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Sample records for glycolipid biosurfactants mannosylerythritol

  1. [Advance in glycolipid biosurfactants--mannosylerythritol lipids].

    PubMed

    Fan, Linlin; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Jin; Dong, Yachen; Xu, Tengyang; He, Guoqing; Chen, Qihe

    2013-09-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), mainly produced by Ustilago and Pseudozyma, are surface active compounds that belong to the glycolipid class of biosurfactants. MELs have potential application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries due to their excellent surface activities and other peculiar bioactivities. In recent years, the research field of MELs has regained much attention abroad. However, MELs are rarely studied in China. In this review, the producing microorganisms and production conditions, diverse structures, biochemical properties, structure-function relationship and biosynthetic pathways of MELs are described. Some research problems and prospects are summarized and discussed as well. PMID:24409686

  2. Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, repair the damaged hair.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced from feedstock by the genus Pseudozyma, and are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics, the hair care properties of MELs were investigated using damaged hair. On electron microscopic observation, the damaged hair was dramatically recovered with applying MEL-A and MEL-B. The tensile strength of the damaged hair increased by treatment with MEL-A (122.0 +/- 13.5 gf/p), MEL-B (119.4 +/- 7.6 gf/p) and ceramide (100.7 +/- 15.9 gf/p) compared with only lauryl glucoside (96.7 +/- 12.7 gf/p), indicating the advantage of MELs on hair care treatment. In addition, the average friction coefficient of the damaged hair was maintained after treatment with MEL-A (0.108 +/- 0.002), MEL-B (0.107 +/- 0.003) and the ceramide (0.111 +/- 0.003), although lauryl glucoside treatment increased the average friction coefficient (0.126 +/- 0.003). The increase of bending rigidity by treatment with lauryl glucoside (0.204 +/- 0.002) was prevented by treatment with MEL-A (0.129 +/- 0.002), MEL-B (0.176 +/- 0.003) and the ceramide (0.164 +/- 0.002). Consequently, MELs are proposed to be the new hair care ingredient, which are the highly useful agent for not only for the recovery of damaged hair but also for providing the smooth and flexible hair. PMID:20431244

  3. A basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma crassa, produces novel diastereomers of conventional mannosylerythritol lipids as glycolipid biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kawamura, Mayo; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-11-24

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These compounds show not only excellent surface-active properties, but also versatile biochemical actions. During a survey of new MEL producers, we found that a basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma crassa, extracellularly produces three glycolipids. When glucose and oleic acid were used as the carbon source, the total amount of glycolipids reached approximately 4.6g/L in the culture medium. The structures of these glycolipids were similar to those of well-known MEL-A, -B, and -C, respectively. Very interestingly, in all the present glycolipids, the configuration of the erythritol moiety was entirely opposite to that of conventional MELs. The present glycolipids were identified to have the carbohydrate structure of 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-erythritol, stereochemically different from 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R)-erythritol of conventional MELs. Furthermore, these new glycolipids possessed both short-chain acids (C(2) or C(4)) and long-chain acids (C(14), C(16), or C(18)) on the mannose moiety. The major component of the present glycolipids clearly showed different interfacial and biological properties, compared to conventional MELs comprising two medium-chain acids on the mannose moiety. Accordingly, the novel MEL diastereomers produced by P. crassa should provide us with different glycolipid functions, and facilitate a broad range of applications of MELs. PMID:18805521

  4. Formation of W/O microemulsion based on natural glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-a.

    PubMed

    Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Chavadej, Sumaeth; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) is a glycolipid biosurfactant abundantly produced from soybean oil by microorganisms at a yield of up to 100 g/L. In this study, the formation of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion based on the single component of MEL-A was confirmed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and freeze fracture electron microscopy (FF-EM). DLS and FF-EM measurements revealed that the diameter of the microemulsion increases with an increase in water-to-surfactant mole ratio (W(0)) ranging from 20 to 60 nm, and the maximum W(0) value was found to be 20, which is as high as that of soybean lecithin. Glycolipid biosurfactant has a great potential for the formation of W/O microemulsion without using any cosurfactants. PMID:18075224

  5. Characterization of new glycolipid biosurfactants, tri-acylated mannosylerythritol lipids, produced by Pseudozyma yeasts.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-07-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudozyma yeasts. They show not only the excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In the course of MEL production from soybean oil by P. antarctica and P. rugulosa, some new extracellular glycolipids (more hydrophobic than the previously reported di-acylated MELs) were found in the culture medium. The most hydrophobic one was identified as 1-O-alka(e)noyl-4-O-[(4',6'-di-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, namely tri-acylated MEL. Others were tri-acylated MELs bearing only one acetyl group. The tri-acylated MEL could be prepared by the lipase-catalyzed esterification of a di-acylated MEL with oleic acid implying that the new glycolipids are synthesized from di-acylated MELs in the culture medium containing the residual fatty acids. PMID:17417694

  6. Microbial conversion of glycerol into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317(T).

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-07-01

    Microbial conversion of glycerol into functional bio-based materials was investigated, aiming to facilitate the utilization of waste glycerol. A basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, efficiently produced mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) as glycolipid biosurfactants from glycerol. The amount of MEL yield reached 16.3 g l(-1) by intermittent feeding of glycerol. PMID:17697987

  7. Reverse vesicle formation from the yeast glycolipid biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-D.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yanagihara, Takashi; Ito, Seya; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are secreted by yeasts and are promising glycolipid biosurfactants. In our study on the non-aqueous phase behaviors of MEL homologues, we found that MEL-D (4-O-[2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-β-D-mannopyranosyl]-(2R,3S)-erythritol) forms aggregates in decane. The microscopic observation and the X-ray scattering measurement of these aggregates revealed that they are reverse vesicles that consist of bilayers whose hydrophilic domains are located in the interior of the bilayers. In addition, MEL-D formed reverse vesicles without co-surfactants and co-solvents in various oily solutions, such as n-alkanes, cyclohexane, squalane, squalene, and silicone oils at a concentration below 10 mM. This is the first report on the reverse vesicle formation from biosurfactants. PMID:22531056

  8. Application of yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, as agrospreaders.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Nakamura, Junichi; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The spreading property of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) was investigated in connection with our search for new application in agriculture. The wetting ability of MEL solutions for hydrophobic surfaces was evaluated based on contact angle measurements for several surfactant solutions on abiotic and biotic surfaces. The contact angle of MEL-A solution on a hydrophobic plastic surface at 100 s after placement decreased to 8.4°, and those of other MEL solutions decreased more significantly compared to those of commonly-used nonionic surfactants. In addition, the contact angle of MEL solutions also dropped down to around 10° on various plant leaf surfaces. MEL solutions, in particular, efficiently spread even on poorly wettable Gramineae plant surfaces on which general nonionic surfactant solutions could not. Moreover, the wetting ability of MEL solutions was found to be greatly affected by the structural difference in their carbohydrate configuration. Furthermore, surface pretreatment with MEL solution led to more efficient spreading and fixing of microbial cells onto plant leaf surface compared to several conventional surfactants used in this study. These results suggested that MELs have a potential to use as a natural bio-based spreading agent, particularly as agrochemical spreader for biopesticides. PMID:25891117

  9. Aqueous-phase behavior of natural glycolipid biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid A: sponge, cubic, and lamellar phases.

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomohiro; Hikosaka, Yusuke; Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Konishi, Masaaki; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-02-13

    The aqueous-phase behavior of mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A), which is a glycolipid biosurfactant produced from vegetable oils by yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma, was investigated using polarized optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). MEL-A was found to self-assemble into a variety of distinctive lyotropic liquid crystals including sponge (L3), bicontinuous cubic (V2), and lamella (Lalpha) phases. On the basis of SAXS measurements, we determined the structure of the liquid crystals. The estimated lattice constant for Lalpha was 3.58 nm. DSC measurement revealed that the phase transition enthalpies from the liquid crystal to the fluid isotropic phase were in the range of 0.22-0.44 kJ/mol. Although the present MEL-A phase diagram closely resembled that obtained from relatively hydrophobic poly(oxyethylene) or fluorinated surfactants, the MEL-A L3 region was spread considerably over a wide temperature range (20-65 degrees C) compared to L3 of those surfactants: this is probably due to the unique structure which is molecularly engineered by microorganisms. In this paper, we clarify the aqueous phase diagram of the natural glycolipid biosurfactant MEL-A, and we suggest that the obtained lyotropic crystals are potentially useful as novel nanostructured biomaterials. PMID:17279642

  10. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, using sucrose by fungal and yeast strains, and their interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-10-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were produced from glucose and sucrose without vegetable oils. Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, Ustilago maydis NBRC 5346, U. scitaminea NBRC 32730, and P. siamensis CBS 9960 produced mainly MEL-A, MEL-A, MEL-B, and MEL-C respectively. The sucrose-derived MELs showed excellent interfacial properties: low critical micelle concentration as well as that of oil-derived MELs. PMID:19809166

  11. Characterization of the genus Pseudozyma by the formation of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-03-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica is one of the best producers of the glycolipid biosurfactants known as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In order to obtain a variety of producers, all the species of the genus were examined for their production of MELs from soybean oil. Pseudozyma fusiformata, P. parantarctica and P. tsukubaensis were newly identified to be MEL producers. Of the strains tested, P. parantarctica gave the best yield of MELs (30 g L(-1)). The obtained yield corresponded to those of P. antarctica, P. aphidis and P. rugulosa, which are known high-level MEL producers. Interestingly, P. parantarctica and P. fusiformata produced mainly 4-O-[(4',6'-di-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-A), whereas P. tsukubaensis produced mainly 4-O-[(6'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-B). Consequently, six of the nine species clearly produced MELs. Based on the MEL production pattern, the nine species seemed to fall into four groups: the first group produces large amounts of MELs; the second produces both MELs and other biosurfactants; the third mainly produces MEL-B; and the fourth is non-MEL-producing. Thus, MEL production may be an important taxonomic index for the Pseudozyma yeasts. PMID:17328742

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of a novel glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-D and its aqueous phase behavior.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yanagihara, Takashi; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-02-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by yeasts are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants. In this study, we succeeded in the preparation of a novel MEL homolog having no acetyl groups, namely MEL-D. MEL-D was synthesized by lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetyl groups from a known MEL, and identified as 4-O-[2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-β-d-mannopyranosyl]-(2R,3S)-erythritol. The obtained MEL-D showed a higher critical aggregation concentration (CAC=1.2 × 10(-5)M) and hydrophilicity compared to known MELs, retaining an excellent surface tension lowering activity (the surface tension at the CAC was 24.5mN/m). In addition, we estimated the binary phase diagram of the MEL-D-water system based on a combination of visual inspection, polarized optical microscopy, and SAXS measurement. From these results, MEL-D was found to self-assemble into a lamellar (L(α)) structure over all ranges of concentration. Meanwhile, the one-phase L(α) region of MEL-D was extended wider than those of known MELs. MEL-D might keep more water between the polar layers in accordance with the extension of the interlayer spacing (d). These results suggest that the newly obtained MEL-D would facilitate the application of MELs in various fields as a lamellar-forming glycolipid with higher hydrate ability. PMID:21163471

  13. The moisturizing effects of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on human skin.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products. PMID:22790172

  14. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma siamensis CBS 9960 and their interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-05-01

    The search for a novel producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), was undertaken on the basis of the analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences of yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. In the course of the investigation, Pseudozyma siamensis CBS 9960, which is closely related to Pseudozyma shanxiensis, a known MEL-C producer but with a different morphology, was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids. On thin layer chromatography, the extracellular glycolipids showed nearly the same spots as those of the MELs produced by P. shanxiensis. However, the result of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the present strain has a much higher glycolipid production yield than P. shanxiensis. From the structural characterization by (1)H and (13)C NMR, the major glycolipid (more than 84% of the total) was identified as a mixture of 4-O-[(2',4'-di-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol and 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, both of which are types of MEL-C. The present MEL-C possessed a short-chain acid (C(2) or C(4)) at the C-2' position and a long-chain acid (C(16)) at the C-3' position of the mannose moiety, and thus, the hydrophobic part was considerably different from that of conventional MELs, which mainly possess two medium-chain acids (C(10)) at the C-2' and C-3' positions. Under optimal growth conditions with safflower oil in a shake culture, the total amount of MELs reached approximately 19 g/l after 9 d at 25 degrees C. We further investigated the interfacial properties of the present MEL-C, considering its unique hydrophobic structure. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at the CMC of the MEL were 4.5 x 10(-6) M and 30.7 mN/m, respectively. In addition, on a water penetration scan, the MEL efficiently formed the liquid crystal phases such as hexagonal (H) and lamella (L(a)) at a wide range of

  15. Aqueous-phase behavior and vesicle formation of natural glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-B.

    PubMed

    Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Chavadej, Sumaeth; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-08-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants produced by yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. In this study, the aqueous-phase behavior of a new monoacetyl MEL derivative, 1-O-beta-(2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-d-mannopyranosyl)-d-erythritol (MEL-B), was investigated using polarized optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The present MEL-B was found to self-assemble into a lamellar (L(alpha)) phase over remarkably wide concentration and temperature ranges. According to SAXS measurement, the interlayer spacing (d) was estimated to be almost constant (about 4.7 nm) at the low MEL-B concentration (60 wt.%) region, the d-spacing gradually decreased to 3.1 nm with an increase in the MEL-B concentration. The thermal stability of the liquid crystalline phase was investigated by DSC measurement. The obtained L(alpha) phase was found to be stable up to 95 degrees C below a MEL-B concentration of 85 wt.%; then, the melting temperature of the liquid crystalline phase dramatically decreased with an increase in MEL-B concentration (above 85 wt.%). Furthermore, we found relatively large vesicles (1-5 microm) at the low MEL-B concentration using CLSM observation. The trapped volume of the obtained MEL-B vesicle was estimated to be about 0.42 microL/mumol by glucose dialysis method. These results suggest that the natural glycolipid biosurfactant, the newly found MEL-B, would be useful in various fields of applications as an L(alpha) phase- and/or vesicle-forming lipid. PMID:18456469

  16. Activation of fibroblast and papilla cells by glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Suzuki, Michiko; Sogabe, Atsushi; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), the extracellular glycolipids produced from feedstock by yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma, are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics, the cell activating property of MELs was investigated using cultured fibroblast and papilla cells, and a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. The di-acetylated MEL (MEL-A) produced from soybean oil significantly increased the viability of the fibroblast cells over 150% compared with that of control cells. On the other hand, no cell activation was observed by the treatment with MEL-A produced from olive oil. The mono-acetylated MEL (MEL-B) hardly increased the cell viability. The viability of the fibroblast cells decreased with the addition of more than 1 microg/L of MELs, whereas the cultured human skin cells showed high viability with 5 microg/L of MELs. Interestingly, the papilla cells were dramatically activated with 0.001 microg/L of MEL-A produced from soybean oil: the cell viability reached at 150% compared with that of control cells. Consequently, the present MEL-A produced from soybean oil should have a potential as a new hair growth agent stimulating the papilla cells. PMID:20625237

  17. Identification of Pseudozyma graminicola CBS 10092 as a producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    A basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma graminicola CBS 10092, was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids in the cultured medium when grown on soybean oil as the sole carbon source. Based on thin layer chromatography, the extracellular glycolipids gave spots corresponding to those of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are highly functional and promising biosurfactants. From the structural characterization by 1H and 13C NMR, the main product was identified as 4-O-[(4'-mono-O-acetyl-2', 3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, which is a highly hydrophilic derivative of MELs known as MEL-C. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the main product, MEL-C, comprised approximately 85% of all the MELs, and the total amount reached approximately 10 g/L for 7 days. The fatty acids of the present MEL-C consisted of mainly C6, C8 and C14 acids, considerably different from those of MEL-C produced by other Pseudozyma strains such as P. antarctica and P. shanxiensis. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface-tension at CMC of the MEL-C were 4.0 x 10(-6) M and 24.2 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A, the most intensively studied MEL, were 2.7 x 10(-6) M and 28.4 mN/m, respectively. This implied that the MEL-C has higher hydrophilicity than conventional MELs hitherto reported. In addition, on a water-penetration scan, the MEL-C efficiently formed the lamella phase (Lalpha) at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent self-assembling properties. From these results, the newly identified MELs produced by P. graminicola are likely to have great potential for use in oil-in-water type emulsifiers and/or washing detergents, and would thus facilitate a broad range of applications for the promising yeast biosurfactants. PMID:18198469

  18. Direct xylan conversion into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma antarctica PYCC 5048(T).

    PubMed

    Faria, Nuno Torres; Marques, Susana; Fonseca, César; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo

    2015-04-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are glycolipid biosurfactants, produced by Pseudozyma spp., with increasing commercial interest. While MEL can be produced from d-glucose and d-xylose, the direct conversion of the respective lignocellulosic polysaccharides, cellulose and xylan, was not reported yet. The ability of Pseudozyma antarctica PYCC 5048(T) and Pseudozyma aphidis PYCC 5535(T) to use cellulose (Avicel(®)) and xylan (beechwood) as carbon and energy source has been assessed along with their capacity of producing cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes, toward a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) for MEL production. The yeasts assessed were neither able to grow in medium containing Avicel(®) nor produce cellulolytic enzymes under the conditions tested. On contrary, both yeasts were able to efficiently grow in xylan, but MEL production was only detected in P. antarctica PYCC 5048(T) cultures. MEL titers reached 1.3g/l after 10 days in batch cultures with 40g/l xylan, and 2.0g/l in fed-batch cultures with xylan feeding (additional 40g/l) at day 4. High levels of xylanase activities were detected in xylan cultures, reaching 47-62U/ml (31-32U/mg) at 50°C, and still exhibiting more than 10U/ml under physiological temperature (28°C). Total β-xylosidase activities, displayed mainly as wall-bounded and extracellular activity, accounted for 0.154 and 0.176U/ml in P. antarctica PYCC 5048(T) and P. aphidis PYCC 5535(T) cultures, respectively. The present results demonstrate the potential of Pseudozyma spp. for using directly a fraction of lignocellulosic biomass, xylan, and combining in the same bioprocess the production of xylanolytic enzymes with MEL production. PMID:25765311

  19. Identification of Ustilago cynodontis as a new producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, based on ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants known because of their multifunctionality and biocompatibility. The search for novel producers of MELs was undertaken based on the analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences on basidiomycetous yeasts. The bermuda grass smut fungus Ustilago cynodontis NBRC 7530, which taxonomically relates to Pseudozyma shanxiensis known as a MEL-C producer, was found to accumulate glycolipids in the cultured medium. Under a shake flask culture with soybean oil, the amount of the glycolipids was 1.4 g/L for 7 days at 25 degrees C. As a result of the structural characterization, the main glycolipids was identified as 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, and the major fatty acids were C(14) and C(16) ones. The glycolipid was highly hydrophilic MEL-C, and very similar to those produced by P. shanxiensis. The fungi of the genus Ustilago are thus likely to be potential producers of MELs as well as the yeasts of the genus Pseudozyma. PMID:18781055

  20. Isolation of Pseudozyma churashimaensis sp. nov., a novel ustilaginomycetous yeast species as a producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ogura, Yuki; Takashima, Masako; Hirose, Naoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kondo, Yukishige; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-08-01

    An ustilaginomycetous anamorphic yeast species isolated from the leaves of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) in Okinawa, Japan, was identified as a novel Pseudozyma species based on morphological and physiological aspects and molecular taxonomic analysis using the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2 regions. The name Pseudozyma churashimaensis sp. nov. was proposed for the novel species, with JCM 16988(T) as the type strain. Interestingly, P. churashimaensis was found to produce glycolipid biosurfactants, a mixture of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), including a novel tri-acetylated derivative (MEL-A2), from glucose. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at CMC of MEL-A2 were 1.7 × 10⁻⁶ M and 29.2 mN/m, respectively. Moreover, on a water-penetration scan, MEL-A2 efficiently formed different lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, including the lamella phase at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. The novel strain of the genus Pseudozyma should thus facilitate the application of glycolipid biosurfactants in combination with other MEL producers. PMID:21606002

  1. Production and characterization of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid B, from sugarcane juice by Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Hirose, Naoto; Wada, Koji; Takahashi, Makoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants excreted by fungal strains. They show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730 has been reported mainly to produce a mono-acetylated and di-acylated MEL, MEL-B, from sucrose as sole carbon source. In order to make biosurfactant production more efficient, we focused our attention on the use of sugarcane juice, one of the most economical resources. The fungal strain produced MEL-B at the yield of 12.7 g/L from only sugarcane juice containing 22.4% w/w sugars. Supplementation with organic (yeast extract, peptone, and urea) and inorganic (sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate) nitrogen sources markedly enhanced the production yield. Of the nitrogen sources, urea gave the best yield. Under optimum conditions, the strain produced 25.1 g/L of MEL-B from the juice (19.3% sugars) supplemented with 1 g/L of urea in a jar fermenter at 25 °C over 7 d. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface-tension at the CMC for the present MEL-B were 3.7×10(-6) M and 25.2 mN/m respectively. On water-penetration scan, the biosurfactant efficiently formed the lamella phase (L(α)) and myelins over a wide range of concentrations, indicating excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. More significantly, the biosurfactant showed a ceramide-like skin-care property in a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. Thus, sugarcane juice is likely to be effective in glycolipid production by U. scitaminea NBRC 32730, and should facilitate the application of MELs. PMID:21737925

  2. Isolation of basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and production of glycolipid biosurfactant, a diastereomer type of mannosylerythritol lipid-B.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Takashima, Masako; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-10-01

    The producers of glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B), were isolated from leaves of Perilla frutescens on Ibaraki in Japan. Four isolates, 1D9, 1D10, 1D11, and 1E5, were identified as basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis by rDNA sequence and biochemical properties. The structure of MEL-B produced by these strains was analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, and was determined to be the same as the diastereomer MEL-B produced by P. tsukubaensis NBRC 1940. Of these isolates, P. tsukubaensis 1E5 (JCM 16987) is capable of producing the largest amount of the diastereomer MEL-B from vegetable oils. In order to progress the diastereomer MEL-B production by strain 1E5, factors affecting the production, such as carbon and organic nutrient sources, were further examined. Olive oil and yeast extract were the best carbon and nutrient sources, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, a maximum yield, productivity, and yield coefficient of 73.1 g/L, 10.4 g L(-1) day(-1), and 43.5 g/g were achieved by feeding of olive oil in a 5-L jar-fermenter culture using strain 1E5. PMID:20652239

  3. A yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, shows high binding affinity towards lectins on a self-assembled monolayer system.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-03-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are glycolipid biosurfactants secreted by the Pseudozyma yeasts, show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions including antitumor and cell-differentiation activities. In order to address the biochemical actions, interactions between MEL-A, the major component of MEL, and different lectins were investigated using the surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. The monolayer of MEL-A showed high binding affinity to concanavalin A (ConA) and Maackia amurensis lectin-I (MAL-I). The observed affinity constants for ConA and MAL-I were estimated to be 9.48 +/- 1.31 x 10(6) and 3.13 +/- 0.274 x 10(6) M(-1), respectively; the value was comparable to that of Manalpha1-6(Manalpha1-3)Man, which is one of the most specific probe to ConA. Significantly, alpha-methyl-D-mannopyranoside (1 mM) exhibited no binding inhibition between MEL-A and ConA. MEL-A is thus likely to self-assemble to give a high affinity surface, where ConA binds to the hydrophilic headgroup in a different manner from that generally observed in lectin-saccharide interactions. The binding manner should be related with the biochemical actions of MEL toward mammalian cells via protein-carbohydrate interactions. PMID:17205206

  4. Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica T-34, a Producer of the Glycolipid Biosurfactants Mannosylerythritol Lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Koyama, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Ito, Emi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Machida, Masayuki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 is an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), members of the multifunctional extracellular glycolipids, from various feedstocks. Here, the genome sequence of P. antarctica T-34 was determined and annotated. Analysis of the sequence might provide insights into the properties of this yeast that make it superior for use in the production of functional glycolipids, leading to the further development of P. antarctica for industrial applications. PMID:23558529

  5. Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica T-34, a Producer of the Glycolipid Biosurfactants Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Koyama, Yoshinori; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Ito, Emi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Machida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 is an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), members of the multifunctional extracellular glycolipids, from various feedstocks. Here, the genome sequence of P. antarctica T-34 was determined and annotated. Analysis of the sequence might provide insights into the properties of this yeast that make it superior for use in the production of functional glycolipids, leading to the further development of P. antarctica for industrial applications. PMID:23558529

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica Type Strain JCM10317, a Producer of the Glycolipid Biosurfactants, Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Saika, Azusa; Koike, Hideaki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica is known as a producer of industrial enzymes and the extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain JCM10317. The draft genome assembly has a size of 18.1 Mb and a G+C content of 60.9%, and it consists of 197 scaffolds. PMID:25291760

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica Type Strain JCM10317, a Producer of the Glycolipid Biosurfactants, Mannosylerythritol Lipids.

    PubMed

    Saika, Azusa; Koike, Hideaki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai; Morita, Tomotake

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica is known as a producer of industrial enzymes and the extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain JCM10317. The draft genome assembly has a size of 18.1 Mb and a G+C content of 60.9%, and it consists of 197 scaffolds. PMID:25291760

  8. Extracellular production of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, by Candida sp. SY16 using fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Sik; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Yoon, Byung-Dae

    2006-04-01

    Candida sp. strain SY16 produces a glycolipid-type biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL-SY16), which can reduce the surface tension of a culture broth from 72 to 30 dyne cm(-1) and highly emulsify hydrocarbons when cultured in soybean-oil-containing media. As such, laboratory-scale fermentation for MEL-SY16 production was performed using optimized conditions. In batch fermentation, MEL-SY16 was mainly produced during the stationary phase of growth, and the concentration of MEL-SY16 reached 37 g l(-1) after 200 h. The effect of pH control on the production of MEL-SY16 was also examined in batch fermentation. The highest production yield of MEL-SY16 was when the pH was controlled at 4.0, and the production was significantly improved compared to batch fermentation without pH control. In fed-batch fermentation, glucose and soybean oil (1:1, w/w) were used in combination as the initial carbon sources for cell growth, and soybean oil was used as the feeding carbon source during the MEL production phase. The feeding of soybean oil resulted in the disappearance of any foam and a sharp increase in the MEL production until 200 h, at which point the concentration of MEL-SY16 was 95 g l(-1). Among the investigated culture systems, the highest MEL-SY16 production and volumetric production rate were achieved with fed-batch fermentation. PMID:16133323

  9. Yeast extract stimulates production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Nagahama, Takahiko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai; Hatada, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    We improved the culture conditions for a biosurfactant producing yeast, Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62. We found that yeast extract greatly stimulates MEL production. Furthermore, we demonstrated a highly efficient production of MELs in the improved medium by fed-batch cultivation. The final concentration of MELs reached 129 ± 8.2g/l for one week. PMID:21393057

  10. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a smut fungus, Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-03-23

    A smut fungus Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730 on sugar cane (Saccharum) was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids in the culture medium. As a result of structural characterization, the main glycolipid was identified as MEL-B, 4-O-beta-(2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-erythritol. The MEL-B was sufficiently produced from a variety of sugars such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, and mannose. Olive oil and methyl oleate were also available as carbon sources to produce MEL-B. However, these residual oils made product recovery very complicated. Under optimal conditions, a maximum MEL yield of 12.8 g/l was achieved by feeding of sucrose. PMID:19270362

  11. Efficient production of di- and tri-acylated mannosylerythritol lipids as glycolipid biosurfactants by Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752(T).

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising biosurfactants known, because of their multifunctionality and biocompatibility. In order to attain an efficient production of MELs, Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752(T), which is a newly identified strain of the genus, was examined for the productivity of MELs at different culture conditions. The yeast strain showed significant cell growth and production of di-acylated MELs even at 36 degrees C. In contrast, on conventional high-level MEL producers including P. rugulosa, the MEL yield considerably decreased with an increase of the cultivation temperature at over 30 degrees C. On P. parantarctica, soybean oil and sodium nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Under the optimal conditions on a shake-flask culture at 34 degrees C, the amount of di-acylated MELs reached over 100 g/L by intermittent feeding of only soybean oil. Interestingly, the yeast strain produced tri-acylated MELs as well as di-acylated ones when grown on the medium containing higher soybean oil concentrations than 8% (vol/vol). The production of tri-acylated MELs was significantly accelerated at between 34 and 36 degrees C. With 20 % (vol/vol) of soybean oil at 34 degrees C, the yield of tri-acylated MELs reached 22.7 g/L. The extracellular lipase activity considerably depended on the culture temperature, and became the maximum at 34 degrees C; this would bring the accelerated production of tri-acylated MELs. Accordingly, the present strain of P. parantarctica provided high efficiency in MEL production at elevated temperatures compared to conventional MEL producers, and would thus be highly advantageous for the commercial production of the promising biosurfactants. PMID:18781056

  12. Physiological differences in the formation of the glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, between Pseudozyma antarctica and Pseudozyma aphidis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-02-01

    Vegetable oil is the usual carbon source for the production of biosurfactants (BS), mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL). To simplify the procedures of BS production and recovery, we investigated the extracellular production of MEL from water-soluble carbon sources instead of vegetable oils by using two representative yeast strains. The formation of extracellular MEL from glucose was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC analysis. On glucose cultivation, pure MEL were easily prepared by only solvent extraction of the culture medium, different from the case of soybean oil cultivation. The fatty acid profile of the major MEL produced from glucose was similar to that produced from soybean oil based on GC-MS analysis. The resting cells of Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 produced MEL by feeding of glucose only and gave a yield of 12 g l(-1). In contrast, Pseudozyma aphidis ATCC 32657 gave no MEL from glucose. Moreover, the extracellular lipase activities were detected at high levels during the cultivation regardless of the carbon sources. These results indicate that all the biosynthesis pathways for MEL in P. antarctica T-34 should constitutively function. In conclusion, P. antarctica T-34 thus has potential for BS production from glucose. PMID:17103161

  13. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica, which produces glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2006-07-15

    Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 secretes a large amount of biosurfactants (BS), mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), from different carbon sources such as hydrocarbons and vegetable oils. The detailed biosynthetic pathway of MEL remained unknown due to lack of genetic information on the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeasts, including the genus Pseudozyma. Here, in order to obtain genetic information on P. antarctica T-34, we constructed a cDNA library from yeast cells producing MEL from soybean oil and identified the genes expressed through the creation of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library. We generated 398 ESTs, assembled into 146 contiguous sequences. Based upon a BLAST search similarity cut-off of E

  14. Discovery of Pseudozyma rugulosa NBRC 10877 as a novel producer of the glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, based on rDNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2006-11-01

    The search for a novel producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) was undertaken based on the analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences on the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. Pseudozyma rugulosa NBRC 10877 was found to produce a large amount of glycolipids from soybean oil. Fluorescence microscopic observation also demonstrated that the strain significantly accumulates polar lipids in the cells. The structure of the glycolipids produced by the strain was analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, and was determined to be the same as MEL produced by Pseudozyma antarctica, a well-known MEL producer. The major fatty acids of the present MEL consisted of C8 and C10 acids. Based on high performance liquid chromatography, the composition of the produced MEL was as follows: MEL-A (68%), MEL-B (12%), and MEL-C (20%). To enhance the production of MEL by the novel strain, factors affecting the production, such as carbon and nitrogen sources, were further examined. Soybean oil and sodium nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The supplementation of a MEL precursor, such as erythritol, drastically enhanced the production yield from soybean oil at a rate of 70 to 90%. Under the optimal conditions in a shake culture, a maximum yield, productivity, and yield coefficient (on a weight basis to soybean oil supplied) of 142 g l(-1), 5.0 g l(-1) day(-1), and 0.5 g g(-1) were achieved by intermittent feeding of soybean oil and erythritol using the yeast. PMID:16733733

  15. A basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma tsukubaensis, efficiently produces a novel glycolipid biosurfactant. The identification of a new diastereomer of mannosylerythritol lipid-B.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-02-25

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These compounds show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical activities. In the course of MEL production by Pseudozyma tsukubaensis, we found an unusual MEL that had a different carbohydrate structure from that of conventional MELs. The carbohydrate structure was identified as 1-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-D-erythritol, and the MEL was confirmed to be 1-O-beta-(2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-D-erythritol. Interestingly, the configuration of the erythritol moiety in the present MEL was opposite to that of the known MEL-B, 4-O-beta-(2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-D-erythritol, and to that of all MELs hitherto reported. The present MEL should thus provide different interfacial and biochemical properties compared to conventional MELs. PMID:18083152

  16. Structural characterization and surface-active properties of a new glycolipid biosurfactant, mono-acylated mannosylerythritol lipid, produced from glucose by Pseudozyma antarctica.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-09-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, show not only excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In the course of MEL production from glucose as the sole carbon source, P. antarctica was found to produce unknown glycolipids more hydrophilic than conventional "di-acylated MELs," which have two fatty acyl esters on the mannose moiety. Based on a detailed characterization, the most hydrophilic one was identified as 4-O-(3'-O-alka(e)noyl-beta-D: -mannopyranosyl)-D: -erythritol namely, "mono-acylated MEL." The mono-acylated MEL reduced the surface tension of water to 33.8 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 3.6 x 10(-4) M, and its hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was tentatively calculated to be 12.15. The observed CMC was 100-fold higher than that of the MELs hitherto reported. Interestingly, of the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma, only P. antarctica and P. parantarctica gave the mono-acylated MEL from glucose, despite a great diversity of di-acylated MEL producers in the genus. These strains produced MELs including the mono-acylated one at a rate of 20-25%. From these results, the new MEL is likely to have great potential for use in oil-in-water-type emulsifiers and washing detergents because of its higher water solubility compared to conventional MELs and will thus contribute to facilitating a broad range of applications for the environmentally advanced surfactants. PMID:17607573

  17. Production of microbial glycolipid biosurfactants and their antimicrobial activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial glycolipids produced by bacteria or yeast as secondary metabolites, such as sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs) and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are “green” biosurfactants desirable in a bioeconomy. High cost of production is a major hurdle toward widespread commercial use of bios...

  18. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

  19. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants by basidiomycetous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-05-01

    BSs (biosurfactants) produced by various micro-organisms show unique properties (e.g. mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared with chemically synthesized surfactants. The numerous advantages of BSs have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries but also in environmental protection and energy-saving technology. Among BSs, glycolipid types are the most promising, owing to their high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. MELs (mannosylerythritol lipids), which are glycolipid BSs abundantly produced by basidiomycetous yeasts such as strains of Pseudozyma, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties, but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukaemia cells. MELs also show high binding affinity towards different immunoglobulins and lectins. Recently, a cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BSs should broaden their application in new advanced technologies. In the present review the current status of research and development on glycolipid BSs, especially their production by Pseudozyma yeasts, is described. PMID:19341364

  20. Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, show antioxidant and protective effects against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are biosurfactants known for their versatile interfacial and biochemical properties. To broaden their application in cosmetics, we investigated the antioxidant properties of different MEL derivatives (MEL-A, -B, and -C) by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) free-radical- and superoxide anion-scavenging assay. All MEL derivatives tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro, but at lower levels than those of arbutin. Of the MELs, MEL-C, which is produced from soybean oil by Pseudozyma hubeiensis, showed the highest rates of DPPH radical scavenging (50.3% at 10 mg/mL) and superoxide anion scavenging (>50% at 1 mg/mL). The antioxidant property of MEL-C was further examined using cultured human skin fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells) under H(2)O(2) induced oxidative stress. Surprisingly, MEL-C had a higher protective activity against oxidative stress than arbutin did: 10 µg/mL of MEL-C and arbutin had protective activities of 30.3% and 13%, respectively. Expression of an oxidative stress marker, cyclooxygenase-2, in these cells was repressed by treatment with MEL-C as well as by arbutin. MEL-C was thus confirmed to have antioxidant and protective effects in cells, and we suggest that MELs have potential as anti-aging skin care ingredients. PMID:22864517

  1. Production and antimicrobial property of glycolipid biosurfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial glycolipids such as rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) are an important class of biosurfactants with excellent surface tension-lowering activity. Besides their surfactant- and environment-friendly properties, however, additional value-added property such as bacteriocidal activity is n...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Yeast-Like Fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62, Which Produces an Abundant Amount of the Biosurfactant Mannosylerythritol Lipids.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Hatada, Yuji; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast-like fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis strain SY62 is capable of producing an abundant amount of the glycolipid biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are a major component of monoacetylated MEL (MEL-C). To reveal the synthetic pathway of the MELs of strain SY62, we present the 18.44-Mb draft genome sequence. PMID:23814110

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Yeast-Like Fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62, Which Produces an Abundant Amount of the Biosurfactant Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Yuji; Horiuchi, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast-like fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis strain SY62 is capable of producing an abundant amount of the glycolipid biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are a major component of monoacetylated MEL (MEL-C). To reveal the synthetic pathway of the MELs of strain SY62, we present the 18.44-Mb draft genome sequence. PMID:23814110

  4. Mannosylerythritol lipid, a yeast extracellular glycolipid, shows high binding affinity towards human immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Im, Jae Hong; Nakane, Takashi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Toru; Kitamoto, Dai

    2001-01-01

    Background There have been many attempts to develop new materials with stability and high affinity towards immunoglobulins. Some of glycolipids such as gangliosides exhibit a high affinity toward immunoglobulins. However, it is considerably difficult to develop these glycolipids into the practical separation ligand due to their limited amounts. We thus focused our attention on the feasible use of "mannosylerythritol lipid A", a yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, as an alternative ligand for immunoglobulins, and undertook the investigation on the binding between mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A) and human immunoglobulin G (HIgG). Results In ELISA assay, MEL-A showed nearly the same binding affinity towards HIgG as that of bovine ganglioside GM1. Fab of human IgG was considered to play a more important role than Fc in the binding of HIgG by MEL-A. The bound amount of HIgG increased depending on the attached amount of MEL-A onto poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (polyHEMA) beads, whereas the amount of human serum albumin slightly decreased. Binding-amount and -selectivity of HIgG towards MEL-A were influenced by salt species, salt concentration and pH in the buffer solution. The composite of MEL-A and polyHEMA, exhibited a significant binding constant of 1.43 × 106 (M-1) for HIgG, which is approximately 4-fold greater than that of protein A reported. Conclusions MEL-A shows high binding-affinity towards HIgG, and this is considered to be due to "multivalent effect" based on the binding molar ratio. This is the first report on the binding of a natural human antibody towards a yeast glycolipid. PMID:11604104

  5. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27098847

  6. A yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, shows potential moisturizing activity toward cultured human skin cells: the recovery effect of MEL-A on the SDS-damaged human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Suzuki, Michiko; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are produced in large amounts from renewable vegetable oils by Pseudozyma antarctica, and are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, the skin care property of MEL-A, the major component of MELs, was investigated using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution of 1 wt%, and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were then evaluated on the basis of the cell viability. The viability of the damaged cells was markedly recovered by the addition of MEL-A in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control, MEL-A solutions of 5 wt% and 10 wt% gave the recovery rate of 73% and 91%, respectively, while ceramide solution of 1 wt% gave the rate of over 100%. This revealed that MEL-A shows a ceramide-like moisturizing activity toward the skin cells. Considering the drawbacks of natural ceramides, namely limited amount and high production cost, the yeast biosurfactants should have a great potential as a novel moisturizer for treating the damaged skin. PMID:19915321

  7. Production of a novel glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylmannitol lipid, by Pseudozyma parantarctica and its interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-07-01

    The development of a novel glycolipid biosurfactant was undertaken using the high-level producers of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) such as Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pseudozyma antarctica, and Pseudozyma rugulosa. Besides the conventional MELs (MEL-A, MEL-B, and MEL-C), these yeasts produced an unknown glycolipid when they were cultivated in a medium containing 4% (w/v) olive oil and 4% (w/w) mannitol as the carbon source. The unknown glycolipid extracted from the culture medium of P. parantarctica JCM 11752(T) displayed the spot with lower mobility than that of known MELs on TLC and provided mainly two peaks identical to mannose and mannitol on high-performance liquid chromatography after acid hydrolysis. Based on structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, the novel glycolipid was composed of mannose and mannitol as the hydrophilic sugar moiety and was identified as mannosylmannitol lipid (MML). Of the strains tested, P. parantarctica JCM 11752(T) gave the best yield of MML (18.2 g/L), which comprised approximately 35% of all glycolipids produced. We further investigated the interfacial properties of the MML, considering the unique hydrophilic structure. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at CMC of the MML were 2.6 x 10(-6) M and 24.2 mN/m, respectively. In addition, on a water-penetration scan, the MML efficiently formed not only the lamella phase (Lalpha) but also the myelins at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent self-assembling properties and high hydrophilicity. The present glycolipid should thus facilitate the application of biosurfactants as new functional materials. PMID:19296097

  8. Glycolipid biosurfactants: Potential related biomedical and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Inès, Mnif; Dhouha, Ghribi

    2015-10-30

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by highly structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol-lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. Moreover, their ability to form pores and destabilize biological membrane permits their use in biomedicine as antibacterial, antifungal and hemolytic agents. Their antiviral and antitumor effects enable their use in pharmaceutic as therapeutic agents. Also, glycolipids can inhibit the bioadhesion of pathogenic bacteria enabling their use as anti-adhesive agents and for disruption of biofilm formation and can be used in cosmetic industry. Moreover, they have great potential application in industry as detergents, wetting agents and for flotation. Furthermore, glycolipids can act at the surface and can modulate enzyme activity permitting the enhancement or the inhibition of the activity of certain enzymes. PMID:26359535

  9. Characterization of new types of mannosylerythritol lipids as biosurfactants produced from soybean oil by a basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma shanxiensis.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These show not only the excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In course of MEL production from soybean oil by P. shanxiensis, new extracellular glycolipids (more hydrophilic than the previously reported MELs) were found in the culture medium. As a result of the structural characterization, the glycolipids were identified as a mixture of 4-O-[(2', 4'-di-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol and 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol. Interestingly, the new MELs possessed a much shorter chain (C(2) or C(4)) at the C-2' position of the mannose moiety compared to the MELs hitherto reported, which mainly possess a medium-chain acid (C(10)) at the position. They would thus show higher hydrophilicity and/or water-solubility, and expand the development of the environmentally advanced yeast biosurfactants. PMID:17898510

  10. Lipase-catalyzed acylation of microbial mannosylerythritol lipids (biosurfactants) and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Recke, Verena K; Beyrle, Catharina; Gerlitzki, Melanie; Hausmann, Rudolf; Syldatk, Christoph; Wray, Victor; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Lang, Siegmund

    2013-05-24

    Culturing Pseudozyma aphidis on glucose as main carbon source and soybean oil as co-substrate the mannosylerythritol lipids MEL-A and MEL-B were produced. Based on their excellent surface/interfacial active behavior they possess a high potential among all known biosurfactants. The components of a microbial MEL mixture were purified by medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) and were used as substrates for in vitro enzymatic modifications. Lipase-catalyzed acylations of MEL-A and MEL-B with uncommon fatty acids from other microbial glycolipids-3-hydroxydecanoic acid from rhamnolipids and 17-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid from classical sophorolipids-yielded functionalized products at the C-1 position of the erythritol. The novel products were purified by MPLC and their structures elucidated by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In physicochemical characterization experiments two of the three new glycoconjugates lowered the surface tension of water from 72 mN m(-1) to 27-38 mN m(-1). Moreover the novel compounds inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria and showed a potential for anti-tumor-promoting activity. PMID:23584591

  11. Formation of the two novel glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylribitol lipid and mannosylarabitol lipid, by Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752T.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-11-01

    In order to develop novel glycolipid biosurfactants, Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752(T), which is known as a producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), was cultivated using different sugar alcohols with the presence of vegetable oil. When cultivated in a medium containing 4 % (w/v) olive oil and 4 % D-ribitol or D-arabitol, the yeast strain provided different glycolipids, compared to the case of no sugar alcohol. On TLC, both of the extracted glycolipid fractions gave two major spots corresponding to MEL-A (di-acetylated MEL) and MEL-B (mono-acetylated MEL). Based on (1)H NMR analysis, one glycolipid was identified as MEL-A, but the other was not MEL-B. On high-performance liquid chromatography after acid hydrolysis, the unknown glycolipid from the D-ribitol culture provided mainly two peaks identical to D-mannose and D-ribitol, and the other unknown glycolipid from the D-arabitol culture did two peaks identical to D-mannose and D-arabitol. Accordingly, the two unknown glycolipids were identified as mannosylribitol lipid (MRL) and mannosylarabitol lipid (MAL), respectively. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of MRL were 1.6 × 10(-6) M and 23.7 mN/m, and those of MAL were 1.5 × 10(-6) M and 24.2 mN/m, respectively. These surface-tension-lowering activities were significantly higher compared to conventional MEL. Furthermore, on a water-penetration scan, MRL and MAL efficiently formed not only the lamella phase (L(α)) but also the myelins at a wide range of concentrations, indicating their excellent self-assembling properties and high hydrophilicity. The present two glycolipids should thus facilitate the application of biosurfactants as new functional materials. PMID:22722912

  12. Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Fungus Pseudozyma aphidis DSM70725, an Efficient Producer of Biosurfactant Mannosylerythritol Lipids.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Stefan; Guenther, Michael; Grumaz, Christian; Rupp, Steffen; Zibek, Susanne; Sohn, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Pseudozyma aphidis is an efficient producer of mannosylerythritol lipids exceeding concentrations of >100 g/liter from renewable feed stocks. Additionally, a biosurfactant cellobiose lipid is also secreted during nitrogen limitation. Here, we describe the sequencing of P. aphidis to unravel the genomic basis of biosurfactant metabolism in P. aphidis. PMID:24526638

  13. Genome Sequence of the Basidiomycetous Fungus Pseudozyma aphidis DSM70725, an Efficient Producer of Biosurfactant Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Stefan; Guenther, Michael; Grumaz, Christian; Rupp, Steffen; Zibek, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Pseudozyma aphidis is an efficient producer of mannosylerythritol lipids exceeding concentrations of >100 g/liter from renewable feed stocks. Additionally, a biosurfactant cellobiose lipid is also secreted during nitrogen limitation. Here, we describe the sequencing of P. aphidis to unravel the genomic basis of biosurfactant metabolism in P. aphidis. PMID:24526638

  14. Naturally engineered glycolipid biosurfactants leading to distinctive self-assembled structures.

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomohiro; Ohta, Noboru; Inoue, Katsuaki; Yagi, Naoto; Negishi, Hideyuki; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2006-03-01

    Self-assembling properties of "natural" glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosyl-erythritol lipids A and B (MEL-A, MEL-B), which are abundantly produced from yeast strains, were investigated by using the fluorescence-probe method, dynamic light-scattering (DLS) analysis, freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM), and synchrotron small/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) analysis, among other methods. Both MEL-A and MEL-B exhibit excellent self-assembly properties at extremely low concentrations; they self-assemble into large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) just above their critical-aggregation concentration (CAC). The CAC(I) value was found to be 4.0x10(-6) M for MEL-A and 6.0x10(-6) M for MEL-B. Moreover, the self-assembled structure of MEL-A above a CAC(II) value of 2.0x10(-5) M was found to drastically change into sponge structures (L3) composed of a network of randomly connected bilayers that are usually obtained from a complicated multicomponent "synthetic" surfactant system. Interestingly, the average water-channel diameter of the sponge structure was 100 nm. This is relatively large compared with those obtained from "synthetic" surfactant systems. In addition, MEL-B, which has a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position on mannose instead of an acetyl group, gives only one CAC; the self-assembled structure of MEL-B seems to gradually move from LUV to multilamellar vesicles (MLV) with lattice constants of 4.4 nm, depending on the concentration. Furthermore, the lyotropic-liquid-crystal-phase observation at high concentrations demonstrates the formation of an inverted hexagonal phase (H2) for MEL-A, together with a lamella phase (L(alpha)) for MEL-B, indicating a difference between MEL-A and MEL-B molecules in the spontaneous curvature of the assemblies. These results clearly show that the difference in spontaneous curvature caused by the single acetyl group on the head group probably decides the direction of self-assembly of glycolipid biosurfactants. The

  15. Functions and potential applications of glycolipid biosurfactants--from energy-saving materials to gene delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Dai; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakahara, Tadaatsu

    2002-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) produced by various microorganisms show unique properties (e.g., mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared to their chemical counterparts. The numerous advantages of BS have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries but in environmental protection and energy-saving technology as well. Glycolipid BS are the most promising, due to high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are glycolipid BS produced by a yeast Candida antarctrica, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukemia cells. MEL also show a potential anti-agglomeration effect on ice particles in ice slurry used for cold thermal storage. Recently, the cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BS should broaden its applications in new advanced technologies. The current status of research and development on glycolipid BS, especially their function and potential applications, is discussed. PMID:16233292

  16. Glycolipids produced by Rouxiella sp. DSM 100043 and isolation of the biosurfactants via foam-fractionation.

    PubMed

    Kügler, Johannes H; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Hansen, Silla H; Völp, Annika R; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Kühl, Boris; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Luy, Burkhard; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms produce a great variety of secondary metabolites that feature surface active and bioactive properties. Those possessing an amphiphilc molecular structure are also termed biosurfactant and are of great interest due to their often unique properties. Rouxiella sp. DSM 100043 is a gram negative enterobacter isolated from peat-bog soil and described as a new biosurfactant producing species in this study. Rouxiella sp. produces glycolipids, biosurfactants with a carbohydrate moiety in its structure. This study characterizes the composition of glycolipids with different hydrophobicities that have been produced during cultivation in a bioreactor and been extracted and purified from separated foam. Using two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the hydrophilic moieties are elucidated as glucose with various acylation sites and as talose within the most polar glycolipids. The presence of 3' hydroxy lauroleic acid as well as myristic and myristoleic acid has been detected. PMID:26698314

  17. Control of enzymatic degradation of biodegradable polymers by treatment with biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, derived from Pseudozyma spp. yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    Cutinase-like esterase from the yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) shows strong degradation activity in an agricultural biodegradable plastic (BP) model of mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). P. antarctica is known to abundantly produce a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). Here, the effects of MEL on PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs were investigated. Based on PBSA dispersion solution, the degradation of PBSA particles by PaE was inhibited in the presence of MEL. MEL behavior on BP substrates was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a sensor chip coated with polymer films. The positive SPR signal shift indicated that MEL readily adsorbed and spread onto the surface of a BP film. The amount of BP degradation by PaE was monitored based on the negative SPR signal shift and was decreased 1.7-fold by MEL pretreatment. Furthermore, the shape of PBSA mulch films in PaE-containing solution was maintained with MEL pretreatment, whereas untreated films were almost completely degraded and dissolved. These results suggest that MEL covering the surface of BP film inhibits adsorption of PaE and PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs. We applied the above results to control the microbial degradation of BP mulch films. MEL pretreatment significantly inhibited BP mulch film degradation by both PaE solution and BP-degradable microorganism. Moreover, the degradation of these films was recovered after removal of the coated MEL by ethanol treatment. These results demonstrate that the biodegradation of BP films can be readily and reversibly controlled by a physical approach using MEL. PMID:26512003

  18. Mannosylerythritol lipids: a review.

    PubMed

    Arutchelvi, Joseph Irudayaraj; Bhaduri, Sumit; Uppara, Parasu Veera; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-12-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are surface active compounds that belong to the glycolipid class of biosurfactants (BSs). MELs are produced by Pseudozyma sp. as a major component while Ustilago sp. produces them as a minor component. Although MELs have been known for over five decades, they recently regained attention due to their environmental compatibility, mild production conditions, structural diversity, self-assembling properties and versatile biochemical functions. In this review, the MEL producing microorganisms, the production conditions, their applications, their diverse structures and self-assembling properties are discussed. The biosynthetic pathways and the regulatory mechanisms involved in the production of MEL are also explained here. PMID:18716809

  19. The role of PaAAC1 encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in the biosynthesis of extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, in the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ito, Emi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-07-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica produces large amounts of the glycolipid biosurfactants known as mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. A gene homologous with a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier was dominantly expressed in P. antarctica under MEL-producing conditions on the basis of previous gene expression analysis. The gene encoding the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of P. antarctica (PaAAC1) contained a putative open reading frame of 954 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 317 amino acids. The deduced translation product shared high identity of 66%, 70%, 69%, 74%, 75% and 52% with the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AAC1), S. cerevisiae (AAC2), S. cerevisiae (AAC3), Kluyveromyces lactis (KlAAC), Neurospora crassa (NcAAC) and human (ANT1), respectively, and conserved the consensus sequences of all ADP/ATP carrier proteins. The gene expression by introducing a plasmid pUXV1-PaAAC1 into the yeast cells increased the MEL production. In addition, the expression of PaAAC1 in which the conserved arginine and leucine required for ATP transport activity were replaced with isoleucine and serine, respectively, failed to increase MEL production. Accordingly, these results suggest that PaAAC1 encoding a mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier should be involved in MEL biosynthesis in the yeast. PMID:20146402

  20. Biosurfactants: a sustainable replacement for chemical surfactants?

    PubMed

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-09-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants produced by bacteria and yeasts provide significant opportunities to replace chemical surfactants with sustainable biologically produced alternatives in bulk commercial products such as laundry detergents and surface cleaners. Sophorolipids are already available in sufficient yield to make their use feasible while rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids require further development. The ability to tailor the biosurfactant produced to the specific needs of the product formulation will be an important future step. PMID:22618240

  1. Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma antarctica Producing Extracellular Glycolipids, Mannosylerythritol Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Hiroko; Ito, Emi; Machida, Masayuki; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica is a non-pathogenic phyllosphere yeast known as an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), multi-functional extracellular glycolipids, from vegetable oils. To clarify the genetic characteristics of P. antarctica, we analyzed the 18 Mb genome of P. antarctica T-34. On the basis of KOG analysis, the number of genes (219 genes) categorized into lipid transport and metabolism classification in P. antarctica was one and a half times larger than that of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (140 genes). The gene encoding an ATP/citrate lyase (ACL) related to acetyl-CoA synthesis conserved in oleaginous strains was found in P. antarctica genome: the single ACL gene possesses the four domains identical to that of the human gene, whereas the other oleaginous ascomycetous species have the two genes covering the four domains. P. antarctica genome exhibited a remarkable degree of synteny to U. maydis genome, however, the comparison of the gene expression profiles under the culture on the two carbon sources, glucose and soybean oil, by the DNA microarray method revealed that transcriptomes between the two species were significantly different. In P. antarctica, expression of the gene sets relating fatty acid metabolism were markedly up-regulated under the oily conditions compared with glucose. Additionally, MEL biosynthesis cluster of P. antarctica was highly expressed regardless of the carbon source as compared to U. maydis. These results strongly indicate that P. antarctica has an oleaginous nature which is relevant to its non-pathogenic and MEL-overproducing characteristics. The analysis and dataset contribute to stimulate the development of improved strains with customized properties for high yield production of functional bio-based materials. PMID:24586250

  2. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica producing extracellular glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Ito, Emi; Machida, Masayuki; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica is a non-pathogenic phyllosphere yeast known as an excellent producer of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), multi-functional extracellular glycolipids, from vegetable oils. To clarify the genetic characteristics of P. antarctica, we analyzed the 18 Mb genome of P. antarctica T-34. On the basis of KOG analysis, the number of genes (219 genes) categorized into lipid transport and metabolism classification in P. antarctica was one and a half times larger than that of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (140 genes). The gene encoding an ATP/citrate lyase (ACL) related to acetyl-CoA synthesis conserved in oleaginous strains was found in P. antarctica genome: the single ACL gene possesses the four domains identical to that of the human gene, whereas the other oleaginous ascomycetous species have the two genes covering the four domains. P. antarctica genome exhibited a remarkable degree of synteny to U. maydis genome, however, the comparison of the gene expression profiles under the culture on the two carbon sources, glucose and soybean oil, by the DNA microarray method revealed that transcriptomes between the two species were significantly different. In P. antarctica, expression of the gene sets relating fatty acid metabolism were markedly up-regulated under the oily conditions compared with glucose. Additionally, MEL biosynthesis cluster of P. antarctica was highly expressed regardless of the carbon source as compared to U. maydis. These results strongly indicate that P. antarctica has an oleaginous nature which is relevant to its non-pathogenic and MEL-overproducing characteristics. The analysis and dataset contribute to stimulate the development of improved strains with customized properties for high yield production of functional bio-based materials. PMID:24586250

  3. Packing density of glycolipid biosurfactant monolayers give a significant effect on their binding affinity toward immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomohiro; Masuda, Yuma; Ito, Seya; Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) is one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants, and abundantly produced by Pseudozyma yeasts. MEL-A gives not only excellent self-assembling properties but also a high binding affinity toward human immunoglobulin G (HIgG). In this study, three kinds of MEL-A were prepared from methyl myristate [MEL-A (m)], olive oil [MEL-A (o)], and soybean oil [MEL-A (s)], and the effect of interfacial properties of each MEL-A monolayer on the binding affinity toward HIgG was investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the measurement of surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherms. Based on GC-MS analysis, the main fatty acids were C(8) and C(10) acids in all MEL-A, and the content of unsaturated fatty acids was 0% for MEL-A (m), 9.1% for MEL-A (o), 46.3% for MEL-A (s), respectively. Interestingly, the acid content significantly influenced on their binding affinity, and the monolayer of MEL-A (o) gave a higher binding affinity than that of MEL-A (m) and MEL-A (s). Moreover, the mixed MEL-A (o)/ MEL-A (s) monolayer prepared from 1/1 molar ratio, which comprised of 27.8% of unsaturated fatty acids, indicated the highest binding affinity. At the air/water interface, MEL-A (o) monolayer exhibited a phase transition at 13 degrees C from a liquid condensed monolayer to a liquid expanded monolayer, and the area per molecule significantly expanded above 13 degrees C, while the amount of HIgG bound to the liquid expanded monolayer was much higher than that bound to liquid condensed monolayer. The binding affinity of MEL-A toward HIgG is thus likely to closely relate to the monolayer packing density, and may be partly controlled by temperature. PMID:18622124

  4. Kinetic studies on the interactions between glycolipid biosurfactant assembled monolayers and various classes of immunoglobulins using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Ito, Seya; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-08-01

    Kinetic studies on the interactions between self-assembled monolayers of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are glycolipid biosurfactants abundantly produced by microorganisms, and various classes of immunoglobulins including human IgG, IgA, and IgM were performed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The effect of the MEL structure on the binding behavior of HIgG was examined. Assembled monolayers of MEL-A having two acetyl groups on the headgroup gave a high affinity (K(d)=1.7x10(-6)M) toward HIgG, while those of MEL-B or MEL-C having only one acetyl group at C-6' or C-4' position gave little affinity. Our kinetic analysis revealed that the binding manner of HIgG, HIgA (K(d)=2.4x10(-7)M), and HIgM (K(d)=2.2x10(-7)M) to the assembled monolayers of MEL-A is not the monovalent mode but the bivalent mode, and both the first and second rate association constants (k(a1), k(a2)) increase with an increase in the number of antibody binding sites, while those for dissociation (k(d1), k(d2)) changed little. Moreover, we succeeded in directly observing great amounts of HIgG, HIgA, and HIgM bound to MEL-A monolayers using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Finally, we found that MEL-A assembled monolayer binds toward various IgG derived from mouse, pig, rabbit, horse, goat, rat, and bovine as well as human IgG (HIgG), and the only exception was sheep IgG. These results clearly demonstrate that MEL-A assembled monolayers would be useful as noble affinity ligand system for various immunoglobulins. PMID:17428643

  5. Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M

    2009-08-01

    Cosmetic surfactant performs detergency, wetting, emulsifying, solubilizing, dispersing and foaming effects. Adverse reactions of chemical synthesis surfactant have an effect on environment and humans, particularly severe in long term. Biodegradability, low toxicity and ecological acceptability which are the benefits of naturally derived surfactant that promises cosmetic safety are, therefore, highly on demand. Biosurfactant producible from microorganisms exhibiting potential surface properties suitable for cosmetic applications especially incorporate with their biological activities. Sophorolipids, rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids are the most widely used glycolipids biosurfactant in cosmetics. Literatures and patents relevant to these three glycolipids reviewed were emphasizing on the cosmetic applications including personal care products presenting the cosmetic efficiency, efficacy and economy benefits of glycolipids biosurfactant. PMID:19496839

  6. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek D N; Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric; Stavrinides, John

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID:27303689

  7. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Derek D. N.; Nickzad, Arvin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID

  8. [Naturally engineered glycolipid biosurfactants leading to distinctive self-assembling properties].

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-05-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) are functional amphiphilic compounds produced by a variety of microorganisms. They show unique properties (e.g. mild production conditions, lower toxicity, and environmental compatibility) compared to chemically synthesized counterparts. The numerous advantages of BS have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries but in energy and environmental technologies as well. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising BS known, and are produced at yields of over 100 g/l from vegetable oils by yeast strains belonging to the genus Pseudozyma. MELs exhibit excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties leading to the formation of different lyotropic liquid crystals such as sponge (L(3)), bicontinuous cubic (V(2)) and lamella (L(alpha)) phases. They also show versatile biochemical actions, including antitumor and differentiation-inducing activities against human leukemia cells, rat pheochromocytoma cells and mouse melanoma cells. MELs also display high binding affinity toward different immunoglobulins and lectins, indicating great potentials as new affinity ligands for the glycoproteins. More significantly, the cationic liposomes bearing MELs increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells via membrane fusion processes. The yeast BS should thus be novel nanobiomaterials, and broaden their applications in various advanced technologies. PMID:18451615

  9. Novel characteristics of sophorolipids, yeast glycolipid biosurfactants, as biodegradable low-foaming surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshihiko; Ryu, Mizuyuki; Oda, Yuka; Igarashi, Keisuke; Nagatsuka, Asami; Furuta, Taro; Sugiura, Masaki

    2009-08-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are a family of glycolipid type biosurfactants, which are largely produced by the non-pathogenic yeast, Candida bombicola. In order to investigate the possibility of SLs for industrial use, here we examined the interfacial activities, cytotoxicity and biodegradability of SLs, and compared these properties with those of two lipopeptide type biosurfactants (surfactin and arthrofactin), sodium laurate (soap, SP) and four kinds of chemically synthesized surfactants including two block-copolymer nonionic surfactants (BPs), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (AE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It was indicated that SLs had extremely low-foaming properties and high detergency comparable with commercially available low-foaming BPs. These interfacial activities of SLs were maintained under 100 ppm water hardness. Cytotoxicity of SLs on human keratinocytes was the same as surfactin, which has already been commercialized as cosmetic material, but higher than BPs. Moreover, biodegradability of SLs using the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals (301C, Modified MITI Test) displayed that SLs can be classified as "readily" biodegradable chemicals, which are defined as chemicals that are degraded 60% within 28 days under specified test methods. We observed 61% degradation of SLs on the eighth day of cultivation. Our results indicate that SLs are low-foaming surfactants with high detergency, which also exhibit both low cytotoxicity and readily biodegradable properties. PMID:19619862

  10. Analytical characterization of mannosylerythritol lipid biosurfactants produced by biosynthesis based on feedstock sources from the agrofood industry.

    PubMed

    Onghena, Matthias; Geens, Tinne; Goossens, Eliane; Wijnants, Marc; Pico, Yolanda; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian; Lemiere, Filip

    2011-05-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are currently one of the most promising biosurfactants because of their multifunctional applications and good biodegradability. Depending on the yeast strain and the feedstock used for the fermentation process, structural variations in the MELs obtained occur. Therefore, MELs produced by Pseudozyma aphidis DSMZ 70725 with a soybean oil feedstock were characterized by chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS). Column chromatography with silica provided fractionation of the different types of MEL. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with MS was employed for the analysis of the MEL fractions and crude mixtures. A characteristic MS pattern for the MELs was obtained and indications of the presence of new MEL homologues, showing the incorporation of longer and more unsaturated fatty acid chains than previously reported, were given. Gas chromatography-MS analysis confirmed the presence of such unsaturated fatty acid chains in the MELs, demonstrating the incorporation of fatty acids with lengths ranging from C(8) to C(14) and with up to two unsaturations per chain. The incorporation of C(16) and C(18) fatty acid chains requires further investigation. MS/MS data allowed the unambiguous identification of the fatty acids present in the MELs. The product ion spectra also revealed the presence of a new isomeric class of MELs, bearing an acetyl group on the erythritol moiety. PMID:21318245

  11. Production of mannosylerythritol lipids and their application in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-06-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants abundantly produced by different basidiomycetous yeasts such as Pseudozyma, and show not only excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. These features of MELs make their application in new technology areas possible. Recently, the structural and functional variety of MELs was considerably expanded by advanced microbial screening methods. Different types of MELs bearing different hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts have been reported. The genes responsible for MEL biosynthesis were identified, and their genetic study is now in progress, aiming to control the chemical structure. The excellent properties leading to practical cosmetic ingredients, i.e., moisturization of dry skin, repair of damaged hair, activation of fibroblast and papilla cells and antioxidant and protective effects in skin cells, have been demonstrated on the yeast glycolipid biosurfactants. In this review, the current status of research and development on MELs, particularly the commercial application in cosmetics, is described. PMID:23584242

  12. Microbial biosurfactants: challenges and opportunities for future exploitation.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-11-01

    The drive for industrial sustainability has pushed biosurfactants to the top of the agenda of many companies. Biosurfactants offer the possibility of replacing chemical surfactants, produced from nonrenewable resources, with alternatives produced from cheap renewable feedstocks. Biosurfactants are also attractive because they are less damaging to the environment yet are robust enough for industrial use. The most promising biosurfactants at the present time are the glycolipids, sophorolipids produced by Candida yeasts, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, and rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas. Despite the current enthusiasm for these compounds several residual problems remain. This review highlights remaining problems and indicates the prospects for imminent commercial exploitation of a new generation of microbial biosurfactants. PMID:22901730

  13. Production of different types of mannosylerythritol lipids as biosurfactants by the newly isolated yeast strains belonging to the genus Pseudozyma.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kakugawa, Koji; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-06-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are abundantly secreted by yeasts, are one of the most promising biosurfactants known. To obtain various types of MEL and to attain a broad range of applications for them, screening of novel producers was undertaken. Thirteen strains of yeasts were successfully isolated as potential MEL producers; they showed high production yields of MEL of around 20 g l(-1) from 40 g l(-1) of soybean oil. Based on the taxonomical study, all the strains were classified to be the genus Pseudozyma. It is interesting to note that they were categorized into three groups according to their production patterns of MEL. The first group, which included 11 strains taxonomically closely related to high-level MEL producers such as Pseudozyma antarctica and Pseudozyma aphidis, mainly produced 4-O-[(4',6'-di-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-A) together with 4-O-[(6'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-B) and 4-O-[(4'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-C) as the minor components. The second group of one strain, which was related to Pseudozyma tsukubaensis, predominantly produced MEL-B. The third group of one strain, which was closely related to Pseudozyma hubeiensis, mainly produced MEL-C; this is the first observation of the efficient production of MEL-C from soybean oil. Moreover, the major fatty acids of the obtained MEL-C were C(6), C(12), and C(16) acids, and were considerably different from those of the other MEL hitherto reported. The biosynthetic manner for MEL is thus likely to significantly vary among the Pseudozyma strains; the newly isolated strains would enable us to attain a large-scale production of MEL and to obtain various types of MEL with different hydrophobic structures. PMID:17505770

  14. Genetic analysis of biosurfactant production in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Hewald, Sandra; Josephs, Katharina; Bölker, Michael

    2005-06-01

    The dimorphic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis produces large amounts of surface-active compounds under conditions of nitrogen starvation. These biosurfactants consist of derivatives of two classes of amphipathic glycolipids. Ustilagic acids are cellobiose lipids in which the disaccharide is O-glycosidically linked to 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. Ustilipids are mannosylerythritol lipids derived from acylated beta-d-mannopyranosyl-d-erythritol. Whereas the chemical structure of these biosurfactants has been determined, the genetic basis for their biosynthesis and regulation is largely unknown. Here we report the first identification of two genes, emt1 and cyp1, that are essential for the production of fungal extracellular glycolipids. emt1 is required for mannosylerythritol lipid production and codes for a protein with similarity to prokaryotic glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of macrolide antibiotics. We suggest that Emt1 catalyzes the synthesis of mannosyl-d-erythritol by transfer of GDP-mannose. Deletion of the gene cyp1 resulted in complete loss of ustilagic acid production. Cyp1 encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase which is highly related to a family of plant fatty acid hydroxylases. Therefore we assume that Cyp1 is directly involved in the biosynthesis of the unusual 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. We could show that mannosylerythritol lipid production is responsible for hemolytic activity on blood agar, whereas ustilagic acid secretion is required for long-range pheromone recognition. The mutants described here allow for the first time a genetic analysis of glycolipid production in fungi. PMID:15932999

  15. Genetic Analysis of Biosurfactant Production in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Hewald, Sandra; Josephs, Katharina; Bölker, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The dimorphic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis produces large amounts of surface-active compounds under conditions of nitrogen starvation. These biosurfactants consist of derivatives of two classes of amphipathic glycolipids. Ustilagic acids are cellobiose lipids in which the disaccharide is O-glycosidically linked to 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. Ustilipids are mannosylerythritol lipids derived from acylated β-d-mannopyranosyl-d-erythritol. Whereas the chemical structure of these biosurfactants has been determined, the genetic basis for their biosynthesis and regulation is largely unknown. Here we report the first identification of two genes, emt1 and cyp1, that are essential for the production of fungal extracellular glycolipids. emt1 is required for mannosylerythritol lipid production and codes for a protein with similarity to prokaryotic glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of macrolide antibiotics. We suggest that Emt1 catalyzes the synthesis of mannosyl-d-erythritol by transfer of GDP-mannose. Deletion of the gene cyp1 resulted in complete loss of ustilagic acid production. Cyp1 encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase which is highly related to a family of plant fatty acid hydroxylases. Therefore we assume that Cyp1 is directly involved in the biosynthesis of the unusual 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. We could show that mannosylerythritol lipid production is responsible for hemolytic activity on blood agar, whereas ustilagic acid secretion is required for long-range pheromone recognition. The mutants described here allow for the first time a genetic analysis of glycolipid production in fungi. PMID:15932999

  16. Mannosylerythritol lipids: production and applications.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are a glycolipid class of biosurfactants produced by a variety yeast and fungal strains that exhibit excellent interfacial and biochemical properties. MEL-producing fungi were identified using an efficient screening method for the glycolipid production and taxonomical classification on the basis of ribosomal RNA sequences. MEL production is limited primarily to the genus Pseudozyma, with significant variability among the MEL structures produced by each species. Outside of Pseudozyma, one recently isolated strain, Ustilago scitaminea, has been shown to exhibit abundant MEL-B production from sugarcane juice. Structural analyses of these compounds suggest a role for MELs in numerous cosmetic applications. MELs act as effective topical moisturizers and can repair damaged hair. Furthermore, these compounds have been shown to exhibit both protective and healing activities, to activate fibroblasts and papilla cells, and to act as natural antioxidants. In this review, we provide a brief summary of MEL research over the past few decades, focusing on the identification of MEL-producing fungi, the structural characterization of MELs, the use of alternative compounds as a primary carbon source, and the use of these compounds in cosmetic applications. PMID:25748373

  17. Biosurfactant-producing yeasts widely inhabit various vegetables and fruits.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Furuta, Yoshifumi; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of biosurfactant-producing yeasts from food materials was accomplished. By a combination of a new drop collapse method and thin-layer chromatography, 48 strains were selected as glycolipid biosurfactant producers from 347 strains, which were randomly isolated from various vegetables and fruits. Of the producers, 69% were obtained from vegetables of the Brassica family. Of the 48 producers, 15 strains gave relatively high yields of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), and were identified as Pseudozyma yeasts. These strains produced MELs from olive oil at yields ranging from 8.5 to 24.3 g/L. The best yield coefficient reached 0.49 g/g as to the carbon sources added. Accordingly, MEL producers were isolated at high efficiency from various vegetables and fruits, indicating that biosurfactant producers are widely present in foods. The present results should facilitate their application in the food and related industries. PMID:25036844

  18. Biosurfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosurfactants are surfactants whose common feature is biodegradability, which provides them with a major advantage over the majority of surfactants currently in the market. Biosurfactants are produced from a wide range of raw materials, and manufactured using chemical, enzymatic, microbial, and a c...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Yeast Starmerella bombicola NBRC10243, a Producer of Sophorolipids, Glycolipid Biosurfactants

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Koike, Hideaki; Saika, Azusa; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Starmerella bombicola NBRC10243 is an excellent producer of sophorolipids (SLs) from various feedstocks. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. bombicola NBRC10243. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into the properties of this yeast that make it superior for use in the production of functional glycolipids and biomolecules, leading to the further development of S. bombicola NBRC10243 for industrial applications. PMID:25814600

  20. Effect of Fe nanoparticle on growth and glycolipid biosurfactant production under solid state culture by marine Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential element in several pathways of microbial metabolism, and therefore low iron toxicity is expected on the usage of Fe nanoparticles (NPs). This study aims to determine the effect of Fe NPs on biosurfactant production by marine actinobacterium Nocardiopsis sp. MSA13A under solid state culture. Foam method was used in the production of Fe NPs which were long and fiber shaped in nature. Results The SEM observation showed non toxic nature of Fe NPs as no change in the morphology of the filamentous structure of Nocardiopsis MSA13A. The production of biosurfactant by Nocardiopsis MSA13A under solid state culture supplemented with Fe NPs increased to 80% over control. The biosurfactant produced by Nocardiopsis MSA13A was characterized as glycolipid derivative which effectively disrupted the pre-formed biofilm of Vibrio pathogen. Conclusion The use of metal NPs as supplement would reduce the impact of non-metallic ions of the metal salts in a fermentation process. This would ultimately useful to achieve greener production process for biosurfactants. The present results are first report on the optimization of biosurfactant production under SSC using Fe NPs. PMID:24885470

  1. pH-triggered formation of nanoribbons from yeast-derived glycolipid biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Cuvier, Anne-Sophie; Berton, Jan; Stevens, Christian V; Fadda, Giulia C; Babonneau, Florence; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Baccile, Niki

    2014-06-14

    In the present paper, we show that the saturated form of acidic sophorolipids, a family of industrially scaled bolaform microbial glycolipids, unexpectedly forms chiral nanofibers only at pH below 7.5. In particular, we illustrate that this phenomenon derives from a subtle cooperative effect of molecular chirality, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces and steric hindrance. The pH-responsive behaviour was shown by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), pH-titration and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) while the nanoscale chirality was evidenced by Circular Dichroism (CD) and cryo Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM). The packing of sophorolipids within the ribbons was studied using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and 2D (1)H-(1)H through-space correlations via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance under very fast (67 kHz) Magic Angle Spinning (MAS-NMR). PMID:24728486

  2. Production and identification of mannosylerythritol lipid-A homologs from the ustilaginomycetous yeast Pseudozyma aphidis ZJUDM34.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin-Lin; Dong, Ya-Chen; Fan, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Qi-He

    2014-06-17

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are mainly produced by strains of the genus Pseudozyma and by Ustilago maydis. These glycolipid biosurfactants exhibit not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile bioactivities. Mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) is worth investigating due to its self-assembling property. In this work, crude MELs were produced by resting Pseudozyma aphidis ZJUDM34 cells using different culture media. MEL-A fractions were isolated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that MEL-A homologs had long unsaturated fatty acid chains, and the chain lengths range from C8 to C20. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to confirm the chemical structures of the MEL-A homologs. Fermentation medium without NaNO3 and medium with manganese ions enhanced MEL-A production by Pseudozyma aphidis ZJUDM34. PMID:24814655

  3. Production of a novel mannosylerythritol lipid containing a hydroxy fatty acid from castor oil by Pseudozyma tsukubaensis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by various yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma, which exhibit excellent surface activities as well as versatile biochemical activities. A study on P. tsukubaensis NBRC1940 as a mono-acetylated MEL (MEL-B) producer revealed that the yeast accumulated a novel glycolipid from castor oil at a yield of 22 g/L. Its main chemical structure was identified as 1-O-β-(2'-O-alka(e)noyl-3'-O-hydroxyalka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-D-erythritol designated as "new MEL-B." The new MEL-B, comprising a hydroxy fatty acid had a reduced surface tension of 28.5 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 2.2×10⁻⁵ M in water. The observed CMC was 5-fold higher than that of conventional MEL-B. When conventional MEL-B was dispersed in water, it self-assembled to form the lamellar (L(α)) phase at a wide range of concentrations. In contrast, new MEL-B formed spherical oily droplets similar to the sponge (L₃) phase, which is observed in aqueous solutions of di-acetylated MEL (MEL-A). The data suggest that the newly identified MEL-B is likely to have a different structure and interfacial properties compared to the conventional MELs, and could facilitate an increase in the application of glycolipid biosurfactants. PMID:23728329

  4. Biosynthesis and skin health applications of antimicrobial glycolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial-produced glycolipids (MGLs) such as sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs), and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are amphiphilic molecules, and thus have been widely explored for use as surfactants/detergents, emulsifiers, and lubricants. One major hindrance to their widespread commercia...

  5. Characterization and Inducing Melanoma Cell Apoptosis Activity of Mannosylerythritol Lipids-A Produced from Pseudozyma aphidis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Linlin; Li, Hongji; Niu, Yongwu; Chen, Qihe

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are natural glycolipid biosurfactants which have potential applications in the fields of food, cosmetic and medicine. In this study, MELs were produced from vegetable oil by Pseudozyma aphidis. Their structural data through LC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis revealed that MEL-A with two acetyls was the major compound and the identified homologs of MEL-A contained a length of C8 to C14 fatty acid chains. This glycolipid exhibited a surface tension of 27.69 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC), self-assembling into particles in the water solution. It was observed to induce cell growth-inhibition and apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Further quantitative RT-PCR analysis and western blotting revealed an increasing tendency of both mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-12, CHOP, GRP78 and Caspase-3, and a down-regulation of protein Bcl-2. Combined with the up regulation of signaling IRE1 and ATF6, it can be speculated that MEL-A-induced B16 melanoma cell apoptosis was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). PMID:26828792

  6. Characterization and Inducing Melanoma Cell Apoptosis Activity of Mannosylerythritol Lipids-A Produced from Pseudozyma aphidis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Linlin; Li, Hongji; Niu, Yongwu; Chen, Qihe

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are natural glycolipid biosurfactants which have potential applications in the fields of food, cosmetic and medicine. In this study, MELs were produced from vegetable oil by Pseudozyma aphidis. Their structural data through LC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis revealed that MEL-A with two acetyls was the major compound and the identified homologs of MEL-A contained a length of C8 to C14 fatty acid chains. This glycolipid exhibited a surface tension of 27.69 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC), self-assembling into particles in the water solution. It was observed to induce cell growth-inhibition and apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Further quantitative RT-PCR analysis and western blotting revealed an increasing tendency of both mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-12, CHOP, GRP78 and Caspase-3, and a down-regulation of protein Bcl-2. Combined with the up regulation of signaling IRE1 and ATF6, it can be speculated that MEL-A-induced B16 melanoma cell apoptosis was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). PMID:26828792

  7. Identification of the gene PaEMT1 for biosynthesis of mannosylerythritol lipids in the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ito, Emi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Takegawa, Kaoru; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-11-01

    The yeast Pseudozyma antarctica produces a large amount of glycolipid biosurfactants known as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. To investigate the biosynthesis of MELs in the yeast, we recently reported expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and estimated genes expressing under MEL production conditions. Among the genes, a contiguous sequence of 938 bp, PA_004, showed high sequence identity to the gene emt1, encoding an erythritol/mannose transferase of Ustilago maydis, which is essential for MEL biosynthesis. The predicted translation product of the extended PA_004 containing the two introns and a stop codon was aligned with Emt1 of U. maydis. The predicted amino acid sequence shared high identity (72%) with Emt1 of U. maydis, although the amino-terminal was incomplete. To identify the gene as PaEMT1 encoding an erythritol/mannose transferase of P. antarctica, the gene-disrupted strain was developed by the method for targeted gene disruption, using hygromycin B resistance as the selection marker. The obtained ΔPaEMT1 strain failed to produce MELs, while its growth was the same as that of the parental strain. The additional mannosylerythritol into culture allowed ΔPaEMT1 strain to form MELs regardless of the carbon source supplied, indicating a defect of the erythritol/mannose transferase activity. Furthermore, we found that MEL formation is associated with the morphology and low-temperature tolerance of the yeast. PMID:20564650

  8. Biosurfactant gene clusters in eukaryotes: regulation and biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Sophie L K W; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Ciesielska, Katarzyna; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

    2014-04-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are a class of secondary metabolites representing a wide variety of structures that can be produced from renewable feedstock by a wide variety of micro-organisms. They have (potential) applications in the medical world, personal care sector, mining processes, food industry, cosmetics, crop protection, pharmaceuticals, bio-remediation, household detergents, paper and pulp industry, textiles, paint industries, etc. Especially glycolipid BSs like sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs), mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) and cellobioselipids (CBLs) have been described to provide significant opportunities to (partially) replace chemical surfactants. The major two factors currently limiting the penetration of BSs into the market are firstly the limited structural variety and secondly the rather high production price linked with the productivity. One of the keys to resolve the above mentioned bottlenecks can be found in the genetic engineering of natural producers. This could not only result in more efficient (economical) recombinant producers, but also in a diversification of the spectrum of available BSs as such resolving both limiting factors at once. Unraveling the genetics behind the biosynthesis of these interesting biological compounds is indispensable for the tinkering, fine tuning and rearrangement of these biological pathways with the aim of obtaining higher yields and a more extensive structural variety. Therefore, this review focuses on recent developments in the investigation of the biosynthesis, genetics and regulation of some important members of the family of the eukaryotic glycolipid BSs (MELs, CBLs and SLs). Moreover, recent biotechnological achievements and the industrial potential of engineered strains are discussed. PMID:24531239

  9. Enhanced biodegradation of lindane using oil-in-water bio-microemulsion stabilized by biosurfactant produced by a new yeast strain, Pseudozyma VITJzN01.

    PubMed

    Abdul Salam, Jaseetha; Das, Nilanjana

    2013-11-28

    Organochlorine pesticide residues continue to remain as a major environmental threat worldwide. Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide widely used as an acaricide in medicine and agriculture. In the present study, a new lindane-degrading yeast strain, Pseudozyma VITJzN01, was identified as a copious producer of glycolipid biosurfactant. The glycolipid structure and type were elucidated by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS analysis. The surface activity and stability of the glycolipid was analyzed. The glycolipids, characterized as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), exhibited excellent surface active properties and the surface tension of water was reduced to 29 mN/m. The glycolipid was stable over a wide range of pH, temperature, and salinity, showing a very low CMC of 25 mg/l. Bio-microemulsion of olive oil-in-water (O/W) was prepared using the purified biosurfactant without addition of any synthetic cosurfactants, for lindane solubilization and enhanced degradation assay in liquid and soil slurry. The O/W bio-microemulsions enhanced the solubility of lindane up to 40-folds. Degradation of lindane (700 mg/l) by VITJzN01 in liquid medium amended with bio-microemulsions was found to be enhanced by 36% in 2 days, compared with degradation in 12 days in the absence of bio-microemulsions. Lindane-spiked soil slurry incubated with bio-microemulsions also showed 20-40% enhanced degradation compared with the treatment with glycolipids or yeast alone. This is the first report on lindane degradation by Pseudozyma sp., and application of bio-microemulsions for enhanced lindane degradation. MEL-stabilized bio-microemulsions can serve as a potential tool for enhanced remediation of diverse lindanecontaminated environments. PMID:23928846

  10. Phase behavior of ternary mannosylerythritol lipid/water/oil systems.

    PubMed

    Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Chavadej, Sumaeth; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-02-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants (BS) abundantly produced from renewable resources by yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. In this study, the ternary phase behaviors of two types of MELs, i.e. MEL-A and MEL-B, mixed with water and oil were investigated at 25 degrees C based on polarized optical microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). When n-decane was used as an oil phase, diacetylated MEL-A formed single-phase water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion in a remarkably large region. MEL-A, with a negative spontaneous curvature, also formed sponge (L(3)), reverse bicontinuous cubic (V(2)), and lamellar (L(alpha)) phases. Meanwhile, monoacetylated MEL-B, with the opposite configuration of the erythritol moiety, gave single-phase bicontinuous microemulsion and showed a triangular phase diagram dominated by the L(alpha) phase, suggesting that MEL-B has an almost zero spontaneous curvature. Moreover, we succeeded in preparation of oil-in-liquid crystal (O/LC) emulsion in the biphasic L(alpha)+O region of the MEL-B/water/n-decane system. The obtained gel-like emulsion was stable for at least 1 month. These results clearly demonstrated that the difference in the number of acetyl group on the headgroup and/or the chirality of the erythritol moiety drastically changed the phase behavior of MELs. Accordingly, these MELs would be quite distinctive from conventional BS hitherto reported, and would have great potential for the preparation of microemulsion and LC-based emulsion. PMID:19070997

  11. Chemical characterization of carbohydrate-based biosurfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  12. Monolayers assembled from a glycolipid biosurfactant from Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica serve as a high-affinity ligand system for immunoglobulin G and M.

    PubMed

    Imura, Tomohiro; Ito, Seya; Azumi, Reiko; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-06-01

    A carbohydrate ligand system has been developed which is composed of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) from Pseudozyma antarctica, serving for human immunoglobulin G and M (HIgG and HIgM). The estimated binding constants from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement were Ka = 9.4 x 10(6) M(-1) for HIgG and 5.4 x 10(6) M(-1) for HIgM, respectively. The binding site was not in the Fc region of immunoglobulin but in the Fab region. Large amounts of HIgG and HIgM bound to MEL-A SAMs were directly observed by atomic force microscopy. PMID:17342348

  13. Microbial production of glycolipids from lipids and related feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycolipids are secondary metabolites produced by many microorganisms. They are environmentally "green" compounds useful as biosurfactants, cosmetic active-ingredients, antimicrobial agents, and enhancers for bioremediation and oil recovery operations. There is a need, however, to lower the cost o...

  14. The diastereomers of mannosylerythritol lipids have different interfacial properties and aqueous phase behavior, reflecting the erythritol configuration.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yanagihara, Takashi; Imura, Tomohiro; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-04-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by yeasts are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants. There are two MEL diastereomers, in which the configurations of the erythritol moieties are opposite. The 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R)-erythritol (S-form) or 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-erythritol (R-form) is the hydrophilic domain. In this study, we prepared S- and R-form MEL homologs with similar fatty acyl groups, and compared their interfacial properties. Among the four diastereomers (S-MEL-B and -D/R-MEL-B and -D), R-form MELs showed a higher critical aggregation concentration and hydrophilicity compared to the corresponding S-form. R-form MELs also efficiently formed relatively large vesicles compared to S-form. Moreover, we estimated the binary phase diagram of the MEL-water system and compared the aqueous phase behavior among the four diastereomers. The present MELs self-assembled into a lamellar (L(α)) structure at all concentration ranges. Meanwhile, the one-phase L(α) region of R-form MELs was wider than those of S-form MELs. R-form MELs may maintain more water between the polar layers in accordance with an extension of the interlayer spacing. These results suggest that the differences in MEL carbohydrate configurations significantly affect interfacial properties, self-assembly, and hydrate ability. PMID:22341919

  15. Efficient production of mannosylerythritol lipids with high hydrophilicity by Pseudozyma hubeiensis KM-59.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kakugawa, Koji; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-02-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising biosurfactants known because of their multifunctionality and biocompatibility. A previously isolated yeast strain, Pseudozyma sp. KM-59, mainly produced a hydrophilic MEL, namely MEL-C (4-O-[4'-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-beta-D: -mannopyranosyl]-D: -erythritol). In this study, we taxonomically characterize the strain in detail and investigate the culture conditions. The genetic, morphological, and physiological characteristics of the strain coincided well with those of Pseudozyma hubeiensis. On batch culture for 4 days under optimal conditions, the yield of all MELs was 21.8 g/l; MEL-C comprised approximately 65% of the all MELs. Consequently, on fed-batch culture for 16 days, the yield reached 76.3 g/l; the volumetric productivity was approximately 4.8 g l(-1) day(-1). We further examined the surface-active and self-assembling properties of the hydrophilic MELs produced by the yeast strain. They showed higher emulsifying activities against soybean oil and a mixture of hydrocarbons (2-methylnaphtarene and hexadecane, 1:1) than the synthetic surfactants tested. On water penetration scans, they efficiently formed lyotropic liquid crystalline phases such as myelines and lamella (L alpha) in a broad range of their concentrations, indicating higher hydrophilicity than conventional MELs. More interestingly, there was little difference in the liquid crystal formation between the crude product and purified MEL-C. The present glycolipids with high hydrophilicity are thus very likely to have practical potential without further purification and to expand the application of MELs especially their use in washing detergents and oil-in-water-type emulsifiers. PMID:18071643

  16. Biotechnological opportunities in biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Geys, Robin; Soetaert, Wim; Van Bogaert, Inge

    2014-12-01

    In the recent years, biosurfactants proved to be an interesting alternative to petrochemically derived surfactants. Two classes of biosurfactants, namely glycolipids and lipopeptides, have attracted significant commercial interest. Despite their environmental advantages and equal performance, commercialization of these molecules remains a challenge due to missing acquaintance of the applicants, higher price and lack of structural variation. The latter two issues can partially be tackled by screening for novel and better wild-type producers and optimizing the fermentation process. Yet, these traditional approaches cannot overcome all hurdles. In this review, an overview is given on how biotechnology offers opportunities for increased biosurfactant production and the creation of new types of molecules, in this way enhancing their commercial potential. PMID:24995572

  17. Inhibition of pathogenic bacterial biofilm by biosurfactant produced by Lysinibacillus fusiformis S9.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Sukla, Lala Behari; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Mishra, Barda Kanta

    2014-02-01

    A biosurfactant producing microbe isolated from a river bank was identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis S9. It was identified with help of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The biosurfactant S9BS produced was purified and characterized as glycolipid. The biosurfactant showed remarkable inhibition of biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. It was interesting to note that at concentration of 40 μg ml(-1) the biosurfactant did not show any bactericidal activity but restricted the biofilm formation completely. L. fusiformis is reported for the first time to produce a glycolipid type of biosurfactant capable of inhibiting biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria. The biosurfactant inhibited bacterial attachment and biofilm formation equally well on hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic surfaces like glass and catheter tubing. This property is significant in many biomedical applications where the molecule should help in preventing biofouling of surfaces without being toxic to biotic system. PMID:23719930

  18. Identification of a Gene Cluster for Biosynthesis of Mannosylerythritol Lipids in the Basidiomycetous Fungus Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Hewald, Sandra; Linne, Uwe; Scherer, Mario; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Kämper, Jörg; Bölker, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many microorganisms produce surface-active substances that enhance the availability of water-insoluble substrates. Although many of these biosurfactants have interesting potential applications, very little is known about their biosynthesis. The basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes large amounts of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) under conditions of nitrogen starvation. We recently described a putative glycosyltransferase, Emt1, which is essential for MEL biosynthesis and whose expression is strongly induced by nitrogen limitation. We used DNA microarray analysis to identify additional genes involved in MEL biosynthesis. Here we show that emt1 is part of a gene cluster which comprises five open reading frames. Three of the newly identified proteins, Mac1, Mac2, and Mat1, contain short sequence motifs characteristic for acyl- and acetyltransferases. Mutational analysis revealed that Mac1 and Mac2 are essential for MEL production, which suggests that they are involved in the acylation of mannosylerythritol. Deletion of mat1 resulted in the secretion of completely deacetylated MELs, as determined by mass spectrometry. We overexpressed Mat1 in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that this enzyme acts as an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetyltransferase. Remarkably, Mat1 displays relaxed regioselectivity and is able to acetylate mannosylerythritol at both the C-4 and C-6 hydroxyl groups. Based on these results, we propose a biosynthesis pathway for the generation of mannosylerythritol lipids in U. maydis. PMID:16885300

  19. Identification of a gene cluster for biosynthesis of mannosylerythritol lipids in the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Hewald, Sandra; Linne, Uwe; Scherer, Mario; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Kämper, Jörg; Bölker, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Many microorganisms produce surface-active substances that enhance the availability of water-insoluble substrates. Although many of these biosurfactants have interesting potential applications, very little is known about their biosynthesis. The basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes large amounts of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) under conditions of nitrogen starvation. We recently described a putative glycosyltransferase, Emt1, which is essential for MEL biosynthesis and whose expression is strongly induced by nitrogen limitation. We used DNA microarray analysis to identify additional genes involved in MEL biosynthesis. Here we show that emt1 is part of a gene cluster which comprises five open reading frames. Three of the newly identified proteins, Mac1, Mac2, and Mat1, contain short sequence motifs characteristic for acyl- and acetyltransferases. Mutational analysis revealed that Mac1 and Mac2 are essential for MEL production, which suggests that they are involved in the acylation of mannosylerythritol. Deletion of mat1 resulted in the secretion of completely deacetylated MELs, as determined by mass spectrometry. We overexpressed Mat1 in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that this enzyme acts as an acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetyltransferase. Remarkably, Mat1 displays relaxed regioselectivity and is able to acetylate mannosylerythritol at both the C-4 and C-6 hydroxyl groups. Based on these results, we propose a biosynthesis pathway for the generation of mannosylerythritol lipids in U. maydis. PMID:16885300

  20. Biosurfactants in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Iakovou, K

    2015-09-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by various micro-organisms. They show unique properties i.e. lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility compared to their chemical counterparts. Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in biotechnology and cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency, emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally, some of them can be served as antimicrobials. In this study the current status of research and development on rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosyloerythritol lipids, trehalipids, xylolipids and lipopeptides particularly their commercial application in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals, is described. PMID:25970073

  1. Characteristics of mannosylerythritol lipids and their environmental potential.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingda; Liu, Zhifeng; Zeng, Guangming; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yongbing; Li, Min; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-04-30

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are promising biosurfactants containing two glycosyl derivatives and various fatty acids, which are mainly secreted by Pseudozyma as well as Ustilago. In this review, the latest research is demonstrated on production conditions, structural diversity, self-assembling properties and versatile biochemical functions of MELs. The genetic study and synthetic pathways, which mainly influence the type and yield of MELs production. Due to the excellent surface activity, biocompatibility and restorative function, MELs can be used in enviornmental industry, which has not been widely noted. In this paper, the current status of research on enviornmental potential of MELs has been discussed including petroleum degradation, bioconversion of chemical wastes and enhanced bioremediation of amphiphilic wastes. PMID:25723622

  2. Peroxisomes contribute to biosynthesis of extracellular glycolipids in fungi.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Johannes; Ast, Julia; Linne, Uwe; Stehlik, Thorsten; Martorana, Domenica; Bölker, Michael; Sandrock, Björn

    2014-07-01

    Many microorganisms secrete surface-active glycolipids. The basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis produces two different classes of glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) and ustilagic acids (UAs). Here we report that biosynthesis of MELs is partially localized in peroxisomes and coupled to peroxisomal fatty acid degradation. The acyltransferases, Mac1 and Mac2, which acylate mannosylerythritol with fatty acids of different length, contain a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1). We demonstrate that Mac1 and Mac2 are targeted to peroxisomes, while other enzymes involved in MEL production reside in different compartments. Mis-targeting of Mac1 and Mac2 to the cytosol did not block MEL synthesis but promoted production of MEL species with altered acylation pattern. This is in contrast to peroxisome deficient mutants that produced MELs similar to the wild type. We could show that cytosolic targeting of Mac1 and Mac2 reduces the amount of UA presumably due to competition for overlapping substrates. Interestingly, hydroxylated fatty acids characteristic for UAs appear in MELs corroborating cross-talk between both biosynthesis pathways. Therefore, peroxisomal localization of MEL biosynthesis is not only prerequisite for generation of the natural spectrum of MELs, but also facilitates simultaneous assembly of different glycolipids in a single cell. PMID:24835306

  3. Production and Structural Characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus Derived Biosurfactant

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepansh; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Chauhan, Nikhil; Bansal, Anshul; Procha, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm−1 pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL−1. Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL−1 biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR (1H and 13C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. PMID:25506070

  4. Production and structural characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus derived biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepansh; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Chauhan, Nikhil; Bansal, Anshul; Procha, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm(-1) pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL(-1). Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL(-1) biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR ((1)H and (13)C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. PMID:25506070

  5. Biocatalytic production of novel glycolipids with cellodextrin phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hai Giang; Desmet, Tom; Saerens, Karen; Waegeman, Hendrik; Vandekerckhove, Stéphanie; D'hooghe, Matthias; Van Bogaert, Inge; Soetaert, Wim

    2012-07-01

    Glycolipids have gained increasing attention as natural surfactants with a beneficial environmental profile. They are typically produced by fermentation, which only gives access to a limited number of structures. Here we describe the biocatalytic production of novel glycolipids with the cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium stercorarium. This enzyme was found to display a broad donor and acceptor specificity, allowing the synthesis of five different products. Indeed, using either α-glucose 1-phosphate or α-galactose 1-phosphate as glycosyl donor, sophorolipid as well as glucolipid could be efficiently glycosylated. The transfer of a glucosyl moiety afforded a mixture of products that precipitated from the solution, resulting in near quantitative yields. The transfer of a galactosyl moiety, in contrast, generated a single product that remained in solution at thermodynamic equilibrium. These glycolipids not only serve as a new class of biosurfactants, but could also have applications in the pharmaceutical and nanomaterials industries. PMID:22000964

  6. Production and properties of biosurfactants from a newly isolated Pseudomonas fluorescens HW-6 growing on hexadecane.

    PubMed

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Galabova, Danka; Stoimenova, Emilia; Lalchev, Zdravko

    2006-01-01

    The newly isolated from industrial wastewater Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HW-6 produced glycolipid biosurfactants at high concentrations (1.4-2.0 g l(-1)) when grown on hexadecane as a sole carbon source. Biosurfactants decreased the surface tension of the air/ water interface by 35 mN m(-1) and possessed a low critical micelle concentration value of 20 mg l(-1), which indicated high surface activity. They efficiently emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons, kerosene, n-paraffins and mineral oils. Biosurfactant production contributed to a significant increase in cell hydrophobicity correlated with an increased growth of the strain on hexadecane. The results suggested that the newly isolated strain of Ps. fluorescens and produced glycolipid biosurfactants with effective surface and emulsifying properties are very promising and could find application for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites. PMID:16989316

  7. A Gene Cluster for Biosynthesis of Mannosylerythritol Lipids Consisted of 4-O-β-D-Mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-Erythritol as the Sugar Moiety in a Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis

    PubMed Central

    Saika, Azusa; Koike, Hideaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kishimoto, Takahide; Morita, Tomotake

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) belong to the glycolipid biosurfactants and are produced by various fungi. The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis produces diastereomer type of MEL-B, which contains 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-erythritol (R-form) as the sugar moiety. In this respect it differs from conventional type of MELs, which contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R)-erythritol (S-form) as the sugar moiety. While the biosynthetic gene cluster for conventional type of MELs has been previously identified in Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma antarctica, the genetic basis for MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis is unknown. Here, we identified a gene cluster involved in MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis. Among these genes, PtEMT1, which encodes erythritol/mannose transferase, had greater than 69% identity with homologs from strains in the genera Ustilago, Melanopsichium, Sporisorium and Pseudozyma. However, phylogenetic analysis placed PtEMT1p in a separate clade from the other proteins. To investigate the function of PtEMT1, we introduced the gene into a P. antarctica mutant strain, ΔPaEMT1, which lacks MEL biosynthesis ability owing to the deletion of PaEMT1. Using NMR spectroscopy, we identified the biosynthetic product as MEL-A with altered sugar conformation. These results indicate that PtEMT1p catalyzes the sugar conformation of MELs. This is the first report of a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of diastereomer type of MEL. PMID:27327162

  8. A Gene Cluster for Biosynthesis of Mannosylerythritol Lipids Consisted of 4-O-β-D-Mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-Erythritol as the Sugar Moiety in a Basidiomycetous Yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis.

    PubMed

    Saika, Azusa; Koike, Hideaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kishimoto, Takahide; Morita, Tomotake

    2016-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) belong to the glycolipid biosurfactants and are produced by various fungi. The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis produces diastereomer type of MEL-B, which contains 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S)-erythritol (R-form) as the sugar moiety. In this respect it differs from conventional type of MELs, which contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R)-erythritol (S-form) as the sugar moiety. While the biosynthetic gene cluster for conventional type of MELs has been previously identified in Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma antarctica, the genetic basis for MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis is unknown. Here, we identified a gene cluster involved in MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis. Among these genes, PtEMT1, which encodes erythritol/mannose transferase, had greater than 69% identity with homologs from strains in the genera Ustilago, Melanopsichium, Sporisorium and Pseudozyma. However, phylogenetic analysis placed PtEMT1p in a separate clade from the other proteins. To investigate the function of PtEMT1, we introduced the gene into a P. antarctica mutant strain, ΔPaEMT1, which lacks MEL biosynthesis ability owing to the deletion of PaEMT1. Using NMR spectroscopy, we identified the biosynthetic product as MEL-A with altered sugar conformation. These results indicate that PtEMT1p catalyzes the sugar conformation of MELs. This is the first report of a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of diastereomer type of MEL. PMID:27327162

  9. Production of a Biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D. G.; Paddock, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of carbon sources—carbohydrate and vegetable oil—are necessary to obtain large yields of biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola ATCC 22214. Most of the surfactant is produced in the late exponential phase of growth. It is possible to grow the yeast on a single carbon source and then add the other type of substrate, after the exponential growth phase, and cause a burst of surfactant production. This product is a mixture of glycolipids. The maximum yield is 70 g liter−1, or 35% of the weight of the substrate used. An economic comparison demonstrated that this biosurfactant could be produced significantly more cheaply than any of the previously reported microbial surfactants. PMID:16346455

  10. Biological activity of glycolipids produced by microorganisms: new trends and possible therapeutic alternatives.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Sánchez, Alejandro de Jesús; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Jaramillo-Flores, María Eugenia

    2013-01-15

    Several biological processes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms require the presence of glycolipids (biosurfactants), compounds with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups in their structure. They constitute the backbone of different metabolic functions and biological structures such as cell membranes. Besides being structural components, glycolipids show surface activity in the interfaces and are mainly produced by microorganisms. Interest in biosurfactants has increased considerably in recent times due to their applications in the environmental, oil, food, and pharmaceutical industries, since they have unique properties such as low toxicity, high biodegradability, environmentally friendly, foaming capacity, high selectivity and specificity at extreme temperatures, pH and salinity, as well as biological activity. All of these properties are considered advantages over other chemical surfactants, and therefore glycolipids are considered a good alternative, given the current interest on sustainable development. The present work shows a general view of bio-surfactants of microbial origin, particularly of glycolipids, referring to several studies on their biological activity that have revealed their great potential in the medical-biological field, discovering interesting possibilities for their therapeutic application in the near future. PMID:22959834

  11. Evaluation of biosurfactants grown in corn oil by Rhodococcus rhodochrous on removing of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Pujiastuti, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    The potential application of biosurfactants to remove heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by batch technique was examined. The glycolipids type biosurfactants were grown in a media containing of 20% v/v corn oil with 7 days of fermentation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous. The biosurfactants reduced the surface tension of water of about 51% from 62 mN/m to 30 mN/m. The biosurfactant increased the E24 of water-palm oil emulsion of about 55% from 43% to 97% and could maintain this E24 value of above 50% for up to 9 days. Heavy metal ion removal, in this case cadmium ion, by crude and patially purified biosurfactants has been investigated from aqueous solution at pH 6. Adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 1.74 and 1.82 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by partially purified biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 0.79 and 1.34 mg/g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant was higher than that of by partially purified biosurfactant. The results suggested that the biosurfactant could be used in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

  12. Isolation and partial characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Streptococcus thermophilus A.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lígia R; Teixeira, José A; van der Mei, Henny C; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-11-01

    Isolation and characterization of the surface active components from the crude biosurfactant produced by Streptococcus thermophilus A was studied. A fraction rich in glycolipids was obtained by the fractionation of crude biosurfactant using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Molecular (by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and elemental compositions (by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) were determined. Critical micelle concentration achieved was 20 g/l, allowing for a surface tension value of 36 mJ/m(2). Moreover, this glycolipid rich fraction was found to be an anti-adhesive and antimicrobial agent against several bacterial and yeast strains isolated from explanted voice prostheses. Further purification steps should be carefully analyzed as each purification step will increase the costs and decreases the amounts of biosurfactants recovered. PMID:16987640

  13. Glycolipid transfer proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rhoderick E.; Mattjus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are small (24 kD), soluble, ubiquitous proteins characterized by their ability to accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids in vitro. GLTP specificity encompasses both sphingoid- and glycerol-based glycolipids, but with a strict requirement that the initial sugar residue be beta-linked to the hydrophobic lipid backbone. The 3D protein structures of GLTP reveal liganded structures with unique lipid binding modes. The biochemical properties of GLTP action at the membrane surface have been studied rather comprehensively, but the biological role of GLTP remains enigmatic. What is clear is that GLTP differs distinctly from other known glycolipid-binding proteins, such as nonspecific lipid transfer proteins, lysosomal sphingolipid activator proteins, lectins, lung surfactant proteins as well as other lipid binding/transfer proteins. Based on the unique conformational architecture that targets GLTP to membranes and enables glycolipid binding, GLTP is now considered the prototypical and founding member of a new protein superfamily in eukaryotes. PMID:17320476

  14. Stem cell glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety. Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will introduce glycolipids expressed in pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic-like stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and multilineage-differentiating stress enduring cells), multipotent stem cells (neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, fetal liver multipotent progenitor cells, and hematopoietic stem cells), and cancer stem cells (brain cancer stem cells and breast cancer stem cells), and discuss their availability as biomarkers for identifying and isolating stem cells. PMID:21161592

  15. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  16. Mannosylerythritol lipid increases levels of galactoceramide in and neurite outgrowth from PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, M; Zhao, X; Wakamatsu, Y; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Jin, C; Nagaso, H; Murata, T; Yokoyama, K K

    2000-07-01

    We report here that a microbial extracellular glycolipid,mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), induces the outgrowth ofneurites from and enhances the activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Furthermore, treatment ofPC12 cells with MEL increased levels of galactosylceramide(Galbeta1-1'Cer; GalCer). Exposure of PC12 cells to exogenous GalCer caused the dose-dependent outgrowth ofneurites. By contrast, treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growthfactor (NGF) did not increase the level of GalCer in the cells. The neurite-related morphological changes induced by GalCerdifferend from those induced by NGF, indicating differencesbetween the signal transduction pathways triggered by NGF and by GalCer. PMID:19002832

  17. Optimization of biosurfactant production in soybean oil by rhodococcus rhodochrous and its utilization in remediation of cadmium-contaminated solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Andriani, Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus rhodochrous in soybean oil was developed, where the effect of medium composition and fermentation time were evaluated. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved when a medium containing 30 g/L TSB (tryptic soy broth) and 20% v/v soybean oil was used as media with 7 days of fermentation. Biosurfactant was identified as glycolipids type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 896 mg/L. The biosurfactant had oil in water emulsion type and was able to reduce the surface tension of palm oil about 52% which could stabilize the emulsion up to 12 days. The batch removal of cadmium metal ion by crude and partially purified biosurfactants have been examined from synthetic aqueous solution at pH 6. The results exhibited that the crude biosurfactant had a much better adsorption ability of Cd(II) than that of partially purified biosurfactant. However, it was found that there was no significant difference in the adsorption of Cd(II) with 5 and 10 minutes of contact time. The results indicated that the biosurfactant could be used in remediation of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous solution.

  18. Characterization of biosurfactant-containing liposomes and their efficiency for gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshinobu; Hirashima, Naohide; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    Recently we showed significance of biosurfactants in the field of non-viral vectors for gene transfection. There, a biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A), especially increased the efficiency of gene transfection mediated with cationic liposomes. However, the molecular mechanism has not been well-understood yet. Here, through the examination of the ability of cationic liposomes containing an MEL (MEL-A, MEL-B or MEL-C) for important transfectional processes of the DNA capsulation and the membrane fusion with anionic liposomes, we found that MEL-A-containing liposomes increased both processes, but that MEL-B and MEL-C-containing liposomes just increased either of them. The results indicated that these kinds of the physicochemical properties in MEL-A-containing liposomes are able to increase the efficiency of liposome-mediated gene transfection. PMID:17202680

  19. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations. PMID:25300549

  20. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  1. Selective production of two diastereomers of disaccharide sugar alcohol, mannosylerythritol by Pseudozyma yeasts.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kakugawa, Koji; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol (ME) is the hydrophilic backbone of mannosylerythritol lipids as the most promising biosurfactants produced by different Pseudozyma yeasts, and has been receiving attention as a new sugar alcohol. Different Pseudozyma yeasts were examined for the sugar alcohol production using glucose as the sole carbon source. P. hubeiensis KM-59 highly produced a conventional type of ME, i.e., 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-erythritol (4-ME). Interestingly, P. tsukubaensis KM-160 produced a diastereomer of 4-ME, i.e., 1-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-erythritol (1-ME). In shake flask culture with 200 g/l of glucose, strain KM-59 produced 4-ME at a yield of 33.2 g/l (2.2 g/l/day of the productivity), while strain KM-160 produced 1-ME at 30.0 g/l (2.0 g/l/day). Moreover, the two strains were found to produce ME from glycerol; the maximum yields of 4-ME and 1-ME from 200 g/l of glycerol were 16.1 g/l (1.1 g/l/day) and 15.8 g/l (1.1 g/l/day), respectively. The production of 1-ME as the new diastereomer was further investigated in fed batch culture using a 5-l jar-fermenter. Compared to the flask culture, strain KM-160 gave three times higher productivity of 1-ME at 38.0 g/l (6.3 g/l/day) from glucose and at 31.1 g/l (3.5 g/l/day) from glycerol, respectively. This is the first report on the selective production of two diastereomers of ME, and should thus facilitate the functional development and application of the disaccharide sugar alcohol in the food and relative industries. PMID:24272368

  2. Biosurfactant-producing strains in enhancing solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Hang; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Na; Bao, Suriguge

    2014-07-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing strains designated as BS-1, BS-3, and BS-4 were screened out from crude oil-contaminated soil using a combination of surface tension measurement and oil spreading method. Thin layer chromatography and infrared analysis indicated that the biosurfactants produced by the three strains were lipopeptide, glycolipid, and phospholipid. The enhancement of solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater employing biosurfactant-producing strains was investigated. The three strain mixtures led to more solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater, and the solubilization rate was 10.5 mg l−1. The combination of biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains exhibited a higher biodegradation efficiency of 85.4 % than the petroleum-degrading strains (71.2 %). Biodegradation was enhanced the greatest with biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains in a ratio of 1:1. Fluorescence microscopy images illustrate that the oil dispersed into smaller droplets and emulsified in the presence of biosurfactant-producing strains, which attached to the oil. Thus, the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was enhanced. PMID:24659382

  3. Myelin glycolipids and their functions.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, W; Bosio, A

    1997-10-01

    During myelination, oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS synthesise myelin-specific proteins and lipids for the assembly of the axon myelin sheath. A dominant class of lipids in the myelin bilayer are the glycolipids, which include galactocerebroside (GalC), galactosulfatide (sGalC) and galactodiglyceride (GalDG). A promising approach for unravelling the roles played by various lipids in the myelin membrane involves knocking out the genes encoding important enzymes in lipid biosynthesis. The recent ablation of the ceramide galactosyltransferase ( cgt) gene in mice is the first example. The cgt gene encodes a key enzyme in glycolipid biosynthesis. Its absence causes glycolipid deficiency in the lipid bilayer, breakdown of axon insulation and loss of saltatory conduction. Additional knock-out studies should provide important insights into the various functions of glycolipids in myelinogenesis and myelin structure. PMID:9384539

  4. Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Single and Binary Mixed Rhamnolipid-Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Song, Dandan; Liang, Shengkang; Yan, Lele; Shang, Yujun; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-07-01

    Biosurfactants are promising additives for surfactant enhanced remediation (SER) technologies due to their low toxicity and high biodegradability. To develop green and efficient additives for SER, the aqueous solubility enhancements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) by rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) biosurfactants were investigated in single and binary mixed systems. The solubilization capacities were quantified in terms of the solubility enhancement factor, molar solubilization ratio (MSR), and micelle-water partition coefficient (). Rughbin's model was applied to evaluate the interaction parameters (β) in the mixed RL-SL micelles. The solubility of the PAHs increased linearly with the glycolipid concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) in both single and mixed systems. Binary RL-SL mixtures exhibited greater solubilization than individual glycolipids. At a SL molar fraction of 0.7 to 0.8, the solubilization capacity was the greatest, and the MSR and reached their maximum values, and β values became positive. These results suggest that the two biosurfactants act synergistically to increase the solubility of the PAHs. The solubilization capacity of the RL-SL mixtures increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing salinity. The aqueous solubility of phenanthrene reached a maximum value at pH of 5.5. Moreover, the mixed RL-SL systems exhibited a strong ability to solubilize PAHs, even in the presence of heavy metal ions. These mixed biosurfactant systems have the potential to improve the performance of SER technologies using biosurfactants to solubilize hydrophobic organic contaminants by decreasing the applied biosurfactant concentration, which reduces the costs of remediation. PMID:27380091

  5. Characterization of mannosylerythritol lipids containing hexadecatetraenoic acid produced from cuttlefish oil by Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kawamura, Daisuke; Morita, Naoki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are promising biosurfactants produced by Ustilaginomycetes, and their physicochemical and biochemical properties differ depending on the chemical structure of their hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic moieties. To further develop MEL derivatives and expand their potential applications, we focused our attention on the use of cuttlefish oil, which contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid, C₂₂:₆, and eicosapentaenoic acid, C₂₀:₅, as the sole carbon source. Among the microorganisms capable of producing MEL, only nine strains were able to produce them from cuttlefish oil. On gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, we observed that Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96 was particularly suitable for the production of MEL-A, a MEL containing hexadecatetraenoic acid (C₁₆:₄) (23.6% of the total unsaturated fatty acids and 7.7% of the total fatty acids). The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of the new MEL-A were 5.7×10⁻⁶ M and 29.5 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A produced from soybean oil were 2.7×10⁻⁶ M and 27.7 mN/m, respectively. With polarized optical and confocal laser scanning microscopies, the self-assembling properties of MEL-A were found to be different from those of conventional MEL. Furthermore, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the anti-oxidative activity of MEL-A was found to be 2.1-fold higher than that of MEL-A produced from soybean oil. Thus, the newly identified MEL-A is attractive as a new functional material with excellent surface-active and antioxidative properties. PMID:23648407

  6. Utilization of palm oil decanter cake as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production from a new and promising strain of Ochrobactrum anthropi 2/3.

    PubMed

    Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-03-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, isolate 2/3, was isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. It was evaluated as a potential biosurfactant producer. The highest biosurfactant production (4.52 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 25 % (v/v) palm oil decanter cake and 1 % (w/v) commercial monosodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. After microbial cultivation at 30 °C in an optimized medium for 96 h, the biosurfactant produced was found to reduce the surface tension of pure water to 25.0 mN/m with critical micelle concentrations of 8.0 mg/l. The stability of the biosurfactant at different salinities, pH and temperature and also its emulsifying activity was investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pH and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a glycolipid type biosurfactant by using a biochemical test, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, MNR and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance polyaromatic hydrocarbons solubility. PMID:24081911

  7. Streptococcus thermophilus and its biosurfactants inhibit adhesion by Candida spp. on silicone rubber.

    PubMed Central

    Busscher, H J; van Hoogmoed, C G; Geertsema-Doornbusch, G I; van der Kuijl-Booij, M; van der Mei, H C

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of yeasts, two Candida albicans and two Candida tropicalis strains isolated from naturally colonized voice prostheses, to silicone rubber with and without a salivary conditioning film in the absence and presence of adhering Streptococcus thermophilus B, a biosurfactant-releasing dairy isolate, was studied. Coverage of 1 to 4% of the surface of silicone rubber substrata with adhering S. thermophilus B gave significant reductions in the initial yeast adhesion regardless of the presence of a conditioning film. Mechanistically, this interference in yeast adhesion by S. thermophilus B was not due to direct physical effects but to biosurfactant release by the adhering bacteria, because experiments with S. thermophilus B cells that had released their biosurfactants prior to adhesion to silicone rubber and competition with yeasts did not show interference with initial yeast adhesion. The amounts of biosurfactants released were highest for mid-exponential- and early-stationary-phase bacteria (37 mg.g of cells-1 [dry weight]), but biosurfactants released by stationary-phase bacteria (14 mg.g of cells-1 [dry weight]) were the most surface active. The crude biosurfactants released were mixtures of various components, with a glycolipid-like component being the most surface active. A lipid-enriched biosurfactant fraction reduced the surface tension of an aqueous solution to about 35 mJ.m-2 at a concentration of only 0.5 mg.ml-1. The amount of biosurfactant released per S. thermophilus B cell was estimated to be sufficient to cover approximately 12 times the area of the cross section of the bacterium, making biosurfactant release a powerful defense weapon in the postadhesion competition of the bacterium with microorganisms such as yeasts. Preadsorption of biosurfactants to the silicone rubber prior to allowing yeasts to adhere was as effective against C. albicans GB 1/2 adhesion as covering 1 to 2% of the silicone rubber surface with adhering S. thermophilus B, but a

  8. Biosurfactants for microbubble preparation and application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes the type of biosurfactants based on their origin. Some of the widely used biosurfactants are introduced. The current statues and future trends in the production of biosurfactants are discus...

  9. Isolation and functional characterization of a biosurfactant produced by a new and promising strain of Oleomonas sagaranensis AT18.

    PubMed

    Saimmai, Atipan; Rukadee, Onkamon; Onlamool, Theerawat; Sobhon, Vorasan; Maneerat, Suppasil

    2012-10-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from mangrove sediment in southern Thailand. Isolates were screened for biosurfactant production by using the surface tension test. The highest reduction of surface tension was achieved with a bacterial strain which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Oleomonas sagaranensis AT18. It has also been investigated using different carbon and nitrogen sources. It showed that the strain was able to grow and reduce the surface tension of the culture supernatant to 25 mN/m. In all 5.30 g of biosurfactant yield was obtained after 54 h of cultivation by using molasses and NaNO₃ as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The biosurfactant recovery by chloroform:methanol extraction showed a small critical micelle concentration value (8 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction. It also showed emulsification activity and a high level of salt concentration. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a glycolipid by using a biochemical test, FT-IR and mass spectra. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance PAHs solubility. PMID:22806738

  10. Genetics and biochemistry of biosurfactant synthesis in Arthrobacter species H-13-A. Progress report. [Arthrobacter H-13-A

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.

    1985-10-01

    A number of microorganisms produce biosurfactants or bioemulsifiers. The chemical and physical properties of these molecules are poorly understood. Biosurfactants compare favorably and, in some cases, are superior to synthetic surfactants. Petroleum sulfonates are commonly used today in surfactant flooding processes for enhanced oil recovery. The biosynthetic pathway for several simple glycolipid-type biosurfactants has been described. The role of these molecules in the uptake or transport of water-insoluble substrates, such as alkanes, has not been firmly established. We propose to study the biosynthesis of glycolipopeptide by Arthrobacter sp H-13-A, focusing on completion of glycolipoprotein structure analysis; elucidation of enzymes involved in glycolipopeptide biosynthesis; and optimization of transformation frequencies for the recombinant shuttle vector constructed for Arthrobacter sp H-13-A with isolation of DNA sequences encoding extracellular glycolipopeptide synthesis. 67 refs., 1 fig., 16 tabs.

  11. NBD-conjugated biosurfactant (MEL-A) shows a new pathway for transfection.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshinobu; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2007-11-20

    Gene transfection is a fundamental technology for molecular and cell biology, and also clinical gene therapy. A variety of non-viral vectors have been investigated for gene transfection, but their gene delivery had remained an inefficient process. Recently, we found that a biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL)-A, dramatically increased the efficiency in transfection of plasmid DNA mediated by cationic liposomes. However, its mechanism has not been understood yet. Here we examined the mechanism of the transfection mediated by cationic liposomes with NBD-conjugated MEL-A. We found that MEL-A first gradually distributed on the intracellular membranes through the plasma membranes of target cells, while the cationic liposomes with MEL-A fused to the plasma membranes in 20-35 min. Thereafter, the oligonucleotide released from the vesicles was immediately transferred to the nucleus. The present results showed a new role of non-viral vectors in transfection. PMID:17884224

  12. The neurite-initiating effect of microbial extracellular glycolipids in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Isoda, H; Shinmoto, H; Matsumura, M; Nakahara, T

    1999-09-01

    The effects of several kinds of microbial extracellular glycolipids on neurite initiation in PC12 cells were examined. Addition of mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A), MEL-B, and sophorose lipid (SL) to PC12 cells caused significant neurite outgrowth. Other glycolipids, such as polyol lipid (PL), rhamnose lipid (RL), succinoyl trehalose lipid-A (STL-A) and STL-B caused no neurite-initiation. MEL-A increased acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity to an extent similar to nerve growth factor (NGF). However, MEL-A induced one or two long neurites from the cell body, while NGF induced many neurites. In addition, MEL-A-induced differentiation was transient, and after 48 h, percentage of cells with neurites started to decrease in contrast to neurons induced by NGF, which occurred in a time-dependent manner. MEL-A could induce neurite outgrowth after treatment of PC12 cells with an anti-NGF receptor antibody that obstructed NGF action. These results indicate that MEL-A and NGF induce differentiation of PC12 cells through different mechanisms. PMID:19003137

  13. Extracellular aromatic biosurfactant produced by Tsukamurella pseudospumae and T. spumae during growth on n-hexadecane.

    PubMed

    Kügler, Johannes H; Kraft, Axel; Heißler, Stefan; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Schwack, Wolfgang; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-10-10

    Biosurfactants are surface-active agents produced by microorganisms and show increasing significance in various industrial applications. A great variety of these secondary metabolites are described to occur within actinomycetes, amongst trehalose lipids and oligosaccharide lipids produced by the family Tsukamurellaceae. This study reports on the production of not yet described compounds with surface active behavior by non-pathogenic Tsukamurella pseudospumae and Tsukamurella spumae during growth on hydrophobic carbon sources. Extracts of the purified compounds differ in terms of structure and performance properties to other biosurfactants described within their family. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of aromatic moieties within the surfactant produced, which to date is only known to occur within phenolic glycolipids of some mycobateria. PMID:26223030

  14. The transcriptomic profile of Pseudozyma aphidis during production of mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Günther, Michael; Grumaz, Christian; Lorenz, Stefan; Stevens, Philip; Lindemann, Elena; Hirth, Thomas; Sohn, Kai; Zibek, Susanne; Rupp, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma aphidis is able to convert vegetable oils to abundant amounts of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL) with a unique product pattern of MEL-A, MEL-B, MEL-C, and MEL-D. To investigate the metabolism of MEL production, we analyzed the transcriptome of P. aphidis DSM 70725 under MEL-inducing and non-inducing conditions using deep sequencing. Following manual curation of the previously described in silico gene models based on RNA-Seq data, we were able to generate an experimentally verified gene annotation containing 6347 genes. Using this database, our expression analysis revealed that only four of the five cluster genes required for MEL synthesis were clearly induced by the presence of soybean oil. The acetyltransferase encoding gene PaGMAT1 was expressed on a much lower level, which may explain the secretion of MEL with different degrees of acetylation in P. aphidis. In parallel to MEL synthesis, microscopic observations showed morphological changes accompanied by expression of genes responsible for cell development, indicative of a coregulation between MEL synthesis and cell morphology. In addition a set of transcription factors was identified which may be responsible for regulation of MEL synthesis and cell development. The upregulation of genes required for nitrogen metabolism and other assimilation processes indicate additional metabolic pathways required under the MEL-inducing conditions used. We also searched for a conserved gene cluster for cellobiose lipids (CL) but only found seven genes with limited homology distributed over the genome. However, we detected characteristic TLC spots in fermentations using P. aphidis DSM 70725, indicative of CL secretion. PMID:25586580

  15. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSVP20 isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and its physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Adgaba, Nuru; Khan, Khalid Ali; Pruthi, Vikas; Al-Waili, Noori

    2015-11-01

    Among 348 microbial strains isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, five were selected for their ability to produce biosurfactant based on battery of screening assay including hemolytic activity, surface tension reduction, drop collapse assay, emulsification activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity studies. Of these, bacterial isolate DSVP20 was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865644) based on biochemical characterization and the 16S rDNA analysis, and it was found to be a potential candidate for biosurfactant production. Maximum biosurfactant production recorded by P. aeruginosa DSVP20 was 6.7 g/l after 72 h at 150 rpm and at a temperature of 30 °C. Chromatographic analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) revealed that it was a glycolipid in nature which was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bioremediation studies using purified biosurfactant showed that P. aeruginosa DSVP20 has the ability to degrade eicosane (97%), pristane (75%), and fluoranthene (47%) when studied at different time intervals for a total of 7 days. The results of this study showed that the P. aeruginosa DSVP20 and/or biosurfactant produced by this isolate have the potential role in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. PMID:26146372

  16. Inhibition of Candida albicans CC biofilms formation in polystyrene plate surfaces by biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA72.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Andrea S; Miranda, Tatiana T; Lula, Ivana; Denadai, Ângelo M L; Sinisterra, Rubén D; Santoro, Marcelo M; Santos, Vera L

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of glycolipid-type biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA72 in the formation of biofilms in polystyrene plate surfaces by Candida albicans CC isolated from the apical tooth canal. Biofilm formation was reduced up to 87.4% with use of biosurfactant at 16 mg/ml concentration. It has been suggested that the interaction with the cell or polystyrene plate surface could ultimately be responsible for these actions. Therefore, the interaction of C. albicans CC cells with the biosurfactant, as well as the corresponding thermodynamic parameters, have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry and zeta potential measurements. This process is endothermic (((int)H°=+1284±5 cal/mg OD(600)) occurring with a high increase of entropy (T((int)S°=+10635 cal/mg OD(600)). The caloric energy rate data released during the titulation indicates saturation of the cell-biosurfactant at 1.28 mg/ml OD(600). Also, the zeta potential of the cell surface was monitored as a function of the biosurfactant concentration added to cell suspension showing partial neutralization of net surface charge, since the value of zeta potential ranged from -16 mV to -6 mV during the titration. The changes of cell surface characteristics can contribute to the inhibition of initial adherence of cells of C. albicans in surface. The CMC of the purified biosurfactant produced from T. montevideense CLOA72 is 2.2 mg/ml, as determined both by ITC dilution experiments and by surface tension measurements. This biomolecule did not presented any cytotoxic effect in HEK 293A cell line at concentrations of 0.25-1 mg/ml. This study suggests a possible application of the referred biosurfactant in inhibiting the formation of biofilms on plastic surfaces by C. albicans. PMID:21376544

  17. Biosurfactants for Microbubble Preparation and Application

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingyi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Liu, Zengshe; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes various classes of biosurfactants based on their origin and introduces a few of the most widely used biosurfactants. The current status and future trends in biosurfactant production are discussed, with an emphasis on those derived from plants. Following a brief introduction of the properties of microbubbles, recent progress in the application of microbubble technology to molecular imaging, wastewater treatment, and aerobic fermentation are presented. Several studies on the preparation, characterization and applications of biosurfactant-based microbubbles are reviewed. PMID:21339998

  18. Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies. PMID:21340005

  19. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  20. Dehydration resistance of liposomes containing trehalose glycolipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, Kendra; Goulding, Morgan; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2010-03-01

    The pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has an unusual outer membrane containing trehalose glycolipids that may contribute to its ability to survive freezing and dehydration. Based on our recent discovery that trehalose glycolipids confer dehydration resistance to supported lipid monolayers (Biophys. J. 94: 4718-4724 (2008); Langmuir 25: 5193-5198, (2009)), we hypothesized that liposomes containing synthetic trehalose glycolipids may be dehydration-resistant as well. To test this, we measured the leakage of encapsulated fluorophores and larger macromolecular cargo from such liposomes subject to freeze drying. Both leakage assays and size measurements show that the liposomes are dehydration-resistant. In addition to demonstrating a possibly technologically useful encapsulation platform, our results corroborate the view that encapsulation in a trehalose-glycolipid-rich membrane is a biophysically viable route to protection of mycobacteria from environmental stresses.

  1. Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepansh; Singh Saharan, Baljeet

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5 min at 100°C). Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient. PMID:24669225

  2. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants. PMID:26742771

  3. Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.

  4. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J.

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  5. Genetic control of glycolipid expression.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, T; Suzuki, A; Hashimoto, Y

    1986-12-15

    A polymorphic variation of sialic acid species of sialosyllactosylceramide was found in dog erythrocytes. The analysis of the glycolipids in the erythrocytes of the individual dogs in a family of a Japanese breed of dog, Shiba-Inu, showed that the expression of sialosyllactosylceramide containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid was an autosomal dominant trait over the expression of that containing N-acetylneuraminic acid. Polymorphic variations of major liver gangliosides were also found in various strains of inbred mice. The strains were classified into three groups; the first group possessed only II3 NeuGc-LacCer, the second group possessed II3NeuGc-GgOse3Cer in addition to II3NeuGc-LacCer and the third group possessed II3NeuGc-GgOse4Cer and II3NeuGc,IV3NeuGc-GgOse4Cer as well as the above two gangliosides. By subjecting mice of these three groups to genetic analysis, the strain of the first group (WHT/Ht mice) was demonstrated to be a recessive homozygote which had a single autosomal defective gene making it unable to express N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity to produce II3NeuGc-GgOse3Cer. The strains of the second group (BALB/c and C57BL/10 mice) were also demonstrated to be recessive homozygotes which had a single autosomal defective gene making them unable to express high enough level of galactosyltransferase activity to produce II3NeuGc-GgOse4Cer. By the analysis of gangliosides and the enzyme activity of H-2 congenic mice and mice produced by a mating, this defective gene controlling the expression of II3NeuGc-GgOse4-Cer through the regulation of the transferase activity was demonstrated to be linked to H-2 complex on chromosome 17. PMID:3103940

  6. Surface properties of lipoplexes modified with mannosylerythritol lipid-a and tween 80 and their cellular association.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wuxiao; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Qi, Xianrong; Kitamoto, Dai; Maitani, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    The surface properties of cationic liposomes and lipoplexes largely determine the cellular association and gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we measured the surface properties, such as zeta potentials, surface pH and hydration levels of MHAPC- and OH-Chol-lipoplexes and their cellular association, without and with the modification of biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) or Tween 80 (MHAPC=N,N-methyl hydroxyethyl aminopropane carbamoyl cholesterol; OH-Chol=cholesteryl-3beta-carboxyamindoethylene-N-hydroxyethylamine). Compared to OH-Chol-lipoplexes, the higher cellular association of MHAPC-lipoplexes correlated with the significantly higher zeta potentials, lower surface pH levels and "drier" surface, as evaluated by the generalized polarization of laurdan. Both MEL-A and Tween 80 modification of MHAPC-lipoplexes did not significantly change zeta potentials and surface pH levels, while MEL-A modification of OH-Chol-lipoplexes seriously decreased them. MEL-A hydrated the liposomal surface of MHAPC-lipoplexes but dehydrated that of OH-Chol-lipoplexes, while Tween 80 hydrated those of MHAPC- and OH-Chol-lipoplexes. In all, cationic liposomes composed of lipids with secondary and tertiary amine exhibited different surface properties and cellular associations of lipoplexes, and modification with surfactants further enlarged their difference. The strong hydration ability of Tween 80 may relate to the low cellular association of lipoplexes, while the dehydration of MEL-A-modified OH-Chol-lipoplexes seemed to compensate the negative zeta potential for the cellular association of lipoplexes. PMID:19182402

  7. Synergistic effect of a biosurfactant and protamine on gene transfection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2013-04-11

    Several barriers need to be overcome to ensure successful gene transfection, including passing of the foreign gene through the plasma membrane, escape of this material from lysosomal degradation, and its translocation into the nucleus. We previously showed that the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) enhanced the efficiency of gene transfection mediated by cationic liposomes by facilitating rapid delivery of foreign genes into target cells through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane. Moreover, using MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes, the foreign gene was efficiently delivered into the nucleus because it was released directly into the cytosol and thus escaped lysosomal degradation. Here we investigated the effect of pre-condensation of plasmid DNA by a cationic polymer, protamine, on gene transfection. We found that the efficiency of pre-condensed DNA transfection mediated by MEL-A-containing OH liposomes was >10 times higher than that of non-condensed DNA transfection. In contrast, the efficiency of pre-condensed DNA transfection mediated by OH liposomes was only 1.5 times higher than that of non-condensed DNA transfection. MEL-A did not influence plasmid DNA encapsulation by cationic liposomes, but it greatly accelerated the nuclear delivery of pre-condensed plasmid DNA. Our findings indicate that MEL-A and protamine synergistically accelerate the nuclear delivery of foreign gene and consequently promote gene transfection efficiency. PMID:23422688

  8. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids in biosurfactants affects the efficiency of gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2010-10-15

    An unsaturated hydrocarbon chain in phospholipid was reported to affect a phase transition and a fusogenic activity after mixing membranes, and consequently to achieve a high DNA transfection efficiency. We previously showed that a biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) enhances the gene transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes. Here, we have studied the effects of unsaturated fatty acid ratio of MEL-A on the physicochemical properties and gene delivery into cells of cationic liposomes using MEL-A with three different unsaturated fatty acid ratios (9.1%, 21.5%, and 46.3%). The gene transfer efficiency of cationic liposomes containing MEL-A (21.5%) was much higher than that of those containing MEL-A (9.1%) and MEL-A (46.3%). MEL-A (21.5%)-containing cationic liposomes induced highly efficient membrane fusion after addition of anionic liposomes and led to subsequent DNA release. Imaging analysis revealed that MEL-A (21.5%)-containing liposomes fused with the plasma membrane and delivered DNA into the nucleus of NIH-3T3 cells, MEL-A (46.3%)-containing liposomes fused with the plasma membrane did not deliver DNA into the nucleus, and MEL-A (9.1%)-containing liposomes neither fused with the plasma membrane nor delivered DNA into the nucleus. Thus, it is understandable that the unsaturated fatty acid ratio of MEL-A strongly influences the gene transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes. PMID:20674726

  9. Candida tropicalis BPU1, a novel isolate from the rumen of the Malabari goat, is a dual producer of biosurfactant and polyhydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Priji, Prakasan; Unni, K N; Sajith, S; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-03-01

    This unique study reports a new strain (BPU1) of Candida tropicalis isolated from the rumen of the Malabari goat, showing dual production of biosurfactant and polyhydroxybutyrate. C. tropicalis strain BPU1, a facultative anaerobe, was tuned to become an aerobe in specially designed flask, the Benjamin flask. The puffy circular colonies were smooth, white-to-cream in colour, with pseudo-filaments. The strain fermented glucose, sucrose, maltose and dextrose, but not lactose and cellulose. It assimilated (NH4 )2 SO4 , peptone, glycine and arginine, but not NaNO3 , as the nitrogen source. Interestingly, it utilized groundnut oil (up to 0.3%) in a specially designed basal mineral salt medium (BSM). Its capability for dual production of a biosurfactant and a polyhydroxybutyarate (PHB) was explored by various methods from the BSM-oil medium. Extracted biosurfactant from 6 day-old culture was biochemically characterized as a complex of lipid and carbohydrate with an Rf value of 0.88 by thin layer chromatography. Its PHB production was confirmed by specific staining methods with Nile blue sulphate, Sudan black B and Sudan 3. Briefly, this first-ever report gives ample physical evidence for the dual production of a glycolipid (biosurfactant) and PHB by C. tropicalis strain BPU1 on a specially designed medium, which would open up elaborate research on this yeast. PMID:23447374

  10. Novel 3-Dimensional Dendrimer Platform for Glycolipid Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Xichun

    2011-01-01

    Glycolipids are important biological molecules that modulate cellular recognitions and pathogen adhesions. In this paper, we report a sensitive glycolipid microarray for non-covalently immobilizing glycolipids on a microarray substrate and we perform a set of immunoassays to explore glycolipid-protein interactions. This substrate utilizes a three-dimensional hydrazide-functionalized dendrimer monolayer attached onto a microscopic glass surface, which possesses the characteristics to adsorb glycoliplids non-covalently and facilitates multivalent attributes on the substrate surface. In the proof-of-concept experiments, gangliosides such as GM1, FucGM1, GM3, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and a lipoarabinomannan were tested on the substrate and interrogated with toxins and antibodies. The resulting glycolipid microarrays exhibited hypersensitivity and specificity for detection of glycolipid-protein interactions. In particular, a robust and specific binding of a pentameric cholera toxin B subunit to the GM1 glycolipid spotted on the array has demonstrated its superiority in sensitivity and specificity. In addition, this glycolipid microarray substrate was used to detect lipoarabinomannan in buffer within a limit-of-detection of 125 ng/mL. Furthermore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Lipoarabinomannan was tested in human urine specimens on this platform, which can effectively identify urine samples either infected or not infected with Mtb. The results of this work suggest the possibility of using this glycolipid microarray platform to fabricate glycoconjugate microarrays, which includes free glycans and glycolipids and potential application in detection of pathogen and toxin. PMID:21820887

  11. Analysis of glycolipids by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bosch, M P; Parra, J L; Manresa, M A; Ventura, F; Rivera, J

    1989-12-01

    The positive and negative ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectra of four glycolipids obtained from microbial cultures are reported. The spectra of the glycolipids in the positive ion mode are characterized by abundant [M + Na]+, [M + Na + matrix]+ and [M + 2Na - H]+ species. In negative FAB conditions the molecules yield [M - H]-. Our understanding of the FAB behaviour of glycolipids in both positive and negative modes has been considerably aided in the structure elucidation, without any derivatization or degradation reaction of the compounds studied. The technique allows unambiguous molecular weight determination of low-microgram amounts of these glycolipids purified from biological sources and provides useful fragmentation information. PMID:2611417

  12. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsions using biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-10-01

    Nanoemulsions are used in the food, cosmetics, personal care and pharmaceutical industries to provide desirable optical, textural, stability, and delivery characteristics. In many industrial applications, it is desirable to formulate nanoemulsions using natural ingredients so as to develop label-friendly products. Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants isolated from certain microorganisms using fermentation processes. They are glycolipids that have a polar head consisting of rhamnose units and a non-polar tail consisting of a hydrocarbon chain. In this study, the interfacial characteristics of this natural surfactant at medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil-water interfaces were characterized, and its ability to form nanoemulsions was compared to that of another natural surfactant (quillaja saponins). The influence of rhamnolipid concentration, homogenization pressure, and oil type on the mean droplet diameter of emulsions produced by microfluidization was determined. Rhamnolipids were highly effective at forming small droplets (d32<0.15μm) at low surfactant-to-oil ratios (SOR<1:10) for MCT oil. Rhamnolipids could also be used to form small droplets using long chain triglyceride oils, such as corn and fish oil. Rhamnolipid-coated droplets were stable to aggregation over a range of pH values (5-9), salt concentrations (<100mM NaCl) and temperatures (20-90°C). However, droplet aggregation was observed at highly acidic (pH 2-4) and high ionic strength (200-500mM NaCl) conditions. These effects were attributed to a reduction in electrostatic repulsion at low pH and high salt levels. Rhamnolipid-coated droplets had a high negative charge at neutral pH that decreased in magnitude with decreasing pH. These results indicate that rhamnolipids are effective natural surfactants that may be able to replace synthetic surfactants in certain commercial applications. PMID:27372634

  13. Stimulation of Natural Killer T Cells by Glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian L.; Teyton, Luc; Bendelac, Albert; Savage, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1d protein. The initial discovery of immunostimulatory glycolipids from a marine sponge and the T cells that respond to the compounds has led to extensive research by chemists and immunologists to understand how glycolipids are recognized, possible responses by NKT cells, and the structural features of glycolipids necessary for stimulatory activity. The presence of this cell type in humans and most mammals suggests that it plays critical roles in antigen recognition and the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Both endogenous and exogenous natural antigens for NKT cells have been identified, and it is likely that glycolipid antigens remain to be discovered. Multiple series of structurally varied glycolipids have been synthesized and tested for stimulatory activity. The structural features of glycolipids necessary for NKT cell stimulation are moderately well understood, and designed compounds have proven to be much more potent antigens than their natural counterparts. Nevertheless, control over NKT cell responses by designed glycolipids has not been optimized, and further research will be required to fully reveal the therapeutic potential of this cell type. PMID:24352021

  14. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2011-10-28

    The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes is able to reduce immune responses, cytotoxicity, and other side effects caused by viral vectors in clinical applications. PMID:22001930

  15. Nitrogen and hydrophosphate affects glycolipids composition in microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shen, Zhouyuan; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Glycolipids had received increasing attention because of their uses in various industries like cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food and machinery manufacture. Microalgae were competitive organisms to accumulate metabolic substance. However, using microalgae to produce glycolipid was rare at present. In this study, glycolipid content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Synechococcus sp. under different nitrate and hydrophosphate levels were investigated. The highest glycolipid contents of 24.61% for C. pyrenoidosa and 15.37% for Synechococcus sp. were obtained at nitrate absence, which were 17.19% for C. pyrenoidosa and 10.99% for Synechococcus sp. at 0.01 and 0 g L−1 hydrophosphate, respectively. Glycolipid productivities of two microalgae could reach at more than 10.59 mg L−1 d−1. Nitrate absence induced at least 8.5% increase in MGDG, DGDG and SQDG, while hydrophosphate absence resulted in over 21.2% increase in DGDG and over 48.4% increase in SQDG and more than 22.2% decrease in MGDG in two microalgae. Simultaneous nitrate and hydrophosphate limitation could make further improvement of glycolipid accumulation, which was more than 25% for C. pyrenoidosa and 21% for Synechococcus sp. These results suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus limitation or starvation should be an efficient way to improve microalgal glycolipid accumulation. PMID:27440670

  16. Nitrogen and hydrophosphate affects glycolipids composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Shen, Zhouyuan; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Glycolipids had received increasing attention because of their uses in various industries like cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food and machinery manufacture. Microalgae were competitive organisms to accumulate metabolic substance. However, using microalgae to produce glycolipid was rare at present. In this study, glycolipid content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Synechococcus sp. under different nitrate and hydrophosphate levels were investigated. The highest glycolipid contents of 24.61% for C. pyrenoidosa and 15.37% for Synechococcus sp. were obtained at nitrate absence, which were 17.19% for C. pyrenoidosa and 10.99% for Synechococcus sp. at 0.01 and 0 g L(-1) hydrophosphate, respectively. Glycolipid productivities of two microalgae could reach at more than 10.59 mg L(-1) d(-1). Nitrate absence induced at least 8.5% increase in MGDG, DGDG and SQDG, while hydrophosphate absence resulted in over 21.2% increase in DGDG and over 48.4% increase in SQDG and more than 22.2% decrease in MGDG in two microalgae. Simultaneous nitrate and hydrophosphate limitation could make further improvement of glycolipid accumulation, which was more than 25% for C. pyrenoidosa and 21% for Synechococcus sp. These results suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus limitation or starvation should be an efficient way to improve microalgal glycolipid accumulation. PMID:27440670

  17. The uptake of trehalose glycolipids by macrophages is independent of Mincle.

    PubMed

    Kodar, Kristel; Eising, Selma; Khan, Ashna A; Steiger, Stefanie; Harper, Jacquie L; Timmer, Mattie S M; Stocker, Bridget L

    2015-03-01

    Trehalose glycolipids play an important role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are used as adjuvants for vaccines; however, much still remains unanswered about the mechanisms through which these glycolipids exert their immunomodulatory potential. Recently, the macrophage-inducible C-type lectin Mincle was determined to be the receptor for trehalose glycolipids, yet the role played by Mincle in glycolipid uptake is unknown. Accordingly, we developed several fluorescent trehalose glycolipid reporter systems that can be used to study the uptake of soluble trehalose glycolipids and glycolipid-coated particles by macrophages. Our studies revealed that, although Mincle is essential for the activation of macrophages by trehalose glycolipids, the receptor does not play a role in the uptake of these glycolipids or of glycolipid-coated particles. PMID:25645884

  18. Gene therapy: prospects for glycolipid storage diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Gieselmann, Volkmar; Matzner, Ulrich; Klein, Diana; Mansson, Jan Eric; D'Hooge, Rudi; DeDeyn, Peter D; Lüllmann Rauch, Renate; Hartmann, Dieter; Harzer, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases comprise a group of about 40 disorders, which in most cases are due to the deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme. Since lysosomal enzymes are involved in the degradation of various compounds, the diseases can be further subdivided according to which pathway is affected. Thus, enzyme deficiencies in the degradation pathway of glycosaminoglycans cause mucopolysaccharidosis, and deficiencies affecting glycopeptides cause glycoproteinosis. In glycolipid storage diseases enzymes are deficient that are involved in the degradation of sphingolipids. Mouse models are available for most of these diseases, and some of these mouse models have been used to study the applicability of in vivo gene therapy. We review the rationale for gene therapy in lysosomal disorders and present data, in particular, about trials in an animal model of metachromatic leukodystrophy. The data of these trials are compared with those obtained with animal models of other lysosomal diseases. PMID:12803926

  19. Gene therapy: prospects for glycolipid storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gieselmann, Volkmar; Matzner, Ulrich; Klein, Diana; Mansson, Jan Eric; D'Hooge, Rudi; DeDeyn, Peter D; Lüllmann Rauch, Renate; Hartmann, Dieter; Harzer, Klaus

    2003-05-29

    Lysosomal storage diseases comprise a group of about 40 disorders, which in most cases are due to the deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme. Since lysosomal enzymes are involved in the degradation of various compounds, the diseases can be further subdivided according to which pathway is affected. Thus, enzyme deficiencies in the degradation pathway of glycosaminoglycans cause mucopolysaccharidosis, and deficiencies affecting glycopeptides cause glycoproteinosis. In glycolipid storage diseases enzymes are deficient that are involved in the degradation of sphingolipids. Mouse models are available for most of these diseases, and some of these mouse models have been used to study the applicability of in vivo gene therapy. We review the rationale for gene therapy in lysosomal disorders and present data, in particular, about trials in an animal model of metachromatic leukodystrophy. The data of these trials are compared with those obtained with animal models of other lysosomal diseases. PMID:12803926

  20. Contributions of biosurfactants to natural or induced bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Lawniczak, Lukasz; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2013-03-01

    The number of studies dedicated to evaluating the influence of biosurfactants on bioremediation efficiency is constantly growing. Although significant progress regarding the explanation of mechanisms behind biosurfactant-induced effects could be observed, there are still many factors which are not sufficiently elucidated. This corresponds to the fact that although positive influence of biosurfactants is often reported, there are also numerous cases where no or negative effect was observed. This review summarizes the recent finding in the field of biosurfactant-amended bioremediation, focusing mainly on a critical approach towards potential limitations and causes of failure while investigating the effects of biosurfactants on the efficiency of biodegradation and phytoextraction processes. It also provides a summary of successive steps, which should be taken into consideration when designing biosurfactant-related treatment processes. PMID:23400445

  1. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. PMID:23956227

  2. One-Pot Syntheses of Immunostimulatory Glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Schombs, Matthew; Park, Francine E.; Du, Wenjun; Kulkarni, Suvarn S.; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    Glycolipids containing α-linked galactosyl and glucosyl moieties have been shown to possess unique immunostimulatory activity creating a need for access to diverse and anomerically pure sources of these compounds for immunological studies. To meet this demand, glycosyl iodides were enlisted in the synthesis of these biologically relevant glycoconjugates. In the first generation protocol per-O-benzyl galactosyl iodide was efficiently coupled with activated sphingosine acceptors, but fully functionalized ceramides were found to be unreactive. To overcome this obstacle, per-O-trimethylsilyl glycosyl iodides were investigated and shown to undergo highly efficient coupling with ceramide and glycerol ester acceptors. Contrary to what has been observed with other donors, we detected little difference between the reactivity of glucosyl and galactosyl iodides. The trimethylsilyl protecting groups play a dual role in activating the donor toward nucleophilic attack while at the same time providing transient protection: the silyl groups are readily removed upon methanolysis. All reactions proceeded with complete acceptor regioselectivity, eliminating the need for additional protecting group manipulations, and the desired α -anomers were formed exclusively. This three step one-pot synthetic platform provides rapid access to an important class of immunostimulatory molecules including the first reported synthesis of the glucosyl analog of the bacterial antigen BbGL-II. PMID:20387787

  3. Effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Li, Shudong; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Zhang, Cong; Zhao, Dongwei; Li, Yiming; Sun, Peiyan; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria, Bacillus Lz-2, was isolated from oil polluted water collected from Dongying Shengli oilfield, China. The factors that influence PAH solubilization such as biosurfactant concentration, pH, ionic strength and temperature were discussed. The results showed that the solubilities of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene increased linearly with the rise of rhamnolipid biosurfactant dose above the biosurfactant critical micelle concentration (CMC). Furthermore, the molar solubilization ratio (MSR) values decreased in the following order: naphthalene>phenanthrene>pyrene. However, the solubility percentage increased and followed the opposite order: pyrene>phenanthrene>naphthalene. The solubilities of PAHs in rhamnolipid biosurfactant solution increased with the rise of pH and ionic strength, and reached the maximum values under the conditions of pH11 and NaCl concentration 8 g · L(-1). The solubility of phenanthrene and pyrene increased with the rise of temperature. PMID:26494247

  4. CD1 mediated T cell recognition of glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Zajonc, Dirk M.; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Summary Specialized subsets of T lymphocytes can distinguish the carbohydrate portions of microbial and self-glycolipids when they are presented by proteins in the CD1 family of antigen presenting molecules. Recent immunochemical and structural analyses indicate that the chemical composition of the presented carbohydrate, together with its precise orientation above the CD1 binding groove, determines if a particular T cell is activated. More recently, however, it has been shown that the lipid backbone of the glycolipid, buried inside the CD1 protein, also can have an impact on T cell activation. While glycolipid recognition is a relatively new category of T cell specificity, the powerful combination of microbial antigen discovery and structural biochemistry has provided great insight into the mechanism of carbohydrate recognition. PMID:17951048

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  6. Alternative methodology for isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Krepsky, N; Da Silva, F S; Fontana, L F; Crapez, M A C

    2007-02-01

    Wide biosurfactant application on biorremediation is limited by its high production cost. The search for cheaper biossurfactant production alternatives has guided our study. The use of selective media containing sucrose (10 g x L(-1)) and Arabian Light oil (2 g x L(-1)) as carbon sources showed to be effective to screen and maintain biosurfactant-producing consortia isolated from mangrove hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment. The biosurfactant production was assayed by kerosene, gasoline and Arabian Light Emulsification activity and the bacterial growth curve was determined by bacterial quantification. The parameters analyzed for biosurfactant production were the growth curve, salinity concentration, flask shape and oxygenation. All bacteria consortia screened were able to emulsify the petroleum derivatives tested. Biosurfactant production increased according to the incubation time; however the type of emulsification (non-aqueous phase or aqueous phase) did not change with time but with the compound tested. The methodology was able to isolate biosurfactant-producing consortia from superficial mangrove sediment contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and was recommended for selection of biosurfactant producing bacteria in tropical countries with low financial resources. PMID:17505758

  7. The Liganding of Glycolipid Transfer Protein Is Controlled by Glycolipid Acyl Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kanack, Alex T; Lu, Min; Abagyan, Ruben; Brown, Rhoderick E; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2006-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) play major roles in cellular growth and development. Mammalian glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) are potential regulators of cell processes mediated by GSLs and display a unique architecture among lipid binding/transfer proteins. The GLTP fold represents a novel membrane targeting/interaction domain among peripheral proteins. Here we report crystal structures of human GLTP bound to GSLs of diverse acyl chain length, unsaturation, and sugar composition. Structural comparisons show a highly conserved anchoring of galactosyl- and lactosyl-amide headgroups by the GLTP recognition center. By contrast, acyl chain chemical structure and occupancy of the hydrophobic tunnel dictate partitioning between sphingosine-in and newly-observed sphingosine-out ligand-binding modes. The structural insights, combined with computed interaction propensity distributions, suggest a concerted sequence of events mediated by GLTP conformational changes during GSL transfer to and/or from membranes, as well as during GSL presentation and/or transfer to other proteins. PMID:17105344

  8. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium in glycolipid incorporated micro emulsions.

    PubMed

    Premarathne, E P N; Karunaratne, D N; Perera, A D L Chandani

    2016-09-25

    The effect of the glycolipid, hexadecyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, incorporated in microemulsions (ME(1)) towards the enhancement of skin absorption and skin permeation of Diclofenac sodium (DS(2)) was evaluated. A Franz diffusion cell with a piece of pig's ear epidermis indicated that the optimized ME formulation with glycolipid (0.05wt%) exhibited significantly higher permeability than the conventional formulations. The releasing profiles of DS from ME formulations exhibited first order release kinetics resembling a diffusion controlled release model for the first 8h. Incorporating hexadecyl-β-D glucopyranoside in ME formulations shows significant potential as a delivery vehicle in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27477103

  9. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  10. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes can efficiently and rapidly deliver siRNA into the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid delivery of siRNA is due to the membrane fusion between liposomes and plasma membrane. -- Abstract: The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24 h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine Trade-Mark-Sign RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic

  11. Acanthamoebae bind to glycolipids of rabbit corneal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Panjwani, N; Zhao, Z; Baum, J; Pereira, M; Zaidi, T

    1992-01-01

    By use of a thin-layer chromatogram (TLC) overlay procedure, 35S-labeled acanthamoebae were shown to bind to seven glycolipids of rabbit corneal epithelium. Corneal epithelial cells were grown in culture and were subjected to Folch extraction to isolate a chloroform-rich lower phase containing neutral glycosphingolipids (NGSL) and an aqueous upper phase containing gangliosides, i.e., sialic acid-containing glycolipids. Thin-layer chromatography of the upper phase revealed the presence of 10 ganglioside components. Acanthamoebae were shown to bind to four of these components, referred to as 2, 3, 6, and 7. On TLC plates, ganglioside components 2 and 3 migrated slightly ahead of the glycolipid standard GD1a, component 7 comigrated with standard GM3, and component 6 migrated a little more slowly than GM3. Likewise, of the 10 NGSL known to be present in the lower phase, acanthamoebae bound to components 1, 5, and 6. NGSL components 1, 5, and 6 migrated on TLC plates with relative mobilities similar to those of standards asialo GM1, asialo GM2, and ceramidetrihexoside, respectively. We propose that one or more of the Acanthamoeba-reactive glycolipids of corneal epithelium identified in this study may play a role in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis by mediating the adherence of the parasites to the cornea. Images PMID:1639517

  12. Glycolipid presentation to natural killer T cells differs in an organ-dependent fashion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieg, John; Yang, Guangli; Franck, Richard W.; van Rooijen, Nico; Tsuji, Moriya

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that dendritic cells (DCs) are able to present glycolipids to natural killer (NK) T cells in vivo. However, the essential role of DCs, as well as the role of other cells in glycolipid presentation, is unknown. Here, we show that DCs are the crucial antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for splenic NK T cells, whereas Kupffer cells are the key APCs for hepatic NK T cells. Both cell types stimulate cytokine production by NK T cells within 2 h of glycolipid administration, but only DCs are involved in the systemic, downstream responses to glycolipid administration. More specifically, CD8+ DCs produce IL-12 in response to glycolipid presentation, which stimulates secondary IFN- production by NK cells in different organs. Different APCs participate in glycolipid presentation to NK T cells in vivo but differ in their involvement in the overall glycolipid response. dendritic cell | Kupffer cell

  13. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Płaza, Grażyna A.; Chojniak, Joanna; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance. PMID:25110864

  14. Recognition of Microbial Glycolipids by Natural Killer T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zajonc, Dirk M.; Girardi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    T cells can recognize microbial antigens when presented by dedicated antigen-presenting molecules. While peptides are presented by classical members of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) family (MHC I and II), lipids, glycolipids, and lipopeptides can be presented by the non-classical MHC member, CD1. The best studied subset of lipid-reactive T cells are type I natural killer T (iNKT) cells that recognize a variety of different antigens when presented by the non-classical MHCI homolog CD1d. iNKT cells have been shown to be important for the protection against various microbial pathogens, including B. burgdorferi, the causative agents of Lyme disease, and S. pneumoniae, which causes pneumococcal meningitis and community-acquired pneumonia. Both pathogens carry microbial glycolipids that can trigger the T cell antigen receptor (TCR), leading to iNKT cell activation. iNKT cells have an evolutionary conserved TCR alpha chain, yet retain the ability to recognize structurally diverse glycolipids. They do so using a conserved recognition mode, in which the TCR enforces a conserved binding orientation on CD1d. TCR binding is accompanied by structural changes within the TCR binding site of CD1d, as well as the glycolipid antigen itself. In addition to direct recognition of microbial antigens, iNKT cells can also be activated by a combination of cytokines (IL-12/IL-18) and TCR stimulation. Many microbes carry TLR antigens, and microbial infections can lead to TLR activation. The subsequent cytokine response in turn lower the threshold of TCR-mediated iNKT cell activation, especially when weak microbial or even self-antigens are presented during the cause of the infection. In summary, iNKT cells can be directly activated through TCR triggering of strong antigens, while cytokines produced by the innate immune response may be necessary for TCR triggering and iNKT cell activation in the presence of weak antigens. Here, we will review the molecular basis of iNKT cell

  15. Glycolipid class profiling by packed-column subcritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Frantz S; Lesellier, Eric; Bleton, Jean; Baillet, Arlette; Tchapla, Alain; Chaminade, Pierre

    2004-06-18

    The potential of packed-column subcritical fluid chromatography (SubFC) for the separation of lipid classes has been assessed in this study. Three polar stationary phases were checked: silica, diol, and poly(vinyl alcohol). Carbon dioxide (CO2) with methanol as modifier was used as mobile phase and detection performed by evaporative light scattering detection. The influence of methanol content, temperature, and pressure on the chromatographic behavior of sphingolipids and glycolipids were investigated. A complete separation of lipid classes from a crude wheat lipid extract was achieved using a modifier gradient from 10 to 40% methanol in carbon dioxide. Solute selectivity was improved using coupled silica and diol columns in series. Because the variation of eluotropic strength depending on the fluid density changes, a normalized separation factor product (NSP) was used to select the nature, the number and the order of the columns to reach the optimum glycolipid separation. PMID:15248431

  16. Synthesis of glycoaminooxy acid and N-oxyamide-linked glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Chen, N; Xie, J

    2016-01-21

    Aminooxyl sugar derivatives are versatile building blocks for the generation of various glycoconjugates with interesting bioactivities. We report herein a synthetic method for the preparation of orthogonally protected glycoaminooxy acid from methyl α-d-glycopyranoside in 7 steps. The key steps involve the selective protection, O-alkylation and Mitsunobu reaction. Fully deprotected N-oxyamide-linked novel glycolipids can be easily generated from the glycoaminooxy ester or from the 2-hydroxy free sugar in 5 or 6 steps. PMID:26646087

  17. Glycolipids from a colloid chemical point of view.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, P H; Rosenfeld, H; Konidala, P; Garamus, V M; He, L; Prange, A; Niemeyer, B

    2006-06-25

    Glycolipids are a group of compounds with a broad range of applications. Two types of glycolipids (alkylpolyglycosides and gangliosides) were examined with regard to their physicochemical properties. Despite their structural differences, they have in common that they are amphiphilic molecules and able to aggregate to form monolayers, bilayers, micelles, lyothropic mesophases or vesicles. The structures of glycolipid micelles were investigated by different experimental techniques in addition to molecular dynamic simulations. The knowledge of the physicochemical properties of gangliosides enables a better understanding of their biological functions. Structural features were obtained for the monosialogangliosides GM1, GM2 and GT1b from bovine brain by means of mass spectrometry. Further the aggregation behaviour was determined by small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering experiments. Interaction studies of these compounds were carried out by means of surface plasmon resonance using gangliosides incorporated liposomes. They were used as model membranes that interact with the lectins WGA, RCA and HPA. The interaction of lectins immobilized to a modified silicon surface was investigated by in-situ ellipsometry. PMID:16707183

  18. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Teixeira, José A.; Rodrigues, Lígia R.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments. PMID:26901207

  19. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  20. Possibilities and challenges for biosurfactants use in petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Perfumo, Amedea; Rancich, Ivo; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants are a group of microbial molecules identified by their unique capabilities to interact with hydrocarbons. Emulsification and de-emulsification, dispersion, foaming, wetting and coating are some of the numerous surface activities that biosurfactants can achieve when applied within systems such as immiscible liquid/liquid (e.g., oil/water), solid/ liquid (e.g., rock/oil and rock/water) and gas/liquid. Therefore, the possibilities of exploiting these bioproducts in oil-related sciences are vast and made petroleum industry their largest possible market at present. The role of biosurfactants in enhancing oil recovery from reservoirs is certainly the best known; however they can be effectively applied in many other fields from transportation of crude oil in pipeline to the clean-up of oil storage tanks and even manufacturing of fine petrochemicals. When properly used, biosurfactants are comparable to traditional chemical analogues in terms of performances and offer advantages with regard to environment protection/conservation. This chapter aims at providing an up-to-date overview of biosurfactant roles, applications and possible future uses related to petroleum industry. PMID:20545279

  1. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  2. Foliar penetration enhanced by biosurfactant rhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haojing; Shao, Bing; Long, Xuwei; Yao, Yang; Meng, Qin

    2016-09-01

    With recent environmental and health concerns, biosurfactants have obtained increasing interest in replacing conventional surfactants for diverse applications. In agriculture, the use of surfactant in stimulating foliar uptake is mainly for wetting leaf surface, resisting deposition/evaporation, enhancing penetration across cuticular membrane (CM) and translocation. This paper aimed to address the improved foliar uptake by rhamnolipid (RL) in comparison with the currently used alkyl polyglucoside (APG). As found, compared with APG at 900mg/L (1×critical micellar concentration, CMC), RL at a much lower concentration of 50mg/L (1×CMC) showed much better wettability and surface activity, indicative of its high effectiveness as surfactants. Its performance on resistance to deposition and evaporation was at least as same as APG. Moreover, RL could significantly improve the penetration of herbicide glyphosate and other two small water-soluble molecules (phenol red and Fe(2+)) across CM at an equivalent efficiency as APG at 1×CMC. Finally, the greatly enhanced herbicidal actitivity of glyphosate on greenhouse plants confirmed that RL and APG could both enhance the foliar uptake including translocation. Overall, RL should be more applicable than APG in agriculture due to its more promising properties on health/environmental friendliness. PMID:27281240

  3. Trehalose Polyphleates Are Produced by a Glycolipid Biosynthetic Pathway Conserved across Phylogenetically Distant Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Burbaud, Sophie; Laval, Françoise; Lemassu, Anne; Daffé, Mamadou; Guilhot, Christophe; Chalut, Christian

    2016-02-18

    Mycobacteria synthesize a variety of structurally related glycolipids with major biological functions. Common themes have emerged for the biosynthesis of these glycolipids, including several families of proteins. Genes encoding these proteins are usually clustered on bacterial chromosomal islets dedicated to the synthesis of one glycolipid family. Here, we investigated the function of a cluster of five genes widely distributed across non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Using defined mutant analysis and in-depth structural characterization of glycolipids from wild-type or mutant strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium abscessus, we established that they are involved in the formation of trehalose polyphleates (TPP), a family of compounds originally described in Mycobacterium phlei. Comparative genomics and lipid analysis of strains distributed along the mycobacterial phylogenetic tree revealed that TPP is synthesized by a large number of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. This work unravels a novel glycolipid biosynthetic pathway in mycobacteria and extends the spectrum of bacteria that produce TPP. PMID:27028886

  4. Immunostimulation by phospholipopeptide biosurfactant from Staphylococcus hominis in Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Veluchamy; Kalaivani Priyadarshini, Sekaran; Saranya, Viswanathan; Suguna, Ponnusamy; Shenbagarathai, Rajaiah

    2016-01-01

    The immunostimulatory effect of phospholipopeptide biosurfactant from Staphylococcus hominis (GenBank Accession No: KJ564272) was assessed with Oreochromis mossambicus. The non-specific (serum lysozyme activity, serum antiprotease activity, serum peroxidase activity and serum bactericidal activity), specific (bacterial agglutination assay) immune responses and disease resistance activity against Aeromonas hydrophila were examined. Fish were intraperitonially injected with water soluble secondary metabolite (biosurfactant) of S. hominis at a dose of 2 mg, 20 mg and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight. Commercial surfactant surfactin (sigma) at 20 mg kg(-1) was used as standard and saline as negative control. All the doses of water soluble biosurfactant tested, significantly enhanced the specific, nonspecific immunity and disease resistance from the day of post administration of phospholipopeptide biosurfactant till the tail of the experimental period. These results clearly indicated that the secondary metabolite isolated from S. hominis stimulates the immunity of finfish thereby could enhance aquaculture production. PMID:26549172

  5. Identification of potential local isolated for biosurfactant production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei, Zahra; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Moazami, Nasrin; Hamzah, Ainon; Fooladi, Taybeh

    2013-11-01

    Biosurfactant are amphiphilic molecule that have received increasing attention in recent years because of their role in the growth of microorganisms on water-insoluble hydrophobic materials such as hydrocarbons as well as their commercial potential in the cosmetics, food, oil recovery and agricultural industries. In this study a potential biosurfactant producing strain was isolated from several soil samples of Terengganu oil refinery, Malaysia and selected during preliminary screening using hemolytic activity, oil spreading and drop collapsed technique. Isolates with at least more than one positive response to these three methods were subjected to complementary screening by measuring surface tension reduction as well as emulsification capacity. The biosurfactant produced by isolated 5M was able to reduced surface tension of culture medium from 60 mN/m to30mN/m. The biochemical and morphological characterization, 16SrRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolated 5M belongs to bacillus groups. The maximum production of biosurfactant by Bacillus 5M was observed after 48 h of incubation.

  6. Utilization of sophorolipids as biosurfactants for postemergence herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sophorolipids are carbohydrate-based, amphiphilic biosurfactants produced by several species of the Starmerella yeast clade. Most sophorolipids are partially acetylated sophorose sugars O-ß-glycosidically linked to 17-L-hydroxy-delta9-octadecenoic acid, where typically the acyl carboxyl group forms...

  7. Activation of human neutrophils by mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Fäldt, J; Dahlgren, C; Karlsson, A; Ahmed, A M S; Minnikin, D E; Ridell, M

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) and phagocytes was studied. Human neutrophils were allowed to interact with each of four purified mycobacterial PGLs and the neutrophil production of reactive oxygen metabolites was followed kinetically by luminol-/isoluminol-amplified chemiluminescence. The PGLs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii, respectively, were shown to stimulate the production of oxygen metabolites, while PGLs from Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, respectively, were unable to induce an oxidative response. Periodate treatment of the M. tuberculosis PGL decreased the production of oxygen radicals, showing the importance of the PGL carbohydrate moiety for the interaction. The activation, however, could not be inhibited by rhamnose or fucose, indicating a complex interaction which probably involves more than one saccharide unit. This is in line with the fact that the activating PGLs from M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii contain tri- and tetrasaccharides, respectively, while the nonactivating PGLs from M. marinum and M. bovis BCG each contain a monosaccharide. The complement receptor 3 (CR3) has earlier been shown to be of importance for the phagocyte binding of mycobacteria, but did not appear to be involved in the activation of neutrophils by PGLs. The subcellular localization of the reactive oxygen metabolites formed was related to the way in which the glycolipids were presented to the cells. PMID:10540187

  8. Tridimensional ultrastructure and glycolipid pattern studies of Trypanosoma dionisii.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Miriam Pires de Castro; Ramos, Thiago Cesar Prata; Pinheiro, Adriana Maria V N; Bertini, Silvio; Takahashi, Helio Kiyoshi; Straus, Anita Hilda; Haapalainen, Edna Freymuller

    2013-12-01

    Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) dionisii is a non-pathogenic bat trypanosome closely related to Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chaga's disease. Both kinetoplastids present similar morphological stages and are able to infect mammalian cells in culture. In the present study we examined 3D ultrastructure aspects of the two species by serial sectioning epimastigote and trypomastigote forms, and identified common carbohydrate epitopes expressed in T. dionisii, T. cruzi and Leishmania major. A major difference in 3D morphology was that T. dionisii epimastigote forms present larger multivesicular structures, restricted to the parasite posterior region. These structures could be related to T. cruzi reservosomes and are also rich in cruzipain, the major cysteine-proteinase of T. cruzi. We analyzed the reactivity of two monoclonal antibodies: MEST-1 directed to galactofuranose residues of glycolipids purified from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and BST-1 directed to glycolipids purified from T. cruzi epimastigotes. Both antibodies were reactive with T. dionisii epimastigotes by indirect immunofluorescense, but we noted differences in the location and intensity of the epitopes, when compared to T. cruzi. In summary, despite similar features in cellular structure and life cycle of T. dionisii and T. cruzi, we observed a unique morphological characteristic in T. dionisii that deserves to be explored. PMID:23933185

  9. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  10. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant: Putative receptor diversity and histopathological effects on Tuta absoluta midgut.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Boukedi, Hanen; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Chaib, Ikbel; Laarif, Asma; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-11-01

    The use of biosurfactant in pest management has received much attention for the control of plant pathogens, but few studies reported their insecticidal activity. The present study describes the insecticidal activity of biosurfactant extracted from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain AG1. This strain produces a lipopeptide biosurfactant exhibiting an LC50 of about 180ng/cm(2) against Tuta absoluta larvae. Accordingly, the histopathologic effect of this biosurfactant on T. absoluta larvae showed serious damages of the midgut tissues including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. By PCR, we showed that this biosurfactant could be formed by several lipopeptides and polyketides including iturin, fengycin, surfactin, bacyllomicin, bacillaene, macrolactin and difficidin. Binding experiment revealed that it recognized five putative receptors located in the BBMV of T. absoluta with sizes of 68, 63, 44, 30 and 19kDa. Therefore, biosurfactant AG1 hold potential for use as an environmentally friendly agent to control the tomato leaf miner. PMID:26299754

  11. Mosquitocidal Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: Dynamics of growth & production of novel pupicidal biosurfactant

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, I.; Aruna, R.; Manonmani, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: A strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) producing mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal biosurfactant was isolated from mangrove forest soil. The present study was aimed at studying the kinetics of growth and production of the mosquitocidal biosurfactant by this bacterium. Methods: Dynamics of growth, sporulation and production of mosquitocidal biosurfactant were studied by standard microbiological methods. The mosquitocidal biosurfactant was precipitated from the culture supernatant and bioassayed against immature stages of mosquito vectors to determine lethal dose and lethal time. The activity, biological and biochemical properties of the biosurfactant have also been studied. Results: The pupal stages of mosquitoes were found to be more vulnerable to the biosurfactant produced by this bacterium with Anopheles stephensi being the most vulnerable species. The median lethal time (LT50) was found to be 1.23 h when the pupal stages of the above species were exposed to lethal concentration LC90 (9 µg/ml) dosage of the biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was found to increase with incubation time and maximum biomass, maximum quantity of biosurfactant (7.9 mg/ml), maximum biosurfactant activity (6 kBS unit/mg) and maximum mosquitocidal activity (5 µg/ml) were attained by 72 h of growth. The lipopeptide nature of the biosurfactant was confirmed by β-haemolysis, lipase activity, biofilm forming capacity, thermostability and biochemical analysis. Interpretation & conclusions: The mosquitocidal biosurfactant produced by B. amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) may be a prospective alternative molecule for use in mosquito control programmes involving bacterial biopesticides. PMID:25366212

  12. Characterization and Emulsification Properties of Rhamnolipid and Sophorolipid Biosurfactants and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu T.; Sabatini, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications. PMID:21541055

  13. Characterization and emulsification properties of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants and their applications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu T; Sabatini, David A

    2011-01-01

    Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications. PMID:21541055

  14. Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30°C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of ≥ 1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants. PMID:24850435

  15. Evaluation and functional characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus plantarum CFR 2194.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Arenahalli Ningegowda; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt

    2014-02-01

    The study details the investigations on the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CFR 2194, an isolate from kanjika, a rice-based ayurvedic fermented product, to produce biosurfactant. Surfactant production, as a function of fermentation time, indicates that the maximum production occurred at 72 h under stationary conditions. Isolation, partial purification, and characterization of the biosurfactant produced have been carried out, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that biosurfactants were constituted by protein and polysaccharide fractions, i.e., possessed the structure typical of glycoprotein, which is affected by the medium composition and the phase of growth of the biosurfactant-synthesizing strain. Critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the biosurfactant was found to be 6 g l(-1). The emulsification index (EI), emulsification activity (EA), and emulsion stability (ES) values of the biosurfactant have confirmed its emulsification property. Aqueous fractions of the produced biosurfactant exhibited a significant antimicrobial activity against the food-borne pathogenic species: Escherichia coli ATCC 31705, E. coli MTCC 108, Salmonella typhi, Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 859, and Staphylococcus aureus F 722. More importantly, the biosurfactant from L. plantarum showed antiadhesive property against above food-borne pathogens. The results thus indicate the potential for developing strategies to prevent microbial colonization of food contact surfaces and health-care prosthesis using these biosurfactants. PMID:24258794

  16. Nanoemulsification of pseudo-ceramide by molecular association with mannosylerythritol lipid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyung; Jeong, Eun Seon; Kim, Kwang Nyeon; Park, Seung Han; Kim, Jin Woong

    2014-04-01

    Ceramide molecules in water-based solutions readily attract each other to form molecular crystals, which seriously hampers to diversify their formulations. This paper describes a facile method that allows fabrication of stable ceramide emulsions through an effective molecular association with a lipid having an asymmetric molecular geometry. The lipid considered in this study is mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). MEL is specialized in having a unique molecular structure containing sugar alcohol erythritol as a hydrophilic part and two alkyl chains with different number of carbons as hydrophobic moieties. Our particular interest has been focused on experimentally demonstrating how MEL interacts with pseudo-ceramide molecules by observing phase properties, emulsion morphology, and suspension stability. The pseudo-ceramide emulsions prepared with MEL show remarkably improved dispersion stability without either formation of molecular crystals or changes in particle sizes even after storing them for a long time. This suggests that MEL readily associates with the pseudo-ceramide due to the hydrophobic interaction, while it makes a break in the continuity of the molecular assembly of the pseudo-ceramide molecules themselves due to the geometric hindrance coming from MEL's asymmetric molecular structure. PMID:24290102

  17. Tangled evolutionary processes with commonality and diversity in plastidial glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Hori, Koichi; Nobusawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Tei; Madoka, Yuka; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the photosynthetic membrane constitutes a scaffold for light-harvesting complexes and photosynthetic reaction centers. Three kinds of glycolipids, namely monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, constitute approximately 80-90% of photosynthetic membrane lipids and are well conserved from tiny cyanobacteria to the leaves of huge trees. These glycolipids perform a wide variety of functions beyond biological membrane formation. In particular, the capability of adaptation to harsh environments through regulation of membrane glycolipid composition is essential for healthy growth and development of photosynthetic organisms. The genome analysis and functional genetics of the model seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana have yielded many new findings concerning the biosynthesis, regulation, and functions of glycolipids. Nevertheless, it remains to be clarified how the complex biosynthetic pathways and well-organized functions of glycolipids evolved in early and primitive photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, to yield modern photosynthetic organisms like land plants. Recently, genome data for many photosynthetic organisms have been made available as the fruit of the rapid development of sequencing technology. We also have reported the draft genome sequence of the charophyte alga Klebsormidium flaccidum, which is an intermediate organism between green algae and land plants. Here, we performed a comprehensive phylogenic analysis of glycolipid biosynthesis genes in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms including K. flaccidum. Based on the results together with membrane lipid analysis of this alga, we discuss the evolution of glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27108062

  18. Characterization of glycolipid galactosyltransferases from embryonic chicken brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Glycolipid galactosyltransferases (GalT-3 and GalT-4) were solubilized from a membrane fraction isolated from embryonic chicken brain. The profiles of specific activity and total units per brain of GalT-3 and GalT-4 varied with embryonic age. GalT-4 had the highest specific activity at 9 days of embryonic development and showed a steady decrease until hatching. GalT-3 showed a gradual increase in specific activity. Both GalT3 and GalT-4 showed a steady increase in total units per brain throughout embryonic development. The solubilized enzymes could be separated using gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography or affinity chromatography on ..cap alpha..-lactalbumin-agarose. Data obtained in the study imply that GalT-4 is involved in both glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis. Glycosphingolipid products from GalT-3 and GalT-4 catalyzed reactions labeled with (/sup 14/C)galactose comigrated with authentic GMI and nLcOse/sub 4/Cer, when examined by thin layer chromatography and autoradiography. Studies with galactosidases revealed that all of the enzyme products formed by GalT-3 and GalT-4 contained a (/sup 14/C)-galactose in a ..beta.. anomeric linkage. Periodate oxidation studies of Gal-(/sup 14/C)GlcNAc, formed by purified GalT-4 using (/sup 14/C)GlcNAc as the acceptor, demonstrated that approximately 70% of the linkage formed was Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc and 30% was Gal..beta..1-3GlcNAc. Studies on the susceptibility of (/sup 14/C)Gal-GlcNAc to base catalyzed ..beta..-elimination also suggested the presence of approximately 30% Gal..beta..1-3GlcNAc.

  19. Sophorolipid biosurfactants: Possible uses as antibacterial and antibiofilm agent.

    PubMed

    Díaz De Rienzo, Mayri A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dolman, Ben; Winterburn, James; Martin, Peter J

    2015-12-25

    Biosurfactants are amphipathic, surface-active molecules of microbial origin which accumulate at interfaces reducing interfacial tension and leading to the formation of aggregated micellular structures in solution. Some biosurfactants have been reported to have antimicrobial properties, the ability to prevent adhesion and to disrupt biofilm formation. We investigated antimicrobial properties and biofilm disruption using sophorolipids at different concentrations. Growth of Gram negative Cupriavidus necator ATCC 17699 and Gram positive Bacillus subtilis BBK006 were inhibited by sophorolipids at concentrations of 5% v/v with a bactericidal effect. Sophorolipids (5% v/v) were also able to disrupt biofilms formed by single and mixed cultures of B. subtilis BBK006 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 under static and flow conditions, as was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that sophorolipids may be promising compounds for use in biomedical application as adjuvants to other antimicrobial against some pathogens through inhibition of growth and/or biofilm disruption. PMID:25738966

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0

  1. Triazole-Linked Glycolipids Enhance the Susceptibility of MRSA to β-Lactam Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We show here that a series of triazolyl glycolipid derivatives modularly synthesized by a “click” reaction have the ability to increase the susceptibility of a drug-resistant bacterium to β-lactam antibiotics. We determine that the glycolipids can suppress the minimal inhibitory concentration of a number of ineffective β-lactams, upward of 256-fold, for methicillin-resistant Staphylococuss aureus (MRSA). The mechanism of action has been preliminarily probed and discussed. PMID:26191368

  2. Triazole-Linked Glycolipids Enhance the Susceptibility of MRSA to β-Lactam Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xi-Le; Li, Dan; Shao, Lei; Dong, Xiaojing; He, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Guo-Rong; Chen, Daijie

    2015-07-01

    We show here that a series of triazolyl glycolipid derivatives modularly synthesized by a "click" reaction have the ability to increase the susceptibility of a drug-resistant bacterium to β-lactam antibiotics. We determine that the glycolipids can suppress the minimal inhibitory concentration of a number of ineffective β-lactams, upward of 256-fold, for methicillin-resistant Staphylococuss aureus (MRSA). The mechanism of action has been preliminarily probed and discussed. PMID:26191368

  3. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: glycolipids as targets for tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, L G; Noble, P; Spendlove, I

    2012-01-01

    Research into aberrant glycosylation and over-expression of glycolipids on the surface of the majority of cancers, coupled with a knowledge of glycolipids as functional molecules involved in a number of cellular physiological pathways, has provided a novel area of targets for cancer immunotherapy. This has resulted in the development of a number of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies that are showing promising results in recent clinical trials. PMID:22235996

  4. Comparison of biosurfactant detection methods reveals hydrophobic surfactants and contact-regulated production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosurfactants are diverse molecules with numerous biological functions and industrial applications. A variety of environments were examined for biosurfactant-producing bacteria using a versatile new screening method. The utility of an atomized oil assay was assessed for a large number of bacteria...

  5. EVALUATION OF SUB-MICELLAR SYNTHETIC SURFACTANTS VERSUS BIOSURFACTANTS FOR ENHANCED LNAPL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosurfactants could potentially replace or be used in conjunction with synthetic surfactants to provide for more cost-effective subsurface remediation. To design effective biosurfactant/surfactant formulations, information about the surface-active agent and the targeted NAPL ...

  6. Glycosylation of Glycolipids in Cancer: Basis for Development of Novel Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Daniotti, Jose L.; Vilcaes, Aldo A.; Torres Demichelis, Vanina; Ruggiero, Fernando M.; Rodriguez-Walker, Macarena

    2013-01-01

    Altered networks of gene regulation underlie many pathologies, including cancer. There are several proteins in cancer cells that are turned either on or off, which dramatically alters the metabolism and the overall activity of the cell, with the complex machinery of enzymes involved in the metabolism of glycolipids not being an exception. The aberrant glycosylation of glycolipids on the surface of the majority of cancer cells, associated with increasing evidence about the functional role of these molecules in a number of cellular physiological pathways, has received considerable attention as a convenient immunotherapeutic target for cancer treatment. This has resulted in the development of a substantial number of passive and active immunotherapies, which have shown promising results in clinical trials. More recently, antibodies to glycolipids have also emerged as an attractive tool for the targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents, thereby providing a rationale for future therapeutic interventions in cancer. This review first summarizes the cellular and molecular bases involved in the metabolic pathway and expression of glycolipids, both in normal and tumor cells, paying particular attention to sialosylated glycolipids (gangliosides). The current strategies in the battle against cancer in which glycolipids are key players are then described. PMID:24392350

  7. Kocuria marina BS-15 a biosurfactant producing halophilic bacteria isolated from solar salt works in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarafin, Yesurethinam; Donio, Mariathasan Birdilla Selva; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactant screening was made among the eight halophilic bacterial genera isolated from Kovalam solar salt works in Kanyakumari of India. After initial screening, Kocuria sp. (Km), Kurthia sp. (Ku) and Halococcus sp. (Hc) were found to have positive biosurfactant activity. Biosurfactant derived from Kocuria sp. emulsified more than 50% of the crude oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, olive oil and kerosene when compared to the other strains. Further, Kocuria marina BS-15 derived biosurfactant was purified and characterized by TLC, FTIR and GC–MS analysis. The TLC analysis revealed that, the purified biosurfactants belong to the lipopeptide group. The IR spectrum results revealed that functional groups are R2C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 NN, alkenes and N–H. The GC–MS analysis confirmed the compound as Nonanoic acid and Cyclopropane with the retention time of 12.78 and 24.65, respectively. PMID:25473358

  8. Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus salmalaya for Lubricating Oil Solubilization and Biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the capability of a biosurfactant produced by a novel strain of Bacillus salmalaya to enhance the biodegradation rates and bioavailability of organic contaminants. The biosurfactant produced by cultured strain 139SI showed high physicochemical properties and surface activity in the selected medium. The biosurfactant exhibited a high emulsification index and a positive result in the drop collapse test, with the results demonstrating the wetting activity of the biosurfactant and its potential to produce surface-active molecules. Strain 139SI can significantly reduce the surface tension (ST) from 70.5 to 27 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.4%. Moreover, lubricating oil at 2% (v/v) was degraded on Day 20 (71.5). Furthermore, the biosurfactant demonstrated high stability at different ranges of salinity, pH, and temperature. Overall, the results indicated the potential use of B. salmalaya 139SI in environmental remediation processes. PMID:26295402

  9. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: evolutionary implications, applications and future prospects from untapped marine resource.

    PubMed

    Kiran, George Seghal; Ninawe, Arun Shivanth; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Pandian, Vijayalakshmi; Selvin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipid-biosurfactants are known to be produced by the genus Pseudomonas, however recent literature reported that rhamnolipids (RLs) are distributed among diverse microbial genera. To integrate the evolutionary implications of rhamnosyl transferase among various groups of microorganisms, a comprehensive comparative motif analysis was performed amongst bacterial producers. Findings on new RL-producing microorganism is helpful from a biotechnological perspective and to replace infective P. aeruginosa strains which ultimately ensure industrially safe production of RLs. Halotolerant biosurfactants are required for efficient bioremediation of marine oil spills. An insight on the exploitation of marine microbes as the potential source of RL biosurfactants is highlighted in the present review. An economic production process, solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial and industrial waste would increase the scope of biosurfactants commercialization. Potential and prospective applications of RL-biosurfactants including hydrocarbon bioremediation, heavy metal removal, antibiofilm activity/biofilm disruption and greener synthesis of nanoparticles are highlighted in this review. PMID:25641324

  10. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  11. Ketide Synthase (KS) Domain Prediction and Analysis of Iterative Type II PKS Gene in Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacteria Producing Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Selvin, Joseph; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Lipton, Anuj N.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kiran, George S.

    2016-01-01

    The important biological macromolecules, such as lipopeptide and glycolipid biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria were analyzed and their potential linkage between type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes was explored. A unique feature of type II PKS genes is their high amino acid (AA) sequence homology and conserved gene organization. These enzymes mediate the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products with enormous structural complexity and chemical nature by combinatorial use of various domains. Therefore, deciphering the order of AA sequence encoded by PKS domains tailored the chemical structure of polyketide analogs still remains a great challenge. The present work deals with an in vitro and in silico analysis of PKS type II genes from five actinobacterial species to correlate KS domain architecture and structural features. Our present analysis reveals the unique protein domain organization of iterative type II PKS and KS domain of marine actinobacteria. The findings of this study would have implications in metabolic pathway reconstruction and design of semi-synthetic genomes to achieve rational design of novel natural products. PMID:26903957

  12. Enhanced Selectivity for Sulfatide by Engineered Human Glycolipid Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Samygina, Valeria R.; Popov, Alexander N.; Cabo-Bilbao, Aintzane; Ochoa-Lizarralde, Borja; Goni-de-Cerio, Felipe; Zhai, Xiuhong; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Malinina, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) fold represents a novel structural motif for lipid binding/transfer and reversible membrane translocation. GLTPs transfer glycosphingolipids (GSLs) which are key regulators of cell growth, division, surface adhesion, and neurodevelopment. Herein, we report structure-guided engineering of the lipid binding features of GLTP. New crystal structures of wild-type GLTP and two mutants (D48V and A47D||D48V), each containing bound N-nervonoyl-sulfatide, reveal the molecular basis for selective anchoring of sulfatide (3-O-sulfo-galactosylceramide) by D48V-GLTP. Directed point mutations of ‘portal entrance’ residues, A47 and D48, reversibly regulate sphingosine access to the hydrophobic pocket via a mechanism that could involve homo-dimerization. ‘Door-opening’ conformational changes by phenylalanines within the hydrophobic pocket are revealed during lipid encapsulation by new crystal structures of bona fide apo-GLTP and GLTP complexed with N-oleoyl-glucosylceramide. The development of ‘engineered GLTPs’ with enhanced specificity for select GSLs provides a potential new therapeutic approach for targeting GSL-mediated pathologies. PMID:22078563

  13. Characterization of glycolipids synthesized in an identified neuron of Aplysia californica

    SciTech Connect

    Sherbany, A.A.; Ambron, R.T.; Schwartz, J.H.

    1984-07-01

    Because radioactive precursors can be injected directly into the cell body or axon of R2, a giant, identified neuron of the Aplysia abdominal ganglion, it was possible to show that glycolipid is synthesized in the cell body, inserted into membranes along with glycoprotein, and then exported into the axon within organelles that are moved by fast axonal transport. After intrasomatic injection of N-(/sup 3/H)-acetyl-D-galactosamine, five major /sup 3/H-glycolipids were identified using thin layer polysilicic acid glass fiber chromatography. At least two of the lipids are negatively charged. Analysis of /sup 32/P-labeled lipid from the abdominal ganglion revealed the presence of 2-aminoethylphosphonate, indicating that these polar substances are sphingophosphonoglycolipids. The major /sup 3/H-glycolipids synthesized in R2 are similar to a family of phospholipids isolated from the skin of A. kurodai. Since sialic acid is absent in Aplysia as in other invertebrates, these polar glycolipids may function like gangliosides in vertebrates. The polar /sup 3/H-glycolipids are synthesized and incorporated into intracytoplasmic membranes solely in the cell body. Direct injection of the labeled sugar into the axon revealed no local synthesis or exchange of glycolipid. Moreover, there was no indication for transfer from glial cells into axoplasm. Although the incorporation of N-(/sup 3/H)-acetyl-D-galactosamine into glycolipid is not affected by anisomycin, an effective inhibitor of protein synthesis, the export into the axon of membranes containing the newly synthesized lipid is completely blocked by the drug.

  14. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    PubMed

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants. PMID:25985416

  15. Utilization of banana peel as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65.

    PubMed

    Chooklin, Chanika Saenge; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated for biosurfactant production by using banana peel as a sole carbon source. From the 71 strains screened, Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65 produced the highest biosurfactant activity. The highest biosurfactant production (5.30 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 35 % (w/v) banana peel and 1 g/l commercial monosodium glutamate at 30 °C and 200 rpm after 54 h of cultivation. The biosurfactant obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate showed high surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m), a small critical micelle concentration value (10 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction and emulsification activity, and a high level of salt tolerance. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a lipopeptide by using a biochemical test FT-IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and had the ability to emulsify oil, enhance PAHs solubility, and oil bioremediation. PMID:24711164

  16. Effect of biosurfactants on the aqueous solubility of PCE and TCE.

    PubMed

    Albino, John D; Nambi, Indumathi M

    2009-12-01

    The effect of biosurfactants on the solubility of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied in batch experiments pertaining to their use for solubilization and mobilization of such contaminants in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation. Biosurfactants, rhamnolipid and surfactin used in solubility studies were synthesized in our laboratory by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2297) and Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 2423), respectively. The efficiency of the biosurfactants in solubilizing the chlorinated solvents was compared to that of synthetic surfactants. The Weight Solubilization Ratio (WSR) values for solubilization of PCE and TCE by biosurfactants were very high compared to the values obtained for synthetic surfactants. Surfactin proved to be a better surfactant over rhamnolipid. The WSR of surfactin on solubilization of PCE and TCE were 3.83 and 12.5, respectively, whereas the values obtained for rhamnolipid were 2.06 and 8.36. The solubility of the chlorinated solvents by biosurfactants was considerably affected by the changes in pH. The aqueous solubility of PCE and TCE increased tremendously with decrease in pH. The solubility of biosurfactants was observed to decrease with the pH, favoring partitioning of surfactants into the chlorinated solvents in significant amounts at lower pH. The excessive accumulation of biosurfactants at the interface facilitated interfacial tension reductions resulting in higher solubility of the chlorinated solvents at pH less than 7. PMID:20183515

  17. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis using corn steep liquor as culture medium.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Fernandes, Elisabete C; Rodrigues, Ana I; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    In this work, biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis #573 was evaluated using corn steep liquor (CSL) as culture medium. The best results were obtained in a culture medium consisting of 10% (v/v) of CSL, with a biosurfactant production of about 1.3 g/l. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing biosurfactant production by B. subtilis using CSL as culture medium. Subsequently, the effect of different metals (iron, manganese, and magnesium) on biosurfactant production was evaluated using the medium CSL 10%. It was found that for all the metals tested, the biosurfactant production was increased (up to 4.1, 4.4, and 3.5 g/l for iron, manganese, and magnesium, respectively). When the culture medium was supplemented with the optimum concentration of the three metals simultaneously, the biosurfactant production was increased up to 4.8 g/l. Furthermore, the biosurfactant exhibited a good performance in oil recovery assays when compared with chemical surfactants, which suggests its possible application in microbial enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25705209

  18. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis using corn steep liquor as culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Fernandes, Elisabete C.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Teixeira, José A.; Rodrigues, Lígia R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis #573 was evaluated using corn steep liquor (CSL) as culture medium. The best results were obtained in a culture medium consisting of 10% (v/v) of CSL, with a biosurfactant production of about 1.3 g/l. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing biosurfactant production by B. subtilis using CSL as culture medium. Subsequently, the effect of different metals (iron, manganese, and magnesium) on biosurfactant production was evaluated using the medium CSL 10%. It was found that for all the metals tested, the biosurfactant production was increased (up to 4.1, 4.4, and 3.5 g/l for iron, manganese, and magnesium, respectively). When the culture medium was supplemented with the optimum concentration of the three metals simultaneously, the biosurfactant production was increased up to 4.8 g/l. Furthermore, the biosurfactant exhibited a good performance in oil recovery assays when compared with chemical surfactants, which suggests its possible application in microbial enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25705209

  19. Biocompatible lecithin-based microemulsions with rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants: formulation and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu T L; Edelen, Ashley; Neighbors, Bridgett; Sabatini, David A

    2010-08-15

    The objectives of this research are first to evaluate the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of sophorolipid biosurfactants relative to conventional synthetic surfactants and then to formulate and evaluate microemulsions of lecithin/rhamnolipid/sophorolipid biosurfactants with a range of oils (varying EACN values and oil types). We found that sophorolipid biosurfactants are more hydrophobic than sodium bis(2-ethyl) dihexyl sulfosuccinate (SBDHS), which is more hydrophobic than sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (SDHS) and rhamnolipid biosurfactant. Sophorolipid thus played an important role as the hydrophobic component in lecithin/rhamnolipid/sophorolipid biosurfactant formulation. This biosurfactant formulation was able to produce Winsor Type I, III and II microemulsions and the corresponding ultralow IFT for limonene, decane, isopropyl myristate and hexadecane. The phase behavior of this formulation with isopropyl myristate did not change significantly with changing temperature (10, 25, 40 degrees C) and electrolyte concentration (0.9% and 4.0% w/v), making it desirable for cosmetic and drug delivery applications. The hexadecane detergency performance of our biocompatible formulation was higher than that of a commercial liquid detergent at the same surfactant active concentrations. This paper thus shows the ability and robustness of mixed biosurfactant systems in formulating microemulsions for a range of oils and their potential applications. PMID:20471022

  20. Preliminary characterization of biosurfactant produced by a PAH-degrading Paenibacillus sp. under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mesbaiah, Fatma Zohra; Eddouaouda, Kamel; Badis, Abdelmalek; Chebbi, Alif; Hentati, Dorra; Sayadi, Sami; Chamkha, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    The capacities of a biosurfactant producing and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) utilizing bacterium, namely, strain 1C, isolated from an Algerian contaminated soil, were investigated. Strain 1C belonged to the Paenibacillus genus and was closely related to the specie Paenibacillus popilliae, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.4 %. It was able to produce biosurfactant using olive oil as substrate. The biosurfactant production was shown by surface tension (32.6 mN/m) after 24 h of incubation at 45 °C and 150 rpm. The biosurfactant(s) retained its properties during exposure to elevated temperatures (70 °C), relatively high salinity (20 % NaCl), and a wide range of pH values (2-10). The infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that its chemical structure belonged to lipopeptide class. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of this biosurfactant was about 0.5 g/l with 29.4 mN/m. In addition, the surface active compound(s) produced by strain 1C enhanced PAH solubility and showed a significant antimicrobial activity against pathogens. In addition to its biosurfactant production, strain 1C was shown to be able to utilize PAHs as the sole carbon and energy sources. Strain 1C as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and its interesting surface active agent may be used for cleaning the environments polluted with polyaromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:27053051

  1. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-09-15

    Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. PMID:25037876

  2. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant against Fusarium sacchari--the causal organism of pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debahuti; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Deka, Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane caused by the fungus Fusarium sacchari results considerable damage to the crop leading to top rot, the most serious and advanced stage of pokkah boeng, where the growing point is killed and the entire top of the plant dies. In the present study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant as an antifungal agent against F. sacchari to control pokkah boeng disease was investigated. On the basis of surface tension reduction, 12 bacterial isolates were selected as potent biosurfactant producers and eight of them showed antagonistic effect against F. sacchari. Among the eight, the isolate DS9 was found as the effective inhibitor of the fungus in vitro which was further evaluated using its biosurfactant present in whole culture, cell-free culture supernatant and crude biosurfactant at various concentrations. Reductions of fungal growths were found more with crude biosurfactant. By sequencing 16S rRNA, DS9 was identified as P. aeruginosa and the produced biosurfactant was characterized as rhamnolipid by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant inhibits phytopathogenic fungi F. sacchari and therefore seems to be a good biocontrol agent to control pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane. PMID:23687052

  3. Rapid screening of surfactant and biosurfactant surface cleaning performance.

    PubMed

    Onaizi, Sagheer A; He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2009-08-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and rubisco protein stain were used as tools to screen the effectiveness of detergent formulations in cleaning a protein stain from solid surfaces. Surfactant and biosurfactant-based formulations, with and without added protease, were screened for cleaning performance. Enzyme-free detergent formulations at 1500 ppm total surfactant were insufficient to cause complete surface cleaning, despite the high concentration of surfactant. The cleaning performance of a "home-made" formulation containing 2 ppm subtilisin A (SA) and 2 ppm sodium dodecyl benzyl sulphonate (SDOBS) was as efficient as the best amongst the three enzyme-free 1500 ppm formulations. The cleaning performance of 2 ppm SA in the absence of SDOBS was less effective than the combined formulation, even though 2 ppm SDOBS alone did not cause any protein removal. The observed synergistic performance was attributed to the cooperative mechanisms (chemical and physical attack) by which these two agents act on a rubisco stain. Replacing SDOBS in the enzyme-surfactant formulation with the same amount of surfactin biosurfactant (2 ppm) gave the best rubisco removal of all formulations examined in this study, irrespective of the surface chemistry underlying the protein film. It was found that 75% and 80% of immobilised rubisco stain could be removed from hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, respectively, by the biosurfactant-SA formulation (compared with 60% and 65%, respectively, using the SDOBS-SA formulation). Our results suggest that it may be possible to generate fully renewable biochemical-based cleaning formulations that have superior cleaning performance to existing technologies. In developing optimised formulations, there is a pressing need for chip-based tools similar to that developed in this research. PMID:19394206

  4. Optimization of cultural conditions for biosurfactant production by Pleurotus djamor in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Velioglu, Zulfiye; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-11-01

    Being eco-friendly, less toxic, more biodegradable and biocompatible, biological surfactants have higher activity and stability compared to synthetic ones. In spite of the fact that there are abundant benefits of biosurfactants over the synthetic congeners, the problem related with the economical and large scale production proceeds. The utilization of several industrial wastes in the production media as substrates reduces the production cost. This current study aims optimization of biosurfactant production conditions by Pleurotus djamor, grown on sunflower seed shell, grape wastes or potato peels as renewable cheap substrates in solid state fermentation. After determination of the best substrate for biosurfactant production, we indicate optimum size and amount of solid substrate, volume of medium, temperature, pH and Fe(2+) concentrations on biosurfactant production. In optimum conditions, by reducing water surface tension to 28.82 ± 0.3 mN/m and having oil displacement diameter of 3.9 ± 0.3 cm, 10.205 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced. Moreover, chemical composition of biosurfactant produced in optimum condition was determined by FTIR. Lastly, laboratory's large-scale production was carried out in optimum conditions in a tray bioreactor designed by us and 8.9 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced with a significant surface activity (37.74 ± 0.3 mN/m). With its economical suggestions and applicability of laboratory's large-scale production, this work indicates the possibility of using low cost agro-industrial wastes as renewable substrates for biosurfactant production. Therefore, using economically produced biosurfactant will reduce cost in several applications such as bioremediation, oil recovery and biodegradation of toxic chemicals. PMID:25865657

  5. In Situ Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus Strains Injected into a Limestone Petroleum Reservoir▿

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, N.; Simpson, D. R.; Duncan, K. E.; McInerney, M. J.; Folmsbee, M.; Fincher, T.; Knapp, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery may be an economic approach for recovery of significant amounts of oil entrapped in reservoirs, but evidence that biosurfactants can be produced in situ at concentrations needed to mobilize oil is lacking. We tested whether two Bacillus strains that produce lipopeptide biosurfactants can metabolize and produce their biosurfactants in an oil reservoir. Five wells that produce from the same Viola limestone formation were used. Two wells received an inoculum (a mixture of Bacillus strain RS-1 and Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii NRRL B-23049) and nutrients (glucose, sodium nitrate, and trace metals), two wells received just nutrients, and one well received only formation water. Results showed in situ metabolism and biosurfactant production. The average concentration of lipopeptide biosurfactant in the produced fluids of the inoculated wells was about 90 mg/liter. This concentration is approximately nine times the minimum concentration required to mobilize entrapped oil from sandstone cores. Carbon dioxide, acetate, lactate, ethanol, and 2,3-butanediol were detected in the produced fluids of the inoculated wells. Only CO2 and ethanol were detected in the produced fluids of the nutrient-only-treated wells. Microbiological and molecular data showed that the microorganisms injected into the formation were retrieved in the produced fluids of the inoculated wells. We provide essential data for modeling microbial oil recovery processes in situ, including growth rates (0.06 ± 0.01 h−1), carbon balances (107% ± 34%), biosurfactant production rates (0.02 ± 0.001 h−1), and biosurfactant yields (0.015 ± 0.001 mol biosurfactant/mol glucose). The data demonstrate the technical feasibility of microbial processes for oil recovery. PMID:17172458

  6. BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM-WASTE BY BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; Kamlesh Jangid, K; Krystyna Lukasik, K; Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Topher Berry, T

    2007-05-16

    The degradation of petroleum waste by mixed bacterial cultures which produce biosurfactants: Ralstonia pickettii SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (1'- 1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1) and Bacillus sp. (T'-1) was investigated. The total petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded substantially (91 %) by the mixed bacterial culture in 30 days (reaching up to 29 % in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3 times after 30 days as compared to raw petroleum waste. Thus, the mixed bacterial strains effectively clean-up the petroleum waste and they can be used in other bioremediation processes.

  7. Synthetic glycolipid activators of natural killer T cells as immunotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Carreño, Leandro J; Saavedra-Ávila, Noemí A; Porcelli, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Certain types of glycolipids have been found to have remarkable immunomodulatory properties as a result of their ability to activate specific T lymphocyte populations with an extremely wide range of immune effector properties. The most extensively studied glycolipid reactive T cells are known as invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. The antigen receptors of these cells specifically recognize certain glycolipids, most notably glycosphingolipids with α-anomeric monosaccharides, presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule CD1d. Once activated, iNKT cells can secrete a very diverse array of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, glycolipid-mediated activation of iNKT cells has been explored for immunotherapy in a variety of disease states, including cancer and a range of infections. In this review, we discuss the design of synthetic glycolipid activators for iNKT cells, their impact on adaptive immune responses and their use to modulate iNKT cell responses to improve immunity against infections and cancer. Current challenges in translating results from preclinical animal studies to humans are also discussed. PMID:27195112

  8. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    The project had three objectives: (1) to develop microbial strains with improved biosurfactant properties that use cost-effective nutrients, (2) to obtain biosurfactant strains with improved transport properties through sandstones, and (3) to determine the empirical relationship between surfactant concentration and interfacial tension and whether in situ reactions kinetics and biosurfactant concentration meets appropriate engineering design criteria. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns and Berea sandstone cores when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea sandstone cores. Even low biosurfactant concentrations (16 mg/l) mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon (29%). The bio-surfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. A mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration was modified to include the stepwise changes in IFT as biosurfactant concentrations changes. This model adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration. Theses data show that lipopeptide biosurfactant systems may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic

  9. In-Situ Anaerobic Biosurfactant Production Process For Remediation Of DNAPL Contamination In Subsurface Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, J. D.; Nambi, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and remediation of aquifers contaminated with hydrophobic contaminants require insitu production of biosurfactants for mobilization of entrapped hydrophobic liquids. Most of the biosurfactant producing microorganisms produce them under aerobic condition and hence surfactant production is limited in subsurface condition due to lack of oxygen. Currently bioremediation involves expensive air sparging or excavation followed by exsitu biodegradation. Use of microorganisms which can produce biosurfactants under anaerobic conditions can cost effectively expedite the process of insitu bioremediation or mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of anaerobic biosurfactant production in three mixed anaerobic cultures prepared from groundwater and soil contaminated with chlorinated compounds and municipal sewage sludge was investigated. The cultures were previously enriched under complete anaerobic conditions in the presence of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) for more than a year before they were studied for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant production under anaerobic conditions was simulated using two methods: i) induction of starvation in the microbial cultures and ii) addition of complex fermentable substrates. Positive result for biosurfactant production was not observed when the cultures were induced with starvation by adding PCE as blobs which served as the only terminal electron acceptor. However, slight reduction in interfacial tension was noticed which was caused by the adherence of microbes to water-PCE interface. Biosurfactant production was observed in all the three cultures when they were fed with complex fermentable substrates and surface tension of the liquid medium was lowered below 35 mN/m. Among the fermentable substrates tested, vegetable oil yielded highest amount of biosurfactant in all the cultures. Complete biodegradation of PCE to ethylene at a faster rate was also observed when vegetable oil was amended to the

  10. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  11. Lipid and glycolipid antigens of CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M.; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of their relatively limited antigen receptor repertoire, CD1d-restricted NKT cells recognize a surprisingly diverse range of lipid and glycolipid antigens. Recent studies of natural and synthetic CD1d presented antigens provide an increasingly detailed picture of how the specific structural features of these lipids and glycolipids influence their ability to be presented to NKT cells and stimulate their diverse immunologic functions. Particularly for synthetic analogues of α-galactosylceramides which have been the focus of intense recent investigation, it is becoming clear that the design of glycolipid antigens with the ability to precisely control the specific immunologic activities of NKT cells is likely to be feasible. The emerging details of the mechanisms underlying the structure-activity relationship of NKT cell antigens will assist greatly in the design and production of immunomodulatory agents for the precise manipulation of NKT cells and the many other components of the immune system that they influence. PMID:19945296

  12. Phenolic glycolipids of Mycobacterium bovis: new structures and synthesis of a corresponding seroreactive neoglycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, D; Bozic, C M; Knisley, C; Cho, S N; Brennan, P J

    1989-01-01

    The glycolipid that characterizes the majority of isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and that has come to be known as M. bovis-identifying lipid is the phenolic glycolipid mycoside B described in the literature by others. However, when mycoside B obtained from M. bovis BCG, field isolates, and infected tissues was examined in detail, it was shown to be different from that described in the literature in some important respects. In particular, the glycosyl substituent is 2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose rather than 2-O-methyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranose. With this information, a seroreactive neoglycoprotein (neoantigen) containing the 2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl substituent suitable for the serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis was synthesized. M. bovis also contains other minor seroreactive phenolic glycolipids, one of which is a deacylated form of mycoside B and another of which contains an alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl unit rather than 2-O-methyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose. Images PMID:2643563

  13. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Gizele Cardoso; Fonseca Amaral, Priscilla Filomena; Nele, Marcio; Zarur Coelho, Maria Alice

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone) on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST) and emulsification index (EI). The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST) were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium sulfate and 0.5 g 1−1 of yeast extract. Then, the effects of carbon sources (glycerol, hexadecane, olive oil, and glucose) were evaluated. The most favorable medium for biosurfactant production was composed of both glucose (4% w/v) and glycerol (2% w/v), which provided an EI of 81.3% and a ΔST of 19.5 mN m−1. The experimental design optimization enhanced ΔEI by 110.7% and ΔST by 108.1% in relation to the standard process. PMID:20368788

  14. Oxygen-controlled biosurfactant production in a bench scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo; Santa Anna, Lidia Maria Melo; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos de; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2008-03-01

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process. PMID:18401751

  15. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    PubMed

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs. PMID:26293409

  16. Induction of inflammatory mediator release (serotonin and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) from human platelets by Pseudomonas aeruginosa glycolipid.

    PubMed Central

    König, B; Bergmann, U; König, W

    1992-01-01

    Purified glycolipid from Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced the generation of significant amounts of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and serotonin release from human platelets. The release of serotonin was first observed 2 min after addition of the glycolipid and increased with time. Significant serotonin release was obtained at glycolipid concentrations above 5 micrograms/ml and increased dose-dependently up to 100% at glycolipid concentrations above 40 micrograms/ml. Glycolipid induced 12-HETE in a time- and dose-dependent manner. 12-HETE formation was first measured after 10 min of incubation and increased with time. Optimal 12-HETE formation was obtained at a glycolipid concentration of 50 micrograms/ml; higher concentrations of glycolipid led to a decrease in 12-HETE formation, indicating a cytotoxic effect. Stimulation of platelets with glycolipid (12-HETE formation and serotonin release) was accompanied by calcium influx, translocation of protein kinase C, activation of guanylylimidodiphosphate binding, and increased GTPase activity in platelet membranes within the same concentration range. PMID:1639485

  17. Self-Organisation, Thermotropic and Lyotropic Properties of Glycolipids Related to their Biological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Garidel, Patrick; Kaconis, Yani; Heinbockel, Lena; Wulf, Matthias; Gerber, Sven; Munk, Ariane; Vill, Volkmar; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Glycolipids are amphiphilic molecules which bear an oligo- or polysaccharide as hydrophilic head group and hydrocarbon chains in varying numbers and lengths as hydrophobic part. They play an important role in life science as well as in material science. Their biological and physiological functions are quite diverse, ranging from mediators of cell-cell recognition processes, constituents of membrane domains or as membrane-forming units. Glycolipids form an exceptional class of liquid-crystal mesophases due to the fact that their self-organisation obeys more complex rules as compared to classical monophilic liquid-crystals. Like other amphiphiles, the supra-molecular structures formed by glycolipids are driven by their chemical structure; however, the details of this process are still hardly understood. Based on the synthesis of specific glycolipids with a clearly defined chemical structure, e.g., type and length of the sugar head group, acyl chain linkage, substitution pattern, hydrocarbon chain lengths and saturation, combined with a profound physico-chemical characterisation of the formed mesophases, the principles of the organisation in different aggregate structures of the glycolipids can be obtained. The importance of the observed and formed phases and their properties are discussed with respect to their biological and physiological relevance. The presented data describe briefly the strategies used for the synthesis of the used glycolipids. The main focus, however, lies on the thermotropic as well as lyotropic characterisation of the self-organised structures and formed phases based on physico-chemical and biophysical methods linked to their potential biological implications and relevance. PMID:26464591

  18. Phase sensitive molecular dynamics of self-assembly glycolipid thin films: A dielectric spectroscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayutham, T. S.; Ng, B. K.; Gan, W. C.; Majid, W. H. Abd.; Hashim, R.; Zahid, N. I.; Chaiprapa, Jitrin

    2014-08-01

    Glycolipid, found commonly in membranes, is also a liquid crystal material which can self-assemble without the presence of a solvent. Here, the dielectric and conductivity properties of three synthetic glycolipid thin films in different thermotropic liquid crystal phases were investigated over a frequency and temperature range of (10-2-106 Hz) and (303-463 K), respectively. The observed relaxation processes distinguish between the different phases (smectic A, columnar/hexagonal, and bicontinuous cubic Q) and the glycolipid molecular structures. Large dielectric responses were observed in the columnar and bicontinuous cubic phases of the longer branched alkyl chain glycolipids. Glycolipids with the shortest branched alkyl chain experience the most restricted self-assembly dynamic process over the broad temperature range studied compared to the longer ones. A high frequency dielectric absorption (Process I) was observed in all samples. This is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network from the sugar group. An additional low-frequency mechanism (Process II) with a large dielectric strength was observed due to the internal dynamics of the self-assembly organization. Phase sensitive domain heterogeneity in the bicontinuous cubic phase was related to the diffusion of charge carriers. The microscopic features of charge hopping were modelled using the random walk scheme, and two charge carrier hopping lengths were estimated for two glycolipid systems. For Process I, the hopping length is comparable to the hydrogen bond and is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network. Additionally, that for Process II is comparable to the bilayer spacing, hence confirming that this low-frequency mechanism is associated with the internal dynamics within the phase.

  19. Structural Determination and Tryptophan Fluorescence of Heterokaryon Incompatibility C2 Protein (HET-C2), a Fungal Glycolipid Transfer Protein (GLTP), Provide Novel Insights into Glycolipid Specificity and Membrane Interaction by the GLTP Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Kenoth, Roopa; Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Kamlekar, Ravi Kanth; Pike, Helen M.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Benson, Linda M.; Bergen, III, H. Robert; Prendergast, Franklyn G.; Malinina, Lucy; Venyaminov, Sergei Y.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Brown, Rhoderick E.

    2010-06-21

    HET-C2 is a fungal protein that transfers glycosphingolipids between membranes and has limited sequence homology with human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP). The human GLTP fold is unique among lipid binding/transfer proteins, defining the GLTP superfamily. Herein, GLTP fold formation by HET-C2, its glycolipid transfer specificity, and the functional role(s) of its two Trp residues have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (1.9 {angstrom}) revealed a GLTP fold with all key sugar headgroup recognition residues (Asp{sup 66}, Asn{sup 70}, Lys{sup 73}, Trp{sup 109}, and His{sup 147}) conserved and properly oriented for glycolipid binding. Far-UV CD showed secondary structure dominated by {alpha}-helices and a cooperative thermal unfolding transition of 49 C, features consistent with a GLTP fold. Environmentally induced optical activity of Trp/Tyr/Phe (2:4:12) detected by near-UV CD was unaffected by membranes containing glycolipid but was slightly altered by membranes lacking glycolipid. Trp fluorescence was maximal at {approx}355 nm and accessible to aqueous quenchers, indicating free exposure to the aqueous milieu and consistent with surface localization of the two Trps. Interaction with membranes lacking glycolipid triggered significant decreases in Trp emission intensity but lesser than decreases induced by membranes containing glycolipid. Binding of glycolipid (confirmed by electrospray injection mass spectrometry) resulted in a blue-shifted emission wavelength maximum ({approx}6 nm) permitting determination of binding affinities. The unique positioning of Trp{sup 208} at the HET-C2 C terminus revealed membrane-induced conformational changes that precede glycolipid uptake, whereas key differences in residues of the sugar headgroup recognition center accounted for altered glycolipid specificity and suggested evolutionary adaptation for the simpler glycosphingolipid compositions of filamentous fungi.

  20. Biodegradation of diesel oil by a novel microbial consortium: comparison between co-inoculation with biosurfactant-producing strain and exogenously added biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Mnif, Sami; Sahnoun, Rihab; Maktouf, Sameh; Ayedi, Younes; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-10-01

    Bioremediation, involving the use of microorganisms to detoxify or remove pollutants, is the most interesting strategy for hydrocarbon remediation. In this aim, four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Tunisia. They were identified by the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, as Lysinibacillus bronitolerans RI18 (KF964487), Bacillus thuringiensis RI16 (KM111604), Bacillus weihenstephanensis RI12 (KM094930), and Acinetobacter radioresistens RI7 (KJ829530). Moreover, a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis SPB1, confirmed to increase diesel solubility, was tested to increase diesel biodegradation along with co-inoculation with two biosurfactant-producing strains. Culture studies revealed the enhancement of diesel biodegradation by the selected consortium with the addition of SPB1 lipopeptide and in the cases of co-inoculation by biosurfactant-producing strain. In fact, an improvement of about 38.42 and 49.65 % of diesel degradation was registered in the presence of 0.1 % lipopeptide biosurfactant and when culturing B. subtilis SPB1 strain with the isolated consortium, respectively. Furthermore, the best improvement, evaluated to about 55.4 %, was recorded when using the consortium cultured with B. subtilis SPB1 and A. radioresistens RI7 strains. Gas chromatography analyses were correlated with the gravimetric evaluation of the residual hydrocarbons. Results suggested the potential applicability of the selected consortium along with the ex situ- and in situ-added biosurfactant for the effective bioremediation of diesel-contaminated water and soil. PMID:25994261

  1. Wastewater treatment enhancement by applying a lipopeptide biosurfactant to a lignocellulosic biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ameneiro, M; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-10-20

    In this work, a natural lipopeptide biosurfactant obtained from corn steep liquor was included in the formulation of a lignocellulosic biocomposite used for the treatment of wastewater. The results obtained indicate that the dye sorption capacity of the hydrogel containing hydrolysed vineyard pruning waste can be significantly promoted via surfactant modification using natural detergents. The elimination of dye compounds and the removal of sulphates were increased around 10% and 62%, respectively, when the biocomposite modified with biosurfactant was used. This outcome can be intrinsically related to the rougher, rounder, more compact and better-emulsified sphere achieved after the addition of the lipopeptide biosurfactant. The bioadsorption process followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model and both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion were involved in the bioadsorption mechanism. Therefore, the utilisation of biosurfactants shows great potential in the formulation of eco-friendly adsorbents for environmental application. PMID:26256175

  2. Application of lipopeptide biosurfactant isolated from a halophile: Bacillus tequilensis CH for inhibition of biofilm.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Mall, Gangotri; Panda, Himadri Tanaya; Sukla, Lala Behari; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2013-11-01

    Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules having hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties produced by various microorganisms. These molecules trigger the reduction of surface tension or interfacial tension in liquids. A biosurfactant-producing halophile was isolated from Lake Chilika, a brackish water lake of Odisha, India (19°41'39″N, 85°18'24″E). The halophile was identified as Bacillus tequilensis CH by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and assigned accession no. KC851857 by GenBank. The biosurfactant produced by B. tequilensis CH was partially characterized as a lipopeptide using thin-layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The minimum effective concentration of a biosurfactant for inhibition of pathogenic biofilm (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans) on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was found to be 50 μg ml(-1). This finding has potential for a variety of applications. PMID:23955294

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; D.P. Nagle, Jr.; Kathleen Duncan; N. Youssef; M.J. Folmsbee; S. Maudgakya

    2003-06-26

    Biosurfactants enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation by increasing apparent aqueous solubility or affecting the association of the cell with poorly soluble hydrocarbon. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. One pore volume of cell-free culture fluid with 900 mg/l of the biosurfactant, 10 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1000 mg/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer mobilized 82% of the residual hydrocarbon. Consistent with the high residual oil recoveries, we found that the bio-surfactant lowered the interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. The lipopeptide biosurfactant system may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Previously, we reported that Proteose peptone was necessary for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production by B. mojavensis JF-2. The data gathered from crude purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose peptone suggested that it consisted of nucleic acids; however, nucleic acid bases, nucleotides or nucleosides did not replace the requirement for Proteose Peptone. Further studies revealed that salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, Echerichia coli DNA and synthetic DNA replaced the requirement for Proteose peptone. In addition to DNA, amino acids and nitrate were required for anaerobic growth and vitamins further improved growth. We now have a defined medium that can be used to manipulate growth and biosurfactant

  4. Isolation and selection of new biosurfactant producing bacteria from degraded palm kernel cake under liquid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Parveen; Mir, Shajrat; Alam, Md Zahangir; Wan Nawawi, Wan M Fazli

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by different microorganisms. The aim of this study was to introduce palm kernel cake (PKC) as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production using a potent bacterial strain under liquid state fermentation. This study was primarily based on the isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize palm kernel cake as a new major substrate. Potential bacterial strains were isolated from degraded PKC and screened for biosurfactant production with the help of the drop collapse assay and by analyzing the surface tension activity. From the screened isolates, a new strain, SM03, showed the best and most consistent results, and was therefore selected as the most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain. The new strain was identified as Providencia alcalifaciens SM03 using the Gen III MicroPlate Biolog Microbial Identification System. The yield of the produced biosurfactant was 8.3 g/L. PMID:25007747

  5. Optimization of liquid-liquid extraction of biosurfactants from corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Vecino, X; Barbosa-Pereira, L; Devesa-Rey, R; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the optimization of the operational conditions for the chloroform-based extraction of surface-active compounds from corn steep liquor (CSL) was carried out and the nutritional properties of the remnant aqueous phase (CSL-less biosurfactant) was evaluated as microbial fermentation medium. The optimal conditions to obtain biosurfactants from CSL were as follows: chloroform/CSL ratio 2 (v/v), 56 °C at extraction times >30 min. At the optima conditions, 100 % of biosurfactant extract can be obtained from CSL, obtaining 12.0 ± 0.5 g of biosurfactant extract/Kg of CSL. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the biosurfactant extract was 399.4 mg L(-1). This value is similar to the CMC of cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant used in the formulation of nanoparticles. The extraction of biosurfactant can be also carried out at room temperature although in this case, the extraction yield decreased about 15 %. The extraction of surface-active compounds from agroindustrial streams can suppose important advances for the bio-based surfactants industry. Biosurfactants obtained in this work are not only more eco-friendly than chemical detergents but also can be cost competitive with its chemical counterparts. Furthermore, after the extraction of surface-active compounds, CSL-less biosurfactant was found to be suitable as nutritional supplement for lactic acid bacteria, maintaining its nutritional properties in comparison with regular CSL. PMID:25911424

  6. Biosurfactants from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BU03 enhance the solubility and biodegradation of phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenyong; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2009-03-01

    A thermophilic bacterial strain, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BU03, with a biosurfactant-producing capability, was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil with an improved procedure which employed the solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e. naphthalene in agar plate, as a selection criterion. Crude biosurfactant was recovered from the culture of BU03 by extraction with n-hexane, and its properties were investigated. Biosurfactants from A. calcoaceticus BU03 constitute a thermo-stable mixture, composed of different agents with surface activities. At their critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 152.4 mg L(-1), the crude biosurfactants produced from A. calcoaceticus BU03 decreased the air-water surface tension to 38.4 mN m(-1). In thermophilic conditions, the emulsifying activity is 2.8 times that of Tween 80. The effects of the biosurfactants produced by A. calcoaceticus on the solubility and biodegradation of PAHs were investigated in batch systems. Biosurfactants produced by A. calcoaceticus BU03 at 25 times their CMC significantly increased the apparent aqueous solubility of phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) to 54.3, 6.33 and 2.08 mg L(-1), respectively. In aqueous system, the biosurfactants at concentrations of 0.5 CMC and 1 CMC slightly enhanced the biodegradation of PHE by a consortium of PAH-degrading microrganisms. Results indicate that biosurfactants from A. calcoaceticus BU03 have potential to enhance the removal of PAHs from contaminated sites. PMID:19438062

  7. Optimization of low-cost biosurfactant production from agricultural residues through response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ebadipour, N; Lotfabad, T Bagheri; Yaghmaei, S; RoostaAzad, R

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface tension and interfacial tension. Biosurfactants are produced by various microorganisms. They are promising replacements for chemical surfactants because of biodegradability, nontoxicity, and their ability to be produced from renewable sources. However, a major obstacle in producing biosurfactants at the industrial level is the lack of cost-effectiveness. In the present study, by using corn steep liquor (CSL) as a low-cost agricultural waste, not only is the production cost reduced but a higher production yield is also achieved. Moreover, a response surface methodology (RSM) approach through the Box-Behnken method was applied to optimize the biosurfactant production level. The results found that biosurfactant production was improved around 2.3 times at optimum condition when the CSL was at a concentration of 1.88 mL/L and yeast extract was reduced to 25 times less than what was used in a basic soybean oil medium (SOM). The predicted and experimental values of responses were in reasonable agreement with each other (Pred-R(2) = 0.86 and adj-R(2) = 0.94). Optimization led to a drop in raw material price per unit of biosurfactant from $47 to $12/kg. Moreover, the biosurfactant product at a concentration of 84 mg/L could lower the surface tension of twice-distilled water from 72 mN/m to less than 28 mN/m and emulsify an equal volume of kerosene by an emulsification index of (E24) 68% in a two-phase mixture. These capabilities made these biosurfactants applicable in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), hydrocarbon remediation, and all other petroleum industry surfactant applications. PMID:25748124

  8. Biosurfactant Production by Cultivation of Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 in Semidefined Glucose/Casein-Based Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; de Oliveira, Kátia Silva; Kobayashi, Márcio Junji; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Converti, Attilio

    Biosurfactants are proteins with detergent, emulsifier, and antimicrobial actions that have potential application in environmental applications such as the treatment of organic pollutants and oil recovery. Bacillus atrophaeus strains are nonpathogenic and are suitable source of biosurfactants, among which is surfactin. The aim of this work is to establish a culture medium composition able to stimulate biosurfactants production by B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372. Batch cultivations were carried out in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm and 35°C for 24 h on glucose- and/or casein-based semidefined culture media also containing sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate, and soy flour. The addition of 14.0 g/L glucose in a culture medium containing 10.0 g/L of casein resulted in 17 times higher biosurfactant production (B max=635.0 mg/L). Besides, the simultaneous presence of digested casein (10.0 g/L), digested soy flour (3.0 g/L), and glucose (18.0 g/L) in the medium was responsible for a diauxic effect during cell growth. Once the diauxie started, the average biosurfactants concentration was 16.8% less than that observed before this phenomenon. The capability of B. atrophaeus strain to adapt its own metabolism to use several nutrients as energy sources and to preserve high levels of biosurfactants in the medium during the stationary phase is a promising feature for its possible application in biological treatments.

  9. Screening of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Song, Xing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Cao, Tong

    2015-05-01

    From offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada, crude oil, formation water, drilling mud, treated produced water and seawater samples were collected for screening potential biosurfactant producers. In total, 59 biosurfactant producers belong to 4 genera, namely, Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Halomonas, and Pseudomonas were identified and characterized. Phytogenetic trees based on 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S rDNA) were constructed with isolated strains plus their closely related strains and isolated strains with biosurfactant producers in the literature, respectively. The distributions of the isolates were site and medium specific. The richness, diversity, and evenness of biosurfactant producer communities in oil and gas platform samples have been analyzed. Diverse isolates were found with featured properties such as effective reduction of surface tension, producing biosurfactants at high rate and stabilization of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. The producers and their corresponding biosurfactants had promising potential in applications such as offshore oil spill control, enhancing oil recovery and soil washing treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. PMID:25903403

  10. Characterization of biosurfactants from indigenous soil bacteria recovered from oil contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Govind; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Three bacterial isolates (G1, G2 and G3) characterized as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Lysinibacillus fusiformis and Bacillus safensis were recovered from contaminated soil of oil refinery. These bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants in MSM medium in stationary phase. Biosurfactants were characterized on the basis of their emulsifying properties with petrol, diesel, mobil oil and petrol engine oil. Reduction in surface tension (below 40 mN m(-1)) and blood hemolysis were also included in biosurfactants characterization. Emulsification indices of G1, G2 and G3 were in the range of 98.82, 23.53 and 58.82 for petrol; 29.411,1.05 and 70.588 for diesel; 35.31, 2.93 and 17.60 for mobil oil and 35.284, 58.82 and 17.647 for petrol engine oil respectively. Dry weight of the extracted biosurfactant was 4.6, 1.4 and 2.4 g I(-1) for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. Structural analysis of the biosurfactants by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed significant differences in the bonding pattern of individual biosurfactant. PMID:26521551

  11. The inhibitory effect of a Lactobacillus acidophilus derived biosurfactant on biofilm producer Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhfard, Maliheh; Kermanshahi, Rouha Kasra; Shahandashti, Roya Vahedi; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Teimourian, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Serratia marcescens is one of the nosocomial pathogen with the ability to form biofilm which is an important feature in the pathogenesis of S. marcescens. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-adhesive properties of a biosurfactant isolated from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, on S. marcescens strains. Materials and Methods: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was selected as a probiotic strain for biosurfactant production. Anti-adhesive activities was determined by pre-coating and co- incubating methods in 96-well culture plates. Results: The FTIR analysis of derived biosurfactant revealed the composition as protein component. Due to the release of such biosurfactants, L. acidophilus was able to interfere with the adhesion and biofilm formation of the S. marcescens strains. In co-incubation method, this biosurfactant in 2.5 mg/ml concentration showed anti-adhesive activity against all tested strains of S. marcescens (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results show that the anti-adhesive properties of L. acidophilus biosurfactant has the potential to be used against microorganisms responsible for infections in the urinary, vaginal and gastrointestinal tracts, as well as skin, making it a suitable alternative to conventional antibiotics. PMID:26730335

  12. Optimization and characterization of biosurfactant production from marine Vibrio sp. strain 3B-2

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoke; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, designated 3B-2, was isolated from marine sediment and identified as Vibrio sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The culture medium composition was optimized to increase the capability of 3B-2 for producing biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized in terms of protein concentration, surface tension, and oil-displacement efficiency. The optimal medium for biosurfactant production contained: 0.5% lactose, 1.1% yeast extract, 2% sodium chloride, and 0.1% disodium hydrogen phosphate. Under optimal conditions (28°C), the surface tension of crude biosurfactant could be reduced to 41 from 71.5 mN/m (water), while its protein concentration was increased to up to 6.5 g/L and the oil displacement efficiency was improved dramatically at 6.5 cm. Two glycoprotein fractions with the molecular masses of 22 and 40 kDa were purified from the biosurfactant, which held great potential for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. PMID:26441908

  13. Optimization of environmental factors for improved production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 on glycerol.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Manab; Sarma, Hemen

    2012-08-01

    A biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 (identified on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis) with good foaming and emulsification properties has been isolated from crude oil contaminated sites. Optimization of different environmental factors was carried out with an objective to achieve maximum production of biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was estimated in terms of surface tension reduction and emulsification (E24) index. It was recorded that the isolated strain produced highest biosurfactant after 48 h of incubation at 37.5 °C, with a pH range of 7-8 and at salinity <0.8% (w/v). Ammonium nitrate used in the experiment was the best nitrogen source for the growth of biomass of P. aeruginosa RS29. On the other hand sodium and potassium nitrate enhanced the production of biosurfactant (Surface tension, 26.3 and 26.4 mN/m and E24 index, 80 and 79% respectively). The CMC of the biosurfactant was 90 mg/l. Maximum biomass (6.30 g/l) and biosurfactant production (0.80 g/l) were recorded at an optimal C/N ratio of 12.5. Biochemical analysis and FTIR spectra confirmed that the biosurfactant was rhamnolipid in nature. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of C(8) and C(10) fatty acid components in the purified biosurfactant. PMID:22144225

  14. Probiotic bacteria and biosurfactants for nosocomial infection control: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Falagas, M E; Makris, G C

    2009-04-01

    The adaptation of strict hygienic practices by healthcare personnel as well as the implementation of appropriate cleaning and disinfection measures form the basis of infection control policies. However, nosocomial infections constitute a considerable problem even in hospitals with meticulous infection control programmes. This should prompt biomedical researchers to evaluate the efficacy and safety of novel infection control measures. There is preliminary evidence that probiotic type micro-organisms may antagonise the growth of nosocomial pathogens on inanimate surfaces. We therefore propose the hypothesis that environmental probiotic organisms may represent a safe and effective intervention for infection control purposes. We suggest that probiotics or their products (biosurfactants), could be applied to patient care equipment, such as tubes or catheters, with the aim of decreasing colonisation of sites by nosocomial pathogens. This could potentially impede a central step in the pathogenesis of nosocomial infections. PMID:19201053

  15. Advances in utilization of renewable substrates for biosurfactant production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties which partition preferentially at the interfaces such as liquid/liquid, gas/liquid or solid/liquid interfaces. Such characteristics enable emulsifying, foaming, detergency and dispersing properties. Their low toxicity and environmental friendly nature and the wide range of potential industrial applications in bioremediation, health care, oil and food processing industries makes them a highly sought after group of chemical compounds. Interest in them has also been encouraged because of the potential advantages they offer over their synthetic counterparts in many fields spanning environmental, food, biomedical, petrochemical and other industrial applications. Their large scale production and application however are currently restricted by the high cost of production and by the limited understanding of their interactions with cells and with the abiotic environment. In this paper, we review the current knowledge and latest advances in the search for cost effective renewable agro industrial alternative substrates for their production. PMID:21906330

  16. Biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa FR using palm oil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando J S; Vazquez, Leonardo; De Campos, Norberto P; de França, Francisca P

    2006-03-01

    Biosurfactants production by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using palm oil as a sole carbon source was investigated. The experiments were carried out in 500-mL conical flasks containing 100 mL of mineral media supplemented with palm oil as the sole carbon source. The P. aeruginosa FR strain was able to reduce surface tension of three tested inorganic media. Rotation velocities from 100 to 150 rpm provided free-cell fermented media with the lowest surface tension of approx 33 mN/m. Emulsification index results of even 100% were achieved when diesel was used as oil phase. Eight surface-active compounds produced by the bacterium were identified by mass spectrometry. PMID:18563649

  17. Novel Polyoxyethylene-Containing Glycolipids Are Synthesized in Corynebacterium matruchotii and Mycobacterium smegmatis Cultured in the Presence of Tween 80

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cindy; Mahrous, Engy A.; Lee, Richard E.; Vestling, Martha M.; Takayama, Kuni

    2011-01-01

    The addition of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) to a culture of mycobacteria greatly influences cell permeability and sensitivity to antibiotics but very little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. Here we show that Corynebacterium matruchotii (surrogate of mycobacteria) converts Tween 80 to a structural series of polyoxyethylenic acids which are then used to form novel series-2A and series-2B glycolipids. Minor series-3 glycolipids were also synthesized. The polyoxyethylenic acids replaced corynomycolic acids in the cell wall. Correspondingly the trehalose dicorynomycolate content was reduced. MALDI mass spectrometry, MS-MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR were used to characterize the series-2 glycolipids. Series-2A glycolipid is trehalose 6-C36:2-corynomycolate-6′-polyoxyethylenate and series-2B glycolipid is trehalose 6-C36:2-corynomycolate-6′-furan ring-containing polyoxyethylenate. Mycobacterium smegmatis grown in the presence of Tween 80 also synthesizes series-2 type glycolipids. The synthesis of these novel glycolipids in corynebacteria and mycobacteria should result in gross changes in the cell wall permeability and drug sensitivity. PMID:21490808

  18. Iminosugars Inhibit Dengue Virus Production via Inhibition of ER Alpha-Glucosidases—Not Glycolipid Processing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sayce, Andrew C.; Alonzi, Dominic S.; Killingbeck, Sarah S.; Tyrrell, Beatrice E.; Hill, Michelle L.; Caputo, Alessandro T.; Iwaki, Ren; Kinami, Kyoko; Ide, Daisuke; Kiappes, J. L.; Beatty, P. Robert; Kato, Atsushi; Harris, Eva; Dwek, Raymond A.; Miller, Joanna L.; Zitzmann, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    It has long been thought that iminosugar antiviral activity is a function of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-resident α-glucosidases, and on this basis, many iminosugars have been investigated as therapeutic agents for treatment of infection by a diverse spectrum of viruses, including dengue virus (DENV). However, iminosugars are glycomimetics possessing a nitrogen atom in place of the endocyclic oxygen atom, and the ubiquity of glycans in host metabolism suggests that multiple pathways can be targeted via iminosugar treatment. Successful treatment of patients with glycolipid processing defects using iminosugars highlights the clinical exploitation of iminosugar inhibition of enzymes other than ER α-glucosidases. Evidence correlating antiviral activity with successful inhibition of ER glucosidases together with the exclusion of alternative mechanisms of action of iminosugars in the context of DENV infection is limited. Celgosivir, a bicyclic iminosugar evaluated in phase Ib clinical trials as a therapeutic for the treatment of DENV infection, was confirmed to be antiviral in a lethal mouse model of antibody-enhanced DENV infection. In this study we provide the first evidence of the antiviral activity of celgosivir in primary human macrophages in vitro, in which it inhibits DENV secretion with an EC50 of 5 μM. We further demonstrate that monocyclic glucose-mimicking iminosugars inhibit isolated glycoprotein and glycolipid processing enzymes and that this inhibition also occurs in primary cells treated with these drugs. By comparison to bicyclic glucose-mimicking iminosugars which inhibit glycoprotein processing but do not inhibit glycolipid processing and galactose-mimicking iminosugars which do not inhibit glycoprotein processing but do inhibit glycolipid processing, we demonstrate that inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-resident α-glucosidases, not glycolipid processing, is responsible for iminosugar antiviral activity against DENV. Our data suggest that

  19. Evaluation of a lipopeptide biosurfactant from Bacillus natto TK-1 as a potential source of anti-adhesive, antimicrobial and antitumor activities

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiao-Hong; Liao, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ling; Yang, Wen-Yan; Lu, Mei-Fang

    2009-01-01

    A lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus natto TK-1 has a strong surface activity. The biosurfactant was found to be an anti-adhesive agent against several bacterial strains, and also showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The biosurfactant induced a significant reduction in tumor cells viability in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:24031375

  20. Enhancement of Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptide Biosurfactants Production through Optimization of Medium Composition and Adequate Control of Aeration

    PubMed Central

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia

    2011-01-01

    Interest in biosurfactants has increased considerably in recent years, as they are potentially used in many commercial applications in petroleum, pharmaceuticals, biomedical, and food processing industries. Since improvement of their production was of great importance to reduce the final coast, cultural conditions were analyzed to optimize biosurfactants production from Bacillus subtilis SPB1 strain. A high yield of biosurfactants was obtained from a culture of B. subtilis using carbohydrate substrate as a carbon source; among carbohydrates, glucose enhanced the best surfactin production. The optimum glucose concentration was 40 g/L. Higher amount of biosurfactants was obtained using 5 g/L of urea as organic nitrogen source and applying C/N ratio of 7 with ammonium chloride as inorganic nitrogen source. The highest amount of biosurfactants was recorded with the addition of 2% kerosene. Moreover, it was shown, using an automated full-controlled 2.6 L fermenter, that aeration of the medium, which affected strongly the growth regulated biosurfactants synthesis by the producing cell. So that, low or high aerations lead to a decrease of biosurfactants synthesis yields. It was found that when using dissolved oxygen saturation of the medium at 30%, biosurfactants production reached 4.92 g/L. PMID:21966596

  1. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TSBSO 3.8, a biosurfactant-producing strain with biotechnological potential for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Souza, Pamella Macedo; de Araújo, Livia Vieira; Barros, Thalita Gonçalves; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    A screening for biosurfactant-producing bacteria was conducted with 217 strains that were isolated from environmental samples contaminated with crude oil and/or petroleum derivatives. Although 19 promising biosurfactant producers were detected, strain TSBSO 3.8, which was identified by molecular methods as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, drew attention for its production of a high-activity compound that presented an emulsification activity of 63% and considerably decreased surface (28.5 mN/m) and interfacial (11.4 mN/m) tensions in Trypticase Soy Broth culture medium. TSBSO 3.8 growth and biosurfactant production were tested under different physical and chemical conditions to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Biosurfactant production occurred between 0.5% and 7% NaCl, at pH values varying from 6 to 9 and temperatures ranging from 28 to 50 °C. Moreover, biosurfactant properties remained the same after autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 min. The biosurfactant was also successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the surface active compound was a surfactin, known as a powerful biosurfactant that is commonly produced by Bacillus species. The production of a high-efficiency biosurfactant, under some physical and chemical conditions that resemble those experienced in an oil production reservoir, such as high salinities and temperatures, makes TSBSO 3.8 an excellent candidate and creates good expectations for its application in MEOR. PMID:26350801

  2. Involvement of phenazines and biosurfactants in biocontrol of Pythium myriotylum root rot on cocoyam by Pseudomonas sp. CMR12A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas sp. CMR12a was isolated from the rhizosphere of the tropical tuber crop cocoyam and produces both phenazines and cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) biosurfactants. CMR12a was shown to be an efficient biocontrol agent of P. myriotylum on cocoyam. To assess the importance of phenazine and biosurfact...

  3. Influence of biosurfactants on mass transfer, biodegradation, and transport of mixed wastes in multiphase systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.M., Brusseau, M.L.

    1997-01-17

    The overall results of this project suggest that is situ treatment with biosurfactants has the potential to be an effective,economical, and nontoxic remediation technology. Specifically, we have demonstrated that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant may be used to increase the apparent solubility and biodegradation rate of organic compounds.

  4. Treatment of mouse melanoma cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate counteracts mannosylerythritol lipid-induced growth arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Geltinger, C; Kishikawa, S; Ohshima, K; Murata, T; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Yokoyama, K K

    2000-07-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), an extracellularglycolipid from yeast, induces the differentiation ofHL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells towardsgranulocytes. We show here that MEL is also a potentinhibitor of the proliferation of mouse melanoma B16cells. Flow-cytometric analysis of the cell cycle ofMEL-treated B16 cells revealed the accumulation ofcells in the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase, which is a hallmark ofcells undergoing apoptosis. Treatment of B16 cellsfor 24 h with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA),an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), did notinterfere with the growth and survival of the cells,but it effectively counteracted the MEL-induced growtharrest and apoptosis. The activity of PKC was reducedin B16 cells treated with MEL at a concentration atwhich MEL induced apoptosis. However, incubation withPMA in addition to MEL reversed this reduction in theactivity of PKC. These results suggest thatconverging signaling pathways are triggeredindependently by MEL and PMA and that the signalsmight both be mediated by PKC. PMID:19002819

  5. Comparing the effect of biosurfactant and chemical surfactant on bubble hydrodynamics in a flotation column.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanran; Yang, Jingjing; Lei, Shaomin; Wang, Xinbing

    2013-01-01

    Bubble hydrodynamics is fundamental to the performance of the flotation process widely used in the separation industry. To compare the effect of biosurfactants and chemical synthetic surfactants on bubble hydrodynamics in the flotation process, the motion of a single bubble and the size distribution of bubble swarms in various surfactants (rhamnolipid, tea saponin and Triton X-100) solutions were observed directly using a high-speed video camera in a laboratory scale flotation column. Bubble trajectory, dimensions, velocity and size distribution were then determined through image analysis. The results indicated that the addition of biosurfactants had the same significant effects on bubble motion and size distribution as chemosynthetic surfactants. The biosurfactant effect on bubble behavior was also found to depend on their type and concentration. In general, the effect of tea saponin was stronger than another biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) used in the present study. The present findings implied that some biosurfactants like tea saponin can replace chemosynthetic surfactants in controlling bubble behavior in flotation operation. This will contribute to promoting the use of green environmentally friendly flotation agents in the separation industry. PMID:23985507

  6. Effect of unconventional carbon sources on biosurfactant production and its application in bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana; Joshi, Nidhi; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-11-01

    The potential of an alkaliphilic bacterium Klebsiella sp. strain RJ-03, to utilize different unconventional carbon sources for the production of biosurfactant was evaluated. The biosurfactant produced using corn powder, potato peel powder, Madhuca indica and sugarcane bagasse containing medium, exhibited significantly higher viscosity and maximum reduction in surface tension as compared to other substrates. Among several carbon substrates tested, production of biosurfactant was found to be the highest with corn powder (15.40 ± 0.21 g/l) as compared to others. The comparative chemical characterization of purified biosurfactant was done using advance analytical tools such as NMR, FT-IR, SEM, GPC, MALDI TOF-TOF MS, GC-MS, TG and DSC. Analyses indicated variation in the functional groups, monosaccharide composition, molecular mass, thermostability. Higher yield with cheaper raw materials, noteworthy stress tolerance of CP-biosurfactant toward pH and salt as well as compatibility with chemical surfactants and detergents revealed its potential for commercialization and application in bioremediation. PMID:23994788

  7. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate

    PubMed Central

    Accorsini, Fábio Raphael; Mutton, Márcia Justino Rossini; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo; Benincasa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans) to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol. PMID:24031810

  8. Experimental and numerical simulation study of microbial enhanced oil recovery using bio-surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudgalya, Saikrishna

    An experimental and numerical study were conducted to investigate the ability of bio-surfactant produced by the microbe Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 to recover residual oil from consolidated porous media. Experiments showed that the bio-surfactant at concentrations as low as 40.0 ppm. (0.04 mg/scc) and viscosified with 1000.0 ppm of polymer could recover 10.0 % to 40.0 % of residual oil when injected through sandstone cores at typical field rates. A 2-phase, 10-component microbial enhanced oil recovery numerical simulator was modified to include reservoir salinity and facilitate surfactant and polymer injection. The effects of reservoir brine salinity and divalent ion effects on bio-surfactant and polymer adsorption, polymer retention, polymer viscosity, bio-surfactant interfacial tension and the shear rate effect on polymer viscosity were added to the simulator. Core flood experiments where JF-2 bio-surfactant viscosified with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide was injected into Berea cores at waterflood residual oil saturation were simulated. The effects of brine salinity and hardness on surfactant and polymer behavior were tested and the core flood simulation results compared with the experimental results. After the laboratory and simulation studies, a residual oil recovery method based on non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminant removal from aquifers is discussed and functional form of the transport equation presented. In this method, residual oil is treated as another chemical species dispersed in porous media instead of a phase that is uniformly distributed across the media.

  9. Characterization of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus spp. and their activity against oral streptococci biofilm.

    PubMed

    Ciandrini, Eleonora; Campana, Raffaella; Casettari, Luca; Perinelli, Diego R; Fagioli, Laura; Manti, Anita; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo; Papa, Stefano; Baffone, Wally

    2016-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can interfere with pathogens through different mechanisms; one is the production of biosurfactants, a group of surface-active molecules, which inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In the present study, biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 were dialyzed (1 and 6 kDa) and characterized in term of reduction of surface tension and emulsifying activity. Then, aliquots of the different dialyzed biosurfactants were added to Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 in the culture medium during the formation of biofilm on titanium surface and the efficacy was determined by agar plate count, biomass analyses, and flow cytometry. Dialyzed biosurfactants showed abilities to reduce surface tension and to emulsifying paraffin oil. Moreover, they significantly inhibited the adhesion and biofilm formation on titanium surface of S. mutans and S. oralis in a dose-dependent way, as demonstrated by the remarkable decrease of cfu/ml values and biomass production. The antimicrobial properties observed for dialyzed biosurfactants produced by the tested lactobacilli opens future prospects for their use against microorganisms responsible of oral diseases. PMID:27102127

  10. Kinetic study of biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 grown in clarified cashew apple juice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Darlane Wellen Freitas; França, Italo Waldimiro Lima; Félix, Anne Kamilly Nogueira; Martins, João Jeferson Lima; Giro, Maria Estela Aparecida; Melo, Vânia Maria M; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2013-01-01

    In this work a low cost medium for the production of a biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 and the kinetics of surfactin production considering the effect of initial substrate concentration were investigated. First, cashew apple juice supplementation for optimal production of biosurfactant by B. subtilis LAMI005 was studied. The medium formulated with clarified cashew apple juice and distilled water, supplemented with 1.0 g/L of (NH(4))(2)SO(4), proved to be the best among the nutrients evaluated. The crude biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of water to 30 dyne/cm, with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 63.0 mg/L. Emulsification experiments indicated that this biosurfactant effectively emulsified kerosene (IE(24)=67%) and soybean oil (IE(24)=64%). Furthermore, the emulsion stability was always very high. It was shown by biochemical analysis, IR spectra, that there is no qualitative differences in the composition of the crude biosurfactant from a standard sample of surfactin from B. subtilis. PMID:22796769

  11. Biosurfactant produced from Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17: Characterization and its biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Ghosh, Mandakini; Chakraborti, Srijita; Jana, Sougata; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Kokare, Chandrakant; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    This investigation aims to isolate an Actinomycetes strain producing a biosurfactant from the unexplored region of industrial and coal mine areas. Actinomycetes are selected for this study as their novel chemistry was not exhausted and they have tremendous potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. The biosurfactant was characterized and further needed to be utilized for pharmaceutical dosage form. Isolation, purification, screening, and characterization of the Actinomycetes A17 were done followed by its fermentation in optimized conditions. The cell-free supernatant was used for the extraction of the biosurfactant and precipitated by cold acetone. The dried precipitate was purified by TLC and the emulsification index, surface tension and CMC were determined. The isolated strain with preferred results was identified as Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17 with high foam-forming properties. It gives lipase, amylase, gelatinase, and protease activity. The emulsification index was found to be 93±0.8 with surface tension 66.67 dyne/cm at the lowest concentration and cmc 0.6 μg/ml. These biosurfactants were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Therefore, it can be concluded that the biosurfactant produced by Actinomycetes nocardiopsis sp. strain A17 was found to have satisfactory results with high surface activity and emulsion-forming ability. PMID:25989147

  12. Antibiofilm activity of biosurfactant producing coral associated bacteria isolated from gulf of mannar.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Alwar Ramanujam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-12-01

    Coral Associated Bacteria (CAB) (N = 22) isolated from the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera were screened for biosurfactants using classical screening methods; hemolysis test, lipase production, oil displacement, drop collapse test and emulsifying activity. Six CAB (U7, U9, U10, U13, U14, and U16) were found to produce biosurfactants and were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Providencia rettgeri, Psychrobacter sp., Bacillus flexus, Bacillus anthracis, Psychrobacter sp., and Bacillus pumilus respectively. Their cell surface hydrophobicity was determined by Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon assay and the biosurfactants produced were extracted and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Since the biosurfactants are known for their surface modifying capabilities, antibiofilm activity of positive isolates was evaluated against biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145. Stability of the active principle exhibiting antibiofilm activity was tested through various temperature treatments ranging from 60 to 100 °C and Proteinase K treatment. CAB isolates U7 and U9 exhibited stable antibiofilm activity even after exposure to higher temperatures which is promising for the development of novel antifouling agents for diverse industrial applications. Further, this is the first report on biosurfactant production by a coral symbiont. PMID:25320434

  13. Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanket; Bharucha, Chirag; Desai, Anjana J

    2008-07-01

    A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 degrees C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil showed 30.22% recovery. The possible application of organism as biocontrol agent and use of biosurfactant in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is discussed. PMID:17855083

  14. Screening and evaluation of biosurfactant-producing strains isolated from oilfield wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Chen, Yitong; Xu, Ruidan; Jia, Yunpeng

    2013-06-01

    The six biosurfactant-producing strains, isolated from oilfield wastewater in Daqing oilfield, were screened. The production of biosurfactant was verified by measuring the diameter of the oil spreading, measuring the surface tension value and emulsifying capacity against xylene, n-pentane, kerosene and crude oil. The experimental result showed three strains (S2, S3, S6) had the better surface activity. Among the three strains, the best results were achieved when using S2 strain. The diameter of the oil spreading of the biosurfactant produced by S2 strain was 14 cm, its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was 21.8 mg/l and the interfacial tension between crude oil and biosurfactant solution produced by S2 strain reduced to 25.7 mN/m. The biosurfactant produced by S2 strain was capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons, such as xylene, n-pentane, kerosene and crude oil. After S2 strain treatment, the reduction rate of oil viscosity was 51 % and oil freezing point reduced by 4 °C. PMID:24426104

  15. Characterization and Application of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanket J; Geetha, S J; Desai, Anjana J

    2015-09-01

    The biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2 was characterized and studied for enhancing the heavy crude oil recovery at 80 °C in coreflood experiments. The strain was found to be nonpathogenic and produced biosurfactant, reducing the surface tension of medium from 70 to 28 mN/m with 1.1 g/l yield. The biosurfactant was quite stable during exposure to elevated temperatures (85 °C for 90 days), high salinity (10 % NaCl), and a wide range of pH (5-12) for 10 days. It was characterized as lipopeptide similar to lichenysin-A, with a critical micelle concentration of about 19.4 mg/l. The efficiency of crude biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery by core flood studies revealed it to recovering additional 37.1 % oil from Berea sandstone cores at 80 °C. The results are indicative of the potential for the development of lipopeptide biosurfactant-based ex situ microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery from depleting oil fields with extreme temperatures. PMID:26186955

  16. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Velraeds, M M; van der Mei, H C; Reid, G; Busscher, H J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 15 Lactobacillus isolates were found to produce biosurfactants in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases. The stationary-phase biosurfactants from lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54, and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were investigated further to determine their capacity to inhibit the initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The initial deposition rate of E. faecalis to glass with an adsorbed biosurfactant layer from L. acidophilus RC14 or L. fermentum B54 was significantly decreased by approximately 70%, while the number of adhering enterococci after 4 h of adhesion was reduced by an average of 77%. The surface activity of the biosurfactants and their activity inhibiting the initial adhesion of E. faecalis 1131 were retained after dialysis (molecular weight cutoff, 6,000 to 8,000) and freeze-drying. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the freeze-dried biosurfactants from L. acidophilus RC14 and L. fermentum B54 were richest in protein, while those from L. casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469 had relatively high polysaccharide and phosphate contents. PMID:8787394

  17. Inhibition of microbial adhesion to silicone rubber treated with biosurfactant from Streptococcus thermophilus A.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lígia; van der Mei, Henny; Banat, Ibrahim M; Teixeira, José; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-02-01

    Microbial adhesion of four bacterial and two yeast strains isolated from explanted voice prostheses to silicone rubber before and after conditioning with a biosurfactant obtained from the probiotic bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus A was investigated in a parallel plate flow chamber. The silicone rubber with and without an adsorbed biosurfactant layer was characterized using contact angle measurements. Water contact angles indicated that the silicone rubber surface with adsorbed biosurfactant was more hydrophilic (58 degrees) than bare silicone rubber (109 degrees). The results obtained showed that the biosurfactant was effective in decreasing the initial deposition rates, and the number of bacterial cells adhering after 4 h, for all microorganisms tested. A decrease in the initial deposition rate was observed for Rothia dentocariosa GBJ 52/2B and Staphylococcus aureus GB 2/1 from 1937+/-194 to 179+/-21 microorganisms cm(-2) s(-1) and from 1255+/-54 to 233+/-26 microorganisms cm(-2) s(-1), respectively, accounting for an 86% reduction of the initial deposition rate for both strains. The number of bacterial cells adhering to the silicone rubber with preadsorbed biosurfactant after 4 h was further reduced by 89% and 97% by the two strains, respectively. The two yeast strains tested showed less reduction in adhesion after 4 h, to values between 67% and 70%. Such a pretreatment with surface-active compounds may constitute a promising strategy to reduce the microbial colonization rate of silicone rubber voice prostheses. PMID:16420603

  18. Effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on Serratia bacterial growth and production of biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on the growth and performance of Serratia Jl0300. The nanoparticle effect was quantified not only by the bacterial growth on agar plate after 1 hour interaction with the nanoparticles, but also by its production of a biosurfactant from used vegetable oil. The nanoparticles were prepared using the foam method. The concentrations of the nanoparticles used for the bacterial interaction study were varied from 1 mg/L to 1 g/L. The test results showed that the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production varied with nanoparticle type, concentrations, and interaction time with the bacteria. Au/Fe nanoparticles didn't show toxicity to Serratia after short time (1 h) exposure, while during 8 days fermentation Au/Fe nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Serratia as well as the biosurfactant production when the concentration of the nanoparticles was higher than 10mg/L. Fe nanoparticles showed inhibition effects to bacterial growth both after short time and long time interaction with Serratia, as well as to biosurfactant production when its concentration was higher than 100 mg/L. Based on the trends observed in this study, analytical models have been developed to predict the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production with varying concentrations of nanoparticles. PMID:23910295

  19. Accumulation of cellobiose lipids under nitrogen-limiting conditions by two ustilaginomycetous yeasts, Pseudozyma aphidis and Pseudozyma hubeiensis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-02-01

    Some basidiomycetous yeast strains extracellularly produce cellobiose lipids (CLs), glycolipid biosurfactants which have strong fungicidal activity. The representative CL producer Ustilago maydis produces CLs together with the other glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs); the preference of the two glycolipids is affected considerably by the nitrogen source. To develop new CL producers, 12 MEL producers were cultured under the nitrogen-limited conditions. Pseudozyma aphidis and Pseudozyma. hubeiensis were characterized as new CL producers. CL production was induced on three strains, P. aphidis, Pseudozyma graminicola, and P. hubeiensis under these conditions. The putative homologous genes of U. maydis cyp1, which encodes a P450 monooxygenase, essential for CL biosynthesis, were partially amplified from their genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequences of the gene fragments from P. hubeiensis and P. aphidis shared identities with U. maydis cyp1 of 99% and 78%, respectively. Furthermore, all of the deduced translation products are tightly clustered in the phylogenic tree of the monooxygenase. These results suggest that the genes involved with CL biosynthesis must be widely distributed in the basidiomycetous fungi as well as the MEL biosynthesis genes, and thus, the genus Pseudozyma has great potential as a biosurfactant producer. PMID:22985214

  20. Antimycobacterial action of a new glycolipid-peptide complex obtained from extracellular metabolites of Raoultella ornithinolytica.

    PubMed

    Fiołka, Marta J; Grzywnowicz, Krzysztof; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Zagaja, Mirosław; Szewczyk, Rafał; Rawski, Michał; Keller, Radosław; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Wydrych, Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an antimycobacterial component of extracellular metabolites of a gut bacterium Raoultella ornithinolytica from D. veneta earthworms was isolated and its antimycobacterial action was tested using Mycobacterium smegmatis. After incubation with the complex obtained, formation of pores and furrows in cell walls was observed using microscopic techniques. The cells lost their shape, stuck together and formed clusters. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis showed that, after incubation, the complex was attached to the cell walls of the Mycobacterium. Analyses of the component performed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated high similarity to a bacteriocin nisin, but energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed differences in the elemental composition of this antimicrobial peptide. The component with antimycobacterial activity was identified using mass spectrometry techniques as a glycolipid-peptide complex. As it exhibits no cytotoxicity on normal human fibroblasts, the glycolipid-peptide complex appears to be a promising compound for investigations of its activity against pathogenic mycobacteria. PMID:26547373

  1. N-linked glycolipids by Staudinger coupling of glycosylated alkyl diazides with fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Salman, Salih Mahdi; Heidelberg, Thorsten; Bin Tajuddin, Hairul Anuar

    2013-06-28

    Aiming for new glycolipids with enhanced chemical stability and close structural similarity to natural cell membrane lipids for the development of a drug delivery system, we have synthesized double amide analogs of glyco-glycerolipids. The synthesis applied a Staudinger reaction based coupling of a 1,3-diazide with fatty acid chlorides. While the concept furnished the desired glucosides in reasonable yields, the corresponding lactosides formed a tetrahydropyrimidine based 1:1 coupling product instead. This unexpected coupling result likely originates from steric hindrance at the iminophosphorane intermediate and provides an interesting core structure for potentially bioactive surfactants. The assembly behavior of both glycolipid types was investigated by optical polarizing microscopy, DSC and surface tension studies. PMID:23685811

  2. Localization of glycolipids in membranes by in vivo labeling and neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Weik, M; Patzelt, H; Zaccai, G; Oesterhelt, D

    1998-02-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the lateral organization of cell membrane lipids and proteins in the context of sorting or intracellular signaling. So far, however, information has been lacking on the details of protein-lipid interactions in such aggregates. Purple membranes are patches made up of lipids and the protein bacteriorhodopsin in the plasma membrane of certain Archaea. Naturally crystalline, they provide a unique opportunity to study the structure of a natural membrane at submolecular resolution by diffraction methods. We present a direct structural determination of the glycolipids with respect to bacteriorhodopsin in these membranes. Deuterium labels incorporated in vivo into the sugar moieties of the major glycolipid were localized by neutron diffraction. The data suggest a role for specific aromatic residue-carbohydrate stacking interactions in the formation of the purple membrane crystalline patches. PMID:9660925

  3. Membrane Glycolipids Content Variety in Gastrointestinal Tumors and Transplantable Hepatomas in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Lv, Can Qun; Wang, Bo-Liang; Mei, Ping; Xu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the variety of plasma contents of membrane glycolipids in 65 gastrointestinal tumors and 31 transplant hepatomas in mice. Material/Methods The experimental model was a transplantable murine hepatoma. Experimental mice were divided into 3 groups. Results The LSA and TSA content in the 2 groups were significantly difference (p<0.01), and were significantly lower in the therapeutic group than in the control group (p<0.01). Conclusions These results indicate that membrane glycolipids index LSA and TSA are sensitive markers in gastrointestinal tumors. In the transplanted hepatomas in mice, they may be considered as ancillary indicators for judging the therapeutic effect of hepatoma. PMID:27554918

  4. Glycolipid analyses of light-harvesting chlorosomes from envelope protein mutants of Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Thweatt, Jennifer; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Chlorosomes are large and efficient light-harvesting organelles in green photosynthetic bacteria, and they characteristically contain large numbers of bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e molecules. Self-aggregated bacteriochlorophyll pigments are surrounded by a monolayer envelope membrane comprised of glycolipids and Csm proteins. Here, we analyzed glycolipid compositions of chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum mutants lacking one, two, or three Csm proteins by HPLC equipped with an evaporative light-scattering detector. The ratio of monogalactosyldiacylglyceride (MGDG) to rhamnosylgalactosyldiacylglyceride (RGDG) was smaller in chlorosomes from mutants lacking two or three proteins in CsmC/D/H motif family than in chlorosomes from the wild-type, whereas chlorosomes lacking CsmIJ showed relatively less RGDG than MGDG. The results suggest that the CsmC, CsmD, CsmH, and other chlorosome proteins are involved in organizing MGDG and RGDG and thereby affect the size and shape of the chlorosome. PMID:26869354

  5. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rita de Cássia F. S.; Almeida, Darne G.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills. PMID:25029542

  6. Production of Biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Grown on Cashew Apple Juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Maria V. P.; Souza, Maria C. M.; Benedicto, Sofia C. L.; Bezerra, Márcio S.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Saavedra Pinto, Gustavo A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    In this work, the ability of biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in batch cultivation using cashew apple juice (CAJ) and mineral media was evaluated. P. aeruginosa was cultivated in CAJ, which was supplemented with peptone (5.0 g/L) and nutritive broth. All fermentation assays were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks containing 300 mL, incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm. Cell growth (biomass and cell density), pH, and superficial tension were monitored vs time. Surface tension was reduced by 10.58 and 41% when P. aeruginosa was cultivated in nutrient broth and CAJ supplemented with peptone, respectively. These results indicated that CAJ is an adequate medium for growth and biosurfactant production. Best results of biosurfactant production were obtained when CAJ was supplemented with peptone.

  7. Genomic and functional features of the biosurfactant producing Bacillus sp. AM13.

    PubMed

    Shaligram, Shraddha; Kumbhare, Shreyas V; Dhotre, Dhiraj P; Muddeshwar, Manohar G; Kapley, Atya; Joseph, Neetha; Purohit, Hemant P; Shouche, Yogesh S; Pawar, Shrikant P

    2016-09-01

    Genomic studies provide deeper insights into secondary metabolites produced by diverse bacterial communities, residing in various environmental niches. This study aims to understand the potential of a biosurfactant producing Bacillus sp. AM13, isolated from soil. An integrated approach of genomic and chemical analysis was employed to characterize the antibacterial lipopeptide produced by the strain AM13. Genome analysis revealed that strain AM13 harbors a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) cluster; highly similar with known biosynthetic gene clusters from surfactin family: lichenysin (85 %) and surfactin (78 %). These findings were substantiated with supplementary experiments of oil displacement assay and surface tension measurements, confirming the biosurfactant production. Further investigation using LCMS approach exhibited similarity of the biomolecule with biosurfactants of the surfactin family. Our consolidated effort of functional genomics provided chemical as well as genetic leads for understanding the biochemical characteristics of the bioactive compound. PMID:27492417

  8. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 "Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30" (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  9. Optimizing Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio for Biosurfactant Production by a Bacillus subtilis Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. R.; Silva, A. J. R.; de Franca, F. P.; Cardoso, V. L.; Sérvulo, E. F. C.

    A Bacillus subtilis strain isolated from contaminated soil from a refinery has been screened for biosurfactant production in crystal sugar (sucrose) with different nitrogen sources (NaNO3' (NH4)2SO4' urea, and residual brewery yeast). The highest reduction in surface tension was achieved with a 48-h fermentation of crystal sugar and ammonium nitrate. Optimization of carbon/nitrogen ratio (3,9, and 15) and agitation rate (50, 150, and 250 rpm) for biosurfactant production was carried out using complete factorial design and response surface analysis. The condition of C/N 3 and 250 rpm allowed the maximum increase in surface activity of biosurfactant. A suitable model has been developed, having presented great accordance experimental data. Preliminary characterization of the bioproduct suggested it to be a lipopeptide with some isomers differing from those of a commercial surfactin.

  10. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    PubMed

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills. PMID:25029542

  11. Novel ATP-driven Pathway of Glycolipid Export Involving TolC Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Staron, Peter; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Upon depletion of combined nitrogen, N2-fixing heterocysts are formed from vegetative cells in the case of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. A heterocyst-specific layer composed of glycolipids (heterocyst envelope glycolipids (HGLs)) that functions as an O2 diffusion barrier is deposited over the heterocyst outer membrane and is surrounded by an outermost heterocyst polysaccharide envelope. Mutations in any gene of the devBCA operon or tolC result in the absence of the HGL layer, preventing growth on N2 used as the sole nitrogen source. However, those mutants do not have impaired HGL synthesis. In this study, we show that DevBCA and TolC form an ATP-driven efflux pump required for the export of HGLs across the Gram-negative cell wall. By performing protein-protein interaction studies (in vivo formaldehyde cross-linking, surface plasmon resonance, and isothermal titration calorimetry), we determined the kinetics and stoichiometric relations for the transport process. For sufficient glycolipid export, the membrane fusion protein DevB had to be in a hexameric form to connect the inner membrane factor DevC and the outer membrane factor TolC. A mutation that impaired the ability of DevB to form a hexameric arrangement abolished the ability of DevC to recognize its substrate. The physiological relevance of a hexameric DevB is shown in complementation studies. We provide insights into a novel pathway of glycolipid export across the Gram-negative cell wall. PMID:21917923

  12. Accumulation of novel glycolipids and ornithine lipids in Mesorhizobium loti under phosphate deprivation.

    PubMed

    Diercks, Hannah; Semeniuk, Adrian; Gisch, Nicolas; Moll, Hermann; Duda, Katarzyna A; Hölzl, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Glycolipids are found mainly in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae, and cyanobacteria), Gram-positive bacteria, and a few other bacterial phyla. They serve as membrane lipids and play a role under phosphate deprivation as surrogates for phospholipids. Mesorhizobium loti accumulates different di- and triglycosyl diacylglycerols, synthesized by the processive glycosyltransferase Pgt-Ml, and two so far unknown glycolipids, which were identified in this study by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as O-methyl-digalactosyl diacylglycerol (Me-DGD) and glucuronosyl diacylglycerol (GlcAD). Me-DGD is a novel glycolipid, whose synthesis depends on Pgt-Ml activity and the involvement of an unknown methyltransferase, while GlcAD is formed by a novel glycosyltransferase encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) mlr2668, using UDP-glucuronic acid as a sugar donor. Deletion mutants lacking GlcAD are not impaired in growth. Our data suggest that the different glycolipids in Mesorhizobium can mutually replace each other. This may be an adaptation mechanism to enhance the competitiveness in natural environments. A further nonphospholipid in Mesorhizobium was identified as a hydroxylated form of an ornithine lipid with the additional hydroxy group linked to the amide-bound fatty acid, introduced by the hydroxylase OlsD. The presence of this lipid has not been reported for rhizobia yet. The hydroxy group is placed on the C-2 position of the acyl chain as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the isolated ornithine lipids contained up to 80 to 90% d-configured ornithine, a stereoform so far undescribed in bacteria. PMID:25404698

  13. Accumulation of Novel Glycolipids and Ornithine Lipids in Mesorhizobium loti under Phosphate Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Hannah; Semeniuk, Adrian; Gisch, Nicolas; Moll, Hermann; Duda, Katarzyna A.

    2014-01-01

    Glycolipids are found mainly in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae, and cyanobacteria), Gram-positive bacteria, and a few other bacterial phyla. They serve as membrane lipids and play a role under phosphate deprivation as surrogates for phospholipids. Mesorhizobium loti accumulates different di- and triglycosyl diacylglycerols, synthesized by the processive glycosyltransferase Pgt-Ml, and two so far unknown glycolipids, which were identified in this study by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as O-methyl-digalactosyl diacylglycerol (Me-DGD) and glucuronosyl diacylglycerol (GlcAD). Me-DGD is a novel glycolipid, whose synthesis depends on Pgt-Ml activity and the involvement of an unknown methyltransferase, while GlcAD is formed by a novel glycosyltransferase encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) mlr2668, using UDP-glucuronic acid as a sugar donor. Deletion mutants lacking GlcAD are not impaired in growth. Our data suggest that the different glycolipids in Mesorhizobium can mutually replace each other. This may be an adaptation mechanism to enhance the competitiveness in natural environments. A further nonphospholipid in Mesorhizobium was identified as a hydroxylated form of an ornithine lipid with the additional hydroxy group linked to the amide-bound fatty acid, introduced by the hydroxylase OlsD. The presence of this lipid has not been reported for rhizobia yet. The hydroxy group is placed on the C-2 position of the acyl chain as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the isolated ornithine lipids contained up to 80 to 90% d-configured ornithine, a stereoform so far undescribed in bacteria. PMID:25404698

  14. Human blood group activity of human and canine intestinal glycolipids containing fucose

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E. L.; Bowdler, A. J.; Bull, R. W.; McKibbin, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    A number of fucose-containing glycolipids (fuco-lipids), which are similar in composition to those of human normal and malignant gastrointestinal tissue, have been isolated from whole small intestines of individual dogs. Dogs from which these fuco-lipids were isolated fell into two types according to the qualitative sugar composition of their fuco-lipids. Glycolipids from type I dogs contained glucose, galactose, glucosamine, galactosamine and fucose, while those from type II dogs contained the same sugars but lacked galactosamine. Fucolipids isolated from type I and II dogs were tested for both canine blood group and human A, B, H and Lea and Leb blood group activity. At the concentrations tested, only human blood group A activity was found in significant amounts, and only in those fuco-lipids which contained galactosamine (type I dogs). Of the fuco-lipids with human blood group A activity, some had activity comparable to that of glycoprotein blood group substances, while others had lower, but significant, activity. These latter fuco-lipids also had marked chromatographic differences, indicating that they are of several different structural types, a finding similar to the A active glycolipids of human red cell stroma. None of the isolated intestinal fuco-lipids had canine blood group activity. A fuco-lipid with Lea activity was also isolated in relatively large amounts from a normal human whole small intestine. PMID:4753403

  15. Possible role of ceramide in defining structure and function of membrane glycolipids.

    PubMed Central

    Kannagi, R; Nudelman, E; Hakomori, S

    1982-01-01

    A possible role of ceramide in defining the carbohydrate structure of glycolipids and the expression of glycolipid function has been proposed, on the basis of our finding that the ceramide composition of "lacto-series" glycosphingolipid isolated from human erythrocytes shows a remarkable correlation with the terminal carbohydrate structure: (i) The ceramides of three glycosphingolipids with Lex (or x) determinant [Gal beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 3) GlcNAc] had almost exclusively 16:0 fatty acid; in contrast, the ceramide of its positional isomer H determinant had mainly 20--24:0 fatty acids. (ii) The ceramide of two glycosphingolipids with NeuAc alpha 2 leads to 6GAL structure was predominantly of 16:0 fatty acid, in contrast to that of its positional isomer NeuAc alpha 2 leads to 3Gal residue, in which the ceramide had 20--24:0 fatty acids. These results, together with our previous observation that ceramide composition of mouse lymphoma and myelocytic leukemia MI cells affects their antigenicity, suggest that ceramide structure may define the organization of glycosyltransferase for synthesis of the carbohydrate determinants and may affect the organization and orientation of the carbohydrate chain in membranes, eliciting or suppressing the reactivity to its ligand. Because these glycolipids with Lex and NeuAc alpha 2 leads to 6Gal structures are developmentally regulated and are highly expressed in certain tumors, ceramide composition may affect development, differentiation, and oncogenesis. Images PMID:6954491

  16. Fossilized glycolipids reveal past oceanic N2 fixation by heterocystous cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bauersachs, Thorsten; Speelman, Eveline N; Hopmans, Ellen C; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Schouten, Stefan; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

    2010-11-01

    N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria play an essential role in sustaining primary productivity in contemporary oceans and freshwater systems. However, the significance of N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria in past nitrogen cycling is difficult to establish as their preservation potential is relatively poor and specific biological markers are presently lacking. Heterocystous N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria synthesize unique long-chain glycolipids in the cell envelope covering the heterocyst cell to protect the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase enzyme. We found that these heterocyst glycolipids are remarkably well preserved in (ancient) lacustrine and marine sediments, unambiguously indicating the (past) presence of N(2)-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria. Analysis of Pleistocene sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea showed that heterocystous cyanobacteria, likely as epiphytes in symbiosis with planktonic diatoms, were particularly abundant during deposition of sapropels. Eocene Arctic Ocean sediments deposited at a time of large Azolla blooms contained glycolipids typical for heterocystous cyanobacteria presently living in symbiosis with the freshwater fern Azolla, indicating that this symbiosis already existed in that time. Our study thus suggests that heterocystous cyanobacteria played a major role in adding "new" fixed nitrogen to surface waters in past stratified oceans. PMID:20966349

  17. Fossilized glycolipids reveal past oceanic N2 fixation by heterocystous cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bauersachs, Thorsten; Speelman, Eveline N.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Schouten, Stefan; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe

    2010-01-01

    N2-fixing cyanobacteria play an essential role in sustaining primary productivity in contemporary oceans and freshwater systems. However, the significance of N2-fixing cyanobacteria in past nitrogen cycling is difficult to establish as their preservation potential is relatively poor and specific biological markers are presently lacking. Heterocystous N2-fixing cyanobacteria synthesize unique long-chain glycolipids in the cell envelope covering the heterocyst cell to protect the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase enzyme. We found that these heterocyst glycolipids are remarkably well preserved in (ancient) lacustrine and marine sediments, unambiguously indicating the (past) presence of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria. Analysis of Pleistocene sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea showed that heterocystous cyanobacteria, likely as epiphytes in symbiosis with planktonic diatoms, were particularly abundant during deposition of sapropels. Eocene Arctic Ocean sediments deposited at a time of large Azolla blooms contained glycolipids typical for heterocystous cyanobacteria presently living in symbiosis with the freshwater fern Azolla, indicating that this symbiosis already existed in that time. Our study thus suggests that heterocystous cyanobacteria played a major role in adding “new” fixed nitrogen to surface waters in past stratified oceans. PMID:20966349

  18. Sterol-modulated glycolipid sorting occurs in niemann-pick C1 late endosomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Dwyer, N K; Neufeld, E B; Love, D C; Cooney, A; Comly, M; Patel, S; Watari, H; Strauss, J F; Pentchev, P G; Hanover, J A; Blanchette-Mackie, E J

    2001-02-01

    The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein and endocytosed low density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol were shown to enrich separate subsets of vesicles containing lysosomal associated membrane protein 2. Localization of Rab7 in the NPC1-containing vesicles and enrichment of lysosomal hydrolases in the cholesterol-containing vesicles confirmed that these organelles were late endosomes and lysosomes, respectively. Lysobisphosphatidic acid, a lipid marker of the late endosomal pathway, was found in the cholesterol-enriched lysosomes. Recruitment of NPC1 to Rab7 compartments was stimulated by cellular uptake of cholesterol. The NPC1 compartment was shown to be enriched in glycolipids, and internalization of GalNAcbeta1-4[NeuAcalpha2-3]Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'-ceramide (G(M2)) into endocytic vesicles depends on the presence of NPC1 protein. The glycolipid profiles of the NPC1 compartment could be modulated by LDL uptake and accumulation of lysosomal cholesterol. Expression in cells of biologically active NPC1 protein fused to green fluorescent protein revealed rapidly moving and flexible tubular extensions emanating from the NPC1-containing vesicles. We conclude that the NPC1 compartment is a dynamic, sterol-modulated sorting organelle involved in the trafficking of plasma membrane-derived glycolipids as well as plasma membrane and endocytosed LDL cholesterol. PMID:11032830

  19. Boolean Models of Biosurfactants Production in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Adrien; Rossignol, Gaelle; Comet, Jean-Paul; Bernot, Gilles; Guespin-Michel, Jannine; Merieau, Annabelle

    2012-01-01

    Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs) are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene () and not restored by complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained. PMID:22303435

  20. Removal of Mercury by Foam Fractionation Using Surfactin, a Biosurfactant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Reddy, A. Satyanarayana; Chen, Chien-Yen; Li, Wun Rong; Tseng, Min-Jen; Liu, Hung-Tsan; Pan, Wei; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Atla, Shashi B.

    2011-01-01

    The separation of mercury ions from artificially contaminated water by the foam fractionation process using a biosurfactant (surfactin) and chemical surfactants (SDS and Tween-80) was investigated in this study. Parameters such as surfactant and mercury concentration, pH, foam volume, and digestion time were varied and their effects on the efficiency of mercury removal were investigated. The recovery efficiency of mercury ions was highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant. The highest mercury ion recovery by surfactin was obtained using a surfactin concentration of 10 × CMC, while recovery using SDS required < 10 × CMC and Tween-80 >10 × CMC. However, the enrichment of mercury ions in the foam was superior with surfactin, the mercury enrichment value corresponding to the highest metal recovery (10.4%) by surfactin being 1.53. Dilute solutions (2-mg L−1 Hg2+) resulted in better separation (36.4%), while concentrated solutions (100 mg L−1) enabled only a 2.3% recovery using surfactin. An increase in the digestion time of the metal solution with surfactin yielded better separation as compared with a freshly-prepared solution, and an increase in the airflow rate increased bubble production, resulting in higher metal recovery but low enrichment. Basic solutions yielded higher mercury separation as compared with acidic solutions due to the precipitation of surfactin under acidic conditions. PMID:22174661

  1. The anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid does not denature industrial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jens K.; Pihl, Rasmus; Møller, Anders H.; Madsen, Anne T.; Otzen, Daniel E.; Andersen, Kell K.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. Their combination of useful properties and sustainable production make them promising industrial alternatives to petrochemical and oleochemical surfactants. Here we compare the impact of the anionic BS rhamnolipid (RL) and the conventional/synthetic anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the structure and stability of three different commercially used enzymes, namely the cellulase Carezyme® (CZ), the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra® (LT) and the α-amylase Stainzyme® (SZ). Our data reveal a fundamental difference in their mode of interaction. SDS shows great diversity of interaction toward the different enzymes. It efficiently unfolds both LT and CZ, but LT is unfolded by SDS through formation of SDS clusters on the enzyme well below the cmc, while CZ is only unfolded by bulk micelles and on average binds significantly less SDS than LT. SDS binds with even lower stoichiometry to SZ and leads to an increase in thermal stability. In contrast, RL does not affect the tertiary or secondary structure of any enzyme at room temperature, has little impact on thermal stability and only binds detectably (but at low stoichiometries) to SZ. Furthermore, all enzymes maintain activity at both monomeric and micellar concentrations of RL. We conclude that RL, despite its anionic charge, is a surfactant that does not compromise the structural integrity of industrially relevant enzymes. This makes RL a promising alternative to current synthetic anionic surfactants in a wide range of commercial applications. PMID:25941516

  2. Disruption of Yarrowia lipolytica biofilms by rhamnolipid biosurfactant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yarrowia lipolytica is an ascomycetous dimorphic fungus that exhibits biofilm mode of growth. Earlier work has shown that biosurfactants such as rhamnolipids are efficient dispersants of bacterial biofilms. However, their effectiveness against fungal biofilms (particularly Y. lipolytica) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rhamnolipid on a biofilm forming strain of Y. lipolytica. Two chemical surfactants, cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were used as controls for comparison. Results The methylene blue dye exclusion assay indicated an increase in fungal cell permeability after rhamnolipid treatment. Microtiter plate assay showed that the surfactant coating decreased Y. lipolytica biofilm formation by 50%. Rhamnolipid treatment disrupted pre-formed biofilms in a more effective manner than the other two surfactants. Confocal laser scanning microscopic studies showed that biofilm formation onto glass surfaces was decreased by 67% after sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) treatment with rhamnolipids. The disruption of biofilms after rhamnolipid treatment was significant (P<0.05) when compared to SDS and CTAB. Conclusion The results indicate a potential application of the biological surfactant to disrupt Y. lipolytica biofilms. PMID:22839701

  3. [Antiadhesive potencial of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMB Ac-5017 biosurfactants].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Gritsenko, N A; Konon, A D; Shevchuk, T A; Iutinskaia, G A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMB Ac-5017 biosurfactants (surface-active substances, SAS) with different degree of purification on attachment of bacteria (Escherichia coli IEM-1, Bacillus subtilis BT-2, Proteus vulgaris BT-1, Staphylococcus aureus BMC-1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa P-55, Enterobacter cloacae AC-22, Erwinia aroidaeae B-433), yeasts (Candida albicans D-6) and fungi (Aspergillus niger P-3, Fusarium culmorum T-7) to the abiotic surfaces (glass, plastic, ceramics, steel, linoleum) was studied. The dependence of microorganisms adhesion on degree of SAS purification (supernatant, purified SAS solution), SAS concentration (0,04-1,25 mg/ml), type of surface and test-cultures was established. The adhesion of majority investigated bacterial cells after treatment of abiotic surfaces with supernatant of cultural liquid with SAS concentration 0,06-0,25 mg/ml was on the average 20-45, yeasts C. albicans D-6--30-75% and was less than that purified SAS solution with the same concentration. Higher antiadhesive activity of supernatant as compared to purified SAS solution testifies to possibility of exception of the expensive stage of isolation and purification at obtaining of preparations with antiadhesive properties. PMID:25639039

  4. Bacterial biosurfactants, and their role in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    PubMed

    Khire, J M

    2010-01-01

    Surfactants are chemically synthesized surface-active compounds widely used for large number of applications in various industries. During last few years there is increase demand of biological surface-active compounds or biosurfactants which are produced by large number of microorganisms as they exert biodegradability, low toxicity and widespread application compared to chemical surfactants. They can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting agents, spreading agents, foaming agents, functional food ingredients and detergents. Various experiments at laboratory scale on sand-pack columns and field trials have successfully indicated effectiveness of biosurfactants in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). PMID:20545280

  5. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific objectives

  6. Folding of outer membrane protein A in the anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kell K; Otzen, Daniel E

    2014-05-21

    Folding and stability of bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are typically studied in vitro using model systems such as phospholipid vesicles or surfactant. OMP folding requires surfactant concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and usually only occurs in neutral or zwitterionic surfactants, but not in anionic or cationic surfactants. Various Gram-negative bacteria produce the anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid. Here we show that the OMP OmpA can be folded in rhamnolipid at concentrations above the cmc, though the thermal stability is reduced compared to the non-ionic surfactant dodecyl maltoside. We discuss implications for possible interactions between OMPs and biosurfactants in vivo. PMID:24735722

  7. Evaluation of the effect of nutrient ratios on biosurfactant production by Serratia marcescens using a Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Carrillo, T; Martínez-García, X; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Castorena-Cortés, G; Reyes-Avila, J; Mayol-Castillo, M; Olguín-Lora, P

    2011-09-01

    The strain SmSA, identified as Serratia marcescens and known as a biosurfactant producer, was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil from Veracruz, México. The interactions among the C/N, C/Mg and C/Fe ratios have not been examined for this microorganism. In this work was evaluated the effect of these nutrients at three levels using a mineral medium with glucose as the carbon source. A Box-Behnken experimental design was utilised to maximise biosurfactant production, which was assessed by oil spreading and surface tension tests. The treatment with C/N=5, C/Fe=26,000 and C/Mg=30 showed the best result since the surface tension was reduced to 30 mN m(-1). The multiple regression and response surface analyses indicated that the interaction between C/N and C/Mg had the utmost effect on the reduction of surface tension and biosurfactant production. The conditions of the best treatment were used to scale up biosurfactant production in a 3L bioreactor giving a yield of 4.1 gL(-1) of pure biosurfactant. It was found that the biosurfactant was mainly produced in the exponential phase and decreased the surface tension to 31 mN m(-1). The contact between the biosurfactant with heavy oil (15° API) increased its displacement from 9.3 to 18 cm. PMID:21592747

  8. Mannosylerythritol lipids secreted by phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica is associated with its filamentous growth and propagation on plant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shigenobu; Morita, Tomotake; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Koitabashi, Motoo; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) towards their producer, Pseudozyma antarctica, on plant surfaces was investigated. MEL-producing wild-type strain and its MEL production-defective mutant strain (ΔPaEMT1) were compared in terms of their phenotypic traits on the surface of plastic plates, onion peels, and fresh leaves of rice and wheat. While wild-type cells adhering on plastic surfaces and onion peels changed morphologically from single cells to elongated ones for a short period of about 4 h and 1 day, respectively, ΔPaEMT1 cells did not. Microscopic observation of both strains grown on plant leaf surfaces verified that the wild type colonized a significantly bigger area than that of ΔPaEMT1. However, when MELs were exogenously added to the mutant cells on plant surfaces, their colonized area became enlarged. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed a secretion of higher amount of MELs in the cell suspension incubated with wheat leaf cuttings compared to that in the suspension without cuttings. Transcriptional analysis by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR verified that the expression of erythritol/mannose transferase gene and MELs transporter gene of P. antarctica increased in the cells inoculated onto wheat leaves at 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation, indicating a potential of P. antarctica to produce MELs on the leaves. These findings demonstrate that MELs produced by P. antarctica on plant surfaces could be expected to play a significant role in fungal morphological development and propagation on plant surfaces. PMID:24706213

  9. Tissue-specific loss of fucosylated glycolipids in mice with targeted deletion of alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Iwamori, Masao; Domino, Steven E

    2004-01-01

    Glycolipids in epithelial tissues of the gastrointestinal tract act as receptors for enteric bacteria and are implicated in the activation of the intestinal immune system. To clarify the genes involved in the fucosylation of the major glycolipids, substrate glycolipids and fucosylated products were measured in tissues of wild-type and mutant mice lacking alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes FUT1 or FUT2. Quantitative determination was performed by TLC-immunostaining for GA1 (Gg4Cer), FGA1 (fucosyl GA1), GM1 (II3NeuAc-Gg4Cer), FGM1 (fucosyl GM1), and Forssman glycolipids. Both FGM1 and FGA1 completely disappeared from the antrum, cecum, and colon of FUT2-null mice, but not those of FUT1-null and wild-type mice. Precursor glycolipids, GM1 and GA1, accumulated in tissues of FUT2-null mice, indicating that the FUT2-encoded enzyme preferentially participates in the fucosylation of GA1 and GM1 in these tissues. Female reproductive organs were similarly found to utilize FUT2 for the fucosylation of glycolipids FGA1 (uterus and cervix), and FGM1 (ovary), due to their absence in FUT2-null mice. In FUT1-null mice FGA1 was lost from the pancreas, but was present in wild-type and FUT2-null mice, indicating that FUT1 is essential for fucosylation of GA1 in the pancreas. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I lectin histochemistry for alpha(1,2)fucose residues confirmed the absence of alpha(1,2)fucose residues from the apical surface of pancreatic acinar glands of FUT1-null mice. Ileum, epididymis, and testis retained specific fucosylated glycolipids, irrespective of targeted deletion of either gene, indicating either compensation for or redundancy of the alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes in these tissues. PMID:14967068

  10. Tissue-specific loss of fucosylated glycolipids in mice with targeted deletion of alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes.

    PubMed

    Iwamori, Masao; Domino, Steven E

    2004-05-15

    Glycolipids in epithelial tissues of the gastrointestinal tract act as receptors for enteric bacteria and are implicated in the activation of the intestinal immune system. To clarify the genes involved in the fucosylation of the major glycolipids, substrate glycolipids and fucosylated products were measured in tissues of wild-type and mutant mice lacking alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes FUT1 or FUT2. Quantitative determination was performed by TLC-immunostaining for GA1 (Gg4Cer), FGA1 (fucosyl GA1), GM1 (II3NeuAc-Gg4Cer), FGM1 (fucosyl GM1), and Forssman glycolipids. Both FGM1 and FGA1 completely disappeared from the antrum, cecum, and colon of FUT2-null mice, but not those of FUT1-null and wild-type mice. Precursor glycolipids, GM1 and GA1, accumulated in tissues of FUT2-null mice, indicating that the FUT2-encoded enzyme preferentially participates in the fucosylation of GA1 and GM1 in these tissues. Female reproductive organs were similarly found to utilize FUT2 for the fucosylation of glycolipids FGA1 (uterus and cervix), and FGM1 (ovary), due to their absence in FUT2-null mice. In FUT1-null mice FGA1 was lost from the pancreas, but was present in wild-type and FUT2-null mice, indicating that FUT1 is essential for fucosylation of GA1 in the pancreas. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I lectin histochemistry for alpha(1,2)fucose residues confirmed the absence of alpha(1,2)fucose residues from the apical surface of pancreatic acinar glands of FUT1-null mice. Ileum, epididymis, and testis retained specific fucosylated glycolipids, irrespective of targeted deletion of either gene, indicating either compensation for or redundancy of the alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes in these tissues. PMID:14967068

  11. Characterization of sophorolipid biosurfactant produced by Cryptococcus sp. VITGBN2 and its application on Zn(II) removal from electroplating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basak, Geetanjali; Das, Nilanjana

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating the role of biosurfactant produced by yeast for the removal of Zn(II) ions from electroplating wastewater. The yeast species isolated from CETP, Vellore, Tamilnadu was identified as Cryptococcus sp.VITGBN2, based on molecular techniques, and was found to be potent producer of biosurfactant in mineral salt media containing vegetable oil as additional carbon source. Chemical structure of the purified biosurfactant was identified as acidic diacetate sophorolipid through GC-MS analysis. Interaction of Zn(II) ions with biosurfactant was monitored using FT-IR, SEM and EDS analysis. Zn (II) removal at 100 mg l(-1) concentration was 84.8% compared were other synthetic surfactants (Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphate), yeast mediated biosurfactant showed enhanced Zn (II) removal in batch mode. The role of biosurfactant on Zn(II) removal was evaluated in column mode packed with biosurfactant entrapped in sodium alginate beads. At a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1) and bed height of 12 cm, immobilized biosurfactant showed 94.34% Zn(II) removal from electroplating wastewater. The present study confirmed that Zn(II) removal was biosurfactant mediated. This is the first report establishing the involvement of yeast mediated biosurfactant in Zn(II) removal from wastewater. PMID:25522510

  12. FERMENTATION-BASED PROCESSES FOR THE CONVERSION OF FATS, OILS AND DERIVATIVES INTO BIOPOLYMERS AND BIOSURFACTANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal fats and oils, along with the coproducts and waste streams generated in their processing and utilization, are renewable feedstocks useful for the fermentative production of biobased products, such as biopolymers, biosurfactants and oleochemical intermediates. In this paper, we present an ove...

  13. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time. PMID:26615815

  14. Biosurfactant-mediated biodegradation of straight and methyl-branched alkanes by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 55925

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Accidental oil spills and waste disposal are important sources for environmental pollution. We investigated the biodegradation of alkanes by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 55925 in relation to a rhamnolipid surfactant produced by the same bacterial strain. Results showed that the linear C11-C21 compounds in a heating oil sample degraded from 6% to 100%, whereas the iso-alkanes tended to be recalcitrant unless they were exposed to the biosurfactant; under such condition total biodegradation was achieved. Only the biodegradation of the commercial C12-C19 alkanes could be demonstrated, ranging from 23% to 100%, depending on the experimental conditions. Pristane (a C19 branched alkane) only biodegraded when present alone with the biosurfactant and when included in an artificial mixture even without the biosurfactant. In all cases the biosurfactant significantly enhanced biodegradation. The electron scanning microscopy showed that cells depicted several adaptations to growth on hydrocarbons, such as biopolymeric spheres with embedded cells distributed over different layers on the spherical surfaces and cells linked to each other by extracellular appendages. Electron transmission microscopy revealed transparent inclusions, which were associated with hydrocarbon based-culture cells. These patterns of hydrocarbon biodegradation and cell adaptations depended on the substrate bioavailability, type and length of hydrocarbon. PMID:21906343

  15. Enhancement of hydrocarbon waste biodegradation by addition of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis O9.

    PubMed

    Morán, A C; Olivera, N; Commendatore, M; Esteves, J L; Siñeriz, F

    2000-01-01

    A non-sterile biosurfactant preparation (surfactin) was obtained from a 24-h culture of Bacillus subtilis O9 grown on sucrose and used to study its effect on the biodegradation of hydrocarbon wastes by an indigenous microbial community at the Erlenmeyer-flask scale. Crude biosurfactant was added to the cultures to obtain concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Lower concentration affected neither biodegradation nor microbial growth. Higher concentration gave higher cell concentrations. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons increased from 20.9 to 35.5% and in the case of aromatic hydrocarbons from nil to 41%, compared to the culture without biosurfactant. The enhancement effect of biosurfactant addition was more noticeable in the case of long chain alkanes. Pristane and phytane isoprenoids were degraded to the same extent as n-C17 and n-C18 alkanes and, consequently, no decrease in the ratios n-C17/pri and n-C18/phy was observed. Rapid production of surfactin crude preparation could make it practical for bioremediation of ship bilge wastes. PMID:11194975

  16. Structural characterization of novel sophorolipid biosurfactants from a newly-identified species of Candida yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sophorolipids are a group of O-acylsophorose-based biosurfactants produced by several yeasts of the Starmerella clade. The known sophorolipids are typically partially acetylated 2-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose (sophorose) ß-O-glycosidically-linked to 17-L-hydroxy-delta-9-octadecenoic aci...

  17. Halotolerant, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus species potentially useful for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jenneman, G.E.; McInerney, M.J.; Knapp, R.M.; Clark, J.B.; Feero, J.M.; Revus, D.E.; Menzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from oil-field injection water with properties potentially useful for in situ enhanced oil recovery. Conventional miscible flooding procedures use expensive synthetic detergents such as petroleum sulfonates that precipitate in high NaCl brines and adsorb to rock surfaces. The Bacillus sp. produced a biosurfactant when grown at 40 C in a sucrose mineral salts medium containing 5% NaCl. The biosurfactant was produced during the log phase of growth in the presence or absence of either crude oil or hexadecane. The surface tension of a 5% NaCl solution decreased from 74.0 mN/m to 27 mN/m when the surfactant was added. Interfacial tension of a 5% NaCl brine/octane mixture was as low as 0.43 mN/m when measured by a spinning drop tensiometer. The surfactant was extracted by acid precipitation at a pH of 2.0. The extracted surfactant exhibited optimal surface tension-lowering ability in 4-5% NaCl solutions between pH's of 6.0 to 10.0. The addition of calcium up to 340 mg/liter and incubation temperatures up to 100 C did not alter appreciably the surfactant activity. Mobilization of crude oil and oil bank formation occurred in a sandpack column after addition of the biosurfactant. 16 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Bacterial desorption in water-saturated porous media in the presence of rhamnolipid biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Qiao, Mingqi; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhu, Honglong

    2004-10-01

    We investigated the effects of transients in elution chemistry on bacterial desorption in water-saturated porous media. Two typical Gram-positive bacterial strains of Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mitis were used as the model bacteria in this research. These two strains were first deposited in the porous medium, after which the medium with deposited bacteria was flushed with rhamnolipid biosurfactant solutions with a step increase in concentrations, and pulse-type bacterial releases were obtained. Bacterial desorption was quantified from bacterial breakthrough curves. It was found that bacterial retention in silica sand corresponded to bacterial interaction free energies with silica sand evaluated at the equilibrium distance, which were calculated based on independently determined bacterial, sediment and solution surface thermodynamic properties. With the increase in rhamnolipid biosurfactant concentrations, interactions between bacteria and silica sand decreased, and consequently less bacteria were retained. The decrease in interactions between bacteria and silica sand with increasing rhamnolipid biosurfactant concentrations was attributed to a decrease in the solution electron acceptor parameter of the Lewis acid/base component of surface tension, gamma3+. The increase in rhamnolipid biosurfactant concentrations favored the decrease in solution gamma3+, and consequently decreased the interactions between bacteria and silica sand. PMID:15380553

  19. Characterization of a Soybean Oil-based Biosurfactant and Evaluation of its Ability to Form Microbubbles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper characterizes the physio-chemical properties of the soybean oil (SBO)-based polymeric surfactant, Palozengs R-004 (hereafter referred to as R-004). The surface activity of R-004 is comparable to the reported activities of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms and higher than some of ...

  20. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain biodiesel and biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Alvaro; Picó, Enrique A; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María J; Serra, Juan L

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB. The efficiency and easy performance of this magnetic biocatalysis validates this proof of concept and sets the basis for the application of magnetic CLEAs at industrial scale. PMID:25207271

  1. Magnetic biocatalysts and their uses to obtain biodiesel and biosurfactants

    PubMed Central

    López, Carmen; Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Picó, Enrique A.; García-Bárcena, Teresa; Villarroel, Noelia; Llama, María J.; Serra, Juan L.

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiocatalysis, as the synergistic combination of nanotechnology and biocatalysis, is rapidly emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The use of immobilized enzymes in industrial applications often presents advantages over their soluble counterparts, mainly in view of stability, reusability and simpler operational processing. Because of their singular properties, such as biocompatibility, large and modifiable surface and easy recovery, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are attractive super-paramagnetic materials that serve as a support for enzyme immobilization and facilitate separations by applying an external magnetic field. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) have several benefits in the context of industrial applications since they can be cheaply and easily prepared from unpurified enzyme extracts and show improved storage and operational stability against denaturation by heat and organic solvents. In this work, by using the aforementioned advantages of MNPs of magnetite and CLEAs, we prepared two robust magnetically-separable types of nanobiocatalysts by binding either soluble enzyme onto the surface of MNPs functionalized with amino groups or by cross-linking aggregates of enzyme among them and to MNPs to obtain magnetic CLEAs. For this purpose the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB) was used. The hydrolytic and biosynthetic activities of the resulting magnetic nanobiocatalysts were assessed in aqueous and organic media. Thus, the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the transesterification reactions to synthesize biodiesel and biosurfactants were studied using magnetic CLEAs of CALB. The efficiency and easy performance of this magnetic biocatalysis validates this proof of concept and sets the basis for the application of magnetic CLEAs at industrial scale. PMID:25207271

  2. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa A41 using palm oil as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Thaniyavarn, Jiraporn; Chongchin, Aree; Wanitsuksombut, Nopparat; Thaniyavarn, Suthep; Pinphanichakarn, Pairoh; Leepipatpiboon, Natthanant; Morikawa, Masaaki; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2006-08-01

    Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa A41, a strain isolated from seawater in the gulf of Thailand, was examined when grown in defined medium containing 2% vegetable oil or fatty acid as a carbon source in the presence of vitamins, trace elements and 0.4% NH(4)NO(3), at pH 7 and 30 degrees C with 200 rpm-shaking for 7 days. The yield of biosurfactant steadily increased even after a stationary phase. Under such conditions the surface tension of the medium was lowered from 55-70 mN/m to 27.8-30 mN/m with every carbon source tested. However, types of carbon sources were found to affect biosurfactant yield. The yields of rhamnolipid biosurfactant were 6.58 g/L, 2.91 g/L and 2.93 g/L determined as rhamnose content when olive oil, palm oil and coconut oil, respectively, were used as a carbon source. Among them, biosurfactant obtained from palm oil was the best in lowering surface tension of the medium. Increase in biosurfactant activities in terms of oil displacement test and rhamnose content were observed to be higher with shorter chain fatty acids than that of the longer chains (C12>C14>C16). In addition, we found that C18:2, highly unsaturated fatty acid, showed higher oil displacement activity and rhamnose content than that of C18:1. The optimal oil displacement activity was found at pH 7-9 and in the presence of 0.5-3% NaCl. The oil displacement activity was stable to temperatures up to 100 degrees C for 15 h. Surface tension reduction activity was relatively stable at pH 2-12 and 0-5% of NaCl. Emusification activity tested with various types of hydrocarbons and vegetable oils showed similarity of up to 60% stability. The partially purified biosurfactant via TLC and silica gel column chromatography gave three main peaks on HPLC with mass spectra of 527, 272, and 661 m/z respectively, corresponding to sodium-monorhamnodecanoate, hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and an unknown compound, respectively. PMID:17116970

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c) binds triacylated glycolipid agonists of Toll-like receptor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drage, Michael G.; Tsai, Han-Chun; Pecora, Nicole D.; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Arida, Ahmad R.; Shukla, Supriya; Rojas, Roxana E.; Seshadri, Chetan; Moody, D. Branch; Boom, W. Henry; Sacchettini, James C.; Harding, Clifford V.

    2010-09-27

    Knockout of lprG results in decreased virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in mice. MTB lipoprotein LprG has TLR2 agonist activity, which is thought to be dependent on its N-terminal triacylation. Unexpectedly, here we find that nonacylated LprG retains TLR2 activity. Moreover, we show LprG association with triacylated glycolipid TLR2 agonists lipoarabinomannan, lipomannan and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (which share core structures). Binding of triacylated species was specific to LprG (not LprA) and increased LprG TLR2 agonist activity; conversely, association of glycolipids with LprG enhanced their recognition by TLR2. The crystal structure of LprG in complex with phosphatidylinositol mannoside revealed a hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the three alkyl chains of the ligand. In conclusion, we demonstrate a glycolipid binding function of LprG that enhances recognition of triacylated MTB glycolipids by TLR2 and may affect glycolipid assembly or transport for bacterial cell wall biogenesis.

  4. A Single Subset of Dendritic Cells Controls the Cytokine Bias of Natural Killer T Cell Responses to Diverse Glycolipid Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pooja; Baena, Andres; Yu, Karl O.A.; Saini, Neeraj K.; Kharkwal, Shalu S.; Goldberg, Michael F.; Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Carreño, Leandro J.; Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M.; Kim, John; Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Lauvau, Gregoire; Chang, Young-tae; Liu, Zheng; Bittman, Robert; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen; Cox, Liam R.; Jervis, Peter J.; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many hematopoietic cell types express CD1d and are capable of presenting glycolipid antigens to invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). However, the question of which cells are the principal presenters of glycolipid antigens in vivo remains controversial, and it has been suggested that this might vary depending on the structure of a particular glycolipid antigen. Here we have shown that a single type of cell, the CD8α+ DEC-205+ dendritic cell, was mainly responsible for capturing and presenting a variety of different glycolipid antigens, including multiple forms of α-galactosylceramide that stimulate widely divergent cytokine responses. After glycolipid presentation, these dendritic cells rapidly altered their expression of various costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules in a manner that was dependent on the structure of the antigen. These findings show flexibility in the outcome of two-way communication between CD8α+ dendritic cells and iNKT cells, providing a mechanism for biasing toward either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:24412610

  5. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by Renibacterium salmoninarum 27BN during growth on n-hexadecane.

    PubMed

    Christova, Nelly; Tuleva, Borjana; Lalchev, Zdravko; Jordanova, Albena; Jordanov, Bojidar

    2004-01-01

    A new strain Renibacterium salmoninarum 27BN was isolated for its capacity to utilize n-hexadecane as sole substrate. Growth on n-hexadecane was accompanied with the production of glycolipid surface active substances detected by surface pressure lowering and emulsifying activity. Glycolipid detection by thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analyses showed for the first time that Renibacterium salmoninarum 27BN secretes the two rhamnolipids RLL and RRLL typical for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Growth of Renibacterium salmoninarum 27BN on n-hexadecane depended on the bioavailability of the substrate and the secreted rhamnolipids appeared to be efficient in increasing hexadecane availability for the cells. PMID:15018056

  6. The combined use of a biosurfactant and an enzyme preparation to treat an effluent with a high fat content.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Fernanda R C; Cammarota, Magali C; Freire, Denise M G

    2012-06-15

    The combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an enzyme pool produced by solid-state fermentation with Penicillium simplicissimum using babassu cake as culture medium in the anaerobic treatment of an effluent with a high fat content from a poultry processing plant was evaluated. Central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate the enzyme pool and biosurfactant concentrations and the treatment temperature of the effluent containing about 2400 mg oil and grease per liter. The combination that yielded the highest specific methane production was 0.19% (w/v) enzyme pool and 114 mg/L biosurfactant at 33 °C. It could therefore be concluded that the combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant with an enzyme preparation obtained from solid-state fermentation may enhance methane production and enable the use of anaerobic technology in this sector, eliminating the need for physicochemical processes or the addition of costly commercial enzymes. PMID:22465048

  7. Optimization and characterization of a new lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Brevibacterium aureum MSA13 in solid state culture.

    PubMed

    Seghal Kiran, G; Anto Thomas, T; Selvin, Joseph; Sabarathnam, B; Lipton, A P

    2010-04-01

    The biosurfactant production of a marine actinobacterium Brevibacterium aureum MSA13 was optimized using industrial and agro-industrial solid waste residues as substrates in solid state culture (SSC). Based on the optimization experiments, the biosurfactant production by MSA13 was increased to threefold over the original isolate under SSC conditions with pre-treated molasses as substrate and olive oil, acrylamide, FeCl(3) and inoculums size as critical control factors. The strain B. aureum MSA13 produced a new lipopeptide biosurfactant with a hydrophobic moiety of octadecanoic acid methyl ester and a peptide part predicted as a short sequence of four amino acids including pro-leu-gly-gly. The biosurfactant produced by the marine actinobacterium MSA13 can be used for the microbially enhanced oil recovery processes in the marine environments. PMID:19959354

  8. Purification and characterization of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis Y-1 and its application in remediation of petroleum contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boqun; Liu, Jinpeng; Ju, Meiting; Li, Xiaojing; Yu, Qilin

    2016-06-15

    In our previous research, a petroleum degrading bacteria strain Bacillus licheniformis Y-1 was obtained in Dagang Oilfield which had the capability of producing biosurfactant. This biosurfactant was isolated and purified in this work. The biosurfactant produced by strain Y-1 had the capability to decrease the surface tension of water from 74.66 to 27.26mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 40mg/L. The biosurfactant performed not only excellent stabilities against pH, temperature and salinity, but also great emulsifying activities to different kinds of oil, especially the crude oil. According to the results of FT-IR spectrum and (1)H NMR spectrum detection, the surfactant was determined to be a cyclic lipopeptide. Furthermore, through the addition of surfactant, the effect of petroleum contaminated soil remediation by fungi got a significant improvement. PMID:27114088

  9. Effects of metformin and sitagliptin on glycolipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats on different diets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juhong; Ba, Tu; Chen, Liming; Shan, Chunyan; Zheng, Miaoyan; Wang, Ying; Ren, Huizhu; Chen, Jingli; Xu, Jie; Han, Fei; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of metformin and sitagliptin on glycolipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes after different diets. Material and methods Seventy Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with a high fat diet followed by streptozotocin treatment to induce type 2 diabetes. Then all rats were randomly divided into a control group, a metformin group (200 mg/kg), and a sitagliptin group (10 mg/kg). Each group was further divided into 4 groups receiving one load of high carbohydrate diet (45% glucose, 4.5 ml/kg), high fat diet (20% lipid emulsion, 4.5 ml/kg), high protein diet (20% whey protein, 10 ml/kg) or mixed meal, respectively. The caloric densities were all 33 kJ/kg. Postprandial blood glucose (P2BG), triglyceride (TG), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon and insulin levels were measured. Results In the high carbohydrate group, sitagliptin was more efficient in lowering P2BG compared with metformin (p < 0.05). In the high-fat group, metformin was more powerful in lowering TG (p < 0.05) and P2BG (p < 0.05) levels because of its improvement of insulin sensitivity. In the high protein diet group, metformin did not reduce the P2BG level (p > 0.05), although it did reduce the TG level (p < 0.05). In the mixed diet group, metformin was more efficient in lowering P2BG (p < 0.05) but had a similar effect on TG (p > 0.05) compared with sitagliptin. Conclusions In the type 2 diabetic model, metformin and sitagliptin have different effects on glycolipid metabolism after different diets. If it is proved in type 2 diabetic patients, then different medicines may be recommended according to different diets in order to improve glycolipid metabolism. PMID:27186166

  10. Effect of glycolipids of Leishmania parasites on human monocyte activity. Inhibition by lipophosphoglycan.

    PubMed

    Frankenburg, S; Leibovici, V; Mansbach, N; Turco, S J; Rosen, G

    1990-12-15

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and glycosyl phosphatidylinositol Ag (GPI), are glycolipids present on the membrane of Leishmania parasites. Both glycolipids have been chemically characterized. LPG is a polysaccharide of repeating phosphorylated units linked to a phosphocarbohydrate core that is anchored to the membrane by lysoalkyl phosphatidylinositol (PI). The GPI are smaller glycolipids with a structure resembling the phosphocarbohydrate core of the LPG. They are anchored to the membrane by alkyl acyl PI. Their relative abundance, uniqueness of structure, and cellular location suggest a role in interactions of the parasites with host cells. In the present study we examined the effect of LPG and GPI on the activation of human peripheral blood monocytes. Three parameters were studied: the production of IL-1, chemotactic locomotion, and oxidative burst. We found that whereas neither GPI nor LPG directly affected monocyte activity, preincubation of the monocytes with LPG strongly inhibited further activation: The production of IL-1, after stimulation with LPS, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Previous incubation with LPG also inhibited chemotactic locomotion of monocytes and neutrophils in response to diacylglycerol, zymosan-activated serum, FMLP and LTB4. Luminol-dependent chemiluminiscence caused by stimulation of the monocytes with streptococci and histone was also inhibited. After fragmentation of the LPG into phosphoglycan and 1-O-alkylglycerol by phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C, only the phosphoglycan retained inhibitory activity. No difference in inhibitory activity was found between LPG prepared from Leishmania major or Leishmania donovani promastigotes. These results show that the phosphoglycan of LPG inhibits the immunologic response of normal human monocytes and neutrophils, and suggest that LPG may influence the nature of the inflammatory response surrounding infected cells. PMID:2147940

  11. Properties of immunotoxins against a glycolipid antigen associated with Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wiels, J; Junqua, S; Dujardin, P; Le Pecq, J B; Tursz, T

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody (38-13) which recognizes Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells, by reacting with the neutral glycolipid Gal alpha 1 leads to 4-Gal beta 1 leads to 4-Glc beta 1 leads to 1-ceramide, was recently characterized. This monoclonal IgM was coupled to either ricin A chain or gelonin. The two different immunotoxins obtained retained the apparent immunological specificity of 38-13 IgM, as shown by flow cytofluorometry analysis and complement-dependent cytotoxicity test. The BL Ramos cells and the apparently irrelevant Epstein-Barr virus-containing lymphoblastoid Priess cells were used as targets in in vitro assays of the cytotoxic properties of the two immunotoxins by measuring the inhibition of protein synthesis. Isolated ricin A chain, gelonin, and 38-13 IgM exhibited very low intrinsic cytotoxicity on both target cells. 38-13 ricin A chain and 38-13 gelonin conjugates exerted toxic effects on both target cells which were about 6000-fold and 3000-fold higher than uncoupled ricin A chain and gelonin, respectively. The toxicity of these conjugates almost reached that of intact ricin. On Ramos BL cells, the kinetics of action of the 38-13 ricin A chain conjugate was almost as fast as that of intact ricin, because 50% protein synthesis inhibition was reached after 3 hr. In contrast, the kinetics of action in the non-BL Priess was much slower (50% protein synthesis inhibition after 10 hr). An obviously irrelevant immunotoxin (anti-trinitrophenol IgM-ricin A chain) had no significant cytotoxic effect on BL Ramos and non-BL Priess cells. An excess of D-galactose was shown previously to inhibit the 38-13 IgM from binding to the reactive glycolipid antigen bearing a terminal galactose. An excess of D-galactose (0.1 M) inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the two 38-13 immunotoxins, whereas it did not prevent the cytotoxic effect of the anti-trinitrophenol immunotoxin on the same trinitrophenol labeled target cells. These data suggest that the

  12. The structure and possible function of the glycolipid from Staphylococcus lactis I3

    PubMed Central

    Brundish, D. E.; Shaw, N.; Baddiley, J.

    1967-01-01

    1. The total lipid was extracted from Staphylococcus lactis I3 with chloroform–methanol mixtures and the glycolipid component was isolated by chromatography on silicic acid. 2. Saponification yielded a non-crystalline glycoside for which the structure O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→1)-d-glycerol has been established by chemical degradations and by comparison with synthetic material. 3. The role of the glycosyl diglycerides in bacterial membranes is discussed. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5584025

  13. Management of soybean oil refinery wastes through recycling them for producing biosurfactant using Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01.

    PubMed

    Partovi, Maryam; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Roostaazad, Reza; Bahmaei, Manochehr; Tayyebi, Shokoufe

    2013-06-01

    Biosurfactant production through a fermentation process involving the biodegradation of soybean oil refining wastes was studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01 was able to produce extracellular biosurfactant when it was cultured in three soybean oil refinement wastes; acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soapstock, at different carbon to nitrogen ratios. Subsequent fermentation kinetics in the three types of waste culture were also investigated and compared with kinetic behavior in soybean oil medium. Biodegradation of wastes, biosurfactant production, biomass growth, nitrate consumption and the number of colony forming units were detected in four proposed media, at specified time intervals. Unexpectedly, wastes could stimulate the biodegradation activity of MR01 bacterial cells and thus biosurfactant synthesis beyond that of the refined soybean oil. This is evident from higher yields of biodegradation and production, as revealed in the waste cultures (Ydeg|(Soybean oil) = 53.9 % < Ydeg|(wastes) and YP/S|(wastes) > YP/S|(Soybean oil) = 0.31 g g(-1), respectively). Although production yields were approximately the same in the three waste cultures (YP/S|(wastes) =/~ 0.5 g g(-1)), microbial activity resulted in higher yields of biodegradation (96.5 ± 1.13 %), maximum specific growth rate (μ max = 0.26 ± 0.02 h(-1)), and biosurfactant purity (89.6 %) with a productivity of 14.55 ± 1.10 g l(-1), during the bioconversion of soapstock into biosurfactant. Consequently, applying soybean oil soapstock as a substrate for the production of biosurfactant with commercial value has the potential to provide a combination of economical production with environmental protection through the biosynthesis of an environmentally friendly (green) compound and reduction of waste load entering the environment. Moreover, this work inferred spectrophotometry as an easy method to detect rhamnolipids in the biosurfactant products. PMID:23361970

  14. Synthesis of β-arabinofuranoside glycolipids, studies of their binding to surfactant protein-A and effect on sliding motilities of M. smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Naresh, Kottari; Avaji, Prakash Gouda; Maiti, Krishnagopal; Bharati, Binod K; Syal, Kirtimaan; Chatterji, Dipankar; Jayaraman, Narayanaswamy

    2012-04-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), which is a lung innate immune system component, is known to bind glycolipids present at the cell surface of a mycobacterial pathogen. Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a component of mycobacterial thick, waxy cell wall, is one of the glycolipid ligands for SP-A. In order to assess binding of synthetic glycolipids with SP-A and the glycosidic linkage preferences for the interaction, β-arabinofuranoside trisaccharide glycolipids constituted with β-(1→2), β-(1→3) and β-(1→2), β-(1→5) linkages relevant to LAM were synthesized through chemical glycosylations. The efficacies of synthetic glycolipids to interact with SP-A were assessed by using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique, from which association-dissociation rate constants and equilibrium binding constants were derived. The equilibrium binding constants of the interaction of two constitutionally varying β-arabinofuranoside glycolipids with SP-A were found to be in the millimolar range. A comparison of the results with few α-anomeric arabinofuranoside glycolipids showed that glycolipids with β-anomeric linkages were having relatively lower equilibrium binding constants than those with α-anomeric linkages in binding to the protein, whereas oligosaccharides alone, without lipidic chains, exhibited higher equilibrium binding constants. Further, the synthetic compounds inhibited the growth of mycobacteria and affected sliding motilities of the bacteria, although to an extent relatively lesser than that of synthetic compounds constituted with α-anomeric linkages. PMID:22258791

  15. A Novel Biosurfactant Produced by Aureobasidium pullulans L3-GPY from a Tiger Lily Wild Flower, Lilium lancifolium Thunb.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Shik; Lee, In Kyoung; Yun, Bong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Yeast biosurfactants are important biotechnological products in the food industry, and they have medical and cosmeceutical applications owing to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, and applicability. Thus, we have isolated and examined biosurfactant-producing yeast for various industrial and medical applications. A rapid and simple method was developed to screen biosurfactant-producing yeasts for high production of eco-friendly biosurfactants. Using this method, several potential niches of biosurfactant-producing yeasts, such as wild flowers, were investigated. We successfully selected a yeast strain, L3-GPY, with potent surfactant activity from a tiger lily, Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Here, we report the first identification of strain L3-GPY as the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans. In addition, we isolated a new low-surface-tension chemical, designated glycerol-liamocin, from the culture supernatant of strain L3-GPY through consecutive chromatography steps, involving an ODS column, solvent partition, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and an ODS Sep-Pak cartridge column. The chemical structure of glycerol-liamocin, determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicates that it is a novel compound with the molecular formula C33H62O12. Furthermore, glycerol-liamocin exhibited potent biosurfactant activity (31 mN/m). These results suggest that glycerol-liamocin is a potential novel biosurfactantfor use in various industrial applications. PMID:25849549

  16. Mobilization and co-transport of pyrene in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 biosurfactants in sandy soil columns

    SciTech Connect

    Lafrance, P.; Lapointe, M.

    1998-12-31

    Washing technologies are currently applied for the remediation of contaminated soils. The efficiency of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to mobilize some hydrocarbons sorbed on soils has already been demonstrated. However, few studies have been made to define optimal procedures for the injection of these rhamnolipids in soil. This study examines (1) the efficiency of the biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa UG2 to mobilize pyrene from a contaminated sandy loam as compared to that of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); (2) the injection procedures that might affect the efficiency of pyrene mobilization using UG2 biosurfactants; and (3) the co-transport of UG2 biosurfactants and pyrene. Based on the experimental results, it would be advantageous to use a high UG2 biosurfactant concentration, a high pore water velocity, and possibly a flow interruption of more than 15 h in order to reduce the injected volume and the duration of the treatment required. The 0.25% UG2 biosurfactant concentration greatly enhanced pyrene transport and could facilitate contaminant recovery.

  17. Assessment of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Ben Abdallah-Kolsi, Rihab; Hamden, Khaled; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Chaabouni, Khansa; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Sallemi, Fahima; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the potential of Bacillus subtilis SPB1biosurfactant, orally administered, for preventing diabetic complications in rats. The findings revealed that, Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant was an effective reducer of α-amylase activity in the plasma. Moreover, this supplement helped protect the β-cells from death and damage. Both the inhibitory action of SPB1 biosurfactant on α-amylase and the protection of the pancreas' β-cells lead to a decrease of the blood glucose levels, consequently antihyperglycemic effect. Interestingly, this lipopeptide biosurfactant modulated key enzyme related to hyperlipidemia as lipase; which leads to the regulation of the lipid profile in serum by the delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted a protective action on the pancreases and efficiently preserved the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase and lactate deshydrogenase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities exhibited by Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant were effective enough to alleviate induced diabetes in experimental rats. Therefore, SPB1biosurfactant could be considered as a potential strong candidate for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. PMID:26228442

  18. Electrokinetic-Enhanced Remediation of Phenanthrene-Contaminated Soil Combined with Sphingomonas sp. GY2B and Biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weijia; Guo, Chuling; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Xujun; Wei, Yanfu; Lu, Guining; Dang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    Electrokinetic-microbial remediation (EMR) has emerged as a promising option for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to enhance degradation of phenanthrene (Phe)-contaminated soils using EMR combined with biosurfactants. The electrokinetic (EK) remediation, combined with Phe-degrading Sphingomonas sp. GY2B, and biosurfactant obtained by fermentation of Pseudomonas sp. MZ01, degraded Phe in the soil with an efficiency of up to 65.1 % at the anode, 49.9 % at the cathode after 5 days of the treatment. The presence of biosurfactants, electricity, and a neutral electrolyte stimulated the growth of the degrading bacteria as shown by a rapid increase in microbial biomass with time. The electrical conductivity and pH changed little during the course of the treatment, which benefitted the growth of microorganisms and the remediation of Phe-contaminated soil. The EMR system with the addition of biosurfactant had the highest Phe removal, demonstrating the biosurfactant may enhance the bioavailability of Phe and the interaction with the microorganism. This study suggests that the EMR combined with biosurfactants can be used to enhance in situ bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. PMID:26683200

  19. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SP4 using sequencing batch reactors: effects of oil loading rate and cycle time.

    PubMed

    Pornsunthorntawee, Orathai; Maksung, Sasiwan; Huayyai, Onsiri; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Chavadej, Sumaeth

    2009-01-01

    In this present study, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were used for biosurfactant production from Pseudomonasaeruginosa SP4, which was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in Thailand. Two identical lab-scale aerobic SBR units were operated at a constant temperature of 37 degrees C, and a mineral medium (MM) with palm oil was used as the culture medium. The effects of oil loading rate (OLR) and cycle time on the biosurfactant production were studied. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for the biosurfactant production were at an OLR of 2 kg/m(3)days and a cycle time of 2 days/cycle, which provided a surface tension reduction of 59%, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 90%, and an oil removal of 97%. Under the optimum conditions, it was found that the biosurfactant production was maximized at an aeration time of 40 h. These preliminary results suggest that the SBR can potentially be adapted for biosurfactant production, and perhaps further developed, potentially for large-scale biosurfactant production. PMID:18672362

  20. Expression of α2,6-sialic acid-containing and Lewis-active glycolipids in several types of human ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, KYOKO; MIKAMI, MIKIO; AOKI, DAISUKE; KIGUCHI, KAZUSHIGE; ISHIWATA, ISAMU; IWAMORI, MASAO

    2010-01-01

    To identify glycolipid antigens associated with histologically defined types of ovarian carcinomas, we determined the amounts of α2,6-sialyl and Lewis-active glycolipids, the specific activities of the α2,3- and α2,6-sialyltransferases, and the gene expression of sugar transferases in mucinous and serous cystadenocarcinoma, clear cell adenocarcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma tissues and cell lines derived from them. α2,6-sialyl glycolipid IV6NeuAcα-nLc4Cer detected with a newly developed monoclonal antibody, Y916, was present in 5/7 serous cystadenocarcinoma cases in relatively higher amounts than those in the other carcinoma tissues. On the other hand, the amounts of Lewis-active glycolipids in serous cystadenocarcinoma tissues were lower than those in the other carcinoma tissues. No correlation was observed between the structures of Lewis glycolipids and the histological classification. The gene expression of α2,3- and α2,6-sialyltransferases and α1,3/4-fucosyltransferase for the synthesis of Lewis-active glycolipids was not positively correlated with the amounts of the respective glycolipids, probably due to the epigenetic regulation of transferases in the overall metabolic pathways for lacto-series glycolipids. However, the amounts of GM3 and GD3 with short carbohydrate chains correlated with the relative intensities of GM3 and GD3 synthase gene expression, respectively. Among ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines, the serous cystadenocarcinoma-derived ones exhibited a lower frequency of Lewis-active glycolipid expression than the other carcinoma-derived ones, which was similar to that in the respective tissues. Thus, malignancy-related Lewis-active glycolipids were shown to be regulated in different modes in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas and the other carcinomas. PMID:22870113

  1. Isolation of two glycolipid transfer proteins from bovine brain: reactivity toward gangliosides and neutral glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Gammon, C M; Vaswani, K K; Ledeen, R W

    1987-09-22

    Two glycolipid transfer proteins that catalyze the transfer of gangliosides and neutral glycosphingolipids from phosphatidylcholine vesicles to erythrocyte ghosts have been isolated from calf brain. Purification procedures included differential centrifugation, precipitation at pH 5.1, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and G-75. The final stage employed fast protein liquid chromatography (Mono S), producing two peaks of activity. Apparent purity of the major peak (TP I) was approximately 85-90%, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate/urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. That of the minor fraction (TP II) was less. The major band of both fractions had a molecular mass of approximately 20,000 daltons. Both proteins catalyzed the transfer of ganglioside GM1 as well as asialo-GM1, but transfer protein I was more effective with di- and trisialogangliosides. Transfer protein II appeared to be somewhat more specific for neutral glycolipids in that GA1 was transferred more rapidly than any of the gangliosides; however, lactosylceramide transfer was relatively slow. Neither protein catalyzed transfer of phosphatidylcholine. PMID:3689771

  2. Direct recognition of the mycobacterial glycolipid, trehalose dimycolate, by C-type lectin Mincle

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Eri; Ishikawa, Tetsuaki; Morita, Yasu S.; Toyonaga, Kenji; Yamada, Hisakata; Takeuchi, Osamu; Kinoshita, Taroh; Akira, Shizuo; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a fatal disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which contains various unique components that affect the host immune system. Trehalose-6,6′-dimycolate (TDM; also called cord factor) is a mycobacterial cell wall glycolipid that is the most studied immunostimulatory component of M. tuberculosis. Despite five decades of research on TDM, its host receptor has not been clearly identified. Here, we demonstrate that macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) is an essential receptor for TDM. Heat-killed mycobacteria activated Mincle-expressing cells, but the activity was lost upon delipidation of the bacteria; analysis of the lipid extracts identified TDM as a Mincle ligand. TDM activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide, which are completely suppressed in Mincle-deficient macrophages. In vivo TDM administration induced a robust elevation of inflammatory cytokines in sera and characteristic lung inflammation, such as granuloma formation. However, no TDM-induced lung granuloma was formed in Mincle-deficient mice. Whole mycobacteria were able to activate macrophages even in MyD88-deficient background, but the activation was significantly diminished in Mincle/MyD88 double-deficient macrophages. These results demonstrate that Mincle is an essential receptor for the mycobacterial glycolipid, TDM. PMID:20008526

  3. Extension of the GLYCAM06 Biomolecular Force Field to Lipids, Lipid Bilayers and Glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Matthew B; Demarco, Mari L; Yongye, Austin B; Woods, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    GLYCAM06 is a generalisable biomolecular force field that is extendible to diverse molecular classes in the spirit of a small-molecule force field. Here we report parameters for lipids, lipid bilayers and glycolipids for use with GLYCAM06. Only three lipid-specific atom types have been introduced, in keeping with the general philosophy of transferable parameter development. Bond stretching, angle bending, and torsional force constants were derived by fitting to quantum mechanical data for a collection of minimal molecular fragments and related small molecules. Partial atomic charges were computed by fitting to ensemble-averaged quantum-computed molecular electrostatic potentials.In addition to reproducing quantum mechanical internal rotational energies and experimental valence geometries for an array of small molecules, condensed-phase simulations employing the new parameters are shown to reproduce the bulk physical properties of a DMPC lipid bilayer. The new parameters allow for molecular dynamics simulations of complex systems containing lipids, lipid bilayers, glycolipids, and carbohydrates, using an internally consistent force field. By combining the AMBER parameters for proteins with the GLYCAM06 parameters, it is also possible to simulate protein-lipid complexes and proteins in biologically relevant membrane-like environments. PMID:22247593

  4. The processing and presentation of lipids and glycolipids to the immune system.

    PubMed

    Vartabedian, Vincent F; Savage, Paul B; Teyton, Luc

    2016-07-01

    The recognition of CD1-lipid complexes by T cells was discovered 20 years ago and has since been an emerging and expanding field of investigation. Unlike protein antigens, which are presented on MHC class I and II molecules, lipids can only be presented by CD1 molecules, a unique family of MHC-like proteins whose singularity is a hydrophobic antigen-binding groove. The processing and loading of lipid antigens inside this groove of CD1 molecules require localization to endosomal and lysosomal subcellular compartments and their acidic pHs. This particular environment provides the necessary glycolytic enzymes and lipases that process lipid and glycolipid antigens, as well as a set of lipid transfer proteins that load the final version of the antigen inside the groove of CD1. The overall sequence of events needed for efficient presentation of lipid antigens is now understood and presented in this review. However, a large number of important details have been elusive. This elusiveness is linked to the inherent technical difficulties of studying lipids and the lipid-protein interface in vitro and in vivo. Here, we will expose some of those limitations and describe new approaches to address them during the characterization of lipids and glycolipids antigen presentation. PMID:27319346

  5. Major surface antigen, P30, of Toxoplasma gondii is anchored by a glycolipid

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, S.D.; Boothroyd, J.C.

    1989-04-05

    P30, the major surface antigen of the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, can be specifically labeled with (/sup 3/H)palmitic acid and with myo-(2-/sup 3/H)inositol. The fatty acid label can be released by treatment of P30 with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Such treatment exposes an immunological cross-reacting determinant first described on Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein. PI-PLC cleavage of intact parasites metabolically labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine results in the release of intact P30 polypeptide in a form which migrates faster in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results argue that P30 is anchored by a glycolipid. Results from thin layer chromatography analysis of purified (/sup 3/H) palmitate-labeled P30 treated with PI-PLC, together with susceptibility to mild alkali hydrolysis and to cleavage with phospholipase A2, suggest that the glycolipid anchor of T. gondii P30 includes a 1,2-diacylglycerol moiety.

  6. Mycobacteria glycolipids as potential pathogenicity effectors: alteration of model and natural membranes.

    PubMed

    Sut, A; Sirugue, S; Sixou, S; Lakhdar-Ghazal, F; Tocanne, J F; Lanéelle, G

    1990-09-11

    Four mycobacterial wall glycolipids were tested for their effects on phospholipidic liposome organization and passive permeability and on oxidative phosphorylation of isolated mitochondria. From fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene performed on liposomes it was concluded that the two trehalose derivatives (dimycoloyltrehalose and polyphthienoyltrehalose) rigidified the fluid state of liposomes, the triglycosyl phenolphthiocerol slightly fluidized the gel state, while the peptidoglycolipid ("apolar" mycoside C) just shifted the phase transition temperature upward. Dimycoloyltrehalose was without effect on liposome passive permeability, as estimated from dicarboxyfluorescein leak rates, and polyphthienoyltrehalose and triglycosyl phenolphthiocerol slightly decreased leaks, while mycoside C dramatically increased leaks. Activity of these lipids on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was examined. The two trehalose derivatives have been tested previously: both had the same type of inhibitory activity, dimycoloyltrehalose being the most active. Triglycosyl phenolphthiocerol was inactive. Mycoside C was very active, with effects resembling those of classical uncouplers: this suggested that its activity on mitochondria was related to its effect on permeability. All these membrane alterations were called nonspecific because it is likely that they result from nonspecific lipid-lipid interactions, and not from recognition between specific molecular structures. Such nonspecific interactions could be at the origin of some of the effects of mycobacteria glycolipids on cells of the immune system observed in the last few years. PMID:2123718

  7. Genetic regulations of the biosynthesis of microbial surfactants: an overview.

    PubMed

    Das, Palashpriya; Mukherjee, Soumen; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2008-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants are surface active metabolites synthesized by microbes growing on a variety of substrates. In spite of having great potential for commercial, therapeutic and environmental applications, industrial level production has not been realized for their low yields and productivities. One vital factor determining their biosynthesis is the genetic makeup of the producer organisms. Studies on molecular genetics and biochemistry of the synthesis of several biosurfactants have revealed the operons, the enzymes and the metabolic pathways required for their extracellular production. Surfactin, a cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactant is a potent antimicrobial agent and is produced as a result of non-ribosomal biosynthesis catalyzed by a large multienzyme peptide synthetase complex called the surfactin synthetase. Pathways for the synthesis of other lipopeptides such as iturin, lichenysin and arthrofactin are also mediated by similar enzyme complexes. These non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) responsible for lipopeptide biosynthesis display a high degree of structural similarity among themselves even from distant microbial species. Plasmid-encoded- rhlA, B, R and I genes of rhl quorum sensing system are required for production of glycolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas species. Molecular genetics of biosynthesis of alasan and emulsan by Acinetobacter species and of the fungal biosurfactants such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) and hydrophobins have been deciphered. However, limited genetic information is available about biosynthesis of other biosurfactants such as viscosin, amphisin and putisolvin produced by some strains of Pseudomonas species. Understanding of the genetic regulatory mechanisms would help to develop metabolically engineered hyper-producing strains with better product characteristics and acquired capability of utilizing cheap agro-industrial wastes as substrates. This article thus provides an overview of the role and importance of

  8. Structural Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Biosurfactant Obtained From Bacillus pumilus DSVP18 Grown on Potato Peels

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Gupta, Sonam; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Pruthi, Parul; Pruthi, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biosurfactants constitute a structurally diverse group of surface-active compounds derived from microorganisms. They are widely used industrially in various industrial applications such as pharmaceutical and environmental sectors. Major limiting factor in biosurfactant production is their production cost. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate biosurfactant production under laboratory conditions with potato peels as the sole source of carbon source. Materials and Methods: A biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain (Bacillus pumilus DSVP18, NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865643) was isolated from motor oil contaminated soil samples. Biochemical characteristics of the purified biosurfactant were determined and its chemical structure was analyzed. Stability studies were performed and biological activity of the biosurfactant was also evaluated. Results: The strain, when grown on modified minimal salt media supplemented with 2% potato peels as the sole carbon source, showed the ability to reduce Surface Tension (ST) value of the medium from 72 to 28.7 mN/m. The isolated biosurfactant (3.2 ± 0.32 g/L) was stable over a wide range of temperatures (20 - 120 ºC), pH (2-12) and salt concentrations (2 - 12%). When characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found to be a lipopeptide in nature, which was further confirmed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (mass peak 1044.60) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. Data showed that the isolated biosurfactant at the concentration range of 30 - 35 µg/ml had strong antimicrobial activity when tested against standard strains of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae. Conclusions: Potato peels were proved to be potentially useful substrates for biosurfactant production by B. pumilus DSVP18. The strain possessed a

  9. Surface-active novel glycolipid and linked 3-hydroxy fatty acids produced by Serratia rubidaea.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, T; Kaneda, K; Ishizuka, I; Toida, T; Yano, I

    1990-01-01

    A Serratia rubidaea isolate with wetting activity when grown at 30 but not 37 degrees C was examined for the production of specific lipids. Two novel lipids (rubiwettins R1 and RG1) were isolated and shown to be able to lower the surface tension of saline to 26 mN/m. These lipids were located in extracellular vesicles found in a 30 degrees C culture of S. rubidaea. Chemical structures of these biosurfactants were determined by degradation product analyses, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rubiwettin R1 was proposed to be a mixture of 3-(3'-hydroxytetradecanoyloxy)decanoate, 3-(3'-hydroxyhexadecenoyloxy)decanoate, and minor molecular isomers. The structure of rubiwettin RG1 was proposed to be beta-D-glucopyranosyl 3-(3'-hydroxytetradecanoyloxy)decanoate. The importance of such surface-active exolipids in bacterial occupancy on surfaces was suggested. Images PMID:2345132

  10. Production of biosurfactant from a new and promising strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1.

    PubMed

    Santa Anna, L M; Sebastian, G V; Pereira, N; Alves, T L; Menezes, E P; Freire, D M

    2001-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 strain, isolated from the water of oil production in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil, was evaluated as a potential rhamnolipid type of biosurfactant producer. The production of biosurfactants was investigated using different carbon sources (n-hexadecane, paraffin oil, glycerol, and babassu oil) and inoculum concentrations (0.0016-0.008 g/L). The best results were obtained with glycerol as the substrate and an initial cell concentration of 0.004 g/L. A C:N ratio of 22.8 led to the greatest production of rhamnolipids (1700 mg/L) and efficiency (1.18 g of rhamnolipid/g of dry wt). PMID:11963874

  11. Physicochemical and functional characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Lactococcus lactis 53.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lígia R; Teixeira, José A; van der Mei, Henny C; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-04-15

    Isolation and identification of key components of the crude biosurfactant produced by Lactococcus lactis 53 was studied. Fractionation was achieved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography which allowed the isolation of a fraction rich in glycoproteins. Molecular (by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and elemental compositions (by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) were determined. Critical micelle concentration achieved for the isolated fraction was 14 g/l, allowing for a surface tension value of 36 mJ/m(2). Moreover, the isolated fraction, stable to pH changes between 5 and 9, was found to be an anti-adhesive and antimicrobial agent against several bacterial and yeast strains isolated from explanted voice prostheses, even at low concentrations. Further purification steps should be carefully analyzed as each purification step will increase the costs and decreases the amounts of biosurfactants recovered. PMID:16616461

  12. Strain variations in the murine cellular immune response to the phenolic glycolipid I antigen of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Koster, F T; Teuscher, C; Matzner, P; Umland, E; Yanagihara, D; Brennan, P J; Tung, K S

    1986-01-01

    The cellular immune response to the Mycobacterium leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid I was examined in inbred mice immunized with M. leprae by in vivo delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation. Whereas all mouse strains responded to M.leprae-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity and lymphocyte proliferation, only BALB.K was responsive in both assays to the glycolipid. Responsiveness was determined in part by non-H-2 genes, while the influence of H-2 genes was not apparent. Among congenic BALB/c mice differing only at Igh-C allotype loci, variations in responsiveness were found in both delayed-type hypersensitivity and lymphocytes proliferation assays, indicating a possible role for Igh-C loci-linked genes. Unresponsiveness in the lymphocyte proliferation assay to the glycolipid was inherited as a dominant trait in one set of responder X nonresponder F1 progeny. We conclude that after immunization with M. leprae organisms, the cell-mediated responses to the glycolipid, endowed with a single carbohydrate epitope, are under polygenic control, predominantly non-H-2-linked genes. PMID:3510979

  13. Genomic and chemical insights into biosurfactant production by the mangrove-derived strain Bacillus safensis CCMA-560.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Daniela Ferreira; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; de Souza Galaverna, Renan; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Greenfield, Paul; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Melo, Itamar Soares; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2015-04-01

    Many Bacillus species can produce biosurfactant, although most of the studies on lipopeptide production by this genus have been focused on Bacillus subtilis. Surfactants are broadly used in pharmaceutical, food and petroleum industry, and biological surfactant shows some advantages over the chemical surfactants, such as less toxicity, production from renewable, cheaper feedstocks and development of novel recombinant hyperproducer strains. This study is aimed to unveil the biosurfactant metabolic pathway and chemical composition in Bacillus safensis strain CCMA-560. The whole genome of the CCMA-560 strain was previously sequenced, and with the aid of bioinformatics tools, its biosurfactant metabolic pathway was compared to other pathways of closely related species. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and high-resolution TOF mass spectrometry (MS) were used to characterize the biosurfactant molecule. B. safensis CCMA-560 metabolic pathway is similar to other Bacillus species; however, some differences in amino acid incorporation were observed, and chemical analyses corroborated the genetic results. The strain CCMA-560 harbours two genes flanked by srfAC and srfAD not present in other Bacillus spp., which can be involved in the production of the analogue gramicidin. FTIR and MS showed that B. safensis CCMA-560 produces a mixture of at least four lipopeptides with seven amino acids incorporated and a fatty acid chain with 14 carbons, which makes this molecule similar to the biosurfactant of Bacillus pumilus, namely, pumilacidin. This is the first report on the biosurfactant production by B. safensis, encompassing the investigation of the metabolic pathway and chemical characterization of the biosurfactant molecule. PMID:25586584

  14. Diverse effects of a biosurfactant from Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 on the adhesion of resting and growing bacteria to polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Kuyukina, Maria S; Ivshina, Irena B; Korshunova, Irina O; Stukova, Galina I; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a trehalolipid biosurfactant produced by Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 on the bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on the surface of polystyrene microplates. The adhesion of Gram-positive (Arthrobacter simplex, Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescencens) bacteria correlated differently with the cell hydrophobicity and surface charge. In particular, exponentially growing bacterial cells with increased hydrophobicities adhered stronger to polystyrene compared to more hydrophilic stationary phase cells. Also, a moderate correlation (0.56) was found between zeta potential and adhesion values of actively growing bacteria, suggesting that less negatively charged cells adhered stronger to polystyrene. Efficient biosurfactant concentrations (10-100 mg/L) were determined, which selectively inhibited (up to 76 %) the adhesion of tested bacterial cultures, however without inhibiting their growth. The biosurfactant was more active against growing bacteria rather than resting cells, thus showing high biofilm-preventing properties. Contact angle measurements revealed more hydrophilic surface of the biosurfactant-covered polystyrene compared to bare polystyrene, which allowed less adhesion of hydrophobic bacteria. Furthermore, surface free-energy calculations showed a decrease in the Wan der Waals (γ(LW)) component and an increase in the acid-based (γ(AB)) component caused by the biosurfactant coating of polysterene. However, our results suggested that the biosurfactant inhibited the adhesion of bacteria independently on their surface charges. AFM scanning revealed three-type biosurfactant structures (micelles, cord-like assemblies and large vesicles) formed on glass, depending on concentrations used, that could lead to diverse anti-adhesive effects against different bacterial species. PMID:26888203

  15. Production and characterization of microbial biosurfactants for potential use in oil-spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Marti, M E; Colonna, W J; Patra, P; Zhang, H; Green, C; Reznik, G; Pynn, M; Jarrell, K; Nyman, J A; Somasundaran, P; Glatz, C E; Lamsal, B P

    2014-02-01

    Two biosurfactants, surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate, were produced from genetically-modified strains of Bacillus subtilis on 2% glucose and mineral salts media in shake-flasks and bioreactors. Biosurfactant synthesis ceased when the main carbohydrate source was completely depleted. Surfactin titers were ∼30-fold higher than fatty acyl-glutamate in the same medium. When bacteria were grown in large aerated bioreactors, biosurfactants mostly partitioned to the foam fraction, which was recovered. Dispersion effectiveness of surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate was evaluated by measuring the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). The CMC values for surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate in double deionized distilled water were 0.015 and 0.10 g/L, respectively. However, CMC values were higher, 0.02 and 0.4 g/L for surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate, respectively, in 12 parts per thousand Instant Ocean®[corrected].sea salt, which has been partly attributed to saline-induced conformational changes in the solvated ionic species of the biosurfactants. The DORs for surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate were 1:96 and 1:12, respectively, in water. In Instant Ocean® solutions containing 12 ppt sea salt, these decreased to 1:30 and 1:4, respectively, suggesting reduction in oil dispersing efficiency of both surfactants in saline. Surfactant toxicities were assessed using the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, which is common in estuarine habitats of the Gulf of Mexico. Surfactin was 10-fold more toxic than fatty acyl-glutamate. A commercial surfactant, sodium laurel sulfate, had intermediate toxicity. Raising the salinity from 5 to 25 ppt increased the toxicity of all three surfactants; however, the increase was the lowest for fatty acyl-glutamate. PMID:24411443

  16. Effects of biosurfactants on the viability and proliferation of human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactants are molecules with surface activity produced by microorganisms that can be used in many biomedical applications. The anti-tumour potential of these molecules is being studied, although results are still scarce and few data are available regarding the mechanisms underlying such activity. In this work, the anti-tumour activity of a surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis 573 and a glycoprotein (BioEG) produced by Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei A20 was evaluated. Both biosurfactants were tested against two breast cancer cell lines, T47D and MDA-MB-231, and a non-tumour fibroblast cell line (MC-3 T3-E1), specifically regarding cell viability and proliferation. Surfactin was found to decrease viability of both breast cancer cell lines studied. A 24 h exposure to 0.05 g l-1 surfactin led to inhibition of cell proliferation as shown by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Similarly, exposure of cells to 0.15 g l-1 BioEG for 48 h decreased cancer cells’ viability, without affecting normal fibroblasts. Moreover, BioEG induced the cell cycle arrest at G1 for both breast cancer cell lines. The biosurfactant BioEG was shown to be more active than surfactin against the studied breast cancer cells. The results gathered in this work are very promising regarding the biosurfactants potential for breast cancer treatment and encourage further work with the BioEG glycoprotein. PMID:24949273

  17. The production and physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant mixture obtained from Sphingobacterium detergens.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Díaz, C; Pons, R; Teruel, J A; Aranda, F J; Ortiz, A; Manresa, A; Marqués, A M

    2013-03-15

    The commercial application of a new biosurfactant such as the one produced by Sphingobacteriumdetergens needs a cost-effective process and knowledge of its properties. In the present study, a specific medium and a downstream process have been developed to enhance biosurfactant production. Optimal concentrations of nutrients in MCA medium were (g/L) the following: KH(2)PO(4), 1; K(2)HPO(4), 2; CO(NH(2))(2) 0.88; CaCl(2) 0.01; FeSO(4)·7H(2)O, 0.01; MgSO(4)·7H(2)O 0.5; KCl, 1.0; trace elements 0.05 mL. Biosurfactant production in the MCA medium required a bacterial co-metabolism of glucose and an n-alkane. A fed-batch culture with supernatant lyophilization prior to organic extraction produced 466 mg/L of organic extract, which represents a 6.9-fold increase in production. The newly obtained biosurfactant was a complex mixture of molecules. The three characterized fractions consisted of the complete fraction and two second-level purification fractions with apolar and polar characteristics. The complete and apolar fractions have been shown to self-aggregate in the form of lamellar liquid crystals at a high concentration and bilayers at lower concentrations. Negatively charged particles were identified, which were neutralized at a low pH with a concomitant increase in size. The pH affected the surface tension of the solutions congruently with phosphate headgroups. PMID:23332937

  18. Emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyeh; Lin, Tachen; Shieh, Youmin

    2015-10-01

    Much attention has been paid to biosurfactants produced using microorganisms, but little direct evidence for the development of natural biosurfactants combined with Chinese medicinal herbs are available. We investigated the emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herb fermentation (BECMHF) in vitro and their application in water retention capacity and the skin prick and allergy test (SPAT) index for skin cells. The results showed that the water retention capacity of BECMHF was positively associated with the emulsification index. The SPAT index of 8 Chinese medicinal herbs was 0 at a 1% or 2% concentration, suggesting no sensitivity or adverse effects on the skin cells. Eight BECMHFs produced using Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 exhibited antioxidant capabilities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mechanism involved inhibitory effects on nitrite, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation. BECMHFs exhibit favorable antioxidative properties in health food and satisfactory emulsifying and moisturizing characteristics in cosmetic formulations, which have potential applications in the health food and cosmetic industries, respectively. PMID:25812919

  19. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    PubMed Central

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  20. Oil degradation and biosurfactant production by the deep sea bacterium Dietzia maris As-13-3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wanpeng; Cai, Bobo; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of extreme environments have revealed numerous bioactive natural products. However, biosurfactant-producing strains from deep sea extreme environment are largely unknown. Here, we show that Dietzia maris As-13-3 isolated from deep sea hydrothermal field could produce di-rhamnolipid as biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the purified di-rhamnolipid was determined to be 120 mgL−1, and it lowered the surface tension of water from 74 ± 0.2 to 38 ± 0.2 mN m−1. Further, the alkane metabolic pathway-related genes and di-rhamnolipid biosynthesis-related genes were also analyzed by the sequencing genome of D. maris As-13-3 and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Q-PCR analysis showed that all these genes were induced by n-Tetradecane, n-Hexadecane, and pristane. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report about the complete pathway of the di-rhamnolipid synthesis process in the genus Dietzia. Thus, our study provided the insights into Dietzia in respects of oil degradation and biosurfactant production, and will help to evaluate the potential of Dietzia in marine oil removal. PMID:25566224

  1. Investigation of the release of PAHs from artificially contaminated sediments using cyclolipopeptidic biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Portet-Koltalo, F; Ammami, M T; Benamar, A; Wang, H; Le Derf, F; Duclairoir-Poc, C

    2013-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be preponderant in contaminated sediments and understanding how they are sorbed in the different mineral and organic fractions of the sediment is critical for effective removal strategies. For this purpose, a mixture of seven PAHs was studied at the sediment/water interface and sorption isotherms were obtained. The influence of various factors on the sorption behavior of PAHs was evaluated, such as the nature of minerals, pH, ionic strength and amount of organic matter. Afterwards, the release of PAHs from the sediment by surfactants was investigated. The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was compared to natural biosurfactants, of cyclolipopeptidic type (amphisin and viscosin-like mixture), produced by two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. The desorption of PAHs (from naphthalene to pyrene), from the highly retentive kaolinite fraction, could be favored by adding SDS or amphisin, but viscosin-like biosurfactants were only effective for 2-3 ring PAHs desorption (naphthalene to phenanthrene). Moreover, while SDS favors the release of all the target PAHs from a model sediment containing organic matter, the two biosurfactants tested were only effective to desorb the lowest molecular weight PAHs (naphthalene to fluorene). PMID:23995556

  2. Biosurfactant as a Promoter of Methane Hydrate Formation: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Amit; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Kumar, Rajnish; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Santhakumari, B.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Laik, Sukumar

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) are solid non-stoichiometric compounds often regarded as a next generation energy source. Successful commercialization of NGH is curtailed by lack of efficient and safe technology for generation, dissociation, storage and transportation. The present work studied the influence of environment compatible biosurfactant on gas hydrate formation. Biosurfactant was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain A11 and was characterized as rhamnolipids. Purified rhamnolipids reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 36 mN/m with Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) of 70 mg/l. Use of 1000 ppm rhamnolipids solution in C type silica gel bed system increased methane hydrate formation rate by 42.97% and reduced the induction time of hydrate formation by 22.63% as compared to water saturated C type silica gel. Presence of rhamnolipids also shifted methane hydrate formation temperature to higher values relative to the system without biosurfactant. Results from thermodynamic and kinetic studies suggest that rhamnolipids can be applied as environment friendly methane hydrate promoter. PMID:26869357

  3. Biosurfactant as a Promoter of Methane Hydrate Formation: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Kumar, Rajnish; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Santhakumari, B; Kumar, Pushpendra; Laik, Sukumar

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) are solid non-stoichiometric compounds often regarded as a next generation energy source. Successful commercialization of NGH is curtailed by lack of efficient and safe technology for generation, dissociation, storage and transportation. The present work studied the influence of environment compatible biosurfactant on gas hydrate formation. Biosurfactant was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain A11 and was characterized as rhamnolipids. Purified rhamnolipids reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 36 mN/m with Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) of 70 mg/l. Use of 1000 ppm rhamnolipids solution in C type silica gel bed system increased methane hydrate formation rate by 42.97% and reduced the induction time of hydrate formation by 22.63% as compared to water saturated C type silica gel. Presence of rhamnolipids also shifted methane hydrate formation temperature to higher values relative to the system without biosurfactant. Results from thermodynamic and kinetic studies suggest that rhamnolipids can be applied as environment friendly methane hydrate promoter. PMID:26869357

  4. Biosurfactant as a Promoter of Methane Hydrate Formation: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Amit; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Kumar, Rajnish; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Santhakumari, B.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Laik, Sukumar

    2016-02-01

    Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) are solid non-stoichiometric compounds often regarded as a next generation energy source. Successful commercialization of NGH is curtailed by lack of efficient and safe technology for generation, dissociation, storage and transportation. The present work studied the influence of environment compatible biosurfactant on gas hydrate formation. Biosurfactant was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain A11 and was characterized as rhamnolipids. Purified rhamnolipids reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 36 mN/m with Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) of 70 mg/l. Use of 1000 ppm rhamnolipids solution in C type silica gel bed system increased methane hydrate formation rate by 42.97% and reduced the induction time of hydrate formation by 22.63% as compared to water saturated C type silica gel. Presence of rhamnolipids also shifted methane hydrate formation temperature to higher values relative to the system without biosurfactant. Results from thermodynamic and kinetic studies suggest that rhamnolipids can be applied as environment friendly methane hydrate promoter.

  5. Oil degradation and biosurfactant production by the deep sea bacterium Dietzia maris As-13-3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanpeng; Cai, Bobo; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of extreme environments have revealed numerous bioactive natural products. However, biosurfactant-producing strains from deep sea extreme environment are largely unknown. Here, we show that Dietzia maris As-13-3 isolated from deep sea hydrothermal field could produce di-rhamnolipid as biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the purified di-rhamnolipid was determined to be 120 mgL(-1), and it lowered the surface tension of water from 74 ± 0.2 to 38 ± 0.2 mN m(-1). Further, the alkane metabolic pathway-related genes and di-rhamnolipid biosynthesis-related genes were also analyzed by the sequencing genome of D. maris As-13-3 and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Q-PCR analysis showed that all these genes were induced by n-Tetradecane, n-Hexadecane, and pristane. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report about the complete pathway of the di-rhamnolipid synthesis process in the genus Dietzia. Thus, our study provided the insights into Dietzia in respects of oil degradation and biosurfactant production, and will help to evaluate the potential of Dietzia in marine oil removal. PMID:25566224

  6. Metagenomic discovery of novel enzymes and biosurfactants in a slaughterhouse biofilm microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Stephan; Rausch, Sonja Christina; Kovacic, Filip; Schmidt-Thaler, Alexandra; Wilhelm, Susanne; Rosenau, Frank; Daniel, Rolf; Streit, Wolfgang; Pietruszka, Jörg; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2016-01-01

    DNA derived from environmental samples is a rich source of novel bioactive molecules. The choice of the habitat to be sampled predefines the properties of the biomolecules to be discovered due to the physiological adaptation of the microbial community to the prevailing environmental conditions. We have constructed a metagenomic library in Escherichia coli DH10b with environmental DNA (eDNA) isolated from the microbial community of a slaughterhouse drain biofilm consisting mainly of species from the family Flavobacteriaceae. By functional screening of this library we have identified several lipases, proteases and two clones (SA343 and SA354) with biosurfactant and hemolytic activities. Sequence analysis of the respective eDNA fragments and subsequent structure homology modelling identified genes encoding putative N-acyl amino acid synthases with a unique two-domain organisation. The produced biosurfactants were identified by NMR spectroscopy as N-acyltyrosines with N-myristoyltyrosine as the predominant species. Critical micelle concentration and reduction of surface tension were similar to those of chemically synthesised N-myristoyltyrosine. Furthermore, we showed that the newly isolated N-acyltyrosines exhibit antibiotic activity against various bacteria. This is the first report describing the successful application of functional high-throughput screening assays for the identification of biosurfactant producing clones within a metagenomic library. PMID:27271534

  7. Metagenomic discovery of novel enzymes and biosurfactants in a slaughterhouse biofilm microbial community.

    PubMed

    Thies, Stephan; Rausch, Sonja Christina; Kovacic, Filip; Schmidt-Thaler, Alexandra; Wilhelm, Susanne; Rosenau, Frank; Daniel, Rolf; Streit, Wolfgang; Pietruszka, Jörg; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2016-01-01

    DNA derived from environmental samples is a rich source of novel bioactive molecules. The choice of the habitat to be sampled predefines the properties of the biomolecules to be discovered due to the physiological adaptation of the microbial community to the prevailing environmental conditions. We have constructed a metagenomic library in Escherichia coli DH10b with environmental DNA (eDNA) isolated from the microbial community of a slaughterhouse drain biofilm consisting mainly of species from the family Flavobacteriaceae. By functional screening of this library we have identified several lipases, proteases and two clones (SA343 and SA354) with biosurfactant and hemolytic activities. Sequence analysis of the respective eDNA fragments and subsequent structure homology modelling identified genes encoding putative N-acyl amino acid synthases with a unique two-domain organisation. The produced biosurfactants were identified by NMR spectroscopy as N-acyltyrosines with N-myristoyltyrosine as the predominant species. Critical micelle concentration and reduction of surface tension were similar to those of chemically synthesised N-myristoyltyrosine. Furthermore, we showed that the newly isolated N-acyltyrosines exhibit antibiotic activity against various bacteria. This is the first report describing the successful application of functional high-throughput screening assays for the identification of biosurfactant producing clones within a metagenomic library. PMID:27271534

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain RHNK22, Isolated from Rhizosphere with Biosurfactant (Surfactin, Iturin, and Fengycin) and Antifungal Activity.

    PubMed

    Narendra Kumar, Papathoti; Swapna, T H; Sathi Reddy, Koppula; Archana, K; Nageshwar, Lingampalli; Nalini, S; Khan, Mohamed Yahya; Hameeda, Bee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain RHNK22 isolated from groundnut rhizosphere showed direct and indirect plant growth-promoting traits along with biosurfactant activity and reduction in surface tension of water. Biosurfactants were identified as lipopeptides (surfactin, iturin, and fengycin) by molecular and biochemical analysis in our studies. PMID:26823600

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain RHNK22, Isolated from Rhizosphere with Biosurfactant (Surfactin, Iturin, and Fengycin) and Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Narendra Kumar, Papathoti; Swapna, T. H.; Sathi Reddy, Koppula; Archana, K.; Nageshwar, Lingampalli; Nalini, S.; Khan, Mohamed Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain RHNK22 isolated from groundnut rhizosphere showed direct and indirect plant growth-promoting traits along with biosurfactant activity and reduction in surface tension of water. Biosurfactants were identified as lipopeptides (surfactin, iturin, and fengycin) by molecular and biochemical analysis in our studies. PMID:26823600

  10. Enterococcus faecalis Glycolipids Modulate Lipoprotein-Content of the Bacterial Cell Membrane and Host Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Andreas; Sava, Irina G.; Wobser, Dominique; Bao, Yinyin; Hese, Katrin; Broszat, Melanie; Henneke, Philipp; Becher, Dörte; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of the cell membrane composition of E. faecalis on its recognition by the host immune system. To this end, we employed an E. faecalis deletion mutant (ΔbgsA) that does not synthesize the major cell membrane glycolipid diglycosyl-diacylglycerol (DGlcDAG). Proteomic analysis revealed that 13 of a total of 21 upregulated surface-associated proteins of E. faecalis ΔbgsA were lipoproteins. This led to a total lipoprotein content in the cell membrane of 35.8% in ΔbgsA compared to only 9.4% in wild-type bacteria. Increased lipoprotein content strongly affected the recognition of ΔbgsA by mouse macrophages in vitro with an increased stimulation of TNF-α production by heat-fixed bacteria and secreted antigens. Inactivation of the prolipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (lgt) in ΔbgsA abrogated TNF-α induction by a ΔbgsA_lgt double mutant indicating that lipoproteins mediate increased activation of mouse macrophages by ΔbgsA. Heat-fixed ΔbgsA bacteria, culture supernatant, or cell membrane lipid extract activated transfected HEK cells in a TLR2-dependent fashion; the same was not true of wild-type bacteria. In mice infected intraperitoneally with a sublethal dose of E. faecalis we observed a 70% greater mortality in mice infected with ΔbgsA compared with wild-type-infected mice. Increased mortality due to ΔbgsA infection was associated with elevated plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-2. In summary, our results provide evidence that an E. faecalis mutant lacking its major bilayer forming glycolipid DGlcDAG upregulates lipoprotein expression leading to increased activation of the host innate immune system and virulence in vivo. PMID:26172831

  11. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya; Nakamura, Takashi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Sugita, Masahiko

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.

  12. Soluble human TLR2 ectodomain binds diacylglycerol from microbial lipopeptides and glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Dalmaroni, Maximiliano J; Radcliffe, Catherine M; Harvey, David J; Wormald, Mark R; Verdino, Petra; Ainge, Gary D; Larsen, David S; Painter, Gavin F; Ulevitch, Richard; Beutler, Bruce; Rudd, Pauline M; Dwek, Raymond A; Wilson, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key innate immune receptors that recognize conserved features of biological molecules that are found in microbes. In particular, TLR2 has been reported to be activated by different kinds of microbial ligands. To advance our understanding of the interaction of TLR2 with its ligands, the recombinant human TLR2 ectodomain (hTLR2ED) was expressed using a baculovirus/insect cell expression system, and its biochemical as well as ligand binding properties were investigated. The hTLR2ED binds synthetic bacterial and mycoplasmal lipopeptides, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus, and synthetic lipoarabinomannan precursors from Mycobacterium at extracellular physiological conditions, in the absence of its co-receptors TLR1 and TLR6. We also determined that lipopeptides and glycolipids cannot bind simultaneously to hTLR2ED and that the phosphatidyl inositol mannoside 2 (Pim2) is the minimal lipoarabinomannan structure for binding to hTLR2ED. Binding of hTLR2ED to Pim4, which contains a diacylglycerol group with one of its acyl chain containing 19 carbon atoms, indicates that hTLR2ED can bind ligands with acyl chains longer than 16 carbon atoms. In summary, our data indicate that diacylglycerol is the ligand moiety of microbial glycolipids and lipoproteins that bind to hTLR2ED and that both types of ligands bind to the same binding site of hTLR2ED. The design of novel inhibitors of TLR2, based on their ability to bind to TLR2 but not activate the TLR2 signaling pathway, may lead to the development of novel treatments for septic shock caused by Gram- positive bacteria. PMID:24591200

  13. pH-Driven Self-Assembly of Acidic Microbial Glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Baccile, Niki; Selmane, Mohamed; Le Griel, Patrick; Prévost, Sylvain; Perez, Javier; Stevens, Christian V; Delbeke, Elisabeth; Zibek, Susanne; Guenther, Michael; Soetaert, Wim; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Roelants, Sophie

    2016-06-28

    Microbial glycolipids are a class of well-known compounds, but their self-assembly behavior is still not well understood. While the free carboxylic acid end group makes some of them interesting stimuli-responsive compounds, the sugar hydrophilic group and the nature of the fatty acid chain make the understanding of their self-assembly behavior in water not easy and highly unpredictable. Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and both pH-dependent in situ and ex situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we demonstrate that the aqueous self-assembly at room temperature (RT) of a family of β-d-glucose microbial glycolipids bearing a saturated and monounsaturated C18 fatty acid chain cannot be explained on the simple basis of the well-known packing parameter. Using the "pH-jump" process, we find that the molecules bearing a monosaturated fatty acid forms vesicles below pH 6.2, as expected, but the derivative with a saturated fatty acid forms infinite bilayer sheets below pH 7.8, instead of vesicles. We show that this behavior can be explained on the different bilayer membrane elasticity as a function of temperature. Membranes are either flexible or stiff for experiments performed at a temperature respectively above or below the typical melting point, TM, of the lipidic part of each compound. Finally, we also show that the disaccharide-containing acidic cellobioselipid forms a majority of chiral fibers, instead of the expected micelles. PMID:27307097

  14. Characterization of a novel biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas koreensis lineage that is endemic to Cuatro Ciénegas Basin.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Jeiry; Escalante, Ana E; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; González-González, Andrea; Zavala, Sergio; Souza, Valeria; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work is the taxonomic characterization of three biosurfactant-producing bacterial isolates from the Churince system at Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) in the Mexican State of Coahuila, and the study of the possible role of biosurfactant production in their ecology and evolution. We determined that these isolates belong to a Pseudomonas koreensis lineage endemic to CCB, using standard taxonomical techniques, phylogenetic analysis of three chromosomal loci and phenotypic characterization. This new lineage has the distinct capacity to produce a biosurfactant when compared with previously reported P. koreensis isolates recovered from agricultural soils in Korea. We present evidence suggesting that the biosurfactant secreted by CCB P. koreensis strains is involved in their ability to compete with a CCB Exiguobacterium aurantiacum strain (m5-66) used as a model organism in competition experiments. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate extract of culture supernatant of CCB P. koreensis strains results in growth inhibition not only of E. aurantiacum m5-66, but also of a Bacillus subtilis type strain (ATCC6633). Based on these results we propose that the production of biosurfactant could be of ecological importance and could play a role in the separation of the P. koreensis CCB lineage. PMID:21592712

  15. Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity and Statistical Optimization of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 Biosurfactant Production in Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Mnif, Ines; Kammoun, Radhouan; Ayadi, Imen; Saadaoui, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaabouni-Ellouze, Semia

    2012-01-01

    During the last years, several applications of biosurfactants with medical purposes have been reported. Biosurfactants are considered relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases. However, their use is currently extremely limited due to their high cost in relation to that of chemical surfactants. Use of inexpensive substrates can drastically decrease its production cost. Here, twelve solid substrates were screened for the production of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant and the maximum yield was found with millet. A Plackett-Burman design was then used to evaluate the effects of five variables (temperature, moisture, initial pH, inoculum age, and inoculum size). Statistical analyses showed that temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content had significantly positive effect on SPB1 biosurfactant production. Their values were further optimized using a central composite design and a response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content obtained under the conditions of study were 37°C, 14 h, and 88%, respectively. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this compound was carried out against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. The results demonstrated that this biosurfactant exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles. Its activity was very effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and so forth. PMID:22536017

  16. Biosurfactant production by Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its physico-chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Nalini, S; Parthasarathi, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize and optimize the growth media for biosurfactant production from Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India. The biosurfactant produced by S. rubidaea SNAU02, was able to reduce the surface tension to 34.4 mN m(-1) in MSM medium. The biosurfactant was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The GC-MS analysis shows that dirhamnolipid was detected in abundance as predominant congener than monorhamnolipid. The response surface methodology (RSM) -central composite design (CCD) was performed to optimize the media for biosurfactant production. The maximum emulsification index was obtained under the optimal condition of 29.31 g L(-1) mannitol; 2.06 g L(-1) yeast extract, medium pH 6.97 and 5.69 g L(-1) NaCl. The biosurfactant produced by S. rubidaea recovered 92% of used engine oil adsorbed to a sand sample, suggested the potential application in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. PMID:23993704

  17. Enrichment and identification of biosurfactant-producing oil field microbiota utilizing electron acceptors other than oxygen and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Kryachko, Yuriy; Semler, Diana; Vogrinetz, John; Lemke, Markus; Links, Matthew G; McCarthy, E Luke; Haug, Brenda; Hemmingsen, Sean M

    2016-08-10

    Microorganisms indigenous to an oil reservoir were grown in media containing either sucrose or proteins in four steel vessels under anoxic conditions at 30°C and 8.3MPa for 30days, to enrich biosurfactant producers. Fermentation of substrate was possible in the protein-containing medium and either fermentation or respiration through reduction of sulfate occurred in the sucrose-containing medium. Growth of microorganisms led to 3.4-5.4-fold surface tension reduction indicating production of biosurfactants in amounts sufficient for enhancement of gas-driven oil recovery. Analysis of sequenced cpn60 amplicons showed that Pseudomonas sp. highly similar to biosurfactant producing P. fluorescens and to Pseudomonas sp. strain TKP predominated, and a bacterium highly similar to biosurfactant producing Bacillus mojavensis was present in vessels. Analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allowed only genus-level identification of these bacteria. Thus, cpn60-amplicon analysis was a more relevant tool for identification of putative biosurfactant producers than 16S rDNA-amplicon analysis. PMID:27212608

  18. Phylogenetic Framework and Biosurfactant Gene Expression Analysis of Marine Bacillus spp. of Eastern Coastal Plain of Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Swaathy, Sreethar; Kavitha, Varadharajan; Sahaya Pravin, Arockiasamy; Sekaran, Ganesan; Gnanamani, Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    The present study emphasizes the diversity assessment of marine Bacillus species with special reference to biosurfactant production, respective gene expression, and discrimination among Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. Among the 200 individual species of eastern coastal plain of Tamil Nadu screened, five biosurfactant producing potential bacterial species with entirely different morphology were selected. Biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested that all the said five species belong to Bacillus genera but differ in species levels. Biosurfactant of all the five species fluctuates in greater levels with respect to activity as well as to constituents but showed partial similarity to the commercially available surfactin. The expression of srf gene was realized in all of the five species. However, the sfp gene expression was observed only in three species. In conclusion, both B. licheniformis and B. subtilis demonstrate srf gene; nevertheless, sfp gene was expressed only by Bacillus subtilis. PMID:26904741

  19. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics. PMID:25566212

  20. Biosurfactant Produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Can Increase Adherence and Resistance to Sanitizers on Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Eliandra M.; Beilke, Luniele; Kochhann, Marília; Sarzi, Diana H.; Tondo, Eduardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on resistance to sanitizers. First, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 h (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15 percent, P < 0.05) and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves’ stomata in the presence of the biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to adherence and increased resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves. PMID:26834727

  1. Biosurfactant Produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Can Increase Adherence and Resistance to Sanitizers on Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Eliandra M; Beilke, Luniele; Kochhann, Marília; Sarzi, Diana H; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on resistance to sanitizers. First, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 h (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15 percent, P < 0.05) and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves' stomata in the presence of the biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to adherence and increased resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves. PMID:26834727

  2. Green synthesis and characterization of cuprous oxide nanoparticles in presence of a bio-surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, M.; Giri, G.

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we report a facile green synthesis of Cu2O nanoparticles (NPs) using copper sulfate as precursor salt and hydrazine hydrate as reducing agent in presence of bio-surfactant (i.e. leaves extract of arka — a perennial shrub) at 60 to 70 °C in an aqueous medium. A broad band centered at 460 nm in absorption spectrum reveals the formation of surfactant stabilized Cu2O NPs. X-ray diffraction pattern of the surfactant stabilized NPs suggests the formation of only Cu2O phase in assistance of a bio-surfactant with the crystallite size of ˜8 nm. A negative zeta potential of -12 mV at 8.0 pH in surfactant stabilized Cu2O NPs hints non-bonding electron transfer from O-atom of saponin to the surface of NP. Red-shift in the vibrational band (Cu-O stretching) of Cu2O from 637 cm-1 to 640 cm-1 in presence of bio-surfactant suggests an interfacial interaction between NPs and O-atoms of -OH groups of saponin present in the plant (i.e. Calotropis gigantean) extract. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra, a decrease in binding energy of both 2p3/2 and 2p1/2 bands in Cu2O with saponin molecules as compared to bulk Cu atom reveals a charge transfer interaction between NP and saponin surfactant molecules. Transmission electron microscopy images show crystalline nature of Cu2O NPs with an fcc lattice.

  3. Specific tumor delivery of paclitaxel using glycolipid-like polymer micelles containing gold nanospheres.

    PubMed

    You, Jian; Wang, Zuhua; Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Peizun; Zhou, Jialin; Liu, Fei; Li, Chun; Hu, Fuqiang

    2013-06-01

    It is difficult for most of the drug delivery systems to really display a temporal and spatial release of entrapped drug once the systems are iv administrated. We hypothesized that the photothermal effect, mediated by a near-infrared (NIR) laser and hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS), can modulate paclitaxel (PTX) release from polymer micelles, and further result in the enhanced antitumor activity of the micelles. We loaded PTX and HAuNS, which display strong plasmon absorption in the NIR region, into glycolipid-like polymer micelles with an excellent cell internalization capability. The surface of the micelles was conjugated successfully with a peptide, which has the specific-binding with EphB4, a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases overexpressed on cell membrane of numerous tumors, to increase the delivery of PTX into tumor cells. Rapid and repetitive drug release from our polymer (HP-TCS) micelles could be readily achieved upon NIR laser irradiation. Our data demonstrated the specific delivery of HP-TCS micelles into positive-EphB4 tumors using a duel-tumor model after iv administration during the whole experiment process (1-48 h). Interestingly, significantly higher uptake of the micelles by SKOV3 tumors (positive-EphB4) than A549 tumors (negtive-EphB4) was observed, with increased ratio on experiment time. However, the specific cell uptake was observed only during the short incubation time (1-4 h) in vitro. Our data also indicated the treatment of tumor cells with the micelles followed by NIR laser irradiation showed significantly greater toxicity activity than the treatment with the micelles alone, free PTX and the micelles (without PTX loading) plus NIR laser irradiation. The enhanced toxicity activity to tumor cells should be attributed to the enhanced drug cellular uptake mediated by the glycolipid-like micelles, chemical toxicity of the released drug from the micelles due to the trigger of NIR laser, and the photothermal ablation under NIR

  4. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants as New Players in Animal and Plant Defense against Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Clement, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Rhamnolipids are known as very efficient biosurfactant molecules. They are used in a wide range of industrial applications including food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical formulations and bioremediation of pollutants. The present review provides an overview of the effect of rhamnolipids in animal and plant defense responses. We describe the current knowledge on the stimulation of plant and animal immunity by these molecules, as well as on their direct antimicrobial properties. Given their ecological acceptance owing to their low toxicity and biodegradability, rhamnolipids have the potential to be useful molecules in medicine and to be part of alternative strategies in order to reduce or replace pesticides in agriculture. PMID:21614194

  5. Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge using a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Lu, Mang; Yang, Qin; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Chen, Rong

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa F-2, was used to recover oil from refinery oily sludge in laboratory and pilot-scale experiments. The optimum values of carbon to nitrogen ratio, temperature, sludge-water ratio and inoculum size for oil recovery were determined as 10, 35 °C, 1:4 and 4%, respectively. An oil recovery of up to 91.5% was obtained with the equipping of draft tubes during the field pilot-scale studies. The results showed that strain F-2 has the potential for industrial applications and may be used in oil recovery from oily sludge. PMID:22609650

  6. Deciphering the Glycolipid Code of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Amyloid Proteins Allowed the Creation of a Universal Ganglioside-Binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Yahi, Nouara; Fantini, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of microbial and amyloid proteins interact with cell surface glycolipids which behave as infectivity and/or toxicity cofactors in human pathologies. Here we have deciphered the biochemical code that determines the glycolipid-binding specificity of two major amyloid proteins, Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and Parkinson's disease associated protein α-synuclein. We showed that both proteins interact with selected glycolipids through a common loop-shaped motif exhibiting little sequence homology. This 12-residue domain corresponded to fragments 34-45 of α-synuclein and 5-16 of Aβ. By modulating the amino acid sequence of α-synuclein at only two positions in which we introduced a pair of histidine residues found in Aβ, we created a chimeric α-synuclein/Aβ peptide with extended ganglioside-binding properties. This chimeric peptide retained the property of α-synuclein to recognize GM3, and acquired the capacity to recognize GM1 (an Aβ-inherited characteristic). Free histidine (but not tryptophan or asparagine) and Zn2+ (but not Na+) prevented this interaction, confirming the key role of His-13 and His-14 in ganglioside binding. Molecular dynamics studies suggested that the chimeric peptide recognized cholesterol-constrained conformers of GM1, including typical chalice-shaped dimers, that are representative of the condensed cholesterol-ganglioside complexes found in lipid raft domains of the plasma membrane of neural cells. Correspondingly, the peptide had a particular affinity for raft-like membranes containing both GM1 and cholesterol. The chimeric peptide also interacted with several other gangliosides, including major brain gangliosides (GM4, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b) but not with neutral glycolipids such as GlcCer, LacCer or asialo-GM1. It could inhibit the binding of Aβ1-42 onto neural SH-SY5Y cells and did not induce toxicity in these cells. In conclusion, deciphering the glycolipid code of amyloid proteins allowed us to create a universal

  7. Immunological characteristics of the glycolipid antigen of Leptospira interrogans serovar lai.

    PubMed Central

    Masuzawa, T; Nakamura, R; Shimizu, T; Iwamoto, Y; Morita, T; Yanagihara, Y

    1989-01-01

    The protective antigen (PAg), a glycolipid substance, was extracted from Leptospira interrogans serovar lai strain 017 with a chloroform-methanol-water (1:2:0.8 [vol/vol/vol]) solution and partially purified by silica gel column chromatography. The PAg was not detected by Coomassie brilliant blue staining in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but was observed as a smearlike band, which corresponded to a 24- to 30-kilodalton standard protein, by silver staining. The outer envelope (OE) fraction showed the same band, suggesting that the PAg was one of the chemical components of the OE. The immunogenicity and protective activity of the PAg were compared with those of the OE. The PAg as well as the OE and whole cells was able to induce agglutinating antibody against L. interrogans. Furthermore, the immune sera exhibited opsonic activity against L. interrogans, as observed by measurement of chemical luminescence derived from reactive oxygen. The PAg exhibited protective activity in hamsters challenged with lethal doses of L. interrogans. Therefore, the antigen may be useful as a component vaccine against leptospiral infection. Images PMID:2744857

  8. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of d-glucose-based cationic glycolipids for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    He, Chengxi; Wang, Shang; Liu, Meiyan; Zhao, Chunyan; Xiang, Shuanglin; Zeng, Youlin

    2016-02-01

    A cationic lipid consists of a hydrophilic headgroup, backbone and hydrophobic tails which have an immense influence on the transfection efficiency of the lipid. In this paper, two novel series of cationic cyclic glycolipids with a quaternary ammonium headgroup and different-length hydrophobic tails (dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl) have been designed and synthesized for gene delivery. One contains lipids 1-3 with two hydrophobic alkyl chains linked to the glucose ring directly via an ether link. The other contains lipids 4-6 with two hydrophobic chains on the positively charged nitrogen atoms. All of the lipids were characterized for their ability to bind to DNA, size, ζ-potential, and toxicity. Atomic force microscopy showed that the lipids and DNA-lipid complexes were sphere-like forms. The lipids were used to transfer enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-C3) to HEK293 cells without a helper lipid, the results indicated that lipids 4-6 have better transfection efficiency, in particular lipids 5-6 have similar or better efficiency, compared with the commercial transfection reagent lipofectamine 2000. PMID:26670704

  9. Lipidomic Approaches towards Deciphering Glycolipids from Microalgae as a Reservoir of Bioactive Lipids.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Elisabete; Silva, Joana; Mendonça, Sofia Hoffman; Abreu, Maria Helena; Domingues, Maria Rosário

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, noteworthy research has been performed around lipids from microalgae. Among lipids, glycolipids (GLs) are quite abundant in microalgae and are considered an important source of fatty acids (FAs). GLs are rich in 16- and 18-carbon saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and often contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like n-3 α-linolenic (ALA 18:3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6). GLs comprise three major classes: monogalactosyldiacyl glycerolipids (MGDGs), digalactosyl diacylglycerolipids (DGDGs) and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerolipids (SQDGs), whose composition in FA directly depends on the growth conditions. Some of these lipids are high value-added compounds with antitumoral, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities and also with important nutritional significance. To fully explore GLs' bioactive properties it is necessary to fully characterize their structure and to understand the relation between the structure and their biological properties, which can be addressed using modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomic approaches. This review will focus on the up-to-date FA composition of GLs identified by MS-based lipidomics and their potential as phytochemicals. PMID:27213410

  10. Insulin stimulates the generation from hepatic plasma membranes of modulators derived from an inositol glycolipid.

    PubMed Central

    Saltiel, A R; Cuatrecasas, P

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding to plasma membrane receptors results in the generation of substances that acutely mimic the actions of the hormone on certain target enzymes. Two such substances, which modulate the activity of the high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17), have been purified from hepatic plasma membranes. The two have similar properties and activities but can be resolved by ion-exchange chromatography and high-voltage electrophoresis. They exhibit a net negative charge, even at pH 1.9, and an apparent molecular weight of approximately 1400. The generation of these substances from membranes by insulin can be reproduced by addition of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C purified from Staphylococcus aureus. This enzyme is known to selectively hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol and release from membranes several proteins that are covalently linked to phosphatidylinositol by a glycan anchor. Both enzyme-modulating substances appear to be generated by the phosphodiesterase cleavage of a phosphatidylinositol-containing glycolipid precursor that has been characterized by thin-layer chromatography. Some of the chemical properties of these substances have been examined. They appear to be related complex carbohydrate-phosphate substances containing glucosamine and inositol. These findings suggest that insulin may activate a selective phospholipase activity that hydrolyzes a membrane phospholipid, releasing a carbohydrate-containing molecule that regulates cAMP phosphodiesterase and perhaps other insulin-sensitive enzymes. PMID:3016721

  11. Mycoplasma fermentans glycolipid-antigen as a pathogen of rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahito, Yutaka; Ichinose, Sizuko; Sano, Hajime; Tsubouchi, Yasunori; Kohno, Masataka; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Hojo, Tatsuya; Harasawa, Ryo; Nakano, Teruaki; Matsuda, Kazuhiro

    2008-05-02

    Mycoplasma fermentans has been suspected as one of the causative pathogenic microorganisms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) however, the pathogenic mechanism is still unclear. We, previously, reported that glycolipid-antigens (GGPL-I and III) are the major antigens of M. fermentans. Monoclonal antibody against the GGPL-III could detect the existence of the GGPL-III antigens in synovial tissues from RA patients. GGPL-III antigens were detected in 38.1% (32/84) of RA patient's tissues, but not in osteoarthritis (OA) and normal synovial tissues. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that a part of GGPL-III antigens are located at endoplasmic reticulum. GGPL-III significantly induced TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 production from peripheral blood mononulear cells, and also proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. Further study is necessary to prove that M. fermentans is a causative microorganism of RA; however, the new mechanisms of disease pathogenesis provides hope for the development of effective and safe immunotherapeutic strategies based on the lipid-antigen, GGPL-III, in the near future.

  12. Lipidomic Approaches towards Deciphering Glycolipids from Microalgae as a Reservoir of Bioactive Lipids

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Elisabete; Silva, Joana; Mendonça, Sofia Hoffman; Abreu, Maria Helena; Domingues, Maria Rosário

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, noteworthy research has been performed around lipids from microalgae. Among lipids, glycolipids (GLs) are quite abundant in microalgae and are considered an important source of fatty acids (FAs). GLs are rich in 16- and 18-carbon saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and often contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like n-3 α-linolenic (ALA 18:3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6). GLs comprise three major classes: monogalactosyldiacyl glycerolipids (MGDGs), digalactosyl diacylglycerolipids (DGDGs) and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerolipids (SQDGs), whose composition in FA directly depends on the growth conditions. Some of these lipids are high value-added compounds with antitumoral, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities and also with important nutritional significance. To fully explore GLs’ bioactive properties it is necessary to fully characterize their structure and to understand the relation between the structure and their biological properties, which can be addressed using modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomic approaches. This review will focus on the up-to-date FA composition of GLs identified by MS-based lipidomics and their potential as phytochemicals. PMID:27213410

  13. Identification and characterization of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae gene encoding a glycolipid-binding adhesin.

    PubMed Central

    Paruchuri, D K; Seifert, H S; Ajioka, R S; Karlsson, K A; So, M

    1990-01-01

    We recently identified a set of mammalian cell receptors for Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are glycolipids. These receptors, lactosylceramide [Gal(beta 1-4)Glc(beta 1-1)Cer], gangliotriosylceramide [GalNAc( beta 1-4)Gal(beta 1-4)Glc(beta 1-1)Cer], and gangliotetraosylceramide [Gal(beta 1-3)GalNAc(beta 1-4)Gal(beta 1-4)Glc(beta 1-1)Cer], were shown to be specifically bound by a gonococcal outer membrane protein distinct from pilin and protein II. Here we report the isolation of the gene encoding the gangliotetraosylceramide-binding adhesin from a N. gonorrhoeae MS11 gene bank in Escherichia coli. Transposon mutagenesis studies in E. coli indicate that the adhesion is a protein with a molecular mass of 36,000 Da. The gene encoding the 36-kDa protein is duplicated in MS11 since two transposon insertions were required to abolish expression of the gene in this bacterium. This protein is present on the surface of the gonococcus and is not associated with the pilus. Images PMID:2153292

  14. Glycolipid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. [Anabaena variabilis; Chlorogloeopsis sp. ; Schizothrix calcicola; Anacystis nidulans; Anacystis marina

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1987-05-01

    The biosynthesis of monogalactosyldiacyl-glycerol (MGDG) was studied in five different cyanobacteria. Previous work has shown Anabaena variabilis to synthesize both MGDG and monoglucosyl-diacylglycerol (MG1cDG) with MG1cDG being the precursor of MGDG. They have examined four other cyanobacteria to determine if a similar relationship exists. The cyanobacteria studied were Anabaena variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis nidulans, and Anacystis marina. Each were grown in liquid culture and lipids were labeled with /sup 14/C)CO/sub 2/ for 20 min., 1.0 hr, 1.0 hr + 10 hr chase. Glycolipids were analyzed by initial separation of MGDG and MG1cDG by TLC followed by further analysis by HPLC. Complete separation of molecular species was obtained isocratically on an ODS column. All of the cyanobacteria labeled 16-C and 18-C fatty acids except for A. marina which labeled only 14-C and 16-C fatty acids. Desaturation of the fatty acids could be observed in the 1.0 hr and chase experiments. All were capable of labeling both MG1cDG and MGDG with the precursor-product relationship being observed. There does not appear to be a direct relationship between the epimerization of the sugar moiety and fatty acid desaturation.

  15. Molecular dynamics of anhydrous glycolipid self-assembly in lamellar and hexagonal phases.

    PubMed

    Velayutham, T S; Nguan, H S; Ng, B K; Gan, W C; Manickam Achari, V; Zahid, N I; Abd Majid, W H; Zannoni, C; Hashim, R

    2016-06-01

    The molecular dynamics of a synthetic branched chain glycolipid, 2-decyl-tetradecyl-β-d-maltoside (C14-10G2), in the dry assemblage of smectic and columnar liquid crystal phases has been studied by dielectric spectroscopy as a function of frequency and temperature during the cooling process. Strong relaxation modes were observed corresponding to the tilted smectic and columnar phases, respectively. At low frequency (∼900 Hz to 1 kHz) in the smectic phase, Process I* was observed due to the tilted sugar bilayer structure. The process continued in the columnar phase (Process I) with an abrupt dynamic change due to phase transition in the frequency range of ∼1.3 kHz to 22 kHz. An additional process (Process II) was observed in the columnar phase with a broader relaxation in the frequency range of ∼10 Hz to 1 kHz. A bias field dependence study was performed in the columnar phase and we found that the relaxation strength rapidly decreased with increased applied dc bias field. This relaxation originates from a collective motion of polar groups within the columns. The results of dielectric spectroscopy were supported by a molecular dynamics simulation study to identify the origin of the relaxation processes, which could be related to the chirality and hydrogen bonds of the sugar lipid. PMID:27199168

  16. Modulation of the Cytokine Response in Human Monocytes by Mycobacterium leprae Phenolic Glycolipid-1

    PubMed Central

    Manca, Claudia; Peixoto, Blas; Malaga, Wladimir; Guilhot, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic but treatable infectious disease caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. M. leprae cell wall is characterized by a unique phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) reported to have several immune functions. We have examined the role of PGL-1 in the modulation of monocyte cytokine/chemokine production in naive human monocytes. PGL-1 in its purified form or expressed in a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Colmette-Guérin (BCG) background (rBCG-PGL-1) was tested. We found that PGL-1 selectively modulated the induction of specific monocyte cytokines and chemokines and, when used as prestimulus, exerted priming and/or inhibitory effects on the induction of selected cytokines/chemokines in response to a second stimulus. Taken together, the results of this study support a modulatory role for PGL-1 in the innate immune response to M. leprae. Thus, PGL-1 may play an important role in the development of the anergic clinical forms of disease and in tissue damage seen in lepromatous patients and during the reactional states of leprosy. PMID:21981546

  17. Swelling of Bicontinuous Cubic Phases in Guerbet Glycolipid: Effects of Additives.

    PubMed

    Salim, Malinda; Wan Iskandar, Wan Farah Nasuha; Patrick, Melonney; Zahid, N Idayu; Hashim, Rauzah

    2016-06-01

    Inverse bicontinuous cubic phases of lyotropic liquid crystal self-assembly have received much attention in biomedical, biosensing, and nanotechnology applications. An Ia3d bicontinuous cubic based on the gyroid G-surface can be formed by the Guerbet synthetic glucolipid 2-hexyl-decyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (β-Glc-OC6C10) in excess water. The small water channel diameter of this cubic phase could provide nanoscale constraints in encapsulation of large molecules and crystallization of membrane proteins, hence stresses the importance of water channel tuning ability. This work investigates the swelling behavior of lyotropic self-assembly of β-Glc-OC6C10 which could be controlled and modulated by different surfactants as a hydration-modulating agent. Our results demonstrate that addition of nonionic glycolipid octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (β-Glc-OC8) at 20 and 25 mol % gives the largest attainable cubic water channel diameter of ca. 62 Å, and formation of coacervates which may be attributed to a sponge phase were seen at 20 mol % octyl-β-d-maltopyranoside (β-Mal-OC8). Swelling of the cubic water channel can also be attained in charged surfactant-doped systems dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), of which phase transition occurred from cubic to a lamellar phase. Destabilization of the cubic phase to an inverse hexagonal phase was observed when a high amount of charged lecithin (LEC) and stearylamine (SA) was added to the lipid self-assembly. PMID:27183393

  18. Identification and characterization of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae gene encoding a glycolipid-binding adhesin.

    PubMed

    Paruchuri, D K; Seifert, H S; Ajioka, R S; Karlsson, K A; So, M

    1990-01-01

    We recently identified a set of mammalian cell receptors for Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are glycolipids. These receptors, lactosylceramide [Gal(beta 1-4)Glc(beta 1-1)Cer], gangliotriosylceramide [GalNAc( beta 1-4)Gal(beta 1-4)Glc(beta 1-1)Cer], and gangliotetraosylceramide [Gal(beta 1-3)GalNAc(beta 1-4)Gal(beta 1-4)Glc(beta 1-1)Cer], were shown to be specifically bound by a gonococcal outer membrane protein distinct from pilin and protein II. Here we report the isolation of the gene encoding the gangliotetraosylceramide-binding adhesin from a N. gonorrhoeae MS11 gene bank in Escherichia coli. Transposon mutagenesis studies in E. coli indicate that the adhesion is a protein with a molecular mass of 36,000 Da. The gene encoding the 36-kDa protein is duplicated in MS11 since two transposon insertions were required to abolish expression of the gene in this bacterium. This protein is present on the surface of the gonococcus and is not associated with the pilus. PMID:2153292

  19. Glycolipid dynamics in generation and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ojima, Takuma; Shibata, Eri; Saito, Shiho; Toyoda, Masashi; Nakajima, Hideki; Yamazaki-Inoue, Mayu; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Fujimoto, Jun-ichiro; Sato, Toshinori; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are glycoconjugates that function as mediators of cell adhesion and modulators of signal transduction. Some well-defined markers of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are glycoconjugates, such as SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. However, Comprehensive GSL profiles of hiPSCs have not yet been elucidated. The global images of GSLs from the parental cells, hiPSCs, and differentiated cells revealed that there are parental cell-independent specific glycolipids, including Globo H (fucosyl-Gb5Cer) and H type1 antigen (fucosyl-Lc4Cer) that are novel markers for undifferentiated hiPSCs. Interestingly, undifferentiated hiPSCs expressed H type 1 antigen, specific for blood type O, regardless of the cells’ genotypes. Thus, in this study, we defined the dynamics of GSL remodeling during reprogramming from parental cell sets to iPSC sets and thence to iPSC-neural cells. PMID:26477663

  20. Selective cultures for the isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria: comparison of different combinations of environmental inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Patrícia M; Louvado, António; Oliveira, Vanessa; Coelho, Francisco J C R; Almeida, Adelaide; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The potential of estuarine microniches as reservoirs of biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated by testing different combinations of inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources. Selective cultures using diesel, petroleum, or paraffin as hydrophobic carbon sources were prepared and inoculated with water from the surface microlayer, bulk sediments, and sediment of the rhizosphere of Halimione portulacoides. These inocula were compared regarding the frequency of biosurfactant-producing strains among selected isolates. The community structure of the selective cultures was profiled using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene fragments at the end of the incubation. The DGGE profiles corresponding to the communities established in selective cultures at the end of the incubation revealed that communities were different in terms of structural diversity. The highest diversity was observed in the selective cultures containing paraffin (H (') = 2.5). Isolates were obtained from the selective cultures (66) and tested for biosurfactant production by the atomized oil assay. Biosurfactant production was detected in 17 isolates identified as Microbacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Serratia. The combination of estuarine surface microlayer (SML) water as inoculum and diesel as carbon source seems promising for the isolation of surfactant-producing bacteria. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file. PMID:23379272

  1. Toxin A from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.C.; Wilkins, T.D.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-08-15

    The binding of Toxin A isolated from Clostridium difficile to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids has been studied. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin-layer chromatography and toxin-binding glycolipids detected by using /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A in a direct binding overlay technique. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected in rabbit erythrocytes by this method. The results of structural analyses of the major toxin-binding glycolipids were consistent with a pentasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) and a branched decasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) previously identified as the two most abundant glycolipids in rabbit erythrocytes. /sup 125/I-Toxin A binding to these glycolipids could be inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin, monospecific antiserum to the toxin, or by treatment of the glycolipids with alpha-galactosidase. The absence of toxin interaction with isoglobotriaosylceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) isolated from canine intestine suggested that the GlcNAc residue present in the terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GLcNAc sequence common to all known toxin binding glycoconjugates is required for carbohydrate-specific recognition by Toxin A. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate binding specificity of Toxin A for the nonreducing terminal sequence, Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc.

  2. Phase I study to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of intratumoral injection of α-gal glycolipids in patients with advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Mark R; Ranheim, Erik A; Zuleger, Cindy L; Sondel, Paul M; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Bridges, Alan; Newton, Michael A; McFarland, Thomas; Collins, Jennifer; Clements, Erin; Henry, Mary Beth; Neuman, Heather B; Weber, Sharon; Whalen, Giles; Galili, Uri

    2016-08-01

    Effective uptake of tumor cell-derived antigens by antigen-presenting cells is achieved pre-clinically by in situ labeling of tumor with α-gal glycolipids that bind the naturally occurring anti-Gal antibody. We evaluated toxicity and feasibility of intratumoral injections of α-gal glycolipids as an autologous tumor antigen-targeted immunotherapy in melanoma patients (pts). Pts with unresectable metastatic melanoma, at least one cutaneous, subcutaneous, or palpable lymph node metastasis, and serum anti-Gal titer ≥1:50 were eligible for two intratumoral α-gal glycolipid injections given 4 weeks apart (cohort I: 0.1 mg/injection; cohort II: 1.0 mg/injection; cohort III: 10 mg/injection). Monitoring included blood for clinical, autoimmune, and immunological analyses and core tumor biopsies. Treatment outcome was determined 8 weeks after the first α-gal glycolipid injection. Nine pts received two intratumoral injections of α-gal glycolipids (3 pts/cohort). Injection-site toxicity was mild, and no systemic toxicity or autoimmunity could be attributed to the therapy. Two pts had stable disease by RECIST lasting 8 and 7 months. Tumor nodule biopsies revealed minimal to no change in inflammatory infiltrate between pre- and post-treatment biopsies except for 1 pt (cohort III) with a post-treatment inflammatory infiltrate. Two and four weeks post-injection, treated nodules in 5 of 9 pts exhibited tumor cell necrosis without neutrophilic or lymphocytic inflammatory response. Non-treated tumor nodules in 2 of 4 evaluable pts also showed necrosis. Repeated intratumoral injections of α-gal glycolipids are well tolerated, and tumor necrosis was seen in some tumor nodule biopsies after tumor injection with α-gal glycolipids. PMID:27207605

  3. Natural emulsifiers - Biosurfactants, phospholipids, biopolymers, and colloidal particles: Molecular and physicochemical basis of functional performance.

    PubMed

    McClements, David Julian; Gumus, Cansu Ekin

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing consumer pressure for commercial products that are more natural, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, including foods, cosmetics, detergents, and personal care products. Industry has responded by trying to identify natural alternatives to synthetic functional ingredients within these products. The focus of this review article is on the replacement of synthetic surfactants with natural emulsifiers, such as amphiphilic proteins, polysaccharides, biosurfactants, phospholipids, and bioparticles. In particular, the physicochemical basis of emulsion formation and stabilization by natural emulsifiers is discussed, and the benefits and limitations of different natural emulsifiers are compared. Surface-active polysaccharides typically have to be used at relatively high levels to produce small droplets, but the droplets formed are highly resistant to environmental changes. Conversely, surface-active proteins are typically utilized at low levels, but the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Certain phospholipids are capable of producing small oil droplets during homogenization, but again the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Biosurfactants (saponins) can be utilized at low levels to form fine oil droplets that remain stable over a range of environmental conditions. Some nature-derived nanoparticles (e.g., cellulose, chitosan, and starch) are effective at stabilizing emulsions containing relatively large oil droplets. Future research is encouraged to identify, isolate, purify, and characterize new types of natural emulsifier, and to test their efficacy in food, cosmetic, detergent, personal care, and other products. PMID:27181392

  4. Biosurfactant yields and nutrient consumption of Pseudomonas fluorescens 378 studied in a microcomputer controlled multifermentation system.

    PubMed

    Persson, A; Molin, G; Andersson, N; Sjöholm, J

    1990-07-01

    Production of biosurfactant AP-6 and consumption of carbon (succinic acid) and nitrogen (ammonium ions) by Pseudomonas fluorescens 378 were studied under different growth conditions. The study was performed in a microcomputer controlled multibatch fermentation system which enabled simultaneous running of 10 fermentors. The fermentors were mantled glass vessels, temperature controlled by circulated water, and mixing was arranged by magnetic stirrers. They were connected to the computer system (pH measurement and control) via signal conditioning cards. The microcomputer had a 128 kbytes RAM, two 800-kbyte floppy disc drives, a graphic terminal, and expansion cards. Biosurfactant production was independent of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and the phosphorus content in the medium. Omitting the Fe(III) supplement to the medium increased the product yield by 120%. Changes in oxygen transfer rate and pH in the iron deficient cultures did not have any effect on the product yield. Iron deficiency increased the cell consumption of carbon source. Consumption of carbon source in relation to nitrogen uptake (carbon/nitrogen quotient) increased with increasing quotient in the growth medium. The uptake of carbon and nitrogen changed in the intervals of 1.2-1.5 g/g biomass and 0.09-0.16 g/g biomass, respectively. The consumption of carbon increased from 1.5 g/g biomass to 2.0 g/g biomass when the medium concentration of phosphorus was decreased from 0.18 to 0.027 g/L. PMID:18595075

  5. New Transfection Agents Based on Liposomes Containing Biosurfactant MEL-A

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Mamoru; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide

    2013-01-01

    Nano vectors are useful tools to deliver foreign DNAs, oligonucleotides, and small interfering double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs) into mammalian cells with gene transfection and gene regulation. In such experiments we have found the liposomes with a biosurfacant mannosylerythriol lipid (MEL-A) are useful because of their high transfer efficiency, and their unique mechanism to transfer genes to target cells with the lowest toxicity. In the present review we will describe our current work, which may contribute to the great advance of gene transfer to target cells and gene regulations. For more than two decades, the liposome technologies have changed dramatically and various methods have been proposed in the fields of biochemistry, cell biology, biotechnology, and so on. In addition, they were towards to pharmaceutics and clinical applications. The liposome technologies were expected to use gene therapy, however, they have not reached a requested goal as of yet. In the present paper we would like to present an approach using a biosurfactant, MEL-A, which is a surface-active compound produced by microorganisms growing on water-insoluble substrates and increases efficiency in gene transfection. The present work shows new transfection agents based on liposomes containing biosurfactant MEL-A. PMID:24300514

  6. BioSurfDB: knowledge and algorithms to support biosurfactants and biodegradation studies.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jorge S; Araújo, Wydemberg; Lopes Sales, Ana Isabela; Brito Guerra, Alaine de; Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla da; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F; Freitas, Ana Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil extraction, transportation and use provoke the contamination of countless ecosystems. Therefore, bioremediation through surfactants mobilization or biodegradation is an important subject, both economically and environmentally. Bioremediation research had a great boost with the recent advances in Metagenomics, as it enabled the sequencing of uncultured microorganisms providing new insights on surfactant-producing and/or oil-degrading bacteria. Many research studies are making available genomic data from unknown organisms obtained from metagenomics analysis of oil-contaminated environmental samples. These new datasets are presently demanding the development of new tools and data repositories tailored for the biological analysis in a context of bioremediation data analysis. This work presents BioSurfDB, www.biosurfdb.org, a curated relational information system integrating data from: (i) metagenomes; (ii) organisms; (iii) biodegradation relevant genes; proteins and their metabolic pathways; (iv) bioremediation experiments results, with specific pollutants treatment efficiencies by surfactant producing organisms; and (v) a biosurfactant-curated list, grouped by producing organism, surfactant name, class and reference. The main goal of this repository is to gather information on the characterization of biological compounds and mechanisms involved in biosurfactant production and/or biodegradation and make it available in a curated way and associated with a number of computational tools to support studies of genomic and metagenomic data. PMID:25833955

  7. Effect of biosurfactants on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in a BioFlux channel.

    PubMed

    Diaz De Rienzo, M A; Stevenson, P S; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have indicated that biosurfactants play a role both in maintaining channels between multicellular structures in biofilms and in dispersal of cells from biofilms. A combination of caprylic acid (0.01 % v/v) together with rhamnolipids (0.04 % v/v) was applied to biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 and a mixed culture under BioFlux flowthrough conditions and caused disruption of the biofilms. The biofilms were also treated with a combination of rhamnolipids (0.04 % v/v) and sophorolipids (0.01 %). Control treatments with PBS 1× had no apparent effect on biofilm disruption. The Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus ATCC 9144) was more sensitive than P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 in terms of disruption and viability as shown by Live/Dead staining. Disruption of biofilms of P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 was minimal. Oxygen consumption by biofilms, after different treatments with biosurfactants, confirms that sophorolipid on its own is unable to kill/inhibit cells of P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, and even when used in combination with rhamnolipids, under static conditions, no decrease in the cell viability was observed. Cells in biofilms exposed to mono-rhamnolipids (0.04 % v/v) showed behaviour typical of exposure to bacteriostatic compounds, but when exposed to di-rhamnolipids (0.04 % v/v), they displayed a pattern characteristic of bactericidal compounds. PMID:26825819

  8. BioSurfDB: knowledge and algorithms to support biosurfactants and biodegradation studies

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jorge S.; Araújo, Wydemberg; Lopes Sales, Ana Isabela; de Brito Guerra, Alaine; da Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F.; Freitas, Ana Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil extraction, transportation and use provoke the contamination of countless ecosystems. Therefore, bioremediation through surfactants mobilization or biodegradation is an important subject, both economically and environmentally. Bioremediation research had a great boost with the recent advances in Metagenomics, as it enabled the sequencing of uncultured microorganisms providing new insights on surfactant-producing and/or oil-degrading bacteria. Many research studies are making available genomic data from unknown organisms obtained from metagenomics analysis of oil-contaminated environmental samples. These new datasets are presently demanding the development of new tools and data repositories tailored for the biological analysis in a context of bioremediation data analysis. This work presents BioSurfDB, www.biosurfdb.org, a curated relational information system integrating data from: (i) metagenomes; (ii) organisms; (iii) biodegradation relevant genes; proteins and their metabolic pathways; (iv) bioremediation experiments results, with specific pollutants treatment efficiencies by surfactant producing organisms; and (v) a biosurfactant-curated list, grouped by producing organism, surfactant name, class and reference. The main goal of this repository is to gather information on the characterization of biological compounds and mechanisms involved in biosurfactant production and/or biodegradation and make it available in a curated way and associated with a number of computational tools to support studies of genomic and metagenomic data. Database URL: www.biosurfdb.org PMID:25833955

  9. Enhanced biological control of phytophthora blight of pepper by biosurfactant-producing pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Ozyilmaz, Umit; Benlioglu, Kemal

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 10(9) cells/ml), ASM (0.1 μg a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

  10. Enhanced Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Pepper by Biosurfactant-Producing Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Özyilmaz, Ümit; Benlioglu, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 109 cells/ml), ASM (0.1 μg a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

  11. Structural Characterization and Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Activity of Glycolipids from the Marine Algae Osmundaria obtusiloba Isolated from Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Lauro M.; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    Glycolipids were extracted from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba from Southeastern Brazilian coast. The acetone insoluble material was extracted with chloroform/methanol and the lipids, enriched in glycolipids, were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and then methanol. Three major orcinol-positive bands were found in the acetone and methanol fractions, being detected by thin layer chromatography. The structures of the corresponding glycolipids were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis, on the basis of their tandem-MS behavior and HSQC, TOCSY fingerprints. For the first time, the structure of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba was characterized. This molecule exhibited potent antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 with EC50 values of 42 µg/mL to HSV-1 and 12 µg/mL to HSV-2, respectively. Two other glycolipids, mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, were also found in the alga, being characterized by ESI-MS/MS. The structural elucidation of algae glycolipids is a first step for a better understanding of the relation between these structures and their biological activities. PMID:22690151

  12. Dysregulated Expression of Glycolipids in Tumor Cells: From Negative Modulator of Anti-tumor Immunity to Promising Targets for Developing Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Daniotti, Jose Luis; Lardone, Ricardo D.; Vilcaes, Aldo A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycolipids are complex molecules consisting of a ceramide lipid moiety linked to a glycan chain of variable length and structure. Among these are found the gangliosides, which are sialylated glycolipids ubiquitously distributed on the outer layer of vertebrate plasma membranes. Changes in the expression of certain species of gangliosides have been described to occur during cell proliferation, differentiation, and ontogenesis. However, the aberrant and elevated expression of gangliosides has been also observed in different types of cancer cells, thereby promoting tumor survival. Moreover, gangliosides are actively released from the membrane of tumor cells, having a strong impact on impairing anti-tumor immunity. Beyond the undesirable effects of gangliosides in cancer cells, a substantial number of cancer immunotherapies have been developed in recent years that have used gangliosides as the main target. This has resulted in successful immune cell- or antibody-responses against glycolipids, with promising results having been obtained in clinical trials. In this review, we provide a general overview on the metabolism of glycolipids, both in normal and tumor cells, as well as examining glycolipid-mediated immune modulation and the main successes achieved in immunotherapies using gangliosides as molecular targets. PMID:26779443

  13. Antibodies to the neutral glycolipid asialo ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide: association with gynecologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Witkin, S S; Bongiovanni, A M; Birnbaum, S; Caputo, T; Ledger, W J

    1985-03-01

    As part of our efforts to define subpopulations at increased risk for gynecologic malignancies, sera from 145 women were obtained prior to diagnosis and analyzed for antibody to asialo ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide. This neutral glycolipid is present on the surface of thymocytes and natural killer cells, and asialo ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide antibody has been shown in animals to block natural killer cell activity and promote tumor cell proliferation. With the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with a value of 2 SD above the mean for healthy women designated as the boundary for a positive response, antibody to asialo ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide was detected in only one of 30 (3%) healthy women, none of 16 pregnant women, none of 18 women with benign masses, and two of 24 (8%) women with microbial infections. All of the above samples that contained antibodies were barely over the 2 SD limit. In marked contrast, 19 of 35 (54%) women with gynecologic malignancies had asialo ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide antibodies, with positive values ranging to greater than 10 SD above the control mean. Asialo ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide antibody was found in six of eight (75%) patients with cervical cancer, five of eight (63%) with endometrial cancer, and seven of 15 (47%) with ovarian cancer. Of the eight patients with Stage I gynecologic cancer at any site, five (62%) had asialo ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide antibodies. Four of 22 (18%) women with Hodgkin's disease also had antibodies, with values just exceeding 2 SD above control levels. The presence of these antibodies may contribute to an impaired immune surveillance system in these women and so increase their susceptibility to malignancy. PMID:3976767

  14. A novel glycolipid antigen for NKT cells that preferentially induces IFN-γ production

    PubMed Central

    Birkholz, Alysia M.; Girardi, Enrico; Wingender, Gerhard; Khurana, Archana; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Meng; Zahner, Sonja; Illarionov, Petr A.; Wen, Xiangshu; Li, Michelle; Yuan, Weiming; Porcelli, Steven A.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Here we characterize a novel Ag for invariant natural killer T-cells (iNKT cells) capable of producing an especially robust Th1 response. This glycosphingolipid (GSL), DB06-1, is similar in chemical structure to the well-studied α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), the only change being in a single atom, the substitution of a carbonyl oxygen with a sulfur atom. Although DB06-1 is not a more effective Ag in vitro, the small chemical change has a marked impact on the ability of this lipid Ag to stimulate iNKT cells in vivo, with increased IFN-γ production at 24 h compared to αGalCer, increased IL-12, and increased activation of NK cells to produce IFN-γ. These changes are correlated with an enhanced ability of DB06-1 to load in the CD1d molecules expressed by DCs in vivo. Moreover, structural studies suggest a tighter fit into the CD1d binding groove by DB061 compared to αGalCer. Surprisingly, when iNKT cells previously exposed to DB06-1 are restimulated weeks later, they have greatly increased IL-10 production. Our data are therefore consistent with a model whereby augmented and or prolonged presentation of a glycolipid Ag leads to increased activation of NK cells and a Th1-skewed immune response, which may result in part from enhanced loading into CD1d. Furthermore, our data suggest that strong antigenic stimulation in vivo may lead to the expansion of IL-10 producing iNKT cells, which could counteract the benefits of increased, early IFN-γ production. PMID:26078271

  15. A Novel Glycolipid Antigen for NKT Cells That Preferentially Induces IFN-γ Production.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Alysia M; Girardi, Enrico; Wingender, Gerhard; Khurana, Archana; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Meng; Zahner, Sonja; Illarionov, Petr A; Wen, Xiangshu; Li, Michelle; Yuan, Weiming; Porcelli, Steven A; Besra, Gurdyal S; Zajonc, Dirk M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we characterize a novel Ag for invariant NKT (iNKT) cells capable of producing an especially robust Th1 response. This glycosphingolipid, DB06-1, is similar in chemical structure to the well-studied α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), with the only change being a single atom: the substitution of a carbonyl oxygen with a sulfur atom. Although DB06-1 is not a more effective Ag in vitro, the small chemical change has a marked impact on the ability of this lipid Ag to stimulate iNKT cells in vivo, with increased IFN-γ production at 24 h compared with αGalCer, increased IL-12, and increased activation of NK cells to produce IFN-γ. These changes are correlated with an enhanced ability of DB06-1 to load in the CD1d molecules expressed by dendritic cells in vivo. Moreover, structural studies suggest a tighter fit into the CD1d binding groove by DB06-1 compared with αGalCer. Surprisingly, when iNKT cells previously exposed to DB06-1 are restimulated weeks later, they have greatly increased IL-10 production. Therefore, our data are consistent with a model whereby augmented and or prolonged presentation of a glycolipid Ag leads to increased activation of NK cells and a Th1-skewed immune response, which may result, in part, from enhanced loading into CD1d. Furthermore, our data suggest that strong antigenic stimulation in vivo may lead to the expansion of IL-10-producing iNKT cells, which could counteract the benefits of increased early IFN-γ production. PMID:26078271

  16. The Lipoprotein LpqW Is Essential for the Mannosylation of Periplasmic Glycolipids in Corynebacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Rainczuk, Arek K.; Yamaryo-Botte, Yoshiki; Brammananth, Rajini; Stinear, Timothy P.; Seemann, Torsten; Coppel, Ross L.; McConville, Malcolm J.; Crellin, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIM), lipomannan (LM), and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) are essential components of the cell wall and plasma membrane of mycobacteria, including the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as the related Corynebacterineae. We have previously shown that the lipoprotein, LpqW, regulates PIM and LM/LAM biosynthesis in mycobacteria. Here, we provide direct evidence that LpqW regulates the activity of key mannosyltransferases in the periplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane. Inactivation of the Corynebacterium glutamicum lpqW ortholog, NCgl1054, resulted in a slow growth phenotype and a global defect in lipoglycan biosynthesis. The NCgl1054 mutant lacked LAMs and was defective in the elongation of the major PIM species, AcPIM2, as well as a second glycolipid, termed Gl-X (mannose-α1–4-glucuronic acid-α1-diacylglycerol), which function as membrane anchors for LM-A and LM-B, respectively. Elongation of AcPIM2 and Gl-X was found to be dependent on expression of polyprenol phosphomannose (ppMan) synthase. However, the ΔNCgl1054 mutant synthesized normal levels of ppMan, indicating that LpqW is not required for synthesis of this donor. A spontaneous suppressor strain was isolated in which lipoglycan synthesis in the ΔNCgl1054 mutant was partially restored. Genome-wide sequencing indicated that a single amino acid substitution within the ppMan-dependent mannosyltransferase MptB could bypass the need for LpqW. Further evidence of an interaction is provided by the observation that MptB activity in cell-free extracts was significantly reduced in the absence of LpqW. Collectively, our results suggest that LpqW may directly activate MptB, highlighting the role of lipoproteins in regulating key cell wall biosynthetic pathways in these bacteria. PMID:23091062

  17. Animal ice-binding (antifreeze) proteins and glycolipids: an overview with emphasis on physiological function.

    PubMed

    Duman, John G

    2015-06-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) assist in subzero tolerance of multiple cold-tolerant organisms: animals, plants, fungi, bacteria etc. IBPs include: (1) antifreeze proteins (AFPs) with high thermal hysteresis antifreeze activity; (2) low thermal hysteresis IBPs; and (3) ice-nucleating proteins (INPs). Several structurally different IBPs have evolved, even within related taxa. Proteins that produce thermal hysteresis inhibit freezing by a non-colligative mechanism, whereby they adsorb onto ice crystals or ice-nucleating surfaces and prevent further growth. This lowers the so-called hysteretic freezing point below the normal equilibrium freezing/melting point, producing a difference between the two, termed thermal hysteresis. True AFPs with high thermal hysteresis are found in freeze-avoiding animals (those that must prevent freezing, as they die if frozen) especially marine fish, insects and other terrestrial arthropods where they function to prevent freezing at temperatures below those commonly experienced by the organism. Low thermal hysteresis IBPs are found in freeze-tolerant organisms (those able to survive extracellular freezing), and function to inhibit recrystallization - a potentially damaging process whereby larger ice crystals grow at the expense of smaller ones - and in some cases, prevent lethal propagation of extracellular ice into the cytoplasm. Ice-nucleator proteins inhibit supercooling and induce freezing in the extracellular fluid at high subzero temperatures in many freeze-tolerant species, thereby allowing them to control the location and temperature of ice nucleation, and the rate of ice growth. Numerous nuances to these functions have evolved. Antifreeze glycolipids with significant thermal hysteresis activity were recently identified in insects, frogs and plants. PMID:26085662

  18. Putative glycoprotein and glycolipid polymorphonuclear leukocyte receptors for the Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 fimbrial lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, A L; Ruhl, S; Joralmon, R A; Brennan, M J; Sutphin, M J; Cisar, J O

    1995-01-01

    Recognition of receptors on sialidase-treated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) by the Gal/GalNAc lectin associated with the type 2 fimbriae of certain strains of actinomyces results in activation of the PMNs, phagocytosis, and destruction of the bacteria. In the present study, plant lectins were utilized as probes to identify putative PMN receptors for the actinomyces lectin. The Gal-reactive lectin from Ricinus communis (RCAI), the Gal/GalNAc-reactive lectins from R. communis (RCAII) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), as well as the Gal beta 1-3GalNAc-specific lectins from Arachis hypogaea (PNA) and Agaricus bisporus (ABA) inhibited killing of Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 by sialidase-treated PMNs. These five lectins detected a 130-kDa surface-labeled glycoprotein on nitrocellulose transfers of PMN extracts separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This glycoprotein was revealed only after treatment of the transfers with sialidase, a condition analogous to the sialidase dependence of the lectin-mediated biological responses of the PMNs to the actinomyces. The mannose-reactive lectin concanavalin A did not inhibit killing of the actinomyces and failed to detect the 130-kDa glycoprotein but did block PMN-dependent killing of Escherichia coli B, a bacterium that possesses mannose-sensitive fimbriae. Therefore, the PMN glycoprotein receptor for A. naeslundii is clearly distinct from those recognized by E. coli. Two major putative glycolipid receptors were also identified by actinomyces and RCAI overlays on sialidase-treated thin-layer chromatograms of PMN gangliosides. Thus, both a 130-kDa glycoprotein and certain gangliosides are implicated in the attachment of the actinomyces to PMNs. PMID:7790078

  19. Role of Bacillus subtilis VSG4-derived biosurfactant in mediating immune responses in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to isolate biosurfactant from CO2-sequestering Bacillus subtilis VSG4 and to evaluate its immunostimulatory effect in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing the water-soluble fraction of purified biosurfactant at 50 (S50), 100 (S100), 200 (S200), or 300 (S300) μg mL(-1). Fish injected with PBS served as controls. Various immunological parameters, including immune-related gene expression, were measured at 14, 21, and 28 days post administration (dpa). At 28 dpa, the fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded up to 14 days. Among the immune parameters tested, lysozyme levels (36.32 ± 1.79 U mL(-1)), alternative complement pathway activity (76.26 ± 2.18 U mL(-1)), phagocytic activity (32.18 ± 0.67%), and serum bactericidal activity (73.2 ± 4.7%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the S200 group at 21 dpa than in the controls. Respiratory burst activity (0.386 ± 0.008 OD630nm) was the highest in the S200 group at 28 dpa. Of the immune-related genes examined, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) were significantly down-regulated in the S200 and S300 groups. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) as well as IKB-α was higher (P < 0.05) in the S100‒S300 groups at 21 dpa. The expression of NF-κB p65, IKK-β, MAPKp38, and Myd88 was down-regulated in the treated groups when compared to the controls. Fish in the S200 group exhibited the highest post-challenge relative survival rate (67.88%). Collectively, these results suggest that secondary metabolite (biosurfactant) isolated from B. subtilis VSG4 at 200 μg mL(-1) can positively influence immune responses, enhance disease resistance, and stimulate immune-related gene expression in L. rohita. PMID:27079425

  20. Strong IgG Antibody Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi Glycolipids in Patients with Lyme Arthritis, a Late Manifestation of the Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kathryn L.; Seward, Robert J.; Ben-Menachem, Gil; Glickstein, Lisa J.; Costello, Catherine E.; Steere, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the membrane lipids of B. burgdorferi were separated into 16 fractions; the components in each fraction were identified, and the immunogenicity of each fraction was determined by ELISA using sera from Lyme disease patients. Only the 2 glycolipids, acylated cholesteryl galactoside (ACG, BbGL-I) and monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MgalD, BbGL-II), were immunogenic. Early in the infection, 24 of 84 patients (29%) who were convalescent from erythema migrans and 19 of the 35 patients (54%) with neuroborreliosis had weak IgG responses to purified MgalD, and a smaller percentage of patients had early responses to synthetic ACG. However, almost all of 75 patients with Lyme arthritis, a late disease manifestation, had strong IgG reactivity with both glycolipids. Thus, almost all patients with Lyme arthritis have strong IgG antibody responses to B. burgdorferi glycolipid antigens. PMID:19342303

  1. Auto-production of biosurfactants reverses the coffee ring effect in a bacterial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempels, Wouter; de Dier, Raf; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of material at the edge of evaporating droplets, known as the ‘coffee ring effect’, is caused by a radially outward capillary flow. This phenomenon is common to a wide array of systems including colloidal and bacterial systems. The role of surfactants in counteracting these coffee ring depositions is related to the occurrence of local vortices known as Marangoni eddies. Here we show that these swirling flows are universal, and not only lead to a uniform deposition of colloids but also occur in living bacterial systems. Experiments on Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the auto-production of biosurfactants has an essential role in creating a homogeneous deposition of the bacteria upon drying. Moreover, at biologically relevant conditions, intricate time-dependent flows are observed in addition to the vortex regime, which are also effective in reversing the coffee ring effect at even lower surfactant concentrations.

  2. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Barros, Francisco Fábio Cavalcante; Simiqueli, Ana Paula Resende; de Andrade, Cristiano José; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes. PMID:23533780

  3. EPS solubilization treatment by applying the biosurfactant rhamnolipid to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Du, Mingpu; Xu, Dong; Trinh, Xuantung; Liu, Shuangyuan; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Junmei; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-10-01

    Application of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) solubilization treatment with biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands was first conducted in this study. The results showed significant improvement in the solubilization and dispersion of clogging matter following the treatment. And RL dosage of 0.09-0.15g/L altered microbial group make-up and had an overall positive effect on the growth of microorganisms. Moreover, RL was found to enhance EPS dissolution and dispersion, which was beneficial for the release of enzymes embedded in the EPS, and resulted in enhanced pollutant removal. The treatment had no apparent detrimental effect on wetland plants. Our results indicate that the optimum dosage of RL is 0.12g/L, and that the approach provides a promising and moderate option to reverse wetland clogging through RL-mediated solubilization treatment. PMID:27428300

  4. Biological activity of surfactins - a case of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis PCM 1949.

    PubMed

    Siwak, Emilia; Jewgiński, Michał; Kustrzeba-Wójcicka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants are microbial surface active compounds which, contrary to synthetic surfactants, are natural in origin, biodegradable and less toxic to a human organism. For that reason, there is a great research potential in studies aimed at their purification, finding potential ways of their utilization and decreasing their production costs. This paper demonstrates the process of isolating and purifying a surfactin synthesized by Bacillus subtilis PCM 1949. Surfactin samples were prepared by a classical organic solvent extraction and were studied using mass spectrometry (MS). Analysis of the susceptibility profile of microorganisms utilized in the diffusion-plate tests demonstrated that their sensitivity to this surfactin is differentiated and depends on the microorganism species. In our studies, we found that the selected strains of bacteria and fungi were insensitive to this surfactin at a wide range of concentrations. PMID:26637377

  5. Biosurfactant production through Bacillus sp. MTCC 5877 and its multifarious applications in food industry.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Farhan; Gautam, Gunjan; Edgard, Gnansounou; Negi, Sangeeta

    2016-08-01

    In this study Bacillus sp. MTCC5877 was explored for the production of biosurfactant (BSs) and various carbon sources 1% (w/v), 0.5% (w/v) nitrogen sources were tested at different pH, and temperature. Yield was measured in terms of Emulsification index (EI), Oil Displacement Area (ODA) and Drop Collapse Area (DCA) and maximum emulsification activities of BSs were found (E24) 50%, 76% and 46%, respectively, and maximum ODA of 5.0, 6.2 and 4.7cm, were shown respectively. The BS was able to reduce the surface tension of water from 72 to 30mN/m and 72 to 32mN/m. Structural compositions of BS were confirmed by FTIR, GC-MS and NMR. Anti-adhesive property of BS was determined and found effective against biofilm formation. It could remove 73% Cd from vegetable which confirms its application in food industry. PMID:27013189

  6. Biosurfactants and increased bioavailability of sorbed organic contaminants: Measurements using a biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Applegate, B.; Saylor, G.S.

    1993-12-31

    Bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic materials that sorb onto the soil matrix is very difficult due to reduced microbial (bio)availability. Following biosurfactant addition, we have measured an increase in contaminant bioavailability by using a lux biosensor. Direct microbial bioavailability was determined by using a genetically engineered microbial bioreporter strain of Pseudomonas putida. This strain was engineered so the lux genes, which code for light production, are transcriptionally fused with genes that code for contaminant degradation and are thus induced in the presence of specific compounds. By using a bioreporter we can quantify the actual microbial bioavailability of the contaminants and compare it to concentrations measured by other analytical methods (e.g. gas chromatograph). It is possible that these values are not equal to each other. Thus, bioremediation rates may not be accurately predicted if bioavailability is not considered.

  7. Computational study of elements of stability of a four-helix bundle protein biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Andrea; Connors, Natalie K; Dwyer, Mirjana Dimitrijev; Oelmeier, Stefan A; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active molecules produced principally by microorganisms. They are a sustainable alternative to chemically-synthesized surfactants, having the advantages of being non-toxic, highly functional, eco-friendly and biodegradable. However they are currently only used in a few industrial products due to costs associated with production and purification, which exceed those for commodity chemical surfactants. DAMP4, a member of a four-helix bundle biosurfactant protein family, can be produced in soluble form and at high yield in Escherichia coli, and can be recovered using a facile thermal phase-separation approach. As such, it encompasses an interesting synergy of biomolecular and chemical engineering with prospects for low-cost production even for industrial sectors. DAMP4 is highly functional, and due to its extraordinary thermal stability it can be purified in a simple two-step process, in which the combination of high temperature and salt leads to denaturation of all contaminants, whereas DAMP4 stays stable in solution and can be recovered by filtration. This study aimed to characterize and understand the fundamental drivers of DAMP4 stability to guide further process and surfactant design studies. The complementary use of experiments and molecular dynamics simulation revealed a broad pH and temperature tolerance for DAMP4, with a melting point of 122.4 °C, suggesting the hydrophobic core as the major contributor to thermal stability. Simulation of systematically created in silico variants of DAMP4 showed an influence of number and location of hydrophilic mutations in the hydrophobic core on stability, demonstrating a tolerance of up to three mutations before a strong loss in stability occurred. The results suggest a consideration of a balance of stability, functionality and kinetics for new designs according to their application, aiming for maximal functionality but at adequate stability to allow for cost-efficient production using thermal

  8. Effects of sludge retention time (SRT) and biosurfactant on the removal of polyaromatic compounds and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Gok, Oguzhan

    2011-12-15

    A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of SRT on the removal of three less hydrophobic and six more hydrophobic PAHs in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. Among the biosurfactants it was found that RD exhibits a better performance than the others in the removal of PAHs. At a RD of 15 mg l(-1) aerobic treatment for 25 days SRT was enough to remove over 90% of the total PAHs, 88% of the COD originating from the inert organics (COD(inert)) and 93% of the COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (COD(imp)). At this SRT and RD concentration, about 96-98% of the RD was biodegraded by the AASR system, 1.2-1.4% was accumulated in the system, 1.1-1.3% was released in the effluent, and 1.2-1.4% remained in the waste sludge. The addition of electron acceptors (NO(3)(-1), SO(4)(-2)) and increasing of temperature up to 45°C enhanced the PAH yields. The most effective PAH degradation occurred in high-oxygenated and neutral pH conditions. The PAH concentration affecting half of the Daphnia magna organism (EC(50) value) was reduced from EC(50)=45.02 ng ml(-1) to the PAH concentration affecting only 6% of the live Daphnia magna (EC(6)=5.30 ng ml(-1)) at the end of the aerobic treatment at a SRT of 25 days. Toxicity removals originating from the PAHs were 96%. PMID:22023905

  9. Seasonal lake surface water temperature trends reflected by heterocyst glycolipid based molecular thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Rochelmeier, J.; Schwark, L.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the relative distribution of heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) in cultures of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria is largely controlled by growth temperature, suggesting a potential use of these components in paleoenvironmental studies. Here, we investigated the effect of environmental parameters (e.g. surface water temperatures, oxygen concentrations and pH) on the distribution of HGs in a natural system using water column filtrates collected from Lake Schreventeich (Kiel, Germany) from late July to the end of October 2013. HPLC-ESI/MS analysis revealed a dominance of 1-(O-hexose)-3,25-hexacosanediols (HG26 diols) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25-hexacosanol (HG26 keto-ol) in the solvent extracted water column filtrates, which were accompanied by minor abundances of 1-(O-hexose)-3,27-octacosanediol (HG28 diol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-27-octacosanol (HG28 keto-ol) as well as 1-(O-hexose)-3,25,27-octacosanetriol (HG28 triol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25,27-octacosanediol (HG28 keto-diol). Fractional abundances of alcoholic and ketonic HGs generally showed strong linear correlations with surface water temperatures and no or only weak linear correlations with both oxygen concentrations and pH. Changes in the distribution of the most abundant diol and keto-ol (e.g., HG26 diol and HG26 keto-ol) were quantitatively expressed as the HDI26 (heterocyst diol index of 26carbon atoms) with values of this index ranging from 0.89 in mid-August to 0.66 in mid-October. An average HDI26 value of 0.79, which translates into a calculated surface water temperature of 15.8 ± 0.3 °C, was obtained from surface sediments collected from Lake Schreventeich. This temperature - and temperatures obtained from other HG indices (e.g., HDI28 and HTI28) - is similar to the one measured during maximum cyanobacterial productivity in early to mid-September and suggests that HGs preserved in Lake Schreventeich sediments record summer surface water temperatures. As N2-fixing

  10. Seasonal lake surface water temperature trends reflected by heterocyst glycolipid-based molecular thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Rochelmeier, J.; Schwark, L.

    2015-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that the relative distribution of heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) in cultures of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria is largely controlled by growth temperature, suggesting a potential use of these components in paleoenvironmental studies. Here, we investigated the effect of environmental parameters (e.g., surface water temperatures, oxygen concentrations and pH) on the distribution of HGs in a natural system using water column filtrates collected from Lake Schreventeich (Kiel, Germany) from late July to the end of October 2013. HPLC-ESI/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) analysis revealed a dominance of 1-(O-hexose)-3,25-hexacosanediols (HG26 diols) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25-hexacosanol (HG26 keto-ol) in the solvent-extracted water column filtrates, which were accompanied by minor abundances of 1-(O-hexose)-3,27-octacosanediol (HG28 diol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-27-octacosanol (HG28 keto-ol) as well as 1-(O-hexose)-3,25,27-octacosanetriol (HG28 triol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25,27-octacosanediol (HG28 keto-diol). Fractional abundances of alcoholic and ketonic HGs generally showed strong linear correlations with surface water temperatures and no or only weak linear correlations with both oxygen concentrations and pH. Changes in the distribution of the most abundant diol and keto-ol (e.g., HG26 diol and HG26 keto-ol) were quantitatively expressed as the HDI26 (heterocyst diol index of 26 carbon atoms) with values of this index ranging from 0.89 in mid-August to 0.66 in mid-October. An average HDI26 value of 0.79, which translates into a calculated surface water temperature of 15.8 ± 0.3 °C, was obtained from surface sediments collected from Lake Schreventeich. This temperature - and temperatures obtained from other HG indices (e.g., HDI28 and HTI28) - is similar to the one measured during maximum cyanobacterial productivity in early to mid-September and suggests that HGs

  11. Antibody to endotoxin core glycolipid reverses reticuloendothelial system depression in an animal model of severe sepsis and surgical injury

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, M.C.; Chadwick, S.J.; Cheslyn-Curtis, S.; Rapson, N.; Dudley, H.A.

    1987-10-01

    To study the effect of severe sepsis on the function of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) we have measured the clearance kinetics and organ distribution of both low-dose technetium tin colloid (TTC) and /sup 75/selenomethionine-labelled E. coli in rabbits 24 hours after either sham laparotomy or appendix devascularization. Sepsis resulted in similar delayed blood clearance and reduced liver (Kupffer cell) uptake of both TTC and E. coli. To investigate the ability of polyclonal antibody to E. coli-J-5 (core glycolipid) to improve RES function in the same model of sepsis, further animals were pretreated with either core glycolipid antibody or control serum (10 ml IV) 2 hours before induction of sepsis. TTC clearance kinetics were determined 24 hours later. Antibody pretreated animals showed: a reduced incidence of bacteremia; normalization of the rate of blood clearance and liver uptake of TTC; and a 'rebound' increase in splenic uptake of TTC. We conclude that antibody to E. coli-J-5 enhances bacterial clearance by the RES.

  12. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi: a basis for the study of malarial glycolipid toxins in a rodent model.

    PubMed Central

    Gerold, P; Vivas, L; Ogun, S A; Azzouz, N; Brown, K N; Holder, A A; Schwarz, R T

    1997-01-01

    Free and protein-bound glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) of the blood stages of the rodent malarial parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS were identified and characterized. TLC analysis of material extracted by organic solvents from metabolically labelled parasites revealed a distinct set of glycolipids. These glycolipids were identified as GPIs by specific chemical and enzymic treatments and by structural analysis of their glycan and hydrophobic parts. These analyses revealed that P.c.chabaudi AS synthesizes a set of GPI-biosynthesis intermediates and two potential GPI-anchor precursors exhibiting the following structures: ethanolamine-phosphate [(alpha1-2)mannose]mannose (alpha 1-2) mannose (alpha 1-6) mannose (alpha 1-4) glucosamine - (acyl) inositol-phosphate-diacylglycerol (P.ch. alpha) and ethanolamine-phosphate - mannose (alpha 1-2) mannose (alpha 1-6) mannose (alpha 1-4) glucosamine-(acyl)inositol-phosphate-diacylglycerol (P.ch. beta). One of these GPI-anchor precursors (P.ch. alpha) possesses the same carbohydrate structure as the GPI membrane anchor of merozoite surface protein-1 from P.c.chabaudi AS. PMID:9396737

  13. Accumulation of a novel glycolipid and a betaine lipid in cells of Rhodobacter sphaeroides grown under phosphate limitation.

    PubMed

    Benning, C; Huang, Z H; Gage, D A

    1995-02-20

    Cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides grown under phosphate-limiting conditions accumulated nonphosphorous glycolipids and lipids carrying head groups derived from amino acids. Concomitantly, the relative amount of phosphoglycerolipids decreased from 90 to 22 mol% of total polar lipids in the membranes. Two lipids, not detectable in cells grown under standard conditions, were synthesized during phosphate-limited growth. Fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, exact mass measurements, 1H NMR spectroscopy, sugar composition analysis, and methylation analysis of the predominant glycolipid led to the identification of the novel compound 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyr anosyl]glycerol. The second lipid was identified as the betaine lipid 1,2-di-O-acyl-[4'-(N,N,N-trimethyl)-homoserine]glycerol by cochromatography employing an authentic standard from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, exact mass measurements, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Prior to this observation, the occurrence of this lipid was thought to be restricted to lower plants and algae. Apparently, these newly synthesized nonphosphorous lipids, in addition to the sulfo- and the ornithine lipid also found in R. sphaeroides grown under optimal conditions, take over the role of phosphoglycerolipids in phosphate-deprived cells. PMID:7872771

  14. Malachite green bioremoval by a newly isolated strain Citrobacter sedlakii RI11; enhancement of the treatment by biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Fendri, Raouia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter sedlackii RI11, isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on synthetic dyes, was assessed for malachite green (MG) biotreatment potency. Results indicate that this bacterium has potential for use in effective treatment of MG contaminated wastewaters under shaking conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. Also, the newly isolated strain can tolerate higher doses of dye and decolorize up to 1,000 mg/l of dye. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance MG biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of biosurfactant of about 0.075%. Studies ensured that MG removal by this strain could be due to biodegradation and/or adsorption. Results on germination potencies of different seeds using the treated dyes under different conditions favor the use of SPB1 biosurfactant for the treatment of MG. PMID:26465297

  15. Biosurfactant-and-Bioemulsifier Produced by a Promising Cunninghamella echinulata Isolated from Caatinga Soil in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nadielly R. Andrade; Luna, Marcos A. C.; Santiago, André L. C. M. A.; Franco, Luciana O.; Silva, Grayce K. B.; de Souza, Patrícia M.; Okada, Kaoru; Albuquerque, Clarissa D. C.; da Silva, Carlos A. Alves; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.

    2014-01-01

    A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E24) of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w), carbohydrates (35.2% w/w) and protein (20.3% w/w). In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1%) demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA) of 37.36 cm2, which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm2). The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%–6% w/v). The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes. PMID:25257520

  16. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = −0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = −0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  17. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019) between TPH concentration (mg/kg) and surface tension (mN/m), When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009) was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  18. Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus sp. Strain PML026, a Trehalolipid Biosurfactant Producer and Biodegrader of Oil and Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain PML026 produces an array of trehalolipid biosurfactant compounds in order to utilize hydrophobic carbon sources, such as oils and alkanes. Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of this strain, which has a total length of 5,168,404 bp containing 4,835 protein-coding sequences, 12 rRNAs, and 45 tRNAs. PMID:25953162

  19. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant production under extreme environmental conditions by alkali-halo-thermophilic bacteria from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Abdelmoneim, T S; Almaghrabi, O A

    2015-07-01

    Twenty three morphologically distinct microbial colonies were isolated from soil and sea water samples, which were collected from Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia for screening of the most potent biosurfactant strains. The isolated bacteria were selected by using different methods as drop collapse test, oil displacement test, blue agar test, blood hemolysis test, emulsification activity and surface tension. The results showed that the ability of Virgibacillus salarius to grow and reduce surface tension under a wide range of pH, salinities and temperatures gives bacteria isolate an advantage in many applications such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food industries and bioremediation in marine environment. The biosurfactant production by V. salarius decreased surface tension and emulsifying activity (30 mN/m and 80%, respectively). In addition to reducing the production cost of biosurfactants by tested several plant-derived oils such as jatropha oil, castor oils, jojoba oil, canola oil and cottonseed oil. In this respect the feasibility to reusing old frying oil of sunflower for production rhamnolipids and sophorolipids, their use that lead to solve many ecological and industrial problems. PMID:26150754

  20. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant production under extreme environmental conditions by alkali-halo-thermophilic bacteria from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elazzazy, Ahmed M.; Abdelmoneim, T.S.; Almaghrabi, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty three morphologically distinct microbial colonies were isolated from soil and sea water samples, which were collected from Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia for screening of the most potent biosurfactant strains. The isolated bacteria were selected by using different methods as drop collapse test, oil displacement test, blue agar test, blood hemolysis test, emulsification activity and surface tension. The results showed that the ability of Virgibacillus salarius to grow and reduce surface tension under a wide range of pH, salinities and temperatures gives bacteria isolate an advantage in many applications such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food industries and bioremediation in marine environment. The biosurfactant production by V. salarius decreased surface tension and emulsifying activity (30 mN/m and 80%, respectively). In addition to reducing the production cost of biosurfactants by tested several plant-derived oils such as jatropha oil, castor oils, jojoba oil, canola oil and cottonseed oil. In this respect the feasibility to reusing old frying oil of sunflower for production rhamnolipids and sophorolipids, their use that lead to solve many ecological and industrial problems. PMID:26150754

  1. Biosurfactant from red ash trees enhances the bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil at a former gasworks site.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Warren; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent contaminants that accumulate in soil, sludge and on vegetation and are produced through activities such as coal burning, wood combustion and in the use of transport vehicles. Naturally occurring surfactants have been known to enhance PAH-removal from soil by improving PAH solubilization thereby increasing PAH-microbe interactions. The aim of this research was to determine if a biosurfactant derived from the leaves of the Australian red ash (Alphitonia excelsa) would enhance bioremediation of a heavily PAH-contaminated soil and to determine how the microbial community was affected. Results of GC-MS analysis show that the extracted biosurfactant was significantly more efficient than the control in regards to the degradation of total 16 US EPA priority PAHs (78.7% degradation compared to 62.0%) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (92.9% degradation compared to 44.3%). Furthermore the quantification of bacterial genes by qPCR analysis showed that there was an increase in the number of gene copies associated with Gram positive PAH-degrading bacteria. The results suggest a commercial potential for the use of the Australian red ash tree as a source of biosurfactant for use in the accelerated degradation of hydrocarbons. PMID:26217887

  2. Application of biosurfactants and periodic voltage gradient for enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metals and PAHs in dredged marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Ammami, M T; Portet-Koltalo, F; Benamar, A; Duclairoir-Poc, C; Wang, H; Le Derf, F

    2015-04-01

    Dredged harbor sediment co-contaminated by heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was subjected to enhanced electrokinetic treatments, using a mixture of a chelating agent (citric acid CA) and a surfactant as additives in the processing fluids. We tested various operating conditions (at 1 V cm(-1)): different CA concentrations, applying a periodic voltage gradient, pre-conditioning the sediment with the additives, and replacing the synthetic surfactant Tween 20 (TW20) by biosurfactants. Increasing the CA concentration was favorable for both metal and PAH removal. Applying a periodic voltage gradient associated to a low concentration of CA and TW20 provided the best results for Zn, Cd and Pb removal and also for removal of the 16 priority PAHs. Promising results were obtained with solutions containing rhamnolipids (0.028%) and a viscosin-like biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pfa7B (0.025%), associated to a periodic voltage gradient. Although the rhamnolipid and the viscosin-like compounds involved a higher electrical current than TW20, metals were less removed from the sediment. The electroosmotic flow was lower when we used biosurfactants, hence a less effective effect on PAH removal. PMID:25644703

  3. Toxin a from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with therminal Gal. cap alpha. 1-3Gal. beta. 1-4GlcNaC sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.; Wilkins, T.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Toxin A is one of two clostridial toxins implicated as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis in patients undergoing postoperative antibiotic therapy. Evidence that the carbohydrate binding determinant for this toxin is a glycoconjugate(s) with non-reducing Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc has recently been reported. Specific agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes by Toxin A is inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin and prevented by pretreatment of cells with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin layer chromatography and the chromatogram overlaid with purified /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected following autoradiography. The major toxin-binding glycolipids were identified as pentasaccharide- and decasaccharide-ceramides expressing terminal Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc sequences. Treatment of the toxin-binding glycolipids with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase abolished binding. Forsmann glycolipid, globoside, Gal..cap alpha..1-4 Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer, and Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer did not bind the toxin. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate specificity of the toxin for the non-reducing terminal sequence, Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc.

  4. Effects of structural variations in synthetic glycolipids upon mitogenicity for spleen lymphocytes, adjuvancy for humoral immune response and on anti-tumour potential.

    PubMed

    Nigam, V N; Bonaventure, J; Chopra, C; Brailovsky, C A

    1982-11-01

    Synthetic glycolipids prepared by esterification of various sugars and sorbitol, and containing various numbers of saturated or unsaturated fatty acid residues as well as bacterial lipid A and lipopolysaccharide, were tested for mitogenicity of splenic cells of Fischer rats and Swiss mice and for the augmentation of humoral immune response against sheep red blood cells in these species. Subsequently a few of the humoral immune-response-enhancing glycolipids were compared with non-enhancers in their anti-tumour activity against 13762 rat mammary carcinoma in inbred Fischer 344 rats and Ehrlich tumour in Swiss mice. They were given systemically after tumour inoculation and intratumourally in squalene and Tween emulsion after intradermal MAC tumour development. It was observed that certain structural characteristics in glycolipids with respect to the type of sugar, the type and number of fatty-acid residues were needed for their adjuvant action of the humoral arm of the immune response. Although humoral immune-response enhancers were somewhat superior to non-enhancers in their anti-tumour activity, the correlation coefficient demonstrated a lack of significant concordance. It is concluded that glycolipids selected for their ability to augment humoral immune responses against standard antigens need not be suspect as tumour-enhancers on the grounds that they would elicit blocking antibodies in vivo against tumour-associated antigens. PMID:6756461

  5. Hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly is associated with low levels of antibodies against red blood cell and Plasmodium falciparum derived glycolipids in Yanomami Amerindians from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Livia; O'Dea, Kieran P; Noya, Oscar; Pabon, Rosalba; Magris, Magda; Botto, Carlos; Holder, Anthony A; Brown, K Neil

    2008-03-01

    The immunological basis of the aberrant immune response in hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) is poorly understood, but believed to be associated with polyclonal B cell activation by an unidentified malaria mitogen, leading to unregulated immunoglobulin and autoantibody production. HMS has been previously reported in Yanomami communities in the Upper Orinoco region of the Venezuelan Amazon. To investigate a possible association between antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum and uninfected red blood cell (URBC) glycolipids and splenomegaly, a direct comparison of the parasite versus host anti-glycolipid antibody responses was made in an isolated community of this area. The anti-P. falciparum glycolipid (Pfglp) response was IgG3 dominated, whereas the uninfected red blood cell glycolipid (URBCglp) response showed a predominance of IgG1. The levels of IgG1 against Pfglp, and of IgG4 and IgM against URBCglp were significantly higher in women, while the anti-Pfglp or URBCglp IgM levels were inversely correlated with the degree of splenomegaly. Overall, these results suggest differential regulation of anti-parasite and autoreactive responses and that these responses may be linked to the development and evolution of HMS in this population exposed to endemic malaria. The high mortality rates associated with HMS point out that its early diagnosis together with the implementation of malaria control measures in these isolated Amerindian communities are a priority. PMID:18243148

  6. Sulfur source-mediated transcriptional regulation of the rhlABC genes involved in biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas sp. strain AK6U

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Wael; El Nayal, Ashraf M.; Ramadan, Ahmed R.; Abotalib, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Despite the nutritional significance of sulfur, its influence on biosurfactants production has not been sufficiently studied. We investigated the expression of key biosurfactants production genes, rhlABC, in cultures of Pseudomonas sp. AK6U grown with inorganic or organic sulfur sources. AK6U grew with either inorganic sulfate (MgSO4), dibenzothiophene (DBT), or DBT-sulfone as a sole sulfur source in the presence of glucose as a carbon source. The AK6U cultures produced variable amounts of biosurfactants depending on the utilized sulfur source. Biosurfactants production profile of the DBT cultures was significantly different from that of the DBT-sulfone and inorganic sulfate cultures. The last two cultures were very similar in terms of biosurfactants productivity. Biosurfactants yield in the DBT cultures (1.3 g/L) was higher than that produced by the DBT-sulfone (0.5 g/L) and the inorganic sulfate (0.44 g/L) cultures. Moreover, the surface tension reduction in the DBT cultures (33 mN/m) was much stronger than that measured in the DBT-sulfone (58 mN/m) or inorganic sulfate (54 mN/m) cultures. RT-qPCR revealed variations in the expression levels of the rhlABC genes depending on the sulfur source. The DBT cultures had higher expression levels for the three genes as compared to the DBT-sulfone and inorganic sulfate cultures. There was no significant difference in the expression profiles between the DBT-sulfone and the MgSO4 cultures. The increased expression of rhlC in the DBT cultures is indicative for production of higher amounts of dirhamnolipids compared to the DBT-sulfone and inorganic sulfate cultures. The gene expression results were in good agreement with the biosurfactants production yields and surface tension measurements. The sulfur source mediates a fine-tuned mechanism of transcriptional regulation of biosurfactants production genes. Our findings can have an impact on industrial production of biosurfactants and other biotechnological processes like

  7. The impact of the Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant on the midgut histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and determination of its putative receptor.

    PubMed

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Boukedi, Hanen; Elleuch, Mouna; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Tounsi, Slim

    2012-02-01

    SPB1 is a Bacillus subtilis strain producing a lipopeptide biosurfactant. The insecticidal activity of this biosurfactant was evaluated against the Egyptian cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis). It displayed toxicity with an LC(50) of 251 ng/cm(2). The histopathological changes occurred in the larval midgut of S. littoralis treated with B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant were vesicle formation in the apical region, cellular vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells and their boundaries. Ligand-blotting experiments with S. littoralis brush border membrane vesicles showed binding of SPB1 biosurfactant to a protein of 45 kDa corresponding to its putative receptor. The latter differs in molecular size from those recognized by Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1C toxins, commonly known by their activity against S. littoralis. This result wires the application of B. subtilis biosurfactant for effective control of S. littoralis larvae, particularly in the cases where S. littoralis will develop resistance against B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:22079884

  8. The glycoinositol phospholipids of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. Evidence for the presence of three distinct pathways of glycolipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    McConville, M J; Collidge, T A; Ferguson, M A; Schneider, P

    1993-07-25

    Most macromolecules at the cell surface of parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania, including the major surface glycoproteins and a complex lipophosphoglycan (LPG), are attached to the plasma membrane via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. Free glycoinositol phospholipids (GIPLs) which are not linked to protein or phosphoglycan have also been found. In this study, we show that L. mexicana promastigotes synthesize two distinct GIPL lineages, comprising at least 10 glycolipid species. These structures were characterized using a combination of gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, methylation linkage analysis, and chemical and exoglycosidase sequencing. The major lineage contains GIPLs with the glycan structures Man alpha 1-3Man alpha 1-4GlcN (iM2), Man alpha 1-6(Man alpha 1-3)Man alpha 1-4GlcN (iM3), and Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-6(Man alpha 1-3)Man alpha 1-4GlcN (iM4), which are linked to alkylacyl-PI containing predominantly C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids and C18:0 alkyl chains (referred to as the hybrid type GIPLs). A proportion of the iM3 and iM4 species (32 and 4%, respectively) are substituted with an ethanolamine-phosphate residue. The location of this residue on the core glucosamine residue was inferred from the results of methylation analyses and alpha-mannosidase digestion. The minor GIPL lineage contains GIPLs with the same glycan sequences as the glycolipid anchor of LPG (referred to as the type-2 GIPLs). The alkylacyl-PI or lyso-alkyl-PI lipid moieties of these GIPLs differ from those of the hybrid type GIPLs and from the main pool of alkylacyl-PI in containing significant levels of C24:0 and C26:0 alkyl chains. The most polar of these GIPLs, LPGp, has the properties expected of a biosynthetic precursor to the LPG, having the structure, [formula: see text] Finally, the GPI anchors of the major promastigote proteins were found to contain the glycan sequence Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-6Man alpha 1-4GlcN, and an alkylacyl-PI lipid moiety which

  9. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  10. Dynamic micelles of mannoside glycolipids are more efficient than polymers for inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelyne; Dehuyser, Laure; Sigwalt, David; Flacher, Vincent; Bernacchi, Serena; Chaloin, Olivier; Remy, Jean-Serge; Mueller, Christopher G; Baati, Rachid; Wagner, Alain

    2013-11-20

    Mannoside glycolipid conjugates are able to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trans-infection mediated by human dendritic cells (DCs). The conjugates are formed by three building blocks: a linear or branched mannose head, a hydrophilic linker, and a 24-carbon lipid chain. We have shown that, even as single molecules, these compounds efficiently target mannose-binding lectins, such as DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) important for HIV-1 transmission. With the goal to optimize their inhibitory activity by supramolecular structure formation, we have compared saturated and unsaturated conjugates, as single molecules, self-assemblies of dynamic micelles, and photopolymerized cross-linked polymers. Surface plasmon resonance showed that, unexpectedly, polymers of trivalent conjugates did not display a higher binding affinity for DC-SIGN than single molecules. Interactions on a chip or in solution were independent of calcium; however, binding to DCs was inhibited by a calcium chelator. Moreover, HIV-1 trans-infection was mostly inhibited by dynamic micelles and not by rigid polymers. The inhibition data revealed a clear correlation between the structure and molecular assembly of a conjugate and its biological antiviral activity. We present an interaction model between DC-SIGN and conjugates-either single molecules, micelles, or polymers-that highlights that the most effective interactions by dynamic micelles involve both mannose heads and lipid chains. Our data reveal that trivalent glycolipid conjugates display the highest microbicide potential for HIV prophylaxis, as dynamic micelles conjugates and not as rigid polymers. PMID:24134734

  11. A Biosurfactant-Sophorolipid Acts in Synergy with Antibiotics to Enhance Their Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs), biosurfactants with antimicrobial properties, have been tried to address the problem of antibiotic resistance. The synergistic action of SL and antibiotics was checked using standard microdilution and spread plate methods. With Staphylococcus aureus, SL-tetracycline combination achieved total inhibition before 4 h of exposure while tetracycline alone couldnot achieve total inhibition till the end of 6 h. The inhibition caused by exposure of bacterium to SL-tetracycline mixture was ~25% more as compared to SL alone. In spite of known robustness of gram-negative bacteria, SL-cefaclor mixture proved to be efficient against Escherichia coli which showed ~48% more inhibition within 2 h of exposure as compared to cefaclor alone. Scanning electron microscopy of the cells treated with mixture revealed bacterial cell membrane damage and pore formation. Moreover, SLs being a type of asymmetric bola, they are expected to form self-assemblies with unique functionality. This led to the speculation that SLs being amphiphilic in nature can span through the structurally alike cell membrane and facilitate the entry of drug molecules. PMID:24089681

  12. Biosurfactant MEL-A enhances cellular association and gene transfection by cationic liposome.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Saki; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Maitani, Yoshie

    2006-05-30

    Mannnosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A), a biosurfactant produced by microorganisms, has many biological activities. To enhance the gene transfection efficiency of a cationic liposome, we prepared a MEL-liposome (MEL-L) composed of 3beta-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol), dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and MEL-A, and investigated its transfection efficiency in human cervix carcinoma Hela cells. MEL-L was about 40 nm in size, and the MEL-L/plasmid DNA complex (MEL-lipoplex) remained an injectable size (169 nm). MEL-A induced a significantly higher level of gene expression, compared to commercially available Tfx20 and the liposome without MEL-A (Cont-L). Analysis of flow cytometric profiles clearly indicated that the amount of DNA associated with the cells was rapidly increased and sustained by addition of MEL-A to the liposome. Confocal microscopic observation indicated that the MEL-lipoplex distributed widely in the cytoplasm, and the DNA was detected strongly in the cytoplasm and around the nucleus, compared with Cont-L. These results suggested that MEL-A increased gene expression by enhancing the association of the lipoplexes with the cells in serum. MEL-L might prove a remarkable non-viral vector for gene transfection and gene therapy. PMID:16624437

  13. Interaction of a biosurfactant, Surfactin with a cationic Gemini surfactant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Garamus, Vasil M; Liu, Fang; Xiao, Jingwen; Eckerlebe, Helmut; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Mu, Bozhong; Zou, Aihua

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between biosurfactant Surfactin and cationic Gemini surfactant ethanediyl-1,3-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (abbreviated as 12-3-12) was investigated using turbidity, surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Analysis of critical micelle concentration (CMC) values in Surfactin/12-3-12 mixture indicates that there is synergism in formation of mixed Surfactin/12-3-12 micelles. Although Surfactin and 12-3-12 are oppositely charged in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH7.4), there are no precipitates observed at the concentrations below the CMC of Surfactin/12-3-12 system. However, at the concentration above CMC value, the Surfactin/12-3-12 mixture is severely turbid with high 12-3-12 content. DLS and SANS measurements follow the size and shape changes of mixed Surfactin/12-3-12 aggregates from small spherical micelles via elongated aggregates to large bulk complexes with increasing fraction of Gemini surfactant. PMID:27475707

  14. Influence of salinity and temperature on the activity of biosurfactants by polychaete-associated isolates.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Carmen; Michaud, Luigi; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf; De Domenico, Emilio; Lo Giudice, Angelina

    2014-02-01

    Influence of different parameters on biosurfactant (BS) activity was carried out on strains that were isolated from the polychaetes Megalomma claparedei, Sabella spallanzanii and Branchiomma luctuosum and additional 30 strains that were previously identified as potential BS producers from crude oil enrichments of the same polychaete specimens. The selection of BS-producing strains from polychaete natural samples was carried out by using standard screening tests. The BS activity by each isolate was evaluated for the effect of salinity and temperature on emulsion production and surface tension reduction, during incubation in mineral medium supplemented with tetradecane or diesel oil. All isolates showed a similar time course of BS activity, and the latter was more influenced by salinity rather than temperature. Some of the BS producers belonged to genera that have not (i.e. Citricoccus, Cellulophaga, Tenacibaculum and Maribacter) or have poorly been (Psychrobacter, Vibrio, and Pseudoalteromonas) reported as able to produce BSs. This is remarkable as some of them have previously been detected in hydrocarbon-enriched samples. Results confirm that filter-feeding polychaetes are an efficient source for the isolation of BS producers. PMID:24170506

  15. Leaching heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash with chelator/biosurfactant mixed solution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Chen, Yu

    2015-07-01

    The chelator [S,S]-ethylene diamine disuccinic acid, citric acid, and biosurfactant saponin are selected as leaching agents. In this study, the leaching effect of saponin mixed with either ethylene diamine disuccinic acid or citric acid on the levels of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is investigated. Results indicate that saponin separately mixed with ethylene diamine disuccinic acid and citric acid exhibits a synergistic solubilisation effect on copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium leaching from fly ash. However, saponin and ethylene diamine disuccinic acid mixed solution exhibits a synergistic solubilisation effect that is superior to that of a saponin and citric acid mixed solution. The extraction rate of heavy metal in fly ash leached with a saponin and chelator mixed solution is related to the pH of the leaching solution, and the optimal range of the pH is suggested to be approximately neutral. After leaching with a saponin and chelator mixed solution, copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium contents significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the extractable or acid-soluble and reducible fractions. By adopting the proposed approach, the leaching concentrations of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium in treated fly ash are in accordance with Standard for Pollution Control on the Security Landfill Site for Hazardous Wastes GB18598-2001. PMID:26185165

  16. Natural attenuation and biosurfactant-stimulated bioremediation of estuarine sediments contaminated with diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Débora M; Chagas-Spinelli, Alessandra C O; Gavazza, Sávia; Florencio, Lourdinha; Kato, Mario T

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated the bioremediation, by natural attenuation (NA) and by natural attenuation stimulated (SNA) using a rhamnolipid biosurfactant, of estuarine sediments contaminated with diesel oil. Sediment samples (30 cm) were put into 35 cm glass columns, and the concentrations of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency were monitored for 111 days. Naphthalene percolated through the columns more than the other PAHs, and, in general, the concentrations of the lower molecular weight PAHs, consisting of two and three aromatic rings, changed during the first 45 days of treatment, whereas the concentrations of the higher molecular weight PAHs, consisting of four, five, and six rings, were more stable. The higher molecular weight PAHs became more available after 45 days, in the deeper parts of the columns (20-30 cm). Evidence of degradation was observed only for some compounds, such as pyrene, with a total removal efficiency of 82 and 78 % in the NA and SNA treatments, respectively, but without significant difference. In the case of total PAH removal, the efficiencies were significantly different of 82 and 67 %, respectively. PMID:23821292

  17. Effect of rhamnolipid (biosurfactant) structure on solubilization and biodegradation of n-alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    A study to quantify the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant structure on the degradation of alkanes by a variety of Pseudomonas isolates was conducted. Two dirhamnolipids were studied, a methyl ester form (dR-Me) and an acid form (dR-A). These rhamnolipids have different properties with respect to interfacial tension, solubility, and charge. For example, the interfacial tension between hexadecane and water was decreased to <0.1 dyne/cm by the dR-Me but was only decreased to 5 dyne/cm by the dR-A. Solubilization and biodegradation of two alkanes in different physical states, liquid and solid, were determined at dirhamnolipid concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 mM (7 to 70 mg/liter). The dR-Me markedly enhanced hexadecane (liquid) and octadecane (solid) degradation by seven different Pseudomonas strains. For an eighth strain tested, which exhibited extremely high cell surface hydrophobicity, hexadecane degradation was enhanced but octadecane degradation was inhibited. The dR-A also enhanced hexadecane degradation by all degraders but did so more modestly than the dR-Me. For octadecane, the dR-A only enhanced degradation by strains with low cell surface hydrophobicity. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  19. Metal removal from contaminated soil and sediments by the biosurfactant surfactin

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, C.N.; Yong, R.N.; Gibbs, B.F.; James, S.; Bennett, H.P.J.

    1999-11-01

    Batch soil washing experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of using surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, for the removal of heavy metals from a contaminated soil and sediments. The soil contained high levels of metals and hydrocarbons (890 mg/kg of zinc, 420 mg/kg of copper, and 12.6% oil and grease), and the sediments contained 110 mg/kg of copper and 3,300 mg/kg of zinc. The contaminated soil was spiked to increase the level of copper, zinc, and cadmium to 550, 1,200, and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively. Water alone removed minimal amounts of copper and zinc (less than 1%). Results showed that 0.25% surfactin/1% NaOH could remove 25% of the copper and 6% of the zinc from the soil and 15% of the copper and 6% of the zinc from the sediments. A series of five washings of the soil with 0.25% surfactin (1% NaOH) was able to remove 70% of the copper and 22% of the zinc. The technique of ultrafiltration and the measurement of octanol-water partitioning and {zeta}-potential were used to determine the mechanism of metal removal by surfactin. It was indicated that surfactin was able to remove the metals by sorption at the soil interphase and metal complexation, followed by desorption of the metal through interfacial tension lowering and fluid forces and finally complexation of the metal with the micelles.

  20. Review lipopeptides biosurfactants: Mean classes and new insights for industrial, biomedical, and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-05-01

    Lipopeptides are microbial surface active compounds produced by a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, and yeast. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Surfactin, iturin, and fengycin of Bacillus subtilis are among the most popular lipopeptides. Lipopepetides can be applied in diverse domains as food and cosmetic industries for their emulsification/de-emulsification capacity, dispersing, foaming, moisturizing, and dispersing properties. Also, they are qualified as viscosity reducers, hydrocarbon solubilizing and mobilizing agents, and metal sequestering candidates for application in environment and bioremediation. Moreover, their ability to form pores and destabilize biological membrane permits their use as antimicrobial, hemolytic, antiviral, antitumor, and insecticide agents. Furthermore, lipopeptides can act at the surface and can modulate enzymes activity permitting the enhancement of the activity of certain enzymes ameliorating microbial process or the inhibition of certain other enzymes permitting their use as antifungal agents. This article will present a detailed classification of lipopeptides biosurfactant along with their producing strain and biological activities and will discuss their functional properties and related applications. PMID:25808118

  1. Biological Activities of a Mixture of Biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and Alkaline Lipase from Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Pereira de Quadros, Cedenir; Cristina Teixeira Duarte, Marta; Maria Pastore, Gláucia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial effects of a mixture of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and an alkaline lipase from Fusarium oxysporum (AL/BS mix) on several types of microorganisms, as well as their abilities to remove Listeria innocua ATCC 33093 biofilm from stainless steel coupons. The AL/BS mix had a surface tension of around 30 mN.m-1, indicating that the presence of alkaline lipase did not interfere in the surface activity properties of the tensoactive component. The antimicrobial activity of the AL/BS mix was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) micro-assays. Among all the tested organisms, the presence of the mixture only affected the growth of B. subtilis CCT 2576, B. cereus ATCC 10876 and L. innocua. The most sensitive microorganism was B. cereus (MIC 0.013 mg.mL-1). In addition, the effect of the sanitizer against L. innocua attached to stainless steel coupons was determined by plate count after vortexing. The results showed that the presence of the AL/BS mix improved the removal of adhered cells relative to treatment done without the sanitizer, reducing the count of viable cells by 1.72 log CFU.cm-2. However, there was no significant difference between the sanitizers tested and an SDS detergent standard (p<0.05). PMID:24031642

  2. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis affects biosurfactant production and cell attachment to hydrocarbons in Pseudomonas sp. KA-08.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Carla; Catone, Mariela V; López, Nancy I; Raiger Iustman, Laura J

    2014-06-01

    Stressful conditions prevailing in hydrocarbon-contaminated sites influence the diversity, distribution, and activities of microorganisms. Oil bioremediation agents should develop special characteristics to cope with these environments like surfactant production and cellular affinity to hydrocarbons. Additionally, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation was proven to improve tolerance to stressful conditions. Pseudomonas sp. KA-08 was isolated from a chronic oil-contaminated environment, it is highly tolerant to xylene, and it is able to accumulate PHA and to produce surfactant compounds that lower the water surface tension (ST) as well as bioemulsifiers. In this work, we studied the effect of the capability to accumulate PHAs on biosurfactant production and microbial attachment to hydrocarbons (MATH). Our results showed that PHA synthesis capability has a favorable effect in the production of compounds which affect the ST but not on the production of bioemulsifiers. On the other hand, PHA accumulation affects cellular affinity to xylene. MATH analysis showed that a PHA-negative mutant increased its affinity to xylene compared with the wild-type strain. This result was also observed in Pseudomonas putida GPp104 (a PHA(-) mutant), suggesting that this effect could be generalized to other Pseudomonas strains. PMID:24519857

  3. Biosurfactant templated quantum sized fluorescent gold nanoclusters for in vivo bioimaging in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    S, Chandirasekar; C, Chandrasekaran; T, Muthukumarasamyvel; G, Sudhandiran; N, Rajendiran

    2016-07-01

    We report the biosurfactant (sodium cholate) templated bright bluish-green emitting gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) by green chemical approach. Optical properties of the AuNCs were studied using UV-vis and luminescence spectroscopy. Lifetime of the fluorescent AuNCs was measured using time correlated single photon counting technique (TCSPC). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to measure the sizes of the clusters. In-vivo toxicity and bioimaging studies of sodium cholate (NaC) templated AuNCs were carried out at different developmental stages of zebrafish embryos. The survival rate, hatching rate, heart rate, malformation and apoptotic gene expression experiments shows no significant toxicity in developing embryos up to 100μL/mL of AuNCs concentration and the AuNCs stained embryos exhibited green fluorescence with high intensity over the period from 4 to 96hpf (hours post fertilization) which shows that AuNCs were stable in living organisms. PMID:27037785

  4. Biosurfactant assisted synthesis of Fe3O4@rhamnolipid@BiOBr and its behaviour in plasma discharge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Yu, Zebin; Hou, Yanping; Peng, Zhenbo; Zhang, Li; Meng, Zhengcheng; Li, Fengyuan; He, Jun; Huang, Junlin

    2016-06-01

    A novel Fe3O4@rhamnolipid@BiOBr (FRB) was synthesized via a modified precipitation method and applied in the plasma discharge system. Rhamnolipid was used as biosurfactant to modify Fe3O4 by interacting with Fe3O4 via its aliphatic chain. The results show that the prepared FRB magnetic photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and Fenton reaction behavior in the plasma discharge system. Meanwhile, the addition of FRB could improve energy efficiency of defluorination by 21.29 mg kW‑1 h‑1.

  5. Dynamics of glycolipid domains in the plasma membrane of living cultured neurons, following protein kinase C activation: a study performed by excimer-formation imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Pitto, M; Palestini, P; Ferraretto, A; Flati, S; Pavan, A; Ravasi, D; Masserini, M; Bottiroli, G

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic changes of glycolipid domains within the plasma membranes of cultured rat cerebellar granule cells have been investigated. For this purpose, a pyrene-labelled derivative of G(M1) ganglioside has been incorporated in the cell plasma membrane, and the rate of excimer formation, directly related to the formation of domains, has been studied by a fluorescence imaging technique (excimer-formation imaging). Fluorescence imaging showed that upon addition of 100 microM glutamate, indirectly inducing the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), glycolipid concentration within domains increases in cell bodies. Comparable effects were exerted by the addition of PMA, directly inducing the activation of PKC. On the contrary, the phorbol ester was not effective in the presence of the specific PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide. These results suggest that glycolipid-enriched domains are dynamic supramolecular structures affected by membrane-associated events, such as PKC activation. Dynamic changes of domains could be important in modulating their postulated participation in a series of functions, including signal transduction and lipid/protein sorting. PMID:10548548

  6. Unusual, pH-induced, self-assembly of sophorolipid biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Baccile, Niki; Babonneau, Florence; Jestin, Jacques; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gerard; Van Bogaert, Inge

    2012-06-26

    An increasing need exists for simple, bioderived, nontoxic, and up-scalable compounds with stimuli-responsive properties. Acidic sophorolipids (SL) are glucose-based biosurfactants derived from the yeast broth of Candida bombicola (teleomorph: Starmerella bombicola). The specific design of this molecule, a sophorose head with a free end-COOH group at the end of the alkyl chain, makes it a potentially interesting pH-responsive compound. We have specifically investigated this assumption using a combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), transmission electron microscopy under cryogenic conditions (Cryo-TEM), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and found a strong dependence of SL self-assembly on the degree of ionization, α, of the COOH group at concentration values as low as 5 and 0.5 wt %. At least three regimes can be identified where the supramolecular behavior of SL is unexpectedly different: (1) at low α values, self-assembly is driven by concentration, C, and micelles are mainly identified as nonionic objects whose curvature decreases (sphere-to-rod) with C; (2) at mid α values, the formation of COO(-) groups introduces negative charges at the micellar surface inducing an increase in curvature (rod-to-sphere transition). Repulsive electrostatic long-range interactions appear at this stage. In both regimes 1 and 2, the cross-section radius of the micelles is below 25 Å. This behavior is concentration independent. (3) At α = 1, individual micelles seem to favor the formation of large netlike tubular aggregates whose size is above 100 nm. Such a complex behavior is very unique as it is generally not observed for common alkyl-based surfactants in concentration ranges below 5-10 wt %. PMID:22642974

  7. Optimizing the use of biosurfactants to remove diesel contamination in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, A.L.; Tumeo, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that biosurfactants can be used to successfully enhance the removal of hydrocarbon contamination from soils. The Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks is currently involved in a multiyear study of surfactant usage in oil spill remediation in cold climates. Funding for this work is provided by the National Science Foundation, Petroleum Environmental Services, Inc., the Alaska Department of Conservation, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. In the Summer of 1993, researchers from ETL successfully used a biologically derived surfactant to remove weathered crude oil contamination remaining from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. This same technology may be applicable to other hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. Subsequent laboratory studies are being performed using soil columns to quantify the interaction between surfactant usage and soil characteristics. Specifically, the amount of surfactant applied, the method of application, the level of diesel contamination, and the type of soil matrix are being investigated. Diesel fuel has been chosen as a common type of hydrocarbon contamination. Adsorption of the surfactant on particle surfaces within the soil matrix can increase the cost of surfactant application and potentially diminish oil recovery. Four soil types are being used in these studies; a well-sorted, medium-grained sand; a moderately-sorted gravel, a volcanically-derived soil and a silt representative of tundra conditions. All of these soils are frequently encountered in oil spill remediation. This paper focuses on the relationships being identified between the level of contamination, soil matrix type, and the effectiveness of contaminant removal by biologically-derived surfactants.

  8. Coordination of Swarming Motility, Biosurfactant Synthesis, and Biofilm Matrix Exopolysaccharide Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwei; Yu, Shan; Zhang, Zhenyin; Wei, Qing; Yan, Lu; Ai, Guomin; Liu, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a complex process in which many factors are involved. Bacterial swarming motility and exopolysaccharides both contribute to biofilm formation, yet it is unclear how bacteria coordinate swarming motility and exopolysaccharide production. Psl and Pel are two key biofilm matrix exopolysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This opportunistic pathogen has three types of motility, swimming, twitching, and swarming. In this study, we found that elevated Psl and/or Pel production reduced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa but had little effect on swimming and twitching. The reduction was due to decreased rhamnolipid production with no relation to the transcription of rhlAB, two key genes involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids. Rhamnolipid-negative rhlR and rhlAB mutants synthesized more Psl, whereas exopolysaccharide-deficient strains exhibited a hyperswarming phenotype. These results suggest that competition for common sugar precursors catalyzed by AlgC could be a tactic for P. aeruginosa to balance the synthesis of exopolysaccharides and rhamnolipids and to control bacterial motility and biofilm formation inversely because the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids, Psl, and Pel requires AlgC to provide the sugar precursors and an additional algC gene enhances the biosynthesis of Psl and rhamnolipids. In addition, our data indicate that the increase in RhlI/RhlR expression attenuated Psl production. This implied that the quorum-sensing signals could regulate exopolysaccharide biosynthesis indirectly in bacterial communities. In summary, this study represents a mechanism that bacteria utilize to coordinate swarming motility, biosurfactant synthesis, and biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide production, which is critical for biofilm formation and bacterial survival in the environment. PMID:25172852

  9. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of biosurfactants isolated from lactobacilli against multi-drug-resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biosurfactants (BS) are amphiphilic compounds produced by microbes, either on the cell surface or secreted extracellularly. BS exhibit strong antimicrobial and anti-adhesive properties, making them good candidates for applications used to combat infections. In this study, our goal was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities of BS produced by Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus rhamnosus against clinical Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Cell-bound BS from both L. jensenii and L. rhamnosus were extracted and isolated. The surface activities of crude BS samples were evaluated using an oil spreading assay. The antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities of both BS against the above mentioned MDR pathogens were determined. Results Surface activities for both BS ranged from 6.25 to 25 mg/ml with clear zones observed between 7 and 11 cm. BS of both L. jensenii and L. rhamnosus showed antimicrobial activities against A. baumannii, E. coli and S. aureus at 25-50 mg/ml. Anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities were also observed for the aforementioned pathogens between 25 and 50 mg/ml. Finally, analysis by electron microscope indicated that the BS caused membrane damage for A. baumannii and pronounced cell wall damage in S. aureus. Conclusion Our results indicate that BS isolated from two Lactobacilli strains has antibacterial properties against MDR strains of A. baumannii, E. coli and MRSA. Both BS also displayed anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities against A. baumannii, E. coli and S. aureus. Together, these capabilities may open up possibilities for BS as an alternative therapeutic approach for the prevention and/or treatment of hospital-acquired infections. PMID:25124936

  10. Biodegradation rate enhancement of hydrocarbons by an oleophilic fertilizer and a rhamnolipid biosurfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, S.A.; Griffin, R.A.; Jones, L.P.; Churchill, P.F.

    1995-01-01

    The oleophilic fertilizer Inipol EAP 22 and a microbial biosurfactant (rhamnotipid) were investigated for their ability to increase the rate of biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by pure bacterial cultures. Both Inipol EAP 22 and rhamnolipid were found to lower the surface tension of a phosphate buffered solution to 32 mN m{sup -1}. Each surfactant dramatically increased the apparent aqueous solubility of solid 2-methylnaphthalene, and were capable of emulsifying liquid hydrocarbons. Biodegradation experiments were carried out with the TOL plasmid-containing strain, Pseudomonas putida (ATCC30015); the OCT plasmid-containing strain, P. oleovorans (ATCC29347); and an unknown naphthalene-degrading strain (ATCC15075). Cells were grown under conditions where biodegradative enzymes were induced before their utilization. Model studies were conducted to investigate the ability of Inipol EAP 22 and rhamnolipid to enhance the rate of transport and uptake of hydrocarbons into bacterial cells, and to assess the impact that increasing the apparent aqueous solubility of hydrocarbons has on their rate of biodegradation. The extent of rate enhancement of compound mineralization resulting from surfactant addition was significantly greater for the sparingly soluble alkanes, hexadecane and octadecane, than for the more soluble aromatics, toluene and 2-methylnaphthalene. The results suggest that increasing the bioavailability of hydrocarbons to bacteria may be a useful method to accelerate the rate of biodegradation at contaminated sites. Lastly, the data supports the hypothesis that surface-active components present in the oleophilic fertilizer formulation, Inipol EAP 22, may have significantly contributed to the positive results reported in tests of remedial agent impact on bioremediation, which was used as a supplemental cleanup technology on Exxon Valdez crude oil contaminated Alaskan beaches. 27 ref., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Influence of a Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant on the Transport of Bacteria through a Sandy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Bai, G.; Brusseau, M. L.; Miller, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of an anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactant on the transport of bacterial cells through soil under saturated conditions. Three cell types with various hydrophobicities, i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, ATCC 27853, and ATCC 15442, were used in this study. In a series of experiments, columns packed with sterile sand were saturated with sterile artificial groundwater for 15 h, and then 3 pore volumes of (sup3)H-labeled bacterial suspensions with various rhamnolipid concentrations was pumped through the column. This was followed by 4 pore volumes of the rhamnolipid solution alone. The measured bacterial cell breakthrough curves were optimized by using an advection-dispersion transport model incorporating two-domain reversible sorption (instantaneous and rate limited) and with two first-order sink terms for irreversible adsorption. The influence of the rhamnolipid on the surface charge densities of the bacteria and the porous medium was also investigated. The results show that the rhamnolipid enhanced the transport of all cell types tested. For example, the rhamnolipid increased the recovery of the most hydrophilic strain, ATCC 9027, from 22.5 to 56.3%. Similarly, the recovery of ATCC 27853 increased from 36.8 to 49.4%, and the recovery of ATCC 15442, the most hydrophobic strain, increased from 17.7 to 40.5% in the presence of the rhamnolipid. The negative surface charge density of the porous medium was increased, while the surface charge density of the bacteria was not changed in the presence of the rhamnolipid. The model results suggest that the rhamnolipid predominantly affected irreversible adsorption of cells. PMID:16535601

  12. Towards the industrialization of new biosurfactants: Biotechnological opportunities for the lactone esterase gene from Starmerella bombicola.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Sophie L K W; Ciesielska, Katarzyna; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Moens, Helena; Everaert, Bernd; Verweire, Stijn; Denon, Quenten; Vanlerberghe, Brecht; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Van der Meeren, Paul; Devreese, Bart; Soetaert, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Although sophorolipids (SLs) produced by S. bombicola are a real showcase for the industrialization of microbial biosurfactants, some important drawbacks are associated with this efficient biological process, e.g., the simultaneous production of acidic and lactonic SLs. Depending on the application, there is a requirement for the naturally produced mixture to be manipulated to give defined ratios of the components. Recently, the enzyme responsible for the lactonization of SLs was discovered. The discovery of the gene encoding this lactone esterase (sble) enabled the development of promising S. bombicola strains producing either solely lactonic (using a sble overexpression strain described in this paper: oe sble) or solely acidic SLs (using a sble deletion strain, which was recently described, but not characterized yet: Δsble). The new S. bombicola strains were used to investigate the production processes (fermentation and purification) of either lactonic or acidic SLs. The strains maintain the high inherent productivities of the wild-type or even perform slightly better and thus represent a realistic industrial opportunity. 100% acidic SLs with a mixed acetylation pattern were obtained for the Δsble strain, while the inherent capacity to selectively produce lactonic SLs was significantly increased (+42%) for the oe sble strain (99% lactonic SLs). Moreover, the regulatory effect of citrate on lactone SL formation for the wild-type was absent in this new strain, which indicates that it is more robust and better suited for the industrial production of lactonic SLs. Basic parameters were determined for the purified SLs, which confirm that the two new strains produce molecules with distinctive properties of which the application potential can now easily be investigated independently. PMID:26301720

  13. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality. PMID:26471616

  14. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

  15. Phenazines and biosurfactants interact in the biological control of soil-borne diseases caused by Pythium spp.

    PubMed

    Perneel, Maaike; D'hondt, Liesbet; De Maeyer, Katrien; Adiobo, Amayana; Rabaey, Korneel; Höfte, Monica

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the putative role of phenazines and rhamnolipid-biosurfactants, antagonistic metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PNA1, was tested in the biological control of Pythium splendens on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) and Pythium myriotylum on cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium L Schott). A rhamnolipid-deficient and a phenazine-deficient mutant of PNA1 were used either separately or jointly in plant experiments. When the mutants were applied separately, no disease-suppressive effect was observed, although both mutants still produced one of the antagonistic compounds (phenazines or rhamnolipids). When the mutants were concurrently introduced in the soil, the biocontrol activity was restored to wild-type levels. Bean seeds developed significantly less pre-emergence damping-off caused by P. splendens when treated with a mixture of purified phenazine-1-carboxamide and rhamnolipids than with any of the chemicals alone. When phenazines and rhamnolipids were combined at concentrations that had no observable effects when the metabolites were applied separately, mycelial growth of P. myriotylum was significantly reduced. In addition, microscopic analysis revealed substantial vacuolization and disintegration of Pythium hyphae after incubation in liquid medium amended with both metabolites. Results of this study indicate that phenazines and biosurfactants are acting synergistically in the control of Pythium spp. PMID:18237310

  16. Colocalization of a CD1d-Binding Glycolipid with a Radiation-Attenuated Sporozoite Vaccine in Lymph Node-Resident Dendritic Cells for a Robust Adjuvant Effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangming; Kawamura, Akira; Andrews, Chasity D; Miller, Jessica L; Wu, Douglass; Tsao, Tiffany; Zhang, Min; Oren, Deena; Padte, Neal N; Porcelli, Steven A; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kappe, Stefan H I; Ho, David D; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-09-15

    A CD1d-binding glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), activates invariant NK T cells and acts as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying nearly 100-fold stronger CD1d binding affinity. In the current study, 7DW8-5 was found to exert a more potent adjuvant effect than αGalCer for a vaccine based on radiation-attenuated sporozoites of a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, also referred to as irradiated P. yoelii sporozoites (IrPySpz). 7DW8-5 had a superb adjuvant effect only when the glycolipid and IrPySpz were conjointly administered i.m. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of distinctly different biodistribution patterns of αGalCer and 7DW8-5 on their respective adjuvant activities. Although both glycolipids induce a similar cytokine response in sera of mice injected i.v., after i.m. injection, αGalCer induces a systemic cytokine response, whereas 7DW8-5 is locally trapped by CD1d expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) in draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Moreover, the i.m. coadministration of 7DW8-5 with IrPySpz results in the recruitment of DCs to dLNs and the activation and maturation of DCs. These events cause the potent adjuvant effect of 7DW8-5, resulting in the enhancement of the CD8(+) T cell response induced by IrPySpz and, ultimately, improved protection against malaria. Our study is the first to show that the colocalization of a CD1d-binding invariant NK T cell-stimulatory glycolipid and a vaccine, like radiation-attenuated sporozoites, in dLN-resident DCs upon i.m. conjoint administration governs the potency of the adjuvant effect of the glycolipid. PMID:26254338

  17. Glycolipid Metabolism Disorder in the Liver of Obese Mice Is Improved by TUDCA via the Restoration of Defective Hepatic Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qinyue; Shi, Qindong; Li, Huixia; Liu, Jiali; Wu, Shufang; Sun, Hongzhi; Zhou, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been considered an important regulator of energy metabolism in obesity. However, the mechanism underlying how TUDCA is involved in insulin resistance is not fully understood. We tested the effects of TUDCA on autophagic dysfunction in obese mice. Material and Methods. 500 mg/kg of TUDCA was injected into obese mice, and metabolic parameters, autophagy markers, and insulin signaling molecular were assessed by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Results. The TUDCA injections in the obese mice resulted in a reduced body weight gain, lower blood glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity compared with obese mice that were injected with vehicle. Meanwhile, TUDCA treatment not only reversed autophagic dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress, but also improved the impaired insulin signaling in the liver of obese mice. Additionally, the same results obtained with TUDCA were evident in obese mice treated with the adenoviral Atg7. Conclusions. We found that TUDCA reversed abnormal autophagy, reduced ER stress, and restored insulin sensitivity in the liver of obese mice and that glycolipid metabolism disorder was also improved via the restoration of defective hepatic autophagy. PMID:26681941

  18. Spatially-Resolved Analysis of Glycolipids and Metabolites in Living Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Konopka, Allan; Laskin, Julia

    2013-04-07

    Microorganisms release a diversity of organic compounds that couple interspecies metabolism, enable communication, or provide benefits to other microbes. Increased knowledge of microbial metabolite production will contribute to understanding of the dynamic microbial world and can potentially lead to new developments in drug discovery, biofuel production, and clinical research. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) is an ambient ionization technique that enables detailed chemical characterization of molecules from a specific location on a surface without special sample pretreatment. Due to its ambient nature, living bacterial colonies growing on agar plates can be rapidly and non-destructively analyzed. We performed spatially resolved nano-DESI analysis of living Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 colonies on agar plates. We use high resolution mass spectrometry and MS/MS analysis of the living Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 colonies to detect metabolites and lipids, and confirm their identities. We found that despite the high salt content of the agar (osmolarity ca. 700 mM), nano-DESI analysis enables detailed characterization of metabolites produced by the colony. Using this technique, we identified several glycolipids found on the living colonies and examined the effect of the age of the colony on the chemical gradient of glucosylglycerol secreted onto agar.

  19. Ieodoglucomide C and Ieodoglycolipid, New Glycolipids from a Marine-Derived Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis 09IDYM23.

    PubMed

    Tareq, Fakir Shahidullah; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Hee Jae

    2015-05-01

    Chemical examination of the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived bacterium Bacillus licheniformis resulted in the isolation of two new glycolipids, ieodoglucomide C (1) and ieodoglycolipid (2). The structural characterization of 1 and 2 was achieved by extensive spectroscopic evidence, including 2D NMR experiments. A combination of chemical derivatization techniques followed by NMR studies, LC-MS data analysis and a literature review was deployed for the establishment of the stereo-configurations of 1 and 2. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited good antibiotic properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MICs ranging from 0.01 to 0.05 μM. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of 1 and 2 was evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum as well as the human pathogen Candida albicans. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the mycelial growth of these pathogens with MIC values of 0.03-0.05 μM, revealing that these compounds are good candidates for the development of new fungicides. PMID:25893812

  20. Novel Glycolipids Synthesized Using Plant Essential Oils and Their Application in Quorum Sensing Inhibition and as Antibiofilm Agents

    PubMed Central

    Prabhune, Asmita

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) form an important part of traditional medicine so their anti-microbial and, in the recent past, antiquorum sensing activity has been well studied. However it is likely that due to their hydrophobic nature and reduced solubility in aqueous environments full potential of their activity cannot be realized. hence it is only rational to formulate a process to make these molecules more polar in nature. The present paper reports synthesis of sophorolipids using 12 different essential oils as substrates, thus providing surfactant-like properties to these EOs. The synthesis protocol makes the use of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 as producer organism. The production process required 7 days of incubation at 28°C and 180 rpm. Preliminary characterization of the synthesized essential oil sophorolipids (EOSLs) was performed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Additionally, essential oils that were incapable of mediating quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) on their own became potent quorum sensing inhibitors upon conversion into their corresponding EOSLs. Antibiofilm potential of these EOSLs was also demonstrated using V. cholerae as test organism. Use of essential oils as substrates for glycolipid synthesis has not been attempted previously, and hence this is the first report. PMID:24558341

  1. Selective formation of mannosyl-L-arabitol lipid by Pseudozyma tsukubaensis JCM16987.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kosaka, Ayana; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-07-01

    To develop a structural homolog of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), Pseudozyma tsukubaensis JCM16987 (known to be a specific producer of the diastereomer type of mono-acetylated MEL (MEL-B)) was cultivated in medium containing 4 % (w/v) olive oil as the primary carbon source and 4 % L-arabitol as the supplemental sugar alcohol. Based on thin-layer chromatography (TLC), the glycolipid extract showed two major spots corresponding to MEL-B and an unknown glycolipid (GL1). Based on high-performance liquid chromatography after acid hydrolysis, GL1 from the L-arabitol culture showed two primary peaks identical to mannose and arabitol using the sugar analysis column, and one peak identical to L-arabitol was detected using the chiral resolution column. Based on NMR analysis, GL1 was identified as mono-acetylated mannosyl-L-arabitol lipid (MLAL-B) consisting of mannose, with L-arabitol as the sugar moiety. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at the CMC (γCMC) of MLAL-B were 1.2 × 10(-5) M and 32.8 mN/m, which were significantly higher than MEL-B (CMC = 3.1 × 10(-6) M and γcmc = 26.1 mN/m). Furthermore, based on a water-penetration scan, MLAL-B efficiently formed lamellar phase (Lα) and myelins at a broad concentration range. Thus, the present glycolipid showed higher hydrophilicity and/or water solubility and increased our understanding of environmentally advanced biosurfactants. PMID:25957491

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Biosurfactant-Producing Halothermophilic Bacilli From Iranian Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Saeed; Ramezani, Amin; Ostvar, Sassan; Rezaei, Rasool; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes. Objectives: Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant‐producing halothermophiles. Materials and Methods: Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms. Results: Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%‐15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis

  3. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy with jejuno-jejunal or jejuno-ileal loop on glycolipid metabolism in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming-Wei; Liu, Shao-Zhuang; Zhang, Guang-Yong; Zhang, Xiang; Hu, San-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) with jejuno-jejunal or jejuno-ileal loop on glycolipid metabolism in diabetic rats. METHODS Diabetic rats, which were induced by high-fat diet (HFD), nicotinamide and low-dose streptozotocin, underwent sham operations, SG, SG with jejuno-ileal loop (SG-JI) and SG with jejuno-jejunal loop (SG-JJ) followed by postoperative HFD. Then, at the time points of baseline and 2, 12 and 24 wk postoperatively, we determined and compared several variables, including the area under the curve for the results of oral glucose tolerance test (AUCOGTT), serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and ghrelin in fasting state, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body weight, calorie intake, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and insulin secretions after glucose gavage at dose of 1 g/kg. RESULTS At 2 wk postoperatively, rats that underwent SG, SG-JJ and SG-JI, compared with sham-operated (SHAM) rats, demonstrated lower body weight, calorie intake and ghrelin (P < 0.05 vs SHAM), enhanced secretion of insulin and GLP-1 after glucose gavage (P < 0.05 vs SHAM), improved AUCOGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting serum triglyceride and cholesterol (AUCOGTT: 1616.9 ± 83.2, 837.4 ± 83.7, 874.9 ± 97.2 and 812.6 ± 81.9, P < 0.05 vs SHAM; HOMA-IR: 4.31 ± 0.54, 2.94 ± 0.22, 3.17 ± 0.37 and 3.41 ± 0.22, P < 0.05 vs SHAM; Triglyceride: 2.35 ± 0.17, 1.87 ± 0.23, 1.98 ± 0.30 and 2.04 ± 0.21 mmol/L, P < 0.05 vs SHAM; Cholesterol: 1.84 ± 0.21, 1.53 ± 0.20, 1.52 ± 0.20 and 1.46 ± 0.23 mmol/L). At 12 wk postoperatively, rats receiving SG-JJ and SG-JI had lower body weight, reduced levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and elevated level of GLP-1 compared to those receiving SG (P < 0.05 vs SG). At 24 wk after surgery, compared with SG, the advantage of SG-JJ and SG-JI for glucolipid metabolism was still evident (P < 0.05 vs SG). SG-JI had a better performance in lipid metabolism and GLP-1 secretion of rats than did SG-JJ. CONCLUSION

  4. Novel glycolipid TLR2 ligands of the type Pam2Cys-α-Gal: synthesis and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Jean-Sébastien; Monneaux, Fanny; Creusat, Gaëlle; Spanedda, Maria Vittoria; Heurtault, Béatrice; Habermacher, Chloé; Schuber, Francis; Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Frisch, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    A more complete understanding of the mechanism of action of TLR agonists has fueled the investigation of new synthetic immunoadjuvants. In this context, we designed and synthesized glycolipids of the type Pam(2)Cys-α-Galactose as novel immunoadjuvants. Their synthesis required modifying a hydrophobic tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety, i.e. the minimal structure required for TLR2 agonist activity, by addition of a hydrophilic head, either an α-Galactosylpyranose or an α-Galactosylfuranose to gain respectively Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf. While preparing a carbohydrate building block, an unexpected stereoselectivity was observed during a halide ion-catalytic process on a protected galactofuranose: the alpha anomer was obtained with surprisingly high selectivity (α/β ratio>9) and with good isolated yield (51%). The TLR2 binding properties of Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were then fully evaluated. Their efficiency in triggering the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes was also compared to that of Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG, two well-established ligands of TLRs. Moreover, the maturation state of murine dendritic cells previously incubated with either Pam(2)CGalp or Pam(2)CGalf was monitored by flow cytometry and compared to that induced by lipopolysaccharide. Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were found to be equivalent TLR2 agonists, and induced splenocyte proliferation and DC maturation. With very similar activity, Pam(2)CGalp and Pam(2)CGalf were also 10-fold to 100-fold better than Pam(2)CAG and Pam(3)CAG at inducing B cell proliferation. This represents the first time a glucidic head has been added to the tBoc-[2,3-bispalmitoyloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl moiety whilst maintaining the immunomodulating activity. This should greatly enrich the data available on Pam(2)C structure/activity relationships. PMID:22483966

  5. Screening Glycolipids Against Proteins in Vitro Using Picodiscs and Catch-and-Release Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Fan, Xuxin; Kitova, Elena N; Zou, Chunxia; Cairo, Christopher W; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth K S; Xiong, Zi Jian; Privé, Gilbert G; Klassen, John S

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the application of the catch-and-release electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay, implemented using picodiscs (complexes comprised of saposin A and lipids, PDs), to screen mixtures of glycolipids (GLs) against water-soluble proteins to detect specific interactions. To demonstrate the reliability of the method, seven gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GD2, and GT1b) were incorporated, either individually or as a mixture, into PDs and screened against two lectins: the B subunit homopentamer of cholera toxin (CTB5) and a subfragment of toxin A from Clostridium difficile (TcdA-A2). The CaR-ESI-MS results revealed that CTB5 binds to six of the gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b), while TcdA-A2 binds to five of them (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, and GT1b). These findings are consistent with the measured binding specificities of these proteins for ganglioside oligosaccharides. Screening mixtures of lipids extracted from porcine brain and a human epithelial cell line against CTB5 revealed binding to multiple GM1 isoforms as well as to fucosyl-GM1, which is a known ligand. Finally, a comparison of the present results with data obtained with the CaR-ESI-MS assay implemented using nanodiscs (NDs) revealed that the PDs exhibited similar or superior performance to NDs for protein-GL binding measurements. PMID:27049760

  6. Beta Hydroxylation of Glycolipids from Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma flocculosa by an NADPH-Dependent β-Hydroxylase▿

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Beate; Lefebvre, François; Labbé, Caroline; Bölker, Michael; Linne, Uwe; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Flocculosin and ustilagic acid (UA), two highly similar antifungal cellobiose lipids, are respectively produced by Pseudozyma flocculosa, a biocontrol agent, and Ustilago maydis, a plant pathogen. Both glycolipids contain a short-chain fatty acid hydroxylated at the β position but differ in the long fatty acid, which is hydroxylated at the α position in UA and at the β position in flocculosin. In both organisms, the biosynthesis genes are arranged in large clusters. The functions of most genes have already been characterized, but those of the P. flocculosa fhd1 gene and its homolog from U. maydis, uhd1, have remained undefined. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes show homology to those of short-chain dehydrogenases and reductases (SDR). We disrupted the uhd1 gene in U. maydis and analyzed the secreted UA. uhd1 deletion strains produced UA lacking the β-hydroxyl group of the short-chain fatty acid. To analyze the function of P. flocculosa Fhd1, the corresponding gene was used to complement U. maydis Δuhd1 mutants. Fhd1 was able to restore wild-type UA production, indicating that Fhd1 is responsible for β hydroxylation of the flocculosin short-chain fatty acid. We also investigated a P. flocculosa homolog of the U. maydis long-chain fatty-acid alpha hydroxylase Ahd1. The P. flocculosa ahd1 gene, which does not reside in the flocculosin gene cluster, was introduced into U. maydis Δahd1 mutant strains. P. flocculosa Ahd1 neither complemented the U. maydis Δahd1 phenotype nor resulted in the production of β-hydroxylated UA. This suggests that P. flocculosa Ahd1 is not involved in flocculosin hydroxylation. PMID:21926207

  7. Beta hydroxylation of glycolipids from Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma flocculosa by an NADPH-dependent β-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Beate; Lefebvre, François; Labbé, Caroline; Bölker, Michael; Linne, Uwe; Bélanger, Richard R

    2011-11-01

    Flocculosin and ustilagic acid (UA), two highly similar antifungal cellobiose lipids, are respectively produced by Pseudozyma flocculosa, a biocontrol agent, and Ustilago maydis, a plant pathogen. Both glycolipids contain a short-chain fatty acid hydroxylated at the β position but differ in the long fatty acid, which is hydroxylated at the α position in UA and at the β position in flocculosin. In both organisms, the biosynthesis genes are arranged in large clusters. The functions of most genes have already been characterized, but those of the P. flocculosa fhd1 gene and its homolog from U. maydis, uhd1, have remained undefined. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes show homology to those of short-chain dehydrogenases and reductases (SDR). We disrupted the uhd1 gene in U. maydis and analyzed the secreted UA. uhd1 deletion strains produced UA lacking the β-hydroxyl group of the short-chain fatty acid. To analyze the function of P. flocculosa Fhd1, the corresponding gene was used to complement U. maydis Δuhd1 mutants. Fhd1 was able to restore wild-type UA production, indicating that Fhd1 is responsible for β hydroxylation of the flocculosin short-chain fatty acid. We also investigated a P. flocculosa homolog of the U. maydis long-chain fatty-acid alpha hydroxylase Ahd1. The P. flocculosa ahd1 gene, which does not reside in the flocculosin gene cluster, was introduced into U. maydis Δahd1 mutant strains. P. flocculosa Ahd1 neither complemented the U. maydis Δahd1 phenotype nor resulted in the production of β-hydroxylated UA. This suggests that P. flocculosa Ahd1 is not involved in flocculosin hydroxylation. PMID:21926207

  8. Shedding and enrichment of the glycolipid-anchored complement lysis inhibitor protectin (CD59) into milk fat globules.

    PubMed

    Hakulinen, J; Meri, S

    1995-07-01

    Protectin (CD59) is a glycolipid-anchored inhibitor of the membrane attack complex (MAC) of human complement (C) that protects blood cells, endothelial cells and various epithelial cells from C-mediated lysis. Because of its activities protectin is a candidate molecule for use in the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria or conditions where MAC causes tissue damage. Soluble, phospholipid-free forms of protectin have been isolated from human urine and produced in recombinant form, but they have only a relatively weak C lysis-inhibiting activity. In the present study we have looked for functionally active protectin in human breast milk. Milk is rich in fat droplets, milk fat globules (MFG), that are enveloped in a plasma membrane derived from secretory cells of the mammary gland. The membranes of MFG contain a variety of glycoproteins expressed by the mammary epithelial cells. Both immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that protectin was strongly expressed on human MFG. In sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, MFG protectin (CD59M) appeared as distinct bands with apparent molecular weights of 19,000-23,000 MW, similar to protectin extracted from MCF7 breast carcinoma cells. CD59M in breast milk was functionally active and had a glycophospholipid anchor, as judged by its ability to incorporate into guinea-pig erythrocytes and inhibit their lysis by human complement. These results indicate that functionally active protectin becomes enriched in MFG and imply that secretion of glycophospholipid-anchored molecules, e.g. into cow milk and colostrum, could be exploited as a means of producing bioactive molecules that need to be targeted into cell membranes. PMID:7558140

  9. Production of biosurfactant lipopeptides Iturin A, fengycin and surfactin A from Bacillus subtilis CMB32 for control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Ryu, Jaewon; Kim, Young Hwan; Chi, Youn-Tae

    2010-01-01

    A bacterial strain isolated from soil for its potential to control the anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was identified as a Bacillus subtilis. Bacillus subtilis CMB32 produced antifungal agents on M9 broth at 30degreesC. Biosurfactant lipopeptides produced by Bacillus subtilis CMB32 were precipitated by adjusting to pH 2 and extracting using chloroform/methanol, and then were purified using column chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Molecular masses of the lipopeptides were estimated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as (a) 1080, (b) 1486, and (c) 1044 Da, respectively. They had cyclic structures and amino acid compositions of (a) Pro, Asx, Ser, Tyr, Glx, (b) Glx, Tyr, Thr, Ala, Pro, Ile, and (c) Glx, Leu, Val, Asx, respectively. Further analysis revealed that Bacillus subtilis CMB32 produced three antifungal lipopeptides: (a) iturin A, (b) fengycin, and (c) surfactin A. PMID:20134245

  10. Improvement of methyl orange dye biotreatment by a novel isolated strain, Aeromonas veronii GRI, by SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Raouia; Kriaa, Mouna; Ellouze, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii GRI (KF964486), isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on azo dye, was assessed for methyl orange biodegradation potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of azo-dye-contaminated wastewaters under static conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it was able to decolorize up to 1000 mg/l. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance methyl orange biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized slightly the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of about 0.025%. In order to enhance the process efficiency, a Taguchi design was conducted. Phytotoxicity bioassay using sesame and radish seeds were carried out to assess the biotreatment effectiveness. The bacterium was able to effectively decolorize the azo dye when inoculated with an initial optical density of about 0.5 with 0.25% sucrose, 0.125% yeast extract, 0.01% SPB1 biosurfactant, and when conducting an agitation phase of about 24 h after static incubation. Germination potency showed an increase toward the nonoptimized conditions indicating an improvement of the biotreatment. When comparing with synthetic surfactants, a drastic decrease and an inhibition of orange methyl decolorization were observed in the presence of CTAB and SDS. The nonionic surfactant Tween 80 had a positive effect on methyl orange biodecolorization. Also, studies ensured that methyl orange removal by this strain could be due to endocellular enzymatic activities. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing effective decolorization period, biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in treatment of textile effluents. PMID:26396008

  11. Isolation of hydrocarbon-degrading and biosurfactant-producing bacteria and assessment their plant growth-promoting traits.

    PubMed

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Iwan, Joanna; Żarska, Monika; Chorążewski, Mirosław; Dzida, Marzena; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-03-01

    Forty-two hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from the soil heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Forty-one strains were identified based on their whole-cell fatty acid profiles using the MIDI-MIS method. Thirty-three of them belong to species Rhodococcus erythropolis, while the others to the genera Rahnella (4), Serratia (3) and Proteus (1). Isolates were screened for their ability to produce biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers. For all of them the activity of several mechanisms characteristic for plant growth-promoting bacteria was also determined. In order to investigate surface active and emulsifying abilities of isolates following methods: oil-spreading, blood agar, methylene blue agar and determination of emulsification index, were used. Among studied bacteria 12 strains (CD 112, CD 126, CD 131, CD 132, CD 135, CD 147, CD 154, CD 155, CD 158, CD 161, CD 166 and CD 167) have been chosen as promising candidates for the production of biosurfactants and/or bioemulsifiers. Among them 2 strains (R. erythropolis CD 126 and Rahnella aquatilis CD 132) had the highest potential to be used in the bioaugmentation of PH-contaminated soil. Moreover, 15 of tested strains (CD 105, CD 106, CD 108, CD 111, CD 116, CD 120, CD 124, CD 125, CD 130, CD 132, CD 134, CD 154, CD 156, CD 161 and CD 170) showed the activity of four mechanisms (ACC deaminase activity, IAA and siderophore production, phosphate solubilization) considered to be characteristic for plant growth-promoting bacteria. Two of them (R. erythropolis CD 106 and R. erythropolis CD 111) showed the highest activity of above-mentioned mechanisms and thus are considered as promising agents in microbe assisted phytoremediation. PMID:26708648

  12. Hydrolysis and acidification of waste-activated sludge in the presence of biosurfactant rhamnolipid: effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Ye, Qing; Yi, Xin; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Hong-bo; Liu, Xian; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, the effect of pH (4.0-11.0) on waste-activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis and acidification in the presence of a biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) were studied. The results showed that the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS in the presence of RL at alkaline pH values were more efficient than that at acidic and near-neutral pH values. After 6 h of hydrolysis, the soluble protein and carbohydrate were 1,654.7 and 675.9 mg/L (pH 11.0), and 825.6 and 376.0 mg/L (pH 7.0), whereas the values were only 315.0 and 84.0 mg/L at pH 4.0 and 164.1 and 32.0 mg/L for the blank, respectively. After 2 or 3 days of fermentation, the accumulated short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) reached the highest and then decreased with a further increase in time at all investigated pH values. The analysis of SCFA compositions showed that acetic, propionic, and iso-valeric acids were the three main products at any pH value. A higher pH contributed to a greater proportion of acetic acid and a lesser proportion of iso-valeric acid; a lower pH resulted in a greater proportion of iso-valeric and lesser proportion of acetic acid in the initial fermentation. The proportions of acetic acid for the system with biosurfactant RL addition were 16.65, 36.33, and 62.94 %, respectively, at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 11.0 after 1 day. Correspondingly, the proportions were 40.34, 12.60, and 11.01 % for iso-valeric acid. PMID:22948955

  13. Purification and identification of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 lipopeptide biosurfactant exhibiting antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia bataticola and Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Grau-Campistany, Ariadna; Coronel-León, Jonathan; Hammami, Inès; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Manresa, Angeles; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the potential of a soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis strain SPB1, to produce lipopeptide biosurfactants. Firstly, the crude lipopeptide mixture was tested for its inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi. A minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), an inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50%), and an inhibitory concentration at 90% (IC90%) values were determined to be 0.04, 0.012, and 0.02 mg/ml, respectively, for Rhizoctonia bataticola with a fungistatic mode of action. For Rhizoctonia solani, a MIC, an IC50%, and IC90% values were determined to be 4, 0.25, and 3.3 mg/ml, respectively, with a fungicidal mode of action. For both of the fungi, a loss of sclerotial integrity, granulation and fragmentation of hyphal mycelia, followed by hyphal shriveling and cell lysis were observed with the treatment with SPB1 biosurfactant fraction. After extraction, separation, and purification, different lipopeptide compounds were identified in the culture filtrate of strain SPB1. Mass spectroscopic analysis confirmed the presence of different lipopeptide compounds consisting of surfactin isoforms with molecular weights of 1007, 1021, and 1035 Da; iturin isoforms with molecular weights of 1028, 1042, and 1056 Da; and fengycin isoforms with molecular weights of 1432 and 1446 Da. Two new clusters of lipopeptide isoforms with molecular weights of 1410 and 1424 Da and 973 and 987 Da, respectively, were also detected. This study reported the ability of a B. subtilis strain to co-produce lipopeptide isoforms with potential use as antifungal compounds. PMID:26645234

  14. Evaluation of rhamnolipid (RL) as a biosurfactant for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions by precipitate flotation.

    PubMed

    Salmani Abyaneh, Ali; Fazaelipoor, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipid (RL) is a biosurfactant which is produced by the bacterial species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although applications of this material have been examined in various fields, its applications in the flotation of heavy metals remain to be explored. In this research, rhamnolipid was applied as a collector in the flotation of Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. FeSO4 was used for the precipitation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) which was subsequently removed by flotation. A two level full factorial design (with center points) was used to evaluate the effects of pH, air flow rate, RL/Cr and Fe/Cr molar ratios on the performance of the flotation system. The results showed that the biosurfactant was highly effective in the removal of chromium, and all of the factors had significant effects on the flotation performance. The chromium removal efficiencies of greater than 95% were obtained with the initial chromium concentration of 40 ppm within 5 min. Kinetic studies showed that a first order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the precipitate flotation of Cr(III) using rhamnolipid as a collector. The interference of NaCl, CaCl2, CaSO4, and CaCO3 on the Cr removal was also investigated, and it was demonstrated that CaSO4 and CaCO3 as sparingly water soluble salts, and CaCl2 as a contributor to water hardness had significant negative impacts on Cr removal efficiency of rhamnolipid. PMID:26433359

  15. Structure and Characterization of Flavolipids, a Novel Class of Biosurfactants Produced by Flavobacterium sp. Strain MTN11

    PubMed Central

    Bodour, Adria A.; Guerrero-Barajas, Claudia; Jiorle, Beth V.; Malcomson, Mark E.; Paull, Amanda K.; Somogyi, Arpad; Trinh, Long N.; Bates, Robert B.; Maier, Raina M.

    2004-01-01

    Herein we report the structure and selected properties of a new class of biosurfactants that we have named the flavolipids. The flavolipids exhibit a unique polar moiety that features citric acid and two cadaverine molecules. Flavolipids were produced by a soil isolate, Flavobacterium sp. strain MTN11 (accession number AY162137), during growth in mineral salts medium, with 2% glucose as the sole carbon and energy source. MTN11 produced a mixture of at least 37 flavolipids ranging from 584 to 686 in molecular weight (MW). The structure of the major component (23%