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1

Induction of hairy roots in Gmelina arborea Roxb. and production of verbascoside in hairy roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling tissues of Gmelina arborea, a medicinally important tree species, were infected with wild type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATTCC 15834, which led to the induction of hairy roots from 32% of the explants. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by PCR using rolB specific primers, and subsequently, by Southern analysis of the PCR products. Six transformed clones of hairy

Shrutika Dhakulkar; T. R. Ganapathi; Sujata Bhargava; V. A. Bapat

2005-01-01

2

Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

2010-01-01

3

Degradation of the soil physicochemical properties resulting from continuous logging of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the changes in soil properties in sites subjected to continuous logging in exotics plantation sites of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis with the aim to evaluate the deterioration level of the soil productivity in respect to human disturbance. Thirty five sampling plots, each measuring 40 m x 25 m were used for soil sampling. Standard field and

O. O Awotoye?; O. Ekanade

2009-01-01

4

Iridoid glycoside-based quantitative chromatographic fingerprint analysis: A rational approach for quality assessment of Indian medicinal plant Gambhari ( Gmelina arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive, selective and robust qualitative and quantitative densitometric high-performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of iridoid glycoside in the aerial part of Gambhari (Gmelina arborea). Iridoid gycoside 6-O-(2?,3?-dibenzoyl)-?-l-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (IG) was used as a chemical marker for the standardization of G. arborea plant extracts. The separation was performed on aluminum Kieselgel 60F254 TLC plates

Akhilesh K. Yadav; N. Tiwari; P. Srivastava; Subhash C. Singh; K. Shanker; Ram K. Verma; Madan M. Gupta

2008-01-01

5

Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1–1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash values were also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higher than leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications. PMID:23569939

Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

2012-01-01

6

Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn  

PubMed Central

Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

Kannan, R.; Prasant, K.; Babu, U. V.

2012-01-01

7

Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn.  

E-print Network

that the rooting of terminal cuttings was poor with Salix cinerea, while the position on the stem made no difference in rooting and growth of Salix fragilis, S. triandra, and S. viminalis x americana. The lower cuttings from two-year-old ~po ulus deltoides... that the rooting of terminal cuttings was poor with Salix cinerea, while the position on the stem made no difference in rooting and growth of Salix fragilis, S. triandra, and S. viminalis x americana. The lower cuttings from two-year-old ~po ulus deltoides...

Hicks, Van Joseph

2012-06-07

8

Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview  

PubMed Central

Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc. PMID:22654406

Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

2012-01-01

9

(SPIZELLA ARBOREA) AND DARK-EYED JUNCOS (JUNCO HYEMALIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTmCT.--Despite similarities in winter distribution, habitat selection, and food choice, Dark-eyed Juncos ()unco hyemalis) and Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) differ in the extent to which they store fat during winter, with juncos accumulating greater stores. Anticipating that Tree Sparrows might have some means of conserving energy during fasting and thus suffer no disadvantage when weather prevents feeding, we compared the

MIKI M. STUEBE; ELLEN D. KETTER

10

Extraocular control of photorefractoriness in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Photorefractoriness, a reversible state of unresponsiveness to daylengths of gonadostimulatory duration, terminates seasonal breeding in many photoperiodic species of birds. Whether the eyes are components of the mechanism that triggers photorefractoriness is an important, but heretofore unresolved, question. Although a role for extraocular photoreception in the mechanism of photoinduced gonadal growth is well documented, the eyes may be important in the mechanism of photorefractoriness if, as some evidence suggests, they are gonadoinhibitory. With American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), I here confirm that the absence of eyes does not impede photoinduced testicular growth and establish that an extraocular mechanism mediates the transition from photosensitivity to photorefractoriness: Tree sparrows blinded by bilateral ocular enucleation, when photosensitivity to long days or by miniature self-powered lights implanted atop the skull, showed marked testicular growth and then, as evidenced by spontaneous testicular regression, became photorefractory, as did sighted controls. PMID:2804201

Wilson, F E

1989-07-01

11

AN ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF HYDROMETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF URTICA PARVIFLORA ROXB.  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. (family Urticaceae) was investigated by different in vitro methods, namely, nitric oxide scavenging, DPPH scavenging, and reducing power assay. In the present study, plant extract exhibited dose dependent free radical scavenging and reducing activity. The antioxidant activity of the hydromethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. was compared with ascorbic acid as standard. In addition, phytochemical screening of hydromethanolic extract of the plant was undertaken to identify the phytochemicals present in the extract. Phytochemical examination revealed the presence of alkaloids, polysaccharides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides and tannins. It was concluded that the extract contains important phytoconstituents responsible for antioxidant effect. The study indicated that Urtica parviflora could protect the cell injury caused by the reactive oxygen species and might be a valuable source of antioxidant both for medicine and food industry PMID:24825987

Pandey, Savita; Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Sah, Mukesh Lal; Mishra, Devendra

2010-01-01

12

Dracaena arborea alleviates ultra-structural spermatogenic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility is a common complication in diabetic men and experimental animals, mainly due to loss of germ cells by apoptotic cell death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dracaena arborea in streptozotocin-induced ultra-structural spermatogenic alterations in Wistar rats. Methods Diabetic animals were orally treated with Millipore water (10?ml/kg), sildenafil citrate (1.44?mg/kg) or Dracaena arborea aqueous (500?mg/kg) and ethanol (100?mg/kg) extracts for three weeks. A group of non diabetic rats received Millipore water (10?ml/kg) and served as healthy control group. Blood glucose was monitored at the beginning and the end of the study. One day after the last treatment, animals were sacrificed and the testes immediately removed were morphologically observed and prepared for electron microscopy analysis of spermatogenesis. Results Our results showed that Dracaena arborea was devoid of any anti-hyperglycemic activity. In the untreated diabetic rats, hyperglycemia severely damaged the testes morphology as well as the spermatogenic process as evidenced by the: thickness of basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule; mitochondria alteration; abnormal spermatocyte cells displaying polymorphous nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis; and disorganization and degeneration of sperm germ cells. Administration of sildenafil citrate and Dracaena arborea extracts to the diabetic rats improved testes morphology and reversed, although not completely, the impairment of spermatogenesis; this alleviating effect was more pronounced in animals treated with the aqueous extract (500?mg/kg) of Dracaena arborea. Conclusion Dracaena arborea improves testes morphology and restores spermatogenesis in type 1 diabetic rats, without having major anti-hyperglycemic properties. These effects could be attributed to saponins, flavonoids, phenols and sterols revealed in this plant, which could be a useful component in the treatment of diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction. PMID:23548080

2013-01-01

13

The thyroid and photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), the effects of (1) thyroxine administered in drinking water to thyroid-intact photosensitive or photorefractory birds, and (2) radiothyroidectomy before and after photostimulation and during photorefractoriness were examined. Chronic administration of pharmacological doses of thyroxine induced testicular growth and

F. E. Wilson; B. D. Reinert

1993-01-01

14

A STUDY OF FASTING IN TREE SPARROWS (SPIZELLA ARBOREA) AND DARK-EYED  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF FASTING IN TREE SPARROWS (SPIZELLA ARBOREA) AND DARK-EYED JUNCOS (JUNCO HYEMALIS-eyed Juncos(]uncohyemalis)and Tree Sparrows(Spizellaarborea)differ in the extent for prolongedperiodsor stormsprevent feed- ing. Like many other speciesthatwinter in the north-temperatezone, juncos

15

Kinetics of the Thermal Degradation of Erica Arborea by DSC: Hybrid Kinetic Method D. Cancellieri*  

E-print Network

1 Kinetics of the Thermal Degradation of Erica Arborea by DSC: Hybrid Kinetic Method D. Cancellieri. DSC and TGA were used in this study under air sweeping to record oxidative reactions. Two dominating and overlapped exothermic peaks were recorded in DSC and individualized using a experimental and numerical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Preliminary Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies on Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. bark was tested against different species of bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanolic extract showed that there was no growth in Shigella soneii 2, E.coli MTCC 1568, Bacillus pumilus 8241, Proteus mirabilis AM 198, Bacillus subtelis ATCC 6633, E. Coli Row 7/12 Species at 200-400g/ml. From the result obtained, it was observed that the methanolic extract of. Artocarpus lakoocha at concentration of 200 gl ml and 400 gl ml exhibited a good activity against gram negative bacteria. PMID:22557328

Pandey, Anima; Bhatnagar, S.P.

2009-01-01

17

Hypothalamic neurosecretion and photoinduced testicular growth in the tree sparrow, Spizella arborea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the role of the hypothalamic neurosecretory system in the mechanism of photoperiodic control of testicular growth in Spizella arborea, we have examined the effect of (1) photostimulation on the density of paraldehyde-fuchsin-stainable (PAF+) material in the neurovascular zone of the median eminence, and (2) interruption of the hypothalamo-hypophysial (neurosecretory) tract on the photoperiodic testicular response. Birds were captured

Fred E. Wilson; G. Roger Hands

1968-01-01

18

The Thyroid and the Hypothalamus–Pituitary–Ovarian Axis in American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompted by evidence of a linkage between the thyroid gland and seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we measured circulating T4(L-thyroxine), hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone, variant I), pituitary and plasma LH (luteinizing hormone), and ovarian mass in euthyroid females moved from short to long days. Our purpose was to correlate temporal changes in T4and cGnRH-I

Bryan D. Reinert; Fred E. Wilson

1996-01-01

19

Time of Thyroidectomy Variably Affects Seasonality in Female American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were injected with Na131I before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation in order to study the effect of time of thyroidectomy on three components of seasonality: thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt. Thyroidectomy before or at the onset of photostimulation abolished all components of seasonality; birds exhibited only minor thyroid-independent

Fred E Wilson; Bryan D Reinert

1999-01-01

20

Stem elongation and runnering in the mutant strawberry, Fragaria vesca L. ArboreaStaudt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-stemmed strawberry mutant Fragaria vesca arboreaStaudt (arb\\/arb) was crossed with a non-runnering form (r\\/r) of everbearing strawberry F. vesca semperflorensDuch. and the four recessive everbearing segregants were identified (arb\\/arb, r\\/r), (arb\\/arb, +\\/+), (+, r\\/r) and (+, +). The longstemmed segregants runnered even when the dominant gene for runnering was absent. The morphological similarity between the mutant arb\\/arb and the

C. G. Guttridge

1973-01-01

21

Phenological documentation of an invasive species, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.  

PubMed

Phenological documentation and plant invasion are key contemporary issues in the biological sciences. Recognizing this, the present paper describes the phenological stages of an invasive species, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. A tree of the species was marked, and daily visits were made for recording its phenology. The Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and CHemical industry (BBCH) scale was used for documenting the same. Of the total ten principal stages, eight were observed in the species. These stages started with bud development (stage 01) in the month of March and ended with leaf fall (stage 97) in the month of December. Descriptions of the phenological stages and their dates are provided in the text. It is hoped that such a phenological scale will be helpful in managing plant invasion. PMID:24633786

Jaryan, Vikrant; Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Gupta, R C; Singh, R D

2014-07-01

22

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects.  

PubMed

Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100?g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32?mg and 102.85?mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8?mg Iron, and 121 and 325?mg phosphorus in 100?g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85?Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the water chestnut kernel, Trapa bispinosa are reported. In this paper, the recent reports on nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of Trapa bispinosa Roxb, as a medicinal and nutritional food, are reviewed. PMID:24669216

Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V H

2014-01-01

23

Bronchodilator activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb  

PubMed Central

Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for infectious diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. has been used in Indian system of medicine in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold, colic pain, etc. Stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. has been used as a decoction in traditional claims. So, our traditional claims enforced us to evaluate its bronchodilator activity. We have evaluated its bronchodilator activity in milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology models. The aqueous extract of stem bark in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg showed significant activity. PMID:21808549

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhujbal, S. S.; Deoda, R. S.; Mudgade, S. C.

2010-01-01

24

A proteomic analysis of Curcuma comosa Roxb. rhizomes  

PubMed Central

Background The similarly in plant physiology and the difficulty of plant classification, in some medicinal plant species, especially plants of the Zingiberaceae family, are a major problem for pharmacologists, leading to mistaken use. To overcome this problem, the proteomic base method was used to study protein profiles of the plant model, Curcuma comosa Roxb., which is a member of the Zingiberaceae and has been used in traditional Thai medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of postpartum uterine bleeding. Results Due to the complexity of protein extraction from this plant, microscale solution-phase isoelectric focusing (MicroSol-IEF) was used to enrich and improve the separation of Curcuma comosa rhizomes phenol-soluble proteins, prior to resolving and analyzing by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identification by tandem mass spectrometry. The protein patterns showed a high abundance of protein spots in the acidic range, including three lectin proteins. The metabolic and defense enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase, that are associated with antioxidant activity, were mainly found in the basic region. Furthermore, cysteine protease was found in this plant, as had been previously reported in other Zingiberaceae plants. Conclusion This report presents the protein profiles of the ginger plant, Curcuma comosa. Several interesting proteins were identified in this plant that may be used as a protein marker and aid in identifying plants of the Zingiberaceae family. PMID:21801377

2011-01-01

25

Corticosterone Treatment Has No Effect on Reproductive Hormones or Aggressive Behavior in Free-living Male Tree Sparrows, Spizella arborea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of corticosterone on plasma levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and luteinizing hormone) and territorial defense behavior in male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea. Birds receiving Silastic implants filled with corticosterone (B) had significantly higher plasma levels of B than control birds, which received empty implants, and exhibited pectoral muscle wastage and a decrease in body mass.

Lee B. Astheimer; William A. Buttemer; John C. Wingfield

2000-01-01

26

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at dose of 200mg\\/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and

Avijeet Jain; Manish Soni; Lokesh Deb; Anurekha Jain; S. P. Rout; V. B. Gupta; K. L. Krishna

2008-01-01

27

Antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Background: Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for different diseases. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering natural products that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine as an antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, anticolic pain, anticancer, antidiabetic etc. The plant was also reported for its antiasthmatic, bronchodilatory, antiallegic and many more such activities. Objective: To evaluate the antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Materials and Methods: We have studied the effect of aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. at a doses 100 ?g/mL in the isolated goat tracheal chain preparation in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg/kg doses orally in passive paw anaphylaxis in rat, clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice models in vivo for its antihistaminic activity. Results: Aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. significantly (***P<0.001) inhibits the percentage contraction at concentration of 100 ?g/mL in goat tracheal chain preparation. A. excelsa Roxb. extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also significantly reduced (**P<0.01) the paw volume at fourth hour and the percentage inhibition was found to be 13.98%, 28.49%, 42.47% and 46.77% respectively. The aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and chlorpheniramine maleate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited (*P<0.05, **P< 0.01) clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice at 150 min after the administration of clonidine. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. possess significant antihistaminic activity (H1-antagonist) and can be attributed to bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic activity etc. Hence detailed study needs to be conducted to evaluate the phytoconstituent responsible for the above mentioned results and their clinical efficacy in the treatment of related diseases. PMID:22022173

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Z. A.; Singh, P.; Bhujbal, S. S.; Deoda, R. S.

2011-01-01

28

Time of thyroidectomy variably affects seasonality in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were injected with Na131I before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation in order to study the effect of time of thyroidectomy on three components of seasonality: thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt. Thyroidectomy before or at the onset of photostimulation abolished all components of seasonality; birds exhibited only minor thyroid-independent photoperiodic ovarian growth. Thyroidectomy on day 7 of photostimulation blocked the transition from photosensitivity to photorefractoriness; although birds showed thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, they neither exhibited ovarian regression nor initiated postnuptial molt. Thyroidectomy on day 14, 21, or 28 of photostimulation had no remarkable effect on any component of seasonality. We conclude that separate mechanisms control photoperiodic ovarian growth and photorefractoriness/molt and that, early during photostimulation, the thyroid has a codependent role in programming female tree sparrows for vernal as well as autumnal seasonal events. PMID:10336830

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1999-06-01

29

Supplementary feeding affects the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs (Hyla arborea)  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the effects of energetic constraints on the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs Hyla arborea and how calling males allocated additional energy supplied by feeding experiments. Results Presence in the chorus was energetically costly indicated by both fed and unfed males losing weight. Males that were supplied with additional energy did not show longer chorus tenure. Instead, fed males returned sooner to the chorus. Additionally, fed males called more often than control males, a novel response for anurans. A significantly higher calling rate was noted from males even 31 nights after supplementary feeding. Conclusion This strategy of allocating additional energy reserves to increasing calling rate is beneficial given the preference of female hylids for males calling at high rates and a female's ability to detect small incremental increases in calling rate. PMID:19128468

Meuche, Ivonne; Grafe, T Ulmar

2009-01-01

30

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits.  

PubMed

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1-10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 10(6) cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100-200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C; Patidar, Arjun O; Malviya, K G; Shivhare-Malviya, K K

2011-07-01

31

Thyroid Dysfunction and Thyroxine-Dependent Programming of Photoinduced Ovarian Growth in American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time course of thyroid dysfunction after injecting 0.30 mCi Na131I was charted in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) transferred to long days on Day 0 and challenged with 30 ?g bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone on Postinjection Days 4, 7, 46, and 105. Serum T4(L-thyroxine) was not detectable in thyroidectomized birds, indicating complete thyroid dysfunction by Day 4 and no

Bryan D. Reinert; Fred E. Wilson

1996-01-01

32

Photosystem II photochemistry and physiological parameters of three fodder shrubs, Nitraria retusa , Atriplex halimus and Medicago arborea under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitraria retusa and Atriplex halimus (xero-halophytes) plants were grown in the range 0–800 mM NaCl while Medicago arborea (glycophyte) in 0–300 mM NaCl. Salt stress caused a marked decrease in osmotic potential and a significant accumulation of\\u000a Na+ and Cl? in leaves of both species. Moderate salinity had a stimulating effect on growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration and stomatal conductance for

Fayçal Boughalleb; Mounir Denden; Bechir Ben Tiba

2009-01-01

33

Habitat fragmentation causes bottlenecks and inbreeding in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea).  

PubMed Central

A genetic study of the European tree frog, Hyla arborea, in Denmark was undertaken to examine the population structure on mainland Jutland and the island of Lolland after a period of reduction in suitable habitat and population sizes. The two regions have experienced the same rate of habitat loss but fragmentation has been more severe on Lolland. Genetic variation based on 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellites was analysed in 494 tree frogs sampled from two ponds in Jutland and 10 ponds on Lolland. A significant overall deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations could be attributed to three ponds, all on Lolland. This was most probably caused by an inbreeding effect reducing fitness, which was supported by the observed significant negative correlation between larva survival and mean F(IS) value and mean individual inbreeding coefficient. A significant reduction in genetic variation (bottleneck) was detected in most of the ponds on Lolland. Population-structure analysis suggested the existence of at least 11 genetically different populations, corresponding to most of the sampled population units. The results indicated that the populations were unique genetic units and could be used to illustrate the migration pattern between newly established ponds arisen either by natural colonization of tree frogs or by artificial introduction. A high degree of pond fidelity in the tree frogs was suggested. A severe fragmentation process reducing population size and fitness within some of the populations probably caused the significant reduction in genetic variation of tree frog populations on Lolland. PMID:15306354

Andersen, Liselotte W.; Fog, Kare; Damgaard, Christian

2004-01-01

34

Topical Antinociceptive Effect of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker on Acute Corneal Pain in Mice  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess the possible topical antinociceptive activity of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker essential oil (EOVA) and to clarify the underlying mechanism, using the acute model of chemical (eye wiping) nociception in mice. EOVA (25 to 200?mg/kg; p.o. and topical) evidenced significant antinociception against chemogenic pain in the test model of formalin-induced neuroinflammatory pain. Local application of 5?M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye produced a significant nociceptive behavior, characterized by eye wiping. The number of eye wipes was counted during the first 30?s. EOVA (25, 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg; p.o. and topical) significantly decreased the number of eye wipes. Naloxone, yohimbine, L-NAME, theophylline, glibenclamide, and ruthenium red had no effect on the antinociceptive effect of EOVA. However, ondansetron, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA), capsazepine, prazosin, and atropine prevented the antinociception induced by EOVA. These results indicate the topical antinociceptive effect of EOVA and showed that 5-HT, ?1, TRPV1, and central muscarinic receptors might be involved in the antinociceptive effect of EOVA in the acute corneal model of pain in mice. PMID:24660017

Inocencio Leite, Laura Hevila; Leite, Gerlania de Oliveira; Silva Coutinho, Thales; de Sousa, Severino Denicio Goncalves; Sampaio, Renata Souza; da Costa, Jose Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Campos, Adriana Rolim

2014-01-01

35

Extraocular control of seasonal reproduction in female tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

The work reported here explored extraocular control of seasonal reproduction in a photoperiodic species. Photosensitive female tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were subjected to bilateral or unilateral ocular enucleation or to sham operation and exposed to a photoregimen designed to stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, to induce photorefractoriness, and to restore photosensitivity. As revealed by plasma LH profiles constructed from measurements taken over 181 days, neither bilateral nor unilateral ocular enucleation had a substantive effect on photoinduced LH release, on the development of photorefractoriness, or on the recovery of photosensitivity. In a related experiment, photorefractory sighted females were implanted epicranially with miniature self-powered lights (SPLs) or with non-emitting helium blanks (HBs) and transferred to short days. After 8 weeks, SPLs and HBs were removed, and birds were challenged with long days. As indicated by plasma LH and ovarian responses to the challenge, previously HB-implanted birds had regained photosensitivity, but previously SPL-implanted birds remained photorefractory. When interpreted within the context of the effects of blinding, these findings suggest that an extraocular encephalic mechanism maintains photorefractoriness. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that photoinduced LH release and the biannual transitions between photosensitivity and photorefractoriness are controlled by an extraocular mechanism(s). PMID:2338219

Wilson, F E

1990-03-01

36

The thyroid and the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Prompted by evidence of a linkage between the thyroid gland and seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we measured circulating T4 (L-thyroxine), hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone, variant I), pituitary and plasma LH (luteinizing hormone), and ovarian mass in euthyroid females moved from short to long days. Our purpose was to correlate temporal changes in T4 and cGnRH-I with each other and with pituitary and plasma LH and ovarian mass. T4 increased early during photostimulation and peaked at Week 1 or 2 on 20L:4D (20 hr light:4 hr dark per day). Hypothalamic cGnRH-I also increased during photostimulation and peaked between Weeks 2 and 4. Pituitary and plasma LH peaked at Weeks 4 and 1, respectively, and ovarian mass increased significantly by Week 6. In a separate study, we charted the progression of postnuptial molt. Molt of the primary remiges began at Week 9, proceeded rapidly through Week 15, and was complete by Week 18. In view of a demonstrated role for the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in female tree sparrows and the time-dependent effects of thyroidectomy after photostimulation in male tree sparrows, the observation that circulating T4 increases early during photostimulation suggests the possibility of a causal relationship between the thyroid gland and the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, hence a thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:8812334

Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

1996-07-01

37

Multimodality: a way to cope with road traffic noise? The case of European treefrog (Hyla arborea).  

PubMed

In the last decades, traffic noise has become a new challenge for efficient animal communication and several studies suggest that it is involved in population declines. Although poorly investigated in a traffic noise context, communication is generally multimodal, which can be viewed as a way to improve communication efficiency by allowing shift from a sensory modality to another when one modality suffers from noise. In the present study, we investigated multimodal shift in the European treefrog (Hyla arborea), a species using both acoustic and visual cues during male quality assessment task performed by females. Females were used in a discrimination task in two environmental conditions: with or without traffic noise. In traffic noise conditions, we showed that females' reliance on acoustic signal embedded in noise pollution did not decrease in favour of visual signals, therefore showing that females do not shift between modalities in response to traffic noise. Although, we did not evidence multimodal shift in our study, many species facing traffic noise present multimodal communication, and should be investigated to evaluate the importance of multimodal shift as a way to cope with traffic noise pollution. PMID:25151940

Troïanowski, Mathieu; Melot, Geoffrey; Lengagne, Thierry

2014-09-01

38

The thyroid and photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

To explore the role of the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), the effects of (1) thyroxine administered in drinking water to thyroid-intact photosensitive or photorefractory birds, and (2) radiothyroidectomy before and after photostimulation and during photorefractoriness were examined. Chronic administration of pharmacological doses of thyroxine induced testicular growth and usually regression in initially photosensitive birds held on short or intermediate daylengths. Some thyroxine-treated birds with regressed testes were absolutely photorefractory, but most remained photosensitive. Exogenous thyroxine never induced testicular growth in photorefractory birds moved to short days, though it often impeded, and sometimes even blocked, the recovery of photosensitivity. Although circumstantial, these effects of exogenous thyroxine are consistent with an hypothesis that assigns to thyroid hormones two roles--one stimulatory and the other inhibitory--in the control of seasonal reproduction. Radiothyroidectomy before photostimulation inhibited (but did not prevent) photoinduced testicular growth, blocked spontaneous testicular regression, suppressed molt, and prevented photorefractoriness. Moreover, as demonstrated by testicular growth after thyroxine replacement therapy, radiothyroidectomy during photorefractoriness later restored photosensitivity despite continued photostimulation. Thus, euthyroidism is an essential condition for maximizing (but not for initiating) photoinduced testicular growth and for triggering and maintaining photorefractoriness in photostimulated tree sparrows. However, when performed early during photostimulation, radiothyroidectomy neither immediately induced nor later blocked spontaneous testicular regression. Thus, endogenous thyroid hormones and long days may interact during a critical period to program a sequence of physiological events that plays out as photorefractoriness in chronically photostimulated birds. Such an organizational event cannot be permanent, for seasonal reproduction is episodic and its control mechanism necessarily cyclic. Because thyroidectomy simulated the well-known restorative effect of short days (and exogenous thyroxine impeded it), short days may dissipate photorefractoriness by creating a milieu wherein thyroid hormones are deficient or inactive. PMID:8151015

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1993-01-01

39

Vocalizations match auditory processing in the American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea), dark-eyed junco (Junco hyelmalis), and house finch (Carpodacous mexicanus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the auditory processing and vocalizations of the American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea), dark-eyed junco ( Junco hyelmalis), and house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) to determine the degree to which vocal signals and auditory systems match in these species. We used the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and the frequency following response (FFR) to determine the ABR auditory thresholds (the lowest

Lauren E Brierley

2011-01-01

40

Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)--a promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities.  

PubMed

Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view. PMID:21857121

Policegoudra, R S; Aradhya, S M; Singh, L

2011-09-01

41

Respiration activity of suspension cell culture of Polyscias filicifolia bailey, Stephania glabra (Roxb.) miers, and Dioscorea deltoidea wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peculiarities of respiration of cells cultures producing biologically active compounds (isoprenoids and alkaloids) were investigated\\u000a in order to optimize productivity of culture growth and biosynthesis. It had been revealed that studied cells cultures of\\u000a Dioscorea deltoidea Wall (producer of furistanol glycosides), Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers (producer of stepharin alkaloid) and Polyscias filicifolia Bailey (complex of biologically active agents) differ both

M. V. Titova; E. A. Berkovich; O. V. Reshetnyak; I. E. Kulichenko; A. V. Oreshnikov; A. M. Nosov

2011-01-01

42

Efficient control of air pollution through plants, a cost-effective alternative: studies on Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.  

PubMed

Plants can be used as both passive biomonitors and biomitigators in urban and industrial environments to indicate the environmental quality and to ameliorate pollution level in a locality. Many studies reveal that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of air pollution on comparative basis with reference to changes in photosynthetic pigments, plant height, leaves, as well as, biochemical parameters of plants of different sites around Udaipur city receiving varying levels of pollution load. The investigated tree species Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Family: Fabaceae) exhibited a reduction in various physiological and biochemical growth parameters that correspond with air pollution levels at different sites. The tree species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, leaf area, and chlorophyll and total carbohydrate and total protein concentration in the leaves. Our studies suggest that D. sissoo Roxb. can successfully be grown in an area for monitoring air pollution, where it is mild and droughts are common. It will prove as an ideal tree species to control pollution effectively beside acting as a shade tree and being a source of food for birds and animals. By plantation of D. sissoo Roxb., mitigative measure at the polluted sites to control generation of particulate matter and the air quality required can be ensured. Our results also confirm that industrial and vehicular air pollution level in Udaipur city is shifting beyond limits. PMID:23423551

Kapoor, C S; Bamniya, B R; Kapoor, K

2013-09-01

43

Farmer involvement in a reforestation research project in Costa Rica  

E-print Network

of almost one hundred native tree species to be grown in plantations under several site conditions at La Selva. There had been little prior research conducted on native species. Exotic species, such as eucalyptus, pines, and Gmelina arborea have been... of almost one hundred native tree species to be grown in plantations under several site conditions at La Selva. There had been little prior research conducted on native species. Exotic species, such as eucalyptus, pines, and Gmelina arborea have been...

Toness, Anna Sutherland

2012-06-07

44

The emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea as the dominant infecting serovar following the summer of natural disasters in Queensland, Australia 2011.  

PubMed

The following research reports the emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea as the dominant infecting serovar following the summer of disasters and the ensuing clean up in Queensland, Australia during 2011. For the 12 month period (1 January to 31 December) L. borgpetersenii serovar Arborea accounted for over 49% of infections. In response to a flooding event public health officials need to issue community wide announcements warning the population about the dangers of leptospirosis and other water borne diseases. Communication with physicians working in the affected community should also be increased to update physicians with information such as clinical presentation of leptospirosis and other waterborne diseases. These recommendations will furnish public health officials with considerations for disease management when dealing with future disaster management programs. PMID:25134896

Wynwood, S J; Craig, S B; Graham, G C; Blair, B R; Burns, M A; Weier, S L; Collet, T A; McKay, D B

2014-06-01

45

Growth and mitochondrial respiration of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) germinated at low pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedlings were grown hypobarically to assess the effects of low pressure (21-24 kilopascals) on growth and mitochondrial respiration. Control seedlings grown at ambient pressure (101 kilopascals) were provided amounts of O2 equivalent to those provided experimental seedlings at reduced pressure to factor out responses to O2 concentration and to total pressure. Respiration was assayed using washed mitochondria, and was found to respond only to O2 concentration. Regardless of total pressure, seedlings grown at 2 millimoles O2 per liter had higher state 3 respiration rates and decreased percentages of alternative respiration compared to ambient (8.4 millimoles O2 per liter) controls. In contrast, seedling growth responded to total pressure but not to O2 concentration. Seedlings were significantly larger when grown under low pressure. While low O2 (2 millimoles O2 per liter) diminished growth at ambient pressure, growth at low pressure in the same oxygen concentration was enhanced. Respiratory development and growth of mungbean seedlings under low pressure is unimpaired whether oxygen or air is used as the chamber gas, and further, low pressure can improve growth under conditions of poor aeration.

Musgrave, M. E.; Gerth, W. A.; Scheld, H. W.; Strain, B. R.

1988-01-01

46

Long-term effect of phytoestrogens from Curcuma comosa Roxb. on vascular relaxation in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Phytoestrogens have been implicated as promising therapeutic agents to treat the vascular impairment seen in menopausal women. The present study investigated the long-term effects of phytoestrogens from Curcuma comosa Roxb. on vascular relaxation of isolated thoracic aorta from ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Treatment of OVX rats for 12 weeks with C. comosa powder, hexane extract, and a novel phytoestrogen, diarylheptanoid-D3, [(3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol] prevented impairment of the endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine in OVX, but not the endothelium-denude aortic ring relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside. These data suggest that the vascular relaxation effect of C. comosa is mediated via endothelial cells. Treatment with D3 also increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and estrogen receptor-? (ER?) protein expression in the aorta of OVX rats and suppressed elevated tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) expression in OVX aortic rings. These results indicate that C. comosa treatment prevents impairment of vascular relaxation in estrogen-deficient animals via the ER-eNOS pathway as well as through its ability to promote an anti-inflammatory response. PMID:22225491

Intapad, Suttira; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Suvitayawat, Wisuda; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2012-01-25

47

A study on the extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in treatment of cyclophosphamide induced alopecia  

PubMed Central

Background Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Hair loss is one of the most feared side effects of chemotherapy. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. The effect of extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in testosterone induced alopecia was reported. Objective In the present study, the efficacies of the extracts of Cuscuta reflexa in promoting hair growth in cyclophosphamide-induced hair loss have been determined. Materials and methods The study was performed by treated with petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa at the dose 250 mg/kg in male swiss albino rats. Cyclophosphamide (125 mg/kg) was used to induce alopecia. Results Groups treated with extracts of plant showed hair regrowth. Histopathology and gross morphologic observations for hair regrowth at shaved sites revealed active follicular proliferation. Conclusions It concluded that extracts of Cuscuta reflexa shown to be capable of promoting follicular proliferation or preventing hair loss in cyclophosphamide-induced hair fall. PMID:24393240

2014-01-01

48

Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf and root bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the pharmacognostic characters of an important medicinal plant, Holoptelea integrifolia (H. integrifolia) Roxb. Methods The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, macroscopic and fluorescence analysis. Results The characteristic microscopic features of leaves were observed as trichomes, multicellular trichomes, xylem cells, phloem cells, collenchyma, vascular bundles, spongy parenchyma and palisade cells. The characteristic microscopic features of root bark included cork cambium, primary cortex, phloem fibers, medullary rays, endodermis, pericycle and lignified fibers in the transverse section and longitudinal section. The characteristic microscopy of root bark powder showed the presence of cortex cells, sieve tubes, calcium oxalate crystals and lignified fibers. Macroscopic study showed that leaf shape-oval, apex-acute, base-cordate and leaf margin was entire with glabrous surface, bitter taste and characteristic odour. The morphological features of root bark showed deep fissured, rough and firm surface with rhitydome and the periderm parallel to cambium. Conclusions Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of H. integrifolia. PMID:23569892

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Karunesh; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Tarun; Kumar, Ajay; Prakash, Om

2012-01-01

49

Pharmacological evaluation of fruits of Terminalia belerica Roxb. for antiulcer activity.  

PubMed

The antiulcer activity of 70% methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Combretaceae) was evaluated using ethanol induced, aspirin induced, cold stress restraint and pylorus ligated ulcer in rats. The methanolic extract (100, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the peptic ulcer induced by ethanol. Methanolic extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed, promising antiulcer activity hence, this dose was selected for further evaluation of antiulcer studies. The methanolic extract (500 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index, protein and pepsin content and increase in mucus content in pylorus ligated rats as compared to control. Treatment with Terminalia belerica methanolic extract further provided significant antiulcer protection against aspirin induced ulcers but not in cold stress restraint model. These results suggested that the 70% methanolic extract of Terminalia belerica increased resistance to necrotizing agents, providing a direct protective effect on the gastric mucosa and exhibited antiulcer effect. PMID:22713279

Jawanjal, Hitesh; Rajput, Mithun S; Agrawal, Purti; Dange, Vikramsingh

2012-01-01

50

Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

2014-11-01

51

Bone Sparing Effect of a Novel Phytoestrogen Diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

Phytoestrogens have been implicated in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, an active phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa Roxb, diarylheptanoid (DPHD), (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, was found to strongly promote human osteoblast function in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated the protective effect of DPHD on ovariectomy-induced bone loss (OVX) in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with 17?-estradiol (E2, 10 µg/kg Bw) as a positive control. Treatment of OVX animals with DPHD at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg Bw for 12 weeks markedly increased bone mineral density (BMD) of tibial metaphysis as measured by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT). Histomorphometric analysis of bone structure indicated that DPHD treatment retarded the ovariectomy-induced deterioration of bone microstructure. Ovariectomy resulted in a marked decrease in trabecular bone volume, number and thickness and these changes were inhibited by DPHD treatment, similar to that seen with E2. Moreover, DPHD decreased markers of bone turnover, including osteocalcin and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. These results suggest that DPHD has a bone sparing effect in ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss and prevents deterioration of bone microarchitecture by suppressing the rate of bone turnover. Therefore, DPHD appears to be a promising candidate for preserving bone mass and structure in the estrogen deficient women with a potential role in reducing postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:24244350

Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Wichit, Patsorn; Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2013-01-01

52

Corticosterone treatment has no effect on reproductive hormones or aggressive behavior in free-living male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of corticosterone on plasma levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and luteinizing hormone) and territorial defense behavior in male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea. Birds receiving Silastic implants filled with corticosterone (B) had significantly higher plasma levels of B than control birds, which received empty implants, and exhibited pectoral muscle wastage and a decrease in body mass. We evaluated the hormonal and agonistic responses of the two implanted groups of birds using a simulated territorial intrusion (STI) 2 to 4 days after they were implanted. Corticosterone-treated and control birds did not differ in their circulating levels of reproductive hormones or in their behavioral responses to STI (latency to respond to intrusion, number of songs, and closest approach to a decoy and tape recording). Unlike previous studies of north temperate passerines, high physiological levels of exogenous B had no effect either on circulating levels of reproductive hormones or on territorial behaviors associated with breeding. Nonetheless, untreated tree sparrows do mount a robust adrenocortical response, having a two- to fourfold increase in plasma B levels during a 1-h period of capture. Thus, adrenocortical responsiveness is maintained in these birds, but elevated levels of glucocorticoids do not suppress reproductive hormones or associated behaviors. We believe that this hormonal and behavioral refractoriness to glucocorticoids-or uncoupling of the stress response from the reproductive axis-may be advantageous for species having extreme temporal constraints on their breeding schedules. PMID:10712856

Astheimer, L B; Buttemer, W A; Wingfield, J C

2000-02-01

53

The role of nocturnal vision in mate choice: females prefer conspicuous males in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea).  

PubMed

Nocturnal frog species rely extensively on vocalization for reproduction. But recent studies provide evidence for an important, though long overlooked, role of visual communication. In many species, calling males exhibit a conspicuous pulsing vocal sac, a signal bearing visually important dynamic components. Here, we investigate female preference for male vocal sac coloration-a question hitherto unexplored-and male colour pattern in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Under nocturnal conditions, we conducted two-choice experiments involving video playbacks of calling males with identical calls and showing various naturally encountered colour signals, differing in their chromatic and brightness components. We adjusted video colours to match the frogs' visual perception, a crucial aspect not considered in previous experiments. Females prefer males with a colourful sac and a pronounced flank stripe. Both signals probably enhance male conspicuousness and facilitate detection and localization by females. This study provides the first experimental evidence of a preference for specific vocal sac spectral properties in a nocturnal anuran species. Vocal sac coloration is based on carotenoids and may convey information about male quality worthwhile for females to assess. The informative content of the flank stripe remains to be demonstrated. PMID:19324736

Gomez, Doris; Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry; Plenet, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre; Léna, Jean-Paul; Théry, Marc

2009-07-01

54

Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats  

PubMed Central

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels. PMID:22736884

Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

2011-01-01

55

Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) protects rabbit heart against ischemic-reperfusion injury: role of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein.  

PubMed

The bark of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. (TA) is widely recommended for the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Indian system of medicine. Oral administration of TA for 12 weeks in rabbits caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidants; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) along with induction of heat shock protein72 (HSP72). In vivo ischemic-reperfusion injury induced oxidative stress, tissue injury of heart and haemodynamic effects were prevented in the TA treated rabbit hearts. The study provides scientific basis for the putative therapeutic effect of TA in ischemic heart disease. PMID:15619558

Gauthaman, K; Banerjee, S K; Dinda, A K; Ghosh, C C; Maulik, S K

2005-01-15

56

SCREENING OF SELECTED BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ARTOCARPUS LAKOOCHA ROXB (MORACEAE) FRUIT PERICARP  

PubMed Central

Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb (Moraceae) is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Khasi Hills and Western Ghats. Objectives of the present study were to determine antibacterial, antioxidant, anthelmintic and insecticidal efficacy of methanol extract of A. lakoocha fruit pericarp. Antibacterial activity was tested against by Agar well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging ability was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined using adult Indian earthworm. Insecticidal activity was tested against second and third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The extract has shown dose dependent antibacterial, antioxidant, anthelmintic and insecticidal activity. Among bacteria, S. aureus has shown more susceptibility than K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The extract exhibited marked antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH free radical. The IC50 value for extract was found to be 49.42?g/ml. The extract exhibited marked anthelmintic activity by causing paralysis and death of worms and the effect was found to be dose dependent. The extract concentration 100mg/ml has shown marked anthelmintic effect than standard drug. In insecticidal study, the 2nd instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than 3rd instar larvae. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins and alkaloids. The presence of these phytoconstituents might be responsible for the biological activities of extract tested. The extract could be used to treat free radical damage, bacterial and helmintic infections and to control insect vectors. Further studies on isolation of constituents and their bio-efficacies in vitro and in vivo are under investigation. PMID:24825993

Shailendra Kumar, M. B.; Rakesh Kumar, M. C.; Bharath, A. C.; Vinod Kumar, H. R.; Prashith Kekuda, T. R.; Nandini, K. C.; Rakshitha, M. N.; Raghavendra, H. L.

2010-01-01

57

Gastroprotective Potential of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Stem Bark against Diclofenac-Induced Gastric Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark possesses anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antioxidant properties. This plant is used traditionally in the Indian system of medicine to treat emesis, ulcers, leucoderma, dysentery, stomach complaints, and skin disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcer effects of D. sissoo stem bark methanol extract (DSME) against the diclofenac sodium-induced ulceration in rat. Methods The DSME (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats once a day for 10 days in diclofenac-treated rats. The gastroprotective effects of DSME were determined by assessing gastric-secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free acidity, and total acidity. Biochemical studies of gastric mucosa were conducted to estimate the levels of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SHs), lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs)], reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), levels of scavenging antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Moreover, adherent mucus content and histological studies were performed on stomach tissues. Results Administration of DSME significantly decreased the ulcer index, TBARSs, H2O2, and MPO activity in gastric mucosa of the ulcerated rats. Activities of enzymic antioxidants, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, GST and GSH, and NP-SH contents were significantly increased with DSME administration in the gastric mucosa of diclofenac-treated rats. Volume of gastric juice, total and free acidity were decreased, whereas pH of the gastric juice was increased with the administration of DSME + diclofenac. Our results show that DSME administration is involved in the prevention of ulcer through scavenging of free radicals. Results of histopathological studies supported the gastroprotective activities of DSME. Conclusion The results of this study showed that DSME exhibit potential gastroprotective activity probably due to its antioxidant and cytoprotection ability. PMID:24298443

Khan, Muhammad Israr; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

2013-01-01

58

Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from Frankia strains in root nodules of Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata.  

PubMed Central

To study the global diversity of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing Frankia strains, a rapid method was used to isolate DNA from these actinomycetes in root nodules. The procedure used involved dissecting the symbiont from nodule lobes; ascorbic acid was used to maintain plant phenolic compounds in the reduced state. Genes for the small-subunit rRNA (16S ribosomal DNA) were amplified by the PCR, and the amplicons were cycle sequenced. Less than 1 mg (fresh weight) of nodule tissue and fewer than 10 vesicle clusters could serve as the starting material for template preparation. Partial sequences were obtained from symbionts residing in nodules from Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata. The sequences obtained from Ceonothus griseus and P. tridentata nodules were identical to the sequence previously reported for the endophyte of Dryas drummondii. The sequences from Frankia strains in Coriaria arborea and Coriaria plumosa nodules were identical to one another and indicate a separate lineage for these strains. The Frankia strains in Discaria toumatou nodules yielded a unique sequence that places them in a lineage close to bacteria that infect members of the Elaeagnaceae. PMID:8702283

Benson, D R; Stephens, D W; Clawson, M L; Silvester, W B

1996-01-01

59

Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from Frankia strains in root nodules of Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata.  

PubMed

To study the global diversity of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing Frankia strains, a rapid method was used to isolate DNA from these actinomycetes in root nodules. The procedure used involved dissecting the symbiont from nodule lobes; ascorbic acid was used to maintain plant phenolic compounds in the reduced state. Genes for the small-subunit rRNA (16S ribosomal DNA) were amplified by the PCR, and the amplicons were cycle sequenced. Less than 1 mg (fresh weight) of nodule tissue and fewer than 10 vesicle clusters could serve as the starting material for template preparation. Partial sequences were obtained from symbionts residing in nodules from Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata. The sequences obtained from Ceonothus griseus and P. tridentata nodules were identical to the sequence previously reported for the endophyte of Dryas drummondii. The sequences from Frankia strains in Coriaria arborea and Coriaria plumosa nodules were identical to one another and indicate a separate lineage for these strains. The Frankia strains in Discaria toumatou nodules yielded a unique sequence that places them in a lineage close to bacteria that infect members of the Elaeagnaceae. PMID:8702283

Benson, D R; Stephens, D W; Clawson, M L; Silvester, W B

1996-08-01

60

Influence of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi, Rhizobium meliloti strains and PGPR inoculation on the growth of Medicago arborea used as model legume for re-vegetation and biological reactivation in a semi-arid mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicago arborea can be used for re-vegetationpurposes under semiarid conditions. These woody legumes have the ability toforman association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobial bacteria,which can be maximised by microorganisms producing certain stimulatingmetabolites acting as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The effectsof single and combined inoculations using microorganisms with different andinteractive metabolic capacities, namely three Glomusspecies, two Rhizobium meliloti

M. Valdenegro; J. M. Barea; R. Azcón

2001-01-01

61

Influence of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi, Rhizobium meliloti strains and PGPR inoculation on the growth of Medicago arborea used as model legume for re-vegetation and biological reactivation in a semi-arid mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicago arborea can be used for re-vegetation purposes under semiarid conditions. These woody legumes have the ability to form an association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobial bacteria, which can be maximised by microorganisms producing certain stimulating metabolites acting as plant growth promoting rhizo- bacteria (PGPR). The effects of single and combined inoculations using microorganisms with different and in-

M. Valdenegro; J. M. Barea; R. Azcón

2001-01-01

62

Thyroid hormone acts centrally to programme photostimulated male american tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for vernal and autumnal components of seasonality.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone and long days interact to programme American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for seasonality (i.e. thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic gonadal growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial moult). This study explored in radiothyroidectomized (THX) males given thyroid hormone replacement therapy whether thyroid hormone acts within the brain and, additionally, the identity of the putative tissue-active thyroid hormone. The minimum dose (30 ng) of L-thyroxine (T4) that restored all components of seasonality when given i.c.v. daily during the first 21 days of photostimulation restored no component of seasonality when given s.c. The same dose of L-triiodothyronine (T3) also was ineffective when administered s.c., but restored photoperiodic testicular growth (though neither photorefractoriness nor postnuptial moult) when admiministered i.c.v. Three of seven birds given a 10-fold lower dose of T4 (3 ng) exhibited thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic testicular growth, albeit damped. The other four birds given 3 ng T4 and all birds given 3 ng T3 responded like THX controls, exhibiting only slight thyroid hormone-independent photoperiodic testicular growth. The highest dose (300 ng) of T3 restored all components of seasonality only when administered i.c.v. daily during the first 49 days of photostimulation. This demonstration in American tree sparrows is the first in any species that the thyroid-dependent transition from the breeding season to the non-breeding season can be effected by T3. The same dose of reverse T3 administered daily over the same 49 days restored photoperiodic testicular growth in only half of 10 subjects and photorefractoriness and moult in none. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that thyroid hormone acts centrally to programme photostimulated male American tree sparrows for all components of seasonality. The most parsimonious interpretation of the data, including the threshold-like effect of 3 ng T4, favours T4 as the tissue-active thyroid hormone for vernal as well as autumnal events, but does not entirely exclude T3. PMID:10692147

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

2000-01-01

63

Thyroid dysfunction and thyroxine-dependent programming of photoinduced ovarian growth in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

The time course of thyroid dysfunction after injecting 0.30 mCi Na131I was charted in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) transferred to long days on Day 0 and challenged with 30 micrograms bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone on Postinjection Days 4, 7, 46, and 105. Serum T4 (L-thyroxine) was not detectable in thyroidectomized birds, indicating complete thyroid dysfunction by Day 4 and no restoration of thyroid function by Day 105. By contrast, serum T4 concentrations in similarly challenged thyroid-intact controls greatly exceeded assay sensitivity. To determine whether a single injection of T4 can program thyroidectomized female tree sparrows for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt, as it can thyroidectomized male tree sparrows, thyroidectomized females were injected with T4 (100 micrograms) or alkaline vehicle (V) either on the first day of photostimulation or 1 week before photostimulation (during which time injected T4 likely was cleared metabolically). Females injected with T4 on the first day of photostimulation showed robust ovarian growth similar to that reported for photostimulated euthyroid females. Both groups of V-injected females, as well as females injected with T4 1 week before photostimulation, showed slow, but reliable, ovarian growth, indicating that thyroidectomized birds can detect an increase in day length. When birds were moved at Week 7.5 or 9 to constant light and given T4 in drinking water (a qualitative assay for absolute photorefractoriness), only one tested photorefractory and molted. The remaining birds, including those injected with T4 1 week before photostimulation and both groups of V-injected controls, tested photosensitive and did not molt. Taken together, these results indicate that T4, or one of its metabolites, programs thyroidectomized female tree sparrows for ovarian growth early during photostimulation. A single T4 injection (100 micrograms) on the first day of photostimulation usually also programs thyroidectomized male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and molt. Such an injection is far less effective in programming females for these two late-season events. PMID:8812336

Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

1996-07-01

64

A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat and its bearing on palaeoclimatic interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea macroptera Dyer, which is a prominent member of the tropical evergreen forests of the Malayan Peninsula. The present finding, along with the other megafossil records described from the same area, indicates a typical tropical vegetation with a warm and humid climate at the time of deposition in contrast to the present day xeric vegetation in the area. As the family Dipterocarpaceae no longer exists in western India, it is essential to discuss the time of its extinction and possible causes, which may include drastic changes in the climate of the region. The present finding also supports the theory of a Malaysian origin for the family in contrast to the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin.

Shukla, Anumeha; Guleria, J. S.; Mehrotra, R. C.

2012-02-01

65

Antioxidant capacity and amino acid analysis of Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. aerial parts.  

PubMed

Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. is a traditional food consumed as vegetable or pickle in arid regions of India and eaten during famines. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat diabetes, inflammation and etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties (DPPH, TEAC, TAA, FRAP, OH? and NO? radical scavenging activities) of the different extracts from aerial parts. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids of the extracts were also determined. The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models used. Methanol and water extracts had good total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity was correlated well with the amount of total phenolics present in the extracts. The extracts and its components may be used as an additive in food preparations and nutraceuticals. PMID:25328180

Maheshu, Vellingiri; Priyadarsini, Deivamarudhachalam Teepica; Sasikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam

2014-10-01

66

Antihyperlipidemic potential of Albizia amara (Roxb) Boiv. bark against Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic condition in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The plant Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. bark was used in traditional medical practices of India to treat cardiovascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to screen the potential of A. amara against the condition of hyperlipidemia in rats. Materials and Methods: The antihyperlipidemic activity of A. amara ethanolic extract (AAEE) was studied on Triton X-100 induced model of hyperlipidemia in rats. Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was evidenced by an enhancement in the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL) and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL). Results: AAEE showed significant antihyperlipidemic effect by lowering the serum levels of biochemical parameters such as a significant reduction in the level of serum cholesterol, TG (104.1 ± 3.39), LDL (48.2 ± 2.19), VLDL (20.81 ± 0.67) and increase in HDL (47.25 ± 2.05) level with an increase in a dose of AAEE (41.39 ± 1.24) < (47.25 ± 2.05), which was similar to the standard drug atorvastatin. The results of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase also revealed that the plant extract was found to be safe on liver. Histopathological evaluation also revealed the positive effect of the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phytoconstituents such as saponins, glycosides and tannins. The preliminary chemical constituents stood as a strong evidence for the study. Conclusion: Summing up the evidences of the pragmatic study, we can conclude that the extract of A. amara (Roxb.) Boiv. Bark aids in declining the condition of hyperlipidemia in rats.

Gundamaraju, Rohit; Hwi, Kim Kah; Singla, Rajeev K.; Vemuri, Ravi Chandra; Mulapalli, Sartaj Banu

2014-01-01

67

Arsenic-induced root growth inhibition in mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is due to oxidative stress resulting from enhanced lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) toxicity and its biochemical effects have been mostly evaluated in ferns and a few higher plants. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the effect of As (10.0 and 50.0 ?M) on seedling growth, root anatomy, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde\\u000a and conjugated dienes), electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, root oxidizability and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). Arsenic

Harminder Pal Singh; Daizy R. Batish; Ravinder Kumar Kohli; Komal Arora

2007-01-01

68

Thyroid hormone-dependent seasonality in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea ): effects of GC1, a thyroid receptor ß-selective agonist, and of iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of TH in the control of seasonality [i.e., photoperiodic testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt] in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea), we performed experiments in which THX males were simultaneously photostimulated and given TH replacement therapy. In the first experiment, equimolar concentrations (1X=1.3 nmol) of T4, T3, or GC-1, an iodine-free TR? agonist, were administered

M. K. Mishra; F. E. Wilson; T. S. Scanlan; G. Chiellini

2004-01-01

69

Kinetics of Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase Using Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.: A Potential Antidepressant Herbal Ingredient with Antioxidant Activity.  

PubMed

The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and effect of Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. (Poaceae) leaves on the activity of monoamine oxidase and kinetics of enzyme inhibition. Ethanol extract of C. martinii and rat brain mitochondrial monoamine oxidase preparation ware used to study the kinetics of enzyme inhibition using double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. The DPPH was used as a source of free radical to evaluate antioxidant potential. It is observed that, the ethanolic extract of C. martinii inhibits the monoamine oxidase activity with competitive mode of inhibition. The V(max) (0.01 mM/min) remained constant while, K(m) varied from 21.00 ± 1.1, 43.33 ± 1.5 and 83.33 ± 1.4 mM for 100-500 ?g/ml concentration of C. martinii. The K(i) values were calculated to be 90.00 ± 0.87, 75.00 ± 0.69, 68.18 ± 0.68 ?g for 100-500 ?g/ml concentration of C. martini. It also shows a significant DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine) radical scavenging (IC(50) = 0.34 ± 0.05 mg/ml) and reducing activity (IC(50) = 0.70 ± 0.22 mg/ml). The C. martini can be considered as a possible source of MAO inhibitor used in the treatment of depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:22754197

Gacche, R N; Shaikh, R U; Chapole, S M; Jadhav, A D; Jadhav, S G

2011-07-01

70

Dietary Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. increases mitogenic responses of splenic lymphocytes in rats, and alters populations of the lymphocytes in mice.  

PubMed

Rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (C. xanthorrhiza), a medicinal plant in Indonesia, has been shown to exert diverse physiological functions. Hitherto, a little attention has been paid to its effect on immune functions. This study was carried out to determine the effect of this medicinal plant on mitogenic response of splenic lymphocytes in rats and population of splenic lymphocytes and macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages in mice. Mitogenic responses of splenocytes to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogens were examined in rat fed C. xanthorrhiza for 3 weeks. The medicinal plant increased the blastogenesis to these mitogens. Flow cytometric analysis was carried out for mice fed the medicinal plant for 3 to 5 weeks. C. xanthorrhiza increased the proportion of the splenic T cells throughout the experimental period, but exerted a variable effect on B cells and T cell subsets, that is, elevations of B cells at 3 weeks and of Th cells at 4 weeks without any elevation of Ts cells. The effect of this medicinal plant on a proportion of macrophages from the spleen and peripheral blood was not consistent. Thus, the present study suggests that C. xanthorrhiza contains some principle(s) activating T and B cell-mediated immune functions. PMID:8283313

Yasni, S; Yoshiie, K; Oda, H; Sugano, M; Imaizumi, K

1993-08-01

71

A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.  

PubMed

Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd. PMID:24873909

Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

2014-06-01

72

Effect of withdrawing long days from male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): implications for understanding thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we withdrew thyroid hormones by thyroidectomy before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation and showed that male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) are programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by or before Week 3 on long days. In this corollary study, we withdrew long days before or after the control circuits had been programmed. After 1 day to 4 wk on long days, groups of thyroid-intact males were returned to short days until Week 7, when they were moved to constant light and evaluated for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt. Long-day controls held 7 wk on long days showed robust testicular growth through Week 6 and then spontaneous testicular regression. Testes of short-day controls and of males photostimulated for 1 day remained small. In all other groups, photostimulation induced testicular growth, which gave way to regression during exposure to short days. Long-day controls tested photorefractory at Week 7 and initiated molt by Week 10. All other groups tested photosensitive and did not molt. Our demonstration that long days are required for expression of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroid-intact male tree sparrows previously programmed for these events suggests that long days create a milieu that is permissive for expression. PMID:9472917

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1998-01-01

73

Within- and among-population impact of genetic erosion on adult fitness-related traits in the European tree frog Hyla arborea.  

PubMed

Assessing in wild populations how fitness is impacted by inbreeding and genetic drift is a major goal for conservation biology. An approach to measure the detrimental effects of inbreeding on fitness is to estimate correlations between molecular variation and phenotypic performances within and among populations. Our study investigated the effect of individual multilocus heterozygosity on body size, body condition and reproductive investment of males (that is, chorus attendance) and females (that is, clutch mass and egg size) in both small fragmented and large non-fragmented populations of European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Because adult size and/or condition and reproductive investment are usually related, genetic erosion may have detrimental effects directly on reproductive investment, and also on individual body size and condition that in turn may affect reproductive investment. We confirmed that the reproductive investment was highly size-dependent for both sexes. Larger females invested more in offspring production, and larger males attended the chorus in the pond more often. Our results did not provide evidence for a decline in body size, condition and reproductive effort with decreased multilocus heterozygosity both within and among populations. We showed that the lack of heterozygosity-fitness correlations within populations probably resulted from low inbreeding levels (inferior to ca. 20% full-sib mating rate), even in the small fragmented populations. The detrimental effects of fixation load were either low in adults or hidden by environmental variation among populations. These findings will be useful to design specific management actions to improve population persistence. PMID:23250010

Luquet, E; Léna, J-P; David, P; Prunier, J; Joly, P; Lengagne, T; Perrin, N; Plénet, S

2013-04-01

74

In vitro propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD analysis.  

PubMed

An efficient protocol for rapid in vitro clonal propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) genotype RSR/DR15 (female) and DR/NKB-28 (male) was developed through enhanced axillary shoot proliferation from nodal segments. Maximum shoot proliferation of 6.2 shoots per explant with 100 % shoot regeneration frequency was obtained from the female genotype on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium supplemented with 0.9??M N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate (CH). While from the male genotype the optimum shoot regeneration frequency (86.6 %) and 6.4 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.2??M BA. CH induced vigorous shoots, promoted callus formation, and proved inhibitory for shoot differentiation and shoot length, especially in explants from male genotype. Rooting was optimum on half-strength MS medium (male 92.8 %, female 74.6 %) containing 4.9??M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing a mixture of cocopit and perlite (1:1 ratio) and then to soil after 2-3 weeks. 84 % female and 81 % male regenerated plantlets survived and grew vigorously in the field. Genetic stability of the regenerated plants was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The amplification products were monomorphic in the in vitro propagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic integrity of in vitro propagated plants. This micropropagation procedure could be useful for raising genetically uniform planting material of known sex for commercial cultivation or build-up of plant material of a specific sex-type. PMID:23814442

Rai, Govind Kumar; Singh, Major; Rai, Neha Prakash; Bhardwaj, D R; Kumar, Sanjeev

2012-07-01

75

The photoperiodic control circuit in euthyroid American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) is already programmed for photorefractoriness by week 4 under long days.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to determine whether spontaneous testicular regression in male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) that were thyroidectomized at week 4 of photostimulation manifests photorefractoriness, as it does in chronically photostimulated euthyroid controls. On the basis of our demonstration that exogenous thyroxine stimulates the gonads only when recipient birds are photosensitive, male tree sparrows were thyroidectomized at week 4 of photostimulation (20 h light:4 h dark) and given thyroxine periodically to assay for photosensitivity. When initiated at weeks 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16 of photostimulation, thyroxine replacement therapy had no effect on testis size until week 16, when most recipient birds showed robust testicular growth. The inductive effect of exogenous thyroxine at week 16 confirms that chronic thyroidectomy dissipates photorefractoriness and simulates the effect of short days. The failure of replacement thyroxine to halt spontaneous testicular regression between week 7 and week 13 establishes that spontaneous testicular regression after thyroidectomy manifests photorefractoriness. Moreover, the failure of replacement thyroxine to induce testicular growth between week 4 and week 7 indicates that by week 4 of photostimulation, at least 3 weeks before photoinduced testicular growth ends, male tree sparrows are programmed for photorefractoriness. This conclusion is strengthened by the finding that thyroidectomy at week 4 of photostimulation does not uncouple photorefractoriness and postnuptial moult, which in euthyroid tree sparrows are tightly linked. In another experiment, photosensitive thyroid-intact tree sparrows were moved from 8 h light:16 h dark to 20 h light:4 h dark and given exogenous thyroxine or vehicle through week 6 of photostimulation. Exogenous thyroxine augmented testicular growth. PMID:7616501

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1995-03-01

76

Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer properties of the seed extracts of Syzygium fruticosum Roxb. growing in Rajshahi, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background The use of plants and their derived substances increases day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents owing to their versatile applications. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants having anticancer properties from plant origin since oxidants play a crucial role in developing various human diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Sygygium fruticosum (Roxb.) (abbreviated as SF). Methods The dried coarse powder of seeds of SF was exhaustively extracted with methanol and the resulting crude methanolic extract (CME) was successively fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate to get petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and lastly aqueous (AQF) fraction. The antioxidant activities were determined by several assays: total antioxidant capacity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The in vivo anticancer activity of SF was determined on Ehrlich’s Ascite cell (EAC) induced Swiss albino mice. Results All the extractives showed strong antioxidant activities related to the standard. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the fractions was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>PEF>CHF. The TAC of EAF at 320 ?g/mL was 2.60±0.005 which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of standard catechin (1.37 ± 0.005). The ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>AA>CHF>PEF. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of EAF was 4.85 ?g/mL, whereas that of BHT was 9.85 ?g/mL. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, the EAF showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 of 43.3 and 68.11 ?g/mL, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition assay was positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with both DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic contents of SF were also positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Based on antioxidant activity, EAF was selected for cytotoxic assay and it was found that EAF inhibited 67.36% (p < 0.01) cell growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg (ip) on day six of EAC cell incubation. Conclusions Our results suggest that EAF of seeds of SF possess significant antioxidant and moderate anticancer properties. Seeds of SF may therefore be a good source for natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement. PMID:23800021

2013-01-01

77

In vitro antibacterial activity of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) stem bark aqueous extracts against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Background The rise of antibiotic resistance among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have caused concerns for the treatment of MRSA infections. Hence, search for an alternative therapy for these infections is inevitable. Folk Indian medicine refers to the use of leaf and stem bark powder of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) in treatment of skin infections, but no scientific report establishes its antibacterial activity. Methods Direct aqueous extracts and sequential aqueous extracts of the stem bark of T. alternifolia (using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as other solvents) were prepared by soxhlet extraction. The antibiotic sensitivity profiles of the clinical isolates were determined against 18 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The methicillin resistance among S. aureus (MRSA) was confirmed by PCR amplification of mecA gene. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extracts. The micro-dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against the test organism. To further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the extract, cell cytotoxicity was checked on Vero cells by MTT assay. Chemical profiling of the extract was done by HPTLC method. Results The aqueous extracts of T. alternifolia stem bark exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, particularly against clinical isolates of MRSA and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extract against the isolates ranged from 600–800 ?g/ml. The extract did not exhibit cytotoxic activity against Vero cells even at the concentration of 4 mg/ml. The chemical profiling revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and steroids. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts did not exhibit antibacterial activity. Conclusion Our results offer a scientific basis for the traditional use of T. alternifolia in the treatment of skin infections, showing that the plant extract has an enormous potential as a prospective alternative therapy against MRSA skin infections. The present study lays the basis for future studies, to validate the possible use of T. alternifolia as a candidate in the treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:24066905

2013-01-01

78

In vitro propagation of three epiphytic orchids, Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw., Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) Fisch. and Dendrobium moschatum (Buch-Ham) Sw. through thidiazuron-induced high frequency shoot proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency direct shoot proliferation was induced in the shoot segments of three epiphytic orchids, Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw., Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) Fisch. and Dendrobium moschatum (Buch-Ham) Sw. on Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) containing N6-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) with the latter being more effective at 2.2–4.5 ?M. Shoots which developed on a TDZ containing medium elongated following transfer

Nihar Ranjan Nayak; Shiba Prasad Rath; Satyanarayan Patnaik

1997-01-01

79

Molecular Characterization and Phylogeny of a Phytoplasma Associated with Phyllody Disease of toria (Brassica rapa L. subsp. dichotoma (Roxb.)) in India.  

PubMed

Samples from toria plants (Brassica rapa L. subsp. dichotoma (Roxb.)) exhibiting phyllody, virescence, witches broom, extensive malformation of floral parts, formation of bladder like siliquae and flower sterility were collected from four different locations in India. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, a part of 23S rRNA, partial sec A genes, rp gene and 16S-23S intergenic spacer region indicated that the phytoplasmas associated with toria phyllody (TP) symptoms were identical and belonged to 16SrIX phytoplasma Pigeon pea witches'-broom (PPWB) group. The iPhyClassifier generated virtual RFLP pattern of 1.25 kb 16S rDNA sequences indicated that TP phytoplasma belongs to 16SrIX-C phytoplasma subgroup. Complete 23S rRNA gene of TP phytoplasma had 2,787 nucleotides and is the first sequence of 16SrIX phytoplasma group. Restriction digestion of 16S rDNA and 23S rDNA PCR products has also shown that TP phytoplasmas from all the four locations in India were identical. Toria is a previously unreported host for a phytoplasma in16SrIX-C subgroup. PMID:23637492

Azadvar, M; Baranwal, V K

2010-10-01

80

Suppressive effect of ethanolic Kaempferia pandurata Roxb. extract on matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis-treated human gingival fibroblasts in vitro.  

PubMed

In periodontal disease, gingival fibroblasts activated by the Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis induce overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which is involved in inflammatory progression. This process is followed by tissue destruction and bone loss. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro effect of the ethanolic Kaempferia pandurata Roxb. extract on expression of MMP-2 in P. gingivalis-treated human gingival fibroblast-1 (HGF-1) cells. In addition, we utilized gelatin zymography, Western blotting, and reverse transcription-PCR analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying MMP-2 inhibition via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathways. Treatment with K. pandurata extract (1-10 µg/ml) dose-dependently suppressed the activity, secretion, and protein expression of MMP-2 in HGF-1 cells exposed to P. gingivalis. At the transcriptional level, inhibition of MMP-2 gene expression by K. pandurata was mediated by phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and CREB signaling pathways in P. gingivalis-treated HGF-1 cells. These results suggest that K. pandurata extract suppresses MMP-2 expression at the protein and gene levels via downregulation of the principal JNK and CREB signaling pathways. Due to its efficacy in inhibiting MMP-mediated periodontal destruction, K. pandurata might represent a new, potent periodontal therapy. PMID:21206161

Yanti; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2010-12-01

81

Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Premna herbacea Roxb. in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model.  

PubMed

In the present study, the root nodules of Premna herbacea Roxb. (PH) was investigated for its in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity. Two extracts, aqueous and alcoholic; two fractions of alcoholic extract, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay, trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay. Alcoholic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction were found to be the most effective in BSL assay, trypan blue exclusion assay. In vivo antitumor activity was screened in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model and the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model. The extracts and the fractions were tested at two dosages (250 and 500 mg/kg) by intraperitoneally (i.p.) route on every alternate day upto 13th day. Cisplatin was used as positive control in both studies in single dose (day 1) 3.5 mg/kg by i.p. route. In EAC model, ascites tumor was induced by inoculating 2.5 million of EAC cells i.p. alcoholic extract at 500 mg/kg was the most effective in elevating MST, reduction in body weight in EAC induced tumor. Only the effective extract i.e., alcoholic extract were studied for hematological and antioxidant parameter. It showed a restoring effect on altered hematological parameters and a significant improvement in biochemical parameters at 250 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract. These results explain the toxicity of 500 mg/kg might be high. In the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model, solid tumor was developed by i.m. injection of 1 million DLA cells. Both the extracts and the fractions possessed potent antitumor activity against solid tumor models by significantly reducing the solid tumor weight and volume. PMID:21920724

Dhamija, Isha; Kumar, Nitesh; Manjula, S N; Parihar, Vipan; Setty, M Manjunath; Pai, K S R

2013-03-01

82

Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 ?M Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 ?M activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:23573054

Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

2012-04-01

83

Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1st, 4th, 8th, 14th, 17th, and 21st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. Statistics: The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. Conclusions: The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners. PMID:24812473

Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, S. D.

2014-01-01

84

Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection  

PubMed Central

Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

2014-01-01

85

Micropropagation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent boswellic acid production in callus cultures of Boswellia serrata Roxb.  

PubMed

Micropropagation through cotyledonary and leaf node and boswellic acid production in stem callus of a woody medicinal endangered tree species Boswellia serrata Roxb. is reported. The response for shoots, roots and callus formation were varied in cotyledonary and leafy nodal explants from in vitro germinated seeds, if inoculated on Murshige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with cytokinins and auxins alone or together. A maximum of 8.0?±?0.1 shoots/cotyledonary node explant and 6.9?±?0.1 shoots/leafy node explants were produced in 91 and 88 % cultures respectively on medium with 2.5 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg?l(-1) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Shoots treated with 2.5 ?M IBA showed the highest average root number (4.5) and the highest percentage of rooting (89 %). Well rooted plantlets were acclimatized and 76.5 % of the plantlets showed survival upon transfer to field conditions. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the micropropagated plants compared with mother plant revealed true-to-type nature. The four major boswellic acid components in calluses raised from root, stem, cotyledon and leaf explants were analyzed using HPLC. The total content of four boswellic acid components was higher in stem callus obtained on MS with 15.0 ?M IAA, 5.0 ?M BA and 200 mg?l(-1) PVP. The protocol reported can be used for conservation and exploitation of in vitro production of medicinally important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory metabolites of B. serrata. PMID:24381442

Nikam, Tukaram D; Ghorpade, Ravi P; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Ahire, Mahendra L; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Chopra, Arvind

2013-01-01

86

A test of the hypothesis that T3 is the "seasonality" thyroid hormone in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): intracerebroventricular infusion of iopanoic acid, an inhibitor of T3 synthesis and degradation.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) is the bioactive "seasonality" thyroid hormone in American tree sparrows (Spizella (arborea). The experimental approach coupled thyroid hormone replacement therapy after radiothyroidectomy with photostimulation and intracerebroventricular infusion of iopanoic acid, an inhibitor of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine synthesis and degradation. Endpoints were testis length, molt score, and hypothalamic content of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1. The hypothesis predicts that thyroidectomized male tree sparrows moved to long days and given thyroxine in combination with iopanoic acid will lack L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and so will not express thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic testicular growth (a vernal component of seasonality) and photorefractoriness or postnuptial molt (autumnal components of seasonality). It further predicts that iopanoic acid will enhance the efficacy of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and so will facilitate the expression of seasonality in thyroidectomized males given L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine replacement therapy. Iopanoic acid had no significant effect on any component of seasonality in thyroid-intact males given vehicle, or in thyroidectomized males given thyroxine or L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine. Thyroid-intact males, as well as thyroidectomized males infused with thyroxine alone, commonly expressed all components of seasonality. Thyroidectomized males given L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine alone exhibited photoperiodic testicular growth, but did not become photorefractory or initiate molt. While these results confirm that thyroid hormone acts centrally to program American tree sparrows for seasonality, they do not support the hypothesis that L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine is the bioactive "seasonality" thyroid hormone, and they challenge the view that thyroxine is merely a prohormone. PMID:11302527

Wilson, F E

2001-03-01

87

Thyroid hormone-dependent seasonality in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): effects of GC-1, a thyroid receptor beta-selective agonist, and of iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor.  

PubMed

To explore the role of TH in the control of seasonality [i.e., photoperiodic testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt] in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we performed experiments in which THX males were simultaneously photostimulated and given TH replacement therapy. In the first experiment, equimolar concentrations (1X = 1.3 nmol) of T4, T3, or GC-1, an iodine-free TRbeta agonist, were administered s.c. daily during the first 21 days of photostimulation. Two additional THX groups received GC-1 at 0.1X or 10X, and THX and THI control groups received vehicle. In the second experiment, T4 or T3, alone or in combination with the deiodinase inhibitor IOP, was injected i.m. twice daily during the first 14 days of photostimulation. In both experiments, end points were testis length and molt score. In the first experiment, THI birds given vehicle and THX birds given T4 replacement therapy exhibited all three components of seasonality. THX birds given T3 or GC-1 (1X or 10X) showed a subdued photoperiodic testicular response, but they did not become photorefractory or initiate molt. THX birds that received 0.1X GC-1 or vehicle exhibited none of the components of seasonality. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that photoperiodic testicular growth, a vernal component of seasonality, is a TRbeta-mediated response and suggest that T4 may activate TRbeta more efficiently than does T3 or GC-1. By contrast, the failure both of T3 and of GC-1, but not of T4, to program photostimulated THX males for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt suggests that autumnal components of seasonality may be TRalpha-mediated responses solely to T4. In the second experiment, IOP administered alone had no significant impact on seasonality. THX birds that received T4 with or without IOP showed all components of seasonality, whereas birds that received T3 with or without IOP showed only photoperiodic testicular growth. These results challenge the widely held view that T4 is merely a prohormone for T3 and support the emerging view that T4 has intrinsic hormonal activity. Because IOP augmented the photoperiodic testicular response in T3-treated THX birds, T3 may act either independently or co-dependently with T4 in programming vernal seasonal events. PMID:15235810

Mishra, M K; Wilson, F E; Scanlan, T S; Chiellini, G

2004-08-01

88

Effects of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) replacement therapy on the programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroidectomized male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to long days.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that T3 (triiodothyronine) is the tissue-active "seasonality" hormone by determining whether T3 could mimic T4 (thyroxine) and program photostimulated thyroidectomized (THX) male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for three components of seasonality (i.e., full-blown testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt). Photosensitive males were radiothyroidectomized, transferred to long days 4 weeks later, and administered 14 daily injections (s.c.) of alkaline saline (V) containing 0.1, 1, or 10 micrograms T4 or T3. THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received only V. After 5 additional weeks on long days, all birds were tested for photosensitivity/photorefractoriness. Periodically during the experiment, primary flight feathers were scored for molt, and testis length was monitored by laparotomy. As an independent measure of reproductive (i.e., photosensitive vs. photorefractory) state, hypothalami collected at the end of the experiment were assayed for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content. Like THI controls, THX males administered 1 or 10 micrograms T4 exhibited full-blown testicular growth and then regression, initiated molt, and had low hypothalamic cGnRH-I, indicating that photostimulated birds that received mid- or high-dose T4 replacement therapy had been programmed for all three components of seasonality. On the other hand, both THX controls and THX males administered low-dose (0.1 microgram) T3 replacement therapy exhibited only modest testicular growth, signifying that neither group had been programmed for any component of seasonality. By contrast, photostimulated THX males that received 0.1 microgram T4, or 1 or 10 micrograms T3, were programmed for testicular growth, but not for photorefractoriness or molt. Collectively, these results show that subcutaneously administered T3 mimicked T4 imperfectly and suggest either that T3 does not program photostimulated male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt, or that T3 does not cross the blood-brain barrier as efficiently as does T4. PMID:9360316

Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

1997-11-01

89

Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE. PMID:24035955

Devgan, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid Husain

2013-09-01

90

The Transport of Gmelina Logs on the Rio Dulce  

SciTech Connect

The Rio Dulce National Park is one of Guatemala's major environmental assets. The park contains the remaining remnants of an eastern Guatemalan tropical rainforest which has good but fast deteriorating value for the development of the ecotourism industry. The governmenial objective for the region as stated in the Master Plan for the park is ecotourism development and protection of biodiversity. The decisions to be made concerning the long-term, sustainable use of the natural resources of the Rio Dulce region appear to be directed by existing environmental laws and the Rio Dulce Master Plan. However, the wording of these instruments is ambiguous and lacks specific definitions and criteria for making necessary determinations. This, in combination with lack of enforcement in the region, has led to extensive disparity in interpretation of the laws and uncontrolled, conflicting actions by individuals and organizations.

Ensminger, J.T.; Martines, R.; Perlack, B.; Ranney, J.

1997-02-01

91

Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2010 - 31 July 2010.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 205 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bagassa guianensis, Bulweria bulwerii, Camelus bactrianus, Chaenogobius annularis, Creontiades dilutus, Diachasmimorpha tryoni, Dioscorea alata, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, Gmelina arborea, Haliotis discus hannai, Hirtella physophora, Melanaphis sacchari, Munida isos, Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Tuberolachnus salignus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Halobaena caerulea, Procellaria aequinoctialis, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Camelus ferus, Creontiades pacificus, Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea praehensilis, Dioscorea abyssinica, Dioscorea nummularia, Dioscorea transversa, Dioscorea esculenta, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Dioscorea trifida, Hirtella bicornis, Hirtella glandulosa, Licania alba, Licania canescens, Licania membranaceae, Couepia guianensis and 7 undescribed Thaumastocoris species. PMID:21565125

Andris, Malvina; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I; Arnau, G; Audzijonyte, Asta; Bess, Emilie C; Bonadonna, Francesco; Bourdel, G; Bried, Joël; Bugbee, Gregory J; Burger, P A; Chair, H; Charruau, P C; Ciampi, A Y; Costet, L; Debarro, Paul J; Delatte, H; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Eldridge, Mark D B; England, Phillip R; Enkhbileg, D; Fartek, B; Gardner, Michael G; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Hanley, Steven J; Havil, Nathan; Hereward, James P; Hirase, Shotaro; Hong, Yan; Jarne, Philippe; Jianfei, Qi; Johnson, Rebecca N; Kanno, Manami; Kijima, Akihiro; Kim, Hyun C; Kim, Kwan S; Kim, Woo-Jin; Larue, Elizabeth; Lee, Jang W; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Li, Chunhong; Liao, Minghui; Lo, Nathan; Lowe, Andrew J; Malausa, Thibaut; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Marko, Michelle D; Martin, Jean-François; Messing, Russell; Miller, Karen J; Min, Byeong-Wha; Myeong, Jeong-In; Nibouche, S; Noack, Ann E; Noh, Jae K; Orivel, Jérôme; Park, Choul-Ji; Petro, D; Prapayotin-Riveros, Kittipath; Quilichini, Angélique; Reynaud, B; Riginos, Cynthia; Risterucci, A M; Rose, Harley A; Sampaio, I; Silbermayr, K; Silva, M B; Tero, N; Thum, Ryan A; Vinson, C C; Vorsino, Adam; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Walzer, C; White, Jason C; Wieczorek, Ania; Wright, Mark

2010-11-01

92

Germination and seedling development of Trapa bispinosa Roxb.  

PubMed

Trapa bispinosa is a freshwater macrophyte occurring in stagnant or slow moving water streams. Information on assessment of seeds storage and germination of Trapa bispinosa is less available in literature. Dependence on fresh seeds abundance only from natural environment for plant propagation or cultivation may lead to insufficient supply of seeds due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This study evaluated the viability and germination of Trapa bispinosa seeds stored in zip-lock plastic bag at low temperature of 7 degrees C for six months and fresh seeds. In addition germinating seeds progressive development to juvenile plants was recorded and described. Experiments were conducted where stored and fresh seeds were soaked in 62 x 45 x 54 cm glass tanks filled with aged tap water to the level of 15 cm depth. Stored seeds showed low percentage germination of 2.82% compared to fresh seeds which was 71.19%. Eight distinct developmental stages were identified from germinating seeds to juvenile plants. Both stored and fresh seeds produced plants of similar morphology but stored seeds progressive development from germination, seedling to juvenile plants needed longer duration to achieve. The storage of seed at low temperature at 7 degrees C for six months showed reduced viability and also vigorousity. Improved methods should be developed for Trapa seeds storage taking into account of the seeds' endurance to dryness and moisture levels in order to maintained seeds viability for future uses either for production, research purposes or even conservation and restoration programs. PMID:24218936

Mirani, O Ima; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar

2012-07-01

93

The timing of thyroid-dependent programming in seasonally breeding male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

There is convincing evidence that euthyroid male American tree sparrows are already programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by Week 4 of photostimulation. To explore more precisely when, during early photostimulation, thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal events occurs, photosensitive male tree sparrows were radiothyroidectomized or sham thyroidectomized on the first day of photostimulation (Week 0) or at Weeks 1 or 3 thereafter. Birds were monitored for testicular growth and regression over 8 or 12 weeks and then tested for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness by exposing them to constant light and exogenous L-thyroxine for 4 weeks. Molt of the primary flight feathers was scored periodically, and at the end of the experiment, hypothalami were saved for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) assay. Because (1) the thyroid is already dysfunctional by Day 4 after radiothyroidectomy, (2) thyroid-dependent photoinduced gonadal growth is programmed growth, and as demonstrated here, (3) testis length at Week 6 on long days (i.e., maximum or near-maximum testis size) is independent of the time of thyroidectomy at or after the onset of photostimulation, we conclude that male American tree sparrows were programmed for photoperiodic testicular growth during the first week of photostimulation. Based on measurements of testis length and hypothalamic cGnRH-I content, only 2 of 11 birds thyroidectomized at Week 1 were already programmed for photorefractoriness by Week 1, whereas all birds thyroidectomized at Week 3 were so programmed by Week 3. Marked differences in molt scores between photorefractory (thyroidectomized and euthyroid) and photosensitive (thyroidectomized) birds argue that postnuptial molt also was programmed roughly between Weeks 1 and 3. To explain these results, we ascribe organizational-like actions directly or indirectly to endogenous thyroid hormones and argue that the onset of photostimulation opens a window, during which time euthyroid male American tree sparrows are programmed for seasonality. A clear dissociation of photorefractoriness from photoperiodic testicular growth in birds thyroidectomized at Week 1 suggests that separate control circuits mediate these two annually periodic events. PMID:8812339

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1996-07-01

94

Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.  

PubMed

Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

Wilson, F E

1986-04-01

95

An androgen-independent mechanism maintains photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

A series of experiments was performed to clarify whether photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is maintained by an androgen-dependent mechanism. Castration did not raise plasma LH in photorefractory males held under a daily photoperiod of 20 h light:4 h darkness (20L:4D). Castrated photorefractory males were implanted with the antiandrogen cyproterone or injected s.c. with the antiandrogen flutamide to determine whether androgens which may be resistant to castration inhibit LH secretion. Neither cyproterone nor flutamide raised plasma LH above values found in castrated control birds. Castrated photorefractory males were treated with testosterone to determine whether plasma LH in photorefractory males is androgen-suppressible. Concentrations of plasma LH were independent of plasma testosterone over a wide range of concentrations. The lack of LH response to castration, to castration coupled with antiandrogen therapy, and to castration coupled with testosterone replacement argues that photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is maintained by an androgen-independent mechanism. PMID:4045352

Wilson, F E

1985-10-01

96

The Timing of Thyroid-Dependent Programming in Seasonally Breeding Male American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is convincing evidence that euthyroid male American tree sparrows are already programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by Week 4 of photostimulation. To explore more precisely when, during early photostimulation, thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal events occurs, photosensitive male tree sparrows were radiothyroidectomized or sham thyroidectomized on the first day of photostimulation (Week 0) or at Weeks 1 or

Fred E. Wilson; Bryan D. Reinert

1996-01-01

97

Kinetics of the thermal degradation of Erica arborea by DSC: Hybrid kinetic method  

E-print Network

The scope of this work was the determination of kinetic parameters of the thermal oxidative degradation of a Mediterranean scrub using a hybrid method developed at the laboratory. DSC and TGA were used in this study under air sweeping to record oxidative reactions. Two dominating and overlapped exothermic peaks were recorded in DSC and individualized using an experimental and numerical separation. This first stage allowed obtaining the enthalpy variation of each exothermic phenomenon. In a second time, a model free method was applied on each isolated curve to determine the apparent activation energies. A reactional kinetic scheme was proposed for the global exotherm composed of two independent and consecutive reactions. In fine mean values of enthalpy variation and apparent activation energy previously determined were injected in a model fitting method to obtain the reaction order and the preexponential factor of each oxidative reaction. We plan to use these data in a sub-model to be integrated in a wildland ...

Cancellieri, Dominique; Rossi, Jean Louis; 10.1016/j.tca.2005.07.013

2008-01-01

98

Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

2013-01-01

99

Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.  

PubMed

Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

2014-01-01

100

Clot Lysis and Antimitotic Study of Ficus glomerata Roxb Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to investigate the thrombolytic and antimitotic potentiality of various extracts of fruits of Ficus glomerata, a traditional medicinal plant, using an in vitro assay method. Three crude extracts such as petroleum ether (FGPE), chloroform (FGCE), and methanol (FGME) were used for the study, with a standard (streptokinase) and negative control (sterile distilled water) to validate the method. The thrombolytic nature of the plant was found significant with methanol extract and chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have recorded mild activity, when compared with the negative control (sterile distilled water). The extracts have shown mild clot lysis, that is, 2.16%, 23.06%, 27.60%, and 47.74% of sterile distilled water, FGPE, FGCE, and FGME, respectively, while the standard (streptokinase) has shown 74.22% clot lysis. FGME inhibited the root growth in number as well as length effectively, followed by FGPE, while FGCE exhibited moderate antimitotic activity and it was supported by mitotic index. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that among all the extracts of plant the methanolic extract has shown highest thrombolytic and antimitotic activity. PMID:25006495

Shivasharanappa, Kirankumar; Londonkar, Ramesh

2014-01-01

101

Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explant of dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson).  

PubMed

Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10-1.60 mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/L IBA and 500 mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10 mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10 mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10 mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20-1.00 mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6-9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

Karata?, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Ç?nar, Ay?egül; Dogan, Muhammet

2013-01-01

102

Micropropagation of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) and determination of puerarin content in different tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pueraria tuberosa, a medicinally important leguminous plant, yielding various isoflavanones including puerarin, is threatened, thus requiring\\u000a conservation. In this study, fresh shoot sprouts of P. tuberosa, produced by tubers, were used as explants for in vitro micropropagation. Surface-sterilized nodal shoots were incubated\\u000a on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8.88 ?M benzyladenine (BA), 50 mg l?1 ascorbic acid, and 25 mg l?1 of each

M. S. Rathore; N. S. Shekhawat

2009-01-01

103

Effective Control of Postprandial Glucose Level through Inhibition of Intestinal Alpha Glucosidase by Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.)  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of intestinal alpha glucosidase plays a major role in preventing rise in postprandial glucose level in diabetics. Cymbopogon martinii (CM) (family Poaceae) is used in traditional Indian medicine in treatment of diabetes mellitus. The alpha glucosidase inhibitory action of the plant is studied. The active component was separated using hot water extraction of the whole plant powder, differential solvent extraction, and silica gel column chromatography. The 30?:?70 toluene : ethyl acetate fraction showed optimum activity. The silica gel chromatography fraction demonstrated 98, 98, and 68% inhibition for starch, maltose, and sucrose, respectively, at 5?mg/kg body weight of rats. Intestinal absorption studies using noneverted intestinal sacs, as well as in vivo studies in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using oral glucose tolerance with maltose and sucrose load, revealed better inhibition of alpha glucosidase as compared to acarbose. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver Burk plot showed mixed to noncompetitive type of inhibition by CM. In vivo studies with maltose load of 2?mg and 3?mg/gm body weight showed a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition at 5?mg/kg body weight of CM as against 60?mg/kg body weight of acarbose. Thus CM is more effective alpha glucosidase inhibitor and at lower concentration than acarbose. PMID:21792369

Ghadyale, Varsha; Takalikar, Shrihari; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

2012-01-01

104

Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explant of Dwarf Hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson)  

PubMed Central

Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10–1.60?mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10?mg/L IBA and 500?mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10?mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10?mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10?mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20–1.00?mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6–9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

Karata?, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Ç?nar, Ay?egül; Dogan, Muhammet

2013-01-01

105

Intergeneric somatic hybrids of rice [Oryza sativa L. (+) Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka].  

PubMed

Somatic hybrid plants were obtained following the electrofusion of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv 'Taipei 309', 2n = 2x = 24) cell suspension-derived protoplasts with non-dividing leaf protoplasts of Porteresia coarctata (2n = 4x = 48), a saline-tolerant wild species. Fusion-treated protoplasts were plated on the surface of cellulose nitrate filter membranes, overlaying Lolium multiflorum nurse cells. The nurse cells were embedded in KPR medium containing 0.5 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and semi-solidified with SeaPlaque agarose. Putative somatic hybrid cell colonies were selected on the basis of their growth, whereby faster growing colonies were transferred preferentially to MS-based medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) kinetin, 0.5 mg l(-1)?-naphthaleneacetic acid, 30 g l(-1) sucrose and 4.0 g l(-1) SeaKem agarose to induce shoot regeneration. One hundred and nineteen regenerated plants were micropropagated clonally on MS-based medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine, 50 g l(-1) sucrose and 4.0 g l(-1) SeaKem agarose, prior to DNA extraction of plant samples. Putative somatic hybrids were initially identified by RAPD analysis, and 8 plant lines were selected for further investigation by flow cytometric ploidy determination and cytology. Plants of one line had an allohexaploid chromosome complement (2n = 6x = 72) and, following examination of its vegetative clones by GISH, were confirmed as somatic hybrids containing full chromosome complements of both O. sativa and P. coarctata. PMID:22665191

Jelodar, N B; Blackhall, N W; Hartman, T P; Brar, D S; Khush, G; Davey, M R; Cocking, E C; Power, J B

1999-08-01

106

Intergeneric somatic hybrids of rice [Oryza sativa L. (+) Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic hybrid plants were obtained following the electrofusion of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv ’Taipei 309’, 2n = 2x = 24) cell suspension–derived protoplasts with non-dividing leaf protoplasts of Porteresia coarctata (2n = 4x = 48), a saline-tolerant wild species. Fusion-treated protoplasts were plated on the surface of cellulose nitrate\\u000a filter membranes, overlaying Lolium multiflorum nurse cells. The nurse cells

N. B. Jelodar; N. W. Blackhall; T. P. V. Hartman; D. S. Brar; G. Khush; M. R. Davey; E. C. Cocking; J. B. Power

1999-01-01

107

Pollen Production, Microsporangium Dehiscence and Pollen Flow in Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxb. ex D. Don)  

PubMed Central

Microsporangium dehiscence, pollen production and dispersal were studied in Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) during 1998 and 1999. Microsporangium dehiscence showed diurnal periodicity and was found to be related to air temperature and relative air humidity, with a strobilus taking 2 d to dehisce completely in warmer conditions and 3 d in cooler ones. The frequency of flowering in C. deodara was highly variable during the two successive years; however, cyclical production of pollen grains was observed in 50 % of the trees. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air was found between 1200 and 1600 h, and this period was also noted to be the best time for pollination. Studying migration of pollen grains from isolated single trees in three directions showed that migration was not uniform in all directions. Long?distance transport of pollen grains was observed in the downhill direction. However, in the uphill and horizontal directions grains could travel only up to 97·5 and 195·1 m, respectively, and the frequency of pollen grains to the source frequency at these distances was only 1·9 and 2·5 %, respectively. The results suggest that an isolation barrier of 190 m may be considered as a minimum for the management of deodar seed orchards. PMID:12099533

KHANDURI, V. P.; SHARMA, C. M.

2002-01-01

108

Chemical composition and nutritive value of tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The rainy tropical climate of Surinam proves to be most suitable for the growth of kudzu in monoculture as well as mixed with grasses. Kudzu has been especially used as ground cover inCitrus growing. In order to get some idea of the nutritive value of this legume the organic and mineral components have been analysed in some 40 samples

J. G. P. Dirven

1965-01-01

109

Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity. Methods Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature. Conclusions The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods. PMID:23569847

Sasmal, S; Majumdar, S; Gupta, M; Mukherjee, A; Mukherjee, PK

2012-01-01

110

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ?-amyrin, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

2014-01-01

111

A testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive triggers photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

An experiment was performed to determine whether photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is triggered by a testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive or by a photoperiod-induced hypersensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to testosterone negative feedback. Photosensitive male tree sparrows were transferred from 8 h light:16 h darkness (8L:16D) to 20L:4D. Birds were castrated bilaterally on day 28 of photostimulation. Beginning on day 33 and weekly thereafter until day 54, birds were given replacement testosterone (0-1.49 mumol) in s.c. polydimethylsiloxane capsules. Plasma samples collected on days 36, 43, 50 and 57 were assayed for LH. Plasma LH concentrations in birds without replacement testosterone were regarded as reflecting net photoperiodic drive in the absence of testosterone feedback, and the slopes of curves relating the logarithm of plasma LH concentration to dose of replacement testosterone were taken as quantitative measures of testosterone feedback sensitivity. The results showed that a testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive beginning between days 43 and 50 preceded any change in sensitivity to testosterone negative feedback. Such results provide compelling evidence that a testosterone-independent mechanism triggers the photorefractory state in male tree sparrows. PMID:3701241

Wilson, F E

1986-04-01

112

Testis-dependent and -independent effects of photoperiod on volumes of song control nuclei in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Songbirds exhibit seasonal changes in the volumes of song control nuclei. Birds on long, spring-like days have larger nuclei than do birds on short, winter-like days. The mechanisms mediating volumetric changes have not been determined unequivocally, but testosterone (T) is probably involved. This study examined whether testicular factors are uniquely responsible for seasonal changes in the song system, or whether photoperiod has testis-independent effects. Male American tree sparrows were exposed to one of three photoperiodic conditions: (1) Photosensitive birds were retained on short days (8L:16D). Plasma T is rarely detected in such birds. (2) Photosensitive birds were moved from short days to long days (20L:4D) and photostimulated for three weeks. Photostimulation elevates circulating T in photosensitive birds. (3) Photorefractory birds were held at least four months on 20L:4D. Such birds seldom have detectable levels of T, even though they are on long days. In each condition, there were both intact and castrated birds. Castration typically removes circulating T in tree sparrows. The volumes of the high vocal center (HVC), nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), and area X were measured. Song nuclei were largest in intact photostimulated birds. Other long-day birds (i.e. castrated photostimulated, and intact and castrated photorefractory groups) had larger song nuclei than did short-day intact or castrated photosensitive birds and did not differ from each other. These data indicate that photoperiod has both testis-dependent and -independent effects on the volumes of song control nuclei. PMID:9237531

Bernard, D J; Wilson, F E; Ball, G F

1997-06-20

113

Androgen feedback-dependent and -independent control of photoinduced LH secretion in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Photoperiodic control of gonadotrophin secretion in male tree sparrows was studied by examining changes in plasma LH in castrated birds retained on short daylengths and in castrated birds transferred to long daylengths. Plasma LH concentrations were markedly higher in photostimulated birds than in non-photostimulated birds throughout the 25-day experiment, and implantation of the antiandrogen cyproterone (free alcohol), which should have blocked the action of castration-resistant androgens, did not increase plasma LH in either group. Such results, obtained from birds in which testosterone feedback was inoperative, indicate that the gonadostimulatory effect of long daylengths in intact males must be mediated, at least in part, by an androgen feedback-independent mechanism. To determine whether changes in testosterone feedback facilitate gonadotrophin secretion during photostimulation, two feedback performance characteristics (i.e. set point (minimum concentration of testosterone that suppresses plasma LH) and sensitivity (change in plasma LH per unit change in testosterone)) were quantified by evaluating plasma LH responses of non-photostimulated castrated birds and of photostimulated castrated birds to replacement testosterone (0-4.16 mumol). The data indicate that, in addition to stimulating LH secretion by an androgen feedback-independent mechanism, long daylengths reduce feedback inhibition of LH secretion by increasing the putative set point and decreasing the sensitivity of the testosterone feedback mechanism. The feedback-independent effect is the predominant effect of photostimulation on LH secretion in male tree sparrows. PMID:3989422

Wilson, F E

1985-04-01

114

On the recovery of photosensitivity in two passerine species, American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) and Harris' sparrows (Zonotrichia querula).  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that a spontaneous increase in plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) signals recovery of photosensitivity in castrated passerine birds, LH concentrations were measured weekly in intact and in castrated photorefractory tree sparrows and Harris' sparrows transferred to short days. After 7 weeks on short days (Experiment 1) or after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 weeks (Experiment 2) were challenged with long days (1 week) to determine if photosensitivity had been restored. As evidenced by a significant LH response to photostimulation, tree sparrows had regained at least partial photosensitivity after 7 weeks on short days. However, during exposure to short days, plasma LH concentrations in castrated males did not differ from those in intact males, and plasma LH concentrations in intact or castrated males did not vary with time. The first indication that photosensitivity had been partially restored in Harris' sparrows came after 7 weeks on short days, when castrated males responded to photostimulation with a fourfold elevation in plasma LH concentration. However, before week 7 and through week 10, LH concentrations remained suppressed in both intact and castrated males retained on short days. These data show that recovery of photosensitivity in castrated tree sparrows and Harris' sparrows held on short days is not signaled by a spontaneous elevation in plasma LH concentration, and that plasma LH concentrations in acutely photosensitive intact male tree sparrows and Harris' sparrows held on short days are not suppressed because of gonadal negative feedback. PMID:2391029

Wilson, F E

1990-08-01

115

The drive on luteinizing hormone secretion in castrated tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to short days is daylength independent.  

PubMed

For many, if not most, photoperiodic species of birds, short days are nongonadostimulatory. The tacit assumption that short days are also nonphotostimulatory was tested by determining whether plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) in castrated tree sparrows exposed to short daily photoperiods (8 hr or less) are daylength dependent or independent. Castration of tree sparrows held on an 8-hr daily photoperiod evoked, within 2 weeks, a fivefold elevation in plasma LH concentration. Over the next 24 weeks, plasma LH concentrations of castrated birds were resistant, first to a stepwise reduction in daylength from 8 to 2 hr and later to a 2-, 4-, or 6-hr increase therein. At no time did LH concentrations differ among castrated birds held on the same or different short-day photoregimes. Conversely, at all times, LH concentrations of castrated birds, regardless of photoperiodic history, exceeded those of intact males held on an 8-hr daily photoperiod and sampled at the beginning of the experiment. These data, which argue that the drive on LH secretion in castrated tree sparrows exposed to short days is daylength independent and, therefore, likely intrinsic, verify the tacit assumption that short days are nonphotostimulatory. PMID:2338227

Wilson, F E

1990-03-01

116

Testis-dependent and -independent effects of photoperiod on volumes of song control nuclei in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Songbirds exhibit seasonal changes in the volumes of song control nuclei. Birds on long, spring-like days have larger nuclei than do birds on short, winter-like days. The mechanisms mediating volumetric changes have not been determined unequivocally, but testosterone (T) is probably involved. This study examined whether testicular factors are uniquely responsible for seasonal changes in the song system, or whether

Daniel J. Bernard; Fred E. Wilson; Gregory F. Ball

1997-01-01

117

In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. Results Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were controlled by higher amounts/levels of leaf extracts. Phytochemicals of all plants were qualitatively estimated. Conclusions A majority of timber-yielding plants studied had in vitro control capacity against MDR uropathogenic bacteria. PMID:24524024

Mishra, Monali P.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

2013-01-01

118

Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves  

PubMed Central

Background Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. Methods The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 ?g/disc. Kanamycin (30 ?g/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Results The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 ?g/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 ?g/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p?

2013-01-01

119

Production of Red Pigment from the Root of Morinda angustifolia Roxb. var. scabridula Craib. by Root Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antraquinone is a group of natural red dye found in the root of Morinda sp. which is available in the upper north of Thailand and has been widely used on cotton dyeing. Recently, interest in natural dyes has increased and there is a need to find suitable alternative sources of natural dyes. We have studied one alternative to increase the

Paitoon Aobchey; Supawadee Sriyam; Worawit Praharnripoorab; Sorasak Lhieochaiphant; Suree Phutrakul

120

Phenolic-linked biochemical rationale for the anti-diabetic properties of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Flem.) Karst.  

PubMed

The crude extract of Swertia chirayita, an important medicinal plant of Nepal, is locally used for many diseases including type 2 diabetes. In this study, crude aqueous and 12% ethanol solution extracts of S.?chirayita collected from nine districts of Nepal were analyzed for anti-diabetic-linked anti-hyperglycemia potential using in vitro biochemical assays. There was moderate-to-high positive correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of both extracts and moderate-to-high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Although the anti-diabetic property of S.?chirayita is mainly attributed to the phytochemical swerchirin present in its hexane fraction, we propose that the crude extract of this plant used in local healing also has anti-hyperglycemia potential. The crude extracts indicated the presence of three main phytochemicals mainly mangiferin, swertiamarin, and amarogentin and their derivatives. Among the standard compounds (mangiferin, swertiamarin, and amarogentin), mangiferin showed ?-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical inhibitory activity indicating anti-hyperglycemia potential. PMID:22523004

Phoboo, Susanna; Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Barbosa, Ana Cristina Lopes; Sarkar, Dipayan; Bhowmik, Prasanta C; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Shetty, Kalidas

2013-02-01

121

Antitumor potential of Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A. DC. leaf extract against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell.  

PubMed

Methanol extract of C. indica (MECI) leaves showed direct cytotoxicity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell in a dose dependant manner and there was significant decrease in the tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile and biochemical estimations were significantly restored to normal levels in MECI treated as compared to EAC control mice. MECI treatment significantly modulated the tissue antioxidant assay parameters as compared to the EAC control mice. The results revealed that MECI possesses significant dose dependent antitumor potential which may be due to its cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. PMID:22803326

Dolai, Narayan; Karmakar, Indrajit; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Mazumder, U K; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

2012-05-01

122

Proteoglycans from Boswellia serrata Roxb. and B. carteri Birdw. and identification of a proteolytic plant basic secretory protein.  

PubMed

Water-soluble high molecular weight compounds were isolated in yields of 21-22% from the oleogum of Boswellia serrata and B. carteri. Using anion exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, different proteoglycans were purified and characterized, leading to four principally different groups: (i) Hyp-/Ser-rich extensins with O-glycosidic attached arabinan side chains; (ii) Modified extensins, with arabinogalactosylated side chains containing GlA and 4-O-Me-GlcA; (iii) Glycoproteins with N-glycosidic side chains containing higher amounts of Fuc, Man and GluNH(2,) featuring a 200 kD metalloproteinase that has been de novo sequenced and is described for the first time; (iv) Type II arabinogalactans-proteins. Significant differences between the gums from the two species were observed in the protein content (6% vs 22%), offering the possibility of a quick differentiation of gums from both species for analytical quality control. The data also offer an insight into the plant response towards wound-closing by the formation of extensin and AGP-containing gum. PMID:22773449

Herrmann, Andreas; König, Simone; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Sehlbach, Maria; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Peter-Katalinic, Jasna; Hensel, Andreas

2012-11-01

123

Abstract.--Modulation of the adrenocortical stress response with respect to the degree of parental activity was investigated in three Arctic-breeding species of songbirds faced with lim-  

E-print Network

and between both sexes of American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea), White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia sexo y entre sexos en individuos de Spizella arborea, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii y Passerculus durante las dos etapas reproductivas (sólo en S. arborea y Z. leucophrys). En las tres especies, los

Holberton, Rebecca L.

124

Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals

Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

2012-04-01

125

Compartmentation of Phenolic Compounds and Phenylalanine AmmoniaLyase in Leaves of Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. and their Induction by Copper Sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compartmentation of phenolic compounds in mature leaves of Phyllanthus tenellus and their induction by copper sulphate were analysed at histological and subcellular levels. Light and electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the vacuoles of spongy cells were the main sites of phenolic accumulation. Spraying plants with copper sulphate induced punctated lesions formed by groups of necrotic cells which accumulated brownish

Laura Jane M. Santiago; Ricardo P. Louro; Dulce E. De Oliveira

2000-01-01

126

Neuroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of dried fruits of Trapa bispinosa Roxb on lipofuscinogenesis and fluorescence product in brain of D-galactose induced ageing accelerated mice.  

PubMed

Effect of hydroalcoholic extract T. bispinosa (TB) was studied on fluorescence product and biochemical parameter like lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and glutathione peroxidase activity in the brain of female albino mice. Ageing was accelerated by the treatment of 0.5 ml 5% D-galactose for 15 days. This resulted in increased fluorescence product, increase lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant enzyme like glutathione peroxides and catalase in cerebral cortex. After cotreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of TB (500 mg/kg, po) there was decrease in fluorescence product in cerebral cortex. Moreover, TB inhibited increase lipid peroxidation and restores glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in cerebral cortex as compare to ageing accelerated control group. To conclude TB found to be effective antioxidative agent which could to some extent reverse D-galactose induced ageing changes resulted due to oxidative damage. PMID:20726336

Ambikar, D B; Harle, U N; Khandare, R A; Bore, V V; Vyawahare, N S

2010-04-01

127

A superoxide dismutase purified from the rhizome of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. as inhibitor of nitric oxide production in the macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cell line.  

PubMed

Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is a metalloenzyme or antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the disproportionation of the harmful superoxide anionic radical to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. Due to its antioxidative effects, SOD has long been applied in medicinal treatment, cosmetic, and other chemical industries. Fifteen Zingiberaceae plants were tested for SOD activity in their rhizome extracts. The crude homogenate and ammonium sulfate cut fraction of Curcuma aeruginosa were found to contain a significant level of SOD activity. The SOD enzyme was enriched 16.7-fold by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl cellulose ion exchange, and Superdex 75 gel filtration column chromatography. An overall SOD yield of 2.51 % with a specific activity of 812.20 U/mg was obtained. The enriched SOD had an apparent MW of 31.5 kDa, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and a pH and temperature optima of 4.0 and 50 °C. With nitroblue tetrazolium and riboflavin as substrates, the K(m) values were 57.31 ± 0.012 and 1.51 ± 0.014 M, respectively, with corresponding V(max) values of 333.7 ± 0.034 and 254.1 ± 0.022 ?mol min(-1) mg protein(-1). This SOD likely belongs to the Fe- or Mn-SOD category due to the fact that it was insensitive to potassium cyanide or hydrogen peroxide inhibition, but was potentially weakly stimulated by hydrogen peroxide, and stimulated by Mn(2+)and Fe(2+) ions. Moreover, this purified SOD also exhibited inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in cultured mouse macrophage cell RAW 264.7 in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) = 14.36 ± 0.15 ?g protein/ml). PMID:22391698

Moon-ai, Wanwisa; Niyomploy, Ploypat; Boonsombat, Ruethairat; Sangvanich, Polkit; Karnchanatat, Aphichart

2012-04-01

128

Insulin-secretagogue, antihyperlipidemic and other protective effects of gallic acid isolated from Terminalia bellerica Roxb. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus causes derangement of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism which eventually leads to a number of secondary complications. Terminalia bellerica is widely used in Indian medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes. The present study was carried out to isolate and identify the putative antidiabetic compound from the fruit rind of T. bellerica and assess its chemico-biological interaction in

R. Cecily Rosemary Latha; P. Daisy

2011-01-01

129

Profiling of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant and anticancer activities in pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) extracts from different locations of Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Phytochemicals and antioxidants from plant sources are of increasing interest to consumers because of their roles in the maintenance of human health. Most of the secondary metabolites of herbs are used in a number of pharmaceutical products. Methods Secondary metabolites composition and content of five flavonoids and three phenolic acids were evaluated and determined in Pandanus amaryllifolius extracts from three different locations of Malaysia by RP-HPLC; Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay; The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) Assay was employed to screen anticancer activity of extracts against MCF-7 cancer cell line. Results Highest value of total flavonoids (TF) and total phenolics (TP) was observed in pandan extract from Bachok locattion (1.87 mg/g DW and 6.72 mg/g DW) followed by Klang (1.32 mg/g DW; 5.07 mg/g DW) and Pontian (1.12 mg/g DW; 4.88 mg/g DW). Rutin just detected from Bachok location with value of 0.082 mg/g DW. High content of epicatechin (0.035 mg/g DW) and naringin (0.325 mg/g DW) were observed from Bachok location while, highest content of catechin (0.613 mg/g DW) and kaempferol (0.278 mg/g DW) was observed in pandan extract from Klang location. The extract of pandan from Bachok exhibited highest value of gallic acid (0.423 mg/g DW) and cinnamic acid (0.084 mg/g DW). Ferrulic acid just detected from pandan extract of Bachok location with concentration of 0.281mg/g DW. Between studied locations Bachok exhibited highest value of DPPH (64.27%) and FRAP (517.2 ?m of Fe (II)/g) activity followed by Klang (52.16%; 448.6 ?m of Fe (II)/g) and Pontian (50.10%; 314.8 ?m of Fe (II)/g). The preliminary screening showed pandan extracts from 3 locations possessed anticancer promoting activity against MCF-7 cell line, with 78.3%, 70.5% and 67.4% inhibition rate, respectively. Maximum MCF-7cell line inhibition was observed in pandan extract from Bachok location. Conclusions The samples collected from the North (Bachok) exhibited the highest TP, TF antioxidant and anticancer activity while those from the Southern portion (Pontian) appeared to have the lowest content of TP, TF and antioxidant activity. PMID:24289290

2013-01-01

130

To build a web you need a tree. Between ecological and  

E-print Network

incanum solanum nigrum pavetta assimilis achyranthes aspera pupalia lappaceaximenia caffra grewia arborea. jasminum spp. olea spp.cordia ovalis heliotropium steudneri ipomoea obscurasolanum dennekense solanum

Sainudiin, Raazesh

131

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-28  

E-print Network

other aquatic plant species, Elodea nuttallii, Egeria densa (Planch.) Casp., Vallisneria natans (Lour: Lagarosiphon alternifolia (Roxb.) Druce, E. nuttallii, N. marina 1 Invasion Biology and Biocontrol Lab, Wuhan

US Army Corps of Engineers

132

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN THE TREE SPARROW  

Microsoft Academic Search

row (Spizella arborea arborea), except for the description of molt which will be treated in full, only full-grown birds will be discussed. The growth of the nestling, development of feather tracts, etc., are a chapter in themselves and must be presented elsewhere. The following observations are based on specimens collected at Ithaca, New York, from October through April, and at

A. MARGUERITE BAUMGARTNER

133

Heat-stress induced inhibition in growth and chlorosis in mungbean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is partly mitigated by ascorbic acid application and is related to reduction in oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising temperatures (>35°C) are proving detrimental to summer-sown mungbean genotypes that experience inhibition of vegetative\\u000a and reproductive growth. In the present study, the mungbean plants growing hydroponically at varying temperatures of 30\\/20°C\\u000a (control), 35\\/25, 40\\/30, and 45\\/35°C (as day\\/night 12 h\\/12 h) with (50 ?M) or without ascorbic acid (ASC) were investigated\\u000a for effects on growth, membrane damage, chlorophyll loss, leaf water

Ramanpreet Kaur; Navneet Kaur; Kalpna Bhandhari; Neeru Kaushal; Kriti Gupta; T. S. Bains; Harsh Nayyar

134

Extreme heterochiasmy and nascent sex chromosomes in European tree frogs  

E-print Network

Extreme heterochiasmy and nascent sex chromosomes in European tree frogs Laura Berset arborea, a species with nascent sex chromosomes and male heterogamety. Twenty microsatellites were in females). This opposes classical models of sex chromosome evolution, which envision an initially small

Alvarez, Nadir

135

Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 22272235, 2004. # 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

(Borgula 1990) and/or disappearance of particular structuring elements such as hedgerows or forest borders tree frog (Hyla arborea) has been disappearing from its distribution range over the last decades

Alvarez, Nadir

136

Draft Umatilla/Willow Subbasin Plan May 28, 2004 Appendix A: Terrestrial Wildlife Species in the Umatilla/Willow Subbasin A-1  

E-print Network

American Avocet Recurvirostra americana American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus American Coot Fulica americana American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos American Dipper Cinclus mexicanus American Goldfinch Carduelis Sparrow Spizella arborea American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos American Widgeon Anas americana

137

Umatilla/Willow Subbasin Plan Appendices Table of Contents  

E-print Network

American Avocet Recurvirostra americana American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus American Coot Fulica americana American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos American Dipper Cinclus mexicanus American Goldfinch Carduelis Sparrow Spizella arborea American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos American Widgeon Anas americana

138

A phylogenetic analysis of the emberizid sparrows based on three mitochondrial genes  

E-print Network

subunit III (COIII) for 38 sparrow species, along with Passerina amoena (Cardinalidae) and Piranga examined. As observed with Calcarius, Spizella did not form a monophyletic group, with S. arborea being

Spicer, Greg S.

139

Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve medicinal plants were screened, namely Abrus precatorius L., Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delonix regia L., Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Ficus benghalensis L., Gmelina asiatica L., Santalum album L., and Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem, for potential antibacterial activity against 5 medically important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus

Jigna PAREKH; Darshana JADEJA; Sumitra CHANDA

2005-01-01

140

Patterns in abundance and size of two deep-water gorgonian octocorals, in relation to depth and substrate features off Nova Scotia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-water corals form unique ecosystems, yet very little is known about factors that regulate their distribution and growth. The abundance and size of two deep-water gorgonian coral species, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, and their relationship with depth and substratum cover, were investigated at Northeast Channel, off Nova Scotia, in July 2006. This is the first study to measure abundance and size of these two coral species at depths >500 m in the Canadian Atlantic region. A total of 5 transects between 500 and 1000 m depth were examined using video collected by the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS. Abundance of both species was patchy, but higher at these deeper depths than at <500 m. Abundance generally declined with depth, and was moderately correlated with cover of hard substratum (cobble, boulder, bedrock). These relationships were stronger and less variable for P. resedaeformis than for P. arborea, suggesting that factors such as topographic relief may play an additional role in regulating distributions of P. arborea. Maximum colony height was 125 and 240 cm for P. resedaeformis and P. arborea, respectively, and much greater than recorded for depths <500 m. Overall, colony height and depth relationships were strong for both species, but variable among transects. P. resedaeformis showed a negative relationship with depth, while the opposite was observed for P. arborea, suggesting that the two species are affected differently by factors that vary with depth (e.g. temperature, fishing disturbance). Relationships between colony size and size of attachment stone were stronger for P. arborea, especially for overturned colonies, than for P. resedaeformis, suggesting that availability of suitably coarse substrate may be more important for the long-term persistence of P. arborea colonies.

Watanabe, Shana; Metaxas, Anna; Sameoto, Jessica; Lawton, Peter

2009-12-01

141

Amino acid sequences of ferredoxins from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger: their similarities to those in other tropane-alkaloid-containing plants.  

PubMed

The complete amino acid sequences of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger have been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire S-carboxymethylcysteinyl proteins and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion. These two ferredoxins exhibited 1-8 differences in their amino acid sequences compared to those of other tropane-alkaloid-containing plants (Scopolia japonica, Datura stramonium, D. metel, and D. arborea), and only 1 or 4 differences compared to S. japonica and D. arborea. In contrast, 9-23 differences were observed among the other solanaceous ferredoxins. This suggests that tropane-alkaloid-containing plants are closely related taxonomically. PMID:16079510

Mino, Yoshiki; Yukita, Mayumi; Hiratsuka, Nobuhiro; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

2005-08-01

142

Impact of Ammonium Nitrate on Growth and Survival of Six European Amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted static experiments to assess the effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on embryos and larvae of six European amphibians: sharp-ribbed salamander ( Pleurodeles waltl), Iberian painted frog ( Discoglossus galganoi), western spadefoot toad ( Pelobates cultripes), common toad ( Bufo bufo), natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita), and common tree frog ( Hyla arborea). Embryos were exposed to different and

Manuel E. Ortiz; Adolfo Marco; Nelia Saiz; Miguel Lizana

2004-01-01

143

A new, sibling, tree frog from Jerusalem (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, sibling, species of tree frog of the Hyla arborea group is described from Jerusalem and the adjacent Judean hills. Hyla heinzsteinitzi sp. n. differs from the sympatric common H. savignyi of the Middle East in head shape, as the head is relatively wider and the snout more truncate; in call structure, as in each segment of its advertisement

Constantin Grach; Yeshurun Plesser; Yehudah L. Werner

2007-01-01

144

SKYLIGHT POLARIZATION PATTERNS AND THE ORIENTATION OF MIGRATORY BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patterns of polarized light present in the clear dusk sky provide directional information relevant to the orientation behaviour of migratory birds. Experiments performed with white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), North American night migrants, examined migratory orientation between the time of sunset and the first appearance of stars under several manipulations of skylight polarization patterns.

KENNETH P. ABLE

1989-01-01

145

Avian seed preference and weight loss experiments: the effect of fungal endophyte-infected tall fescue seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of endophytic fungus-infected seeds on seed predators is poorly understood. In this multiple trophic level investigation, seed preference experiments were conducted to determine whether five species of passerines (dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis; American tree sparrows, Spizella arborea; song sparrows, Melospiza melodia; chipping sparrows, Spizella pusilla; and house sparrows, Passer domesticus) recognize and preferentially consume noninfected (NI) over infected

Cynthia Wolock Madej; Keith Clay

1991-01-01

146

Long Days and Thyroxine Program American Tree Sparrows for Seasonality: Evidence for Temporal Flexibility of the Breeding Season of Euthyroid Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of the thyroid in the control of seasonality, photosensitive female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were thyroidectomized (THX), moved to long days, and given daily injections of thyroxine (T4) for 3 weeks; THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received daily injections of alkaline vehicle. Birds were retained on long days 4 additional weeks and then moved to

Fred E Wilson; Bryan D Reinert

1999-01-01

147

Increased sensitivity of the serotonergic system during the breeding season in free-living American tree sparrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the physiological role of serotonin in regulating aggressive behaviour it is important to understand how this neuromodulator acts within the context of a naturally fluctuating social and physical environment. To accomplish this, we examined the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine during the breeding season in free-living male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in

Todd S. Sperry; Ignacio T. Moore; Simone L. Meddle; Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks; John C. Wingfield

2005-01-01

148

SIMULATION OF FORESTRY BIOMASS DRYING IN A ROTARY DRYER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drying of forestry biomass in a rotary dryer has been performed. The raw material used was Erica Arborea belonging to the ever-green, broad leaves ecosystem which covers Central Greece and other Mediterranean countries. The study was part of a project concerning a Greek biomass pyrolysis demonstration plant where drying of biomass is very important in the contribution to the global

A. A. Zabaniotou

2000-01-01

149

Feeding preferences and the relationships between food choice and assimilation efficiency in the herbivorous marine snail Lithopoma undosum (Turbinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preference rankings for 13 macrophytes were established for the subtidal herbivorous snail Lithopoma undosum using two-choice laboratory experiments and consumption rates. L. undosum did not discriminate among three kelp foods (Egregia menziesii, Eisenia arborea and Macrocystis pyrifera) but ate kelp preferentially and more rapidly over all but Ulva spp. among tested macrophytes. Secondary preferences were established for the red alga

T. Erin Cox; Steven N. Murray

2006-01-01

150

Influence of egg depth in host plants on parasitism of Scolylbopa australis (Homoptera: Ricaniidae) by Centrodora scolypopae (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percentage parasitism of the eggs of the passion vine hopper (Scolypopa australis) by Centrodora scolypopae varies with the host plant. The depth of the S. australis eggs below the surface was measured on Pteridium aquilinum var esculentum, Rubus fruticosus agg., Berberis darwinii, Polygonum convolvulus, Coriuria arborea and Cyathea sp., and related to the observed parasitism. It was found that egg

P. J. Gerard

1989-01-01

151

Forage shrubs in North Island hill country 1. Forage production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of shrubs was evaluated as potential sources of forage for grazing animals. Shrubs were established in rows in hill pastures near Wood ville. Nine “true” shrubs and two erect grasses, pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) and toetoe (C. fulvida), were evaluated. The true shrubs were: Chamaecytisus palmensis, tagasaste; Medicago arborea, tree medic; Ulex europaeus, gorse (two variants: wild gorse

M. G. Lambert; G. A. Jung; D. A. Costall

1989-01-01

152

Forage shrubs in North Island hill country 4. Chemical composition and conclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of shrubs was evaluated as potential sources of forage for grazing animals. Shrubs were established in rows in hill pastures near Woodville.Nine “true” shrubs, and two erect grasses, pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) and toetoe (C. fulvida) were evaluated. The true shrubs were: Chamaecytisus palmensis, tagasaste; Medicago arborea, tree medic; Ulex europaeus, gorse (two variants: wildgorse and short-spined gorse);

M. G. Lambert; G. A. Jung; H. W. Harpster; J. Lee

1989-01-01

153

Forage shrubs in North Island hill country 2. Sheep and goat preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of shrubs was evaluated as potential sources of forage for grazing animals. Shrubs were established in rows in hill pastures near Woodville. Nine “true” shrubs, and two erect grasses, pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) and toetoe (C. fulvida) were evaluated. The true shrubs were: Chamaecytisus palmensis, tagasaste; Medicago arborea, tree medic; Ulex europaeus, gorse (two variants: wildgorse and short-spinedgorse);

M. G. Lambert; G. A. Jung; R. H. Fletcher; P. J. Budding; D. A. Costall

1989-01-01

154

Forage shrubs in North Island hill country 3. Forage digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of shrubs was evaluated as potential sources of forage for grazing animals. Shrubs were established in rows in hill pastures near Wood ville. Nine “true” shrubs, and two erect grasses, pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana), and toetoe (C. fulvida) were evaluated. The true shrubs were: Chamaecytisus palmensis, tagasaste; Medicago arborea, tree medic; Ulex europaeus, gorse (two variants: wild gorse

M. G. Lambert; G. A. Jung; H. W. Harpster; P. J. Budding; G. S. Wewala

1989-01-01

155

Soil persistence and biodiversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the absence of the host plant in a Mediterranean ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of suitable mycorrhizal inocula may be an important factor affecting the dynamics of plant communities. We investigated the persistence and diversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of a mature Quercus ilex forest where ericaceous hosts were absent. Erica arborea was used as a bait plant and results were compared to soil samples from experimental plots where

Roberta Bergero; Mariangela Girlanda; Federica Bello; Anna Maria Luppi; Silvia Perotto

2003-01-01

156

Stem and root anatomical correlations with life form diversity, ecology, and systematics in Moringa (Moringaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four life forms (habits) are identified in the 13 species of Moringa (bottle trees, sarcorhizal trees, slender trees, and tuberous shrubs) which are examined for wood anatomical correlations with habit, ecology, and systematics. Wood anatomy is similar within habit classes except for the sarcorhizal trees. The four bottle tree species and M. arborea (one of the sarcorhizal trees) are characterized

M. E. OLSON; S. CARLQUIST

2001-01-01

157

www.newphytologist.org 1011 Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.  

E-print Network

with understorey chaparral shrubs such as Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree) and Erica arborea L. (tree heath (France), where Arbutus unedo was the only other ECM host. · On a 6400 m2 stand, we investigated whether. ilex individuals of various ages (1 yr seedlings; 3­10 yr saplings; old trees) and A. unedo. They were

Bruns, Tom

158

Aphidicidal activity of some indigenous plant extracts against bean aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphidicidal activity of hot and cold water extracts of some indigenous plants, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem), Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton (akanda), Polygonum hydropiper L. (biskatali) and Ipomoea sepiaria J. Koenig ex Roxb. (bankalmi), were tested against the bean aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. Hot water extract of P. hydropiper and A. indica was found to be the most effective

Bidhan Chandra Das; Pankoj Kumar Sarker

2008-01-01

159

Fungicidal properties of some plants against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of leaves of different plants was tested against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. The fungus was isolated from seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor cv. Amarchitra displaying damping?off symptoms. Out of fifty plants tried, extract obtained from seven plants, namely, Adenocalymna alliaceum L., Allium sativa L., Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, Carum capticum Benth, Citrus medica L., Lantana indica Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lamk,

Rita Shekhar; A. K. Dwivedi; S. C. Sharma

1996-01-01

160

Chemical composition and larvicidal activities of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) against three mosquito vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing ,plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal potential of the essential oil from the seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum DC [syn. Z. alatum Roxb] (Rutaceae) against three medically important species of mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and

Mohini Tiwary; S. n. Naik; Dhananjay Kumar Tewary; P. k. Mittal; S. Yadav

161

Effect of Exposure of Eggs to Vapours from Essential Oils on Egg Mortality, Development and Adult Emergence in Earias vittella (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of freshly laid eggs of Earias vittella (F.) to volatiles from the essential oils of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.), peppermint (M.piperita L.), palmarosa (Cymhopogon martini (Roxb.) Wats) and citronella (C.winterianus Jowitt) for more than 24 h inhibited hatchability to varying degrees. This was, however, significant only in respect of the citronella and palmarosa oil vapour treatments when compared

S. Marimuthu; G. Gurusubramanian; S. S. Krishna

1997-01-01

162

Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were

Yin-yu Gao; Wen-wei Chen; Hanwu Lei; Yuhuan Liu; Xiangyang Lin; Roger Ruan

2009-01-01

163

Effects of flooding and salinity on photosynthesis and water relations of four Southeastern Coastal Plain forest species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of flooding and salinity on photosynthesis and water relations was examined for four common coastal tree species [green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.). Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.), and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard)]. Both chronic (as might be associated with sea level rise) and acute (similar to hurricane storm surges) exposures to

K. W. McLeod; J. K. McCarron; W. H. Conner

1996-01-01

164

Flooding and salinity effects on growth and survival of four common forested wetland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival, growth, and biomass of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.), Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.), and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) seedlings were examined in an experiment varying water levels (watered, flooded) and salinity levels (0, 2, and 10 ppt, plus a simulated storm surge with 32 ppt saltwater). All seedlings, except for

W. H. Conner; K. W. McLeod; J. K. McCarron

1997-01-01

165

Relationships of the Woody Medicago Species (Section Dendrotelis) Assessed by Molecular Cytogenetic Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The organization of rDNA genes in the woody medic species from the agronomically important Medicago section Dendrotelis was analysed to gain insight into their taxonomic relationships, to assess the levels of infraspecific variation concerning ribosomal loci in a restricted and fragmented insular species (M. citrina) and to assess the nature of its polyploidy. Methods Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA genes in the three species of section Dendrotelis (M. arborea, M. citrina, M. strasseri) and the related M. marina from section Medicago. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to assess the genomic relationships of the polyploid M. citrina with the putatively related species from section Dendrotelis. Key Results The diploid (2n = 16) M. marina has a single 45S and two 5S rDNA loci, a pattern usually detected in previous studies of Medicago diploid species. However, polyploid species from section Dendrotelis depart from expectations. The tetraploid species (2n = 32) M. arborea and M. strasseri have one 45S rDNA locus and two 5S rDNA loci, whereas in the hexaploid (2n = 48) M. citrina four 45S rDNA and five 5S rDNA loci have been detected. No single chromosome of M. citrina was uniformly labelled after using genomic probes from M. arborea and M. strasseri. Instead, cross-hybridization signals in M. citrina were restricted to terminal chromosome arms and NOR regions. Conclusions FISH results support the close taxonomic interrelationship between M. arborea and M. strasseri. In these tetraploid species, NOR loci have experienced a diploidization event through physical loss of sequences, a cytogenetic feature so far not reported in other species of the genus. The high number of rDNA loci and GISH results support the specific status for the hexaploid M. citrina, and it is suggested that this species is not an autopolyploid derivative of M. arborea or M. strasseri. Further, molecular cytogenetic data do not suggest the hypothesis that M. arborea and M. strasseri were involved in the origin of M. citrina. FISH mapping can be used as an efficient tool to determine the genomic contribution of M. citrina in somatic hybrids with other medic species. PMID:18413655

Rosato, Marcela; Castro, Mercedes; Rosselló, Josep A.

2008-01-01

166

A bactericidal protein in Bombina variegata pachypus skin venom.  

PubMed

The skin venom of the yellow bellied toad Bombina variegata pachypus has an antimicrobial activity which seems to be correlated to the presence of a 6700 mol. wt polypeptide. This polypeptide was purified by electroelution from SDS-urea-polyacrylamide gels and characterized for its antimicrobial activity. A bactericidal action was detected at concentrations with little or no cytolytic effect. The determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration showed that there was activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and also against yeasts. The skin secretions of three other anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea and Discoglossus pictus) were examined for the presence of antimicrobial activities. Only the Hyla arborea secretion exhibited antimicrobial properties. A small amount of a 6700 mol. wt polypeptide was detected among the Hyla secreted products. PMID:2048146

Mastromei, G; Barberio, C; Pistolesi, S; Delfino, G

1991-01-01

167

Leptospirosis following a major flood in Central Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

Throughout December 2010 and January 2011, Queensland experienced widespread flooding due to unusually protracted and heavy rainfalls. In mid-January 2011, four individuals from a small community in Central Queensland were hospitalized with leptospirosis. A further five cases were subsequently identified from around Central Queensland, bringing the total to nine. Microscopic agglutination testing found that serovar Arborea (Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea) was presumptively responsible for leptospirosis in seven of nine confirmed cases. Serovars Hardjo and Australis were identified in samples from two remaining cases. All cases had exposure to flood water. No single exposure source was identified. This is the first reported outbreak of leptospirosis in Central Queensland and the first report of leptospirosis cases associated with flood water inundation in Queensland. Public health authorities should continue to promote awareness of leptospirosis in flood-affected populations. Healthcare providers must maintain a high level of suspicion for leptospirosis during and after flood events. PMID:22625176

Smith, J K G; Young, M M; Wilson, K L; Craig, S B

2013-03-01

168

Description and biology of two new species of Neotropical Liriomyza Mik (Diptera, Agromyzidae), mining leaves of Bocconia (Papaveraceae).  

PubMed

Liriomyza mystica Boucher & Nishida, sp. n., and Liriomyza prompta Boucher & Nishida, sp. n. are described from Costa Rica. Both species were reared from leaves of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae). The latter species was also reared from B. arborea S. Watson. Larvae of L. mystica mine primary veins of large, relatively old, mature leaves, and L. prompta mine blades of small to large, mature leaves. These represent the first record of agromyzids feeding on Bocconia. Biological information is also given and illustrated. PMID:24478590

Boucher, Stéphanie; Nishida, Kenji

2014-01-01

169

Factors influencing food choice by the seaweed-eating marine snail Norrisianorrisi (Trochidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through two-choice gustatory experiments, a?preference hierarchy was established?for?the?herbivorous gastropod Norrisianorrisi Sowerby, with laminarialean kelps preferred over all other seaweeds. Among the kelps, laminae of Macrocystispyrifera were slightly preferred over Egregiamenziesii, and both were strongly preferred over sporophylls of Eiseniaarborea. E.arborea, the least preferred kelp, was consistently chosen over other algae common in the snail's habitat (Halidrysdioica, Dictyotaflabellata, and Pterocladiacapillacea) and

R. L. Wakefield; S. N. Murray

1998-01-01

170

Epiphytic lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro  

PubMed Central

A list of 120 taxa of lichens (117 species) and three species of lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro is presented. The lichens Biatora chrysantha, Caloplaca monacensis, Candelariella efflorescens, Loxospora elatina, Micarea adnata, Ochrolechia arborea, O. microstictoides, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physconia enteroxantha, Ph. grisea, Rinodina capensis, R. polysporoides, R. pyrina, Scoliciosporum umbrinum var. corticolum, Xanthoria candelaria, X. ulophyllodes and the lichenicolous fungi Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Telogalla olivieri, and Xanthoriicola physciae are new to Montenegro. PMID:22318890

Bilovitz, Peter O.; Steševi?, Danijela; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2011-01-01

171

Anuran amphibia which are not acclimable to high salt, tolerate high plasma urea.  

PubMed

1. The capacity of five anuran Amphibians (Bufo viridis, B. regularis, Rana ridibunda, Hyla arborea and Pelobates syriacus) to acclimate to NaCl and urea solutions was investigated. 2. All species could be acclimated to relatively high concentrations of urea solutions, while only Bufo viridis and Hyla arborea could be acclimated to 500 mOsm/kg or higher NaCl solutions. 3. The plasma urea concentration in B. viridis and H. arborea was elevated to levels over 140 mmol/l. 4. The sum of plasma sodium and chloride concentrations did not increase over 400 mmol/l in any species. 5. Urine osmolality, which was normally low, increased, but never exceeded the plasma osmolality. 6. In the urea acclimation conditions, urine electrolytes diminished, similarly in all species in this study. 7. It is concluded that anuran Amphibians can tolerate high plasma urea concentrations, but only those species which can elevate it, either through retention or net synthesis, can be acclimated to high salt solutions. PMID:1358505

Shpun, S; Hoffman, J; Katz, U

1992-11-01

172

The relationship of plasma indicators of lipid metabolism and muscle damage to overnight temperature in winter-acclimatized small birds.  

PubMed

Plasma glycerol and triglyceride levels and creatine kinase (CK) activity may increase during long-distance flights in migratory birds, but plasma profiles of these metabolites have not previously been reported for small birds during thermoregulation in cold climates. We measured early morning levels of plasma glycerol, triglycerides and CK activity in four species of small birds overwintering in South Dakota, Junco hyemalis, Spizella arborea, Passer domesticus, and Carduelis tristis. We hypothesized that metabolite levels and CK activity might vary with overnight temperature (measured as the temperature just prior to dawn), with higher levels during colder temperatures which require elevated thermogenesis. Triglyceride and glycerol levels were not significantly related to temperature for any of the four species. Triglyceride levels were significantly positively associated with time since sunrise in J. hyemalis and C. tristis, and the time-temperature interaction was significant for S. arborea, suggesting rapid replacement of fat stores. Plasma glycerol levels were also significantly positively related to time since sunrise in J. hyemalis and C. tristis, but not in other species. Plasma CK activity showed a significant negative relationship to overnight temperature only for S. arborea. These results suggest that triglycerides do not comprise a major contribution to lipid supply during intense shivering in small birds. Similarly, intense shivering does not generally appear to result in muscle damage in small birds. PMID:17049895

Swanson, David L; Thomas, Nathan E

2007-01-01

173

The diversity of antibacterial compounds of Terminalia species (Combretaceae).  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of acetone, hexane, dichloromethane leaf extract of five Terminalia species (Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth., Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wt. and Am., Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Terminalia catappa L. and Terminalia chebula Retz.) were tested by Agar-well-diffusion method against human pathogens E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The Rf values and relative activities of separated compounds were tested. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts have shown more antibacterial components than the acetone extract indicating the non-polar character of the antibacterial compounds. The non-polar character of the antibacterial compounds was confirmed from the Rf values. It indicated that the antibacterial activity was not due to tannins. Terminalia catappa found to possess the compounds which are more antibacterial. Terminalia arjuna and T. catappa plants were found most promising for isolating antibacterial compounds. PMID:20180323

Shinde, S L; Junne, S B; Wadje, S S; Baig, M M V

2009-11-15

174

Weed biomass dynamics in planted fallow systems in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in planted fallow systems has focused on soil fertility improvement, neglecting other potential benefits of such\\u000a systems. It is important to quantify other processes responsible for crop yield increases under planted fallows, such as weed\\u000a control. The suppressive potential on weeds of Flemingia macrophylla [(Willd.) Merrill] and Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth, planted fallows was evaluated in field trials in three

Ben Kwaku Banful; Stefan Hauser; Kwadwo Ofori; Frank K. Kumaga

2007-01-01

175

Rapid propagation of agave by in vitro tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for rapid propagation of Agave (A. cantala Roxb., A. fourcroydes Lem. and A. sisalana Perrine, (Agavaceae) have been developed. The explants were excised from stolon plantlets, sterilized and cultivated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium containing 2% sucrose, 10% coconut water and 0.8% agar. The addition of following combination of growth substances—0.075 mgl-1 naphthalenacetic acid (NAA)+0.1 mgl-1

L. T. Binh; L. T. Muoi; H. T. K. Oanh; T. D. Thang; D. T. Phong

1990-01-01

176

Ficus palaeoracemosa sp. nov. – A new fossil leaf from the Kasauli Formation of Himachal Pradesh and its palaeoclimatic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fossil leaf impression is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kasauli–Kalka road section, Himachal Pradesh.\\u000a The characteristic leaf venation pattern suggests that it has a close affinity with Ficus L., particularly with F. racemosa L. (= F. glomerata Roxb.). Its presence indicates a warm and humid climate in the region during the deposition of sediments, in contrast

Gaurav Srivastava; Rashmi Srivastava; R C Mehrotra

2011-01-01

177

Evaluation of repellent properties of botanical extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural\\u000a insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. The present study explored the effects of crude leaf ethyl\\u000a acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Asokan Bagavan; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Sampath Marimuthu

2010-01-01

178

Mung beans ( Phaseolus aureus) for finishing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestible energy (DE) content of raw mung beans (Phaseolus aureus (Roxb.) var Berkin) was 16.09 MJ kg?1 of dry matter (DM), measured by total faecal collection for five days in a switch-over trial with six 53 kg live weight (LW) Landrace-Large White entire males fed at 34 g kg?1 of LW, by substitution of 300 g kg?1 of ground mung

K. G. Wiryawan; H. M. Miller; J. H. G. Holmes

1997-01-01

179

High salinity reduces the content of a highly abundant 23-kDa protein of the mangrove Bruguiera parviflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant decrease in the amount of a protein, whose migration in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis corresponds to an apparent molecular mass of 23 kDa and pI=6.5, was observed in leaves of NaCl-treated Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wt. & Arn. ex Griff. seedlings. This particular salt-sensitive protein, designated as SSP-23, almost disappeared after 45 days of treatment in 400 mM NaCl as compared to untreated

Asish Kumar Parida; Bhabatosh Mittra; Anath Bandhu Das; Taposh Kumar Das; Prasanna Mohanty

2005-01-01

180

Effects of mother tree ages, different rooting mediums, light conditions and auxin treatments on rooting behaviour of Dalbergia sissoo branch cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. is one of the promising multipurpose tree species of South Asia. Most of the plantations of D. sissoo from seeds are facing severe threats due to the die-back disease, which ultimately causes death of this potential tree-species\\u000a within a few months. Vegetative propagation could avoid the die-back disease. Thirty mother trees of different age-groups\\u000a of D. sissoo

Bhupendra Singh; Rajendra Yadav; B. P. Bhatt

2011-01-01

181

Vegetative propagation of Litsea monopetala , a wild tropical medicinal plant: Effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on stem cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the rooting ability and the growth performance of juvenile single-node leafy stem cuttings of\\u000a Litsea monopetala (Roxb) Pers. collected from two mature mother trees preserved in the hill forest of Chittagong district, Bangladesh. The\\u000a rooting ability of cuttings was studied under 0%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) treatments. Significantly\\u000a better rooting response (p

Tarit Kumar Baul; Mohammad Mosharraf Hossain; Mohammad Mezbahuddin; Mohammed Mohiuddin

182

Growth of Nursery-grown Bamboo Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in two Tropical Soil Typeswith and without Fertilizer Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nursery experiment was conducted to assess the effect of bioinoculants (Glomus aggregatum, Bacillus polymixa, Azospirillum brasilense) on seedling growth promotion of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees.) in two soil types (alfisol, vertisol) with or without fertilizer application. Bamboo seedlings were grown\\u000a in the presence or absence of bioinoculants either individually or in all combinations for 180 days in field soil

T. Muthukumar; K. Udaiyan

2006-01-01

183

Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate,\\u000a hexane, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus

G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; C. Venkatesan

2009-01-01

184

Caffeic acid inhibits in vitro rooting in mung bean [ Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] hypocotyls by inducing oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeic acid (CA), which is ubiquitously present in plants, is a potent phytotoxin affecting plant growth and physiology.\\u000a The aim of our study was to investigate whether CA-induced inhibition of adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean {Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek [Phaseolus aureus Roxb.]} involves the induction of conventional stress responses. The effect of CA (0–1000 ?M) on ARF in mung

Harminder Pal Singh; Shalinder Kaur; Daizy R. Batish; Ravinder Kumar Kohli

2009-01-01

185

Retinoic acid homeostasis regulates meiotic entry in developing anuran gonads and in Bidder's organ through Raldh2 and Cyp26b1 proteins.  

PubMed

The vitamin A (retinol) and its metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) affect vertebrate gametogenesis. The level of RA in cells relies on the balance between its synthesis and degradation. The sex-dependent equilibrium is reached in different ways in various species. It is known that RA induces meiosis in developing gonads in mouse, chicken and urodel amphibians, but its role in anuran amphibians has not been studied. Here we show in six anuran species (Xenopus laevis, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo viridis, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria) that cultured undifferentiated gonads were insensitive to RA treatment, but the RA induced ectopic meiosis in cultured larval testes. In larval testes of all studied species, the exogenous RA induced leptotene phase of I meiotic prophase in gonia, but only in H. arborea and B. viridis gonia progressed to zygotene phase. In the cultured developing ovaries, exogenous RA led to increase in the number of oocytes as compared to the control. Inhibition of either RA synthesis or RA-receptors prevented meiotic entry in larval gonads of all species. Exogenous RA rescued this inhibitory effect demonstrating that the balance in RA homeostasis plays a key role in meiotic entry in anuran gonads. The localization of two enzymes, Raldh2 and Cyp26b1, which antagonistically control RA levels and whose abundance suggests the sites of RA synthesis and degradation respectively, showed two distinct expression patterns specific for (i) X. laevis, H. arborea, R. arvalis, R. temporaria and (ii) B. bombina, B. viridis. Thus, RA, in correlation with specific expression patterns of Raldh2 and Cyp26b, induces meiosis during gonad development in anurans. In addition, in B. viridis, RA signalling seems important for development of the Bidder's organ containing oocytes both in males and females. PMID:24056063

Piprek, Rafal P; Pecio, Anna; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

2013-01-01

186

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Distribution of Deep-Water Gorgonian Corals in Relation to Seabed Topography on the Norwegian Margin  

PubMed Central

Investigating the relationship between deep-water coral distribution and seabed topography is important for understanding the terrain habitat selection of these species and for the development of predictive habitat models. In this study, the distribution of the deep-water gorgonians, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, in relation to terrain variables at multiple scales of 30 m, 90 m and 170 m were investigated at Røst Reef, Traena Reef and Sotbakken Reef on the Norwegian margin, with Ecological Niche Factor Analysis applied. To date, there have been few published studies investigating this aspect of gorgonian distribution. A similar correlation between the distribution of P. arborea and P. resedaeformis and each particular terrain variable was found at each study site, but the strength of the correlation between each variable and distribution differed by reef. The terrain variables of bathymetric position index (BPI) and curvature at analysis scales of 90 m or 170 m were most strongly linked to the distribution of both species at the three geographically distinct study sites. Both gorgonian species tended to inhabit local topographic highs across all three sites, particularly at Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef, with both species observed almost exclusively on such topographic highs. The tendency for observed P. arborea to inhabit ridge crests at Røst Reef was much greater than was indicated for P. resedaeformis. This investigation identifies the terrain variables which most closely correlate with distribution of these two gorgonian species, and analyzes their terrain habitat selection; further development of predictive habitat models may be considered essential for effective management of these species. PMID:22912887

Tong, Ruiju; Purser, Autun; Unnithan, Vikram; Guinan, Janine

2012-01-01

187

Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 ?g/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 ?g/mL and 183 ?g/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Flavonoid content of methanol extracts in S. grandiflora L. T was 22.5 ?g/mL and the highest among plant extracts tested. These results indicated that C. aurantifolia Swingle, S. grandiflora L., P. sarmentosum Roxb, and C. domestica Valeton have antibacterial and antioxidant activities and can be used as alternative antibiotics or potential feed additives for the control of animal pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25178298

Lee, J. H.; Cho, S.; Paik, H. D.; Choi, C. W.; Nam, K. T.; Hwang, S. G.; Kim, S. K.

2014-01-01

188

Investigation on antibacterial and antioxidant activities, phenolic and flavonoid contents of some thai edible plants as an alternative for antibiotics.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 ?g/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 ?g/mL and 183 ?g/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Flavonoid content of methanol extracts in S. grandiflora L. T was 22.5 ?g/mL and the highest among plant extracts tested. These results indicated that C. aurantifolia Swingle, S. grandiflora L., P. sarmentosum Roxb, and C. domestica Valeton have antibacterial and antioxidant activities and can be used as alternative antibiotics or potential feed additives for the control of animal pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25178298

Lee, J H; Cho, S; Paik, H D; Choi, C W; Nam, K T; Hwang, S G; Kim, S K

2014-10-01

189

Untitled  

Cancer.gov

Beans, NFA Red kidney beans, dry, cooked, fat not added in cooking 457;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Kidney beans;Mean of 8 studies 720.1 Beans, NFA Soybeans, cooked, fat not added in cooking 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Mean of 2 studies 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Soya beans, canned (Canada) 720.1 Beans, NFA Mung beans, fat not added in cooking 468;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Mung beans;Mung bean (Phaseolus areus Roxb.

190

Sexual dimorphism of AMH, DMRT1 and RSPO1 localization in the developing gonads of six anuran species.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, several genes which are differentially expressed in various species, have been implicated in sex determination and gonadal differentiation. We used immunolocalization to study the expression pattern of three proteins AMH, DMRT1, RSPO1 involved in the sexual differentiation of gonads. The pattern of AMH, DMRT1 and RSPO1 expression was analyzed in X. laevis and in five other divergent anuran species: Bombina bombina, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria during gonadal development. The pattern of expression of AMH in the developing testes of six studied anuran species was similar to that described for other vertebrates. AMH was strongly expressed in differentiating Sertoli cells. Interestingly, in B. viridis, R. arvalis and R. temporaria, AMH was also expressed in ovaries. In all studied species, DMRT1 was highly expressed in the developing testes, in both the somatic and germ cells. It was also expressed at low level in ovaries in all studied species, with the exception of H. arborea. RSPO1 was expressed in the developing ovaries, especially in the somatic cells, and was almost undetectable in developing testes in all examined anurans. These developmental expression patterns strongly suggest an involvement of AMH and DMRT1 in the development of male gonads and of RSPO1 in the female gonads. The differences in the expression patterns of these proteins in the gonads of different species might reflect the diversity of gonadal development patterns in anurans resulting from long lasting and diverged paths of their evolution. PMID:24623081

Piprek, Rafal P; Pecio, Anna; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

2013-01-01

191

Mitochondria-rich cells in anuran amphibia: chloride conductance and regional distribution over the body surface.  

PubMed

The distribution and density (D(mrc)) of mitochondria-rich cells (MR cells) in skin epithelium, were determined over the whole body surface in nine species of anuran Amphibia that live in a variety of habitats. It was found that the more terrestrial species (beginning with Hyla arborea) have a higher density of MR cells in their pelvic region. In the skin of aquatic (Xenopus laevis) or fossorial (Pelobates syriacus) species, D(mrc) is evenly distributed over the whole body surface. In dorsal skin pieces of H. arborea that lack detectable MR cells, transepithelial voltage activation did not induce Cl(-) conductance as it did in ventral pieces. Skins from Bufo viridis and X. laevis, both have MR cells in their skin, differ markedly in their biophysical properties: a Cl(-) specific current conductance is predominant in the skin epithelium of B. viridis, and is absent in X. laevis. In the latter, anionic conductance is due to glandular secretion. The biophysical properties cannot therefore be related solely to the presence or density of MR cells. Mitochondria-rich cells are sites of Cl(-) conductance across the skin of those amphibians that show this property, but must have different function(s) in other species. It is suggested that the specific zonal distribution of MR cells in the species that were examined in this study could be due to ion exchange activity and water conservation in more terrestrial environments. PMID:10779739

Katz, U; Rozman, A; Zaccone, G; Fasulo, S; Gabbay, S

2000-01-01

192

Rodents and Leptospira transmission risk in Terceira island (Azores).  

PubMed

The role of rodents as Leptospira renal carriers in Terceira island was evaluated (1993-1995) through kidney culture and serology [microscopic aglutination test (MAT)] of 94 mice and rats. Fifty-nine animals were positive (n = 41 by serology + culturing; n = 11 serology; n = 7 culturing), presenting a wide distribution in man-made and natural areas. House mice had the highest bacteriological (82.9%) and serological (90.9%) rates, being strictly related to serovar arborea. Black rats were involved in the dispersion of all isolated L. interrogans sensu lato serovars (arborea, copenhageni and icterohaemorrhagiae). Logistic regression analysis and non-metric multi-dimensional scaling, relating Leptospira infection with biological and environmental variables, expressed that adult males Mus domesticus, sexually active and living in humid biotopes, mainly above 500 m, are the most likely reservoirs. This study emphasizes the role of house-mice in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in Terceira and the need of reducing the risk of Leptospira transmission through integrated control programmes, primarily focusing on adult house-mice in peri-domestic environments, before the breeding season. PMID:11484805

Collares-Pereira, M; Mathias, M L; Santos-Reis, M; Ramalhinho, M G; Duarte-Rodrigues, P

2000-01-01

193

Pigmentation and Spectral Absorbance Signatures in Deep-Water Corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway  

PubMed Central

The pigmentation and corresponding in vivo and in vitro absorption characteristics in three different deep-water coral species: white and orange Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, collected from the Trondheimsfjord are described. Pigments were isolated and characterized by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LC-TOF MS). The main carotenoids identified for all three coral species were astaxanthin and a canthaxanthin-like carotenoid. Soft tissue and skeleton of orange L. pertusa contained 2 times more astaxanthin g?1 wet weight compared to white L. pertusa. White and orange L. pertusa were characterized with in vivo absorbance peaks at 409 and 473 nm, respectively. In vivo absorbance maxima for P. arborea and P. resedaeformis was typically at 475 nm. The shapes of the absorbance spectra (400–700 nm) were species-specific, indicated by in vivo, in vitro and the corresponding difference spectra. The results may provide important chemotaxonomic information for pigment when bonded to their proteins in vivo, bio-prospecting, and for in situ identification, mapping and monitoring of corals. PMID:22822381

Elde, Anette C.; Pettersen, Ragnhild; Bruheim, Per; Jarnegren, Johanna; Johnsen, Geir

2012-01-01

194

Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.  

PubMed

Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures. PMID:24933904

Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

2014-01-01

195

Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising <6% of the isolates. The clone libraries showed dramatically different bacterial communities between corals of the same species collected at different sites, with no clear pattern of conserved bacterial consortia. Two of the clone libraries (one from each coral species) were dominated by Tenericutes, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating the remaining sequences. The other libraries were more diverse and had a more even distribution of bacterial phyla, showing more similarity between genera than within coral species. Here we report the first microbiological characterization of P. arborea, P. superba, and C. koolsae. FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

Gray, M. A.; Stone, R. P.; Mclaughlin, M. R.; Kellogg, C. A.

2011-01-01

196

Isolation of colour components from native dye-bearing plants in northeastern India.  

PubMed

Recently dyes derived from natural sources have emerged as important alternatives to synthetic dyes. A study was initiated in the year 2000 at the RRL (CSIR), Jorhat to extract dyes from parts of five different plant species indigenous to northeastern India. The colour components responsible for dyeing were isolated and their chemical constituents were established based on chemical and spectroscopic investigations. The principal colour components from the species Morinda angustifolia Roxb., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Tectona grandis Linn. were found to contain mainly anthraquinone moieties in their molecules. Those from the species Mimusops elengi Linn. and Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. contained flavonoid moieties in their molecules. The absorption of dye (%) on fibres increased with increasing concentrations of dye in the dye-bath. Maximum absorption of dyes on fibres was obtained at 3% concentration of dyes obtained from R. cordfolia (35.350%), M. angustifolia (31.580%) and T. grandis (25.888%) and at 4% concentration of the dyes from M. elengi (31.917%) and T. arjuna (12.246%). The K/S values were found to increase with the increase in concentration of mordants. The colour co-ordinates of dyed samples were found to lie in the yellow-red quadrant of the colour space diagram. The dyes obtained from the native plants may be alternative sources to synthetic dyes for the dyeing of natural silk and cotton. PMID:15474939

Bhuyan, Ranjana; Saikia, C N

2005-02-01

197

Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

2013-10-01

198

Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100??g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

2013-01-01

199

Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.  

PubMed

In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

Aberoumand, Ali

2009-01-01

200

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

2013-01-01

201

Potential pharmacological applications of polyphenolic derivatives from marine brown algae.  

PubMed

Recently, the isolation and characterization of the biologically active components from seaweeds have gained much attention from various research groups across the world. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins are one among them. Among marine algae, brown algal species such as Ecklonia cava, Eisenia arborea, Ecklonia stolinifera and Eisenia bicyclis have been studied for their potential biological activities. Majority of the investigations on phlorotannins derived from brown algae have exhibited their potentiality as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihypertensive, anti-allergic, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition and in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibition activity. In this review, we have made an attempt to discuss the potential biological activities of phlorotannins from marine brown algae and their possible candidature in the pharmaceutical applications. PMID:22004951

Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

2011-11-01

202

CLARKSON AND CLARKSON: VEGETATION CHANGES ON MT TARAWERA HIGH DOMES 107 MT TARAWERA: 2. RATES OF CHANGE IN THE VEGETATION AND FLORA OF THE HIGH DOMES  

E-print Network

SUMMARY: The flora and vegetation of the four high domes of Mt Tarawera; Ruawahia, Tarawera, Wahanga and Plateau. are described, and successional rates and trends determined at some sites by comparing 1964 and present-day photographs and records. Although below the regional tree limit, the dome tops are dominated by scattered low shrubs, herbs, grasses, mosses and lichens. With increasing distance from the 1886 eruption craters vegetation complexity and rates of succession increase. Plateau dome vegetation is successionally the most advanced. In the last 18 years tutu (Coriaria arborea) has spread from adjoining valleys on to the dome crests and is now invading the remaining dome top vegetation. The flora of the high domes has increased since 1964 and a high proportion of the additional species are adventives. Adventive conifers are becoming increasingly abundant on the dome tops and may modify the natural succession which is to kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa)-broadleaf (Griselinia littoralis) forest.

Beverley R. Clarkson; Bruce; D. Clarkson

203

Non-Invasive Measurement of Frog Skin Reflectivity in High Spatial Resolution Using a Dual Hyperspectral Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Most spectral data for the amphibian integument are limited to the visible spectrum of light and have been collected using point measurements with low spatial resolution. In the present study a dual camera setup consisting of two push broom hyperspectral imaging systems was employed, which produces reflectance images between 400 and 2500 nm with high spectral and spatial resolution and a high dynamic range. Methodology/Principal Findings We briefly introduce the system and document the high efficiency of this technique analyzing exemplarily the spectral reflectivity of the integument of three arboreal anuran species (Litoria caerulea, Agalychnis callidryas and Hyla arborea), all of which appear green to the human eye. The imaging setup generates a high number of spectral bands within seconds and allows non-invasive characterization of spectral characteristics with relatively high working distance. Despite the comparatively uniform coloration, spectral reflectivity between 700 and 1100 nm differed markedly among the species. In contrast to H. arborea, L. caerulea and A. callidryas showed reflection in this range. For all three species, reflectivity above 1100 nm is primarily defined by water absorption. Furthermore, the high resolution allowed examining even small structures such as fingers and toes, which in A. callidryas showed an increased reflectivity in the near infrared part of the spectrum. Conclusion/Significance Hyperspectral imaging was found to be a very useful alternative technique combining the spectral resolution of spectrometric measurements with a higher spatial resolution. In addition, we used Digital Infrared/Red-Edge Photography as new simple method to roughly determine the near infrared reflectivity of frog specimens in field, where hyperspectral imaging is typically difficult. PMID:24058464

Liebisch, Frank; Walter, Achim; Greven, Hartmut; Rascher, Uwe

2013-01-01

204

A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.  

PubMed

A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

2014-01-01

205

Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation  

PubMed Central

This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

2012-01-01

206

Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

2012-01-01

207

Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.  

PubMed

Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol. PMID:24507290

Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

2014-02-15

208

Pharmacognostic and antifungal investigations of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudrakasha).  

PubMed

Rudrakasha is the dried bead obtained from the ripe fruit of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. (Family: Elaeocarpaceae). Microscopic studies revealed the presence of a hard endocarp with lignified isodiametric sclereids, seeds with membranous seed coat, which enclosed a dense cellular endosperm comprising of calcium oxalate druses. Physicochemical parameters showed that total ash was 1.36 times and 1.56 times more than the acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash, respectively. Further, ethanol had a maximum extractable value of 2.4% and moisture content was found to be 9.7%. Different extracts, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water were prepared. Chemically the extracts showed the presence of phytosterols, fats, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins and tannins. The extracts were evaluated for antifungal activity on different fungal strains. Chlorofom and ethanol extracts have high antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Whereas, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts showed moderate inhibition against Aspergillus niger. PMID:20838538

Singh, B; Chopra, A; Ishar, M P S; Sharma, A; Raj, T

2010-03-01

209

Pharmacognostic and antifungal investigations of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudrakasha)  

PubMed Central

Rudrakasha is the dried bead obtained from the ripe fruit of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. (Family: Elaeocarpaceae). Microscopic studies revealed the presence of a hard endocarp with lignified isodiametric sclereids, seeds with membranous seed coat, which enclosed a dense cellular endosperm comprising of calcium oxalate druses. Physicochemical parameters showed that total ash was 1.36 times and 1.56 times more than the acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash, respectively. Further, ethanol had a maximum extractable value of 2.4% and moisture content was found to be 9.7%. Different extracts, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water were prepared. Chemically the extracts showed the presence of phytosterols, fats, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins and tannins. The extracts were evaluated for antifungal activity on different fungal strains. Chlorofom and ethanol extracts have high antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Whereas, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts showed moderate inhibition against Aspergillus niger. PMID:20838538

Singh, B.; Chopra, A.; Ishar, M.P.S.; Sharma, A.; Raj, T.

2010-01-01

210

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Methyl Angolensate and Luteolin-7-O-glucoside Isolated from Callus Cultures of Soymida febrifuga  

PubMed Central

Soymida febrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. is an indigenous lofty deciduous medicinal tree, monotypic genus endemic to India. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Soymida febrifuga root callus were tested for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity. Among them, ethyl acetate extract was found to be most effective, which on subjection to silica gel column chromatography led to the separation and isolation of methyl angolensate and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Structures were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Liquid Chromatographic Mass Spectroscopic methods. Further studies indicated that methyl angolensate and luteolin-7-O-glucoside had an anti-bacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium, respectively. In addition to that methyl angolensate had an anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger while luteolin-7-O-glucoside inhibited Alternaria alternata. PMID:23675053

Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Mohammed, Arifullah; Dampuri, Gayathri; Ghanta, Rama Gopal; Raghavan, Sathees C.

2007-01-01

211

A new genus of Grapholitini from Africa related to Thaumatotibia (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Thaumatovalva gen. n. is described and illustrated from the Afrotropical region. As currently defined the genus includes four species: T. deprinsorum sp. n. from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. albolineana sp. n. (type species) from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. spinai (Razowski & Trematerra), comb. n., from Ethiopia and Nigeria; and T. limbata (Diakonoff), comb. n., from the Seychelles and Kenya. Thaumatovalva limbata has been reared from the fruit of Cordia somaliensis Baker and C. monoica Roxb. (Boraginaceae) in Kenya. Although structures of the male and female genitalia are extremely similar among three of the four species, male secondary scales on the under surface of the hindwing easily distinguish them. PMID:25197220

Timm, Alicia E.; Brown, John W.

2014-01-01

212

Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.  

PubMed

Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir), and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.). Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P?0.001). The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries) on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68%) or F-statistics (FSTLoc?=?-0.01; P?=?0.62). These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (?STLoc?=?0.05; P?=?0.92). In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost?=?0.04; P?=?0.01), which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (?STHost?=?0.06; P?=?0.27). Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM) for M. vitrata in West Africa. PMID:24647356

Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Coates, Brad S; Datinon, Benjamin; Djouaka, Rousseau; Sun, Weilin; Tamò, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2014-01-01

213

Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies  

PubMed Central

Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir), and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.). Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P?0.001). The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries) on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation ?0.68%) or F-statistics (FSTLoc?=??0.01; P?=?0.62). These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (?STLoc?=?0.05; P?=?0.92). In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost?=?0.04; P?=?0.01), which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (?STHost?=?0.06; P?=?0.27). Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM) for M. vitrata in West Africa. PMID:24647356

Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Coates, Brad S.; Datinon, Benjamin; Djouaka, Rousseau; Sun, Weilin; Tamo, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2014-01-01

214

Fog reduces transpiration in tree species of the Canarian relict heath-laurel cloud forest (Garajonay National Park, Spain).  

PubMed

The ecophysiologic role of fog in the evergreen heath-laurel 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands has not been unequivocally demonstrated, although it is generally assumed that fog water is important for the survival and the distribution of this relict paleoecosystem of the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. To determine the role of fog in this ecosystem, we combined direct transpiration measurements of heath-laurel tree species, obtained with Granier's heat dissipation probes, with micrometeorological and artificial fog collection measurements carried out in a 43.7-ha watershed located in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain) over a 10-month period. Median ambient temperature spanned from 7 to 15 degrees C under foggy conditions whereas higher values, ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C, were registered during fog-free periods. Additionally, during the periods when fog water was collected, global solar radiation values were linearly related (r2=0.831) to those under fog-free conditions, such that there was a 75+/-1% reduction in median radiation in response to fog. Fog events greatly reduced median diurnal tree transpiration, with rates about 30 times lower than that during fog-free conditions and approximating the nighttime rates in both species studied (the needle-like leaf Erica arborea L. and the broadleaf Myrica faya Ait.). This large decrease in transpiration in response to fog was independent of the time of the day, tree size and species and micrometeorological status, both when expressed on a median basis and in cumulative terms for the entire 10-month measuring period. We conclude that, in contrast to the turbulent deposition of fog water droplets on the heath-laurel species, which may be regarded as a localized hydrological phenomenon that is important for high-altitude wind-exposed E. arborea trees, the cooler, wetter and shaded microenvironment provided by the cloud immersion belt represents a large-scale effect that is crucial for reducing the transpirational water loss of trees that have profligate water use, such as those of the 'laurisilva'. PMID:19203969

Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos M; Aschan, Guido

2009-04-01

215

Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis)  

PubMed Central

At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug ‘Nityananda Rasa’ 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was found significant in Gr. III and non-significant in Gr. I and Gr. II. PMID:23049193

Prasad, Goli Penchala; Naidu, M. L.

2012-01-01

216

Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis).  

PubMed

At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug 'Nityananda Rasa' 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was found significant in Gr. III and non-significant in Gr. I and Gr. II. PMID:23049193

Prasad, Goli Penchala; Naidu, M L

2012-01-01

217

Local variation in the distribution of benthic megafauna species associated with cold-water coral reefs on the Norwegian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability in the mix of species making up Cold-water coral reef communities is not well known. In this study abundances of a selection of megafauna (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata, Paragorgia arborea, Primnoa resedaeformis, Mycale lingua, Geodia baretti, Acesta excavata and fish) were quantified throughout 9 manned submersible video transects from 3 reef complexes (Røst Reef, Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef) on the Norwegian margin. Substrate type (coral structure, rubble, exposed hardground or soft sediment) was also recorded. Variations in the densities of these fauna (with respect to both reef complex and substrate type) were investigated, with spatial covariance between species assessed. For the majority of fauna investigated, densities varied by both reef and substrate. Spatial covariance indicated that some species may be utilising similar habitat niches, but that minor environmental differences may favour colonisation by one or other at a particular reef. Fish densities were generally higher in regions with biogenic substrate (coral structure and coral rubble substrates) than in areas of soft or hardground substrate. Further, fish were more abundant at the northerly Sotbakken Reef at time of study than elsewhere. Community structure varied by reef, and therefore management plans aimed at maintaining the biodiversity of reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin should take this lack of homogeneity into account.

Purser, Autun; Orejas, Covadonga; Gori, Andrea; Tong, Ruiju; Unnithan, Vikram; Thomsen, Laurenz

2013-02-01

218

A metazoan parasitological research of some Iraqi amphibians.  

PubMed

The incidence and intensity of metazoan parasites in 3 species of Iraqi amphibians were studied. The amphibians were Rana ridibunda, Bufo viridis and Hyla arborea. Twenty-four species of helminths were encountered, including 16 trematodes, 1 cestode and 7 nematodes. Their respective names are: Polystoma integerrimum, Prosotocus confusus, P. fuelleborni, Pleurogenoides gastroporus, P. medians, Sonsinotrema tacapense, Opisthioglyphe ranae, Haplometra cylindracea, Haematoloechus volgensis, H. vitelloconfluentum, H. similis, H. asper, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, Gorgodera euzeti, G. amplicava, Nematotaenia dispar, Cosmocerca ornata, C. commutata, Aplectana acuminata, Aplectana sp., Oxysomatium sp., Ozwaldocruzia filiformis and Rhabdias bufonis. Collection localities, infection sites and rates and parasite burdens were determined throughout the species list. The highest and lowest rates of infection were for R. bufonis in B. viridis and O. ranae in R. ridibunda, while the highest and lowest worm burdens were for C. ornata in R. ridibunda and P. integerrimum in B. viridis. Seven of the species included in this study are thought to be new for Iraq. PMID:18224630

Saeed, Isam; Al-Barwari, Shlemon E; Al-Harmni, Kawther I

2007-01-01

219

Pattern and rate of ovary differentiation with reference to somatic development in anuran amphibians.  

PubMed

The rate of somatic development of anuran amphibians is only roughly correlated with the rate of gonad differentiation and varies among species. The somatic stage of a tadpole often does not reflect its age, which seems to be crucial for gonad differentiation rate. We compared the morphology and differentiation of developing ovaries at the light and electron microscopy level, with reference to somatic growth and age of a female. Our observations were performed on 12 species of six families (Rana lessonae, R. ridibunda, R. temporaria, R. arvalis, R. pipiens, R. catesbeiana, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo. B. viridis, Xenopus laevis, Pelobates fuscus) and compared with the results obtained by other authors. This allowed us to describe the unified pattern of anuran female gonad differentiation. Ovary differentiation was divided into 10 stages: I-III, undifferentiated gonad; IV, sexual differentiation; V, first nests of meiocytes; VI, first diplotene oocytes; VII-IX, increasing number of diplotene oocytes and decreasing number of oogonia and nests; X, fully developed ovary composed of diplotene oocytes with rudimental patches of oogonia. We distinguished three types of ovary differentiation rate: basic (most species), retarded (genus Bufo), and accelerated (green frogs of the subgenus Pelophylax genus Rana). PMID:14666524

Ogielska, Maria; Kotusz, Agnieszka

2004-01-01

220

Serovar Diversity of Pathogenic Leptospira Circulating in the French West Indies  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical bacterial diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, very little is known about the circulating etiological agents of leptospirosis in this region. In this study, we describe the serological and molecular features of leptospires isolated from 104 leptospirosis patients in Guadeloupe (n?=?85) and Martinique (n?=?19) and six rats captured in Guadeloupe, between 2004 and 2012. Methods and Findings Strains were studied by serogrouping, PFGE, MLVA, and sequencing 16SrRNA and secY. DNA extracts from blood samples collected from 36 patients in Martinique were also used for molecular typing of leptospires via PCR. Phylogenetic analyses revealed thirteen different genotypes clustered into five main clades that corresponded to the species: L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii, L. noguchi, and L. santarosai. We also identified L. kmetyi in at least two patients with acute leptospirosis. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that this species has been identified in humans. The most prevalent genotypes were associated with L. interrogans serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Copenhageni, L. kirschneri serovar Bogvere, and L. borgpetersenii serovar Arborea. We were unable to identify nine strains at the serovar level and comparison of genotyping results to the MLST database revealed new secY alleles. Conclusions The overall serovar distribution in the French West Indies was unique compared to the neighboring islands. Typing of leptospiral isolates also suggested the existence of previously undescribed serovars. PMID:23516654

Bourhy, Pascale; Herrmann Storck, Cecile; Theodose, Rafaelle; Olive, Claude; Nicolas, Muriel; Hochedez, Patrick; Lamaury, Isabelle; Zinini, Farida; Bremont, Sylvie; Landier, Annie; Cassadou, Sylvie; Rosine, Jacques; Picardeau, Mathieu

2013-01-01

221

Differential effects of testosterone and 17?-estradiol on gonadal development in five anuran species.  

PubMed

Sex hormones are essential for sexual differentiation and play a key role in the development of gonads in amphibians. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of exogenous sex steroids, testosterone, and 17?-estradiol (E(2)) on development of gonads in five anuran species differing in their evolutionary positions, sex determination, and mode of gonadogenesis. We found that in two closely related species of fire-bellied toad, Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata, testosterone and E(2) exposure results in sex reversal as well as intersex and undifferentiated gonads. Similarly, sex reversal was observed in Hyla arborea after exposure to male or female sex steroids. Xenopus laevis was sensitive to E(2) but only moderately to testosterone. In Bufo viridis, treatment with either sex hormone provoked a developmental delay in gonads and Bidder's organs. Therefore, susceptibility to hormonal sex reversal appeared species dependent but unrelated to genetic sex determination and the type of gonadogenesis. We also found that the onset of sex steroid exposure influences gonad differentiation and the meiotic status of the germ cells depends on their location within the gonad. Our findings reveal differential sensitivity of amphibians to testosterone and E(2), establishing a hierarchy of sensitivity to these hormones among different anuran species. PMID:22641770

Piprek, Rafa? P; Pecio, Anna; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

2012-08-01

222

Systematic analysis of animals used in medieval Azerbaijan medicine.  

PubMed

In order to study the special composition of animals used in the medieval medicine of Azerbaijan, a wide range of medieval sources on medicine and pharmacognosy from the collection of the Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences in Baku has been studied. About 40 medieval sources from the 10-18th centuries including 17 manuscripts in Turkic, Persian and Arabic have been selected as the objects of this study. As a result, 150 species of animals described in medieval Azerbaijani books on medicine and pharmacy have been identified. Many of the identified animals are mammals, (47 species or 31% of total number of identified species). The medieval authors describe 12 species of reptiles and 4 species of Amphibians (frogs, toads, salamanders and tree-frogs (Hyla arborea). 15 species of fishes described in medieval manuscripts have been identified. The identified molluscs are cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), mussel (Mytilus edulis), octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and snail (Helix pomatia). Most crustaceans used in medieval Azerbaijan medicine belong to Decopoda. Medieval manuscripts contain numerous names of various worms and insects (ants, flies, beetles, etc.), however their exact identification is rather difficult. As usual, medieval authors unite a number of species under one name and do not give sufficient information about their morphology. Results of the research create grounds for the idea that the recommendations of the medieval authors on the medicinal application of animals can be applied to modern medicine once they have been experimentally and clinically tested. PMID:17153727

Alakbarli, Farid

2006-06-01

223

Absence of cospeciation between the uncultured Frankia microsymbionts and the disjunct actinorhizal Coriaria species.  

PubMed

Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere. PMID:24864264

Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Fernandez, Maria P; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

2014-01-01

224

Diversity of Frankia Strains in Root Nodules of Plants from the Families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae  

PubMed Central

Partial 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) were PCR amplified and sequenced from Frankia strains living in root nodules of plants belonging to the families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae, including Colletia hystrix, Elaeagnus angustifolia, an unidentified Elaeagnus sp., Talguenea quinquenervia, and Trevoa trinervis. Nearly full-length 16S rDNAs were sequenced from strains of Frankia living in nodules of Ceanothus americanus, C. hystrix, Coriaria arborea, and Trevoa trinervis. Partial sequences also were obtained from Frankia strains isolated and cultured from the nodules of C. hystrix, Discaria serratifolia, D. trinervis, Retanilla ephedra, T. quinquenervia, and T. trinervis (Rhamnaceae). Comparison of these sequences and other published sequences of Frankia 16S rDNA reveals that the microsymbionts and isolated strains from the two plant families form a distinct phylogenetic clade, except for those from C. americanus. All sequences in the clade have a common 2-base deletion compared with other Frankia strains. Sequences from C. americanus nodules lack the deletion and cluster with Frankia strains infecting plants of the family Rosaceae. Published plant phylogenies (based on chloroplast rbcL sequences) group the members of the families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae together in the same clade. Thus, with the exception of C. americanus, actinorhizal plants of these families and their Frankia microsymbionts share a common symbiotic origin. PMID:9726914

Clawson, Michael L.; Caru, Margarita; Benson, David R.

1998-01-01

225

Plant Species Monitoring in the Canary Islands Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.

Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.

2012-07-01

226

A phylogenetic analysis of the emberizid sparrows based on three mitochondrial genes.  

PubMed

Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have examined the taxonomic relationships among a number of typical emberizid sparrow genera. To help clarify these relationships, we sequenced a 1673 base pair fragment for the complete sequence of three mitochondrial genes: adenosine triphosphatase (Atp8 and Atp6) and cytochrome oxidase subunit III (COIII) for 38 sparrow species, along with Passerina amoena (Cardinalidae) and Piranga ludoviciana (Thraupidae) which were selected as the outgroups. Our analysis confirms the monophyly of traditional genera such as Junco, Melospiza, and Zonotrichia. Although Calcarius and Plectrophenax are often thought to be putative emberizids, all our analyses placed these genera basal to all other sparrows examined. As observed with Calcarius, Spizella did not form a monophyletic group, with S. arborea being the sister-taxon to Passerella iliaca. Our analyses also suggest that Aimophila ruficeps is probably more closely related to the "brown towhees" (Pipilo aberti, P. crissalis, and P. fuscus) than its putative congeners. The genus Ammodramus was also not monophyletic, since it appears that Passerculus sandwichensis is more closely related to A. henslowii and A. leconteii then either one is related to its congener A. savannarum. Finally, our analyses exhibited other unsuspected associations, such as the sister-taxon relationships between Amphispiza bilineata and the Chondestes grammacus/Calamospiza melanocorys clade, and Amphispiza belli and Pooecetes gramineus. PMID:12967606

Carson, Rebecca J; Spicer, Greg S

2003-10-01

227

[Mydriasis caused by plant contact].  

PubMed

Uni- or bilateral dilatation of pupils that are not reactive to light and lack miosis in response to 1% pilocarpine may be caused by contact with plants containing alkaloids such as scopolamine and atropine. Other causes of a non-light-reactive dilated pupil, such as Adie's tonic pupil, third nerve palsy and lesion of the mesencephalic pretectal region, must be excluded before testing the iris sphincter reaction to 1% pilocarpine. Among the naturally growing flowers in Germany, deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), jimson weed (thornapple, Datura stramonium) and black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) contain enough alkaloids to cause mydriasis by direct contact. However, in most cases an accidental mydriasis by plants in Germany is caused by Datura arborea taxa, e.g. Datura suaveolens, D. candida, D. aurea and D. sanguinea. They contain up to 0.6% dry weight scopolamine. These plants can grow very large and are often planted in tubs. They have to be cut back each year before the winter. This is typically how the eye is contaminated by parts of the plants, which can cause dilatation of the pupil mimicing a neuroophthalmological disorder. PMID:1757054

Wilhelm, H; Wilhelm, B; Schiefer, U

1991-01-01

228

Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species  

PubMed Central

Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere. PMID:24864264

Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Fernandez, Maria P.; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

2014-01-01

229

Toxic compounds in honey.  

PubMed

There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-07-01

230

Arsenic speciation in terrestrial birds from Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada: the unexpected finding of arsenobetaine.  

PubMed

The surrounding area of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, is known for naturally and anthropogenically elevated concentrations of arsenic. Five bird species (gray jay [Perisoreus canadensis], American tree sparrow [Spizella arborea], dark-eyed junco [Junco hyemalis], yellow-rumped warbler [Dendroica coronata], and spruce grouse [Dendragapus canadensis]) were collected from this area. Their tissues were analyzed for total arsenic and for arsenic species, allowing us to report, to our knowledge for the first time, the arsenic characterization in terrestrial birds. Total arsenic concentrations were determined in the terrestrial birds by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, whereas arsenic speciation analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Total arsenic concentrations were substantially higher in the terrestrial bird species studied from Yellowknife compared with those reported previously in the literature. The primary arsenic species detected in two of the bird species studied was arsenobetaine. Normally, arsenobetaine is not formed or retained by terrestrial animals. Thus, the birds in the present study were thought to be highly adapted compared with other terrestrial animals, because they were able to form and/or retain this relatively nontoxic arsenic compound. This adaptation is thought to be a consequence of the elevated concentrations of arsenic in the Yellowknife area. PMID:16117124

Koch, Iris; Mace, Jessica V; Reimer, Kenneth J

2005-06-01

231

Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.  

PubMed

The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

2013-01-01

232

Facilitated establishment of Quercus ilex in shrub-dominated communities within a Mediterranean ecosystem: do mycorrhizal partners matter?  

PubMed

Positive plant-plant interaction is a widespread phenomenon, especially in harsh environments, which can contribute to secondary successions. Here, we investigated whether Arbutus unedo positively influences Quercus ilex establishment in shrub communities by abiotic and/or biotic interactions in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem, where we previously showed that A. unedo and Q. ilex share numerous species of mycorrhizal fungi. In a first field experiment, patterns of Q. ilex survivorship were documented. During the summer following germination, a majority of seedlings survived in A. unedo chaparral (AU), whereas most of them died in previous succession stages dominated by Erica arborea (EA). These results showed that survival of the Q. ilex seedling is succession stage dependent, probably due to the differential effects of the summer drought. In a second experiment, Q. ilex seedlings were used as bait plants to investigate the mycorrhizal inoculum in EA and AU. Morphotyping and molecular typing revealed 2.5 times higher colonization in AU than in EA, with more diverse fungi. Our results demonstrate that A. unedo facilitates mycorrhization of Q. ilex by hosting compatible ectomycorrhizal symbionts and positively influences seedling survival by buffering abiotic conditions. A comprehensive understanding of facilitation should thus include investigations of the soil biological patterns. PMID:19175678

Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Gardes, Monique

2009-04-01

233

[Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].  

PubMed

White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

2013-03-01

234

Inhibitory effects of panduratin A on allergy-related mediator production in rat basophilic leukemia mast cells.  

PubMed

Immediate-type hypersensitivity is characterized by elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and activated mast cell plays a crucial role by releasing granule contents, lipid-derived mediators, cytokines, and chemokines. To evaluate the antiallergic effects of panduratin A isolated from Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., we determined its effects on calcium (Ca(2+)) influx, degranulation, and inflammatory mediators in calcium ionophore A23187 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Panduratin A (20 ?M) inhibited secretion of ?-hexosaminidase (46.69?±?9.6 %), histamine (34.32?±?2.1 %), and Ca(2+) influx (43.84 %). Panduratin A reduced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2), 47.58?±?3.4 %), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4), 98.15?±?1.6 %), and the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-?. Furthermore, panduarin A attenuated phosphorylation of Akt, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression. These results indicate that panduratin A might be useful as an agent against immediate-type hypersensitivity. PMID:22864999

Choi, Yuri; Kim, Myung Suk; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2012-12-01

235

The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.  

PubMed

Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples. PMID:24660477

Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

2014-01-01

236

Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of xanthorrhizol in hippocampal neurons and primary cultured microglia.  

PubMed

Xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb (Zingiberaceae), has antibacterial activities and protective effects against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the activities of xanthorrhizol as an antioxidant or antiinflammatory agent using neuronal and microglial cells. Xanthorrhizol had potent neuroprotective effects on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the murine hippocampal HT22 cell line. Also, xanthorrhizol inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. The properties of xanthorrhizol as an antiinflammatory agent were investigated in microglial activation by lipopolysaccharide. It reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase, which consequently resulted in the reduction of nitric oxide. The production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in activated microglial cells, was reduced by xanthorrhizol. These results suggest that xanthorrhizol could be an effective candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease- and other neurological disease-related ROS and inflammation. PMID:16273545

Lim, Chol Seung; Jin, Da-Qing; Mok, Hyejung; Oh, Sang Jin; Lee, Jung Uk; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Ha, Ilho; Han, Jung-Soo

2005-12-15

237

Xanthorrhizol has a potential to attenuate the high dose cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug, but it can produce undesirable side effects such as nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. A single dose of cisplatin (45 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly elevated the levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and the kidney to body weight ratio, but the pretreatment of xanthorrhizol (200 mg/kg/day, per os) for 4 days significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The preventive effect of xanthorrhizol was more efficacious than that of curcumin with the same amount (200 mg/kg). However, this effect seemed not to be related with the ability of xanthorrhizol to regulate the DNA-binding activities of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1). This is first time the preventive effect of xanthorrhizol on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity has been demonstrated, and these data suggest that the administration of xanthorrhizol is a promising approach in the treatment of nephrotoxicity caused by cisplatin. PMID:15582203

Kim, Seong Hwan; Hong, Kyoung Ok; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Park, Kwang-Kyun

2005-01-01

238

Micropropagtion of Terminalia bellerica from nodal explants of mature tree and assessment of genetic fidelity using ISSR and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

The present study reports an efficient in vitro micropropagation protocol for a medicinally important tree, Terminalia bellerica Roxb. from nodal segments of a 30 years old tree. Nodal segments taken from the mature tree in March-April and cultured on half strength MS medium gave the best shoot bud proliferation response. Combinations of serial transfer technique (ST) and incorporation of antioxidants (AO) [polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP (50 mg l(-1))?+?ascorbic acid (100 mg l(-1))?+?citric acid (10 mg l(-1))] in the culture medium aided to minimize browning and improve explant survival during shoot bud induction. Highest multiplication of shoots was achieved on medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA, 8.8 ?M) and ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 2.6 ?M) in addition to antioxidants. Shoot elongation was obtained on MS medium containing BA (4.4 ?M)?+?phloroglucinol (PG, 3.9 ?M). Elongated shoots were transferred to half strength MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 2.5 ?M) for root development. The acclimatization of plantlets was carried out under greenhouse conditions. The genetic fidelity of the regenerated plants was checked using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Comparison of the bands among the regenerants and mother plant confirmed true-to-type clonal plants. PMID:25320474

Dangi, Bhawna; Khurana-Kaul, Varsha; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita

2014-10-01

239

A Scientific Validation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Attributes of Trichosanthes dioica  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to scientifically validate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) which has been traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. This plant commonly known as “Sespadula” in English has not been explored scientifically so far for its glycemic potential except by our research group. The study was conducted with variable doses on normal, mild, and severe diabetics models, and several biochemical parameters including blood glucose level (BGL) were assessed. Maximum fall in BGL of 23.8% in normal rats and of 31.3% in mild diabetic rats was observed during their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) with the dose of 1000?mg?kg?1. In severely diabetic animals after 4 weeks treatment with FBG, postprandial glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced by 28.7, 30.7, 57.2, and 18.5%, whereas high density lipoprotein, total protein, hemoglobin, and body weight were increased by 33.0, 36.7, 15.7 and 16.7%, respectively. Moreover, urine sugar was reduced from +4 to +1. Thus, the study scientifically validates the traditional use of T. diocia in diabetes management and could be developed as an effective oral agent for treating diabetes mellitus and complications associated with it. PMID:23984089

Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Sharad Kumar; Srivastava, Amrita Kumari; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Watal, Geeta

2013-01-01

240

Inhibition of apoplastic calmodulin impairs calcium homeostasis and cell wall modeling during Cedrus deodara pollen tube growth.  

PubMed

Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most well-studied Ca(2+) transducers in eukaryotic cells. It is known to regulate the activity of numerous proteins with diverse cellular functions; however, the functions of apoplastic CaM in plant cells are still poorly understood. By combining pharmacological analysis and microscopic techniques, we investigated the involvement of apoplastic CaM in pollen tube growth of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. It was found that the tip-focused calcium gradient was rapidly disturbed as one of the early events after application of pharmacological agents, while the cytoplasmic organization was not significantly affected. The deposition and distribution of acidic pectins and esterified pectins were also dramatically changed, further perturbing the normal modeling of the cell wall. Several protein candidates from different functional categories may be involved in the responses to inhibition of apoplastic CaM. These results revealed that apoplastic CaM functions to maintain the tip-focused calcium gradient and to modulate the distribution/transformation of pectins during pollen tube growth. PMID:23405148

Wang, Li; Lv, Xueqin; Li, Hong; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong; Jin, Biao; Chen, Tong

2013-01-01

241

Gradient of Growth, Spontaneous Changes in Growth Rate and Response to Auxin of Excised Hypocotyl Segments of Phaseolus aureus 1  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous growth was studied in excised mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyl segments. Measurements were made with a growth-recording apparatus using displacement transducers on single 5- to 6-millimeter samples excised from the growth zone immediately below the hook. Even for a given zone and under controlled experimental conditions, there are differences in the spontaneous growth of individual explants. Nevertheless, in every case, two phases of endogenous acceleration are found at 15 to 20 minutes, and 120 to 150 minutes after excision. Accelerations were separated by steady growth phases. Knowledge of the spontaneous growth curve appears important for the choice of the time of application of experimental stimuli. Auxin was added at various times after excision (0 to 6 hours). The classical biphasic response to auxin was obtained when the hormone was added during a steady phase of growth. However, the response was difficult to interpret when the hormone was added during an acceleration phase. Spontaneous and indoleacetic acid-induced growth were studied along the hypocotyl. Spontaneous growth rate and growth potential revealed by indoleacetic acid changed markedly along the growth gradient. The nature of spontaneous changes according to experimental time and state of differentiation of the cells is discussed. PMID:16660473

Prat, Roger

1978-01-01

242

A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

1989-01-01

243

Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

2014-01-01

244

Biodiversity and importance of floating weeds of Dara Ismail, Khan District of KPK, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The present paper is based on the results of taxonomic research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan District of KPK, Pakistan, during 2005 - 2007. The area was extensively surveyed in order to collect floating aquatic weeds. From the study area 11 floating aquatic weed species belonging to 9 genera and 9 families were collected and identified in the light of available literature. These plants include Bryophytes: 1 species, Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda; Pteridophytes: 2 species, Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Marselia quadrifolia L., and Spermatophytes: 8 species, Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., L. gibba L., Marselia quadrifoliata L. Nelumbo nucifera Gaerth., Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ketze. Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze:, Pistia stratiotes L. Potamogeton nodosus Poiret and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. Floating weeds on one hand cause serious problems and on the other hand they are used for various purposes. Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, major group, habit and habitat, flowering period, availability, distribution in D.I.Khan, Pakistan and world, beneficial and harmful effects. Key to the floating aquatic species of the area was developed for easy and correct identification and differentiation. PMID:22754062

Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Khan, Mir Ajab; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad

2011-01-01

245

Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.  

PubMed

Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

2001-09-01

246

2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone protects the impaired insulin secretion induced by glucotoxicity in pancreatic ?-cells.  

PubMed

2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC), which is isolated and purified from the dried flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae), was investigated for its insulinotropic benefits against glucotoxicity using in vitro methods. When exposed to high glucose at the cytotoxicity level for 48 h, RIN-5F ?-cells experienced a significant viability loss and impaired insulin secretion function, whereas cotreating with DMC could protect ?-cells against glucotoxicity-induced decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner without affecting basal insulin secretion. It was demonstrated that DMC increased insulin secretion against glucotoxicity by simulating the effect of GLP-1 and enhancing the expression of GLP-1R, followed by activating the signal pathway of PDX-1, PRE-INS, and GLUT2-GCK. Another mechanism was that DMC avoided the pancreatic islet dysfunction resulting from cellular damage by suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by iNOS, and the expression of MCP-1. The results indicated the potential application of DMC in the intervention against glucotoxicity-induced hyperglycemia. PMID:24437980

Hu, Ying-Chun; Hao, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Lu-Xian; Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Nan; Hoptroff, Michael; Lu, Yan-Hua

2014-02-19

247

Tyrosinase inhibitory cycloartane type triterpenoids from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Amberboa ramosa Jafri and their structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

New tyrosinase inhibitory cycloartane triterpenoids have been discovered from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Amberboa ramosa (Roxb.) Jafri, which is a member from the Compositae family. Utilizing the conventional spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR analysis, and also by comparing the experimental with literature data, the isolated compounds proved to be cycloartane type triterpenoids. These cycloartanes are: (22R)-cycloart-20, 25-dien-2alpha3beta22alpha triol (1), (22R)-cycloart-23-ene-3beta, 22alpha, 25-triol (2), cycloartenol (3), cycloart-23-ene-3beta, 25-diol (4), cycloart-20-ene-3beta, 25-diol (5), cycloart-25-ene-3beta, (22R) 22-diol (6), 3beta, 21, 22, 23-tetrahydroxy-cycloart-24 (31), 25 (26)-diene (7), and (23R)-5alpha-cycloart-24-ene-3beta, 21, 23-triol (8). Out of these eight compounds, compound 3 did not show any activity against the enzyme tyrosinase. Among them compound 7 was found to be the most potent (1.32 microM) when compared with the standard tyrosinase inhibitors kojic acid (16.67 microM) and L-mimosine (3.68 microM). Finally in this paper, we have discussed the structure-activity relationships of these molecules. PMID:16202612

Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Ather, Arjumand

2006-02-15

248

Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

2014-01-01

249

Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.  

PubMed

In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments. PMID:24809291

Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

2014-09-01

250

Nitric oxide alleviates arsenic-induced toxic effects in ridged Luffa seedlings.  

PubMed

Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether exogenous addition of nitric oxide (NO) as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates arsenic (As) toxicity in Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. seedlings. Arsenic (5 and 50 ?M) declined growth of Luffa seedlings which was accompanied by significant accumulation of As. SNP (100 ?M) protected Luffa seedlings against As toxicity as it declined As accumulation significantly. The photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Fm/F0 and qP were decreased while NPQ was raised by As. However, the toxic effects of As on photosynthesis were significantly ameliorated by SNP. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As, however, these oxidative indices were diminished significantly in the presence of SNP. As treatment stimulated the activities of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST, and AsA content and AsA/DHA ratio were decreased. Upon SNP addition, along with further rise in SOD and CAT activity, APX and GST activity, and levels of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio were restored considerably. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, APX and GST activities and decreased AsA content, hence led to the oxidative stress. However, the addition of SNP protected seedlings against As stress by regulating As accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23917073

Singh, Vijay Pratap; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

2013-10-01

251

Utilization of extrusion technology for the development of millet based complementary foods.  

PubMed

Millet based complementary foods were developed using sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), rice (Oryza Sativa), besan (Cicer arietinum; Bengal gram dhal flour), legume mix (Green gram and roasted Bengal gram; Phaseolus aureus Roxb and Cicer arietinum) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) with a lab scale twin screw extruder. The extrudates were subjected to acceptability studies initially and at the end of the storage period i.e. 3 months at laboratory level by panel of judges using a 5-point hedonic scale. Physico-chemical characteristics like bulk density, piece density and expansion ratio were measured and proximate principles were assessed. Soy and legume mix were found to have low bulk density as well as high expansion ratio. The developed extrudates were made into fine powder and sieved through a 60 mm mesh. Malted ragi flour at 15 % level was added to the powdered extrudates to develop the complementary mixes with low bulk density. Raw formulas without malt and with malt; extruded mixes without malt and with malt were studied for viscosity. The developed mixes were made into porridge and fed to the infants and the opinions about the acceptability of mixes were collected from the mothers. The complementary mixes with malted ragi showed reduced viscosity and formed good, smooth slurry and well accepted both by children and their mothers. Extruded soy and legume mixes with addition of 15 % malt were found to have satisfactory functional characteristics and nutritive value and can be explored for bulk preparation. PMID:25328236

Lakshmi Devi, N; Shobha, S; Alavi, Sajid; Kalpana, K; Soumya, M

2014-10-01

252

Evaluation of repellent properties of botanical extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

In recent times, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. The present study explored the effects of crude leaf ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. on repellent activity against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extracts of A. lineata, C. hirsutus, and E. prostrata and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with the different extracts tested. The ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata showed 100% repellency in 120 min; acetone extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus and methanol extract of T. erecta showed complete protection in 90 min at 250 ppm, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and C. hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the C. tritaeniorhynchus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the repellent activity against Japanese encephalitis, C. tritaeniorhynchus of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20480375

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

2010-08-01

253

Identification of natural inhibitors against angiotensin I converting enzyme for cardiac safety using induced fit docking and MM-GBSA studies  

PubMed Central

Background: Cleistanthins A and B are isolated compounds from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus Roxb (Euphorbiaceae). This plant is poisonous in nature which causes cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypotension, nonspecific ST-T changes and QTc prolongation. The biological activity predictions spectra of the compounds show the presence of antihypertensive, diuretic and antitumor activities. Objective: Objective of the present study was to determine the in silico molecular interaction of cleistanthins A and B with Angiotensin I- Converting Enzyme (ACE-I) using Induced Fit Docking (IFD) protocols. Materials and Methods: All the molecular modeling calculations like IFD docking, binding free energy calculation and ADME/Tox were carried out using Glide software (Schrödinger LLC 2009, USA) in CentOS EL-5 workstation. Results: The IFD complexes showed favorable docking score, glide energy, glide emodel, hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions between the active site residues of ACE-I and the compounds. Binding free energy was calculated for the IFD complexes using Prime MM-GBSA method. The conformational changes induced by the inhibitor at the active site of ACE-I were observed based on changes of the back bone C? atoms and side-chain chi (x) angles. The various physicochemical properties were calculated for these compounds. Both cleistanthins A and B showed better docking score, glide energy and glide emodel when compared to captopril inhibitor. Conclusion: These compounds have successively satisfied all the in silico parameters and seem to be potent inhibitors of ACE-I and potential candidates for hypertension.

Vijayakumar, Balakrishnan; Parasuraman, Subramani; Raveendran, Ramasamy; Velmurugan, Devadasan

2014-01-01

254

Encapsulation of plai oil/2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun nanofibers for topical application.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) nanofiber mats and to incorporate plai oil (Zingiber Cassumunar Roxb.). The plai oil with 10, 20 and 30%?wt to polymer were incorporated in the PVP/HP?CD solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and structure of the PVP and PVP/HP?CD nanofiber mats with and without the plai oil were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal behaviors of the nanofiber mats were characterized using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Terpinen-4-ol was used as a marker of the plai oil. The amount of plai oil remaining in the PVP/HP?CD nanofiber mats was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectoscopy (GC-MS). The SEM images revealed that all of the fibers were smooth. The average diameter of fibers was 212-450?nm, and decreased with the increasing of plai oil content. The release characteristics of plai oil from the fiber showed the fast release followed by a sustained release over the experimental time of 24?h. The release rate ranged was in the order of 10%?>?20%???30% plai oil within 24?h. Electrospun fibers with 20% plai oil loading provided the controlled release and also showed the highest plai oil content. Hence, this electrospun nanofiber has a potential for use as an alternative topical application. PMID:23651060

Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Chuchote, Tudduo; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet

2014-06-01

255

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

256

Xanthorrhizol induces apoptosis through ROS-mediated MAPK activation in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and inhibits DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamsters.  

PubMed

Xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, has been known to inhibit the growth of human colon, breast, liver and cervical cancer cells. In this study, xanthorrhizol decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis and decreased the level of full-length PARP in SCC-15 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. A decrease in cell viability and PARP degradation was not prevented by treatment with the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk in xanthorrhizol-treated cells. Xanthorrhizol treatment elevated intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS levels in SCC-15 cells. Treatment with a Ca(2+) chelator, EGTA/AM, did not affect xanthorrhizol- induced cytotoxicity, but cell viability was partly recovered by treatment with endogenous antioxidant, GSH, or hydroxy radical trapper, MCI-186. Furthermore, the viability of xanthorrhizol-treated SCC-15 cells was significantly restored by treatment with SB203580 and/or SP600125 but not significantly by PD98059 treatment. Xanthorrhizol-induced activation of p38 MAPK and JNK was blocked by MCI-186. Finally, xanthorrhizol suppressed the number of tumors in buccal pouches and increased the survival rate in hamsters treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. In conclusion, xanthorrhizol may induce caspase-independent apoptosis through ROS-mediated p38 MAPK and JNK activation in SCC-15 OSCC cells and prevent chemical-induced oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, xanthorrhizol seems to be a promising chemopreventive agent. PMID:22627996

Kim, Ju Yeon; An, Jeong Mi; Chung, Won-Yoon; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Kim, Du Sik; Seo, Su Ryeon; Seo, Jeong Taeg

2013-04-01

257

Volatiles of Curcuma mangga Val. & Zijp (Zingiberaceae) from Malaysia.  

PubMed

Analysis by GC and GC/MS of the essential oil obtained from Malaysian Curcuma mangga Val. & Zijp (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes allowed the identification of 97 constituents, comprising 89.5% of the total oil composition. The major compounds were identified as myrcene (1; 46.5%) and ?-pinene (2; 14.6%). The chemical composition of this and additional 13 oils obtained from selected Curcuma L. taxa were compared using multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis). The results of the statistical analyses of this particular data set pointed out that 1 could be potentially used as a valuable infrageneric chemotaxonomical marker for C. mangga. Moreover, it seems that C. mangga, C. xanthorrhiza Roxb., and C. longa L. are, with respect to the volatile secondary metabolites, closely related. In addition, comparison of the essential oil profiles revealed a potential influence of the environmental (geographical) factors, alongside with the genetic ones, on the production of volatile secondary metabolites in Curcuma taxa. PMID:22083913

Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu Abdul; Blagojevi?, Polina D; Radulovi?, Niko S; Boylan, Fabio

2011-11-01

258

Riparian ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

2014-01-01

259

Bioactive compounds, RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics, and antioxidant activity of some Portuguese shrub species extracts.  

PubMed

In the ecosystem of Serra Da Estrela, some plant species have the potential to be used as raw material for extraction of bioactive products. The goal of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents of the methanolic extracts of some shrubs (Echinospartum ibericum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Juniperus communis, Ruscus aculeatus, Rubus ulmifolius, Hakea sericea, Cytisus multiflorus, Crataegus monogyna, Erica arborea and Ipomoea acuminata), and then to correlate the phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity of each extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu's method was used for the determination of total phenols, and tannins were then precipitated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); a colorimetric method with aluminum chloride was used for the determination of flavonoids, and a Dragendorff's reagent method was used for total alkaloid estimation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene bleaching tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity of extracts. The identification of phenolic compounds present in extracts was performed using RP-HPLC. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was observed. The RP-HPLC procedure showed that the most common compounds were ferulic and ellagic acids and quercetin. Most of the studied shrubs have significant antioxidant properties that are probably due to the existence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. It is noteworthy to emphasize that for Echinospartum ibericum, Hakea sericea and Ipomoea acuminata, to the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical studies have been undertaken nor their use in traditional medicine been described. PMID:22312726

Luís, Angelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

2011-12-01

260

Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

2010-11-01

261

Does forest fragmentation affect the same way all growth-forms?  

PubMed

Fragmentation of natural habitats is one of the main causes of the loss of biodiversity. However, all plants do not respond to habitat fragmentation in the same way due to differences in species traits. We studied the effect of patch size and isolation on the biodiversity of vegetation in the mixed-oak forests in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The aim was to evaluate whether all the growth-forms of vegetation are equally affected by forest fragmentation in order to improve the management strategies to restore this type of vegetation. This study has shown that the effect of the area and spatial isolation of the patches was not the same for the different growth-forms. Fragmentation had a mainly negative effect on the richness and diversity of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbaceous growth-forms. Moreover, the presence and/or cover of woodland herbaceous species (such as Lamiastrum galeobdolon and Helleborus viridis) and of woodland ferns (namely Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Asplenium trichomanes, Polystichum setiferum, Dryopteris affinis) were negatively affected by patch size, possibly due to the reduction of habitat quality. These species have been replaced by more generalist species (such as Cardamine pratensis, Cirsium sp., Pulmonaria longifolia or Rumex acetosella) in small patches. Patch isolation had a negative effect on the presence of forest specialist species (namely, L. galeobdolon, Frangula alnus, Hypericum androsaemum, A. adiantum-nigrum and Athyrium filix-femina) and favored colonization by more generalist species such as Cirsium sp., Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea or Ulex sp. Thus, in this region special attention should be paid to the conservation of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbs. In conservation policy focused on forest specialist species, the most valuable species in forest ecosystems, conservation of large forest areas should be promoted. PMID:21924813

Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Amezaga, Ibone; Onaindia, Miren

2012-02-01

262

Increased sensitivity of the serotonergic system during the breeding season in free-living American tree sparrows.  

PubMed

In order to understand the physiological role of serotonin in regulating aggressive behaviour it is important to understand how this neuromodulator acts within the context of a naturally fluctuating social and physical environment. To accomplish this, we examined the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine during the breeding season in free-living male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in Northern Alaska. During this time period males are maximally aggressive towards territorial intruders. Male, territorial sparrows were injected with either vehicle or a 10 mg/kg dose of fluoxetine. One hour later, aggression was measured using a simulated territorial intrusion. Depending upon when birds were sampled, the aggression scores for vehicle and fluoxetine treatments were grouped according to the number of days after territorial behaviour was initiated. The three groups were: early, days 1-5; middle, days 6-10; and late, days 11-15. There was a significant overall difference between groups (F(5,36)=5.18, P<0.0015). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that the level of aggression did not differ between the three groups of saline injected birds. However, fluoxetine injected birds showed a time dependent decrease in aggression. When compared to control birds the middle and late fluoxetine groups had significantly less aggression. Furthermore, the late group of fluoxetine treated birds were significantly less aggressive than the early group of fluoxetine birds. This demonstrates that free-living male ATSPs show a rapid change in their behavioural response to fluoxetine across the first 2 weeks of the breeding season. The rapidity of the change in responsiveness suggests a dynamic sensitivity of the serotonergic system. PMID:15617778

Sperry, Todd S; Moore, Ignacio T; Meddle, Simone L; Benowitz-Fredericks, Z Morgan; Wingfield, John C

2005-02-10

263

An alternative method to estimate zero flow temperature differences for Granier's thermal dissipation technique.  

PubMed

Calibration of the Granier thermal dissipation technique for measuring stem sap flow in trees requires determination of the temperature difference (DeltaT) between a heated and an unheated probe when sap flow is zero (DeltaT(max)). Classically, DeltaT(max) has been estimated from the maximum predawn DeltaT, assuming that sap flow is negligible at nighttime. However, because sap flow may continue during the night, the maximum predawn DeltaT value may underestimate the true DeltaT(max). No alternative method has yet been proposed to estimate DeltaT(max) when sap flow is non-zero at night. A sensitivity analysis is presented showing that errors in DeltaT(max) may amplify through sap flux density computations in Granier's approach, such that small amounts of undetected nighttime sap flow may lead to large diurnal sap flux density errors, hence the need for a correct estimate of DeltaT(max). By rearranging Granier's original formula, an optimization method to compute DeltaT(max) from simultaneous measurements of diurnal DeltaT and micrometeorological variables, without assuming that sap flow is negligible at night, is presented. Some illustrative examples are shown for sap flow measurements carried out on individuals of Erica arborea L., which has needle-like leaves, and Myrica faya Ait., a broadleaf species. We show that, although DeltaT(max) values obtained by the proposed method may be similar in some instances to the DeltaT(max) predicted at night, in general the values differ. The procedure presented has the potential of being applied not only to Granier's method, but to other heat-based sap flow systems that require a zero flow calibration, such as the Cermák et al. (1973) heat balance method and the T-max heat pulse system of Green et al. (2003). PMID:17472936

Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

2007-08-01

264

Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

2010-11-01

265

Physiological adjustments to arid and mesic environments in larks (Alaudidae).  

PubMed

Because deserts are characterized by low food availability, high ambient temperature extremes, and absence of drinking water, one might expect that birds that live in these conditions exhibit a lower basal metabolic rate (BMR), reduced total evaporative water loss (TEWL), and greater ability to cope with high air temperatures than their mesic counterparts. To minimize confounding effects of phylogeny, we compared the physiological performance of four species of larks at ambient temperatures (T(a)'s) ranging from 0 degrees to 50 degrees C: hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni) live in hot and dry deserts, whereas skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea) occur in temperate mesic areas. Mass-adjusted BMR and TEWL were indistinguishable between hoopoe lark and Dunn's lark and between skylark and woodlark. When grouping the data of the two desert larks in one set and the data of the two mesic larks in another, desert larks are shown to have 43% lower BMR levels and 27% lower TEWL values than the mesic species. Their body temperatures (T(b)'s) were 1.1 degrees C lower, and the minimal dry heat transfer coefficients (h) were 26% below values for the mesic larks. When T(a) exceeded T(b), the h of hoopoe larks and Dunn's larks was high and indistinguishable from h at 40 degrees C, in contrast to the prediction that h should be decreased to minimize heat gain through conductance, convection, or radiation from the environment when T(a) exceeds T(b). PMID:12177833

Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B; Buschur, Michael E

2002-01-01

266

Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.  

PubMed

One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

2007-07-01

267

Quantification and characterisation of cyclo-oxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitory anthocyanins in fruits of Amelanchier.  

PubMed

The levels of bioactive anthocyanins in the fruits of Amelanchier alnifolia, A. arborea and A. canadensis have been determined by HPLC. Cyanidin 3-galactoside (1) was present in the fresh fruit of the three species at concentrations of 155, 390 and 165 mg/100 g, respectively. Cyanidin 3-glucoside (2) was present only in A. alnifolia and A. canadensis at concentrations of 54 and 48 mg/100 g, respectively. The anthocyanins were confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR studies. At 100 ppm, anthocyanin mixtures from the three species inhibited cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 enzymes at 66 and 67%, 60 and 72%, and 51 and 76%, respectively. The positive controls used in the COX assays were aspirin, Celebrex and Vioxx at 180, 1.67 and 1.67 ppm, respectively, and showed 74 and 69%, 5 and 82% and 0 and 85% COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 and cyanidin (3) inhibited COX-1 enzyme 50.5, 45.62 and 96.36%, respectively, at 100 ppm, whereas COX-2 inhibition was the highest for 3 at 75%. In the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, anthocyanin mixtures at 10 ppm from the three species showed activities of 72, 73 and 68%, respectively, compared with 89, 87 and 98% for commercial anti-oxidants butylated hydoxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and tert-butylhydroxyquinone at 1.67, 2.2 and 1.67 ppm, respectively. At 10 ppm, compounds 1-3 inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70, 75 and 78%, respectively. PMID:15997850

Adhikari, Devi P; Francis, Jayaraj A; Schutzki, Robert E; Chandra, Amitabh; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2005-01-01

268

Amplification, contraction and genomic spread of a satellite DNA family (E180) in Medicago (Fabaceae) and allied genera  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Satellite DNA is a genomic component present in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. The turnover of highly repetitive satellite DNA is an important element in genome organization and evolution in plants. Here we assess the presence and physical distribution of the repetitive DNA E180 family in Medicago and allied genera. Our goals were to gain insight into the karyotype evolution of Medicago using satellite DNA markers, and to evaluate the taxonomic and phylogenetic signal of a satellite DNA family in a genus hypothesized to have a complex evolutionary history. Methods Seventy accessions from Medicago, Trigonella, Melilotus and Trifolium were analysed by PCR to assess the presence of the repetitive E180 family, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping in somatic chromosomes. Key Results The E180 repeat unit was PCR-amplified in 37 of 40 taxa in Medicago, eight of 12 species of Trigonella, six of seven species of Melilotus and in two of 11 Trifolium species. Examination of the mitotic chromosomes revealed that only 13 Medicago and two Trigonella species showed FISH signals using the E180 probe. Stronger hybridization signals were observed in subtelomeric and interstitial loci than in the pericentromeric loci, suggesting this satellite family has a preferential genomic location. Not all 13 Medicago species that showed FISH localization of the E180 repeat were phylogenetically related. However, nine of these species belong to the phylogenetically derived clade including the M. sativa and M. arborea complexes. Conclusions The use of the E180 family as a phylogenetic marker in Medicago should be viewed with caution. Its amplification appears to have been produced through recurrent and independent evolutionary episodes in both annual and perennial Medicago species as well as in basal and derived clades. PMID:22186276

Rosato, Marcela; Galián, José A.; Rosselló, Josep A.

2012-01-01

269

Ever-Young Sex Chromosomes in European Tree Frogs  

PubMed Central

Non-recombining sex chromosomes are expected to undergo evolutionary decay, ending up genetically degenerated, as has happened in birds and mammals. Why are then sex chromosomes so often homomorphic in cold-blooded vertebrates? One possible explanation is a high rate of turnover events, replacing master sex-determining genes by new ones on other chromosomes. An alternative is that X-Y similarity is maintained by occasional recombination events, occurring in sex-reversed XY females. Based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, we estimated the divergence times between European tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia, and H. molleri) to the upper Miocene, about 5.4–7.1 million years ago. Sibship analyses of microsatellite polymorphisms revealed that all three species have the same pair of sex chromosomes, with complete absence of X-Y recombination in males. Despite this, sequences of sex-linked loci show no divergence between the X and Y chromosomes. In the phylogeny, the X and Y alleles cluster according to species, not in groups of gametologs. We conclude that sex-chromosome homomorphy in these tree frogs does not result from a recent turnover but is maintained over evolutionary timescales by occasional X-Y recombination. Seemingly young sex chromosomes may thus carry old-established sex-determining genes, a result at odds with the view that sex chromosomes necessarily decay until they are replaced. This raises intriguing perspectives regarding the evolutionary dynamics of sexually antagonistic genes and the mechanisms that control X-Y recombination. PMID:21629756

Lindtke, Dorothea; Sermier, Roberto; Betto-Colliard, Caroline; Dufresnes, Christophe; Bonjour, Emmanuel; Dumas, Zoe; Luquet, Emilien; Maddalena, Tiziano; Sousa, Helena Clavero; Martinez-Solano, Inigo; Perrin, Nicolas

2011-01-01

270

Are summit metabolism and thermogenic endurance correlated in winter-acclimatized passerine birds?  

PubMed

Small birds exhibiting marked winter improvement of cold tolerance also show elevated summit metabolic rates (maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) in winter relative to summer. However, relatively large increases in cold tolerance can occur with only minor increments of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and geographic variation in cold tolerance is not always positively correlated with variation in maximum cold-induced metabolic rate. Thus, it is uncertain whether maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance are phenotypically correlated in small birds and no previous study has directly examined this relationship. I measured maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance (i.e., thermogenic endurance) over three winters in black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus, American tree sparrows Spizella arborea, and dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis. For raw thermogenic endurance data, residuals of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance from mass regressions were significantly and positively correlated in juncos and tree sparrows, and their correlation approached significance for chickadees. Log10 transformation of thermogenic endurance and mass data gave similar results. These data provide the first direct evidence for a phenotypic correlation between maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance in small birds, although much of the variance in thermogenic endurance is explained by factors other than maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and the degree of correlation differs among species. Nevertheless, these data suggest that physiological adjustments producing elevated thermogenic endurance also produce elevated maximum cold-induced metabolic rate in small birds. PMID:11585259

Swanson, D L

2001-08-01

271

Roles of Seed and Establishment Limitation in Determining Patterns of Afrotropical Tree Recruitment  

PubMed Central

Quantifying the relative importance of the multiple processes that limit recruitment may hold the key to understanding tropical tree diversity. Here we couple theoretical models with a large-scale, multi-species seed-sowing experiment to assess the degree to which seed and establishment limitation shape patterns of tropical tree seedling recruitment in a central African forest. Of five randomly selected species (Pancovia laurentii, Staudtia kamerunensis, Manilkara mabokeensis, Myrianthus arboreas, and Entandophragma utile), seedling establishment and survival were low (means of 16% and 6% at 3 and 24 months, respectively), and seedling density increased with seed augmentation. Seedling recruitment was best explained by species identity and the interaction of site-by-species, suggesting recruitment probabilities vary among species and sites, and supporting the role of niche-based mechanisms. Although seed augmentation enhanced initial seedling density, environmental filtering and post-establishment mortality strongly limited seedling recruitment. The relative importance of seed and establishment limitation changed with seed and seedling density and through time. The arrival of seeds most strongly affected local recruitment when seeds were nearly absent from a site (? 1 seed m2), but was also important when seeds arrived in extremely high densities, overwhelming niche-based mortality factors. The strength of seed limitation and density-independent mortality decreased significantly over time, while density-dependent mortality showed the opposite trend. The varying strengths of seed and establishment limitation as a function of juvenile density and time emphasize the need to evaluate their roles through later stages of a tree’s life cycle. PMID:23691023

Clark, Connie J.; Poulsen, John R.; Levey, Doug J.

2013-01-01

272

Chemical compositions and biological activities of Amomum subulatum essential oils from Nepal.  

PubMed

The essential oils from the seed and rind of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (collected from Nepal) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 87 components were identified among the two essential oils accounting for 99.1%, and 99.0% of the oils, respectively. The two essential oils were dominated by the monoterpenoids 1,8-cineole (60.8% and 39.0%), alpha-pinene (6.4% and 4.8%), beta-pinene (8.3% and 17.7%), and alpha-terpineol (9.8% and 12.3%). Allelopathic testing of the seed essential oil showed an inhibition of seed germination of Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne, with IC50 values of 1583 and 1674 microg/mL, respectively. The seed essential oil demonstrated a stronger seedling growth inhibition of L. perenne than of L. sativa. A. subulatum seed and rind oils also showed moderate brine shrimp lethality (LC50 = 28.1 +/- 3.0 and 15.0 +/- 9.0 microg/mL, respectively). The seed and rind oils were only marginally cytotoxic (20% and 30%% kill on MCF-7 cells at 100 microg/mL, respectively), and antibacterial (MIC > or = 313 microg/mL), but A. subulatum rind oil was appreciably active against the fungus Aspergillus niger (MIC = 19.5 microg/mL). The essential oils of A. subulatum were also screened for nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans and insecticidal activity against the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta x richteri). The seed oil was only marginally toxic to the fire ant (LC50 = 1500 microg/mL), but moderately toxic to the nematode and the fruit fly (LC50 = 341 and 441 microg/mL, respectively). PMID:23074918

Satyal, Prabodh; Dosoky, Noura S; Kincer, Brittany L; Setzer, William N

2012-09-01

273

Report: Comparative phytochemical, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of various samples of Swertia Chirayita collected from various cities of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are crucial for about 80% of the world population in developing and developed countries for their primary and basic health care needs owing to better tolerability, superior compatibility with human body and having lesser side effects. The present study was conducted on various solvent extracts of three plant samples of Indian and Nepali origin Swertia Chirayita (Roxb.) Buch-ham (Chiratia) collected from various places to establish their comparative phytochemical analysis, chromatographic profile, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. Nepali Swertia Chirayita was found to have finest Chromatographic profile (TLC). Phytochemical analysis revealed Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, ascorbic acid, glycosides, steroids and triterpenoids in all samples. Different solvent fractions of the methanolic plant extracts of Swertia chirayita were assessed for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The grade of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT/ALT) and total bilirubin. The in-vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The methanolic and aqueous extracts, at a dose of 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg, produced significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. Decreased observed in the biochemical parameters suggests that the plant extracts possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities without any significant variation amongst them. These activities reside mainly in the methanolic extract of whole plant. PMID:25362620

Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Tabassum, Sobia; Malik, Farnaz; Riaz, Humayun

2014-11-01

274

Chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of essential oils of Plectranthus cylindraceus and Meriandra benghalensis from Yemen.  

PubMed

The chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaves of Plectranthus cylindraceus Hoechst. ex. Benth. (EOPC) and Meriandra benghalensis (Roxb.) Benth. (EOMB) were investigated. Sixteen compounds were identified in P. cylindraceus oil representing 94.5% of the oil content with thymol (68.5%), terpinolene (5.3%), beta-selinene (4.7%), beta-caryophyllene (4.0%), delta-cadinol (2.1%), and arcurcumene (1.7%) as the major compounds. In M. benghalensis oil, 12 compounds were identified, which made up 82.0% of the total oil. The most abundant constituents were camphor (43.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.7%), alpha-eudesmol (5.8%), caryophyllene oxide (5.8%), camphene (5.3%) and bomeol (3.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated against five microorganisms with the disc diffusion test, the broth micro-dilution method and a semiquantitative bioautographic test. The most sensitive microorganisms for P. cylindraceus oil were S. aureus, B. subtilis, and C. albicans with inhibition zones of 38, 42, and 43 mm and MIC values of 0.39, 0.18, and, 0.18 microL/mL, respectively. M. benghalensis oil showed weak to moderate activity against the tested microorganisms. 2,2-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed to study the potential antioxidant activities of both oils. The antioxidant activity of P. cylindraceus oil (IC50 34.5 microg/mL) appeared to be higher than that of M. benghalensis oil (IC50 935 microg/mL). At a concentration of 100 microg/mL, EOMB showed a stronger cytotoxic activity, with growth inhibition of 71% against HT29 tumor cells, than EOPC (18%). PMID:22978239

Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Wursterb, Martina; Denkert, Annika; Arnold, Norbert; Fadail, Iman; Al-Didamony, Gamal; Lindequist, Ulrike; Wessjohann, Ludger; Setzer, William N

2012-08-01

275

Determination of major carotenoids in a few Indian leafy vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Leafy vegetables [Basella rubra L., Peucedanum sowa Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Spinacia oleracea L., Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir., and Raphanus sativus L.] that are commonly used by the rural population in India were evaluated in terms of their main carotenoid pattern. The extracted carotenoids were purified by open column chromatography (OCC) on a neutral alumina column to verify their identity by their characteristic UV-visible absorption spectra. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 column with UV-visible photodiode array detection under isocratic conditions was used for quantification of isolated carotenoids. Acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane (60:20:20 v/v/v) containing 0.1% ammonium acetate was used as a mobile phase. The major carotenoids identified by both methods were lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Among the carotenoids identified, lutein and beta-carotene levels were found to be higher in these leafy vegetables. Results show that P. sowa and S. oleracea are rich sources of lutein (77-92 mg/100 g of dry wt) and beta-carotene (36-44 mg/100 g of dry wt) compared with other leafy vegetables. The purity of carotenoids eluted by OCC was clarified by HPLC, and they were found to be 92% +/- 3% for neoxanthin, 94% +/- 2% for violaxanthin, 97% +/-2% for lutein and zeaxanthin, and 90% +/- 3% for beta-carotene. It could be recommended to use P. sowa and S. oleracea as rich sources of lutein and beta-carotene for health benefits. The OCC method proposed is relatively simple and provides purified carotenoids for feeding trials. PMID:15826027

Lakshminarayana, Rangaswamy; Raju, Marisiddaiah; Krishnakantha, Thirumalai Parthasarathy; Baskaran, Vallikannan

2005-04-20

276

Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plants possessing generalized dispersal syndromes are likely to be more invasive than those relying on specialist dispersal agents. To address this issue on a local and regional scale, avian seed dispersal of the invasive alien Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was assessed in forests and spoil areas of South Carolina and along forest edges in Louisiana during the 1997-99 fruiting seasons. Tallow trees in these floristically distinct habitats had a few common and many casual visitors, and considerable species overlap among habitats was found. However, bird species differed in the importance of dispersing and dropping seeds among habitats. Important dispersal agents common to forests and spoil areas of South Carolina included Northern Flicker, American Robin and Redwinged Blackbird, whereas Red-bellied Woodpecker and European Starling were important in the former and latter habitat, respectively. In Louisiana, Red-bellied Woodpecker, American Robin, Northern Cardinal and Eastern Bluebird dispersed many seeds. Nearly all species foraging on seeds were winter residents. Estimated numbers of seeds dispersed and dropped were higher in spoil areas of South Carolina than in Louisiana because of higher numbers of individuals per visit, higher seed consumption and seed dropping rates, and longer foraging durations. Within South Carolina, more seeds were dispersed and dropped in spoil areas than in forests because of higher numbers of birds per visit. These findings show that among habitats, tallow tree attracts diverse but variable coteries of dispersal agents that are qualitatively similar in seed usage patterns. We suggest that its generalized dispersal syndrome contributes to effective seed dispersal by many bird species throughout its range. Effects of differential avian use among locales may include changes in local bird communities, and differing tallow tree demographics and invasion patterns.

Renne, I.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Johnson, Randall L.A.; Bridges, W.C., Jr.

2002-01-01

277

Growth and lead accumulation by the grasses Vetiveria zizanioides and Thysanolaena maxima in lead-contaminated soil amended with pig manure and fertilizer: a glasshouse study.  

PubMed

Bo Ngam lead mine soils contain high concentrations of lead (up 1% total Pb) and low amounts of organic matter and major nutrients (N, P, K). A glasshouse study was conducted to compare growth performance, metal tolerance and metal uptake by two grasses, Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O. Kuntze and four ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (three from Thailand: Surat Thani, Songkhla and Kamphaeng Phet, and one from Sri Lanka) and to study the effects of pig manure (20% and 40% w/w) and inorganic fertilizer (75 and 150 mg kg(-1)) amendments to this lead mine soil. The results showed that both T. maxima and V. zizanioides (Surat Thani and Songkhla) could tolerate high Pb concentrations in soil (10750 mg kg(-1)) and had very good growth performance. Application of pig manure increased electrical conductivity (EC) and reduced DTPA-extractable Pb concentration in the soils. Pig manure application improved the growth of vetiver, especially at 20%, application dosage. Vetiver had the highest biomass. T. maxima could not tolerate high EC values. The uptake by roots and transport of Pb to shoots of both species was reduced when soils were amended with pig manure. Application of inorganic fertilizer did not improve growth of vetiver but did improve that of T. maxima. Fertilizer application did not have any great influence on the Pb uptake in vetiver while T. maxima took up more Pb as a result of the fertilizer enhancing its biomass yield. Both species transported low Pb concentrations to shoots (8.3-179 mg kg(-1)) and accumulated higher concentrations in roots (107-911 mg kg(-1)). In summary, both species may be species well suited for phytostabilization in tropical lead mine areas. PMID:16828842

Rotkittikhun, P; Chaiyarat, R; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; Baker, A J M

2007-01-01

278

Boesenbergia pandurata Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Regulating Lipid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Obesity, a chronic metabolic disorder, is characterized by enlarged fat mass and dysregulation of lipid metabolism. The medicinal plant, Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., has been reported to possess anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties; however, its anti-obesity activity is unexplored. The present study was conducted to determine whether B. pandurata extract (BPE), prepared from its rhizome parts, attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. BPE treatment decreased triglyceride accumulation in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral administration of BPE (200 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were suppressed by BPE administration. Fat pad masses were reduced in BPE-treated mice, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. Furthermore, BPE protected against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver by decreasing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. BPE also activated AMPK signaling and altered the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in white adipose tissue and liver. Taken together, these findings indicate that BPE attenuates HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and regulating lipid metabolism, suggesting a potent anti-obesity agent. PMID:22312299

Kim, Dae-Young; Kim, Myung-Suk; Sa, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Bo; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2012-01-01

279

Hypotensive, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Diuretic Activities of the Aqueous-methanol Extract of Ipomoea reniformis  

PubMed Central

Ipomoea reniformis Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) is a small, weedy herb used for the management of cardiac problems in traditional systems of medicine in India and Pakistan. Objective of the present study was to investigate the hypotensive, diuretic and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the aqueous-methanol (30:70) crude extract of the dried aerial parts of I. reniformis (Ir.Cr.) in rats. To record blood pressure lowering effects of the Ir.Cr, different doses of the extract were administered through jugular vein to the ketamine-diazepam anesthetized normotensive rats and blood pressure was recorded via carotid artery. ACE inhibitory activity of the extract was studied in-vitro; using hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine as substrate, the product hippurate was quantified spectrophotometrically after reacting with cyanuric chloride/dioxane reagent. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the extract on urine and urinary electrolyte excretion were also investigated in rats. The extract (Ir.Cr.) produced 21.51 ± 3.41, 28.99 ± 2.30, 53.34 ± 0.88 and 61.71 ± 3.37% fall in mean arterial blood pressure of the anesthetized rats at the doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/Kg, respectively. Ir.Cr. was found to have serum ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 value of 422 ± 21.16 ?g/mL. The extract also increased urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion significantly at the doses of 30 and 50 mg/Kg in rats. The study concludes that the crude extract of Ipomoea reniformis (Ir.Cr.) has hypotensive, ACE inhibitory and diuretic activities, which provide the scientific justification for the traditional uses of the plant as cardioprotective, antihypertensive and diuretic remedy. PMID:24523757

Jabeen, Qaiser; Aslam, Naveed

2013-01-01

280

Stimulation of Ethylene Production in the Mung Bean Hypocotyls by Cupric Ion, Calcium Ion, and Kinetin 1  

PubMed Central

The synergistic stimulation of ethylene production by kinetin and Ca2+ in hypocotyl segments of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedling was further studied. The requirement for Ca2+ in this system was specific. Except for Sr2+, which mimicked the effect of Ca2+, none of the following divalent cations, including Ba2+, Mg6+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Sn2+, and Zn2+, showed synergism with kinetin on ethylene production. Fe2+, however, showed a slight synergism with kinetin. Some of them (Hg2+, Co2+, and Ni2+) had a strong inhibitory effect, while others (Zn2+, Mg2+, Sn2+, and Ba2+) had a slight or no inhibitory effect on ethylene production in the absence or presence of kinetin. Cu2+ alone, depending on the concentration applied, stimulated ethylene production with a lag period of about 2 hours and had no synergism with kinetin on ethylene production. When Cu2+ was applied with Ca2+, a remarkable synergistic stimulation of ethylene production was observed. Tracer experiments indicated that Cu2+ enhanced the uptake of 45Ca2+ into the tissues during the first few hours of incubation, and this increase of 45Ca2+ uptake paralleled the enhancement of ethylene production. When Ca2+ was applied together with kinetin plus Cu2+, both the ethylene production and the 45Ca2+ uptake were greatly increased over those from the segments treated with Cu2+ or kinetin alone. The increase in ethylene production as a result of kinetin plus Ca2+ plus Cu2+ treatment is equal to the combined increases caused by kinetin plus Ca2+ and Cu2+ plus Ca2+. A possible mechanism accounting for such cooperative effects of Cu2+, Ca2+, and kinetin on ethylene production is discussed. PMID:16659432

Lau, Oi-Lim; Yang, Shang F.

1976-01-01

281

A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.  

PubMed

Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators. PMID:24595752

Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

2014-06-01

282

Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.  

PubMed

The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. PMID:21792590

Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

2012-02-01

283

Structure and Function of Shisham Forests in Central Himalaya, India: Dry Matter Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of 5? to 15?year?old Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests growing in central Himalaya were estimated. Allometric equations were developed for all above? and below?ground components of trees and shrubs for each stand. Understorey forest floor biomass and litter fall were also estimated in forest stands. The biomass (dry matter), forest floor biomass (standing crop litter), tree litter fall and NPP of trees and shrubs increased with increasing age of the forest stand, whereas the dry matter and herb NPP decreased significantly (P < 0·001) with increasing age of the forest. Total forest biomass and NPP ranged from 58·7 (5?year?old stand) to 136·1 t ha–1 (15?year?old stand) and 12·6 (5?year?old stand) to 20·3 t ha–1 year–1 (15?year?old stand), respectively. Of these values, tree biomass accounted for 85·7 (5?year?old stand) to 90·1 % (15?year?old) of total forest biomass, and tree NPP for 72·2 (5?year?old) to 82·3 % (15?year?old) of total forest NPP. The biomass accumulation ratio (BAR) of the bole component (bole wood + bole bark) increased with increasing age of the forest stand. The bole BAR was 5·8 (5?year?old stand) to 7·9 (15?year?old stand). However, total BAR of the forest stand ranged from 5·5 (5?year?old) to 7·5 (15?year?old). PMID:12096818

LODHIYAL, NEELU; LODHIYAL, L. S.; PANGTEY, Y. P. S.

2002-01-01

284

Type of litter determines the formation and properties of charred material during wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances all over the World, affecting both the amount and composition of forest floor and mineral soils. In comparison with unburnt areas, wildfire-affected forest floor usually shows lower contents of labile C compounds and higher concentrations of recalcitrant aromatic forms. These changes in composition can have important impact on biogeochemical cycles and therefore ecosystem functions. Although burning of different types of litter can lead to different amount and types of pyrogenic compounds, this aspect has not been evaluated yet. The effect of wildfire on SOM composition and stability were evaluated in five major types of non-wood litter in Mediterranean ecosystems: Pinus nigra, E. arborea, P. pinaster, U. europaeus and Eucalyptus globulus. In each of these ecosystems, forest floor samples from different soil burn severities were sampled. Soil burnt severities were based on visual signs of changes in forest floor and deposition of ash. Pyrogenic carbon quality were analysed using elementary analysis, solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (FTIR) and thermal analysis (simultaneous DSC-TG). The study showed that the different types of litter influenced the formation and characteristics of charred material. They differed in the temperature at which they start to be formed, the amounts of charred compounds and in their chemical composition. The resulting charred materials from the different litter, showed an important variability in the degree of carbonitation/aromatization. Unlike the biochar obtained through pyrolysis of woody sources, which contains exclusively aromatic structures, in the charred material produced in some litter, lignin, cellulose and even cellulose persist even in the high soil burnt severity. Coinciding with increases in aromatic contents, important decreases in atomic H/C and O/C ratios were recorded. However, the values found in some litters, were higher than 0.5, suggesting that low degree of carbonization/aromatization. Although burning also led to compounds of higher thermal recalcitrance (increases in T50 values), values recorded in some litters were lower than those measured in highly polycondensed aromatic compounds. The differences found among the different forest floor cannot be only attributable to the initial SOM composition of the litter. Other aspects, such as the different thermal sensitivity, flammability and different conditions during wildfire (temperatures, combustion duration, oxygen concentrations) could also have contributed.

Chavez, Bruno; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Salgado, Josefa; García-Oliva, Felipe; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

2014-05-01

285

Long days and thyroxine program american tree sparrows for seasonality: evidence for temporal flexibility of the breeding season of euthyroid females.  

PubMed

To explore the role of the thyroid in the control of seasonality, photosensitive female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were thyroidectomized (THX), moved to long days, and given daily injections of thyroxine (T4) for 3 weeks; THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received daily injections of alkaline vehicle. Birds were retained on long days 4 additional weeks and then moved to constant light and given T4 in drinking water for 5 weeks in order to test for photorefractoriness. Endpoints were ovarian mass, molt score, and hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content; data were collected as independent measures at intervals of 1 to 5 weeks. THX females given T4 replacement therapy (THXT4 females) exhibited all components of seasonality (i.e., photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt), as did THI females. THX females not given replacement T4 were aseasonal: They showed only minor thyroid-independent photoperiodic ovarian growth; they remained photosensitive, despite chronic photostimulation; and they did not initiate postnuptial molt. Collectively, these observations support, and extend to female tree sparrows, our model of seasonality in male tree sparrows, wherein control circuits are programmed for gonadal growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt by interactive effects of long days and thyroid hormone during the first 3 weeks of photostimulation. The unexpected finding that constant light and/or exogenous T4 extended the simulated breeding seasons of some THI females prompted us to investigate the nature and expression of photorefractoriness. Our approach was to evaluate the same endpoints as before in chronically photostimulated THI females either retained on long days, with or without T4 in drinking water, or moved to constant light, with or without T4. The results showed that exposure to constant light (not T4) near the end of a simulated breeding season can-though usually it does not-temporarily extend the breeding season and prevent the onset of postnuptial molt. It remains unclear whether these perturbations caused by constant light reflect a transitional relative photorefractoriness or merely a delay in the onset of absolute photorefractoriness. In either case, the thyroid- and daylength-dependent programs controlling seasonality in female American tree sparrows have a heretofore undemonstrated potential for limited temporal flexibility. PMID:9882552

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1999-01-01

286

Generation, annotation, analysis and database integration of 16,500 white spruce EST clusters  

PubMed Central

Background The sequencing and analysis of ESTs is for now the only practical approach for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in conifers because their very large genomes are unlikely to be sequenced in the near future. Our objective was to produce extensive collections of ESTs and cDNA clones to support manufacture of cDNA microarrays and gene discovery in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss). Results We produced 16 cDNA libraries from different tissues and a variety of treatments, and partially sequenced 50,000 cDNA clones. High quality 3' and 5' reads were assembled into 16,578 consensus sequences, 45% of which represented full length inserts. Consensus sequences derived from 5' and 3' reads of the same cDNA clone were linked to define 14,471 transcripts. A large proportion (84%) of the spruce sequences matched a pine sequence, but only 68% of the spruce transcripts had homologs in Arabidopsis or rice. Nearly all the sequences that matched the Populus trichocarpa genome (the only sequenced tree genome) also matched rice or Arabidopsis genomes. We used several sequence similarity search approaches for assignment of putative functions, including blast searches against general and specialized databases (transcription factors, cell wall related proteins), Gene Ontology term assignation and Hidden Markov Model searches against PFAM protein families and domains. In total, 70% of the spruce transcripts displayed matches to proteins of known or unknown function in the Uniref100 database (blastx e-value < 1e-10). We identified multigenic families that appeared larger in spruce than in the Arabidopsis or rice genomes. Detailed analysis of translationally controlled tumour proteins and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase families confirmed a twofold size difference. Sequences and annotations were organized in a dedicated database, SpruceDB. Several search tools were developed to mine the data either based on their occurrence in the cDNA libraries or on functional annotations. Conclusion This report illustrates specific approaches for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in an organism that is very distantly related to any of the fully sequenced genomes. The ArboreaSet sequences and cDNA clones represent a valuable resource for investigations ranging from plant comparative genomics to applied conifer genetics. PMID:16236172

Pavy, Nathalie; Paule, Charles; Parsons, Lee; Crow, John A; Morency, Marie-Josee; Cooke, Janice; Johnson, James E; Noumen, Etienne; Guillet-Claude, Carine; Butterfield, Yaron; Barber, Sarah; Yang, George; Liu, Jerry; Stott, Jeff; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Siddiqui, Asim; Holt, Robert; Marra, Marco; Seguin, Armand; Retzel, Ernest; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

2005-01-01

287

Nitrogen fixation in different biogeochemical niches along a 120 000-year chronosequence in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is the major nitrogen (N) input in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet we know little about the mechanisms and feedbacks that control this process in natural ecosystems. We here examine BNF in four taxonomically and ecologically different groups over the course of forest ecosystem development. At nine sites along the Franz Josef soil chronosequence (South Westland, New Zealand) that range in age from 7 to 120000 yr old, we quantified BNF from the symbiotic plant Coriaria arborea, cyanolichens (primarily Pseudocyphellaria spp.), bryophytes (many species), and heterotrophic bacteria in leaf litter. We specifically examined whether these groups could act as "nitrostats" at the ecosystem level, turning BNF on when N is scarce (early in primary succession) and off when N is plentiful (later in succession and retrogression). Coriaria was abundant and actively fixing (approximately 11 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) in the youngest and most N-poor site (7 yr old), consistent with nitrostat dynamics. Coriaria maintained high BNF rates independent of soil N availability, however, until it was excluded from the community after a single generation. We infer that Coriaria is an obligate N fixer and that the nitrostat feedback is mechanistically governed by species replacement at the community level, rather than down-regulation of BNF at the physiological scale. Biological nitrogen fixation inputs from lichens (means of 0-2 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)), bryophytes (0.7-10 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)), and litter (1-2 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) were driven primarily by changes in density, which peaked at intermediate-aged sites (and increased with soil N availability) for both lichens and bryophytes, and grew monotonically with soil age (but did not change with soil N) for litter. This non-nitrostatic link between soil N availability and lichen/bryophyte BNF likely stems from increased tree biomass in more fertile sites, which increases epiphytic moisture conditions and habitable surface area. This apparent positive feedback could produce N-rich conditions. PMID:19739381

Menge, Duncan N L; Hedin, Lars O

2009-08-01

288

Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District).  

PubMed

Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes. PMID:20712897

Njoroge, Grace N; Kaibui, Isaac M; Njenga, Peter K; Odhiambo, Peter O

2010-01-01

289

Structure and Function of Shisham Forests in Central Himalaya, India: Nutrient Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The structure and function of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests were investigated in relation to nutrient dynamics in 5? to 15?year?old stands growing in central Himalaya. Nutrient concentrations and storage in different layers of vegetation were in the order: tree > shrub > herb. Forest soil, litter and vegetation accounted for 80·1–91·9, 1·0–1·5 and 7·0–18·4 %, respectively, of the total nutrients in the system. There were considerable reductions (trees 32·8–43·1; shrubs 26·2–32·4; and herbs 18·8–22·2 %) in nutrient concentrations of leaves during senescence. Nutrient uptake by the vegetation as a whole and also by the different components, with and without adjustment for internal recycling, was investigated. Annual transfer of litter nutrients to the soil from vegetation was 74·8–108·4 kg ha–1 year–1 N, 5·6–8·4 kg ha–1 year–1 P and 38·7–46·9 kg ha–1 year–1 K. Turnover rate and time for different nutrients ranged between 56 and 66 % year–1 and 1·5 and 1·8 years, respectively. The turnover rate of litter indicates that over 50 % of nutrients in litter on the forest floor are released, which ultimately enhances the productivity of the forest stand. The nutrient use efficiency in Shisham forests ranged from 136 to 143 kg ha–1 year–1 for N, 1441 to 1570 kg ha–1 year–1 for P and 305 to 311 kg ha–1 year–1 for K. Compared with natural oak forest (265 kg ha–1 year–1) and an exotic eucalypt plantation (18 kg ha–1 year–1), a higher proportion of nutrients was retranslocated in Shisham forests, largely because of higher leaf tissue nutrient concentrations. This indicates a lower nutrient use efficiency of Shisham compared with eucalypt and oak. Compartment models for nutrient dynamics have been developed to represent the distribution of nutrients pools and net annual fluxes within the system. PMID:12096819

LODHIYAL, NEELU; LODHIYAL, L. S.; PANGTEY, Y. P. S.

2002-01-01

290

Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists and students. Phenological studies by the Mat-Su Career and Technical High School students helped scientists working with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to determine the best time for an aerial survey of bald eagle nests in the Matanuska Susitna Valley in Alaska. GLOBE student phenological data have also been used as part of a doctoral student dissertation, included in presentations at professional meetings and peer- reviewed scientific papers. Pre- and post- engagement assessment data have indicated a significant increase in content knowledge and science skills of pre-college students who have engaged in phenology investigations. Phenological investigations meet educational standards, help students understand the Earth as a system, do not require expensive equipment, and enable students across the globe to learn science by doing science.

Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

2011-12-01

291

Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Anopheles subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the oviposition, ovicidal, and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:19707789

Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

2009-11-01

292

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50)?=37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90)?=166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50)?=26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90)?=127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90)?=324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

2010-11-01

293

Patterns of leaf conductance and water potential of five Himalayan tree species.  

PubMed

We studied variations in water relations and drought response in five Himalayan tree species (Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. (chilaune) and Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (dhale katus) at an elevation of 1400 m, Quercus lanata Smith (banjh) and Rhododendron arboreum Smith (lali gurans) at 2020 m, and Quercus semecarpifolia Smith (khasru) at 2130 m) at Phulchowki Hill, Kathmandu, Nepal. Soil water potential at 15 (Psi(s15)) and 30 cm (Psi(s30)) depths, tree water potential at predawn (Psi(pd)) and midday (Psi(md)), and leaf conductance during the morning (g(wAM)) and afternoon (g(wPM)) were observed from December 1998 to April 2001, except during the monsoon months. There was significant variation among sites, species and months in Psi(pd), Psi(md), g(wAM) and g(wPM), and among months for all species for Psi(s15). Mean Psi(pd) and Psi(md) were lowest in Q. semecarpifolia (-0.40 and -1.18 MPa, respectively) and highest in S. wallichii (-0.20 and -0.63 MPa, respectively). The minimum Psi value for all species (-0.70 to -1.79 MPa) was observed in March 1999, after 4 months of unusually low rainfall. Some patterns of Psi(pd) were related to phenology and leaf damage. During leafing, Psi(pd) often increased. Mean g(wAM) and g(wPM) were highest in Q. semecarpifolia (172 and 190 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and lowest in C. indica (78 and 74 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Soil water potential (Psi) at 15 cm depth correlated with plant Psi in all species, but rarely with g(wAM) and not with g(wPM). Plant Psi declined with increasing elevation, whereas g(w) increased. As Psi(pd) declined, so did maximal g(w), but overall, g(w) was correlated with Psi(pd) only for R. arboreum. Schima wallichii maintained high Psi, with low stomatal conductance, as did Castanopsis indica, except that C. indica had low Psi during dry months. Rhododendron arboreum maintained high Psi(pd) and g(w), despite low soil Psi. Quercus lanata had low g(w) and low Psi(pd) in some months, but showed no correlation between tree Psi and g(w). Quercus semecarpifolia, which grows at the highest elevation, had low soil and plant Psi and high g(w). PMID:15059769

Poudyal, K; Jha, P K; Zobel, D B; Thapa, C B

2004-06-01

294

Evidence for a proximate influence of winter temperature on metabolism in passerine birds.  

PubMed

The roles of ultimate and proximate factors in regulating basal and summit metabolic rates of passerine birds during winter have received little study, and the extent to which winter temperatures affect these variables is unknown. To address this question, we measured basal and summit (maximum cold-induced) metabolic rates in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), and American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) during winters from 1991/1992 to 1997 in southeastern South Dakota. Both temperature and these metabolic rates varied within and among winters. Least-squares regression revealed significant negative relationships for normalized basal and summit metabolism against mean winter temperature for all species pooled (R2=0.62 to 0.69, P

Swanson, D L; Olmstead, K L

1999-01-01

295

Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Thrombus formed in blood vessels lead to atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs sometimes cause serious and fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases although they show little toxicity in some cases. Aqueous extracts of herbs used in thrombolysis have been reported before with cytotoxic data, however, the organic extracts of herbs have not been documented. This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity. Methods An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., Ageratum conyzoides L., Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Leucas aspera Willd., Senna sophera L. Roxb., and Solanum torvum Swartz. using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Briefly, venous blood drawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. Results Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed 18.12 ± 2.34%, 48.9 ± 2.44%, 39.30 ± 0.96%, 37.32 ± 2.00%, 31.61 ± 2.97% and 31.51 ± 0.57% and clot lysis respectively. Among the herbs studied Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera showed very significant (p < 0.0001) percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to reference drug streptokinase (75.00 ± 3.04%). In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, the extracts Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed LC50 values 508.86 ± 6.62,41.16 ± 1.26, 2.65 ± 0.16, 181.67 ± 1.65, 233.37 ± 7.74 and 478.40 ± 3.23 ?g/ml, respectively, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76 ± 0.04). Conclusion Through our study it was found that Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera possessed effective thrombolytic properties whereas Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed moderate to mild thrombolytic effects while Ageratum conyzoides showed no significant effect. No extract was found cytoxic compared to positive control. Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent with in vivo effects to improve the atherothrombotic patients. However, Clausena suffruticosa could be the best one to use in this purpose. PMID:23363538

2013-01-01

296

Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish priorities for future research directions in chemical management of submersed plants. The priorities we identified include: (A) improving methods for evaluating non-target impacts of herbicides with an emphasis on threatened and endangered species, or species of special concern; (B) improving herbicide performance in flowing-water environments, including irrigation canals; (C) screening and developing new herbicides to supplement fluridone for large-scale or whole-lake management approaches; (D) screening and developing new organic algaecides to supplement the use of copper-based compounds; (E) developing risk assessment tools to educate the public on the risks of invasive species and chemical management options; (F) increasing cooperative research with ecologists and fisheries scientists to evaluate the long-term impacts of invasive species introductions and herbicide programs on native plant assemblages, water quality, and fish populations; and (G) improving the integration of chemical control technology with other aquatic plant management disciplines. While circumstances may dictate setting new priorities or dropping current ones, the list we have generated represents our vision of the needs that will require the greatest focus over the next several years.

Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

2008-01-01