPC-lipoplexes but dehydrated that of OH-Chol-lipoplexes, while Tween 80 hydrated those of MHAPC- and OH-Chol-lipoplexes. In all, cationic liposomes composed of lipids with secondary and tertiary amine exhibited different surface properties and cellular associations of lipoplexes, and modification with surfactants further enlarged their difference. The strong hydration ability of Tween 80 may relate to the low cellular association of lipoplexes, while the dehydration of MEL-A-modified OH-Chol-lipoplexes seemed to compensate the negative zeta potential for the cellular association of lipoplexes. PMID:19182402

  7. Synergistic effect of a biosurfactant and protamine on gene transfection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2013-04-11

    Several barriers need to be overcome to ensure successful gene transfection, including passing of the foreign gene through the plasma membrane, escape of this material from lysosomal degradation, and its translocation into the nucleus. We previously showed that the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) enhanced the efficiency of gene transfection mediated by cationic liposomes by facilitating rapid delivery of foreign genes into target cells through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane. Moreover, using MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes, the foreign gene was efficiently delivered into the nucleus because it was released directly into the cytosol and thus escaped lysosomal degradation. Here we investigated the effect of pre-condensation of plasmid DNA by a cationic polymer, protamine, on gene transfection. We found that the efficiency of pre-condensed DNA transfection mediated by MEL-A-containing OH liposomes was >10 times higher than that of non-condensed DNA transfection. In contrast, the efficiency of pre-condensed DNA transfection mediated by OH liposomes was only 1.5 times higher than that of non-condensed DNA transfection. MEL-A did not influence plasmid DNA encapsulation by cationic liposomes, but it greatly accelerated the nuclear delivery of pre-condensed plasmid DNA. Our findings indicate that MEL-A and protamine synergistically accelerate the nuclear delivery of foreign gene and consequently promote gene transfection efficiency. PMID:23422688

  8. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids in biosurfactants affects the efficiency of gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2010-10-15

    An unsaturated hydrocarbon chain in phospholipid was reported to affect a phase transition and a fusogenic activity after mixing membranes, and consequently to achieve a high DNA transfection efficiency. We previously showed that a biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) enhances the gene transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes. Here, we have studied the effects of unsaturated fatty acid ratio of MEL-A on the physicochemical properties and gene delivery into cells of cationic liposomes using MEL-A with three different unsaturated fatty acid ratios (9.1%, 21.5%, and 46.3%). The gene transfer efficiency of cationic liposomes containing MEL-A (21.5%) was much higher than that of those containing MEL-A (9.1%) and MEL-A (46.3%). MEL-A (21.5%)-containing cationic liposomes induced highly efficient membrane fusion after addition of anionic liposomes and led to subsequent DNA release. Imaging analysis revealed that MEL-A (21.5%)-containing liposomes fused with the plasma membrane and delivered DNA into the nucleus of NIH-3T3 cells, MEL-A (46.3%)-containing liposomes fused with the plasma membrane did not deliver DNA into the nucleus, and MEL-A (9.1%)-containing liposomes neither fused with the plasma membrane nor delivered DNA into the nucleus. Thus, it is understandable that the unsaturated fatty acid ratio of MEL-A strongly influences the gene transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes. PMID:20674726

  9. Candida tropicalis BPU1, a novel isolate from the rumen of the Malabari goat, is a dual producer of biosurfactant and polyhydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Priji, Prakasan; Unni, K N; Sajith, S; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-03-01

    This unique study reports a new strain (BPU1) of Candida tropicalis isolated from the rumen of the Malabari goat, showing dual production of biosurfactant and polyhydroxybutyrate. C. tropicalis strain BPU1, a facultative anaerobe, was tuned to become an aerobe in specially designed flask, the Benjamin flask. The puffy circular colonies were smooth, white-to-cream in colour, with pseudo-filaments. The strain fermented glucose, sucrose, maltose and dextrose, but not lactose and cellulose. It assimilated (NH4 )2 SO4 , peptone, glycine and arginine, but not NaNO3 , as the nitrogen source. Interestingly, it utilized groundnut oil (up to 0.3%) in a specially designed basal mineral salt medium (BSM). Its capability for dual production of a biosurfactant and a polyhydroxybutyarate (PHB) was explored by various methods from the BSM-oil medium. Extracted biosurfactant from 6 day-old culture was biochemically characterized as a complex of lipid and carbohydrate with an Rf value of 0.88 by thin layer chromatography. Its PHB production was confirmed by specific staining methods with Nile blue sulphate, Sudan black B and Sudan 3. Briefly, this first-ever report gives ample physical evidence for the dual production of a glycolipid (biosurfactant) and PHB by C. tropicalis strain BPU1 on a specially designed medium, which would open up elaborate research on this yeast. PMID:23447374

  10. Novel 3-Dimensional Dendrimer Platform for Glycolipid Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Xichun

    2011-01-01

    Glycolipids are important biological molecules that modulate cellular recognitions and pathogen adhesions. In this paper, we report a sensitive glycolipid microarray for non-covalently immobilizing glycolipids on a microarray substrate and we perform a set of immunoassays to explore glycolipid-protein interactions. This substrate utilizes a three-dimensional hydrazide-functionalized dendrimer monolayer attached onto a microscopic glass surface, which possesses the characteristics to adsorb glycoliplids non-covalently and facilitates multivalent attributes on the substrate surface. In the proof-of-concept experiments, gangliosides such as GM1, FucGM1, GM3, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and a lipoarabinomannan were tested on the substrate and interrogated with toxins and antibodies. The resulting glycolipid microarrays exhibited hypersensitivity and specificity for detection of glycolipid-protein interactions. In particular, a robust and specific binding of a pentameric cholera toxin B subunit to the GM1 glycolipid spotted on the array has demonstrated its superiority in sensitivity and specificity. In addition, this glycolipid microarray substrate was used to detect lipoarabinomannan in buffer within a limit-of-detection of 125 ng/mL. Furthermore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Lipoarabinomannan was tested in human urine specimens on this platform, which can effectively identify urine samples either infected or not infected with Mtb. The results of this work suggest the possibility of using this glycolipid microarray platform to fabricate glycoconjugate microarrays, which includes free glycans and glycolipids and potential application in detection of pathogen and toxin. PMID:21820887

  11. Analysis of glycolipids by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bosch, M P; Parra, J L; Manresa, M A; Ventura, F; Rivera, J

    1989-12-01

    The positive and negative ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectra of four glycolipids obtained from microbial cultures are reported. The spectra of the glycolipids in the positive ion mode are characterized by abundant [M + Na]+, [M + Na + matrix]+ and [M + 2Na - H]+ species. In negative FAB conditions the molecules yield [M - H]-. Our understanding of the FAB behaviour of glycolipids in both positive and negative modes has been considerably aided in the structure elucidation, without any derivatization or degradation reaction of the compounds studied. The technique allows unambiguous molecular weight determination of low-microgram amounts of these glycolipids purified from biological sources and provides useful fragmentation information. PMID:2611417

  12. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsions using biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-10-01

    Nanoemulsions are used in the food, cosmetics, personal care and pharmaceutical industries to provide desirable optical, textural, stability, and delivery characteristics. In many industrial applications, it is desirable to formulate nanoemulsions using natural ingredients so as to develop label-friendly products. Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants isolated from certain microorganisms using fermentation processes. They are glycolipids that have a polar head consisting of rhamnose units and a non-polar tail consisting of a hydrocarbon chain. In this study, the interfacial characteristics of this natural surfactant at medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil-water interfaces were characterized, and its ability to form nanoemulsions was compared to that of another natural surfactant (quillaja saponins). The influence of rhamnolipid concentration, homogenization pressure, and oil type on the mean droplet diameter of emulsions produced by microfluidization was determined. Rhamnolipids were highly effective at forming small droplets (d32<0.15μm) at low surfactant-to-oil ratios (SOR<1:10) for MCT oil. Rhamnolipids could also be used to form small droplets using long chain triglyceride oils, such as corn and fish oil. Rhamnolipid-coated droplets were stable to aggregation over a range of pH values (5-9), salt concentrations (<100mM NaCl) and temperatures (20-90°C). However, droplet aggregation was observed at highly acidic (pH 2-4) and high ionic strength (200-500mM NaCl) conditions. These effects were attributed to a reduction in electrostatic repulsion at low pH and high salt levels. Rhamnolipid-coated droplets had a high negative charge at neutral pH that decreased in magnitude with decreasing pH. These results indicate that rhamnolipids are effective natural surfactants that may be able to replace synthetic surfactants in certain commercial applications. PMID:27372634

  13. Stimulation of Natural Killer T Cells by Glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian L.; Teyton, Luc; Bendelac, Albert; Savage, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1d protein. The initial discovery of immunostimulatory glycolipids from a marine sponge and the T cells that respond to the compounds has led to extensive research by chemists and immunologists to understand how glycolipids are recognized, possible responses by NKT cells, and the structural features of glycolipids necessary for stimulatory activity. The presence of this cell type in humans and most mammals suggests that it plays critical roles in antigen recognition and the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Both endogenous and exogenous natural antigens for NKT cells have been identified, and it is likely that glycolipid antigens remain to be discovered. Multiple series of structurally varied glycolipids have been synthesized and tested for stimulatory activity. The structural features of glycolipids necessary for NKT cell stimulation are moderately well understood, and designed compounds have proven to be much more potent antigens than their natural counterparts. Nevertheless, control over NKT cell responses by designed glycolipids has not been optimized, and further research will be required to fully reveal the therapeutic potential of this cell type. PMID:24352021

  14. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2011-10-28

    The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes is able to reduce immune responses, cytotoxicity, and other side effects caused by viral vectors in clinical applications. PMID:22001930

  15. Nitrogen and hydrophosphate affects glycolipids composition in microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shen, Zhouyuan; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Glycolipids had received increasing attention because of their uses in various industries like cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food and machinery manufacture. Microalgae were competitive organisms to accumulate metabolic substance. However, using microalgae to produce glycolipid was rare at present. In this study, glycolipid content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Synechococcus sp. under different nitrate and hydrophosphate levels were investigated. The highest glycolipid contents of 24.61% for C. pyrenoidosa and 15.37% for Synechococcus sp. were obtained at nitrate absence, which were 17.19% for C. pyrenoidosa and 10.99% for Synechococcus sp. at 0.01 and 0 g L−1 hydrophosphate, respectively. Glycolipid productivities of two microalgae could reach at more than 10.59 mg L−1 d−1. Nitrate absence induced at least 8.5% increase in MGDG, DGDG and SQDG, while hydrophosphate absence resulted in over 21.2% increase in DGDG and over 48.4% increase in SQDG and more than 22.2% decrease in MGDG in two microalgae. Simultaneous nitrate and hydrophosphate limitation could make further improvement of glycolipid accumulation, which was more than 25% for C. pyrenoidosa and 21% for Synechococcus sp. These results suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus limitation or starvation should be an efficient way to improve microalgal glycolipid accumulation. PMID:27440670

  16. Nitrogen and hydrophosphate affects glycolipids composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Shen, Zhouyuan; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Glycolipids had received increasing attention because of their uses in various industries like cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food and machinery manufacture. Microalgae were competitive organisms to accumulate metabolic substance. However, using microalgae to produce glycolipid was rare at present. In this study, glycolipid content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Synechococcus sp. under different nitrate and hydrophosphate levels were investigated. The highest glycolipid contents of 24.61% for C. pyrenoidosa and 15.37% for Synechococcus sp. were obtained at nitrate absence, which were 17.19% for C. pyrenoidosa and 10.99% for Synechococcus sp. at 0.01 and 0 g L(-1) hydrophosphate, respectively. Glycolipid productivities of two microalgae could reach at more than 10.59 mg L(-1) d(-1). Nitrate absence induced at least 8.5% increase in MGDG, DGDG and SQDG, while hydrophosphate absence resulted in over 21.2% increase in DGDG and over 48.4% increase in SQDG and more than 22.2% decrease in MGDG in two microalgae. Simultaneous nitrate and hydrophosphate limitation could make further improvement of glycolipid accumulation, which was more than 25% for C. pyrenoidosa and 21% for Synechococcus sp. These results suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus limitation or starvation should be an efficient way to improve microalgal glycolipid accumulation. PMID:27440670

  17. The uptake of trehalose glycolipids by macrophages is independent of Mincle.

    PubMed

    Kodar, Kristel; Eising, Selma; Khan, Ashna A; Steiger, Stefanie; Harper, Jacquie L; Timmer, Mattie S M; Stocker, Bridget L

    2015-03-01

    Trehalose glycolipids play an important role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are used as adjuvants for vaccines; however, much still remains unanswered about the mechanisms through which these glycolipids exert their immunomodulatory potential. Recently, the macrophage-inducible C-type lectin Mincle was determined to be the receptor for trehalose glycolipids, yet the role played by Mincle in glycolipid uptake is unknown. Accordingly, we developed several fluorescent trehalose glycolipid reporter systems that can be used to study the uptake of soluble trehalose glycolipids and glycolipid-coated particles by macrophages. Our studies revealed that, although Mincle is essential for the activation of macrophages by trehalose glycolipids, the receptor does not play a role in the uptake of these glycolipids or of glycolipid-coated particles. PMID:25645884

  18. Gene therapy: prospects for glycolipid storage diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Gieselmann, Volkmar; Matzner, Ulrich; Klein, Diana; Mansson, Jan Eric; D'Hooge, Rudi; DeDeyn, Peter D; Lüllmann Rauch, Renate; Hartmann, Dieter; Harzer, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases comprise a group of about 40 disorders, which in most cases are due to the deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme. Since lysosomal enzymes are involved in the degradation of various compounds, the diseases can be further subdivided according to which pathway is affected. Thus, enzyme deficiencies in the degradation pathway of glycosaminoglycans cause mucopolysaccharidosis, and deficiencies affecting glycopeptides cause glycoproteinosis. In glycolipid storage diseases enzymes are deficient that are involved in the degradation of sphingolipids. Mouse models are available for most of these diseases, and some of these mouse models have been used to study the applicability of in vivo gene therapy. We review the rationale for gene therapy in lysosomal disorders and present data, in particular, about trials in an animal model of metachromatic leukodystrophy. The data of these trials are compared with those obtained with animal models of other lysosomal diseases. PMID:12803926

  19. Gene therapy: prospects for glycolipid storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gieselmann, Volkmar; Matzner, Ulrich; Klein, Diana; Mansson, Jan Eric; D'Hooge, Rudi; DeDeyn, Peter D; Lüllmann Rauch, Renate; Hartmann, Dieter; Harzer, Klaus

    2003-05-29

    Lysosomal storage diseases comprise a group of about 40 disorders, which in most cases are due to the deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme. Since lysosomal enzymes are involved in the degradation of various compounds, the diseases can be further subdivided according to which pathway is affected. Thus, enzyme deficiencies in the degradation pathway of glycosaminoglycans cause mucopolysaccharidosis, and deficiencies affecting glycopeptides cause glycoproteinosis. In glycolipid storage diseases enzymes are deficient that are involved in the degradation of sphingolipids. Mouse models are available for most of these diseases, and some of these mouse models have been used to study the applicability of in vivo gene therapy. We review the rationale for gene therapy in lysosomal disorders and present data, in particular, about trials in an animal model of metachromatic leukodystrophy. The data of these trials are compared with those obtained with animal models of other lysosomal diseases. PMID:12803926

  20. Contributions of biosurfactants to natural or induced bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Lawniczak, Lukasz; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2013-03-01

    The number of studies dedicated to evaluating the influence of biosurfactants on bioremediation efficiency is constantly growing. Although significant progress regarding the explanation of mechanisms behind biosurfactant-induced effects could be observed, there are still many factors which are not sufficiently elucidated. This corresponds to the fact that although positive influence of biosurfactants is often reported, there are also numerous cases where no or negative effect was observed. This review summarizes the recent finding in the field of biosurfactant-amended bioremediation, focusing mainly on a critical approach towards potential limitations and causes of failure while investigating the effects of biosurfactants on the efficiency of biodegradation and phytoextraction processes. It also provides a summary of successive steps, which should be taken into consideration when designing biosurfactant-related treatment processes. PMID:23400445

  1. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. PMID:23956227

  2. One-Pot Syntheses of Immunostimulatory Glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Schombs, Matthew; Park, Francine E.; Du, Wenjun; Kulkarni, Suvarn S.; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    Glycolipids containing α-linked galactosyl and glucosyl moieties have been shown to possess unique immunostimulatory activity creating a need for access to diverse and anomerically pure sources of these compounds for immunological studies. To meet this demand, glycosyl iodides were enlisted in the synthesis of these biologically relevant glycoconjugates. In the first generation protocol per-O-benzyl galactosyl iodide was efficiently coupled with activated sphingosine acceptors, but fully functionalized ceramides were found to be unreactive. To overcome this obstacle, per-O-trimethylsilyl glycosyl iodides were investigated and shown to undergo highly efficient coupling with ceramide and glycerol ester acceptors. Contrary to what has been observed with other donors, we detected little difference between the reactivity of glucosyl and galactosyl iodides. The trimethylsilyl protecting groups play a dual role in activating the donor toward nucleophilic attack while at the same time providing transient protection: the silyl groups are readily removed upon methanolysis. All reactions proceeded with complete acceptor regioselectivity, eliminating the need for additional protecting group manipulations, and the desired α -anomers were formed exclusively. This three step one-pot synthetic platform provides rapid access to an important class of immunostimulatory molecules including the first reported synthesis of the glucosyl analog of the bacterial antigen BbGL-II. PMID:20387787

  3. Effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Li, Shudong; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Zhang, Cong; Zhao, Dongwei; Li, Yiming; Sun, Peiyan; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria, Bacillus Lz-2, was isolated from oil polluted water collected from Dongying Shengli oilfield, China. The factors that influence PAH solubilization such as biosurfactant concentration, pH, ionic strength and temperature were discussed. The results showed that the solubilities of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene increased linearly with the rise of rhamnolipid biosurfactant dose above the biosurfactant critical micelle concentration (CMC). Furthermore, the molar solubilization ratio (MSR) values decreased in the following order: naphthalene>phenanthrene>pyrene. However, the solubility percentage increased and followed the opposite order: pyrene>phenanthrene>naphthalene. The solubilities of PAHs in rhamnolipid biosurfactant solution increased with the rise of pH and ionic strength, and reached the maximum values under the conditions of pH11 and NaCl concentration 8 g · L(-1). The solubility of phenanthrene and pyrene increased with the rise of temperature. PMID:26494247

  4. CD1 mediated T cell recognition of glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Zajonc, Dirk M.; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Summary Specialized subsets of T lymphocytes can distinguish the carbohydrate portions of microbial and self-glycolipids when they are presented by proteins in the CD1 family of antigen presenting molecules. Recent immunochemical and structural analyses indicate that the chemical composition of the presented carbohydrate, together with its precise orientation above the CD1 binding groove, determines if a particular T cell is activated. More recently, however, it has been shown that the lipid backbone of the glycolipid, buried inside the CD1 protein, also can have an impact on T cell activation. While glycolipid recognition is a relatively new category of T cell specificity, the powerful combination of microbial antigen discovery and structural biochemistry has provided great insight into the mechanism of carbohydrate recognition. PMID:17951048

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  6. Alternative methodology for isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Krepsky, N; Da Silva, F S; Fontana, L F; Crapez, M A C

    2007-02-01

    Wide biosurfactant application on biorremediation is limited by its high production cost. The search for cheaper biossurfactant production alternatives has guided our study. The use of selective media containing sucrose (10 g x L(-1)) and Arabian Light oil (2 g x L(-1)) as carbon sources showed to be effective to screen and maintain biosurfactant-producing consortia isolated from mangrove hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment. The biosurfactant production was assayed by kerosene, gasoline and Arabian Light Emulsification activity and the bacterial growth curve was determined by bacterial quantification. The parameters analyzed for biosurfactant production were the growth curve, salinity concentration, flask shape and oxygenation. All bacteria consortia screened were able to emulsify the petroleum derivatives tested. Biosurfactant production increased according to the incubation time; however the type of emulsification (non-aqueous phase or aqueous phase) did not change with time but with the compound tested. The methodology was able to isolate biosurfactant-producing consortia from superficial mangrove sediment contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and was recommended for selection of biosurfactant producing bacteria in tropical countries with low financial resources. PMID:17505758

  7. The Liganding of Glycolipid Transfer Protein Is Controlled by Glycolipid Acyl Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kanack, Alex T; Lu, Min; Abagyan, Ruben; Brown, Rhoderick E; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2006-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) play major roles in cellular growth and development. Mammalian glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are potential regulators of cell processes mediated by GSLs and display a unique architecture among lipid binding/transfer proteins. The GLTP fold represents a novel membrane targeting/interaction domain among peripheral proteins. Here we report crystal structures of human GLTP bound to GSLs of diverse acyl chain length, unsaturation, and sugar composition. Structural comparisons show a highly conserved anchoring of galactosyl- and lactosyl-amide headgroups by the GLTP recognition center. By contrast, acyl chain chemical structure and occupancy of the hydrophobic tunnel dictate partitioning between sphingosine-in and newly-observed sphingosine-out ligand-binding modes. The structural insights, combined with computed interaction propensity distributions, suggest a concerted sequence of events mediated by GLTP conformational changes during GSL transfer to and/or from membranes, as well as during GSL presentation and/or transfer to other proteins. PMID:17105344

  8. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium in glycolipid incorporated micro emulsions.

    PubMed

    Premarathne, E P N; Karunaratne, D N; Perera, A D L Chandani

    2016-09-25

    The effect of the glycolipid, hexadecyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, incorporated in microemulsions (ME(1)) towards the enhancement of skin absorption and skin permeation of Diclofenac sodium (DS(2)) was evaluated. A Franz diffusion cell with a piece of pig's ear epidermis indicated that the optimized ME formulation with glycolipid (0.05wt%) exhibited significantly higher permeability than the conventional formulations. The releasing profiles of DS from ME formulations exhibited first order release kinetics resembling a diffusion controlled release model for the first 8h. Incorporating hexadecyl-β-D glucopyranoside in ME formulations shows significant potential as a delivery vehicle in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27477103

  9. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  10. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes can efficiently and rapidly deliver siRNA into the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid delivery of siRNA is due to the membrane fusion between liposomes and plasma membrane. -- Abstract: The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24 h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine Trade-Mark-Sign RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic

  11. Acanthamoebae bind to glycolipids of rabbit corneal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Panjwani, N; Zhao, Z; Baum, J; Pereira, M; Zaidi, T

    1992-01-01

    By use of a thin-layer chromatogram (TLC) overlay procedure, 35S-labeled acanthamoebae were shown to bind to seven glycolipids of rabbit corneal epithelium. Corneal epithelial cells were grown in culture and were subjected to Folch extraction to isolate a chloroform-rich lower phase containing neutral glycosphingolipids (NGSL) and an aqueous upper phase containing gangliosides, i.e., sialic acid-containing glycolipids. Thin-layer chromatography of the upper phase revealed the presence of 10 ganglioside components. Acanthamoebae were shown to bind to four of these components, referred to as 2, 3, 6, and 7. On TLC plates, ganglioside components 2 and 3 migrated slightly ahead of the glycolipid standard GD1a, component 7 comigrated with standard GM3, and component 6 migrated a little more slowly than GM3. Likewise, of the 10 NGSL known to be present in the lower phase, acanthamoebae bound to components 1, 5, and 6. NGSL components 1, 5, and 6 migrated on TLC plates with relative mobilities similar to those of standards asialo GM1, asialo GM2, and ceramidetrihexoside, respectively. We propose that one or more of the Acanthamoeba-reactive glycolipids of corneal epithelium identified in this study may play a role in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis by mediating the adherence of the parasites to the cornea. Images PMID:1639517

  12. Glycolipid presentation to natural killer T cells differs in an organ-dependent fashion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieg, John; Yang, Guangli; Franck, Richard W.; van Rooijen, Nico; Tsuji, Moriya

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that dendritic cells (DCs) are able to present glycolipids to natural killer (NK) T cells in vivo. However, the essential role of DCs, as well as the role of other cells in glycolipid presentation, is unknown. Here, we show that DCs are the crucial antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for splenic NK T cells, whereas Kupffer cells are the key APCs for hepatic NK T cells. Both cell types stimulate cytokine production by NK T cells within 2 h of glycolipid administration, but only DCs are involved in the systemic, downstream responses to glycolipid administration. More specifically, CD8+ DCs produce IL-12 in response to glycolipid presentation, which stimulates secondary IFN- production by NK cells in different organs. Different APCs participate in glycolipid presentation to NK T cells in vivo but differ in their involvement in the overall glycolipid response. dendritic cell | Kupffer cell

  13. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Płaza, Grażyna A.; Chojniak, Joanna; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance. PMID:25110864

  14. Recognition of Microbial Glycolipids by Natural Killer T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zajonc, Dirk M.; Girardi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    T cells can recognize microbial antigens when presented by dedicated antigen-presenting molecules. While peptides are presented by classical members of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) family (MHC I and II), lipids, glycolipids, and lipopeptides can be presented by the non-classical MHC member, CD1. The best studied subset of lipid-reactive T cells are type I natural killer T (iNKT) cells that recognize a variety of different antigens when presented by the non-classical MHCI homolog CD1d. iNKT cells have been shown to be important for the protection against various microbial pathogens, including B. burgdorferi, the causative agents of Lyme disease, and S. pneumoniae, which causes pneumococcal meningitis and community-acquired pneumonia. Both pathogens carry microbial glycolipids that can trigger the T cell antigen receptor (TCR), leading to iNKT cell activation. iNKT cells have an evolutionary conserved TCR alpha chain, yet retain the ability to recognize structurally diverse glycolipids. They do so using a conserved recognition mode, in which the TCR enforces a conserved binding orientation on CD1d. TCR binding is accompanied by structural changes within the TCR binding site of CD1d, as well as the glycolipid antigen itself. In addition to direct recognition of microbial antigens, iNKT cells can also be activated by a combination of cytokines (IL-12/IL-18) and TCR stimulation. Many microbes carry TLR antigens, and microbial infections can lead to TLR activation. The subsequent cytokine response in turn lower the threshold of TCR-mediated iNKT cell activation, especially when weak microbial or even self-antigens are presented during the cause of the infection. In summary, iNKT cells can be directly activated through TCR triggering of strong antigens, while cytokines produced by the innate immune response may be necessary for TCR triggering and iNKT cell activation in the presence of weak antigens. Here, we will review the molecular basis of iNKT cell

  15. Glycolipid class profiling by packed-column subcritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Frantz S; Lesellier, Eric; Bleton, Jean; Baillet, Arlette; Tchapla, Alain; Chaminade, Pierre

    2004-06-18

    The potential of packed-column subcritical fluid chromatography (SubFC) for the separation of lipid classes has been assessed in this study. Three polar stationary phases were checked: silica, diol, and poly(vinyl alcohol). Carbon dioxide (CO2) with methanol as modifier was used as mobile phase and detection performed by evaporative light scattering detection. The influence of methanol content, temperature, and pressure on the chromatographic behavior of sphingolipids and glycolipids were investigated. A complete separation of lipid classes from a crude wheat lipid extract was achieved using a modifier gradient from 10 to 40% methanol in carbon dioxide. Solute selectivity was improved using coupled silica and diol columns in series. Because the variation of eluotropic strength depending on the fluid density changes, a normalized separation factor product (NSP) was used to select the nature, the number and the order of the columns to reach the optimum glycolipid separation. PMID:15248431

  16. Synthesis of glycoaminooxy acid and N-oxyamide-linked glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Chen, N; Xie, J

    2016-01-21

    Aminooxyl sugar derivatives are versatile building blocks for the generation of various glycoconjugates with interesting bioactivities. We report herein a synthetic method for the preparation of orthogonally protected glycoaminooxy acid from methyl α-d-glycopyranoside in 7 steps. The key steps involve the selective protection, O-alkylation and Mitsunobu reaction. Fully deprotected N-oxyamide-linked novel glycolipids can be easily generated from the glycoaminooxy ester or from the 2-hydroxy free sugar in 5 or 6 steps. PMID:26646087

  17. Glycolipids from a colloid chemical point of view.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, P H; Rosenfeld, H; Konidala, P; Garamus, V M; He, L; Prange, A; Niemeyer, B

    2006-06-25

    Glycolipids are a group of compounds with a broad range of applications. Two types of glycolipids (alkylpolyglycosides and gangliosides) were examined with regard to their physicochemical properties. Despite their structural differences, they have in common that they are amphiphilic molecules and able to aggregate to form monolayers, bilayers, micelles, lyothropic mesophases or vesicles. The structures of glycolipid micelles were investigated by different experimental techniques in addition to molecular dynamic simulations. The knowledge of the physicochemical properties of gangliosides enables a better understanding of their biological functions. Structural features were obtained for the monosialogangliosides GM1, GM2 and GT1b from bovine brain by means of mass spectrometry. Further the aggregation behaviour was determined by small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering experiments. Interaction studies of these compounds were carried out by means of surface plasmon resonance using gangliosides incorporated liposomes. They were used as model membranes that interact with the lectins WGA, RCA and HPA. The interaction of lectins immobilized to a modified silicon surface was investigated by in-situ ellipsometry. PMID:16707183

  18. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  19. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Teixeira, José A.; Rodrigues, Lígia R.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments. PMID:26901207

  20. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  1. Possibilities and challenges for biosurfactants use in petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Perfumo, Amedea; Rancich, Ivo; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants are a group of microbial molecules identified by their unique capabilities to interact with hydrocarbons. Emulsification and de-emulsification, dispersion, foaming, wetting and coating are some of the numerous surface activities that biosurfactants can achieve when applied within systems such as immiscible liquid/liquid (e.g., oil/water), solid/ liquid (e.g., rock/oil and rock/water) and gas/liquid. Therefore, the possibilities of exploiting these bioproducts in oil-related sciences are vast and made petroleum industry their largest possible market at present. The role of biosurfactants in enhancing oil recovery from reservoirs is certainly the best known; however they can be effectively applied in many other fields from transportation of crude oil in pipeline to the clean-up of oil storage tanks and even manufacturing of fine petrochemicals. When properly used, biosurfactants are comparable to traditional chemical analogues in terms of performances and offer advantages with regard to environment protection/conservation. This chapter aims at providing an up-to-date overview of biosurfactant roles, applications and possible future uses related to petroleum industry. PMID:20545279

  2. Foliar penetration enhanced by biosurfactant rhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haojing; Shao, Bing; Long, Xuwei; Yao, Yang; Meng, Qin

    2016-09-01

    With recent environmental and health concerns, biosurfactants have obtained increasing interest in replacing conventional surfactants for diverse applications. In agriculture, the use of surfactant in stimulating foliar uptake is mainly for wetting leaf surface, resisting deposition/evaporation, enhancing penetration across cuticular membrane (CM) and translocation. This paper aimed to address the improved foliar uptake by rhamnolipid (RL) in comparison with the currently used alkyl polyglucoside (APG). As found, compared with APG at 900mg/L (1×critical micellar concentration, CMC), RL at a much lower concentration of 50mg/L (1×CMC) showed much better wettability and surface activity, indicative of its high effectiveness as surfactants. Its performance on resistance to deposition and evaporation was at least as same as APG. Moreover, RL could significantly improve the penetration of herbicide glyphosate and other two small water-soluble molecules (phenol red and Fe(2+)) across CM at an equivalent efficiency as APG at 1×CMC. Finally, the greatly enhanced herbicidal actitivity of glyphosate on greenhouse plants confirmed that RL and APG could both enhance the foliar uptake including translocation. Overall, RL should be more applicable than APG in agriculture due to its more promising properties on health/environmental friendliness. PMID:27281240

  3. Trehalose Polyphleates Are Produced by a Glycolipid Biosynthetic Pathway Conserved across Phylogenetically Distant Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Burbaud, Sophie; Laval, Françoise; Lemassu, Anne; Daffé, Mamadou; Guilhot, Christophe; Chalut, Christian

    2016-02-18

    Mycobacteria synthesize a variety of structurally related glycolipids with major biological functions. Common themes have emerged for the biosynthesis of these glycolipids, including several families of proteins. Genes encoding these proteins are usually clustered on bacterial chromosomal islets dedicated to the synthesis of one glycolipid family. Here, we investigated the function of a cluster of five genes widely distributed across non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Using defined mutant analysis and in-depth structural characterization of glycolipids from wild-type or mutant strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium abscessus, we established that they are involved in the formation of trehalose polyphleates (TPP), a family of compounds originally described in Mycobacterium phlei. Comparative genomics and lipid analysis of strains distributed along the mycobacterial phylogenetic tree revealed that TPP is synthesized by a large number of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. This work unravels a novel glycolipid biosynthetic pathway in mycobacteria and extends the spectrum of bacteria that produce TPP. PMID:27028886

  4. Immunostimulation by phospholipopeptide biosurfactant from Staphylococcus hominis in Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Veluchamy; Kalaivani Priyadarshini, Sekaran; Saranya, Viswanathan; Suguna, Ponnusamy; Shenbagarathai, Rajaiah

    2016-01-01

    The immunostimulatory effect of phospholipopeptide biosurfactant from Staphylococcus hominis (GenBank Accession No: KJ564272) was assessed with Oreochromis mossambicus. The non-specific (serum lysozyme activity, serum antiprotease activity, serum peroxidase activity and serum bactericidal activity), specific (bacterial agglutination assay) immune responses and disease resistance activity against Aeromonas hydrophila were examined. Fish were intraperitonially injected with water soluble secondary metabolite (biosurfactant) of S. hominis at a dose of 2 mg, 20 mg and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight. Commercial surfactant surfactin (sigma) at 20 mg kg(-1) was used as standard and saline as negative control. All the doses of water soluble biosurfactant tested, significantly enhanced the specific, nonspecific immunity and disease resistance from the day of post administration of phospholipopeptide biosurfactant till the tail of the experimental period. These results clearly indicated that the secondary metabolite isolated from S. hominis stimulates the immunity of finfish thereby could enhance aquaculture production. PMID:26549172

  5. Utilization of sophorolipids as biosurfactants for postemergence herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sophorolipids are carbohydrate-based, amphiphilic biosurfactants produced by several species of the Starmerella yeast clade. Most sophorolipids are partially acetylated sophorose sugars O-ß-glycosidically linked to 17-L-hydroxy-delta9-octadecenoic acid, where typically the acyl carboxyl group forms...

  6. Identification of potential local isolated for biosurfactant production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei, Zahra; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Moazami, Nasrin; Hamzah, Ainon; Fooladi, Taybeh

    2013-11-01

    Biosurfactant are amphiphilic molecule that have received increasing attention in recent years because of their role in the growth of microorganisms on water-insoluble hydrophobic materials such as hydrocarbons as well as their commercial potential in the cosmetics, food, oil recovery and agricultural industries. In this study a potential biosurfactant producing strain was isolated from several soil samples of Terengganu oil refinery, Malaysia and selected during preliminary screening using hemolytic activity, oil spreading and drop collapsed technique. Isolates with at least more than one positive response to these three methods were subjected to complementary screening by measuring surface tension reduction as well as emulsification capacity. The biosurfactant produced by isolated 5M was able to reduced surface tension of culture medium from 60 mN/m to30mN/m. The biochemical and morphological characterization, 16SrRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolated 5M belongs to bacillus groups. The maximum production of biosurfactant by Bacillus 5M was observed after 48 h of incubation.

  7. Tridimensional ultrastructure and glycolipid pattern studies of Trypanosoma dionisii.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Miriam Pires de Castro; Ramos, Thiago Cesar Prata; Pinheiro, Adriana Maria V N; Bertini, Silvio; Takahashi, Helio Kiyoshi; Straus, Anita Hilda; Haapalainen, Edna Freymuller

    2013-12-01

    Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) dionisii is a non-pathogenic bat trypanosome closely related to Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chaga's disease. Both kinetoplastids present similar morphological stages and are able to infect mammalian cells in culture. In the present study we examined 3D ultrastructure aspects of the two species by serial sectioning epimastigote and trypomastigote forms, and identified common carbohydrate epitopes expressed in T. dionisii, T. cruzi and Leishmania major. A major difference in 3D morphology was that T. dionisii epimastigote forms present larger multivesicular structures, restricted to the parasite posterior region. These structures could be related to T. cruzi reservosomes and are also rich in cruzipain, the major cysteine-proteinase of T. cruzi. We analyzed the reactivity of two monoclonal antibodies: MEST-1 directed to galactofuranose residues of glycolipids purified from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and BST-1 directed to glycolipids purified from T. cruzi epimastigotes. Both antibodies were reactive with T. dionisii epimastigotes by indirect immunofluorescense, but we noted differences in the location and intensity of the epitopes, when compared to T. cruzi. In summary, despite similar features in cellular structure and life cycle of T. dionisii and T. cruzi, we observed a unique morphological characteristic in T. dionisii that deserves to be explored. PMID:23933185

  8. Activation of human neutrophils by mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Fäldt, J; Dahlgren, C; Karlsson, A; Ahmed, A M S; Minnikin, D E; Ridell, M

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) and phagocytes was studied. Human neutrophils were allowed to interact with each of four purified mycobacterial PGLs and the neutrophil production of reactive oxygen metabolites was followed kinetically by luminol-/isoluminol-amplified chemiluminescence. The PGLs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii, respectively, were shown to stimulate the production of oxygen metabolites, while PGLs from Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, respectively, were unable to induce an oxidative response. Periodate treatment of the M. tuberculosis PGL decreased the production of oxygen radicals, showing the importance of the PGL carbohydrate moiety for the interaction. The activation, however, could not be inhibited by rhamnose or fucose, indicating a complex interaction which probably involves more than one saccharide unit. This is in line with the fact that the activating PGLs from M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii contain tri- and tetrasaccharides, respectively, while the nonactivating PGLs from M. marinum and M. bovis BCG each contain a monosaccharide. The complement receptor 3 (CR3) has earlier been shown to be of importance for the phagocyte binding of mycobacteria, but did not appear to be involved in the activation of neutrophils by PGLs. The subcellular localization of the reactive oxygen metabolites formed was related to the way in which the glycolipids were presented to the cells. PMID:10540187

  9. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  10. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant: Putative receptor diversity and histopathological effects on Tuta absoluta midgut.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Boukedi, Hanen; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Chaib, Ikbel; Laarif, Asma; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-11-01

    The use of biosurfactant in pest management has received much attention for the control of plant pathogens, but few studies reported their insecticidal activity. The present study describes the insecticidal activity of biosurfactant extracted from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain AG1. This strain produces a lipopeptide biosurfactant exhibiting an LC50 of about 180ng/cm(2) against Tuta absoluta larvae. Accordingly, the histopathologic effect of this biosurfactant on T. absoluta larvae showed serious damages of the midgut tissues including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. By PCR, we showed that this biosurfactant could be formed by several lipopeptides and polyketides including iturin, fengycin, surfactin, bacyllomicin, bacillaene, macrolactin and difficidin. Binding experiment revealed that it recognized five putative receptors located in the BBMV of T. absoluta with sizes of 68, 63, 44, 30 and 19kDa. Therefore, biosurfactant AG1 hold potential for use as an environmentally friendly agent to control the tomato leaf miner. PMID:26299754

  11. Mosquitocidal Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: Dynamics of growth & production of novel pupicidal biosurfactant

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, I.; Aruna, R.; Manonmani, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: A strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) producing mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal biosurfactant was isolated from mangrove forest soil. The present study was aimed at studying the kinetics of growth and production of the mosquitocidal biosurfactant by this bacterium. Methods: Dynamics of growth, sporulation and production of mosquitocidal biosurfactant were studied by standard microbiological methods. The mosquitocidal biosurfactant was precipitated from the culture supernatant and bioassayed against immature stages of mosquito vectors to determine lethal dose and lethal time. The activity, biological and biochemical properties of the biosurfactant have also been studied. Results: The pupal stages of mosquitoes were found to be more vulnerable to the biosurfactant produced by this bacterium with Anopheles stephensi being the most vulnerable species. The median lethal time (LT50) was found to be 1.23 h when the pupal stages of the above species were exposed to lethal concentration LC90 (9 µg/ml) dosage of the biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was found to increase with incubation time and maximum biomass, maximum quantity of biosurfactant (7.9 mg/ml), maximum biosurfactant activity (6 kBS unit/mg) and maximum mosquitocidal activity (5 µg/ml) were attained by 72 h of growth. The lipopeptide nature of the biosurfactant was confirmed by β-haemolysis, lipase activity, biofilm forming capacity, thermostability and biochemical analysis. Interpretation & conclusions: The mosquitocidal biosurfactant produced by B. amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) may be a prospective alternative molecule for use in mosquito control programmes involving bacterial biopesticides. PMID:25366212

  12. Evaluation and functional characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus plantarum CFR 2194.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Arenahalli Ningegowda; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt

    2014-02-01

    The study details the investigations on the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CFR 2194, an isolate from kanjika, a rice-based ayurvedic fermented product, to produce biosurfactant. Surfactant production, as a function of fermentation time, indicates that the maximum production occurred at 72 h under stationary conditions. Isolation, partial purification, and characterization of the biosurfactant produced have been carried out, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that biosurfactants were constituted by protein and polysaccharide fractions, i.e., possessed the structure typical of glycoprotein, which is affected by the medium composition and the phase of growth of the biosurfactant-synthesizing strain. Critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the biosurfactant was found to be 6 g l(-1). The emulsification index (EI), emulsification activity (EA), and emulsion stability (ES) values of the biosurfactant have confirmed its emulsification property. Aqueous fractions of the produced biosurfactant exhibited a significant antimicrobial activity against the food-borne pathogenic species: Escherichia coli ATCC 31705, E. coli MTCC 108, Salmonella typhi, Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 859, and Staphylococcus aureus F 722. More importantly, the biosurfactant from L. plantarum showed antiadhesive property against above food-borne pathogens. The results thus indicate the potential for developing strategies to prevent microbial colonization of food contact surfaces and health-care prosthesis using these biosurfactants. PMID:24258794

  13. Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30°C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of ≥ 1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants. PMID:24850435

  14. Characterization and Emulsification Properties of Rhamnolipid and Sophorolipid Biosurfactants and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu T.; Sabatini, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications. PMID:21541055

  15. Characterization and emulsification properties of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants and their applications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu T; Sabatini, David A

    2011-01-01

    Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications. PMID:21541055

  16. Nanoemulsification of pseudo-ceramide by molecular association with mannosylerythritol lipid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyung; Jeong, Eun Seon; Kim, Kwang Nyeon; Park, Seung Han; Kim, Jin Woong

    2014-04-01

    Ceramide molecules in water-based solutions readily attract each other to form molecular crystals, which seriously hampers to diversify their formulations. This paper describes a facile method that allows fabrication of stable ceramide emulsions through an effective molecular association with a lipid having an asymmetric molecular geometry. The lipid considered in this study is mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). MEL is specialized in having a unique molecular structure containing sugar alcohol erythritol as a hydrophilic part and two alkyl chains with different number of carbons as hydrophobic moieties. Our particular interest has been focused on experimentally demonstrating how MEL interacts with pseudo-ceramide molecules by observing phase properties, emulsion morphology, and suspension stability. The pseudo-ceramide emulsions prepared with MEL show remarkably improved dispersion stability without either formation of molecular crystals or changes in particle sizes even after storing them for a long time. This suggests that MEL readily associates with the pseudo-ceramide due to the hydrophobic interaction, while it makes a break in the continuity of the molecular assembly of the pseudo-ceramide molecules themselves due to the geometric hindrance coming from MEL's asymmetric molecular structure. PMID:24290102

  17. Tangled evolutionary processes with commonality and diversity in plastidial glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Hori, Koichi; Nobusawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Tei; Madoka, Yuka; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the photosynthetic membrane constitutes a scaffold for light-harvesting complexes and photosynthetic reaction centers. Three kinds of glycolipids, namely monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, constitute approximately 80-90% of photosynthetic membrane lipids and are well conserved from tiny cyanobacteria to the leaves of huge trees. These glycolipids perform a wide variety of functions beyond biological membrane formation. In particular, the capability of adaptation to harsh environments through regulation of membrane glycolipid composition is essential for healthy growth and development of photosynthetic organisms. The genome analysis and functional genetics of the model seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana have yielded many new findings concerning the biosynthesis, regulation, and functions of glycolipids. Nevertheless, it remains to be clarified how the complex biosynthetic pathways and well-organized functions of glycolipids evolved in early and primitive photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, to yield modern photosynthetic organisms like land plants. Recently, genome data for many photosynthetic organisms have been made available as the fruit of the rapid development of sequencing technology. We also have reported the draft genome sequence of the charophyte alga Klebsormidium flaccidum, which is an intermediate organism between green algae and land plants. Here, we performed a comprehensive phylogenic analysis of glycolipid biosynthesis genes in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms including K. flaccidum. Based on the results together with membrane lipid analysis of this alga, we discuss the evolution of glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27108062

  18. Characterization of glycolipid galactosyltransferases from embryonic chicken brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Glycolipid galactosyltransferases (GalT-3 and GalT-4) were solubilized from a membrane fraction isolated from embryonic chicken brain. The profiles of specific activity and total units per brain of GalT-3 and GalT-4 varied with embryonic age. GalT-4 had the highest specific activity at 9 days of embryonic development and showed a steady decrease until hatching. GalT-3 showed a gradual increase in specific activity. Both GalT3 and GalT-4 showed a steady increase in total units per brain throughout embryonic development. The solubilized enzymes could be separated using gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography or affinity chromatography on ..cap alpha..-lactalbumin-agarose. Data obtained in the study imply that GalT-4 is involved in both glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis. Glycosphingolipid products from GalT-3 and GalT-4 catalyzed reactions labeled with (/sup 14/C)galactose comigrated with authentic GMI and nLcOse/sub 4/Cer, when examined by thin layer chromatography and autoradiography. Studies with galactosidases revealed that all of the enzyme products formed by GalT-3 and GalT-4 contained a (/sup 14/C)-galactose in a ..beta.. anomeric linkage. Periodate oxidation studies of Gal-(/sup 14/C)GlcNAc, formed by purified GalT-4 using (/sup 14/C)GlcNAc as the acceptor, demonstrated that approximately 70% of the linkage formed was Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc and 30% was Gal..beta..1-3GlcNAc. Studies on the susceptibility of (/sup 14/C)Gal-GlcNAc to base catalyzed ..beta..-elimination also suggested the presence of approximately 30% Gal..beta..1-3GlcNAc.

  19. Sophorolipid biosurfactants: Possible uses as antibacterial and antibiofilm agent.

    PubMed

    Díaz De Rienzo, Mayri A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dolman, Ben; Winterburn, James; Martin, Peter J

    2015-12-25

    Biosurfactants are amphipathic, surface-active molecules of microbial origin which accumulate at interfaces reducing interfacial tension and leading to the formation of aggregated micellular structures in solution. Some biosurfactants have been reported to have antimicrobial properties, the ability to prevent adhesion and to disrupt biofilm formation. We investigated antimicrobial properties and biofilm disruption using sophorolipids at different concentrations. Growth of Gram negative Cupriavidus necator ATCC 17699 and Gram positive Bacillus subtilis BBK006 were inhibited by sophorolipids at concentrations of 5% v/v with a bactericidal effect. Sophorolipids (5% v/v) were also able to disrupt biofilms formed by single and mixed cultures of B. subtilis BBK006 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 under static and flow conditions, as was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that sophorolipids may be promising compounds for use in biomedical application as adjuvants to other antimicrobial against some pathogens through inhibition of growth and/or biofilm disruption. PMID:25738966

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0

  1. Triazole-Linked Glycolipids Enhance the Susceptibility of MRSA to β-Lactam Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We show here that a series of triazolyl glycolipid derivatives modularly synthesized by a “click” reaction have the ability to increase the susceptibility of a drug-resistant bacterium to β-lactam antibiotics. We determine that the glycolipids can suppress the minimal inhibitory concentration of a number of ineffective β-lactams, upward of 256-fold, for methicillin-resistant Staphylococuss aureus (MRSA). The mechanism of action has been preliminarily probed and discussed. PMID:26191368

  2. Triazole-Linked Glycolipids Enhance the Susceptibility of MRSA to β-Lactam Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xi-Le; Li, Dan; Shao, Lei; Dong, Xiaojing; He, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Guo-Rong; Chen, Daijie

    2015-07-01

    We show here that a series of triazolyl glycolipid derivatives modularly synthesized by a "click" reaction have the ability to increase the susceptibility of a drug-resistant bacterium to β-lactam antibiotics. We determine that the glycolipids can suppress the minimal inhibitory concentration of a number of ineffective β-lactams, upward of 256-fold, for methicillin-resistant Staphylococuss aureus (MRSA). The mechanism of action has been preliminarily probed and discussed. PMID:26191368

  3. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: glycolipids as targets for tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, L G; Noble, P; Spendlove, I

    2012-01-01

    Research into aberrant glycosylation and over-expression of glycolipids on the surface of the majority of cancers, coupled with a knowledge of glycolipids as functional molecules involved in a number of cellular physiological pathways, has provided a novel area of targets for cancer immunotherapy. This has resulted in the development of a number of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies that are showing promising results in recent clinical trials. PMID:22235996

  4. EVALUATION OF SUB-MICELLAR SYNTHETIC SURFACTANTS VERSUS BIOSURFACTANTS FOR ENHANCED LNAPL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosurfactants could potentially replace or be used in conjunction with synthetic surfactants to provide for more cost-effective subsurface remediation. To design effective biosurfactant/surfactant formulations, information about the surface-active agent and the targeted NAPL ...

  5. Comparison of biosurfactant detection methods reveals hydrophobic surfactants and contact-regulated production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosurfactants are diverse molecules with numerous biological functions and industrial applications. A variety of environments were examined for biosurfactant-producing bacteria using a versatile new screening method. The utility of an atomized oil assay was assessed for a large number of bacteria...

  6. Glycosylation of Glycolipids in Cancer: Basis for Development of Novel Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Daniotti, Jose L.; Vilcaes, Aldo A.; Torres Demichelis, Vanina; Ruggiero, Fernando M.; Rodriguez-Walker, Macarena

    2013-01-01

    Altered networks of gene regulation underlie many pathologies, including cancer. There are several proteins in cancer cells that are turned either on or off, which dramatically alters the metabolism and the overall activity of the cell, with the complex machinery of enzymes involved in the metabolism of glycolipids not being an exception. The aberrant glycosylation of glycolipids on the surface of the majority of cancer cells, associated with increasing evidence about the functional role of these molecules in a number of cellular physiological pathways, has received considerable attention as a convenient immunotherapeutic target for cancer treatment. This has resulted in the development of a substantial number of passive and active immunotherapies, which have shown promising results in clinical trials. More recently, antibodies to glycolipids have also emerged as an attractive tool for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents, thereby providing a rationale for future therapeutic interventions in cancer. This review first summarizes the cellular and molecular bases involved in the metabolic pathway and expression of glycolipids, both in normal and tumor cells, paying particular attention to sialosylated glycolipids (gangliosides). The current strategies in the battle against cancer in which glycolipids are key players are then described. PMID:24392350

  7. Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus salmalaya for Lubricating Oil Solubilization and Biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the capability of a biosurfactant produced by a novel strain of Bacillus salmalaya to enhance the biodegradation rates and bioavailability of organic contaminants. The biosurfactant produced by cultured strain 139SI showed high physicochemical properties and surface activity in the selected medium. The biosurfactant exhibited a high emulsification index and a positive result in the drop collapse test, with the results demonstrating the wetting activity of the biosurfactant and its potential to produce surface-active molecules. Strain 139SI can significantly reduce the surface tension (ST) from 70.5 to 27 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.4%. Moreover, lubricating oil at 2% (v/v) was degraded on Day 20 (71.5). Furthermore, the biosurfactant demonstrated high stability at different ranges of salinity, pH, and temperature. Overall, the results indicated the potential use of B. salmalaya 139SI in environmental remediation processes. PMID:26295402

  8. Kocuria marina BS-15 a biosurfactant producing halophilic bacteria isolated from solar salt works in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarafin, Yesurethinam; Donio, Mariathasan Birdilla Selva; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactant screening was made among the eight halophilic bacterial genera isolated from Kovalam solar salt works in Kanyakumari of India. After initial screening, Kocuria sp. (Km), Kurthia sp. (Ku) and Halococcus sp. (Hc) were found to have positive biosurfactant activity. Biosurfactant derived from Kocuria sp. emulsified more than 50% of the crude oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, olive oil and kerosene when compared to the other strains. Further, Kocuria marina BS-15 derived biosurfactant was purified and characterized by TLC, FTIR and GC–MS analysis. The TLC analysis revealed that, the purified biosurfactants belong to the lipopeptide group. The IR spectrum results revealed that functional groups are R2C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 NN, alkenes and N–H. The GC–MS analysis confirmed the compound as Nonanoic acid and Cyclopropane with the retention time of 12.78 and 24.65, respectively. PMID:25473358

  9. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: evolutionary implications, applications and future prospects from untapped marine resource.

    PubMed

    Kiran, George Seghal; Ninawe, Arun Shivanth; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Pandian, Vijayalakshmi; Selvin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipid-biosurfactants are known to be produced by the genus Pseudomonas, however recent literature reported that rhamnolipids (RLs) are distributed among diverse microbial genera. To integrate the evolutionary implications of rhamnosyl transferase among various groups of microorganisms, a comprehensive comparative motif analysis was performed amongst bacterial producers. Findings on new RL-producing microorganism is helpful from a biotechnological perspective and to replace infective P. aeruginosa strains which ultimately ensure industrially safe production of RLs. Halotolerant biosurfactants are required for efficient bioremediation of marine oil spills. An insight on the exploitation of marine microbes as the potential source of RL biosurfactants is highlighted in the present review. An economic production process, solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial and industrial waste would increase the scope of biosurfactants commercialization. Potential and prospective applications of RL-biosurfactants including hydrocarbon bioremediation, heavy metal removal, antibiofilm activity/biofilm disruption and greener synthesis of nanoparticles are highlighted in this review. PMID:25641324

  10. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  11. Ketide Synthase (KS) Domain Prediction and Analysis of Iterative Type II PKS Gene in Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacteria Producing Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Selvin, Joseph; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Lipton, Anuj N.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kiran, George S.

    2016-01-01

    The important biological macromolecules, such as lipopeptide and glycolipid biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria were analyzed and their potential linkage between type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes was explored. A unique feature of type II PKS genes is their high amino acid (AA) sequence homology and conserved gene organization. These enzymes mediate the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products with enormous structural complexity and chemical nature by combinatorial use of various domains. Therefore, deciphering the order of AA sequence encoded by PKS domains tailored the chemical structure of polyketide analogs still remains a great challenge. The present work deals with an in vitro and in silico analysis of PKS type II genes from five actinobacterial species to correlate KS domain architecture and structural features. Our present analysis reveals the unique protein domain organization of iterative type II PKS and KS domain of marine actinobacteria. The findings of this study would have implications in metabolic pathway reconstruction and design of semi-synthetic genomes to achieve rational design of novel natural products. PMID:26903957

  12. Enhanced Selectivity for Sulfatide by Engineered Human Glycolipid Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Samygina, Valeria R.; Popov, Alexander N.; Cabo-Bilbao, Aintzane; Ochoa-Lizarralde, Borja; Goni-de-Cerio, Felipe; Zhai, Xiuhong; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Malinina, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) fold represents a novel structural motif for lipid binding/transfer and reversible membrane translocation. GLTPs transfer glycosphingolipids (GSLs) which are key regulators of cell growth, division, surface adhesion, and neurodevelopment. Herein, we report structure-guided engineering of the lipid binding features of GLTP. New crystal structures of wild-type GLTP and two mutants (D48V and A47D||D48V), each containing bound N-nervonoyl-sulfatide, reveal the molecular basis for selective anchoring of sulfatide (3-O-sulfo-galactosylceramide) by D48V-GLTP. Directed point mutations of ‘portal entrance’ residues, A47 and D48, reversibly regulate sphingosine access to the hydrophobic pocket via a mechanism that could involve homo-dimerization. ‘Door-opening’ conformational changes by phenylalanines within the hydrophobic pocket are revealed during lipid encapsulation by new crystal structures of bona fide apo-GLTP and GLTP complexed with N-oleoyl-glucosylceramide. The development of ‘engineered GLTPs’ with enhanced specificity for select GSLs provides a potential new therapeutic approach for targeting GSL-mediated pathologies. PMID:22078563

  13. Characterization of glycolipids synthesized in an identified neuron of Aplysia californica

    SciTech Connect

    Sherbany, A.A.; Ambron, R.T.; Schwartz, J.H.

    1984-07-01

    Because radioactive precursors can be injected directly into the cell body or axon of R2, a giant, identified neuron of the Aplysia abdominal ganglion, it was possible to show that glycolipid is synthesized in the cell body, inserted into membranes along with glycoprotein, and then exported into the axon within organelles that are moved by fast axonal transport. After intrasomatic injection of N-(/sup 3/H)-acetyl-D-galactosamine, five major /sup 3/H-glycolipids were identified using thin layer polysilicic acid glass fiber chromatography. At least two of the lipids are negatively charged. Analysis of /sup 32/P-labeled lipid from the abdominal ganglion revealed the presence of 2-aminoethylphosphonate, indicating that these polar substances are sphingophosphonoglycolipids. The major /sup 3/H-glycolipids synthesized in R2 are similar to a family of phospholipids isolated from the skin of A. kurodai. Since sialic acid is absent in Aplysia as in other invertebrates, these polar glycolipids may function like gangliosides in vertebrates. The polar /sup 3/H-glycolipids are synthesized and incorporated into intracytoplasmic membranes solely in the cell body. Direct injection of the labeled sugar into the axon revealed no local synthesis or exchange of glycolipid. Moreover, there was no indication for transfer from glial cells into axoplasm. Although the incorporation of N-(/sup 3/H)-acetyl-D-galactosamine into glycolipid is not affected by anisomycin, an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis, the export into the axon of membranes containing the newly synthesized lipid is completely blocked by the drug.

  14. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis using corn steep liquor as culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Fernandes, Elisabete C.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Teixeira, José A.; Rodrigues, Lígia R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis #573 was evaluated using corn steep liquor (CSL) as culture medium. The best results were obtained in a culture medium consisting of 10% (v/v) of CSL, with a biosurfactant production of about 1.3 g/l. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing biosurfactant production by B. subtilis using CSL as culture medium. Subsequently, the effect of different metals (iron, manganese, and magnesium) on biosurfactant production was evaluated using the medium CSL 10%. It was found that for all the metals tested, the biosurfactant production was increased (up to 4.1, 4.4, and 3.5 g/l for iron, manganese, and magnesium, respectively). When the culture medium was supplemented with the optimum concentration of the three metals simultaneously, the biosurfactant production was increased up to 4.8 g/l. Furthermore, the biosurfactant exhibited a good performance in oil recovery assays when compared with chemical surfactants, which suggests its possible application in microbial enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25705209

  15. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    PubMed

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants. PMID:25985416

  16. Preliminary characterization of biosurfactant produced by a PAH-degrading Paenibacillus sp. under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mesbaiah, Fatma Zohra; Eddouaouda, Kamel; Badis, Abdelmalek; Chebbi, Alif; Hentati, Dorra; Sayadi, Sami; Chamkha, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    The capacities of a biosurfactant producing and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) utilizing bacterium, namely, strain 1C, isolated from an Algerian contaminated soil, were investigated. Strain 1C belonged to the Paenibacillus genus and was closely related to the specie Paenibacillus popilliae, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.4 %. It was able to produce biosurfactant using olive oil as substrate. The biosurfactant production was shown by surface tension (32.6 mN/m) after 24 h of incubation at 45 °C and 150 rpm. The biosurfactant(s) retained its properties during exposure to elevated temperatures (70 °C), relatively high salinity (20 % NaCl), and a wide range of pH values (2-10). The infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that its chemical structure belonged to lipopeptide class. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of this biosurfactant was about 0.5 g/l with 29.4 mN/m. In addition, the surface active compound(s) produced by strain 1C enhanced PAH solubility and showed a significant antimicrobial activity against pathogens. In addition to its biosurfactant production, strain 1C was shown to be able to utilize PAHs as the sole carbon and energy sources. Strain 1C as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and its interesting surface active agent may be used for cleaning the environments polluted with polyaromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:27053051

  17. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-09-15

    Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. PMID:25037876

  18. Biocompatible lecithin-based microemulsions with rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants: formulation and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu T L; Edelen, Ashley; Neighbors, Bridgett; Sabatini, David A

    2010-08-15

    The objectives of this research are first to evaluate the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of sophorolipid biosurfactants relative to conventional synthetic surfactants and then to formulate and evaluate microemulsions of lecithin/rhamnolipid/sophorolipid biosurfactants with a range of oils (varying EACN values and oil types). We found that sophorolipid biosurfactants are more hydrophobic than sodium bis(2-ethyl) dihexyl sulfosuccinate (SBDHS), which is more hydrophobic than sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (SDHS) and rhamnolipid biosurfactant. Sophorolipid thus played an important role as the hydrophobic component in lecithin/rhamnolipid/sophorolipid biosurfactant formulation. This biosurfactant formulation was able to produce Winsor Type I, III and II microemulsions and the corresponding ultralow IFT for limonene, decane, isopropyl myristate and hexadecane. The phase behavior of this formulation with isopropyl myristate did not change significantly with changing temperature (10, 25, 40 degrees C) and electrolyte concentration (0.9% and 4.0% w/v), making it desirable for cosmetic and drug delivery applications. The hexadecane detergency performance of our biocompatible formulation was higher than that of a commercial liquid detergent at the same surfactant active concentrations. This paper thus shows the ability and robustness of mixed biosurfactant systems in formulating microemulsions for a range of oils and their potential applications. PMID:20471022

  19. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant against Fusarium sacchari--the causal organism of pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debahuti; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Deka, Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane caused by the fungus Fusarium sacchari results considerable damage to the crop leading to top rot, the most serious and advanced stage of pokkah boeng, where the growing point is killed and the entire top of the plant dies. In the present study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant as an antifungal agent against F. sacchari to control pokkah boeng disease was investigated. On the basis of surface tension reduction, 12 bacterial isolates were selected as potent biosurfactant producers and eight of them showed antagonistic effect against F. sacchari. Among the eight, the isolate DS9 was found as the effective inhibitor of the fungus in vitro which was further evaluated using its biosurfactant present in whole culture, cell-free culture supernatant and crude biosurfactant at various concentrations. Reductions of fungal growths were found more with crude biosurfactant. By sequencing 16S rRNA, DS9 was identified as P. aeruginosa and the produced biosurfactant was characterized as rhamnolipid by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant inhibits phytopathogenic fungi F. sacchari and therefore seems to be a good biocontrol agent to control pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane. PMID:23687052

  20. Effect of biosurfactants on the aqueous solubility of PCE and TCE.

    PubMed

    Albino, John D; Nambi, Indumathi M

    2009-12-01

    The effect of biosurfactants on the solubility of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied in batch experiments pertaining to their use for solubilization and mobilization of such contaminants in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation. Biosurfactants, rhamnolipid and surfactin used in solubility studies were synthesized in our laboratory by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2297) and Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 2423), respectively. The efficiency of the biosurfactants in solubilizing the chlorinated solvents was compared to that of synthetic surfactants. The Weight Solubilization Ratio (WSR) values for solubilization of PCE and TCE by biosurfactants were very high compared to the values obtained for synthetic surfactants. Surfactin proved to be a better surfactant over rhamnolipid. The WSR of surfactin on solubilization of PCE and TCE were 3.83 and 12.5, respectively, whereas the values obtained for rhamnolipid were 2.06 and 8.36. The solubility of the chlorinated solvents by biosurfactants was considerably affected by the changes in pH. The aqueous solubility of PCE and TCE increased tremendously with decrease in pH. The solubility of biosurfactants was observed to decrease with the pH, favoring partitioning of surfactants into the chlorinated solvents in significant amounts at lower pH. The excessive accumulation of biosurfactants at the interface facilitated interfacial tension reductions resulting in higher solubility of the chlorinated solvents at pH less than 7. PMID:20183515

  1. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis using corn steep liquor as culture medium.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Fernandes, Elisabete C; Rodrigues, Ana I; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    In this work, biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis #573 was evaluated using corn steep liquor (CSL) as culture medium. The best results were obtained in a culture medium consisting of 10% (v/v) of CSL, with a biosurfactant production of about 1.3 g/l. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing biosurfactant production by B. subtilis using CSL as culture medium. Subsequently, the effect of different metals (iron, manganese, and magnesium) on biosurfactant production was evaluated using the medium CSL 10%. It was found that for all the metals tested, the biosurfactant production was increased (up to 4.1, 4.4, and 3.5 g/l for iron, manganese, and magnesium, respectively). When the culture medium was supplemented with the optimum concentration of the three metals simultaneously, the biosurfactant production was increased up to 4.8 g/l. Furthermore, the biosurfactant exhibited a good performance in oil recovery assays when compared with chemical surfactants, which suggests its possible application in microbial enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25705209

  2. Utilization of banana peel as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65.

    PubMed

    Chooklin, Chanika Saenge; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated for biosurfactant production by using banana peel as a sole carbon source. From the 71 strains screened, Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65 produced the highest biosurfactant activity. The highest biosurfactant production (5.30 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 35 % (w/v) banana peel and 1 g/l commercial monosodium glutamate at 30 °C and 200 rpm after 54 h of cultivation. The biosurfactant obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate showed high surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m), a small critical micelle concentration value (10 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction and emulsification activity, and a high level of salt tolerance. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a lipopeptide by using a biochemical test FT-IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and had the ability to emulsify oil, enhance PAHs solubility, and oil bioremediation. PMID:24711164

  3. Rapid screening of surfactant and biosurfactant surface cleaning performance.

    PubMed

    Onaizi, Sagheer A; He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2009-08-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and rubisco protein stain were used as tools to screen the effectiveness of detergent formulations in cleaning a protein stain from solid surfaces. Surfactant and biosurfactant-based formulations, with and without added protease, were screened for cleaning performance. Enzyme-free detergent formulations at 1500 ppm total surfactant were insufficient to cause complete surface cleaning, despite the high concentration of surfactant. The cleaning performance of a "home-made" formulation containing 2 ppm subtilisin A (SA) and 2 ppm sodium dodecyl benzyl sulphonate (SDOBS) was as efficient as the best amongst the three enzyme-free 1500 ppm formulations. The cleaning performance of 2 ppm SA in the absence of SDOBS was less effective than the combined formulation, even though 2 ppm SDOBS alone did not cause any protein removal. The observed synergistic performance was attributed to the cooperative mechanisms (chemical and physical attack) by which these two agents act on a rubisco stain. Replacing SDOBS in the enzyme-surfactant formulation with the same amount of surfactin biosurfactant (2 ppm) gave the best rubisco removal of all formulations examined in this study, irrespective of the surface chemistry underlying the protein film. It was found that 75% and 80% of immobilised rubisco stain could be removed from hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, respectively, by the biosurfactant-SA formulation (compared with 60% and 65%, respectively, using the SDOBS-SA formulation). Our results suggest that it may be possible to generate fully renewable biochemical-based cleaning formulations that have superior cleaning performance to existing technologies. In developing optimised formulations, there is a pressing need for chip-based tools similar to that developed in this research. PMID:19394206

  4. In Situ Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus Strains Injected into a Limestone Petroleum Reservoir▿

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, N.; Simpson, D. R.; Duncan, K. E.; McInerney, M. J.; Folmsbee, M.; Fincher, T.; Knapp, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery may be an economic approach for recovery of significant amounts of oil entrapped in reservoirs, but evidence that biosurfactants can be produced in situ at concentrations needed to mobilize oil is lacking. We tested whether two Bacillus strains that produce lipopeptide biosurfactants can metabolize and produce their biosurfactants in an oil reservoir. Five wells that produce from the same Viola limestone formation were used. Two wells received an inoculum (a mixture of Bacillus strain RS-1 and Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii NRRL B-23049) and nutrients (glucose, sodium nitrate, and trace metals), two wells received just nutrients, and one well received only formation water. Results showed in situ metabolism and biosurfactant production. The average concentration of lipopeptide biosurfactant in the produced fluids of the inoculated wells was about 90 mg/liter. This concentration is approximately nine times the minimum concentration required to mobilize entrapped oil from sandstone cores. Carbon dioxide, acetate, lactate, ethanol, and 2,3-butanediol were detected in the produced fluids of the inoculated wells. Only CO2 and ethanol were detected in the produced fluids of the nutrient-only-treated wells. Microbiological and molecular data showed that the microorganisms injected into the formation were retrieved in the produced fluids of the inoculated wells. We provide essential data for modeling microbial oil recovery processes in situ, including growth rates (0.06 ± 0.01 h−1), carbon balances (107% ± 34%), biosurfactant production rates (0.02 ± 0.001 h−1), and biosurfactant yields (0.015 ± 0.001 mol biosurfactant/mol glucose). The data demonstrate the technical feasibility of microbial processes for oil recovery. PMID:17172458

  5. Optimization of cultural conditions for biosurfactant production by Pleurotus djamor in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Velioglu, Zulfiye; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-11-01

    Being eco-friendly, less toxic, more biodegradable and biocompatible, biological surfactants have higher activity and stability compared to synthetic ones. In spite of the fact that there are abundant benefits of biosurfactants over the synthetic congeners, the problem related with the economical and large scale production proceeds. The utilization of several industrial wastes in the production media as substrates reduces the production cost. This current study aims optimization of biosurfactant production conditions by Pleurotus djamor, grown on sunflower seed shell, grape wastes or potato peels as renewable cheap substrates in solid state fermentation. After determination of the best substrate for biosurfactant production, we indicate optimum size and amount of solid substrate, volume of medium, temperature, pH and Fe(2+) concentrations on biosurfactant production. In optimum conditions, by reducing water surface tension to 28.82 ± 0.3 mN/m and having oil displacement diameter of 3.9 ± 0.3 cm, 10.205 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced. Moreover, chemical composition of biosurfactant produced in optimum condition was determined by FTIR. Lastly, laboratory's large-scale production was carried out in optimum conditions in a tray bioreactor designed by us and 8.9 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced with a significant surface activity (37.74 ± 0.3 mN/m). With its economical suggestions and applicability of laboratory's large-scale production, this work indicates the possibility of using low cost agro-industrial wastes as renewable substrates for biosurfactant production. Therefore, using economically produced biosurfactant will reduce cost in several applications such as bioremediation, oil recovery and biodegradation of toxic chemicals. PMID:25865657

  6. BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM-WASTE BY BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; Kamlesh Jangid, K; Krystyna Lukasik, K; Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Topher Berry, T

    2007-05-16

    The degradation of petroleum waste by mixed bacterial cultures which produce biosurfactants: Ralstonia pickettii SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (1'- 1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1) and Bacillus sp. (T'-1) was investigated. The total petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded substantially (91 %) by the mixed bacterial culture in 30 days (reaching up to 29 % in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3 times after 30 days as compared to raw petroleum waste. Thus, the mixed bacterial strains effectively clean-up the petroleum waste and they can be used in other bioremediation processes.

  7. Synthetic glycolipid activators of natural killer T cells as immunotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Carreño, Leandro J; Saavedra-Ávila, Noemí A; Porcelli, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Certain types of glycolipids have been found to have remarkable immunomodulatory properties as a result of their ability to activate specific T lymphocyte populations with an extremely wide range of immune effector properties. The most extensively studied glycolipid reactive T cells are known as invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. The antigen receptors of these cells specifically recognize certain glycolipids, most notably glycosphingolipids with α-anomeric monosaccharides, presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule CD1d. Once activated, iNKT cells can secrete a very diverse array of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, glycolipid-mediated activation of iNKT cells has been explored for immunotherapy in a variety of disease states, including cancer and a range of infections. In this review, we discuss the design of synthetic glycolipid activators for iNKT cells, their impact on adaptive immune responses and their use to modulate iNKT cell responses to improve immunity against infections and cancer. Current challenges in translating results from preclinical animal studies to humans are also discussed. PMID:27195112

  8. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    The project had three objectives: (1) to develop microbial strains with improved biosurfactant properties that use cost-effective nutrients, (2) to obtain biosurfactant strains with improved transport properties through sandstones, and (3) to determine the empirical relationship between surfactant concentration and interfacial tension and whether in situ reactions kinetics and biosurfactant concentration meets appropriate engineering design criteria. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns and Berea sandstone cores when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea sandstone cores. Even low biosurfactant concentrations (16 mg/l) mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon (29%). The bio-surfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. A mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration was modified to include the stepwise changes in IFT as biosurfactant concentrations changes. This model adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration. Theses data show that lipopeptide biosurfactant systems may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic

  9. In-Situ Anaerobic Biosurfactant Production Process For Remediation Of DNAPL Contamination In Subsurface Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, J. D.; Nambi, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and remediation of aquifers contaminated with hydrophobic contaminants require insitu production of biosurfactants for mobilization of entrapped hydrophobic liquids. Most of the biosurfactant producing microorganisms produce them under aerobic condition and hence surfactant production is limited in subsurface condition due to lack of oxygen. Currently bioremediation involves expensive air sparging or excavation followed by exsitu biodegradation. Use of microorganisms which can produce biosurfactants under anaerobic conditions can cost effectively expedite the process of insitu bioremediation or mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of anaerobic biosurfactant production in three mixed anaerobic cultures prepared from groundwater and soil contaminated with chlorinated compounds and municipal sewage sludge was investigated. The cultures were previously enriched under complete anaerobic conditions in the presence of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) for more than a year before they were studied for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant production under anaerobic conditions was simulated using two methods: i) induction of starvation in the microbial cultures and ii) addition of complex fermentable substrates. Positive result for biosurfactant production was not observed when the cultures were induced with starvation by adding PCE as blobs which served as the only terminal electron acceptor. However, slight reduction in interfacial tension was noticed which was caused by the adherence of microbes to water-PCE interface. Biosurfactant production was observed in all the three cultures when they were fed with complex fermentable substrates and surface tension of the liquid medium was lowered below 35 mN/m. Among the fermentable substrates tested, vegetable oil yielded highest amount of biosurfactant in all the cultures. Complete biodegradation of PCE to ethylene at a faster rate was also observed when vegetable oil was amended to the

  10. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  11. Lipid and glycolipid antigens of CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M.; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of their relatively limited antigen receptor repertoire, CD1d-restricted NKT cells recognize a surprisingly diverse range of lipid and glycolipid antigens. Recent studies of natural and synthetic CD1d presented antigens provide an increasingly detailed picture of how the specific structural features of these lipids and glycolipids influence their ability to be presented to NKT cells and stimulate their diverse immunologic functions. Particularly for synthetic analogues of α-galactosylceramides which have been the focus of intense recent investigation, it is becoming clear that the design of glycolipid antigens with the ability to precisely control the specific immunologic activities of NKT cells is likely to be feasible. The emerging details of the mechanisms underlying the structure-activity relationship of NKT cell antigens will assist greatly in the design and production of immunomodulatory agents for the precise manipulation of NKT cells and the many other components of the immune system that they influence. PMID:19945296

  12. Phenolic glycolipids of Mycobacterium bovis: new structures and synthesis of a corresponding seroreactive neoglycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, D; Bozic, C M; Knisley, C; Cho, S N; Brennan, P J

    1989-01-01

    The glycolipid that characterizes the majority of isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and that has come to be known as M. bovis-identifying lipid is the phenolic glycolipid mycoside B described in the literature by others. However, when mycoside B obtained from M. bovis BCG, field isolates, and infected tissues was examined in detail, it was shown to be different from that described in the literature in some important respects. In particular, the glycosyl substituent is 2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose rather than 2-O-methyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranose. With this information, a seroreactive neoglycoprotein (neoantigen) containing the 2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl substituent suitable for the serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis was synthesized. M. bovis also contains other minor seroreactive phenolic glycolipids, one of which is a deacylated form of mycoside B and another of which contains an alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl unit rather than 2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose. Images PMID:2643563

  13. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    PubMed

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs. PMID:26293409

  14. Oxygen-controlled biosurfactant production in a bench scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo; Santa Anna, Lidia Maria Melo; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos de; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2008-03-01

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process. PMID:18401751

  15. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Gizele Cardoso; Fonseca Amaral, Priscilla Filomena; Nele, Marcio; Zarur Coelho, Maria Alice

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone) on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST) and emulsification index (EI). The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST) were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium sulfate and 0.5 g 1−1 of yeast extract. Then, the effects of carbon sources (glycerol, hexadecane, olive oil, and glucose) were evaluated. The most favorable medium for biosurfactant production was composed of both glucose (4% w/v) and glycerol (2% w/v), which provided an EI of 81.3% and a ΔST of 19.5 mN m−1. The experimental design optimization enhanced ΔEI by 110.7% and ΔST by 108.1% in relation to the standard process. PMID:20368788

  16. Induction of inflammatory mediator release (serotonin and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) from human platelets by Pseudomonas aeruginosa glycolipid.

    PubMed Central

    König, B; Bergmann, U; König, W

    1992-01-01

    Purified glycolipid from Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced the generation of significant amounts of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and serotonin release from human platelets. The release of serotonin was first observed 2 min after addition of the glycolipid and increased with time. Significant serotonin release was obtained at glycolipid concentrations above 5 micrograms/ml and increased dose-dependently up to 100% at glycolipid concentrations above 40 micrograms/ml. Glycolipid induced 12-HETE in a time- and dose-dependent manner. 12-HETE formation was first measured after 10 min of incubation and increased with time. Optimal 12-HETE formation was obtained at a glycolipid concentration of 50 micrograms/ml; higher concentrations of glycolipid led to a decrease in 12-HETE formation, indicating a cytotoxic effect. Stimulation of platelets with glycolipid (12-HETE formation and serotonin release) was accompanied by calcium influx, translocation of protein kinase C, activation of guanylylimidodiphosphate binding, and increased GTPase activity in platelet membranes within the same concentration range. PMID:1639485

  17. Phase sensitive molecular dynamics of self-assembly glycolipid thin films: A dielectric spectroscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayutham, T. S.; Ng, B. K.; Gan, W. C.; Majid, W. H. Abd.; Hashim, R.; Zahid, N. I.; Chaiprapa, Jitrin

    2014-08-01

    Glycolipid, found commonly in membranes, is also a liquid crystal material which can self-assemble without the presence of a solvent. Here, the dielectric and conductivity properties of three synthetic glycolipid thin films in different thermotropic liquid crystal phases were investigated over a frequency and temperature range of (10-2-106 Hz) and (303-463 K), respectively. The observed relaxation processes distinguish between the different phases (smectic A, columnar/hexagonal, and bicontinuous cubic Q) and the glycolipid molecular structures. Large dielectric responses were observed in the columnar and bicontinuous cubic phases of the longer branched alkyl chain glycolipids. Glycolipids with the shortest branched alkyl chain experience the most restricted self-assembly dynamic process over the broad temperature range studied compared to the longer ones. A high frequency dielectric absorption (Process I) was observed in all samples. This is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network from the sugar group. An additional low-frequency mechanism (Process II) with a large dielectric strength was observed due to the internal dynamics of the self-assembly organization. Phase sensitive domain heterogeneity in the bicontinuous cubic phase was related to the diffusion of charge carriers. The microscopic features of charge hopping were modelled using the random walk scheme, and two charge carrier hopping lengths were estimated for two glycolipid systems. For Process I, the hopping length is comparable to the hydrogen bond and is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network. Additionally, that for Process II is comparable to the bilayer spacing, hence confirming that this low-frequency mechanism is associated with the internal dynamics within the phase.

  18. Self-Organisation, Thermotropic and Lyotropic Properties of Glycolipids Related to their Biological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Garidel, Patrick; Kaconis, Yani; Heinbockel, Lena; Wulf, Matthias; Gerber, Sven; Munk, Ariane; Vill, Volkmar; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Glycolipids are amphiphilic molecules which bear an oligo- or polysaccharide as hydrophilic head group and hydrocarbon chains in varying numbers and lengths as hydrophobic part. They play an important role in life science as well as in material science. Their biological and physiological functions are quite diverse, ranging from mediators of cell-cell recognition processes, constituents of membrane domains or as membrane-forming units. Glycolipids form an exceptional class of liquid-crystal mesophases due to the fact that their self-organisation obeys more complex rules as compared to classical monophilic liquid-crystals. Like other amphiphiles, the supra-molecular structures formed by glycolipids are driven by their chemical structure; however, the details of this process are still hardly understood. Based on the synthesis of specific glycolipids with a clearly defined chemical structure, e.g., type and length of the sugar head group, acyl chain linkage, substitution pattern, hydrocarbon chain lengths and saturation, combined with a profound physico-chemical characterisation of the formed mesophases, the principles of the organisation in different aggregate structures of the glycolipids can be obtained. The importance of the observed and formed phases and their properties are discussed with respect to their biological and physiological relevance. The presented data describe briefly the strategies used for the synthesis of the used glycolipids. The main focus, however, lies on the thermotropic as well as lyotropic characterisation of the self-organised structures and formed phases based on physico-chemical and biophysical methods linked to their potential biological implications and relevance. PMID:26464591

  19. Structural Determination and Tryptophan Fluorescence of Heterokaryon Incompatibility C2 Protein (HET-C2), a Fungal Glycolipid Transfer Protein (GLTP), Provide Novel Insights into Glycolipid Specificity and Membrane Interaction by the GLTP Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Kenoth, Roopa; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Kamlekar, Ravi Kanth; Pike, Helen M.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Benson, Linda M.; Bergen, III, H. Robert; Prendergast, Franklyn G.; Malinina, Lucy; Venyaminov, Sergei Y.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Brown, Rhoderick E.

    2010-06-21

    HET-C2 is a fungal protein that transfers glycosphingolipids between membranes and has limited sequence homology with human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP). The human GLTP fold is unique among lipid binding/transfer proteins, defining the GLTP superfamily. Herein, GLTP fold formation by HET-C2, its glycolipid transfer specificity, and the functional role(s) of its two Trp residues have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (1.9 {angstrom}) revealed a GLTP fold with all key sugar headgroup recognition residues (Asp{sup 66}, Asn{sup 70}, Lys{sup 73}, Trp{sup 109}, and His{sup 147}) conserved and properly oriented for glycolipid binding. Far-UV CD showed secondary structure dominated by {alpha}-helices and a cooperative thermal unfolding transition of 49 C, features consistent with a GLTP fold. Environmentally induced optical activity of Trp/Tyr/Phe (2:4:12) detected by near-UV CD was unaffected by membranes containing glycolipid but was slightly altered by membranes lacking glycolipid. Trp fluorescence was maximal at {approx}355 nm and accessible to aqueous quenchers, indicating free exposure to the aqueous milieu and consistent with surface localization of the two Trps. Interaction with membranes lacking glycolipid triggered significant decreases in Trp emission intensity but lesser than decreases induced by membranes containing glycolipid. Binding of glycolipid (confirmed by electrospray injection mass spectrometry) resulted in a blue-shifted emission wavelength maximum ({approx}6 nm) permitting determination of binding affinities. The unique positioning of Trp{sup 208} at the HET-C2 C terminus revealed membrane-induced conformational changes that precede glycolipid uptake, whereas key differences in residues of the sugar headgroup recognition center accounted for altered glycolipid specificity and suggested evolutionary adaptation for the simpler glycosphingolipid compositions of filamentous fungi.

  20. Biodegradation of diesel oil by a novel microbial consortium: comparison between co-inoculation with biosurfactant-producing strain and exogenously added biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Mnif, Sami; Sahnoun, Rihab; Maktouf, Sameh; Ayedi, Younes; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-10-01

    Bioremediation, involving the use of microorganisms to detoxify or remove pollutants, is the most interesting strategy for hydrocarbon remediation. In this aim, four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Tunisia. They were identified by the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, as Lysinibacillus bronitolerans RI18 (KF964487), Bacillus thuringiensis RI16 (KM111604), Bacillus weihenstephanensis RI12 (KM094930), and Acinetobacter radioresistens RI7 (KJ829530). Moreover, a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis SPB1, confirmed to increase diesel solubility, was tested to increase diesel biodegradation along with co-inoculation with two biosurfactant-producing strains. Culture studies revealed the enhancement of diesel biodegradation by the selected consortium with the addition of SPB1 lipopeptide and in the cases of co-inoculation by biosurfactant-producing strain. In fact, an improvement of about 38.42 and 49.65 % of diesel degradation was registered in the presence of 0.1 % lipopeptide biosurfactant and when culturing B. subtilis SPB1 strain with the isolated consortium, respectively. Furthermore, the best improvement, evaluated to about 55.4 %, was recorded when using the consortium cultured with B. subtilis SPB1 and A. radioresistens RI7 strains. Gas chromatography analyses were correlated with the gravimetric evaluation of the residual hydrocarbons. Results suggested the potential applicability of the selected consortium along with the ex situ- and in situ-added biosurfactant for the effective bioremediation of diesel-contaminated water and soil. PMID:25994261

  1. Isolation and selection of new biosurfactant producing bacteria from degraded palm kernel cake under liquid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Parveen; Mir, Shajrat; Alam, Md Zahangir; Wan Nawawi, Wan M Fazli

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by different microorganisms. The aim of this study was to introduce palm kernel cake (PKC) as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production using a potent bacterial strain under liquid state fermentation. This study was primarily based on the isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize palm kernel cake as a new major substrate. Potential bacterial strains were isolated from degraded PKC and screened for biosurfactant production with the help of the drop collapse assay and by analyzing the surface tension activity. From the screened isolates, a new strain, SM03, showed the best and most consistent results, and was therefore selected as the most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain. The new strain was identified as Providencia alcalifaciens SM03 using the Gen III MicroPlate Biolog Microbial Identification System. The yield of the produced biosurfactant was 8.3 g/L. PMID:25007747

  2. Application of lipopeptide biosurfactant isolated from a halophile: Bacillus tequilensis CH for inhibition of biofilm.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Mall, Gangotri; Panda, Himadri Tanaya; Sukla, Lala Behari; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2013-11-01

    Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules having hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties produced by various microorganisms. These molecules trigger the reduction of surface tension or interfacial tension in liquids. A biosurfactant-producing halophile was isolated from Lake Chilika, a brackish water lake of Odisha, India (19°41'39″N, 85°18'24″E). The halophile was identified as Bacillus tequilensis CH by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and assigned accession no. KC851857 by GenBank. The biosurfactant produced by B. tequilensis CH was partially characterized as a lipopeptide using thin-layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The minimum effective concentration of a biosurfactant for inhibition of pathogenic biofilm (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans) on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was found to be 50 μg ml(-1). This finding has potential for a variety of applications. PMID:23955294

  3. Wastewater treatment enhancement by applying a lipopeptide biosurfactant to a lignocellulosic biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ameneiro, M; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-10-20

    In this work, a natural lipopeptide biosurfactant obtained from corn steep liquor was included in the formulation of a lignocellulosic biocomposite used for the treatment of wastewater. The results obtained indicate that the dye sorption capacity of the hydrogel containing hydrolysed vineyard pruning waste can be significantly promoted via surfactant modification using natural detergents. The elimination of dye compounds and the removal of sulphates were increased around 10% and 62%, respectively, when the biocomposite modified with biosurfactant was used. This outcome can be intrinsically related to the rougher, rounder, more compact and better-emulsified sphere achieved after the addition of the lipopeptide biosurfactant. The bioadsorption process followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model and both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion were involved in the bioadsorption mechanism. Therefore, the utilisation of biosurfactants shows great potential in the formulation of eco-friendly adsorbents for environmental application. PMID:26256175

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; D.P. Nagle, Jr.; Kathleen Duncan; N. Youssef; M.J. Folmsbee; S. Maudgakya

    2003-06-26

    Biosurfactants enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation by increasing apparent aqueous solubility or affecting the association of the cell with poorly soluble hydrocarbon. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. One pore volume of cell-free culture fluid with 900 mg/l of the biosurfactant, 10 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1000 mg/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer mobilized 82% of the residual hydrocarbon. Consistent with the high residual oil recoveries, we found that the bio-surfactant lowered the interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. The lipopeptide biosurfactant system may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Previously, we reported that Proteose peptone was necessary for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production by B. mojavensis JF-2. The data gathered from crude purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose peptone suggested that it consisted of nucleic acids; however, nucleic acid bases, nucleotides or nucleosides did not replace the requirement for Proteose Peptone. Further studies revealed that salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, Echerichia coli DNA and synthetic DNA replaced the requirement for Proteose peptone. In addition to DNA, amino acids and nitrate were required for anaerobic growth and vitamins further improved growth. We now have a defined medium that can be used to manipulate growth and biosurfactant

  5. Optimization of liquid-liquid extraction of biosurfactants from corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Vecino, X; Barbosa-Pereira, L; Devesa-Rey, R; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the optimization of the operational conditions for the chloroform-based extraction of surface-active compounds from corn steep liquor (CSL) was carried out and the nutritional properties of the remnant aqueous phase (CSL-less biosurfactant) was evaluated as microbial fermentation medium. The optimal conditions to obtain biosurfactants from CSL were as follows: chloroform/CSL ratio 2 (v/v), 56 °C at extraction times >30 min. At the optima conditions, 100 % of biosurfactant extract can be obtained from CSL, obtaining 12.0 ± 0.5 g of biosurfactant extract/Kg of CSL. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the biosurfactant extract was 399.4 mg L(-1). This value is similar to the CMC of cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant used in the formulation of nanoparticles. The extraction of biosurfactant can be also carried out at room temperature although in this case, the extraction yield decreased about 15 %. The extraction of surface-active compounds from agroindustrial streams can suppose important advances for the bio-based surfactants industry. Biosurfactants obtained in this work are not only more eco-friendly than chemical detergents but also can be cost competitive with its chemical counterparts. Furthermore, after the extraction of surface-active compounds, CSL-less biosurfactant was found to be suitable as nutritional supplement for lactic acid bacteria, maintaining its nutritional properties in comparison with regular CSL. PMID:25911424

  6. Biosurfactants from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BU03 enhance the solubility and biodegradation of phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenyong; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2009-03-01

    A thermophilic bacterial strain, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BU03, with a biosurfactant-producing capability, was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil with an improved procedure which employed the solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e. naphthalene in agar plate, as a selection criterion. Crude biosurfactant was recovered from the culture of BU03 by extraction with n-hexane, and its properties were investigated. Biosurfactants from A. calcoaceticus BU03 constitute a thermo-stable mixture, composed of different agents with surface activities. At their critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 152.4 mg L(-1), the crude biosurfactants produced from A. calcoaceticus BU03 decreased the air-water surface tension to 38.4 mN m(-1). In thermophilic conditions, the emulsifying activity is 2.8 times that of Tween 80. The effects of the biosurfactants produced by A. calcoaceticus on the solubility and biodegradation of PAHs were investigated in batch systems. Biosurfactants produced by A. calcoaceticus BU03 at 25 times their CMC significantly increased the apparent aqueous solubility of phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) to 54.3, 6.33 and 2.08 mg L(-1), respectively. In aqueous system, the biosurfactants at concentrations of 0.5 CMC and 1 CMC slightly enhanced the biodegradation of PHE by a consortium of PAH-degrading microrganisms. Results indicate that biosurfactants from A. calcoaceticus BU03 have potential to enhance the removal of PAHs from contaminated sites. PMID:19438062

  7. Optimization of low-cost biosurfactant production from agricultural residues through response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ebadipour, N; Lotfabad, T Bagheri; Yaghmaei, S; RoostaAzad, R

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface tension and interfacial tension. Biosurfactants are produced by various microorganisms. They are promising replacements for chemical surfactants because of biodegradability, nontoxicity, and their ability to be produced from renewable sources. However, a major obstacle in producing biosurfactants at the industrial level is the lack of cost-effectiveness. In the present study, by using corn steep liquor (CSL) as a low-cost agricultural waste, not only is the production cost reduced but a higher production yield is also achieved. Moreover, a response surface methodology (RSM) approach through the Box-Behnken method was applied to optimize the biosurfactant production level. The results found that biosurfactant production was improved around 2.3 times at optimum condition when the CSL was at a concentration of 1.88 mL/L and yeast extract was reduced to 25 times less than what was used in a basic soybean oil medium (SOM). The predicted and experimental values of responses were in reasonable agreement with each other (Pred-R(2) = 0.86 and adj-R(2) = 0.94). Optimization led to a drop in raw material price per unit of biosurfactant from $47 to $12/kg. Moreover, the biosurfactant product at a concentration of 84 mg/L could lower the surface tension of twice-distilled water from 72 mN/m to less than 28 mN/m and emulsify an equal volume of kerosene by an emulsification index of (E24) 68% in a two-phase mixture. These capabilities made these biosurfactants applicable in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), hydrocarbon remediation, and all other petroleum industry surfactant applications. PMID:25748124

  8. Optimization and characterization of biosurfactant production from marine Vibrio sp. strain 3B-2

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, designated 3B-2, was isolated from marine sediment and identified as Vibrio sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture medium composition was optimized to increase the capability of 3B-2 for producing biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized in terms of protein concentration, surface tension, and oil-displacement efficiency. The optimal medium for biosurfactant production contained: 0.5% lactose, 1.1% yeast extract, 2% sodium chloride, and 0.1% disodium hydrogen phosphate. Under optimal conditions (28°C), the surface tension of crude biosurfactant could be reduced to 41 from 71.5 mN/m (water), while its protein concentration was increased to up to 6.5 g/L and the oil displacement efficiency was improved dramatically at 6.5 cm. Two glycoprotein fractions with the molecular masses of 22 and 40 kDa were purified from the biosurfactant, which held great potential for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. PMID:26441908

  9. Screening of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Song, Xing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Cao, Tong

    2015-05-01

    From offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada, crude oil, formation water, drilling mud, treated produced water and seawater samples were collected for screening potential biosurfactant producers. In total, 59 biosurfactant producers belong to 4 genera, namely, Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Halomonas, and Pseudomonas were identified and characterized. Phytogenetic trees based on 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S rDNA) were constructed with isolated strains plus their closely related strains and isolated strains with biosurfactant producers in the literature, respectively. The distributions of the isolates were site and medium specific. The richness, diversity, and evenness of biosurfactant producer communities in oil and gas platform samples have been analyzed. Diverse isolates were found with featured properties such as effective reduction of surface tension, producing biosurfactants at high rate and stabilization of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. The producers and their corresponding biosurfactants had promising potential in applications such as offshore oil spill control, enhancing oil recovery and soil washing treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. PMID:25903403

  10. Biosurfactant Production by Cultivation of Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 in Semidefined Glucose/Casein-Based Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; de Oliveira, Kátia Silva; Kobayashi, Márcio Junji; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Converti, Attilio

    Biosurfactants are proteins with detergent, emulsifier, and antimicrobial actions that have potential application in environmental applications such as the treatment of organic pollutants and oil recovery. Bacillus atrophaeus strains are nonpathogenic and are suitable source of biosurfactants, among which is surfactin. The aim of this work is to establish a culture medium composition able to stimulate biosurfactants production by B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372. Batch cultivations were carried out in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm and 35°C for 24 h on glucose- and/or casein-based semidefined culture media also containing sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate, and soy flour. The addition of 14.0 g/L glucose in a culture medium containing 10.0 g/L of casein resulted in 17 times higher biosurfactant production (B max=635.0 mg/L). Besides, the simultaneous presence of digested casein (10.0 g/L), digested soy flour (3.0 g/L), and glucose (18.0 g/L) in the medium was responsible for a diauxic effect during cell growth. Once the diauxie started, the average biosurfactants concentration was 16.8% less than that observed before this phenomenon. The capability of B. atrophaeus strain to adapt its own metabolism to use several nutrients as energy sources and to preserve high levels of biosurfactants in the medium during the stationary phase is a promising feature for its possible application in biological treatments.