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1

Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb in experimentally induced inflammation and nociception  

PubMed Central

Background: Gmelina arborea Roxb (Verbenaceae), also known as “Gambhari”, is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda. There are no meticulous scientific reports on effect of the plant on inflammation and pain. Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of aqueous extracts (AE) and methanol extracts (ME) of G. arborea. Materials and Methods: The AE and ME of stembark of G. arborea was prepared by cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction technique respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in Wistar albino rats in a model of acute plantar inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by using hot plate test and writhing test in Swiss albino mice. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: AE and ME at dose of 500 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition in carrageenan induced inflammation up to 30.15 and 31.21% respectively. In hot plate test, the AE and ME showed the maximum response of 8.8 ± 0.97 (P < 0.01) and 8.2 ± 1.24 (P < 0.01) respectively at dose of 500 mg/kg when compared with control. AE showed maximum inhibition of writhing response (84.3%) as compared to ME (77.9%) in writhing test at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: The findings suggested that G. arborea possess significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. PMID:24250144

Kulkarni, Yogesh A.; Panjabi, Ritesh; Patel, Vishvas; Tawade, Aditi; Gokhale, Alok

2013-01-01

2

Change in pH regimes and adventitious root induction in semi-hardwood cuttings of Gmelina arborea Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in pH regimes (pH 5.5–8.5), IBA (0.5 mM) and their interactions significantly influenced adventitious root induction\\u000a and growth in semi-hardwood shoot cuttings collected from annually hedged Gmelina arborea Roxb. stockplants of 4 years of age and maintained in earthen pots. Acidic pH 5.5 administered for 4 h as 5.0 mM potassium\\u000a phosphate buffer significantly promoted rooting ability (%) and root number cutting?1 and

Pramod Kumar; Surendra Kumar Jharia; Shamim Akhtar Ansari

3

Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry as well as histology were studied. Results: The administration of ME from the G. arborea bark at 300–5000 mg/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the clinical signs. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of ME was 5000 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the general condition, growth, organ weights, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry values, or gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. Conclusion: ME of G. arborea was found safe in acute and repeated dose toxicity studies when tested in mice and rats. PMID:22778509

Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

2012-01-01

4

Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

2010-01-01

5

Antidiarrhoeal activity of the bark extract of Careya arborea Roxb.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the Careya arborea Roxb. bark significantly reduced castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice. This effect supports the local traditional use of the plant against diarrhoea. PMID:12628403

Rahman, M T; Khan, O F; Saha, S; Alimuzzaman, M

2003-02-01

6

Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.  

PubMed

Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

2012-04-01

7

Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn.  

E-print Network

that the rooting of terminal cuttings was poor with Salix cinerea, while the position on the stem made no difference in rooting and growth of Salix fragilis, S. triandra, and S. viminalis x americana. The lower cuttings from two-year-old ~po ulus deltoides...

Hicks, Van Joseph

2012-06-07

8

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Cleome viscosa and Gmelina asiatica.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extracts of the leaves and flowers of Cleome viscosa and roots of Gmelina asiatica were tested for antimicrobial activity. The two plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly significative against Escherichia coli , Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaf extract of C. viscosa showed moderate activity against pathogenic fungi. PMID:16325351

Sudhakar, M; Rao, Ch V; Rao, P M; Raju, D B

2006-01-01

9

Discovery of novel diterpenoids from Sinularia arborea.  

PubMed

Two novel diterpenoids, sinularbols A (1) and B (2), which were found to possess a new carbon skeleton were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia arborea. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and 2 displayed a moderately inhibitory effect on the generation of superoxide anion by human neutrophils. PMID:24445307

Chen, Kuan-Hua; Dai, Chang-Feng; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Chun-Yu; Li, Jan-Jung; Chen, Jih-Jung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sheu, Jyh-Horng; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun

2014-01-01

10

(SPIZELLA ARBOREA) AND DARK-EYED JUNCOS (JUNCO HYEMALIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTmCT.--Despite similarities in winter distribution, habitat selection, and food choice, Dark-eyed Juncos ()unco hyemalis) and Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) differ in the extent to which they store fat during winter, with juncos accumulating greater stores. Anticipating that Tree Sparrows might have some means of conserving energy during fasting and thus suffer no disadvantage when weather prevents feeding, we compared the

MIKI M. STUEBE; ELLEN D. KETTER

11

La Rainette verte (Hyla arborea; Anura) dans le canton de Vaud: un tat des lieux  

E-print Network

PELLET1 et Cornelis NEET1 Abstract.­PELLET J. and NEET C., 2001. The European tree frog (Hyla arborea-303. Highly endangered in Switzerland, the European tree frog (Hyla arborea L., 1758) has been widely of the tree frog in a pond between 1985 and 1990 was significantly dependent on the number of potential sites

Alvarez, Nadir

12

Short Notes Genetic differentiation in two European tree frog (Hyla arborea)  

E-print Network

Short Notes Genetic differentiation in two European tree frog (Hyla arborea) metapopulations,4 , Luca Fumagalli1 Abstract. The survival of threatened species as the European tree frog (Hyla arborea of genetic variability (Frankham et al., 2002; Frankham, 2005). The studied species, The European tree frog

Alvarez, Nadir

13

Quinolizidine alkaloids in Ormosia arborea seeds inhibit predation but not hoarding by agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina).  

PubMed

Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are secondary compounds found in seeds of many species of plants, possibly protecting them against pathogens and seed predators. QAs were isolated from Ormosia arborea seeds and bioassayed against red-rumped agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina, Rodentia: Caviomorpha) to verify if they inhibit seed predation and food hoarding (seed dispersal). Three treatments were used: (1) seeds of O. arborea, (2) palatable seeds of Mimusops coriacea (Sapotaceae) treated with MeOH, and (3) seeds of M. coriacea treated with QAs dissolved in MeOH in similar concentration to that present in O. arborea. Palatable seeds were significantly more preyed upon than seeds treated with QAs and Ormosia seeds, but QAs did not influence hoarding behavior. QAs in O. arborea may have a strong effect in avoiding seed predation by rodents, without reducing dispersal. PMID:12857021

Guimarães, Paulo Roberto; José, Juliana; Galetti, Mauro; Trigo, José Roberto

2003-05-01

14

Plant anticancer agents VI: Isolation of voacangine, voacamine, and epivoacorine from Tabernaemontana arborea sap.  

PubMed

Fractionation of the sap of Tabernaemontana arborea, guided by cytotoxicity against the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia, yielded the known indole alkaloids voacangine, voacamine, and epivoacorine as the major cytotoxic constituents. PMID:563905

Kingston, D G

1978-02-01

15

Extraocular control of photorefractoriness in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Photorefractoriness, a reversible state of unresponsiveness to daylengths of gonadostimulatory duration, terminates seasonal breeding in many photoperiodic species of birds. Whether the eyes are components of the mechanism that triggers photorefractoriness is an important, but heretofore unresolved, question. Although a role for extraocular photoreception in the mechanism of photoinduced gonadal growth is well documented, the eyes may be important in the mechanism of photorefractoriness if, as some evidence suggests, they are gonadoinhibitory. With American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), I here confirm that the absence of eyes does not impede photoinduced testicular growth and establish that an extraocular mechanism mediates the transition from photosensitivity to photorefractoriness: Tree sparrows blinded by bilateral ocular enucleation, when photosensitivity to long days or by miniature self-powered lights implanted atop the skull, showed marked testicular growth and then, as evidenced by spontaneous testicular regression, became photorefractory, as did sighted controls. PMID:2804201

Wilson, F E

1989-07-01

16

Bioactive secondary metabolites from Salix tetrasperma Roxb.  

PubMed

Column chromatography of the light petroleum fraction from the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Salix tetrasperma Roxb. (Salicaceae) resulted in the isolation of beta-sitosterol acetate, friedelin, 3beta-friedelinol, beta-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol-O-glucoside in addition to palmitic acid. From the dichloromethane fraction of the leaves, catechol and tremulacin were isolated. Salicin and its derivatives tremuloidin and 2'-O-p-(E)-coumaroyl salicin were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves. The isolated compounds were identified by MS, and 1D NMR (1H and 13C) and 2D NMR (H-H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) spectral analyses. The total methanolic extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity (rat hind paw oedema). The extract with a content of 120 mg/kg body weight produced 52% inhibition equivalent to the standard diclofenac sodium (54% inhibition). The antioxidant (DPPH free radical scavenging) and analgesic activities, respectively, were also evaluated. PMID:23016273

El-Shazly, Assem; El-Sayed, Afaf; Fikrey, Eman

2012-01-01

17

Dracaena arborea alleviates ultra-structural spermatogenic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility is a common complication in diabetic men and experimental animals, mainly due to loss of germ cells by apoptotic cell death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dracaena arborea in streptozotocin-induced ultra-structural spermatogenic alterations in Wistar rats. Methods Diabetic animals were orally treated with Millipore water (10?ml/kg), sildenafil citrate (1.44?mg/kg) or Dracaena arborea aqueous (500?mg/kg) and ethanol (100?mg/kg) extracts for three weeks. A group of non diabetic rats received Millipore water (10?ml/kg) and served as healthy control group. Blood glucose was monitored at the beginning and the end of the study. One day after the last treatment, animals were sacrificed and the testes immediately removed were morphologically observed and prepared for electron microscopy analysis of spermatogenesis. Results Our results showed that Dracaena arborea was devoid of any anti-hyperglycemic activity. In the untreated diabetic rats, hyperglycemia severely damaged the testes morphology as well as the spermatogenic process as evidenced by the: thickness of basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule; mitochondria alteration; abnormal spermatocyte cells displaying polymorphous nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis; and disorganization and degeneration of sperm germ cells. Administration of sildenafil citrate and Dracaena arborea extracts to the diabetic rats improved testes morphology and reversed, although not completely, the impairment of spermatogenesis; this alleviating effect was more pronounced in animals treated with the aqueous extract (500?mg/kg) of Dracaena arborea. Conclusion Dracaena arborea improves testes morphology and restores spermatogenesis in type 1 diabetic rats, without having major anti-hyperglycemic properties. These effects could be attributed to saponins, flavonoids, phenols and sterols revealed in this plant, which could be a useful component in the treatment of diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction. PMID:23548080

2013-01-01

18

A new guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone from Curcuma leucorrhiza Roxb.  

PubMed

A naturally occurring guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone (1), along with 10 known compounds (2-11), was isolated from the chloroform extract of the dried rhizomes of Curcuma leucorrhiza Roxb. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 1 expressed antioxidant activity. The taxonomic status of C. leucorrhiza is briefly discussed based on the chemotaxonomic significance of these findings. PMID:24484237

Asem, Satyavama Devi; Laitonjam, Warjeet Singh

2014-01-01

19

Somatic hybrid plants between the forage legumes Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific somatic hybrid plants were obtained by symmetrical electrofusion of mesophyll protoplasts of Medicago sativa with callus protoplasts of Medicago arborea. Somatic hybrid calli were picked manually from semi-solid culture medium after they were identified by their dual color in fluorescent light. Twelve putative hybrid calli were selected and one of them regenerated plants. The morphogenesis of the somatic hybrid

E. Nenz; F. Pupilli; F. Damiani; S. Arcioni

1996-01-01

20

The thyroid and photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), the effects of (1) thyroxine administered in drinking water to thyroid-intact photosensitive or photorefractory birds, and (2) radiothyroidectomy before and after photostimulation and during photorefractoriness were examined. Chronic administration of pharmacological doses of thyroxine induced testicular growth and

F. E. Wilson; B. D. Reinert

1993-01-01

21

Antiulcer Activity of Hydroalchol Extract of Momordica dioica roxb. Fruit  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate antiulcer activity of hydroalcohol extract of Momordica dioica Roxb. fruit. Momordica dioica Roxb. fruit extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, twice daily for 5 days for prevention from ethanol, cold-restraint stress and pylorus ligation-induced ulcers. Estimation of H+-K+ ATPase activity and gastric wall mucous were performed in ethanol-induced ulcer model, antioxidant enzyme activities was carried out in cold-restraint stress-induced ulcer model, and various gastric secretion parameters like volume of gastric juice, acid output, and pH value were estimated in pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model. A significant reduction in lesion index was observed in ulcer-induced animals pre treated with extract at different doses when compared with ulcerated rats in all models. A significant decrease occurred in the level of H+-K+ ATPase, volume of gastric juice, and acid output. Gastric wall mucus and pH were increased significantly. These showed dose-dependent action of extract. LPO and antioxidant enzyme levels of SOD were decreased, but CAT enzyme showed significant increase. Thus the results indicate that the Momordica dioica extract possess antiulcerogenic effect, that attributable to augmentation of gastric defense mechanisms. PMID:22923872

Vijayakumar, M.; Eswaran, M. Bavani; Ojha, S. K.; Rao, CH. V.; Rawat, A. K. S.

2011-01-01

22

Time of Thyroidectomy Variably Affects Seasonality in Female American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were injected with Na131I before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation in order to study the effect of time of thyroidectomy on three components of seasonality: thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt. Thyroidectomy before or at the onset of photostimulation abolished all components of seasonality; birds exhibited only minor thyroid-independent

Fred E Wilson; Bryan D Reinert

1999-01-01

23

Hypothalamic neurosecretion and photoinduced testicular growth in the tree sparrow, Spizella arborea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the role of the hypothalamic neurosecretory system in the mechanism of photoperiodic control of testicular growth in Spizella arborea, we have examined the effect of (1) photostimulation on the density of paraldehyde-fuchsin-stainable (PAF+) material in the neurovascular zone of the median eminence, and (2) interruption of the hypothalamo-hypophysial (neurosecretory) tract on the photoperiodic testicular response. Birds were captured

Fred E. Wilson; G. Roger Hands

1968-01-01

24

The Thyroid and the Hypothalamus–Pituitary–Ovarian Axis in American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompted by evidence of a linkage between the thyroid gland and seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we measured circulating T4(L-thyroxine), hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone, variant I), pituitary and plasma LH (luteinizing hormone), and ovarian mass in euthyroid females moved from short to long days. Our purpose was to correlate temporal changes in T4and cGnRH-I

Bryan D. Reinert; Fred E. Wilson

1996-01-01

25

Effect of Arsenic on Growth, Arsenic Uptake, Distribution of Nutrient Elements and Thiols in Seedlings of Wrightia arborea (Dennst.) Mabb.  

PubMed

Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of arsenic on seedlings of Wrightia arborea and Holoptelea integrifolia. Results revealed that W. arborea could tolerate much higher arsenic concentration than H. integrifolia. Therefore, further investigations were focused on W. arborea using higher arsenic concentrations (0.2-2.0 mM). Seedlings of W. arborea accumulated about 312-2147 and 1048-5688 mg/kg dry weight of arsenic in shoots and roots, respectively, following treatments with 0.2-1.5 mM of arsenic without exhibiting arsenic toxicity signs. However, arsenic at 2.0 mM caused decline in growth. Macronutrients content such as Ca, S (except at 2.0 mM), and K (only in root) increased while Mg, P, and K (shoot) decreased by arsenic treatments. However, the content of micronutrients was enhanced under arsenic treatments. Non-protein thiols (NP-SH) showed positive correlations with arsenic doses up to 0.2-1.5 mM but at 2.0 mM there was a decline in NP-SH thus suggesting important role of NP-SH in imparting arsenic tolerance. This study demonstrated that W. arborea that could tolerate arsenic concentrations up to 0.2-1.5 mM may be useful in arsenic phytoremediation programs. PMID:25237723

Kumar, Dharmendra; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar

2015-01-01

26

Micropropagation of Sterculia urens Roxb. - an endangered tree species.  

PubMed

An in vitro procedure for large scale multiplication of Sterculia urens Roxb. (Gum Kadaya Tree) has been developed using cotyledonary node segments. An average of 4.0 shoots per node were obtained on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 2.0 mgl(-1) 6-benzyl amino-purine (BAP) within 21 days of initial culture. Upon subsequent subculture 16 shoots/node could be harvested every three weeks and upto three times. Sixty per cent of the shoots were successfully rooted. Rooted plantlets were transferred to plastic pots containing soil under mist house conditions before they were finally exposed to an external environment. Fifty seven per cent of the plantlets survived in nursery sheds. PMID:24178615

Purohit, S D; Dave, A

1996-05-01

27

Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Investigation of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. Stem  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation were carried out on the stem of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. The pharmacognostic analysis revealed total ash of 9.65%, water soluble ash of 48.0%, alcohol soluble extractive value of 13.0% and acid insoluble ash of 48.0%. The quantitative and qualitative analysis is very essential for identifying the compounds present in the medicinal plants. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, phenol, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, and alkaloid, while triterpenoid, anthraquinone and quinone were absent. The present paper deals with the standardization of its aerial part of plant on the basis of various pharmacognostic parameters. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this species. PMID:22736885

Sampathkumar, Subramanian; Ramakrishnan, N

2011-01-01

28

Ensifer meliloti is the preferred symbiont of Medicago arborea in eastern Morocco soils.  

PubMed

Polyphasic characterization of 61 bacteria isolated from root nodules of Medicago arborea (Medic tree) plants growing in 4 arid soils of the arid eastern area of Morocco was studied. All the isolates characterized were fast growers. The phenotypic, symbiotic, and cultural characteristics analyzed allowed the description of a broad physiological diversity among the isolates. The results obtained suggest that the phenotype of these rhizobia might have evolved to adapt to the local conditions. The genetic characterization consisted of an analysis of the rep-PCR (repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction) fingerprints and a PCR-based RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) of the 16S rDNA patterns. The diversity of the isolates was investigated by rep-PCR, giving a similarity of 62%, delineated into 3 clusters, 4 groups, and 6 subclusters. This wide diversity was also observed by a phenotypic approach, where the carbohydrate assimilation test was the most discriminating. The results show a relationship between rep-PCR fingerprinting and sugar assimilation, which are complementary in diversity investigation. The nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence from representative strains of each soil showed they are closely related to members of the genus Ensifer of the family Rhizobiaceae within the Alphaproteobacteria and shows the highest similitude values (99.93%/100%) with Ensifer meliloti LMG 6133(T) (X67222). Sequencing of the symbiotic nodC gene from 7 representative strains revealed they had 94.89% identity with the nodC sequence of the type strain E. meliloti LMG 6133(T) (EF428922). Therefore, the 61 M. arborea isolates from the 4 different soils have the same phylogenetic affiliation, which proves the restricted host specificity among M. arborea species. PMID:23898997

Guerrouj, Kamal; Pérez-Valera, Eduardo; Abdelmoumen, Hanaa; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Missbah El Idrissi, Mustapha

2013-08-01

29

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects.  

PubMed

Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100?g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32?mg and 102.85?mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8?mg Iron, and 121 and 325?mg phosphorus in 100?g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85?Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the water chestnut kernel, Trapa bispinosa are reported. In this paper, the recent reports on nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of Trapa bispinosa Roxb, as a medicinal and nutritional food, are reviewed. PMID:24669216

Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V H

2014-01-01

30

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects  

PubMed Central

Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100?g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32?mg and 102.85?mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8?mg Iron, and 121 and 325?mg phosphorus in 100?g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85?Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the water chestnut kernel, Trapa bispinosa are reported. In this paper, the recent reports on nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of Trapa bispinosa Roxb, as a medicinal and nutritional food, are reviewed. PMID:24669216

Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V. H.

2014-01-01

31

Corticosterone Treatment Has No Effect on Reproductive Hormones or Aggressive Behavior in Free-living Male Tree Sparrows, Spizella arborea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of corticosterone on plasma levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and luteinizing hormone) and territorial defense behavior in male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea. Birds receiving Silastic implants filled with corticosterone (B) had significantly higher plasma levels of B than control birds, which received empty implants, and exhibited pectoral muscle wastage and a decrease in body mass.

Lee B. Astheimer; William A. Buttemer; John C. Wingfield

2000-01-01

32

Use of the Harmonic Direction Finder to study the terrestrial habitats of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea)  

E-print Network

Use of the Harmonic Direction Finder to study the terrestrial habitats of the European tree frog of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea). The HDF is a portable scanning device originally de- veloped., 2000; Riley et al., 1996), reptiles (Engelstoft et al., 1998), frogs (Langkilde and Richards, 2002

Alvarez, Nadir

33

Comparison of habitat-isolation parameters in relation to fragmented distribution patterns in the tree frog ( Hyla arborea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution pattern of the tree frog (Hyla arborea) in an intensively used agricultural landscape in Zealand Flanders, was analyzed for effects of habitat fragmentation. The logistic regression models showed that the chance that a pond (potential reproduction site) was occupied by tree frogs depended on three isolation factors. The density of ponds within 750 m of the occupied pond

Claire C. Vos; Anton H. P. Stumpel

1996-01-01

34

Comparison of habitat-isolation parameters in relation to fragmented distribution patterns in the tree frog (Hyla arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution pattern of the tree frog (Hyla arborea) in an intensively used agricultural landscape in Zealand Flanders, was analyzed for effects of habitat fragmentation. The logistic regression models showed at a pond (potential reproduction site) was occupied by tree frogs depended on three isola- tion factors. The density of ponds within 750 m of the occupied pond was higher

Claire C; Anton H. P. Stumpel

1995-01-01

35

Time of thyroidectomy variably affects seasonality in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were injected with Na131I before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation in order to study the effect of time of thyroidectomy on three components of seasonality: thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt. Thyroidectomy before or at the onset of photostimulation abolished all components of seasonality; birds exhibited only minor thyroid-independent photoperiodic ovarian growth. Thyroidectomy on day 7 of photostimulation blocked the transition from photosensitivity to photorefractoriness; although birds showed thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, they neither exhibited ovarian regression nor initiated postnuptial molt. Thyroidectomy on day 14, 21, or 28 of photostimulation had no remarkable effect on any component of seasonality. We conclude that separate mechanisms control photoperiodic ovarian growth and photorefractoriness/molt and that, early during photostimulation, the thyroid has a codependent role in programming female tree sparrows for vernal as well as autumnal seasonal events. PMID:10336830

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1999-06-01

36

Thyroid Dysfunction and Thyroxine-Dependent Programming of Photoinduced Ovarian Growth in American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time course of thyroid dysfunction after injecting 0.30 mCi Na131I was charted in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) transferred to long days on Day 0 and challenged with 30 ?g bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone on Postinjection Days 4, 7, 46, and 105. Serum T4(L-thyroxine) was not detectable in thyroidectomized birds, indicating complete thyroid dysfunction by Day 4 and no

Bryan D. Reinert; Fred E. Wilson

1996-01-01

37

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits  

PubMed Central

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100–200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

2011-01-01

38

Sterculia villosa Roxb — A potential source of wood-fibre for pulp and paper making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterculia Villosa Roxb, is one of the fast-growing plant species abundantly available in the North Eastern Region of India. It is a medium-sized tree with grey bark about 2.50–2.65 cm thick in the mature plant. A full-grown tree attains a height of about 15–18 metres with a girth about 1.4–1.6 metres. The average wood fibre length is 1.2 mm. A

S. R. Ghosh; P. P. Baruah

1997-01-01

39

Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group).  

PubMed

We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). PMID:22652054

Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas

2012-10-01

40

Effects of intensity and frequency of crown damage on resprouting of Erica arborea L. (Ericaceae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A clipping experiment was conducted to analyse the effects of intensity and frequency of crown damage on compensatory responses by resprouting in the shrub species Erica arborea. Increased sprout removal (crown damage intensity) promoted recruitment and increased the total dry weight of new sprout cohorts. Mean size (diameter) of new sprout cohorts was greater under increased intensity of crown damage, although no differences in size variability (CV) were obtained. Increased crown damage events stimulated recruitment of new sprouts, but had no effect on their total dry weight and reduced their mean size. Increased intensity and frequency of crown damage also promoted growth (RGR) of uncut sprouts according to local position on the lignotuber. The results show that qualitatively different compensatory responses can be obtained depending on the modular structure of the genet and the frequency and intensity of crown damage. They also suggest that competition for underground resources might be important for explaining the interactions among sprouts within the genet. Modular behavior in resprouting species under extreme disturbance regimes (e.g. heavy grazing after fire) is also expected to have a negative effect on overall genet growth and reproduction.

Riba, Miquel

1998-02-01

41

In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (Asteraceae) Baker  

PubMed Central

The search for new immunopharmacological chemical agents to treat various diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, such as leishmaniasis, for example, has led to the exploration of potential products from plant species and their main active ingredients. Antimonial drugs are the current treatment for leishmaniasis. These drugs cause major side effects and frequent discontinuation of treatment. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (VAEO) and its major compound ?-bisabolol against Leishmania amazonensis. The essential oil and ?-bisabolol showed activity against promastigotes (IC50 7.35 and 4.95??g/mL resp.) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 12.58 and 10.70??g/mL, resp.). Neither product showed any cytotoxicity on treated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis of promastigotes incubated with VAEO or ?-bisabolol at 30??g/mL, showed morphological changes with the accumulation of vesicles electrodense lipid inclusions. The results give evidence that both VAEO and ?-bisabolol have potential as new therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis. PMID:23935675

Colares, Aracélio Viana; Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

2013-01-01

42

Sex-chromosome differentiation parallels postglacial range expansion in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea).  

PubMed

Occasional XY recombination is a proposed explanation for the sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs. Numerous laboratory crosses, however, failed to detect any event of male recombination, and a detailed survey of NW-European Hyla arborea populations identified male-specific alleles at sex-linked loci, pointing to the absence of XY recombination in their recent history. Here, we address this paradox in a phylogeographic framework by genotyping sex-linked microsatellite markers in populations and sibships from the entire species range. Contrasting with postglacial populations of NW Europe, which display complete absence of XY recombination and strong sex-chromosome differentiation, refugial populations of the southern Balkans and Adriatic coast show limited XY recombination and large overlaps in allele frequencies. Geographically and historically intermediate populations of the Pannonian Basin show intermediate patterns of XY differentiation. Even in populations where X and Y occasionally recombine, the genetic diversity of Y haplotypes is reduced below the levels expected from the fourfold drop in copy numbers. This study is the first in which X and Y haplotypes could be phased over the distribution range in a species with homomorphic sex chromosomes; it shows that XY-recombination patterns may differ strikingly between conspecific populations, and that recombination arrest may evolve rapidly (<5000 generations). PMID:25209463

Dufresnes, Christophe; Bertholet, Youna; Wassef, Jérôme; Ghali, Karim; Savary, Romain; Pasteur, Baptiste; Brelsford, Alan; Rozenblut-Ko?cisty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-12-01

43

Extraocular control of seasonal reproduction in female tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

The work reported here explored extraocular control of seasonal reproduction in a photoperiodic species. Photosensitive female tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were subjected to bilateral or unilateral ocular enucleation or to sham operation and exposed to a photoregimen designed to stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, to induce photorefractoriness, and to restore photosensitivity. As revealed by plasma LH profiles constructed from measurements taken over 181 days, neither bilateral nor unilateral ocular enucleation had a substantive effect on photoinduced LH release, on the development of photorefractoriness, or on the recovery of photosensitivity. In a related experiment, photorefractory sighted females were implanted epicranially with miniature self-powered lights (SPLs) or with non-emitting helium blanks (HBs) and transferred to short days. After 8 weeks, SPLs and HBs were removed, and birds were challenged with long days. As indicated by plasma LH and ovarian responses to the challenge, previously HB-implanted birds had regained photosensitivity, but previously SPL-implanted birds remained photorefractory. When interpreted within the context of the effects of blinding, these findings suggest that an extraocular encephalic mechanism maintains photorefractoriness. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that photoinduced LH release and the biannual transitions between photosensitivity and photorefractoriness are controlled by an extraocular mechanism(s). PMID:2338219

Wilson, F E

1990-03-01

44

The thyroid and the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Prompted by evidence of a linkage between the thyroid gland and seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we measured circulating T4 (L-thyroxine), hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone, variant I), pituitary and plasma LH (luteinizing hormone), and ovarian mass in euthyroid females moved from short to long days. Our purpose was to correlate temporal changes in T4 and cGnRH-I with each other and with pituitary and plasma LH and ovarian mass. T4 increased early during photostimulation and peaked at Week 1 or 2 on 20L:4D (20 hr light:4 hr dark per day). Hypothalamic cGnRH-I also increased during photostimulation and peaked between Weeks 2 and 4. Pituitary and plasma LH peaked at Weeks 4 and 1, respectively, and ovarian mass increased significantly by Week 6. In a separate study, we charted the progression of postnuptial molt. Molt of the primary remiges began at Week 9, proceeded rapidly through Week 15, and was complete by Week 18. In view of a demonstrated role for the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in female tree sparrows and the time-dependent effects of thyroidectomy after photostimulation in male tree sparrows, the observation that circulating T4 increases early during photostimulation suggests the possibility of a causal relationship between the thyroid gland and the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, hence a thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:8812334

Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

1996-07-01

45

Topical Antinociceptive Effect of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker on Acute Corneal Pain in Mice  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess the possible topical antinociceptive activity of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker essential oil (EOVA) and to clarify the underlying mechanism, using the acute model of chemical (eye wiping) nociception in mice. EOVA (25 to 200?mg/kg; p.o. and topical) evidenced significant antinociception against chemogenic pain in the test model of formalin-induced neuroinflammatory pain. Local application of 5?M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye produced a significant nociceptive behavior, characterized by eye wiping. The number of eye wipes was counted during the first 30?s. EOVA (25, 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg; p.o. and topical) significantly decreased the number of eye wipes. Naloxone, yohimbine, L-NAME, theophylline, glibenclamide, and ruthenium red had no effect on the antinociceptive effect of EOVA. However, ondansetron, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA), capsazepine, prazosin, and atropine prevented the antinociception induced by EOVA. These results indicate the topical antinociceptive effect of EOVA and showed that 5-HT, ?1, TRPV1, and central muscarinic receptors might be involved in the antinociceptive effect of EOVA in the acute corneal model of pain in mice. PMID:24660017

Inocêncio Leite, Laura Hévila; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Silva Coutinho, Thales; de Sousa, Severino Denício Gonçalves; Sampaio, Renata Souza; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Campos, Adriana Rolim

2014-01-01

46

Conservation phylogeography: does historical diversity contribute to regional vulnerability in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea)?  

PubMed

Documenting and preserving the genetic diversity of populations, which conditions their long-term survival, have become a major issue in conservation biology. The loss of diversity often documented in declining populations is usually assumed to result from human disturbances; however, historical biogeographic events, otherwise known to strongly impact diversity, are rarely considered in this context. We apply a multilocus phylogeographic study to investigate the late-Quaternary history of a tree frog (Hyla arborea) with declining populations in the northern and western part of its distribution range. Mitochondrial and nuclear polymorphisms reveal high genetic diversity in the Balkan Peninsula, with a spatial structure moulded by the last glaciations. While two of the main refugial lineages remained limited to the Balkans (Adriatic coast, southern Balkans), a third one expanded to recolonize Northern and Western Europe, loosing much of its diversity in the process. Our findings show that mobile and a priori homogeneous taxa may also display substructure within glacial refugia ('refugia within refugia') and emphasize the importance of the Balkans as a major European biodiversity centre. Moreover, the distribution of diversity roughly coincides with regional conservation situations, consistent with the idea that historically impoverished genetic diversity may interact with anthropogenic disturbances, and increase the vulnerability of populations. Phylogeographic models seem important to fully appreciate the risks of local declines and inform conservation strategies. PMID:24102652

Dufresnes, Christophe; Wassef, Jérôme; Ghali, Karim; Brelsford, Alan; Stöck, Matthias; Lymberakis, Petros; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka; Perrin, Nicolas

2013-11-01

47

The thyroid and photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

To explore the role of the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), the effects of (1) thyroxine administered in drinking water to thyroid-intact photosensitive or photorefractory birds, and (2) radiothyroidectomy before and after photostimulation and during photorefractoriness were examined. Chronic administration of pharmacological doses of thyroxine induced testicular growth and usually regression in initially photosensitive birds held on short or intermediate daylengths. Some thyroxine-treated birds with regressed testes were absolutely photorefractory, but most remained photosensitive. Exogenous thyroxine never induced testicular growth in photorefractory birds moved to short days, though it often impeded, and sometimes even blocked, the recovery of photosensitivity. Although circumstantial, these effects of exogenous thyroxine are consistent with an hypothesis that assigns to thyroid hormones two roles--one stimulatory and the other inhibitory--in the control of seasonal reproduction. Radiothyroidectomy before photostimulation inhibited (but did not prevent) photoinduced testicular growth, blocked spontaneous testicular regression, suppressed molt, and prevented photorefractoriness. Moreover, as demonstrated by testicular growth after thyroxine replacement therapy, radiothyroidectomy during photorefractoriness later restored photosensitivity despite continued photostimulation. Thus, euthyroidism is an essential condition for maximizing (but not for initiating) photoinduced testicular growth and for triggering and maintaining photorefractoriness in photostimulated tree sparrows. However, when performed early during photostimulation, radiothyroidectomy neither immediately induced nor later blocked spontaneous testicular regression. Thus, endogenous thyroid hormones and long days may interact during a critical period to program a sequence of physiological events that plays out as photorefractoriness in chronically photostimulated birds. Such an organizational event cannot be permanent, for seasonal reproduction is episodic and its control mechanism necessarily cyclic. Because thyroidectomy simulated the well-known restorative effect of short days (and exogenous thyroxine impeded it), short days may dissipate photorefractoriness by creating a milieu wherein thyroid hormones are deficient or inactive. PMID:8151015

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1993-01-01

48

Isolation and identification of new phytoconstituents from the fruit extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb.  

PubMed

The fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) (large cardamom), cultivated in the northern Himalayas, are used to treat stomach disorders, pulmonary diseases and liver complaints. Phytochemical investigation of the fruits led to the isolation of four new chemical compounds characterised as geranil-3(10)-en-9-olyl octadec-9-enoate, geranil-3(10)-en-9-carboxyl-?-D-arabinopyranoside, geranilan-9-carboxy-?-L-arabinopyranoside and stigmast-5-en-3?-ol-3?-D-arabinopyranosyl-2'-(3?-methoxy) benzoate-3'-octadec-9?,12?,15?-trienoate, along with the known compounds oleodilinolein and glyceryl trilinoleniate on the basis of spectral data analysis. PMID:24274834

Kumar, Gopal; Chauhan, Baby; Ali, Mohammed

2014-01-01

49

An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.  

PubMed

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, anti steroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa. PMID:22409913

Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Dixit, Vinod K

2012-03-01

50

Uptake of CeO2 nanoparticles and its effect on growth of Medicago arborea In vitro plantlets.  

PubMed

The present study analyzes some effects of nano-CeO2 particles on the growth of in vitro plantlets of Medicago arborea when the nanoceria was added to the culture medium. Various concentrations of nano-CeO2 and bulk ceric oxide particles in suspension form were introduced to the agar culture medium to compare the effects of nanoceria versus ceric oxide bulk material. Germination rate and shoot dry weight were not affected by the addition of ceric oxide to the culture media. Furthermore, no effects were observed on chlorophyll content (single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) measurements) due to the presence of either nano- or micro-CeO2 in the culture medium. When low concentrations of nanoceria were added to the medium, the number of trifoliate leaves and the root length increased but the root dry weight decreased. Also the values of maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F m) showed a significant decrease. Dark-adapted minimum fluorescence (F 0) significantly increased in the presence of 200 mg L(-1) nanoceria and 400 mg L(-1) bulk material. Root tissues were more sensitive to nanoceria than were the shoots at lower concentrations of nanoceria. A stress effect was observed on M. arborea plantlets due to cerium uptake. PMID:25104098

Gomez-Garay, Aranzazu; Pintos, Beatriz; Manzanera, Jose Antonio; Lobo, Carmen; Villalobos, Nieves; Martín, Luisa

2014-10-01

51

Range-Wide Sex-Chromosome Sequence Similarity Supports Occasional XY Recombination in European Tree Frogs (Hyla arborea)  

PubMed Central

In contrast with mammals and birds, most poikilothermic vertebrates feature structurally undifferentiated sex chromosomes, which may result either from frequent turnovers, or from occasional events of XY recombination. The latter mechanism was recently suggested to be responsible for sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea). However, no single case of male recombination has been identified in large-scale laboratory crosses, and populations from NW Europe consistently display sex-specific allelic frequencies with male-diagnostic alleles, suggesting the absence of recombination in their recent history. To address this apparent paradox, we extended the phylogeographic scope of investigations, by analyzing the sequences of three sex-linked markers throughout the whole species distribution. Refugial populations (southern Balkans and Adriatic coast) show a mix of X and Y alleles in haplotypic networks, and no more within-individual pairwise nucleotide differences in males than in females, testifying to recurrent XY recombination. In contrast, populations of NW Europe, which originated from a recent postglacial expansion, show a clear pattern of XY differentiation; the X and Y gametologs of the sex-linked gene Med15 present different alleles, likely fixed by drift on the front wave of expansions, and kept differentiated since. Our results support the view that sex-chromosome homomorphy in H. arborea is maintained by occasional or historical events of recombination; whether the frequency of these events indeed differs between populations remains to be clarified. PMID:24892652

Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-01-01

52

Drought impact on water use efficiency and intra-annual density fluctuations in Erica arborea on Elba (Italy).  

PubMed

Erica arborea (L) is a widespread Mediterranean species, able to cope with water stress and colonize semiarid environments. The eco-physiological plasticity of this species was evaluated by studying plants growing at two sites with different soil moistures on the island of Elba (Italy), through dendrochronological, wood-anatomical analyses and stable isotopes measurements. Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) were abundant in tree rings, and were identified as the key parameter to understand site-specific plant responses to water stress. Our findings showed that the formation of IADFs is mainly related to the high temperature, precipitation patterns and probably to soil water availability, which differs at the selected study sites. The recorded increase in the (13) C-derived intrinsic water use efficiency at the IADFs level was linked to reduced water loss rather than to increasing C assimilation. The variation in vessel size and the different absolute values of ?(18) O among trees growing at the two study sites underlined possible differences in stomatal control of water loss and possible differences in sources of water uptake. This approach not only helped monitor seasonal environmental differences through tree-ring width, but also added valuable information on E.?arborea responses to drought and their ecological implications for Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. PMID:23848555

Battipaglia, Giovanna; DE Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Saurer, Matthias; Aronne, Giovanna; Linke, Petra; Cherubini, Paolo

2014-02-01

53

Range-wide sex-chromosome sequence similarity supports occasional XY recombination in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea).  

PubMed

In contrast with mammals and birds, most poikilothermic vertebrates feature structurally undifferentiated sex chromosomes, which may result either from frequent turnovers, or from occasional events of XY recombination. The latter mechanism was recently suggested to be responsible for sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea). However, no single case of male recombination has been identified in large-scale laboratory crosses, and populations from NW Europe consistently display sex-specific allelic frequencies with male-diagnostic alleles, suggesting the absence of recombination in their recent history. To address this apparent paradox, we extended the phylogeographic scope of investigations, by analyzing the sequences of three sex-linked markers throughout the whole species distribution. Refugial populations (southern Balkans and Adriatic coast) show a mix of X and Y alleles in haplotypic networks, and no more within-individual pairwise nucleotide differences in males than in females, testifying to recurrent XY recombination. In contrast, populations of NW Europe, which originated from a recent postglacial expansion, show a clear pattern of XY differentiation; the X and Y gametologs of the sex-linked gene Med15 present different alleles, likely fixed by drift on the front wave of expansions, and kept differentiated since. Our results support the view that sex-chromosome homomorphy in H. arborea is maintained by occasional or historical events of recombination; whether the frequency of these events indeed differs between populations remains to be clarified. PMID:24892652

Dufresnes, Christophe; Stöck, Matthias; Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-01-01

54

Vocalizations match auditory processing in the American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea), dark-eyed junco (Junco hyelmalis), and house finch (Carpodacous mexicanus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the auditory processing and vocalizations of the American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea), dark-eyed junco ( Junco hyelmalis), and house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) to determine the degree to which vocal signals and auditory systems match in these species. We used the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and the frequency following response (FFR) to determine the ABR auditory thresholds (the lowest

Lauren E Brierley

2011-01-01

55

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. in mice and on human neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. on cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in mice and the phagocytic effect on human neutrophils. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. at two dose levels of 250and 500 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 13 days to albino mice and cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg i.p.) was administered on 11th,12th, and 13th days, 1 hour after the administration of the respective treatment. On 14th day blood was collected and the hematological parameters were evaluated. The two extracts in the concentration range 100,50,25,12 and 6.25 ?g were also tested for phagocytic effect on human neutrophils using the in vitro models–nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye test, phagocytosis of Candida albicans, and chemotaxis assay. Results: Methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. showed significant counteracting effect (P < 0.01) to cyclophosphamide-induced reduction in total WBC, differential leucocyte count, platelet counts, RBC counts, and hemoglobin levels. The extracts of the plant in the concentration range 100,50,25,12, and 6.25 ?g also showed significant (P < 0.01) phagocytic effect on human neutrophils in the parameters studied. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. exhibited immunomodulatory property in both in vivo and in vitro models. PMID:23716887

Heroor, Sanjeev; Beknal, Arun Kumar; Mahurkar, Nitin

2013-01-01

56

Scaling Erica arborea transpiration from trees up to the stand using auxiliary micrometeorological information in a wax myrtle-tree heath cloud forest (La Gomera, Canary Islands).  

PubMed

We investigate evapotranspiration, sap flow and top soil water content variations in a wax myrtle-tree heath ('fayal-brezal' in Spanish) cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands) over a 1-year period. We provide transpiration estimates for one of the representative species, the shrubby needle-like Erica arborea L., present in this relict subtropical forest. An ad hoc tree up to the stand scaling method that combines the sap flow and auxiliary reference evapotranspiration data is illustrated, showing to be useful when sap flow in a limited number of trees has been monitored. Individual daily-based scaling curves of the Gompertz type were necessary to explain the observed sap flow variability in E. arborea during the 1-year period investigated (r(2)???0.953 with mode of r(2)?=?0.9999). The mean daily sap flow of an E. arborea individual amounted to 8.37?±?5.65 kg day(-1) tree(-1), with a maximum of 20.48 kg day(-1) tree(-1), yielding an annual total of 3052.89 kg tree(-1). A comparison of the computed daily transpiration with the continuous micrometeorological time series monitored in the studied plot suggested that solar radiation was the main driving force of transpiration in E. arborea (cross correlation index?=?0.94). Fog may also affect tree transpiration via its reduction of radiation and temperature, such that during foggy periods the mean daily water loss estimate of E. arborea was 5.35?±?4.30 kg day(-1) tree(-1), which sharply contrasted with the 2.4-fold average transpiration values obtained for fog-free days, i.e., 12.81?±?4.33 kg day(-1) tree(-1). The annual water balance rendered a 288 mm year(-1) water input to the forest and evidenced the need for accurately quantifying the contribution of fog water dripping from the canopy. PMID:24072518

Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

2013-09-01

57

Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines by Gmelina asiatica roots  

PubMed Central

Low risk of breast cancer has been proposed to be associated with high intake of lignans. We have reported the presence of lignans in Gmelina asiatica roots. There are no scientific reports on the antiproliferative activity of G. asiatica roots. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract from G. asiatica roots (EGAR) on estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of EGAR on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay kit. The mode of cell death caused by EGAR was determined using dual apoptosis assay kit by observing the cells under fluorescent microscope. The quantification of apoptosis and necrosis in cells caused by EGAR was determined using cell death detection kit through ELISA. Down-regulation of the proliferative activity occurred in a clear dose-dependent response with IC50 values of 32.9 ± 3.8 ?g/mL in MCF-7 and 19.9 ± 2.3 ?g/mL in MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Treatment of breast cancer cells with EGAR resulted in significant apoptosis. The EGAR contain lignans and flavonoids. The antiproliferative activity of the extract is attributed to the presence of these secondary metabolites. The results suggest the efficacy of G. asiatica roots as antiproliferative agents on human breast cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that plants containing lignans have beneficial effects on human breast cancer. PMID:21808551

Balijepalli, Madhu Katyayani; Tandra, Satyanarayana; Pichika, Mallikarjuna Rao

2010-01-01

58

Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)  

PubMed Central

Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

2013-01-01

59

Volatile analysis and antimicrobial screening of the parasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. from Nepal.  

PubMed

The essential oil from the parasitic vine Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., collected from Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From a total of 62 peaks, 61 compounds were identified in the oil, accounting for 99.6% of the oil. The majority of the essential oil was dominated by the relatively rare component cis-3-butyl-4-vinylcyclopentane (26.4%). The oil also contained substantial amounts of limonene (5.1%) and (E)-nerolidol (9.5%). Biological screening for antimicrobial activities did not show appreciable activity against either Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) or Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. However, marginal activity against Aspergillus niger was observed (minimum inhibitory concentration = 313 ?g/mL). PMID:24116676

Paudel, Prajwal; Satyal, Prabodh; Maharjan, Samjhana; Shrestha, Nawal; Setzer, William N

2014-01-01

60

Isolation and characterization of antioxidant and antibacterial compound from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome.  

PubMed

The chloroform extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome was subjected to antioxidant activity-guided purification by repeated silica gel column chromatography to obtain a pure antioxidant compound. The structure was deduced by analyzing UV, IR, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer spectroscopy (2D-HMQCT) NMR spectral data, and named it as "Amadannulen", a novel compound. It exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity, super oxide radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and metal chelating activity. Amadannulen also showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. It also exhibited bactericidal activity against M. luteus, B. cereus and B. subtilis. PMID:17223394

Policegoudra, R S; Abiraj, K; Channe Gowda, D; Aradhya, S M

2007-06-01

61

The emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea as the dominant infecting serovar following the summer of natural disasters in Queensland, Australia 2011.  

PubMed

The following research reports the emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea as the dominant infecting serovar following the summer of disasters and the ensuing clean up in Queensland, Australia during 2011. For the 12 month period (1 January to 31 December) L. borgpetersenii serovar Arborea accounted for over 49% of infections. In response to a flooding event public health officials need to issue community wide announcements warning the population about the dangers of leptospirosis and other water borne diseases. Communication with physicians working in the affected community should also be increased to update physicians with information such as clinical presentation of leptospirosis and other waterborne diseases. These recommendations will furnish public health officials with considerations for disease management when dealing with future disaster management programs. PMID:25134896

Wynwood, S J; Craig, S B; Graham, G C; Blair, B R; Burns, M A; Weier, S L; Collet, T A; McKay, D B

2014-06-01

62

Application of Plant Growth Regulators on the Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Teasle Gourd (Kakrol, Momordica dioica Roxb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted with a view to find out the possibility of inducing parthenocarpic fruit in teasle gourd (kakrol, Momodrica dioica Roxb.). The experiment was laid out at BSMRAU, Gazipur, Bang- ladesh during summer season of 2001 and 2002. Seven plant growth regulators (PGR's) viz. auxins (NAA: naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-D: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), cytokinins (CPPU: N-(2-chloro-4 pyridyl)-N' phenyl urea,

Mohammad Golam RASUL; Yasuhiro CHO; Yukio OZAKI; Hiroshi OKUBO

2008-01-01

63

Involvement of peroxidase activity in developing somatic embryos of Medicago arborea L. Identification of an isozyme peroxidase as biochemical marker of somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The legume Medicago arborea L. is very interesting as regards the regeneration of marginal arid soils. The problem is that it does not have a good germinative yield. It was therefore decided to regenerate via somatic embryogenesis and find a marker of embryogenic potential. In this study, peroxidase activity was evaluated in non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli from M. arborea L. A decrease in soluble peroxidase activity is observed in its embryonic calli at the time at which the somatic embryos begin to appear. This activity is always lower in embryonic calli than in non-embryonic ones (unlike what happens in the case of wall-bound peroxidases). These results suggest that peroxidases can be considered to be enzymes involved in somatic embryogenesis in M. arborea. In addition, isozyme analyses were carried out on protein extracts using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The band called P5 was detected only in embryogenic cultures at very early stages of development. This band was digested with trypsin and analyzed using linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometer. In P5 isoform a peroxidase-L-ascorbate peroxidase was identified. It can be used as a marker that allows the identification of embryological potential. PMID:24331422

Gallego, Piedad; Martin, Luisa; Blazquez, Antonio; Guerra, Hilario; Villalobos, Nieves

2014-01-15

64

Activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract against MRSA, MRCNS, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Temu kunci (Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.)) has a number of benefits and one of these is antibacterial. The rhizome is said to have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactocillus sp. and Candida albicans. The aim of the study is to test the antibacterial activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was assayed by the microdilution method using Mueller Hinton Broth with sterilized 96 round-bottomed microwells to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as to determine the time-kill activity. The MIC of the extract was 16 ppm for both Bacillus subtilis and MRSA; 8 ppm for both MSSA and Salmonella typhi and 4 ppm for MRCNS. Ethanol extract of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria and was the most potent against MRCNS, with MIC 4 ppm. The killing profile test of the extract displayed bactericidal activity at 8-16 ppm against MRSA, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi and bacteriostatic activity at 4 ppm towards MRCNS. PMID:24783777

Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Sunderam, Nethiyakalyani; Fidrianny, Irda

2014-01-01

65

Corticosterone treatment has no effect on reproductive hormones or aggressive behavior in free-living male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of corticosterone on plasma levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and luteinizing hormone) and territorial defense behavior in male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea. Birds receiving Silastic implants filled with corticosterone (B) had significantly higher plasma levels of B than control birds, which received empty implants, and exhibited pectoral muscle wastage and a decrease in body mass. We evaluated the hormonal and agonistic responses of the two implanted groups of birds using a simulated territorial intrusion (STI) 2 to 4 days after they were implanted. Corticosterone-treated and control birds did not differ in their circulating levels of reproductive hormones or in their behavioral responses to STI (latency to respond to intrusion, number of songs, and closest approach to a decoy and tape recording). Unlike previous studies of north temperate passerines, high physiological levels of exogenous B had no effect either on circulating levels of reproductive hormones or on territorial behaviors associated with breeding. Nonetheless, untreated tree sparrows do mount a robust adrenocortical response, having a two- to fourfold increase in plasma B levels during a 1-h period of capture. Thus, adrenocortical responsiveness is maintained in these birds, but elevated levels of glucocorticoids do not suppress reproductive hormones or associated behaviors. We believe that this hormonal and behavioral refractoriness to glucocorticoids-or uncoupling of the stress response from the reproductive axis-may be advantageous for species having extreme temporal constraints on their breeding schedules. PMID:10712856

Astheimer, L B; Buttemer, W A; Wingfield, J C

2000-02-01

66

A study on the extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in treatment of cyclophosphamide induced alopecia  

PubMed Central

Background Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Hair loss is one of the most feared side effects of chemotherapy. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. The effect of extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in testosterone induced alopecia was reported. Objective In the present study, the efficacies of the extracts of Cuscuta reflexa in promoting hair growth in cyclophosphamide-induced hair loss have been determined. Materials and methods The study was performed by treated with petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa at the dose 250 mg/kg in male swiss albino rats. Cyclophosphamide (125 mg/kg) was used to induce alopecia. Results Groups treated with extracts of plant showed hair regrowth. Histopathology and gross morphologic observations for hair regrowth at shaved sites revealed active follicular proliferation. Conclusions It concluded that extracts of Cuscuta reflexa shown to be capable of promoting follicular proliferation or preventing hair loss in cyclophosphamide-induced hair fall. PMID:24393240

2014-01-01

67

Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P<0.05) when compared with paralytic (7.33±0.206) and death time (18.60±0.229) of standard piperazine citrate at 100 mg/mL concentration. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents. PMID:24093785

Sreejith, M; Kannappan, N; Santhiagu, A; Mathew, Ajith P

2013-01-01

68

Induction of apoptosis in murine leukemia by diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa Roxb.  

PubMed

Diarylheptanoids, isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma comosa Roxb., have several biological activities including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation. The present study investigated the effect of five diarylheptanoids isolated from C. comosa rhizome on the proliferation of murine P388 leukemic cells. Compound-092, (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, bearing a catechol moiety, was the most potent diarylheptanoid (IC(50) of 4 ?M) in inhibiting P388 leukemic cell viability by causing DNA breakage and inducing apoptosis. Apoptotic cell death was characterized by the presence of chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA fragmentation, and externalization of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine. This compound increased caspase-3 activity about fivefold above the untreated control, decreased the intracellular reduced glutathione level, and impaired mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In the presence of Cu(II) ion, the compound exhibited a pro-oxidant activity causing DNA strand breakage and enhancing the anti-proliferative activity. The results provide evidence for the pro-oxidant activity of the diarylheptanoid bearing a catechol moiety in the induction of apoptosis in murine P388 leukemia. PMID:21766178

Jariyawat, Surawat; Thammapratip, Thanapol; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Nateewattana, Jintapat; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2011-12-01

69

Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Effects of Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. in Rats: Involvement of Enzyme Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. (BF) is traditionally used to manage male sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED). Methanol extract of BF (bark) inhibited Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK-II) enzyme activity in vitro with an IC50 of 20.29 ± 1.83??g/mL. The relaxant effect of methanol extract of BF (MEBF) was studied on phenylephrine precontracted corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) isolated from young rats. The effect of MEBF treatment on sexual behaviour of both young (5 month) and aged (24 month) rats was also studied in addition to the influence on smooth muscle, collagen (collagen-I and -III) level in penis, and sperm characteristics of young and aged rats. MEBF relaxed CCSM up to 21.77 ± 2.57% and increased sexual behavior of young and aged rats. This increase in sexual function could be attributed to ROCK-II inhibition and increase in ratio of smooth muscle to collagen level in rat penile tissue. Increased sperm production and decreased defective sperms in young and aged rats corroborate the usefulness of Butea frondosa in male infertility in addition to ED. PMID:24069061

Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Jamwal, Rohitash; Dethe, Shekhar

2013-01-01

70

Growth and mitochondrial respiration of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) germinated at low pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedlings were grown hypobarically to assess the effects of low pressure (21-24 kilopascals) on growth and mitochondrial respiration. Control seedlings grown at ambient pressure (101 kilopascals) were provided amounts of O2 equivalent to those provided experimental seedlings at reduced pressure to factor out responses to O2 concentration and to total pressure. Respiration was assayed using washed mitochondria, and was found to respond only to O2 concentration. Regardless of total pressure, seedlings grown at 2 millimoles O2 per liter had higher state 3 respiration rates and decreased percentages of alternative respiration compared to ambient (8.4 millimoles O2 per liter) controls. In contrast, seedling growth responded to total pressure but not to O2 concentration. Seedlings were significantly larger when grown under low pressure. While low O2 (2 millimoles O2 per liter) diminished growth at ambient pressure, growth at low pressure in the same oxygen concentration was enhanced. Respiratory development and growth of mungbean seedlings under low pressure is unimpaired whether oxygen or air is used as the chamber gas, and further, low pressure can improve growth under conditions of poor aeration.

Musgrave, M. E.; Gerth, W. A.; Scheld, H. W.; Strain, B. R.

1988-01-01

71

Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.  

PubMed

We investigated the vascular responses and the blood pressure reducing effects of different fractions obtained from the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. (F. Loranthaceae). By means of solvent-solvent extraction, L. ferrugineus methanol extract (LFME) was successively fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ability of these LFME fractions to relax vascular smooth muscle against phenylephrine (PE)- and KCl-induced contractions in isolated rat aortic rings was determined. In another set of experiments, LFME fractions were tested for blood pressure lowering activity in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g, 14-18 weeks). The n-butanol fraction of LFME (NBF-LFME) produced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PE- and KCl-induced aortic ring contractions compared to other fractions. Moreover, NBF-LFME had a significantly higher relaxant effect against PE- than against high K+-induced contractions. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, NBF-LFME significantly lowered blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner and with a relatively longer duration of action compared to the other fractions. HPLC, UV and IR spectra suggested the presence of terpenoid constituents in both LFME and NBF-LFME. Accordingly, we conclude that NBF-LFME is the most potent fraction producing a concentration-dependent relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and a dose-dependent blood pressure lowering activity in vivo. The cardiovascular effects of NBF-LFME are most likely attributable to its terpenoid content. PMID:20084331

Ameer, O Z; Salman, I M; Siddiqui, M J A; Yam, M F; Sriramaneni, R N; Sadikun, A; Ismail, Z; Shah, A M; Asmawi, M Z

2010-02-01

72

Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats  

PubMed Central

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels. PMID:22736884

Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

2011-01-01

73

Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

2014-11-01

74

Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from Frankia strains in root nodules of Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata.  

PubMed

To study the global diversity of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing Frankia strains, a rapid method was used to isolate DNA from these actinomycetes in root nodules. The procedure used involved dissecting the symbiont from nodule lobes; ascorbic acid was used to maintain plant phenolic compounds in the reduced state. Genes for the small-subunit rRNA (16S ribosomal DNA) were amplified by the PCR, and the amplicons were cycle sequenced. Less than 1 mg (fresh weight) of nodule tissue and fewer than 10 vesicle clusters could serve as the starting material for template preparation. Partial sequences were obtained from symbionts residing in nodules from Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata. The sequences obtained from Ceonothus griseus and P. tridentata nodules were identical to the sequence previously reported for the endophyte of Dryas drummondii. The sequences from Frankia strains in Coriaria arborea and Coriaria plumosa nodules were identical to one another and indicate a separate lineage for these strains. The Frankia strains in Discaria toumatou nodules yielded a unique sequence that places them in a lineage close to bacteria that infect members of the Elaeagnaceae. PMID:8702283

Benson, D R; Stephens, D W; Clawson, M L; Silvester, W B

1996-08-01

75

Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from Frankia strains in root nodules of Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata.  

PubMed Central

To study the global diversity of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing Frankia strains, a rapid method was used to isolate DNA from these actinomycetes in root nodules. The procedure used involved dissecting the symbiont from nodule lobes; ascorbic acid was used to maintain plant phenolic compounds in the reduced state. Genes for the small-subunit rRNA (16S ribosomal DNA) were amplified by the PCR, and the amplicons were cycle sequenced. Less than 1 mg (fresh weight) of nodule tissue and fewer than 10 vesicle clusters could serve as the starting material for template preparation. Partial sequences were obtained from symbionts residing in nodules from Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata. The sequences obtained from Ceonothus griseus and P. tridentata nodules were identical to the sequence previously reported for the endophyte of Dryas drummondii. The sequences from Frankia strains in Coriaria arborea and Coriaria plumosa nodules were identical to one another and indicate a separate lineage for these strains. The Frankia strains in Discaria toumatou nodules yielded a unique sequence that places them in a lineage close to bacteria that infect members of the Elaeagnaceae. PMID:8702283

Benson, D R; Stephens, D W; Clawson, M L; Silvester, W B

1996-01-01

76

Influence of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi, Rhizobium meliloti strains and PGPR inoculation on the growth of Medicago arborea used as model legume for re-vegetation and biological reactivation in a semi-arid mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicago arborea can be used for re-vegetationpurposes under semiarid conditions. These woody legumes have the ability toforman association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobial bacteria,which can be maximised by microorganisms producing certain stimulatingmetabolites acting as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The effectsof single and combined inoculations using microorganisms with different andinteractive metabolic capacities, namely three Glomusspecies, two Rhizobium meliloti

M. Valdenegro; J. M. Barea; R. Azcón

2001-01-01

77

Thyroid hormone acts centrally to programme photostimulated male american tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for vernal and autumnal components of seasonality.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone and long days interact to programme American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for seasonality (i.e. thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic gonadal growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial moult). This study explored in radiothyroidectomized (THX) males given thyroid hormone replacement therapy whether thyroid hormone acts within the brain and, additionally, the identity of the putative tissue-active thyroid hormone. The minimum dose (30 ng) of L-thyroxine (T4) that restored all components of seasonality when given i.c.v. daily during the first 21 days of photostimulation restored no component of seasonality when given s.c. The same dose of L-triiodothyronine (T3) also was ineffective when administered s.c., but restored photoperiodic testicular growth (though neither photorefractoriness nor postnuptial moult) when admiministered i.c.v. Three of seven birds given a 10-fold lower dose of T4 (3 ng) exhibited thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic testicular growth, albeit damped. The other four birds given 3 ng T4 and all birds given 3 ng T3 responded like THX controls, exhibiting only slight thyroid hormone-independent photoperiodic testicular growth. The highest dose (300 ng) of T3 restored all components of seasonality only when administered i.c.v. daily during the first 49 days of photostimulation. This demonstration in American tree sparrows is the first in any species that the thyroid-dependent transition from the breeding season to the non-breeding season can be effected by T3. The same dose of reverse T3 administered daily over the same 49 days restored photoperiodic testicular growth in only half of 10 subjects and photorefractoriness and moult in none. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that thyroid hormone acts centrally to programme photostimulated male American tree sparrows for all components of seasonality. The most parsimonious interpretation of the data, including the threshold-like effect of 3 ng T4, favours T4 as the tissue-active thyroid hormone for vernal as well as autumnal events, but does not entirely exclude T3. PMID:10692147

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

2000-01-01

78

Thyroid dysfunction and thyroxine-dependent programming of photoinduced ovarian growth in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

The time course of thyroid dysfunction after injecting 0.30 mCi Na131I was charted in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) transferred to long days on Day 0 and challenged with 30 micrograms bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone on Postinjection Days 4, 7, 46, and 105. Serum T4 (L-thyroxine) was not detectable in thyroidectomized birds, indicating complete thyroid dysfunction by Day 4 and no restoration of thyroid function by Day 105. By contrast, serum T4 concentrations in similarly challenged thyroid-intact controls greatly exceeded assay sensitivity. To determine whether a single injection of T4 can program thyroidectomized female tree sparrows for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt, as it can thyroidectomized male tree sparrows, thyroidectomized females were injected with T4 (100 micrograms) or alkaline vehicle (V) either on the first day of photostimulation or 1 week before photostimulation (during which time injected T4 likely was cleared metabolically). Females injected with T4 on the first day of photostimulation showed robust ovarian growth similar to that reported for photostimulated euthyroid females. Both groups of V-injected females, as well as females injected with T4 1 week before photostimulation, showed slow, but reliable, ovarian growth, indicating that thyroidectomized birds can detect an increase in day length. When birds were moved at Week 7.5 or 9 to constant light and given T4 in drinking water (a qualitative assay for absolute photorefractoriness), only one tested photorefractory and molted. The remaining birds, including those injected with T4 1 week before photostimulation and both groups of V-injected controls, tested photosensitive and did not molt. Taken together, these results indicate that T4, or one of its metabolites, programs thyroidectomized female tree sparrows for ovarian growth early during photostimulation. A single T4 injection (100 micrograms) on the first day of photostimulation usually also programs thyroidectomized male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and molt. Such an injection is far less effective in programming females for these two late-season events. PMID:8812336

Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

1996-07-01

79

Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.)  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR) amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550?bp) was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism. PMID:25538949

Adhikari, Sinchan; Saha, Soumen; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar

2014-01-01

80

Antioxidant capacity and amino acid analysis of Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. aerial parts.  

PubMed

Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. is a traditional food consumed as vegetable or pickle in arid regions of India and eaten during famines. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat diabetes, inflammation and etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties (DPPH, TEAC, TAA, FRAP, OH? and NO? radical scavenging activities) of the different extracts from aerial parts. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids of the extracts were also determined. The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models used. Methanol and water extracts had good total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity was correlated well with the amount of total phenolics present in the extracts. The extracts and its components may be used as an additive in food preparations and nutraceuticals. PMID:25328180

Maheshu, Vellingiri; Priyadarsini, Deivamarudhachalam Teepica; Sasikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam

2014-10-01

81

Antihyperlipidemic potential of Albizia amara (Roxb) Boiv. bark against Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic condition in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The plant Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. bark was used in traditional medical practices of India to treat cardiovascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to screen the potential of A. amara against the condition of hyperlipidemia in rats. Materials and Methods: The antihyperlipidemic activity of A. amara ethanolic extract (AAEE) was studied on Triton X-100 induced model of hyperlipidemia in rats. Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was evidenced by an enhancement in the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL) and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL). Results: AAEE showed significant antihyperlipidemic effect by lowering the serum levels of biochemical parameters such as a significant reduction in the level of serum cholesterol, TG (104.1 ± 3.39), LDL (48.2 ± 2.19), VLDL (20.81 ± 0.67) and increase in HDL (47.25 ± 2.05) level with an increase in a dose of AAEE (41.39 ± 1.24) < (47.25 ± 2.05), which was similar to the standard drug atorvastatin. The results of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase also revealed that the plant extract was found to be safe on liver. Histopathological evaluation also revealed the positive effect of the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phytoconstituents such as saponins, glycosides and tannins. The preliminary chemical constituents stood as a strong evidence for the study. Conclusion: Summing up the evidences of the pragmatic study, we can conclude that the extract of A. amara (Roxb.) Boiv. Bark aids in declining the condition of hyperlipidemia in rats. PMID:25276061

Gundamaraju, Rohit; Hwi, Kim Kah; Singla, Rajeev K.; Vemuri, Ravi Chandra; Mulapalli, Sartaj Banu

2014-01-01

82

Arsenic-induced root growth inhibition in mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is due to oxidative stress resulting from enhanced lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) toxicity and its biochemical effects have been mostly evaluated in ferns and a few higher plants. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the effect of As (10.0 and 50.0 ?M) on seedling growth, root anatomy, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde\\u000a and conjugated dienes), electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, root oxidizability and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). Arsenic

Harminder Pal Singh; Daizy R. Batish; Ravinder Kumar Kohli; Komal Arora

2007-01-01

83

Thyroid hormone-dependent seasonality in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea ): effects of GC1, a thyroid receptor ß-selective agonist, and of iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of TH in the control of seasonality [i.e., photoperiodic testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt] in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea), we performed experiments in which THX males were simultaneously photostimulated and given TH replacement therapy. In the first experiment, equimolar concentrations (1X=1.3 nmol) of T4, T3, or GC-1, an iodine-free TR? agonist, were administered

M. K. Mishra; F. E. Wilson; T. S. Scanlan; G. Chiellini

2004-01-01

84

In vitro zygotic embryo germination and propagation of an endangered Boswellia serrata Roxb., a source of boswellic acid.  

PubMed

This study aims to establish an efficient protocol for development of seedlings of an endangered medicinally important forest tree Boswellia serrata Roxb., for mass plantation and consistent supply of salai guggul. The green mature fruits served as source of seeds. The excised green zygotic embryos were cultured on Gamborg (B5), McCown and Loyd (WPM) and Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) media fortified with different concentration of sucrose and on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 3 % sucrose, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (0-300 mg l(-l)), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indoleacetic acid (IAA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), Indole-3-Butyric acid (IBA) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) or kinetin (Kin) individually. The highest frequency of embryo germination (96 %) and conversion into seedling was obtained on MS medium containing 3 % sucrose together with 200 mg l(-l) PVP; other media were either inferior or induced abnormalities in the seedlings including callus formation from the zygotic embryos. Fully developed seedlings could be successfully established in soil with about 94 % survival. The embryos from mature dry seeds did not respond for germination in any of the experiments. In conclusion, selection of zygotic embryo from green mature seeds and their in vitro germination is important for propagation of B. serrata. PMID:23572965

Ghorpade, Ravi P; Chopra, Arvind; Nikam, Tukaram D

2010-04-01

85

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of an aqueous extract from flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry.  

PubMed

A screening of 5 plants used for making drinks in Vietnam revealed a Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry flower bud extract to have the highest inhibitory activity against the alpha-glucosidase enzyme. The anti-hyperglycemic effects of an aqueous extract from flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (CO), a commonly used material for drink preparation in Vietnam, were therefore investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the CO extract inhibited the rat-intestinal maltase and sucrase activities, with IC50 values of 0.70 and 0.47 mg/ml, respectively. These values are lower than those for a guava leaf extract (GE; IC50 0.97 and 1.28 mg/ml, respectively). Postprandial blood glucose testing of normal mice and STZ-induced diabetic rats by maltose loading (2 g/kg body weight (bw)) showed that the blood glucose reduction with CO (500 mg/kg bw) was slightly less than that with acarbose (25 mg/kg bw) but was more potent than that with GE (500 mg/kg bw). In an 8-week experiment, the blood glucose level of STZ diabetic rats treated with 500 mg of CO/kg bw/day was markedly decreased in comparison with that of non-treated diabetic rats. Consequently, CO is considered to be a promising material for preventing and treating diabetes. PMID:17213665

Mai, Truong Tuyet; Chuyen, Nguyen Van

2007-01-01

86

In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from the rhizome of Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) against Candida albicans biofilms.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on Candida albicans biofilms at adherent, intermediate, and mature phase of growth. C. albicans biofilms were formed in flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The biofilms of C. albicans at different phases of development were exposed to xanthorrhizol at different concentrations (0.5 µg/mL-256 µg/mL) for 24 h. The metabolic activity of cells within the biofilms was quantified using the XTT reduction assay. Sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) were determined at 50% and 80% reduction in the biofilm OD??? compared to the control wells. The SMIC?? and SMIC?? of xanthorrhizol against 18 C. albicans biofilms were 4--16 µg/mL and 8--32 µg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the activity of xanthorrhizol in reducing C. albicans biofilms OD??? was dependent on the concentration and the phase of growth of biofilm. Xanthorrhizol at concentration of 8 µg/mL completely reduced in biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at adherent phase, whereas 32 µg/mL of xanthorrhizol reduced 87.95% and 67.48 % of biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at intermediate and mature phases, respectively. Xanthorrhizol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and therefore might have potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections. PMID:22969012

Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2013-07-01

87

A vacuolar antiporter is differentially regulated in leaves and roots of the halophytic wild rice Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka.  

PubMed

Vacuolar NHX-type antiporters play a role in Na(+)/K(+) uptake that contributes to growth, nutrition and development. Under salt/osmotic stress they mediate the vacuolar compartmentalization of K(+)/Na(+), thereby preventing toxic Na(+)K(+) ratios in the cytosol. Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka, a mangrove associate, is a distant wild relative of cultivated rice and is saline as well as submergence tolerant. A vacuolar NHX homolog isolated from a P. coarctata cDNA library (PcNHX1) shows 96 % identity (nucleotide level) to OsNHX1. Diurnal PcNHX1 expression in leaves was found to be largely unaltered, though damped by salinity. PcNHX1 promoter directed GUS expression is phloem-specific in leaves, stem and roots of transgenic plants in the absence of stress. Under NaCl stress, GUS expression was also seen in the epidermal and sub-epidermal layers (mesophyll, guard cells and trichomes) of leaves, root tip. The salinity in the rhizosphere of P. coarctata varies considerably due to diurnal/semi-diurnal tidal inundation. The diurnal expression of PcNHX1 in leaves and salinity induced expression in roots may have evolved in response to dynamic changes in salinity of in the P. coarctata rhizosphere. Despite high sequence conservation between OsNHX1 and PcNHX1, the distinctive expression pattern of PcNHX1 exemplifies how variation in expression is fine tuned to suit the halophytic growth habitat of a plant. PMID:25481774

Kizhakkedath, Praseetha; Jegadeeson, Vidya; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

2014-12-01

88

New Fore~.t 28: 227-243, 2004. i;) 2004 Kluwer Academic Puhlishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

. Diseases and insect pests of Gmelina arborea: real threats and real opportunities MJ. WINGFIELD'.' and D April 2003; accepted in revised fonn 10 December 2003 Ke:,.. words: Biological control, Clonal, which due to its drought toler- ance and excellent wood properties, is emerging as an importam

89

Within- and among-population impact of genetic erosion on adult fitness-related traits in the European tree frog Hyla arborea  

PubMed Central

Assessing in wild populations how fitness is impacted by inbreeding and genetic drift is a major goal for conservation biology. An approach to measure the detrimental effects of inbreeding on fitness is to estimate correlations between molecular variation and phenotypic performances within and among populations. Our study investigated the effect of individual multilocus heterozygosity on body size, body condition and reproductive investment of males (that is, chorus attendance) and females (that is, clutch mass and egg size) in both small fragmented and large non-fragmented populations of European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Because adult size and/or condition and reproductive investment are usually related, genetic erosion may have detrimental effects directly on reproductive investment, and also on individual body size and condition that in turn may affect reproductive investment. We confirmed that the reproductive investment was highly size-dependent for both sexes. Larger females invested more in offspring production, and larger males attended the chorus in the pond more often. Our results did not provide evidence for a decline in body size, condition and reproductive effort with decreased multilocus heterozygosity both within and among populations. We showed that the lack of heterozygosity–fitness correlations within populations probably resulted from low inbreeding levels (inferior to ca. 20% full-sib mating rate), even in the small fragmented populations. The detrimental effects of fixation load were either low in adults or hidden by environmental variation among populations. These findings will be useful to design specific management actions to improve population persistence. PMID:23250010

Luquet, E; Léna, J-P; David, P; Prunier, J; Joly, P; Lengagne, T; Perrin, N; Plénet, S

2013-01-01

90

Effect of withdrawing long days from male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): implications for understanding thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we withdrew thyroid hormones by thyroidectomy before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation and showed that male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) are programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by or before Week 3 on long days. In this corollary study, we withdrew long days before or after the control circuits had been programmed. After 1 day to 4 wk on long days, groups of thyroid-intact males were returned to short days until Week 7, when they were moved to constant light and evaluated for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt. Long-day controls held 7 wk on long days showed robust testicular growth through Week 6 and then spontaneous testicular regression. Testes of short-day controls and of males photostimulated for 1 day remained small. In all other groups, photostimulation induced testicular growth, which gave way to regression during exposure to short days. Long-day controls tested photorefractory at Week 7 and initiated molt by Week 10. All other groups tested photosensitive and did not molt. Our demonstration that long days are required for expression of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroid-intact male tree sparrows previously programmed for these events suggests that long days create a milieu that is permissive for expression. PMID:9472917

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1998-01-01

91

Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 ?g/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 ?g/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-? (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a TH1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of TH1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs. PMID:23109818

Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

2012-01-01

92

In vitro propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD analysis.  

PubMed

An efficient protocol for rapid in vitro clonal propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) genotype RSR/DR15 (female) and DR/NKB-28 (male) was developed through enhanced axillary shoot proliferation from nodal segments. Maximum shoot proliferation of 6.2 shoots per explant with 100 % shoot regeneration frequency was obtained from the female genotype on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium supplemented with 0.9??M N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate (CH). While from the male genotype the optimum shoot regeneration frequency (86.6 %) and 6.4 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.2??M BA. CH induced vigorous shoots, promoted callus formation, and proved inhibitory for shoot differentiation and shoot length, especially in explants from male genotype. Rooting was optimum on half-strength MS medium (male 92.8 %, female 74.6 %) containing 4.9??M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing a mixture of cocopit and perlite (1:1 ratio) and then to soil after 2-3 weeks. 84 % female and 81 % male regenerated plantlets survived and grew vigorously in the field. Genetic stability of the regenerated plants was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The amplification products were monomorphic in the in vitro propagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic integrity of in vitro propagated plants. This micropropagation procedure could be useful for raising genetically uniform planting material of known sex for commercial cultivation or build-up of plant material of a specific sex-type. PMID:23814442

Rai, Govind Kumar; Singh, Major; Rai, Neha Prakash; Bhardwaj, D R; Kumar, Sanjeev

2012-07-01

93

The photoperiodic control circuit in euthyroid American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) is already programmed for photorefractoriness by week 4 under long days.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to determine whether spontaneous testicular regression in male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) that were thyroidectomized at week 4 of photostimulation manifests photorefractoriness, as it does in chronically photostimulated euthyroid controls. On the basis of our demonstration that exogenous thyroxine stimulates the gonads only when recipient birds are photosensitive, male tree sparrows were thyroidectomized at week 4 of photostimulation (20 h light:4 h dark) and given thyroxine periodically to assay for photosensitivity. When initiated at weeks 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16 of photostimulation, thyroxine replacement therapy had no effect on testis size until week 16, when most recipient birds showed robust testicular growth. The inductive effect of exogenous thyroxine at week 16 confirms that chronic thyroidectomy dissipates photorefractoriness and simulates the effect of short days. The failure of replacement thyroxine to halt spontaneous testicular regression between week 7 and week 13 establishes that spontaneous testicular regression after thyroidectomy manifests photorefractoriness. Moreover, the failure of replacement thyroxine to induce testicular growth between week 4 and week 7 indicates that by week 4 of photostimulation, at least 3 weeks before photoinduced testicular growth ends, male tree sparrows are programmed for photorefractoriness. This conclusion is strengthened by the finding that thyroidectomy at week 4 of photostimulation does not uncouple photorefractoriness and postnuptial moult, which in euthyroid tree sparrows are tightly linked. In another experiment, photosensitive thyroid-intact tree sparrows were moved from 8 h light:16 h dark to 20 h light:4 h dark and given exogenous thyroxine or vehicle through week 6 of photostimulation. Exogenous thyroxine augmented testicular growth. PMID:7616501

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1995-03-01

94

Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer properties of the seed extracts of Syzygium fruticosum Roxb. growing in Rajshahi, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background The use of plants and their derived substances increases day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents owing to their versatile applications. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants having anticancer properties from plant origin since oxidants play a crucial role in developing various human diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Sygygium fruticosum (Roxb.) (abbreviated as SF). Methods The dried coarse powder of seeds of SF was exhaustively extracted with methanol and the resulting crude methanolic extract (CME) was successively fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate to get petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and lastly aqueous (AQF) fraction. The antioxidant activities were determined by several assays: total antioxidant capacity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The in vivo anticancer activity of SF was determined on Ehrlich’s Ascite cell (EAC) induced Swiss albino mice. Results All the extractives showed strong antioxidant activities related to the standard. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the fractions was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>PEF>CHF. The TAC of EAF at 320 ?g/mL was 2.60±0.005 which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of standard catechin (1.37 ± 0.005). The ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>AA>CHF>PEF. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of EAF was 4.85 ?g/mL, whereas that of BHT was 9.85 ?g/mL. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, the EAF showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 of 43.3 and 68.11 ?g/mL, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition assay was positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with both DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic contents of SF were also positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Based on antioxidant activity, EAF was selected for cytotoxic assay and it was found that EAF inhibited 67.36% (p < 0.01) cell growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg (ip) on day six of EAC cell incubation. Conclusions Our results suggest that EAF of seeds of SF possess significant antioxidant and moderate anticancer properties. Seeds of SF may therefore be a good source for natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement. PMID:23800021

2013-01-01

95

Quantitative determination of curcuminoids in Curcuma rhizomes and rapid differentiation of Curcuma domestica Val. and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The three major curcuminoids, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis-demethoxycurcumin, from Curcuma domestica Val. (Curcuma longa L.) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) were fully separated and quantified in less than 5 min using a capillary zone electrophoresis method with standard fused-silica capillaries and photodiode array detection. An electrolyte solution of 20 mM phosphate, 50 mM sodium hydroxide and 14 mM beta-cyclodextrin was found to be appropriate. Quantification was performed with 3,4-dimethoxy-trans-cinnamic acid as internal standard, and the limit of detection was 0.01 mg/mL. Extraction, stabilisation during sample storage and quantification procedures were optimised and carried out with drugs and commercial curry powder from different provenances. The results were compared with the photometric method of the monograph Curcumae xanthorrhizae rhizoma of the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:15202598

Lechtenberg, Matthias; Quandt, Bettina; Nahrstedt, Adolf

2004-01-01

96

NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines mediated protective effect of Indigofera caerulea Roxb. on CCl4 induced liver damage in rats.  

PubMed

Indigofera caerulea Roxb. is a well known shrub among native medical practitioners in folk medicine used for the treatment of jaundice, epilepsy, night blindness and snake bites. It is also reported to have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However its actual efficacy and hepatoprotective mechanism in particular is uncertain. Thus the present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of the methanolic extract of I. caerulea Roxb. leaves (MIL) and elucidation of its mode of action against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury in rats. HPLC analysis of MIL when carried out showed peaks close to standard ferulic acid and quercetin. Intragastric administration of MIL up to 2000mg/kgbw, didn't show any toxicity and mortality in acute toxicity studies. During "in-vivo" study, hepatic injury was established by intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 3ml/kgbw (30% CCl4 in olive oil; v/v) twice a week for 4weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, hepatoprotective activity of MIL assessed using two different doses (100 and 200mg/kgbw) showed that intra-gastric administration of MIL (200mg/kgbw) significantly attenuates liver injury. Investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that MIL treatment was capable of reducing inflammation by an antioxidant defense mechanism that blocks the activation of NF-?B as well as inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? and IL-1?. The results suggest that MIL has a significant hepatoprotective activity which might be due to the presence of phytochemicals namely analogues of ferulic acid and other phytochemicals which together may suppress the inflammatory signaling pathways and promote hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 intoxicated liver damage. PMID:25445959

Ponmari, Guruvaiah; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan; Lakshmi, P T V; Guruvayoorappan, C

2014-12-01

97

Influence of forage harvesting regimes on dynamics of biological dinitrogen fixation of a tropical woody legume.  

PubMed

Effects of three forage harvesting regimes-total removal of foliage and branches once (T-12) or twice a year (T-6) and 50% removal every 2 months (P-2)-on growth and biological dinitrogen fixation of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp were studied under subhumid tropical conditions in Guadeloupe, French Antilles. Gliricidia sepium was grown in association with the perennial C(4) grass Dichantium aristatum (Poir) C.E. Hubbard in a two-storied fodder production system. The medium-term effects of pruning on N(2) fixation were assessed by the (15)N natural abundance method. Gmelina arborea Roxb. was used as the non-fixing reference. The trees in the T-12 regime followed the natural phenological cycle, and flowering and podfilling at the beginning of the dry season reduced both foliage and nodule biomass. The T-6 regime impeded flowering, and only a few flowers, on older branches, were produced in the P-2 regime. In trees in the T-12, T-6, and P-2 regimes, fixed N comprised 54-87, 54-92, and 60-87%, respectively, of the total N in aboveground biomass, depending on sampling date. Total annual accumulation of N in harvestable aboveground biomass was highest in trees in the T-6 regime at 313 kg ha(-1), of which 204 kg ha(-1) of N was fixed from the atmosphere. In all treatments, about 70% of the N exported per year from the plot in the fodder harvest came from N(2) fixation. Thus, N(2) fixation makes an important contribution to the N economy of the G. sepium-D. aristatum forage production system, and greatly reduces the need for fertilizer application. PMID:12651525

Nygren, Pekka; Cruz, Pablo; Domenach, Anne Marie; Vaillant, Victor; Sierra, Jorge

2000-01-01

98

Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), ?-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and ?-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

2014-01-01

99

Biochemical characterization, stability studies and N-terminal sequence of a bi-functional inhibitor from Phaseolus aureus Roxb. (Mung bean).  

PubMed

Herein, we report the purification and biochemical characterization of a novel bi-functional protein proteinase/amylase inhibitor from the dietary leguminous pulse Phaseolus aureus Roxb. (Vigna radiata L.) by means of acetic acid precipitation, salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and affinity chromatography on trypsin-sepharose column. P. aureus inhibitor is a bi-functional inhibitor since it exhibits inhibitory activity towards trypsin-like and alpha-chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases as well as against alpha-amylases. It is a helix-rich protein (Mr 13,600) containing approximately eight tyrosines, one tryptophan and two cystines. N-terminal sequence alignment reveals no homology to other proteinase inhibitors reported from Phaseolus sp. thereby confirming that it is a novel inhibitor. Inhibitory activity measurements show that the inhibitor is quite stable even at extremely high temperatures and is only slightly affected by pH changes. Circular dichroism (CD) conformational studies revealed some changes in its near- as well as far-ultraviolet spectrum at extremes of pH and temperature. Treatments with trypsin for varying time periods did not alter its proteolytic inhibitory activity but caused some reduction in its amylase inhibitory activity. PMID:16005140

Haq, Soghra Khatun; Atif, Shaikh Muhammad; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

2005-12-01

100

Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activities of two closely related species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), ?-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and ?-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

Ibrahim, Halijah; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Syamsir, Devi Rosmy; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

2014-01-01

101

Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Organic Amendments to Enhance Growth of Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll. Arg. in Iron Ore Mine Wastelands.  

PubMed

Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. is a disturbance tolerant plant species with potential in mine wasteland reclamation. Our study aims at studying the phyto-extraction potential of M. peltata and determining plant-soil interaction factors effecting plant growth in iron ore mine spoils. Plants were grown in pure mine spoil and spoil amended with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Vermicompost (VC) along with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Rhizophagus irregularis. Pure and amended mine spoils were evaluated for nutrient status. Plant growth parameters and foliar nutrient contents were determined at the end of one year. FYM amendment in spoil significantly increased plant biomass compared to pure mine spoil and VC amended spoil. Foliar Fe accumulation was recorded highest (594.67?g/g) in pure spoil with no mortality but considerably affecting plant growth, thus proving to exhibit phyto-extraction potential. FYM and VC amendments reduced AM colonization (30.4% and 37% resp.) and plants showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency (-30.35 and -39.83 resp.). Soil pH and P levels and, foliar Fe accumulation are major factors determining plant growth in spoil. FYM amendment was found to be superior to VC as a spoil amendment for hastening plant growth and establishment in iron ore mine spoil. PMID:25495939

Rodrigues, Cassie R; Rodrigues, Bernard F

2015-01-01

102

Antihyperglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Extract and Its Active Compound Xanthorrhizol in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Xanthorrhizol, a natural compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Java turmeric), has been reported to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties; however, its effects on metabolic disorders remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of xanthorrhizol (XAN) and C. xanthorrhiza extract (CXE) with standardized XAN on hyperglycemia and inflammatory markers in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. Treatment with XAN (10 or 25?mg/kg/day) or CXE (50 or 100?mg/kg/day) significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in HFD-induced obese mice. XAN and CXE treatments also lowered insulin, glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), and triglyceride (TG) levels in serum. Epididymal fat pad and adipocyte size were decreased by high doses of XAN (26.6% and 20.1%) and CXE (25.8% and 22.5%), respectively. XAN and CXE treatment also suppressed the development of fatty liver by decreasing liver fat accumulation. Moreover, XAN and CXE significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue (27.8–82.7%), liver (43.9–84.7%), and muscle (65.2–92.5%). Overall, these results suggest that XAN and CXE, with their antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities, might be used as potent antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25053966

2014-01-01

103

Therapy with methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb and Ocimum sanctum Linn reverses dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in alloxan induced type I diabetic rat model.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (P. marsupium) and Ocimum sanctum Linn (O. sanctum) were prepared separately and then administered to both non-diabetic and alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats as a mixture of both at a dosage of 500mg/kg body weight, and its effect was checked on serum and tissue lipids together with corticosterone, estrogen and progesterone profile. Further, tissue load of metabolites (cholesterol), enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status together with lipid peroxidation levels and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage were also assessed. Results of the present study strongly support the possibility of this herbal combination in humans to meet the objective of achieving a holistic amelioration and cure of diabetes as, the herbal extract mixture of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous antioxidant levels to the pre diabetic status. Herbal preparations are ideal candidates of choice and in this context, the present combination of P. marsupium and O. sanctum provides compelling evidence for a holistic efficacy in amelioration of associated diabetic manifestations/dysregulations. PMID:21106356

Singh, Prem Kumar; Baxi, Darshee; Banerjee, Sudip; Ramachandran, A V

2012-07-01

104

Anti-inflammatory activity of compound D {(E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-ol} isolated from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.  

PubMed

Compound D, (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-ol, is one of many compounds found in the hexane extract of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The anti-inflammatory activity of compound D was assessed using various inflammatory models in comparison with aspirin, indomethacin and prednisolone. The results obtained showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of compound D mediated prominently on the acute phase of inflammation. It exerted marked inhibition on carrageenin-induced rat paw edema as well as on the exudate formation, leukocyte accumulation and prostaglandin biosynthesis in carrageenin-induced rat pleurisy. Compound D possessed only slight inhibition on both primary and secondary lesions of adjuvant-induced arthritis and had no effect on cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Compound D elicited analgesic activity when tested on acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice but had weak inhibitory activity on tail flick responding to radiant heat. Compound D possessed marked antipyretic effect when tested on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats. PMID:23195477

Panthong, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Niwatananant, W; Tuntiwachwuttikul, P; Reutrakul, V

1997-09-01

105

Micropropagation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent boswellic acid production in callus cultures of Boswellia serrata Roxb.  

PubMed

Micropropagation through cotyledonary and leaf node and boswellic acid production in stem callus of a woody medicinal endangered tree species Boswellia serrata Roxb. is reported. The response for shoots, roots and callus formation were varied in cotyledonary and leafy nodal explants from in vitro germinated seeds, if inoculated on Murshige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with cytokinins and auxins alone or together. A maximum of 8.0?±?0.1 shoots/cotyledonary node explant and 6.9?±?0.1 shoots/leafy node explants were produced in 91 and 88 % cultures respectively on medium with 2.5 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg?l(-1) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Shoots treated with 2.5 ?M IBA showed the highest average root number (4.5) and the highest percentage of rooting (89 %). Well rooted plantlets were acclimatized and 76.5 % of the plantlets showed survival upon transfer to field conditions. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the micropropagated plants compared with mother plant revealed true-to-type nature. The four major boswellic acid components in calluses raised from root, stem, cotyledon and leaf explants were analyzed using HPLC. The total content of four boswellic acid components was higher in stem callus obtained on MS with 15.0 ?M IAA, 5.0 ?M BA and 200 mg?l(-1) PVP. The protocol reported can be used for conservation and exploitation of in vitro production of medicinally important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory metabolites of B. serrata. PMID:24381442

Nikam, Tukaram D; Ghorpade, Ravi P; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Ahire, Mahendra L; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Chopra, Arvind

2013-01-01

106

Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection  

PubMed Central

Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

2014-01-01

107

Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1st, 4th, 8th, 14th, 17th, and 21st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. Statistics: The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. Conclusions: The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners. PMID:24812473

Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, S. D.

2014-01-01

108

Active compound of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. down-regulates the expression of genes involved in joint erosion in a human synovial fibroblast cell line.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the synovium. It is involved in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), resulting in joint inflammation and erosion. Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has long been used to reduce joint pain and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activities of an active compound of Z. cassumunar, (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol (compound D), against cytokine-induced up-regulation of catabolic genes involved in cartilage degradation in RA. Synovial fibroblast cell line, SW982, was cultured in media containing interleukin-1? (IL-1?), in the presence or absence of compound D at the concentration range of 1 to 100 µM. After 24 hours, the cells were analyzed for the expressions of MMPs, IL-1? and interleukin-1?-converting enzyme (ICE) by RT-PCR. MMPs activities in the culture media were analyzed by zymographic techniques. Dexamethasone was used as the positive control. It was found that compound D at the concentration of 10 - 100 µM significantly decreased the mRNA expressions of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -13 which was induced by IL-1? (P<0.05) concomitantly with a decrease in activities of these MMPs in the culture media. An increase in the mRNA expression of IL-1? and ICE was also suppressed by compound D. The results suggest that the potent activities of this compound may be involved in the reduction of IL-1? protein synthesis in both pro-form and active form which played an important role in up-regulation of MMPs. This study first revealed the chondroprotective activity of Z. cassumunar in the transcriptional level by suppressing cytokine-induced catabolic genes which caused cartilage erosion in RA. PMID:24082324

Chaiwongsa, Rujirek; Ongchai, Siriwan; Boonsing, Phorani; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Panthong, Ampai; Reutrakul, Vichai

2012-01-01

109

The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats  

PubMed Central

Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective.

Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

2014-01-01

110

A test of the hypothesis that T3 is the "seasonality" thyroid hormone in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): intracerebroventricular infusion of iopanoic acid, an inhibitor of T3 synthesis and degradation.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) is the bioactive "seasonality" thyroid hormone in American tree sparrows (Spizella (arborea). The experimental approach coupled thyroid hormone replacement therapy after radiothyroidectomy with photostimulation and intracerebroventricular infusion of iopanoic acid, an inhibitor of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine synthesis and degradation. Endpoints were testis length, molt score, and hypothalamic content of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1. The hypothesis predicts that thyroidectomized male tree sparrows moved to long days and given thyroxine in combination with iopanoic acid will lack L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and so will not express thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic testicular growth (a vernal component of seasonality) and photorefractoriness or postnuptial molt (autumnal components of seasonality). It further predicts that iopanoic acid will enhance the efficacy of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and so will facilitate the expression of seasonality in thyroidectomized males given L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine replacement therapy. Iopanoic acid had no significant effect on any component of seasonality in thyroid-intact males given vehicle, or in thyroidectomized males given thyroxine or L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine. Thyroid-intact males, as well as thyroidectomized males infused with thyroxine alone, commonly expressed all components of seasonality. Thyroidectomized males given L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine alone exhibited photoperiodic testicular growth, but did not become photorefractory or initiate molt. While these results confirm that thyroid hormone acts centrally to program American tree sparrows for seasonality, they do not support the hypothesis that L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine is the bioactive "seasonality" thyroid hormone, and they challenge the view that thyroxine is merely a prohormone. PMID:11302527

Wilson, F E

2001-03-01

111

Effects of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) replacement therapy on the programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroidectomized male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to long days.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that T3 (triiodothyronine) is the tissue-active "seasonality" hormone by determining whether T3 could mimic T4 (thyroxine) and program photostimulated thyroidectomized (THX) male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for three components of seasonality (i.e., full-blown testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt). Photosensitive males were radiothyroidectomized, transferred to long days 4 weeks later, and administered 14 daily injections (s.c.) of alkaline saline (V) containing 0.1, 1, or 10 micrograms T4 or T3. THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received only V. After 5 additional weeks on long days, all birds were tested for photosensitivity/photorefractoriness. Periodically during the experiment, primary flight feathers were scored for molt, and testis length was monitored by laparotomy. As an independent measure of reproductive (i.e., photosensitive vs. photorefractory) state, hypothalami collected at the end of the experiment were assayed for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content. Like THI controls, THX males administered 1 or 10 micrograms T4 exhibited full-blown testicular growth and then regression, initiated molt, and had low hypothalamic cGnRH-I, indicating that photostimulated birds that received mid- or high-dose T4 replacement therapy had been programmed for all three components of seasonality. On the other hand, both THX controls and THX males administered low-dose (0.1 microgram) T3 replacement therapy exhibited only modest testicular growth, signifying that neither group had been programmed for any component of seasonality. By contrast, photostimulated THX males that received 0.1 microgram T4, or 1 or 10 micrograms T3, were programmed for testicular growth, but not for photorefractoriness or molt. Collectively, these results show that subcutaneously administered T3 mimicked T4 imperfectly and suggest either that T3 does not program photostimulated male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt, or that T3 does not cross the blood-brain barrier as efficiently as does T4. PMID:9360316

Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

1997-11-01

112

Thyroid hormone-dependent seasonality in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): effects of GC-1, a thyroid receptor beta-selective agonist, and of iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor.  

PubMed

To explore the role of TH in the control of seasonality [i.e., photoperiodic testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt] in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we performed experiments in which THX males were simultaneously photostimulated and given TH replacement therapy. In the first experiment, equimolar concentrations (1X = 1.3 nmol) of T4, T3, or GC-1, an iodine-free TRbeta agonist, were administered s.c. daily during the first 21 days of photostimulation. Two additional THX groups received GC-1 at 0.1X or 10X, and THX and THI control groups received vehicle. In the second experiment, T4 or T3, alone or in combination with the deiodinase inhibitor IOP, was injected i.m. twice daily during the first 14 days of photostimulation. In both experiments, end points were testis length and molt score. In the first experiment, THI birds given vehicle and THX birds given T4 replacement therapy exhibited all three components of seasonality. THX birds given T3 or GC-1 (1X or 10X) showed a subdued photoperiodic testicular response, but they did not become photorefractory or initiate molt. THX birds that received 0.1X GC-1 or vehicle exhibited none of the components of seasonality. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that photoperiodic testicular growth, a vernal component of seasonality, is a TRbeta-mediated response and suggest that T4 may activate TRbeta more efficiently than does T3 or GC-1. By contrast, the failure both of T3 and of GC-1, but not of T4, to program photostimulated THX males for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt suggests that autumnal components of seasonality may be TRalpha-mediated responses solely to T4. In the second experiment, IOP administered alone had no significant impact on seasonality. THX birds that received T4 with or without IOP showed all components of seasonality, whereas birds that received T3 with or without IOP showed only photoperiodic testicular growth. These results challenge the widely held view that T4 is merely a prohormone for T3 and support the emerging view that T4 has intrinsic hormonal activity. Because IOP augmented the photoperiodic testicular response in T3-treated THX birds, T3 may act either independently or co-dependently with T4 in programming vernal seasonal events. PMID:15235810

Mishra, M K; Wilson, F E; Scanlan, T S; Chiellini, G

2004-08-01

113

Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.  

PubMed

Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. PMID:25462462

Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

2015-01-01

114

Germination and initial growth of tree seedlings on deforested and natural forest soil at Dulhazara, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The destruction of natural forest is increasing due to urbanization, industrialization, settlement and for the agricultural expansion over last few decades, and studies for their recovery need to be undertaken. With this aim, this comparative study was designed to see the effects of deforested soil on germination and growth performance of five different tree species. In the experiment, five species namely Gmelina arborea, Swietenia mahagoni, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Acacia auriculiformis and Syzygium grande were germinated for six weeks on seedbeds and raised in pots (25cm diameter, 30cm height), that were filled with two soil and type of land use: deforested and adjacent natural forest of Dulhazara Safari Park. Growth performance of seedling was observed up to 15 months based on height, collar diameter and biomass production at the end. Our results showed that the germination rate was almost similar in both type of land uses. Height growth of D. turbinatus, G. arborea and S. mahagoni seedlings was almost similar and A. auriculi formis and S. grande lower in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil, while collar diameter ofA. auriculi formis, G. arborea, S. grande and S. mahagoni lower and D. turbinatus similar in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. After uprooting at 19 months, S. mahagoni seedlings were showed significantly (p< or =0.05) higher oven dry biomass, D. turbinatus and A. auriculiformis higher, while G. arborea showed significantly (p< or =0.05) lower and S. grande almost similar oven dry biomass in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. Oven dry biomass of D. turbinatus seedlings at 19 month age in deforested soil was 21.96g (n=5) and in natural forest soil 18.86g (n=5). However, differences in germination rate and growth performance for different tree species indicated that soil are not too much deteriorated through deforestation at Dulhazara and without any failure such deforested lands would be possible to bring under forest through plantation. PMID:23342503

Hossain, M Mohitul

2012-12-01

115

In vitro propagation of Lagerstromia parviflora Roxb. from adult tree.  

PubMed

A micropropagation protocol based on axillary bud proliferation has been developed from mature Lagerstromia parviflora adult tree. Nodal segments cultured on woody plant medium supplemented with 5.0 microl. BAP and 0.25 microm IAA gave maximum (86.9%) morphogenetic response. Proliferated shoots (10.7 per explants) were elongated to 3.9 cm within 6 weeks. In vitro produced micro-shoots were subjected to an IBA treatment (500 ppm for 2 min. dip) and placed under misting conditions for rooting. Misting beds were prepared with sand: soil (3:1) for 80.6% rooting and was acclimatized. Shoot length seems to be important to induce adventitious roots. The highest (91.7%) rooting was recorded on shoots ranging a length between 3.1-4.0 cm. Rooted and hardened plants were later transferred to poly bags and maintained in shadenet house. The protocol has the realizes capacity to produce 260 plants from a single explants within 10 months multiplication cycle. PMID:12622186

Tiwari, S K; Kashyap, M K; Ujjaini, M M; Agrawal, A P

2002-02-01

116

Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb.  

PubMed

Extract of gum resin of B. serrata containing 60% acetyl 11-keto beta boswellic acid (AKBA) along with other constituents such as 11-keto beta-boswellic acid (KBA), acetyl beta-boswellic acid and beta-boswellic acid has been evaluated for antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing activity using passive paw anaphylaxis and compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mast cell methods. The extract inhibited the passive paw anaphylaxis reaction in rats in dose-dependant manner (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, po). However, the standard dexamethasone (0.27 mg/kg, po) revealed maximum inhibition of edema as compared to the extract. A significant inhibition in the compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mast cells in dose-dependant manner (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, po) was observed thus showing mast cell stabilizing activity. The standard disodium cromoglycate (50 mg/kg, ip) was found to demonstrate maximum per cent protection against degranulation as compared to the extract containing 60% AKBA. The results suggest promising antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing activity of the extract. PMID:15320503

Pungle, Pratibha; Banavalikar, M; Suthar, A; Biyani, M; Mengi, S

2003-12-01

117

Micropropagation of mature Chinese tallow tree ( Sapium sebiferum Roxb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro propagation technique based on axillary bud proliferation has been developed for matureSapium sebiferum trees. Nodal segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzyl adenine (1–10 µm and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (0–0.5 µm showed axillary bud proliferation. Shoots proliferated in vitro were multiplied on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.5 µm benzyl adenine and 0.25 µma-naphthaleneacetic

E. A. Siril; U. Dhar

1997-01-01

118

Chemical constituents of the leaf of Alpinia mutica Roxb.  

PubMed

Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of Alpinia mutica afforded 0.005% colourless essential oil. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 33 components accounting for 92.9% of the total oil, dominated by 20 sesquiterpenes (76.7%) and 10 monoterpenes (8.3%). The major constituent was found to be ?-sesquiphellandrene which was 29.2% of the total oil. Soxhlet extraction, followed by repeated column chromatography of the dried leaves yielded two phenolic compounds, identified as 5,6-dehydrokawain and aniba dimer A, together with one amide assigned as auranamide. The structures of these compounds were determined by using spectroscopic analysis. Antibacterial screening of the essential oil, the crude and isolated compounds showed weak to moderate inhibitory activity. PMID:22946537

Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Jani, Nor Akmalazura

2013-01-01

119

Kinetics of the Thermal Degradation of Erica Arborea by DSC: Hybrid Kinetic Method D. Cancellieri*  

E-print Network

inflammable species in Mediterrannean area. DSC curves showing two overlapped exothermic peaks (Exotherm 1. In a second time, a Model Free Method was applied on each isolated curve to determine the apparent activation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

Consequences of genetic erosion on fitness and phenotypic plasticity in European tree frog populations (Hyla arborea)  

E-print Network

Consequences of genetic erosion on fitness and phenotypic plasticity in European tree frog loss and fragmentation generally exhibit a reduced genetic diversity caused by restricted gene flow, genetic drift and inbreeding (Hedrick, 2001; Reed, 2005; Willi et al., 2006). As a consequence, genetic

Alvarez, Nadir

121

where mongooses do not occur (Swedberg, 1967). The West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea  

E-print Network

of Fauna of Curacao and Other Caribbean Islands 24:63-111. Johnsgard, P. A. 1978. Ducks, geese, and swans and Nat. Res. 56 pp. Voous, K. H. 1957. The birds of Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire. Studies of Fauna of Curacao and Other Caribbean Islands 7:1-260. ------. 1983. Birds of the Netherlands Antilles, De- walburg

Hedges, Blair

122

Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.  

PubMed

Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

Wilson, F E

1986-04-01

123

The Timing of Thyroid-Dependent Programming in Seasonally Breeding Male American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is convincing evidence that euthyroid male American tree sparrows are already programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by Week 4 of photostimulation. To explore more precisely when, during early photostimulation, thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal events occurs, photosensitive male tree sparrows were radiothyroidectomized or sham thyroidectomized on the first day of photostimulation (Week 0) or at Weeks 1 or

Fred E. Wilson; Bryan D. Reinert

1996-01-01

124

An androgen-independent mechanism maintains photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

A series of experiments was performed to clarify whether photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is maintained by an androgen-dependent mechanism. Castration did not raise plasma LH in photorefractory males held under a daily photoperiod of 20 h light:4 h darkness (20L:4D). Castrated photorefractory males were implanted with the antiandrogen cyproterone or injected s.c. with the antiandrogen flutamide to determine whether androgens which may be resistant to castration inhibit LH secretion. Neither cyproterone nor flutamide raised plasma LH above values found in castrated control birds. Castrated photorefractory males were treated with testosterone to determine whether plasma LH in photorefractory males is androgen-suppressible. Concentrations of plasma LH were independent of plasma testosterone over a wide range of concentrations. The lack of LH response to castration, to castration coupled with antiandrogen therapy, and to castration coupled with testosterone replacement argues that photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is maintained by an androgen-independent mechanism. PMID:4045352

Wilson, F E

1985-10-01

125

The timing of thyroid-dependent programming in seasonally breeding male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

There is convincing evidence that euthyroid male American tree sparrows are already programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by Week 4 of photostimulation. To explore more precisely when, during early photostimulation, thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal events occurs, photosensitive male tree sparrows were radiothyroidectomized or sham thyroidectomized on the first day of photostimulation (Week 0) or at Weeks 1 or 3 thereafter. Birds were monitored for testicular growth and regression over 8 or 12 weeks and then tested for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness by exposing them to constant light and exogenous L-thyroxine for 4 weeks. Molt of the primary flight feathers was scored periodically, and at the end of the experiment, hypothalami were saved for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) assay. Because (1) the thyroid is already dysfunctional by Day 4 after radiothyroidectomy, (2) thyroid-dependent photoinduced gonadal growth is programmed growth, and as demonstrated here, (3) testis length at Week 6 on long days (i.e., maximum or near-maximum testis size) is independent of the time of thyroidectomy at or after the onset of photostimulation, we conclude that male American tree sparrows were programmed for photoperiodic testicular growth during the first week of photostimulation. Based on measurements of testis length and hypothalamic cGnRH-I content, only 2 of 11 birds thyroidectomized at Week 1 were already programmed for photorefractoriness by Week 1, whereas all birds thyroidectomized at Week 3 were so programmed by Week 3. Marked differences in molt scores between photorefractory (thyroidectomized and euthyroid) and photosensitive (thyroidectomized) birds argue that postnuptial molt also was programmed roughly between Weeks 1 and 3. To explain these results, we ascribe organizational-like actions directly or indirectly to endogenous thyroid hormones and argue that the onset of photostimulation opens a window, during which time euthyroid male American tree sparrows are programmed for seasonality. A clear dissociation of photorefractoriness from photoperiodic testicular growth in birds thyroidectomized at Week 1 suggests that separate control circuits mediate these two annually periodic events. PMID:8812339

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1996-07-01

126

Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

2013-01-01

127

Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.  

PubMed

Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423

Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

2011-05-01

128

Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

2009-10-01

129

Testis-dependent and -independent effects of photoperiod on volumes of song control nuclei in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Songbirds exhibit seasonal changes in the volumes of song control nuclei. Birds on long, spring-like days have larger nuclei than do birds on short, winter-like days. The mechanisms mediating volumetric changes have not been determined unequivocally, but testosterone (T) is probably involved. This study examined whether testicular factors are uniquely responsible for seasonal changes in the song system, or whether photoperiod has testis-independent effects. Male American tree sparrows were exposed to one of three photoperiodic conditions: (1) Photosensitive birds were retained on short days (8L:16D). Plasma T is rarely detected in such birds. (2) Photosensitive birds were moved from short days to long days (20L:4D) and photostimulated for three weeks. Photostimulation elevates circulating T in photosensitive birds. (3) Photorefractory birds were held at least four months on 20L:4D. Such birds seldom have detectable levels of T, even though they are on long days. In each condition, there were both intact and castrated birds. Castration typically removes circulating T in tree sparrows. The volumes of the high vocal center (HVC), nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), and area X were measured. Song nuclei were largest in intact photostimulated birds. Other long-day birds (i.e. castrated photostimulated, and intact and castrated photorefractory groups) had larger song nuclei than did short-day intact or castrated photosensitive birds and did not differ from each other. These data indicate that photoperiod has both testis-dependent and -independent effects on the volumes of song control nuclei. PMID:9237531

Bernard, D J; Wilson, F E; Ball, G F

1997-06-20

130

Testis-dependent and -independent effects of photoperiod on volumes of song control nuclei in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Songbirds exhibit seasonal changes in the volumes of song control nuclei. Birds on long, spring-like days have larger nuclei than do birds on short, winter-like days. The mechanisms mediating volumetric changes have not been determined unequivocally, but testosterone (T) is probably involved. This study examined whether testicular factors are uniquely responsible for seasonal changes in the song system, or whether

Daniel J. Bernard; Fred E. Wilson; Gregory F. Ball

1997-01-01

131

Androgen feedback-dependent and -independent control of photoinduced LH secretion in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

Photoperiodic control of gonadotrophin secretion in male tree sparrows was studied by examining changes in plasma LH in castrated birds retained on short daylengths and in castrated birds transferred to long daylengths. Plasma LH concentrations were markedly higher in photostimulated birds than in non-photostimulated birds throughout the 25-day experiment, and implantation of the antiandrogen cyproterone (free alcohol), which should have blocked the action of castration-resistant androgens, did not increase plasma LH in either group. Such results, obtained from birds in which testosterone feedback was inoperative, indicate that the gonadostimulatory effect of long daylengths in intact males must be mediated, at least in part, by an androgen feedback-independent mechanism. To determine whether changes in testosterone feedback facilitate gonadotrophin secretion during photostimulation, two feedback performance characteristics (i.e. set point (minimum concentration of testosterone that suppresses plasma LH) and sensitivity (change in plasma LH per unit change in testosterone)) were quantified by evaluating plasma LH responses of non-photostimulated castrated birds and of photostimulated castrated birds to replacement testosterone (0-4.16 mumol). The data indicate that, in addition to stimulating LH secretion by an androgen feedback-independent mechanism, long daylengths reduce feedback inhibition of LH secretion by increasing the putative set point and decreasing the sensitivity of the testosterone feedback mechanism. The feedback-independent effect is the predominant effect of photostimulation on LH secretion in male tree sparrows. PMID:3989422

Wilson, F E

1985-04-01

132

A testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive triggers photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).  

PubMed

An experiment was performed to determine whether photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is triggered by a testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive or by a photoperiod-induced hypersensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to testosterone negative feedback. Photosensitive male tree sparrows were transferred from 8 h light:16 h darkness (8L:16D) to 20L:4D. Birds were castrated bilaterally on day 28 of photostimulation. Beginning on day 33 and weekly thereafter until day 54, birds were given replacement testosterone (0-1.49 mumol) in s.c. polydimethylsiloxane capsules. Plasma samples collected on days 36, 43, 50 and 57 were assayed for LH. Plasma LH concentrations in birds without replacement testosterone were regarded as reflecting net photoperiodic drive in the absence of testosterone feedback, and the slopes of curves relating the logarithm of plasma LH concentration to dose of replacement testosterone were taken as quantitative measures of testosterone feedback sensitivity. The results showed that a testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive beginning between days 43 and 50 preceded any change in sensitivity to testosterone negative feedback. Such results provide compelling evidence that a testosterone-independent mechanism triggers the photorefractory state in male tree sparrows. PMID:3701241

Wilson, F E

1986-04-01

133

The drive on luteinizing hormone secretion in castrated tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to short days is daylength independent.  

PubMed

For many, if not most, photoperiodic species of birds, short days are nongonadostimulatory. The tacit assumption that short days are also nonphotostimulatory was tested by determining whether plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) in castrated tree sparrows exposed to short daily photoperiods (8 hr or less) are daylength dependent or independent. Castration of tree sparrows held on an 8-hr daily photoperiod evoked, within 2 weeks, a fivefold elevation in plasma LH concentration. Over the next 24 weeks, plasma LH concentrations of castrated birds were resistant, first to a stepwise reduction in daylength from 8 to 2 hr and later to a 2-, 4-, or 6-hr increase therein. At no time did LH concentrations differ among castrated birds held on the same or different short-day photoregimes. Conversely, at all times, LH concentrations of castrated birds, regardless of photoperiodic history, exceeded those of intact males held on an 8-hr daily photoperiod and sampled at the beginning of the experiment. These data, which argue that the drive on LH secretion in castrated tree sparrows exposed to short days is daylength independent and, therefore, likely intrinsic, verify the tacit assumption that short days are nonphotostimulatory. PMID:2338227

Wilson, F E

1990-03-01

134

On the recovery of photosensitivity in two passerine species, American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) and Harris' sparrows (Zonotrichia querula).  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that a spontaneous increase in plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) signals recovery of photosensitivity in castrated passerine birds, LH concentrations were measured weekly in intact and in castrated photorefractory tree sparrows and Harris' sparrows transferred to short days. After 7 weeks on short days (Experiment 1) or after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 weeks (Experiment 2) were challenged with long days (1 week) to determine if photosensitivity had been restored. As evidenced by a significant LH response to photostimulation, tree sparrows had regained at least partial photosensitivity after 7 weeks on short days. However, during exposure to short days, plasma LH concentrations in castrated males did not differ from those in intact males, and plasma LH concentrations in intact or castrated males did not vary with time. The first indication that photosensitivity had been partially restored in Harris' sparrows came after 7 weeks on short days, when castrated males responded to photostimulation with a fourfold elevation in plasma LH concentration. However, before week 7 and through week 10, LH concentrations remained suppressed in both intact and castrated males retained on short days. These data show that recovery of photosensitivity in castrated tree sparrows and Harris' sparrows held on short days is not signaled by a spontaneous elevation in plasma LH concentration, and that plasma LH concentrations in acutely photosensitive intact male tree sparrows and Harris' sparrows held on short days are not suppressed because of gonadal negative feedback. PMID:2391029

Wilson, F E

1990-08-01

135

The fine structure of the larynx muscles in female tree frogs, Hyla a. arborea L. (Anura, Amphibia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larynx musculature of female tree frogs is very poorly developed compared with that of males. This is probably due to the fact that they are less used; female tree frogs do not produce mating calls.

Helga Eichelberg; Hans Schneider

1974-01-01

136

Chromosome identification and karyotype analysis of Podophyllum hexandrum Roxb. ex Kunth using FISH.  

PubMed

Podophyllum hexandrum is an important high altitude medicinal plant from Himalaya. Somatic chromosomes of this species were studied to delineate and physical mapping of repetitive rDNA sites to provide landmarks in chromosome identification. The karyotype formula of this species was found to be 6m + 2sm + 2st + 2t with secondary constriction in the chromosome 1 and 7. The FISH analysis of rDNA sites showed 4 sites for 18S rDNA and 2 sites for 5S rDNA. The chromosome number 1, 2, 5 and 6 can be identified based on 18S rDNA sites in their short arm and chromosome 1 and 2 can be identified by 5S rDNA site in the centromere region. The estimated genome size of this plant is 16.07 pg (1C). PMID:23573024

Nag, Akshay; Rajkumar, Subramani

2011-07-01

137

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ?-amyrin, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

2014-01-01

138

High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis of anti-inflammatory triterpenoids from Boswellia serrata Roxb.  

PubMed

A rapid and simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative estimation of the biologically active triterpenoids beta-boswellic acid, 3-O-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata. The assay combines the isolation and separation of boswellic acid derivatives on silica gel 60F254-HPTLC plates with spot visualisation and scanning at 250 nm. Methanol was found to be the most appropriate solvent for the exhaustive extraction of boswellic acid derivatives. PMID:11793815

Krohn, K; Rao, M S; Raman, N V; Khalilullah, M

2001-01-01

139

Phenolic content and antibacterial properties of various extracts of gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of gambir product with various solvents gave vary in amount of yields, phenolic contents, and its antibacterial properties. Extraction was performed by maseration and Soxhlet methods with some solvents; chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, water, and their combination. The results showed that the highest yield of extract obtained from the solvent combination of ethanol and water (1:1 v\\/v) both at

Rindit Pambayun; Slamet Sudarmadji; Kapti Rahayu

2007-01-01

140

Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explant of dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson).  

PubMed

Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10-1.60 mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/L IBA and 500 mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10 mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10 mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10 mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20-1.00 mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6-9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

Karata?, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Ç?nar, Ay?egül; Dogan, Muhammet

2013-01-01

141

Phytopharmacological evaluation of Ficus glomerata, Roxb. fruit for hypoglycaemic activity in normal and diabetic rabbits.  

PubMed

The investigation was designed to study effects of powdered Ficus glomerata fruits on blood glucose levels in groups of normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. In normal groups, administration of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg body weight of F. glomerata pulv lowered the blood glucose levels significantly. The methanolic extract of the drug also produced significant hypoglycaemia but the aqueous extract could not produce this effect. In alloxan diabetic rabbits the treatment with 2, 3 and 4 g/kg body weight of the plant drug produced a significant fall in blood glucose levels. The methanolic extract of the pulv also produced a significant decrease in the diabetics hut the aqueous extract could produce a slight fall in glucose levels in these rabbits. Acetohexamide in 500 mg/kg dose produced a significant decrease in blood glucose levels of the normal rabbits only. Therefore, it is conceivable that the indigenous plant contains more than one type of hypoglycaemic principles which seem to act by producing an organotropic effect on the B-cells resulting in an increased secretion of insulin. In addition, it is also possible that the drug acts by providing certain necessary elements to the beta cells, especially in the alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Furthermore, it may be assumed that the indigenous plant pulv would also help the diabetics by providing certain essential minerals like calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, manganese, copper and others. PMID:16414622

Akhtar, M S; Qureshi, A Q

1988-07-01

142

Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explant of Dwarf Hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson)  

PubMed Central

Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10–1.60?mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10?mg/L IBA and 500?mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10?mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10?mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10?mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20–1.00?mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6–9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

Karata?, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Ç?nar, Ay?egül; Dogan, Muhammet

2013-01-01

143

Evaluation of biological activities of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and its chemical constituents.  

PubMed

Phytochemicals investigation on rhizomes of Alpinia mutica has afforded five compounds namely 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), flavokawin B (2), pinostrobin (3) and pinocembrin (4) together with ?-sitosterol (5). All crude extracts of the plant demonstrated strong cytotoxicity against CEMss (human T4 lymphoblastoid) cancer cells with IC50 values less than 19 ?g/mL, while flavokawin B (2) was the most cytotoxic isolate with IC50 value 1.86±0.37 ?g/mL. Most of the crude extracts and isolated compounds showed weak activity in antimicrobial and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity tests. PMID:23455212

Mustahil, Noorul Adawiyah; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Ali, Nor Azah; Lian, Gwendoline Ee-Cheng

2013-03-01

144

Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae).  

PubMed

The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA) and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10?mg?kg(-1)?day(-1), p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders. PMID:19770265

Patil, Kalpesh Ramdas; Patil, Chandragouda Raosaheb; Jadhav, Ramchandra Baburao; Mahajan, Vallabh Krishnalal; Patil, Prabhakar Raosaheb; Gaikwad, Pradeep Sampatrao

2011-01-01

145

Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae)  

PubMed Central

The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA) and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10?mg?kg?1?day?1, p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders. PMID:19770265

Patil, Kalpesh Ramdas; Patil, Chandragouda Raosaheb; Jadhav, Ramchandra Baburao; Mahajan, Vallabh Krishnalal; Patil, Prabhakar Raosaheb; Gaikwad, Pradeep Sampatrao

2011-01-01

146

Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and amylase by bartogenic acid isolated from Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. seeds.  

PubMed

Barringtonia racemosa presents a wide range of therapeutic applications. In the course of identifying bioactives from Indian medicinal plants it was observed that the hexane, ethanol and methanol extracts of B. racemosa seeds displayed potent yeast and intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The methanol extract was found to be superior among them. However, none of the extracts exhibited pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitory activity, rather the ethanol and methanol extracts accelerated the alpha-amylase enzyme activity. Interestingly, however, bartogenic acid isolated from the methanol extract inhibited alpha-amylase also. This is the first report identifying alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in B. racemosa seed extracts and assigning to bartogenic acid an alpha-glucosidase and amylase inhibitory property. The presence of bartogenic acid in B. racemosa seeds as a major compound is also reported for the first time in this communication. PMID:17533638

Gowri, P Mangala; Tiwari, Ashok K; Ali, A Zehra; Rao, J Madhusudana

2007-08-01

147

Effective Control of Postprandial Glucose Level through Inhibition of Intestinal Alpha Glucosidase by Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.)  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of intestinal alpha glucosidase plays a major role in preventing rise in postprandial glucose level in diabetics. Cymbopogon martinii (CM) (family Poaceae) is used in traditional Indian medicine in treatment of diabetes mellitus. The alpha glucosidase inhibitory action of the plant is studied. The active component was separated using hot water extraction of the whole plant powder, differential solvent extraction, and silica gel column chromatography. The 30?:?70 toluene : ethyl acetate fraction showed optimum activity. The silica gel chromatography fraction demonstrated 98, 98, and 68% inhibition for starch, maltose, and sucrose, respectively, at 5?mg/kg body weight of rats. Intestinal absorption studies using noneverted intestinal sacs, as well as in vivo studies in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using oral glucose tolerance with maltose and sucrose load, revealed better inhibition of alpha glucosidase as compared to acarbose. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver Burk plot showed mixed to noncompetitive type of inhibition by CM. In vivo studies with maltose load of 2?mg and 3?mg/gm body weight showed a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition at 5?mg/kg body weight of CM as against 60?mg/kg body weight of acarbose. Thus CM is more effective alpha glucosidase inhibitor and at lower concentration than acarbose. PMID:21792369

Ghadyale, Varsha; Takalikar, Shrihari; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

2012-01-01

148

Development of indirect competitive ELISA for quantification of mitragynine in Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth.).  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibody (MAb) against mitragynine (MG), an analgesic alkaloid from Kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa), was produced. MG was coupled to carrier proteins employing either 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS), a zero-length cross linker or a 5-carbon length glutaraldehyde cross linker. To confirm the immunogenicity, the hapten numbers were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Preparation of the MAb was accomplished by the electrofusion method. Hybridoma 1A6 that was constructed from the fusion between splenocytes of EDC/NHS conjugate immunized mice and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells was selected, cloned twice and expanded. The cross-reactivities (CRs) of this MAb 1A6 with a series of indole alkaloids were 30.54%, 24.83% and 8.63% for speciogynine, paynantheine and mitraciliatine, respectively. Using this MAb, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed with a measurement range of 32.92-250?g/mL. Quantitative analysis of the MG contents in plant samples by icELISA correlated well with the standard high performance liquid chromatography method (R(2)=0.994). The MAb against mitragynine provided a tool for detection of MG in Kratom preparations. PMID:25216455

Limsuwanchote, Supattra; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Keawpradub, Niwat; Putalun, Waraporn; Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

2014-11-01

149

Major constituents and anthelmintic activity of volatile oils from leaves and flowers of Cymbopogon martini Roxb.  

PubMed

The major volatile constituents of leaves and flowers of Cymbopogon martini from the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation were identified by GC/MS. Five constituents were identified from the volatile oil of leaves and flowers, which constituted about 82.49 and 75.63% of the total amount, respectively. A monoterpene, piperitone (6.00%), was identified in the flowers of C. martini; in addition, flowers were found to contain more olefinic terpenes, namely geraniol (69.63%), compared with leaves (53.41%). Leaves contain bicyclic monoterpene, nerol (24.76%) and alpha-pinene (4.32%). Anthelmintic activity of these oils was evaluated on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and results showed that the volatile oil of C. martini flower required less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms. PMID:17987504

Nirmal, S A; Girme, A S; Bhalke, R D

2007-11-01

150

Potential anti-inflammatory effect of Leea macrophylla Roxb. leaves: a wild edible plant.  

PubMed

Leea macrophylla (Leeaceae) is a wild edible plant with ethomedicinal importance as anti-inflammatory agent. However, no systematic studies on its anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms have been reported. Present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of L. macrophylla leaves. Phytochemical investigation revealed presence of sterols, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid in extract. Methanol extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide stimulated production of inflammatory mediators viz. prostaglandin E2, tumor necrotic factor-?, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1? in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Additionally, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of this extract was evaluated by using carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma assays in experimental rats. Oral administration of extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) exhibited dose dependant inhibition of carrageenan induced inflammation (p<0.05) and the reduction of the granuloma tissue formation (p<0.05-0.01). The extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) exhibited significant central and peripheral analgesic activity in hot-plate test (p<0.01) and acetic acid induced writhing test (p<0.05-0.01) respectively in experimental mice. Treatment with extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) significantly reduced the yeast provoked elevated body temperature (p<0.05-0.01) in experimental rats. These results confirmed the traditional anti-inflammatory indication of L. macrophylla leaves. PMID:23831308

Dewanjee, Saikat; Dua, Tarun K; Sahu, Ranabir

2013-09-01

151

Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

2013-01-01

152

Separation and quantification of terpenoids of Boswellia serrata Roxb. extract by planar chromatography techniques (TLC and AMD).  

PubMed

An high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method for the separation of boswellic acids, the active constituents in Boswellia serrata extract, has been developed and TLC of these compounds on silica by automated multiple development (AMD) using solvent gradients was performed. Enhancement of the separation of boswellic acids on HPTLC plates was carried out by AMD chromatography. Densitometric analysis of the developed plate was carried out to quantify the four boswellic acids. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) were quantified by densitometric scanning of the developed plate at 254 nm. beta-Boswellic acid (BA) and acetyl-beta-boswellic acid (ABA) were quantified after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent at 560 nm. The AMD system provided a clean separation according to polarity for each of the four groups studied and good results were obtained. The proposed HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major boswellic acids BA, ABA, KBA, and AKBA was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine quality control and for the quantification of these compounds in plant materials. The study of market products revealed significant variations in the content of these pharmacologically active compounds in commercial samples. PMID:17069256

Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Shikov, Alexander N; Makarov, Valery G

2006-09-01

153

Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves  

PubMed Central

Background Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. Methods The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 ?g/disc. Kanamycin (30 ?g/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Results The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 ?g/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 ?g/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p?

2013-01-01

154

A high-performance molluscicidal ingredient against Oncomelania hupensis produced by a rhizospheric strain from Phytolacca acinosa Roxb  

PubMed Central

Background: Snail (Oncomelania hupensis) control is an important and effective preventive strategy in schistosomiasis control programs, and screening microbial molluscicidal agents is one of the most promising categories in biomolluscicides. Objective: To purify and identify the molluscicidal ingredient (MI) obtained from strain SL-30's exocellular broth. Materials and Methods: The active extracts extracted from SL-30's exocellular broth was purified on a silica gel column guided by molluscicidal activity assay against Oncomelania hupensis, then the MI was obtained. NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS/MS analysis was used to identify the molecular structure of the MI. Results: Molluscicidal activity bioassay showed that the MI exhibited significant molluscicidal activity with the LC50 values of 0.101, 0.062, and 0.022 mg/L, respectively, in the case of exposure period of 24 h. From 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, and 1H-13C HSQC spectra, partial important structure fragment was obtained, and the relative molecular weight of the MI showed 326 according to LC-MS analysis. Then, on these grounds, it was indicated that the molecular structure of the MI had a higher similarity to Gliotoxin with the molecular formula of C13 H14N2O4S2. The quasi-molecular ion of m/z 325.45 was further analyzed by MS2 as the parent ion, and two daughter ions obtained at m/z 295.11 [M-CH2OH]- and m/z 261.08 [M-CH2OH -2S]– Conclusion: The MI was finally confirmed as Gliotoxin. PMID:22262929

Guo, Danzhao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Yidan; Yao, Hu; Han, Fang-An; Pan, Jing

2011-01-01

155

Identification and Antiproliferative Activity Evalu ation of a Series of Triterpenoids Isolated from Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Medicinal plants derived anticancer were now being subjects of many research groups especially, the secondary meta bolite triterpenoids trees which had enormous potential to inspire and influence modern antiproli ferative research. The study aimed to investigate the chemical constitution and their potential use a s antiproliferative activity of purified compounds derived from F. virosa . Approach: The F.

Sod Monkodkaew; Chatchanok Loetchutinat; Narong Nuntasaen; Wilart Pompimon

156

Caffeine affects adventitious rooting and causes biochemical changes in the hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a purine alkaloid found naturally in over 100 plant species, has recently been viewed\\u000a as a safe chemical for management of pests including molluscs, slugs, snails, bacteria, and as a bird deterrent. It possesses\\u000a phytotoxicity against plant species, yet the mechanism of action is lacking. A study was conducted to determine the effect\\u000a of caffeine on the rooting

Daizy R. Batish; Harminder Pal Singh; Mansimran Kaur; Ravinder Kumar Kohli; Surender Singh Yadav

2008-01-01

157

Molecular docking and ex vivo pharmacological evaluation of constituents of the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (Euphorbiaceae)  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the involvement of alpha adrenergic receptors in hypotension induced by cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B. Materials and Methods: Cleistanthins A and B were isolated from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus using a column chromatographic method and purified. Structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. The compounds were prepared for molecular docking studies using Ligprep 2.3 module and Induced Fit Docking was carried out against ?-1 adrenergic receptors using Glide. The ex vivo experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats. Under anaesthesia, the femoral vein and carotid artery were cannulated for drug administration and for monitoring the blood pressure, respectively. The effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, histamine and dopamine were recorded before and after the administration of cleistanthin A or cleistanthin B. The molecular docking studies showed favorable molecular interactions, glide score, energy and emodel. Result: Cleistanthins A and B per se reduced the mean blood pressure and the effect was dose dependent. Both the compounds reduced the effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine and ?-1 receptor activity of dopamine. Cleistanthin B significantly increased the duration of action of acetylcholine on mean blood pressure. Conclusion: The molecular docking and ex vivo studies conclude that cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B have significant ?-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist effect on the peripheral vascular system. PMID:22529475

Parasuraman, Subramani; Raveendran, Ramasamy; Vijayakumar, Balakrishnan; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Balamurugan, Subramani

2012-01-01

158

Isolation, structural elucidation and in vitro antioxidant activity of compounds from chloroform extract of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud.  

PubMed

This study was designed to isolate, characterise and explore in vitro antioxidant potential of compounds from the chloroform extract of Cedrus deodara wood belonging to Pinacae family. We have investigated the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of isolated compounds by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power ability. From the chloroform extract five sesquiterpenes namely atlantone, himaphenolone, atlantolone, deodardione and atlantone-2,3-diol were identified. Himaphenolone and deodardione from the chloroform extract of this plant have been isolated for the first time. A marked dose-dependent reducing power and strong TAC were found in favour of himaphenolone and atlantone-2,3-diol, respectively. Moreover, deodardione and atlantolone also exhibit good antioxidant potentials. However, atlantone has showed least antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the chloroform extract of C. deodara exhibited significant antioxidant potential mainly due to the presence of sesquiterpenes which may be responsible for various pharmacological activities of this plant. PMID:25103644

Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Ahmad, Shamim; Mazumder, Avijit

2015-02-01

159

In vitro regeneration in Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) -an important medicinal plant of semi-arid ecosystem of Rajasthan, India.  

PubMed

An efficient regeneration protocol for Sarcostemma acidum - an important medicinal plant has been established. Callus initiated from nodal explant on MS medium with 2.0 mg?L(-1) of NAA + additives. Callus initiated was subcultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of NAA or 2,4-D. Out of these combinations, MS medium +1.0 mg?L(-1) of NAA + additives was found to be effective for the multiplication of callus. Subculture was done after an interval of 20-22 days. For differentiation of callus BAP or Kinetin alone was found to be less effective. Maximum frequency of shoot regeneration recorded on MS medium +1.0 mg?L(-1) of BAP?+?0.5 mg?L(-1) of Kinetin and 0.1 mg?L(-1) of NAA + additives. The in vitro differentiated shoots were excised and inoculated on 1/4 strength MS medium +2.0 mg?L(-1) of IBA?+?0.02 % activated charcoal for in vitro rooting. Maximum response (90 %) was recorded on this medium. In vitro differentiated shoots were inoculated on autoclaved soilrite® after treatment with root inducing auxins. Ex vitro rooting in this plant species has been reported for the first time. Eighty five percent of the shoots rooted under ex vitro conditions. Both in vitro and ex vitro rooted plantlets were hardened in a green house. PMID:24431495

Rathore, Mahender S; Shekhawat, Narpat S

2013-04-01

160

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Rhizobium leguminosarum on the growth and nutrient status of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dalbergia sissoo, an important tree of tropical regions, is grown as monoculture or in agroforesty systems because of the quality of its wood and its effects on soil fertility through N2 fixation. Low soil fertility in tropical regions results in poor plant growth. This is significant in the case of forest trees, since they are generally transplanted without considering the

REKHA BISHT; SHRUTI CHATURVEDI; RASHMI SRIVASTAVA; A. K. SHARMA; B. N. JOHRI

2009-01-01

161

Proteoglycans from Boswellia serrata Roxb. and B. carteri Birdw. and identification of a proteolytic plant basic secretory protein.  

PubMed

Water-soluble high molecular weight compounds were isolated in yields of 21-22% from the oleogum of Boswellia serrata and B. carteri. Using anion exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, different proteoglycans were purified and characterized, leading to four principally different groups: (i) Hyp-/Ser-rich extensins with O-glycosidic attached arabinan side chains; (ii) Modified extensins, with arabinogalactosylated side chains containing GlA and 4-O-Me-GlcA; (iii) Glycoproteins with N-glycosidic side chains containing higher amounts of Fuc, Man and GluNH(2,) featuring a 200 kD metalloproteinase that has been de novo sequenced and is described for the first time; (iv) Type II arabinogalactans-proteins. Significant differences between the gums from the two species were observed in the protein content (6% vs 22%), offering the possibility of a quick differentiation of gums from both species for analytical quality control. The data also offer an insight into the plant response towards wound-closing by the formation of extensin and AGP-containing gum. PMID:22773449

Herrmann, Andreas; König, Simone; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Sehlbach, Maria; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Peter-Katalinic, Jasna; Hensel, Andreas

2012-11-01

162

Conservation phylogeography: does historical diversity contribute to regional vulnerability in European tree  

E-print Network

in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea)? CHRISTOPHE DUFRESNES,* J ER ^OME WASSEF,* KARIM GHALI,* ALAN BRELSFORD phylogeographic study to investigate the late-Quaternary history of a tree frog (Hyla arborea) with declining

Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

163

Abstract.--Modulation of the adrenocortical stress response with respect to the degree of parental activity was investigated in three Arctic-breeding species of songbirds faced with lim-  

E-print Network

and between both sexes of American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea), White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia sexo y entre sexos en individuos de Spizella arborea, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii y Passerculus durante las dos etapas reproductivas (sólo en S. arborea y Z. leucophrys). En las tres especies, los

Holberton, Rebecca L.

164

Insulin-secretagogue, antihyperlipidemic and other protective effects of gallic acid isolated from Terminalia bellerica Roxb. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus causes derangement of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism which eventually leads to a number of secondary complications. Terminalia bellerica is widely used in Indian medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes. The present study was carried out to isolate and identify the putative antidiabetic compound from the fruit rind of T. bellerica and assess its chemico-biological interaction in experimental diabetic rat models. Bioassay guided fractionation was followed to isolate the active compound, structure was elucidated using (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, UV and mass spectrometry and the compound was identified as gallic acid (GA). GA isolated from T. bellerica and synthetic GA was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses for 28 days. Plasma glucose level was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the control.Histopathological examination of the pancreatic sections showed regeneration of ?-cells of islets of GA-treated rats when compared to untreated diabetic rats. In addition, oral administration of GA (20mg/kg bw) significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and at the same time markedly increased plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucose tolerance level. Also GA restored the total protein, albumin and body weight of diabetic rats to near normal. Thus our findings indicate that gallic acid present in fruit rind of T. bellerica is the active principle responsible for the regeneration of ?-cells and normalizing all the biochemical parameters related to the patho-biochemistry of diabetes mellitus and hence it could be used as a potent antidiabetic agent. PMID:21078310

Latha, R Cecily Rosemary; Daisy, P

2011-01-15

165

A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors\\u000a of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic\\u000a applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora) is reportedly effective in

Vinayak R Tripathi; Shailendra Kumar; Satyendra K Garg

2011-01-01

166

Profiling of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant and anticancer activities in pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) extracts from different locations of Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Phytochemicals and antioxidants from plant sources are of increasing interest to consumers because of their roles in the maintenance of human health. Most of the secondary metabolites of herbs are used in a number of pharmaceutical products. Methods Secondary metabolites composition and content of five flavonoids and three phenolic acids were evaluated and determined in Pandanus amaryllifolius extracts from three different locations of Malaysia by RP-HPLC; Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay; The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) Assay was employed to screen anticancer activity of extracts against MCF-7 cancer cell line. Results Highest value of total flavonoids (TF) and total phenolics (TP) was observed in pandan extract from Bachok locattion (1.87 mg/g DW and 6.72 mg/g DW) followed by Klang (1.32 mg/g DW; 5.07 mg/g DW) and Pontian (1.12 mg/g DW; 4.88 mg/g DW). Rutin just detected from Bachok location with value of 0.082 mg/g DW. High content of epicatechin (0.035 mg/g DW) and naringin (0.325 mg/g DW) were observed from Bachok location while, highest content of catechin (0.613 mg/g DW) and kaempferol (0.278 mg/g DW) was observed in pandan extract from Klang location. The extract of pandan from Bachok exhibited highest value of gallic acid (0.423 mg/g DW) and cinnamic acid (0.084 mg/g DW). Ferrulic acid just detected from pandan extract of Bachok location with concentration of 0.281mg/g DW. Between studied locations Bachok exhibited highest value of DPPH (64.27%) and FRAP (517.2 ?m of Fe (II)/g) activity followed by Klang (52.16%; 448.6 ?m of Fe (II)/g) and Pontian (50.10%; 314.8 ?m of Fe (II)/g). The preliminary screening showed pandan extracts from 3 locations possessed anticancer promoting activity against MCF-7 cell line, with 78.3%, 70.5% and 67.4% inhibition rate, respectively. Maximum MCF-7cell line inhibition was observed in pandan extract from Bachok location. Conclusions The samples collected from the North (Bachok) exhibited the highest TP, TF antioxidant and anticancer activity while those from the Southern portion (Pontian) appeared to have the lowest content of TP, TF and antioxidant activity. PMID:24289290

2013-01-01

167

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian Folk Remedy, through Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB) for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA), using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-12). Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-?B), and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-B?) by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-?Bp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway. PMID:25153081

Ojha, Durbadal; Mukherjee, Hemanta; Mondal, Supriya; Jena, Aditya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Mondal, Keshab C.; Malhotra, Bharti; Samanta, Amalesh; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

2014-01-01

168

A superoxide dismutase purified from the rhizome of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. as inhibitor of nitric oxide production in the macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cell line.  

PubMed

Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is a metalloenzyme or antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the disproportionation of the harmful superoxide anionic radical to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. Due to its antioxidative effects, SOD has long been applied in medicinal treatment, cosmetic, and other chemical industries. Fifteen Zingiberaceae plants were tested for SOD activity in their rhizome extracts. The crude homogenate and ammonium sulfate cut fraction of Curcuma aeruginosa were found to contain a significant level of SOD activity. The SOD enzyme was enriched 16.7-fold by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl cellulose ion exchange, and Superdex 75 gel filtration column chromatography. An overall SOD yield of 2.51 % with a specific activity of 812.20 U/mg was obtained. The enriched SOD had an apparent MW of 31.5 kDa, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and a pH and temperature optima of 4.0 and 50 °C. With nitroblue tetrazolium and riboflavin as substrates, the K(m) values were 57.31 ± 0.012 and 1.51 ± 0.014 M, respectively, with corresponding V(max) values of 333.7 ± 0.034 and 254.1 ± 0.022 ?mol min(-1) mg protein(-1). This SOD likely belongs to the Fe- or Mn-SOD category due to the fact that it was insensitive to potassium cyanide or hydrogen peroxide inhibition, but was potentially weakly stimulated by hydrogen peroxide, and stimulated by Mn(2+)and Fe(2+) ions. Moreover, this purified SOD also exhibited inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in cultured mouse macrophage cell RAW 264.7 in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) = 14.36 ± 0.15 ?g protein/ml). PMID:22391698

Moon-ai, Wanwisa; Niyomploy, Ploypat; Boonsombat, Ruethairat; Sangvanich, Polkit; Karnchanatat, Aphichart

2012-04-01

169

Effects of Post-coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The abortifacient claim of Senna alata (S. alata) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Methods Twenty four Pregnant rats (143.99±1.21 g) allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/ body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Conclusion Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract. PMID:23926548

Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Musa, Isa Fakai

2012-01-01

170

Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 127, September 2013, pp. 125134 Impact assessment of a high-speed railway line on species  

E-print Network

of species and their genetic diversity (Fahrig et al., 1995). Major infrastructures such as motorways or high of a high-speed railway line on species distribution: Application to the European tree frog (Hyla arborea of a high-speed railway line on the distribution of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) in eastern France

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN THE TREE SPARROW  

Microsoft Academic Search

row (Spizella arborea arborea), except for the description of molt which will be treated in full, only full-grown birds will be discussed. The growth of the nestling, development of feather tracts, etc., are a chapter in themselves and must be presented elsewhere. The following observations are based on specimens collected at Ithaca, New York, from October through April, and at

A. MARGUERITE BAUMGARTNER

172

Behavior and color changes of tree frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews results of observations and experiments on the behavior and color changes in 2 species of tree frogs, Hyla versicolor and H. arborea. The study of Hyla arborea was limited to about 2 mos, while that of H. versicolor covered a period of several years. These species show that, on the average, a lightening of skin color occurs in the

Charles W. Hargitt

1912-01-01

173

Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 22272235, 2004. # 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

in the Netherlands. Multiscale determinants of tree frog (Hyla arborea L.) calling ponds in western Switzerland JE selection, Road net- work, Sunlight, Urbanization Abstract. A tree frog (Hyla arborea L., 1758 of 350 km2 were searched for tree frog calling males. Twenty-nine out of 111 ponds sheltered between 1

Alvarez, Nadir

174

Zeitschrift fr Feldherpetologie, Supplement 5: 16 #####2004 D. GLANDT & A. KRONSHAGE (Hrsg.): Der Europische Laubfrosch  

E-print Network

Europäische Laubfrosch Characterization of tree frog (Hyla arborea) calling ponds in western Switzerland, Schweiz. Abstract A tree frog (Hyla arborea) metapopulation in western Switzerland was studied during spring 2001. All potential calling ponds in an area of 350 km2 were searched for tree frog calling males

Alvarez, Nadir

175

A descriptor list for morphological characterisation of Noni ( morinda citrifolia L)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The descriptor list presented here is intended for assessing genetic diversity based on morphological variation and for cultivar identification in noni, Morinda citrifolia (L.): Rubiaceae (syns. M. bracteata Roxb., M. citrifolia var. bracteata (Roxb.) Hook f.; M. indica L.). This work examined the three botanical varieties viz. M. citrifolia var. citrifolia; M. citrifolia var. bracteata; and M. citrifolia var.

J. Waki; T. Okpul; M. K. Komolong

2007-01-01

176

Article original Stratgies d'occupation de l'espace  

E-print Network

monspeliensis et C albi- dus), à bruyères (Erica arborea et E scoparia), à myrte (Myrtus communis), à callune and E scoparia in the fourth, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus in the fifth and Cistus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Original article Pattern of nectar secretion in wild cherry, Prunus  

E-print Network

Original article Pattern of nectar secretion in wild cherry, Prunus puddum Roxb, and the associated and their presence is of utmost importance for beekeeping in Himachal Pradesh, India. Wild cherry, Prunus pud- dum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia".  

PubMed

In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia." Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 10(6)) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 10(6)) and C. arborea (45 × 10(6)), respectively. The increase in height (60-70?cm), number of leaves (600-650), and yield of chili (120-150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

2015-01-01

179

Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”  

PubMed Central

In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 106) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 106) and C. arborea (45 × 106), respectively. The increase in height (60–70?cm), number of leaves (600–650), and yield of chili (120–150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations.

Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

2015-01-01

180

Heathland and acid grassland creation on arable soils at Minsmere: identification of potential problems and a test of cropping to impoverish soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RSPB is attempting to establish heathland and acid grassland on 158 ha of arable land at Minsmere, ultimately to benefit two species of rare breeding birds, the stone curlew Burhinus oedicnemus and the woodlark Lullula arborea. An initial study of the arable soils was carried out to assess their suitability for the establishment of Calluna heathland and acid grassland.

R. H. Marrs; C. S. R. Snow; K. M. Owen; C. E. Evans

1998-01-01

181

A study of the mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Three somatic hybrid plants produced by protoplast fusion between Medicago sativa and each of the three species M. coerulea, M. falcata and M. arborea have been analysed for the composition of their mitochondrial DNA. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial genes in somatic hybrids and their parental lines showed various degrees of rearrangement. The M. sativa + M. coerulea

A. Busti; F. Pupilli; F. De Marchis; S. Arcioni

182

vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA  

E-print Network

Torcecuello 76 3 link Lanius excubitor Alcaudón Real 80 3 Lanius senator Alcaudón Común 100 2 Loxia curvirostra Piquituerto Común 84 Lullula arborea Totovía 92 2 link Luscinia megarhynchos Ruiseñor Común 100

Carrascal, Luis M.

183

Datura poisoning--the Angel's Trumpet.  

PubMed

A group of seven ate flowers of Datura arborea ("The Angel's Trumpet" or "Trumpet Lilies") and suffered severe hallucinations. One member of the group drowned in shallow water while suffering from these effects. Although poisoning with related species is common, poisoning with this plant is rare, perhaps due to its terrifying rather than pleasurable hallucinogenic effect. PMID:4069765

Hayman, J

1985-07-01

184

Studien an der Epiphysis cerebri und am Subcommissuralorgan der Frösche  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In anaesthetized frogs (Rana temporaria L., Rana esculenta L., Hyla arborea L.) an in vivo examination of the roof of the brain is possible after the removal of the skull.2.Under the microscope the pineal gland shows a dense capillary network, that is to be considered as part of the extensive periventricular network. The afferent arteries of this vascular system are

W. Mautner

1965-01-01

185

Avian seed preference and weight loss experiments: the effect of fungal endophyte-infected tall fescue seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of endophytic fungus-infected seeds on seed predators is poorly understood. In this multiple trophic level investigation, seed preference experiments were conducted to determine whether five species of passerines (dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis; American tree sparrows, Spizella arborea; song sparrows, Melospiza melodia; chipping sparrows, Spizella pusilla; and house sparrows, Passer domesticus) recognize and preferentially consume noninfected (NI) over infected

Cynthia Wolock Madej; Keith Clay

1991-01-01

186

Increased sensitivity of the serotonergic system during the breeding season in free-living American tree sparrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the physiological role of serotonin in regulating aggressive behaviour it is important to understand how this neuromodulator acts within the context of a naturally fluctuating social and physical environment. To accomplish this, we examined the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine during the breeding season in free-living male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in

Todd S. Sperry; Ignacio T. Moore; Simone L. Meddle; Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks; John C. Wingfield

2005-01-01

187

Long Days and Thyroxine Program American Tree Sparrows for Seasonality: Evidence for Temporal Flexibility of the Breeding Season of Euthyroid Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of the thyroid in the control of seasonality, photosensitive female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were thyroidectomized (THX), moved to long days, and given daily injections of thyroxine (T4) for 3 weeks; THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received daily injections of alkaline vehicle. Birds were retained on long days 4 additional weeks and then moved to

Fred E Wilson; Bryan D Reinert

1999-01-01

188

SKYLIGHT POLARIZATION PATTERNS AND THE ORIENTATION OF MIGRATORY BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patterns of polarized light present in the clear dusk sky provide directional information relevant to the orientation behaviour of migratory birds. Experiments performed with white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), North American night migrants, examined migratory orientation between the time of sunset and the first appearance of stars under several manipulations of skylight polarization patterns.

KENNETH P. ABLE

1989-01-01

189

1,2Dialkyl4(3H)-Quinazolinones in the Defensive Secretion of a Millipede (Glomeris marginata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two crystalline components isolated from the defensive secretion of the glomerid millipede, Glomeris marginata, are identified as 1-methyl-2-ethyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone and 1,2-dimethyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone. These heterocyclic compounds bear a close structural resemblance to arborine, the chief alkaloid of the Indian medicinal plant, Glycomis arborea Correa.

Yvonne C. Meinwald; Jerrold Meinwald; Thomas Eisner

1966-01-01

190

Soil persistence and biodiversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the absence of the host plant in a Mediterranean ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of suitable mycorrhizal inocula may be an important factor affecting the dynamics of plant communities. We investigated the persistence and diversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of a mature Quercus ilex forest where ericaceous hosts were absent. Erica arborea was used as a bait plant and results were compared to soil samples from experimental plots where

Roberta Bergero; Mariangela Girlanda; Federica Bello; Anna Maria Luppi; Silvia Perotto

2003-01-01

191

&science Service F a t u r e Released upon receipt  

E-print Network

and Switzerland consists of a living tree-f rog o r tree-toad of the common European species-Wla arborea- kept i n the weather, Many observers Lave fxirned f o r themselves different rules based on the frog*s posture and a c

192

Where movement happens: scale-dependent landscape effects on genetic differentiation in the European tree frog  

E-print Network

in the European tree frog Sonia Angelone, Felix Kienast and Rolf Holderegger S. Angelone, WSL Swiss Federal genetic analysis of the European tree frog Hyla arborea in a fragmented landscape in Switzerland. We distance classes reflecting varying frequencies of tree frog movement. We calculated pairwise FST

193

Genetic diversity and climatic determinants of tree frogs in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozymic variation in proteins encoded by 27 loci was analyzed electrophoretically in 218 adult specimens, mostly males, representing 8 populations, 5 central and 3 marginal, of lemon yellow treefrogs, Hyla arborea savignyi, in Israel along two transects of increasing aridity: (a) north to south and (b) west to east. The results indicate that (a) Of the 27 loci examined, 5

Eviatar Nevo; Shu Y. Yang

1979-01-01

194

Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zrich (2010) 155(3/4): 4350 Zusammenfassung  

E-print Network

connectivity measures for tree frogs To preserve species and habitats of great conservation value, the Swiss- sures implemented for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea). In the project, the spatial genetic structure of remaining tree frog populations was evaluated at the landscape scale, and the influence

195

vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA  

E-print Network

Dáurica 100 Hirundo rustica Golondrina Común 100 3 Jynx torquilla Torcecuello 24 3 link Lanius excubitor Alcaudón Real 84 3 Lanius senator Alcaudón Común 96 2 Lullula arborea Totovía 48 2 link Luscinia

Carrascal, Luis M.

196

vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA  

E-print Network

rustica Golondrina Común 88 3 Jynx torquilla Torcecuello 56 3 link Lanius excubitor Alcaudón Real 84 3 Lanius senator Alcaudón Común 52 2 Loxia curvirostra Piquituerto Común 24 Lullula arborea Totovía 32 2

Carrascal, Luis M.

197

vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA  

E-print Network

daurica Golondrina Dáurica 96 Hirundo rustica Golondrina Común 100 3 Lanius excubitor Alcaudón Real 92 3 Lanius senator Alcaudón Común 96 2 Lullula arborea Totovía 64 2 link Luscinia megarhynchos Ruiseñor Común

Carrascal, Luis M.

198

vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA  

E-print Network

Lanius excubitor Alcaudón Real 4 3 Loxia curvirostra Piquituerto Común 66 Lullula arborea Totovía 45 2 torquilla Torcecuello 25 3 link Lagopus mutus Lagópodo Alpino 54 + Lanius collurio Alcaudón Dorsirrojo 62 3

Carrascal, Luis M.

199

Adaptive leaf structures in a Myrica-Erica stand on Tenerife (Canary Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on a phytosociological table and a matrix of species and morphological characters. The relevés were taken along a transect in a Myrica faya-Erica arborea formation on Tenerife (Canary Islands). The analysis of the phytosociological table reveals a vegetational succession and a corresponding ecological gradient. The study of correlations between morphological and ecological data leads to the

D. Lausi; P. L. Nimis; M. Tretiach

1988-01-01

200

CULTIVATED, DICOTYLEDONOUS TAXA AT THE NC STATE UNIVERSITY HERBARIUM  

E-print Network

- lanaceae, Fabaceae, and Aceraceae (Table 1). The largest genera are Quercus (44 taxa), Acer (44 taxa. pungens Lindau Hygrophila H. polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson ACERACEAE 2/45 Acer A. argutum Maxim. A. A. nigrum Michx. A. opalus Mill. A. palmatum Thunb. A. pensylvanicum L. A. platanoides L. A

Krings, Alexander

201

Antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activity of Zanthoxylum rhetsa.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of the Zanthoxylum rhetsa Roxb. stem bark, given by oral route to mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, significantly reduced the abdominal contraction induced by acetic acid and the diarrhoeal episodes induced by castor oil in mice. PMID:12234580

Rahman, M T; Alimuzzaman, M; Ahmad, S; Chowdhury, A Asad

2002-07-01

202

Effect of residual sodium carbonate in irrigation water on the soil sodication and yield of palmarosa ( Cymbopogon martinni) and lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of residual sodium carbonate (RSC) in irrigation water on soil sodication and yield and cation composition of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats) and lemongrass (Cymbopogonflexuosus Steud Wats) were studied in the open bottom reinforced concrete cemented (RCC) cylindrical barrels embedded in the field and filled with sandy loam soils. The results indicated that the increasing RSC in irrigation

Arun Prasad; Dinesh Kumar; D. V. Singh

2001-01-01

203

Effect of Soil Sodicity on the Growth and Cation Composition of Palmarosa and Lemongrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soil sodicity on the growth, yield, and cation composition of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud Wats) were studied in a pot experiment. The plant height, number of tillers, and herb yield of both species significantly decreased as the exchangeable sodium in soil increased. A 50 percent reduction in herb yield over control

Arun Prasad; Dinesh Kumar; D. V. Singh

1998-01-01

204

Exserohilum Leaf Spot on Tigergrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tigergrass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze ) is a popular ornamental grass grown throughout landscapes in South Florida. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was observed on tigergrass in the landscape and a commercial nursery in Homestead, FL. The causal agent of the leaf spot was isolated, cha...

205

Tyrosinase inhibitory cycloartane type triterpenoids from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Amberboa ramosa Jafri and their structure–activity relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

New tyrosinase inhibitory cycloartane triterpenoids have been discovered from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Amberboa ramosa (Roxb.) Jafri, which is a member from the Compositae family. Utilizing the conventional spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR analysis, and also by comparing the experimental with literature data, the isolated compounds proved to be cycloartane type triterpenoids. These cycloartanes

Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Sher Bahadar Khan; Arjumand Ather

2006-01-01

206

Effects of flooding and salinity on photosynthesis and water relations of four Southeastern Coastal Plain forest species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of flooding and salinity on photosynthesis and water relations was examined for four common coastal tree species [green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.). Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.), and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard)]. Both chronic (as might be associated with sea level rise) and acute (similar to hurricane storm surges) exposures to

K. W. McLeod; J. K. McCarron; W. H. Conner

1996-01-01

207

Flooding and salinity effects on growth and survival of four common forested wetland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival, growth, and biomass of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.), Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.), and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) seedlings were examined in an experiment varying water levels (watered, flooded) and salinity levels (0, 2, and 10 ppt, plus a simulated storm surge with 32 ppt saltwater). All seedlings, except for

W. H. Conner; K. W. McLeod; J. K. McCarron

1997-01-01

208

Regulation of Reserve Protein Metabolism in the Cotyledons of Mung Bean Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling growth in mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Roxb.) is accompanied by the metabolism of the reserve proteins, and the appearance in the cotyledons of a proteolytic enzyme with endopeptidase activity. Enzyme activity increases 25-fold during the first 5 days of growth. Cotyledon extracts prepared from seeds imbibed for 24 hr with water do not react with rabbit endopeptidase antiserum, which

Maarten J. Chrispeels; Bruno Baumgartner; Nick Harris

1976-01-01

209

Fungicidal properties of some plants against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of leaves of different plants was tested against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. The fungus was isolated from seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor cv. Amarchitra displaying damping?off symptoms. Out of fifty plants tried, extract obtained from seven plants, namely, Adenocalymna alliaceum L., Allium sativa L., Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, Carum capticum Benth, Citrus medica L., Lantana indica Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lamk,

Rita Shekhar; A. K. Dwivedi; S. C. Sharma

1996-01-01

210

An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

211

The effects of natural and induced short-term floods on four sugarcane accessions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was initiated at the USDA/ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, FL to evaluate the potential for flood tolerance in several accessions from Saccharum barberi (Jeswiet) and S. sinense (Roxb. Amend. Jeswiet) sugarcane genera. The experimental design included 4 accessions, Kewal...

212

Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and wound-healing potentials of Holoptelea integrifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic extracts of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) (Urticaceae) leaves (MLE) and stem bark (MSBE) were studied for the wound-healing potential. Since wound healing is severely hampered by microbial infection and reactive oxygen species (ROS), this study was undertaken to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activity apart from wound-healing activity. The antimicrobial property of the Holoptelea was studied against the six bacterial

Boreddy Srinivas Reddy; R. Kiran Kumar Reddy; V. G. M. Naidu; K. Madhusudhana; Sachin B. Agwane; Sistla Ramakrishna; Prakash V. Diwan

2008-01-01

213

Synthesis of SiC ceramics from processed cellulosic bio-precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of SiC ceramic from processed cellulosic bio-precursor was investigated. Bamboo (Bambusa tulda Roxb.) plants abundantly available in the Jorhat district of Assam, India, were selected for extraction of fibers following Kraft pulping method and bleached bamboo pulp fibers were suitably cast in the form of rectangular boards. Coir fibers available in the Alleppy district of Kerala, India, were initially

Anwesha Maity; Dipul Kalita; Tarun Kumar Kayal; Tridip Goswami; Omprakash Chakrabarti; Himadri Sekhar Maiti; Paruchuri Gangadhar Rao

2010-01-01

214

Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in different trees of madhupur forest, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots and rhizosphere soils of Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth., A. mangium Wild., Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. C., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex A. P. D., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnn., Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex Juss) Muell. Arg., Swietenia macrophylla King. and Tectona grandis L. were collected from different locations of Madhupur forest area to study the biodiversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM)\\u000a fungal

P. P. Dhar; M. A. U. Mridha

2006-01-01

215

Molecular, functional and ultrastructural characterisation of plastids from six species of the parasitic flowering plant genus Cuscuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Plastids of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., C. subinclusa D. et H., C. gronovii Willd. and C. campestris Yunck. possess thylakoids and contain both chlorophyll a and b in a ratio similar to that of stem tissue of the systematically closely related but ‘normal’ green Ipomoea tricolor. In contrast, plastids of C. odorata R. et P. and C. grandiflora H.B.K. do not

T. A. W. van der Kooij; K. Krause; I. Dörr; K. Krupinska

2000-01-01

216

Relationships of the Woody Medicago Species (Section Dendrotelis) Assessed by Molecular Cytogenetic Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The organization of rDNA genes in the woody medic species from the agronomically important Medicago section Dendrotelis was analysed to gain insight into their taxonomic relationships, to assess the levels of infraspecific variation concerning ribosomal loci in a restricted and fragmented insular species (M. citrina) and to assess the nature of its polyploidy. Methods Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA genes in the three species of section Dendrotelis (M. arborea, M. citrina, M. strasseri) and the related M. marina from section Medicago. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to assess the genomic relationships of the polyploid M. citrina with the putatively related species from section Dendrotelis. Key Results The diploid (2n = 16) M. marina has a single 45S and two 5S rDNA loci, a pattern usually detected in previous studies of Medicago diploid species. However, polyploid species from section Dendrotelis depart from expectations. The tetraploid species (2n = 32) M. arborea and M. strasseri have one 45S rDNA locus and two 5S rDNA loci, whereas in the hexaploid (2n = 48) M. citrina four 45S rDNA and five 5S rDNA loci have been detected. No single chromosome of M. citrina was uniformly labelled after using genomic probes from M. arborea and M. strasseri. Instead, cross-hybridization signals in M. citrina were restricted to terminal chromosome arms and NOR regions. Conclusions FISH results support the close taxonomic interrelationship between M. arborea and M. strasseri. In these tetraploid species, NOR loci have experienced a diploidization event through physical loss of sequences, a cytogenetic feature so far not reported in other species of the genus. The high number of rDNA loci and GISH results support the specific status for the hexaploid M. citrina, and it is suggested that this species is not an autopolyploid derivative of M. arborea or M. strasseri. Further, molecular cytogenetic data do not suggest the hypothesis that M. arborea and M. strasseri were involved in the origin of M. citrina. FISH mapping can be used as an efficient tool to determine the genomic contribution of M. citrina in somatic hybrids with other medic species. PMID:18413655

Rosato, Marcela; Castro, Mercedes; Rosselló, Josep A.

2008-01-01

217

Post-fire recovery and successional dynamics of an old growth red spruce forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains  

E-print Network

. 1987) extending as far south as Tennessee and as far north as Maine and Canada accompanied by Betula and Acer species (Watts, 1979). Approximately 2,000 years ago, red spruce expanded as the global temperatures cooled (Lindbladh, Jacobson...) with striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red maple (Acer rubrum), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), service berry (Amelanchier arborea), yellow birch (Betulla alleghaniesis Britton) and mountain ash (Sorbus amaericana...

Krustchinsky, Adam R.

2009-05-15

218

Adaptive photosynthetic strategies of the Mediterranean maquis species according to their origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of their origin the adaptive strategies of the evergreen species of the Mediterranean maquis were analysed. Rosmarinus officinalis L., Erica arborea L., and Erica multiflora L. had the lowest net photosynthetic rate (PN) in the favourable period [7.8±0.6 µmol(CO2) m-2s-1, mean value], the highest PN decrease (on an average 86 % of the maximum) but the highest recovery

L. Gratani; L. Varone

2004-01-01

219

Physiological response of eight Mediterranean maquis species to low air temperatures during winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the physiological response of the Mediterranean evergreen species (Arbutus unedo L., Cistus incanus L., Erica arborea L., Erica multiflora L., Phillyrea latifolia L., Pistacia lentiscus L., Quercus ilex L., and Rosmarinus officinalis L.) to winter low air temperatures. In occasion of two cold events, in February 2005 (T\\u000a min = 1.8 °C), and January 2006 (T\\u000a min =

L. Varone; L. Gratani

2007-01-01

220

New mitochondrial genome organization in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa including the parent-specific amplification of substoichiometric mitochondrial DNA units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three somatic hybrid plants produced by protoplast fusion between Medicago sativa and each of the three species Medicago coerulea, Medicago falcata and Medicago arborea have been analysed for the composition of their mitochondrial DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis\\u000a of mitochondrial genes in somatic hybrids and their parental lines showed various degrees of rearrangement. The M. sativa+M. coerulea hybrid

F. Pupilli; P. Labombarda; S. Arcioni

2001-01-01

221

A repetitive and species-specific sequence as a tool for detecting the genome contribution in somatic hybrids of the genus Medicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly repeated sequence (C300) was cloned from Medicago coerulea and its organization in the M. sativa-coerulea-falcata complex, M. arborea, and three somatic hybrids involving M. sativa, was investigated. Southern-blot analysis revealed a tandemly repeated array and a species-specificity of the sequence to\\u000a those species belonging to the complex. Various degrees of amplification of C300 were detected among the species

Ornella Calderini; Fulvio Pupilli; Francesco Paolocci; Sergio Arcioni

1997-01-01

222

Aspects of tissue water relations and seasonal changes of leaf water potential components of evergreen and deciduous species coexisting in tropical dry forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study compared the tissue water relations and seasonal changes in leaf water potential components of an evergreen tree,Morisonia americana, and two evergreen shrubs,Capparis verrucosa andC. aristiquetae, with two deciduous trees,Humboltiella arborea andLonchocarpus dipteroneurus, and the deciduous vineMansoa verrucifera. All these species coexist in a tropical dry forest in Venezuela. Leaves of the evergreen species are sclerophyllous, while those

M. A. Sobrado

1986-01-01

223

Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks as affected by topographic aspect and vegetation in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (total N) stocks in 0–0.3 and 0.3–1.0m soil layers were estimated following the standard procedures for three vegetation communities; Schefflera-Hagenia, Hypericum-Erica-Schefflera, and Erica arborea (shrub size), at different topographic aspects (east-, west-, north- and south-facing) on the Bale Mountains in the south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia. The results showed that SOC and total N

Fantaw Yimer; Stig Ledin; Abdu Abdelkadir

2006-01-01

224

Structure of the mating calls and relationships of the European tree frogs (Hylidae, anura)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an extension of earlier investigations, the mating calls ofHyla arborea kretensis, Hyla a. molleri, andHyla a. sarda were studied, and variations in the calls with air temperature were determined. The mating calls of these species exhibit the typical structure, made up of short pulses of varying amplitude. The call duration and the inter-call interval decrease linearly with increasing temperature

Hans Schneider

1974-01-01

225

The fate of ribosomal genes in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa: three different outcomes including the rapid amplification of new spacer-length variants.  

PubMed

We have characterized the genetic consequences of somatic hybridization within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of three interspecific hybrids, each involving M. sativa as one of the parents. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphisms (RFLPs) of rDNA spacers and fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) of an 18S-gene probe to mitotic chromosomes were used to compare parental and hybrid species. The M. sativa-coerulea hybrid retained all six parental nucleolar-organizing regions (NORs) and all parental RFLPs representing a complete integration of rDNA. The M. sativa-arborea hybrid retained five of six parental NORs while losing half of the arborea-specific RFLPs, indicating that simple chromosome loss of one arborea NOR accounted for the RFLP losses. Dramatic alterations occurred within the M. sativa-falcata hybrid where five of six parental NORs were retained and new rDNA RFLPs were created and amplified differentially among somaclonal-variant plants. The molecular basis of the new RFLPs involved increased numbers of a 340-bp subrepeating element within the rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS), suggesting that recurrent cycles of unequal recombination occurred at high frequency within the rDNA in somatic lineages. PMID:24162411

Cluster, P D; Calderini, O; Pupilli, F; Crea, F; Damiani, F; Arcioni, S

1996-10-01

226

The relationship of plasma indicators of lipid metabolism and muscle damage to overnight temperature in winter-acclimatized small birds.  

PubMed

Plasma glycerol and triglyceride levels and creatine kinase (CK) activity may increase during long-distance flights in migratory birds, but plasma profiles of these metabolites have not previously been reported for small birds during thermoregulation in cold climates. We measured early morning levels of plasma glycerol, triglycerides and CK activity in four species of small birds overwintering in South Dakota, Junco hyemalis, Spizella arborea, Passer domesticus, and Carduelis tristis. We hypothesized that metabolite levels and CK activity might vary with overnight temperature (measured as the temperature just prior to dawn), with higher levels during colder temperatures which require elevated thermogenesis. Triglyceride and glycerol levels were not significantly related to temperature for any of the four species. Triglyceride levels were significantly positively associated with time since sunrise in J. hyemalis and C. tristis, and the time-temperature interaction was significant for S. arborea, suggesting rapid replacement of fat stores. Plasma glycerol levels were also significantly positively related to time since sunrise in J. hyemalis and C. tristis, but not in other species. Plasma CK activity showed a significant negative relationship to overnight temperature only for S. arborea. These results suggest that triglycerides do not comprise a major contribution to lipid supply during intense shivering in small birds. Similarly, intense shivering does not generally appear to result in muscle damage in small birds. PMID:17049895

Swanson, David L; Thomas, Nathan E

2007-01-01

227

Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone,\\u000a and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir

2011-01-01

228

Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone,\\u000a ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of

G. Elango; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Abdul Rahuman

2009-01-01

229

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

2011-01-01

230

l DOPA ( l -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) affects rooting potential and associated biochemical changes in hypocotyl of mung bean, and inhibits mitotic activity in onion root tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to explore the effect of l-DOPA (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) on the rooting potential of hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. var. SML-32) and related biochemical changes at the post-expression phase. At lower concentrations of (0.0001–0.1 mM) l-DOPA, there was no change in rooting potential, though the average number of roots per cutting and root length were significantly

Daizy R. Batish; Pansy Gupta; Harminder Pal Singh; Ravinder Kumar Kohli

2006-01-01

231

Caffeic acid inhibits in vitro rooting in mung bean [ Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] hypocotyls by inducing oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeic acid (CA), which is ubiquitously present in plants, is a potent phytotoxin affecting plant growth and physiology.\\u000a The aim of our study was to investigate whether CA-induced inhibition of adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean {Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek [Phaseolus aureus Roxb.]} involves the induction of conventional stress responses. The effect of CA (0–1000 ?M) on ARF in mung

Harminder Pal Singh; Shalinder Kaur; Daizy R. Batish; Ravinder Kumar Kohli

2009-01-01

232

Localization of photosynthetic metabolism in the parasitic angiosperm Cuscuta reflexa  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cells capable of photosynthesis in the parasitic angiosperm Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (dodder) are highly localized. Immunolocalization of ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and\\u000a autofluorescence of chlorophyll in transverse sections of stems showed that they were largely restricted to a band of cells\\u000a adjacent to the vascular bundles, consequently, the concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll were low per unit area or

J. M. Hibberd; R. A. Bungard; W. D. Jeschke; J. D. Scholes; W. P. Quick

1998-01-01

233

Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin  

PubMed Central

Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes. PMID:24031931

Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

2012-01-01

234

Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn\\/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity\\u000a of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments,\\u000a SLS18 could not

Shenglian Luo; Taoying Xu; Liang Chen; Jueliang Chen; Chan Rao; Xiao Xiao; Yong Wan; Guangming Zeng; Fei Long; Chengbin Liu; Yutang Liu

235

Gamma sensitivity of forest plants of Western Ghats.  

PubMed

Seeds of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam., Garcinia xanthochymus Hook., Saraca asoca Roxb., Rourea minor Gaertn., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz., Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) bail., Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. and Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. were collected from different regions of Western Ghats and exposed to different doses of gamma radiation using Co-60 source. The effect of irradiation was examined on germination, growth and vigor parameters. Decrease in the germination and growth attributes with increased dose was observed in A. hirsutus, G. xanthochymus and S. asoca and thus indicating sensitivity of these plants to radiation. In contrast, enhancement in the germination (percentage), vigor and generation of leaves was observed for P. marsupium, T. chebula, H. integrifolia and O. indicum. These plants were classified as radiation tolerant because of the ability of their seedlings to successfully establish under radiation stress. R. minor and A. lindleyana were able to maintain viability up to 100 Gy dose, however, any further increase in the dose found to have negative effect. PMID:24631785

Akshatha; Chandrashekar, K R

2014-06-01

236

Transpiration in a sub-tropical ridge-top cloud forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryLaurel forests in the Canary Islands (Spain) survive where humid conditions are guaranteed throughout the year. On peaks and ridges, laurel forest gives way to mixed evergreen tree-heath/beech forest of low stature ("fayal-brezal") that has to cope with rapidly changing light, temperature and humidity conditions due to the occurrence of intermittent sunny and foggy periods during the mostly rainless summer. These conditions are poorly understood and there is a lack of information on the interrelations between tree physiological behavior and ambient climatic and soil water conditions in fayal-brezal. In this study sap velocities were measured for 2 years in two dominant tree species (Myrica faya and Erica arborea) in a ridge-top forest in the National Park of Garajonay on the island of La Gomera. The resulted average daily stand transpiration was 1.2 ± 0.12 mm (416 mm year-1). However, the narrow-leaved E. arborea exhibited higher sap velocities than the broad-leaved M. faya. Also, sap velocity increased with stem diameter in E. arborea but not in M. faya. Nocturnal flow activity was observed throughout the year and reflected ambient conditions on some occasions, and stem water storage recovery on others. Strong stomatal control in response to increases in vapor pressure deficit was seen in both species. Fog reduced sap velocity from 10% up to 90% but no consistent pattern was found. Soil water uptake during the dry summer (246 mm) was much larger than atmospheric water inputs (41 mm, rain and fog). The low moisture levels in the top 0.3 m of the soil had limited influence on transpiration rates indicating that vegetation must have had access to moisture in deeper layers.

García-Santos, G.

2012-09-01

237

Retinoic acid homeostasis regulates meiotic entry in developing anuran gonads and in Bidder's organ through Raldh2 and Cyp26b1 proteins.  

PubMed

The vitamin A (retinol) and its metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) affect vertebrate gametogenesis. The level of RA in cells relies on the balance between its synthesis and degradation. The sex-dependent equilibrium is reached in different ways in various species. It is known that RA induces meiosis in developing gonads in mouse, chicken and urodel amphibians, but its role in anuran amphibians has not been studied. Here we show in six anuran species (Xenopus laevis, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo viridis, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria) that cultured undifferentiated gonads were insensitive to RA treatment, but the RA induced ectopic meiosis in cultured larval testes. In larval testes of all studied species, the exogenous RA induced leptotene phase of I meiotic prophase in gonia, but only in H. arborea and B. viridis gonia progressed to zygotene phase. In the cultured developing ovaries, exogenous RA led to increase in the number of oocytes as compared to the control. Inhibition of either RA synthesis or RA-receptors prevented meiotic entry in larval gonads of all species. Exogenous RA rescued this inhibitory effect demonstrating that the balance in RA homeostasis plays a key role in meiotic entry in anuran gonads. The localization of two enzymes, Raldh2 and Cyp26b1, which antagonistically control RA levels and whose abundance suggests the sites of RA synthesis and degradation respectively, showed two distinct expression patterns specific for (i) X. laevis, H. arborea, R. arvalis, R. temporaria and (ii) B. bombina, B. viridis. Thus, RA, in correlation with specific expression patterns of Raldh2 and Cyp26b, induces meiosis during gonad development in anurans. In addition, in B. viridis, RA signalling seems important for development of the Bidder's organ containing oocytes both in males and females. PMID:24056063

Piprek, Rafal P; Pecio, Anna; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

2013-01-01

238

Description and biology of two new species of Neotropical Liriomyza Mik (Diptera, Agromyzidae), mining leaves of Bocconia (Papaveraceae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Liriomyza mystica Boucher & Nishida, sp. n., and Liriomyza prompta Boucher & Nishida, sp. n. are described from Costa Rica. Both species were reared from leaves of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae). The latter species was also reared from B. arborea S. Watson. Larvae of L. mystica mine primary veins of large, relatively old, mature leaves, and L. prompta mine blades of small to large, mature leaves. These represent the first record of agromyzids feeding on Bocconia. Biological information is also given and illustrated. PMID:24478590

Boucher, Stéphanie; Nishida, Kenji

2014-01-01

239

Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 ?g/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 ?g/mL and 183 ?g/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Flavonoid content of methanol extracts in S. grandiflora L. T was 22.5 ?g/mL and the highest among plant extracts tested. These results indicated that C. aurantifolia Swingle, S. grandiflora L., P. sarmentosum Roxb, and C. domestica Valeton have antibacterial and antioxidant activities and can be used as alternative antibiotics or potential feed additives for the control of animal pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25178298

Lee, J. H.; Cho, S.; Paik, H. D.; Choi, C. W.; Nam, K. T.; Hwang, S. G.; Kim, S. K.

2014-01-01

240

Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.  

PubMed

Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures. PMID:24933904

Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

2014-01-01

241

Antigens recognized by the human immune response to severe leptospirosis in Barbados.  

PubMed

Serum samples obtained from patients hospitalized in Barbados with severe leptospirosis were tested by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoblotting with leptospires that had been isolated from these patients. While serum samples taken a few days after onset of symptoms often showed no apparent correlation between MAT and EIA, later sequential serum samples produced similar profiles in both tests during the course of infection. Immunoblotting sonicate from Leptospira interrogans serovars arborea, copenhageni and bim with patients' sera, revealed reactions with a number of bands that corresponded with outer envelope components. These components included lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagella and other outer membrane proteins, in addition to a low-molecular-weight (MW) carbohydrate cross-reactive with members of the Leptospiraceae. IgM antibodies elicited in the first to second week after infection reacted mainly with LPS and the low-MW cross-reactive carbohydrate. Comparative analysis of isolates of the same serovar by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting showed that while two serovar arborea isolates were identical, serovar bim isolates differed significantly from each other. This difference was also observed in comparative MAT testing. PMID:1879481

Chapman, A J; Everard, C O; Faine, S; Adler, B

1991-08-01

242

Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising <6% of the isolates. The clone libraries showed dramatically different bacterial communities between corals of the same species collected at different sites, with no clear pattern of conserved bacterial consortia. Two of the clone libraries (one from each coral species) were dominated by Tenericutes, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating the remaining sequences. The other libraries were more diverse and had a more even distribution of bacterial phyla, showing more similarity between genera than within coral species. Here we report the first microbiological characterization of P. arborea, P. superba, and C. koolsae. FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

Gray, Michael A.; Stone, R.P.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Kellogg, C.A.

2011-01-01

243

Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.

Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

2013-09-01

244

Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.

Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

2013-02-01

245

Sexual dimorphism of AMH, DMRT1 and RSPO1 localization in the developing gonads of six anuran species.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, several genes which are differentially expressed in various species, have been implicated in sex determination and gonadal differentiation. We used immunolocalization to study the expression pattern of three proteins AMH, DMRT1, RSPO1 involved in the sexual differentiation of gonads. The pattern of AMH, DMRT1 and RSPO1 expression was analyzed in X. laevis and in five other divergent anuran species: Bombina bombina, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria during gonadal development. The pattern of expression of AMH in the developing testes of six studied anuran species was similar to that described for other vertebrates. AMH was strongly expressed in differentiating Sertoli cells. Interestingly, in B. viridis, R. arvalis and R. temporaria, AMH was also expressed in ovaries. In all studied species, DMRT1 was highly expressed in the developing testes, in both the somatic and germ cells. It was also expressed at low level in ovaries in all studied species, with the exception of H. arborea. RSPO1 was expressed in the developing ovaries, especially in the somatic cells, and was almost undetectable in developing testes in all examined anurans. These developmental expression patterns strongly suggest an involvement of AMH and DMRT1 in the development of male gonads and of RSPO1 in the female gonads. The differences in the expression patterns of these proteins in the gonads of different species might reflect the diversity of gonadal development patterns in anurans resulting from long lasting and diverged paths of their evolution. PMID:24623081

Piprek, Rafal P; Pecio, Anna; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

2013-01-01

246

Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.  

PubMed

In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on ?-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed. PMID:25406544

Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

2014-11-18

247

Biochemical responses in tree foliage exposed to coal-fired power plant emission in seasonally dry tropical environment.  

PubMed

A biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate the responses of plants exposed to power plant emission in a dry tropical environment. For this purpose, five sampling sites were selected in the prevailing wind direction (NE) at different distance to thermal power plant (TPP) within 8.0 km range and a reference site was selected in eastern direction at a distance of 22.0 km. The two most common tree species, Ficus benghalensis L. (Evergreen tree) and Dalbergia sisso Roxb. (deciduous tree) were selected as test plants. Ambient sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM), dust-fall rate (DFR) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, sugar and sulphate-sulphur (SO4(2-)-S) contents were measured. Ambient SO(2), NO(2), SPM, RSPM and DFR showed significant spatial and temporal variation at different sites. Considerable reduction in pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) and sugar contents were observed at sites receiving higher pollution load. Ascorbic acid exhibited significant positive correlation with pollution load. Accumulation of SO4(2-)-S in leaf tissue showed significant positive correlation with ambient SO(2) concentration at all the sites. At the same time, SO4(2-)-S showed significant negative correlation with pigment and sugar content. D. sisso Roxb. tree was found to be more sensitive as compared to F. benghalensis L. tree. PMID:18843539

Sharma, Atul Prakash; Tripathi, B D

2009-11-01

248

Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100??g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

2013-01-01

249

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

2013-01-01

250

Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

2013-10-01

251

Evaluation of aromatic plants and compounds used to fight multidrug resistant infections.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100? ? g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

2013-01-01

252

Stronger transferability but lower variability in transcriptomic- than in anonymous microsatellites: evidence from Hylid frogs.  

PubMed

A simple way to quickly optimize microsatellites in nonmodel organisms is to reuse loci available in closely related taxa; however, this approach can be limited by the stochastic and low cross-amplification success experienced in some groups (e.g. amphibians). An efficient alternative is to develop loci from transcriptome sequences. Transcriptomic microsatellites have been found to vary in their levels of cross-species amplification and variability, but this has to date never been tested in amphibians. Here, we compare the patterns of cross-amplification and levels of polymorphism of 18 published anonymous microsatellites isolated from genomic DNA vs. 17 loci derived from a transcriptome, across nine species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea and Hyla cinerea group). We established a clear negative relationship between divergence time and amplification success, which was much steeper for anonymous than transcriptomic markers, with half-lives (time at which 50% of the markers still amplify) of 1.1 and 37 My, respectively. Transcriptomic markers are significantly less polymorphic than anonymous loci, but remain variable across diverged taxa. We conclude that the exploitation of amphibian transcriptomes for developing microsatellites seems an optimal approach for multispecies surveys (e.g. analyses of hybrid zones, comparative linkage mapping), whereas anonymous microsatellites may be more informative for fine-scale analyses of intraspecific variation. Moreover, our results confirm the pattern that microsatellite cross-amplification is greatly variable among amphibians and should be assessed independently within target lineages. Finally, we provide a bank of microsatellites for Palaearctic tree frogs (so far only available for H. arborea), which will be useful for conservation and evolutionary studies in this radiation. PMID:24345298

Dufresnes, Christophe; Brelsford, Alan; Béziers, Paul; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-07-01

253

Non-Invasive Measurement of Frog Skin Reflectivity in High Spatial Resolution Using a Dual Hyperspectral Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Most spectral data for the amphibian integument are limited to the visible spectrum of light and have been collected using point measurements with low spatial resolution. In the present study a dual camera setup consisting of two push broom hyperspectral imaging systems was employed, which produces reflectance images between 400 and 2500 nm with high spectral and spatial resolution and a high dynamic range. Methodology/Principal Findings We briefly introduce the system and document the high efficiency of this technique analyzing exemplarily the spectral reflectivity of the integument of three arboreal anuran species (Litoria caerulea, Agalychnis callidryas and Hyla arborea), all of which appear green to the human eye. The imaging setup generates a high number of spectral bands within seconds and allows non-invasive characterization of spectral characteristics with relatively high working distance. Despite the comparatively uniform coloration, spectral reflectivity between 700 and 1100 nm differed markedly among the species. In contrast to H. arborea, L. caerulea and A. callidryas showed reflection in this range. For all three species, reflectivity above 1100 nm is primarily defined by water absorption. Furthermore, the high resolution allowed examining even small structures such as fingers and toes, which in A. callidryas showed an increased reflectivity in the near infrared part of the spectrum. Conclusion/Significance Hyperspectral imaging was found to be a very useful alternative technique combining the spectral resolution of spectrometric measurements with a higher spatial resolution. In addition, we used Digital Infrared/Red-Edge Photography as new simple method to roughly determine the near infrared reflectivity of frog specimens in field, where hyperspectral imaging is typically difficult. PMID:24058464

Liebisch, Frank; Walter, Achim; Greven, Hartmut; Rascher, Uwe

2013-01-01

254

Efficacy and safety of Stephania glabra: an alkaloid-rich traditional medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers (Menispermaceae) has long been used for the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis, dysentery, hyperglycaemia, cancer, fever, intestinal complaints, sleep disturbances and inflammation in many Asian countries. It mainly contains alkaloids and, until now, over 30 alkaloids such as bisbenzylisoquinolines, hasubanalactams, berberines and aporphines have been isolated from its tuber. Most of its traditional medicinal activities are scientifically approved by various in vitro and in vivo studies. It shows remarkable anti-psychotic, anti-diabetic, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial and anti-hypertensive activities. This work includes comprehensive information on the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of S. glabra. This review also focuses on the future perspectives with main emphasis on the establishment of therapeutic index and safety index of the plant. This review concludes that S. glabra has a great potential to treat various diseases, and could be used as a source for novel healthcare products in the near future, which needs further studies. PMID:25186139

Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

2015-03-01

255

Preliminary investigation on antipyretic activity of cuscuta reflexa in rats.  

PubMed

In present study, the antipyretic activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Cuscutaceae) was evaluated using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Both the extracts at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight dose significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the increased rectal temperature. The extracts started reducing the elevated rectal temperature after 3 h of treatment in a dose related manner. At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight the aqueous and ethanol extract reduced 79 % and 83.8 % respectively of the elevated rectal temperature as compared to reference drug paracetamol (96.5 %) after 6 h of treatment. It was therefore concluded that both the extracts of C. reflexa demonstrated antipyretic activity, the ethanol extract was found to be slightly potent than the aqueous extract. PMID:22247835

Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Roy, Bodhisattva

2010-01-01

256

Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

2012-01-01

257

A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.  

PubMed

A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

2014-01-01

258

Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.  

PubMed

Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol. PMID:24507290

Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

2014-02-15

259

Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxic effect of Trichosanthes dioica root  

PubMed Central

Background: Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English is a dioecious climber grown in India and used traditionally for various medicinal purposes. Methods: Present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic effect of dichloromethane (DCTD), methanol (METD), and aqueous (AQTD) extracts of T. dioica root using Allium cepa root meristems by keeping them in different concentrations of each test extract under specific experimental conditions followed by determination of root growth inhibition (root length and number) and mitotic index. Results: All the extracts significantly demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of root length and number and reduction in mitotic index, indicating antimitotic activity demonstrating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. DCTD was found to be the most potent (EC50 : 2.8 mg/ml), followed by METD and AQTD. Conclusion: The present study therefore, establishes promising in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic property of T. dioica root against the test system. PMID:21713138

Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab K.

2010-01-01

260

Antioxidant Activity in the Extracts of Two Edible Aroids  

PubMed Central

Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC50 values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC50 values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198

Mandal, P.; Misra, T. K.; Singh, I. D.

2010-01-01

261

Antioxidant activity in the extracts of two edible aroids.  

PubMed

Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC(50) values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC(50) values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198

Mandal, P; Misra, T K; Singh, I D

2010-01-01

262

Isolation and release characteristics of starch from the rhizome of Indian Palo.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to isolate and evaluate the morphological, physicochemical and drug release properties of starch from the rhizome of Indian Palo (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.). Morphological study revealed that the shape of the isolated starch varied from oval to elliptical. Isolated starch showed high water-holding capacity. Mineral content and Ash value were found to be very low. Amylose content was found to be 12.12±0.01%. FTIR data confirmed polysaccharide nature of the starch. Swelling and solubility was found to be increase with an increase in the temperature. Initially, paste clarity was high, and gradually it decreased with the increase of storage time. TGA showed that the starch is thermally stable up to 250°C. In-vitro release study revealed that the starch retarded the release of drug in the acidic pH of the stomach; therefore, it can be used as an excipient in a sustained-release formulation. PMID:25150596

Das, D; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

2015-01-01

263

Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China  

PubMed Central

Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

2012-01-01

264

Quantifying the success of improved forest management from dendrochronology: examples from North Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing environmental and human pressure on the vulnerable environment of the North Ethiopian highlands requires sustainable management to avoid further land degradation. High altitude forests play a key role in this environmental balance and are very important for local livelihoods. They function as a hygric buffer by capturing and storing rainfall, which reduces soil erosion and protects against flooding, landslides and rock fall. The hygric buffer effect of mountain forests also provides water for downstream sources and for agriculture in the surrounding lowlands. Improved understanding of the growing patterns, ring formation and forest structure of this afro-alpine high altitude Erica arborea L. forests is essential to improve sustainable forest management practices. This paper studies two mountain forests in the North Ethiopian Highlands under contrasting management conditions; Lib Amba of the Abune Yosef Mt. range (12°04'N, 39°22'E, 3993 m a.s.l.) which is completely protected since five years and Mt. Ferrah Amba (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3939 m a.s.l.) which is still strongly influenced by anthropo-zoogenic impacts. Dendrochronological results from cambial marked stem discs show complex but annual growth ring formations that reflect these differences in anthropo-zoogenic pressure; Tree-ring width is significantly wider in Mt. Lib Amba. Improved insight in the growing pattern of Erica arborea L. forests is also given by monitoring of tree growth and seedling recruitment in experimental plots since 2012 and by studying the relation between tree growth and the geomorphology and soil thickness. Seedling recruitment and vegetation indices indicate that tree growth is significantly better in the protected forest of Lib Amba. One of the key elements for sustainable land management is the creation of forests at critical locations. Insight in the response of tree growth to different types of land management and different morphological conditions can help to identify these critical locations. But most importantly, dendrochronological results have proven to be a valuable tool for objective validation of the success of land management strategies on a short term.

Jacob, Miro; De Ridder, Maaike; Frankl, Amaury; Guyassa, Etefa; Beeckman, Hans; Nyssen, Jan

2014-05-01

265

[Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].  

PubMed

White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

2013-03-01

266

Plant Species Monitoring in the Canary Islands Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.

Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.

2012-07-01

267

Synopsis of Nekemias Raf., a segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae) disjunct between eastern/southeastern Asia and eastern North America, with ten new combinations  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Nekemias (Vitaceae) was first recognized by Rafinesque in 1838. It has been treated as a synonym of Ampelopsis Michx. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that Ampelopsis as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the genera of Vitaceae, we herein segregate the Ampelopsis sect. Leeaceifoliae lineage from Ampelopsis and recognize these taxa in Nekemias Raf., which has a disjunct distribution in eastern to southeastern Asia and eastern North America. Nomenclatural changes are made for nine species and one variety: Nekemias arborea (L.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias cantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias celebica (Suess.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias chaffanjonii (H. Lév. & Van.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias gongshanensis (C.L. Li) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias hypoglauca (Hance) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla (Diels & Gilg) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla var. jiangxiensis (W.T. Wang) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, and Nekemias rubifolia (Wall.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie. A taxonomic key is provided for the genus to facilitate identification. PMID:25383008

Wen, Jun; Boggan, John; Nie, Ze-Long

2014-01-01

268

Diversity of Frankia Strains in Root Nodules of Plants from the Families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae  

PubMed Central

Partial 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) were PCR amplified and sequenced from Frankia strains living in root nodules of plants belonging to the families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae, including Colletia hystrix, Elaeagnus angustifolia, an unidentified Elaeagnus sp., Talguenea quinquenervia, and Trevoa trinervis. Nearly full-length 16S rDNAs were sequenced from strains of Frankia living in nodules of Ceanothus americanus, C. hystrix, Coriaria arborea, and Trevoa trinervis. Partial sequences also were obtained from Frankia strains isolated and cultured from the nodules of C. hystrix, Discaria serratifolia, D. trinervis, Retanilla ephedra, T. quinquenervia, and T. trinervis (Rhamnaceae). Comparison of these sequences and other published sequences of Frankia 16S rDNA reveals that the microsymbionts and isolated strains from the two plant families form a distinct phylogenetic clade, except for those from C. americanus. All sequences in the clade have a common 2-base deletion compared with other Frankia strains. Sequences from C. americanus nodules lack the deletion and cluster with Frankia strains infecting plants of the family Rosaceae. Published plant phylogenies (based on chloroplast rbcL sequences) group the members of the families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae together in the same clade. Thus, with the exception of C. americanus, actinorhizal plants of these families and their Frankia microsymbionts share a common symbiotic origin. PMID:9726914

Clawson, Michael L.; Carú, Margarita; Benson, David R.

1998-01-01

269

Herbivory in a Mediterranean forest: browsing impact and plant compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compensatory response of plants to defoliation is likely to have important effects on plant-ungulate equilibria in forested ecosystems. We investigated the responses of six species of Mediterranean bushes to defoliation by wild ungulates, comparing an index of browsing impact with the productivity of plants in both open and exclusion plots. The data revealed a great diversity of plant responses to herbivory: Rubus ulmifolius was able to over-compensate and replace the lost tissues. Phillyrea latifolia exhibited a similar, albeit less evident, pattern, while Cistus salvifolius was severely damaged by browsing. Other species, such as Quercus ilex, Juncus acutus and Erica arborea, were not attacked to a large extent and suffered little or no harm. The results strongly suggest that Mediterranean ecosystems may tolerate large stocking rates of ungulates. However, the reduction of plant biomass due to browsing was very different in the six studied species, suggesting that when herbivory becomes severe the structure of the ecosystem will change with the more tolerant plants becoming more abundant. We can apply these results to improve management and conservation of relict coastal forests in the Mediterranean basin which are usually of small size and where decision-makers have to compromise between the conservation of plants and that of large mammals.

Focardi, Stefano; Tinelli, Aleandro

2005-11-01

270

Systematic analysis of animals used in medieval Azerbaijan medicine.  

PubMed

In order to study the special composition of animals used in the medieval medicine of Azerbaijan, a wide range of medieval sources on medicine and pharmacognosy from the collection of the Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences in Baku has been studied. About 40 medieval sources from the 10-18th centuries including 17 manuscripts in Turkic, Persian and Arabic have been selected as the objects of this study. As a result, 150 species of animals described in medieval Azerbaijani books on medicine and pharmacy have been identified. Many of the identified animals are mammals, (47 species or 31% of total number of identified species). The medieval authors describe 12 species of reptiles and 4 species of Amphibians (frogs, toads, salamanders and tree-frogs (Hyla arborea). 15 species of fishes described in medieval manuscripts have been identified. The identified molluscs are cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), mussel (Mytilus edulis), octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and snail (Helix pomatia). Most crustaceans used in medieval Azerbaijan medicine belong to Decopoda. Medieval manuscripts contain numerous names of various worms and insects (ants, flies, beetles, etc.), however their exact identification is rather difficult. As usual, medieval authors unite a number of species under one name and do not give sufficient information about their morphology. Results of the research create grounds for the idea that the recommendations of the medieval authors on the medicinal application of animals can be applied to modern medicine once they have been experimentally and clinically tested. PMID:17153727

Alakbarli, Farid

2006-06-01

271

Differential effects of testosterone and 17?-estradiol on gonadal development in five anuran species.  

PubMed

Sex hormones are essential for sexual differentiation and play a key role in the development of gonads in amphibians. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of exogenous sex steroids, testosterone, and 17?-estradiol (E(2)) on development of gonads in five anuran species differing in their evolutionary positions, sex determination, and mode of gonadogenesis. We found that in two closely related species of fire-bellied toad, Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata, testosterone and E(2) exposure results in sex reversal as well as intersex and undifferentiated gonads. Similarly, sex reversal was observed in Hyla arborea after exposure to male or female sex steroids. Xenopus laevis was sensitive to E(2) but only moderately to testosterone. In Bufo viridis, treatment with either sex hormone provoked a developmental delay in gonads and Bidder's organs. Therefore, susceptibility to hormonal sex reversal appeared species dependent but unrelated to genetic sex determination and the type of gonadogenesis. We also found that the onset of sex steroid exposure influences gonad differentiation and the meiotic status of the germ cells depends on their location within the gonad. Our findings reveal differential sensitivity of amphibians to testosterone and E(2), establishing a hierarchy of sensitivity to these hormones among different anuran species. PMID:22641770

Piprek, Rafa? P; Pecio, Anna; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

2012-08-01

272

Arsenic speciation in terrestrial birds from Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada: the unexpected finding of arsenobetaine.  

PubMed

The surrounding area of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, is known for naturally and anthropogenically elevated concentrations of arsenic. Five bird species (gray jay [Perisoreus canadensis], American tree sparrow [Spizella arborea], dark-eyed junco [Junco hyemalis], yellow-rumped warbler [Dendroica coronata], and spruce grouse [Dendragapus canadensis]) were collected from this area. Their tissues were analyzed for total arsenic and for arsenic species, allowing us to report, to our knowledge for the first time, the arsenic characterization in terrestrial birds. Total arsenic concentrations were determined in the terrestrial birds by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, whereas arsenic speciation analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Total arsenic concentrations were substantially higher in the terrestrial bird species studied from Yellowknife compared with those reported previously in the literature. The primary arsenic species detected in two of the bird species studied was arsenobetaine. Normally, arsenobetaine is not formed or retained by terrestrial animals. Thus, the birds in the present study were thought to be highly adapted compared with other terrestrial animals, because they were able to form and/or retain this relatively nontoxic arsenic compound. This adaptation is thought to be a consequence of the elevated concentrations of arsenic in the Yellowknife area. PMID:16117124

Koch, Iris; Mace, Jessica V; Reimer, Kenneth J

2005-06-01

273

Pollen record from Ka'au Crater, Oahu, Hawaii: Evidence for a dry glacial maximum  

SciTech Connect

Fossil pollen from a 3.5 m-long core from Ka'au Crater, Hawaii (elev. 460 m), yields a ca. 23,000-year record of regional vegetation history. Results indicate a full-glacial period drier and possibly cooler than present, a warmer and wetter early Holocene, and a somewhat drier late Holocene; this sequence agrees with earlier work by Selling (1948) on other islands. The oldest zone is donated by pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, Acacia koa, and Dodonaea viscosa; post-glacial pollen assemblages feature high percentages of Myrsine and Coprosma, followed by increases in Lycopodium cernuum Ilex anomala. Freycinetia arborea and Pritchardia. After about 8000 years ago, Chenopodium, Acacia, and Dodonaea increase, suggesting a return to drier conditions. Abundant pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, a plant of dry regions, during the last glacial maximum implies that neither the trade winds nor cyclonic storms were delivering as much moisture to the regional vegetation as they presently do. This suggests that the ocean surface temperature during the last glacial maximum may have been cooler than present, a finding contradictory to the reconstructions of the CLIMAP (1981) group, which show temperatures near Hawaii equal to or even warmer than present.

Hotchkiss, S.C.; Juvik, J.O. (Univ. of Minnesota, St.Paul (United States) Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo (United States))

1993-06-01

274

Population genetic structure of a sandstone specialist and a generalist heath species at two levels of sandstone patchiness across the Strait of Gibraltar.  

PubMed

Many habitat specialist species are originally composed of small, discontinuous populations because their habitats are naturally fragmented or patchy. They may have suffered the long-term effects of natural patchiness. Mediterranean heathlands, a representative habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar region, are associated with nutrient-poor, acidic sandstone soils. Sandstone soil patches in the African side of the Strait (Tangier) are, in general, smaller and more scattered than in the European side (Algeciras). In this study, we analyze the effect of this sandstone patchiness on the population genetic diversity and structure of two Erica species from these Mediterranean heathlands that differ in their edaphic specificity, E. australis, sandstone specialist, and E. arborea, generalist. Average levels of within-population genetic diversity and gene flow between populations were significantly lower in Tangier (high sandstone patchiness) than in Algeciras (low patchiness) for the sandstone specialist, whereas no differences between both sides of the Strait were detected in the edaphic generalist. Since most endemic species in Mediterranean heathlands of the Strait of Gibraltar are sandstone specialists, these results highlight an increased vulnerability to loss of genetic diversity and local extinction of the heathland endemic flora in the Tangier side of the Strait of Gibraltar. PMID:24878545

Gil-López, Manuel Jesús; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Ojeda, Fernando

2014-01-01

275

Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.  

PubMed

The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

2013-01-01

276

A New Name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian Coral Formerly Known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)  

SciTech Connect

A Hawaiian species of antipatharian coral previously identified as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766, is described as Antipathes griggi Opresko, n. sp. The species forms tall, bushy colonies with elongate, upright terminal branches, often arranged uniserially. Spines are conical, mostly 0.20 to 0.26 mm tall, apically bifurcated, multilobed to jagged in appearance, and covered over most of their surface with small roundish to elongate papillae. Minute secondary spines may occur on some of the thicker branches. Polyps are 1 to 1.6 mm in transverse diameter. The species resembles A. fruticosa Gray in branching pattern, size of spines, and presence of secondary spines but differs in morphology and density of the spines (thicker, more crowded primary spines and fewer secondary spines in A. griggi). Other related species differ from A. griggi in having more widely spreading and irregularly arranged branches, no secondary spines, and either smaller spines with fewer apical lobes (A. curvata van Pesch, A. arborea Dana, and A. galapagensis Deichmann) or larger spines with the apical lobes arranged in a somewhat coronate pattern [A. spinulosa (Schultze) and A. lentipinna Brook].

Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL

2009-04-01

277

Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species  

PubMed Central

Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere. PMID:24864264

Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Fernandez, Maria P.; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

2014-01-01

278

A comprehensive multilocus assessment of sparrow (Aves: Passerellidae) relationships.  

PubMed

The New World sparrows (Emberizidae) are among the best known of songbird groups and have long-been recognized as one of the prominent components of the New World nine-primaried oscine assemblage. Despite receiving much attention from taxonomists over the years, and only recently using molecular methods, was a "core" sparrow clade established allowing the reconstruction of a phylogenetic hypothesis that includes the full sampling of sparrow species diversity. In this paper, we use mitochondrial DNA gene sequences from all 129 putative species of sparrow and four additional (nuclear) loci for a subset of these taxa to resolve both generic and species level relationships. Hypotheses derived from our mitochondrial (2184 base pairs) and nuclear (5705 base pairs) DNA data sets were generally in agreement with respect to clade constituency but differed somewhat with respect to among-clade relationships. Sparrow diversity is defined predominantly by eight well-supported clades that indicate a lack of monophyly for at least three currently recognized genera. Ammodramus is polyphyletic and requires the naming of two additional genera. Spizella is also polyphyletic with Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea) as a taxonomic "outlier". Pselliophorus is embedded within a larger Atlapetes assemblage and should be merged with that group. This new hypothesis of sparrow relationships will form the basis for future comparative analyses of variation within songbirds. PMID:24792084

Klicka, John; Keith Barker, F; Burns, Kevin J; Lanyon, Scott M; Lovette, Irby J; Chaves, Jaime A; Bryson, Robert W

2014-08-01

279

Maintenance of ancestral sex chromosomes in Palearctic tree frogs: direct evidence from Hyla orientalis.  

PubMed

Contrasting with the situation found in birds and mammals, sex chromosomes are generally homomorphic in poikilothermic vertebrates. This homomorphy was recently shown to result from occasional X-Y recombinations (not from turnovers) in several European species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia and H. molleri). Because of recombination, however, alleles at sex-linked loci were rarely diagnostic at the population level; support for sex linkage had to rely on multilocus associations, combined with occasional sex differences in allelic frequencies. Here, we use direct evidence, obtained from anatomical and histological analyses of offspring with known pedigrees, to show that the Eastern tree frog (H. orientalis) shares the same pair of sex chromosomes, with identical patterns of male heterogamety and complete absence of X-Y recombination in males. Conservation of an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes, regularly rejuvenated via occasional X-Y recombination, seems thus a widespread pattern among Hyla species. Sibship analyses also identified discrepancies between genotypic and phenotypic sex among offspring, associated with abnormal gonadal development, suggesting a role for sexually antagonistic genes on the sex chromosomes. PMID:23735903

Stöck, M; Savary, R; Zaborowska, A; Górecki, G; Brelsford, A; Rozenblut-Ko?cisty, B; Ogielska, M; Perrin, N

2013-01-01

280

Cryptic recombination in the ever-young sex chromosomes of Hylid frogs.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes are expected to evolve suppressed recombination, which leads to degeneration of the Y and heteromorphism between the X and Y. Some sex chromosomes remain homomorphic, however, and the factors that prevent degeneration of the Y in these cases are not well understood. The homomorphic sex chromosomes of the European tree frogs (Hyla spp.) present an interesting paradox. Recombination in males has never been observed in crossing experiments, but molecular data are suggestive of occasional recombination between the X and Y. The hypothesis that these sex chromosomes recombine has not been tested statistically, however, nor has the X-Y recombination rate been estimated. Here, we use approximate Bayesian computation coupled with coalescent simulations of sex chromosomes to quantify X-Y recombination rate from existent data. We find that microsatellite data from H. arborea, H. intermedia and H. molleri support a recombination rate between X and Y that is significantly different from zero. We estimate that rate to be approximately 10(5) times smaller than that between X chromosomes. Our findings support the notion that very low recombination rate may be sufficient to maintain homomorphism in sex chromosomes. PMID:22901240

Guerrero, R F; Kirkpatrick, M; Perrin, N

2012-10-01

281

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

282

Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

2014-01-01

283

Antiinflammatory Activity of Gynura bicolor (??? Hóng Fèng Cài) Ether Extract Through Inhibits Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation  

PubMed Central

This study investigated effects of the Gynura bicolor (Roxb. and Willd.) DC. ether extract (GBEE) on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 production on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. A composition analysis of GBEE showed that the major compounds were b-carotene, chlorophyll, and quercetin, respectively. Furthermore, NO and PGE2 levels of 120 ?g/ml GBEE-treated cells were 70% and 9.8%, respectively, than those of cells treated with LPS alone. Immunoblots assays showed that the GBEE dose-dependently suppressed LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein levels. The GBEE significantly decreased cytosolic phosphorylated (p)-I?Ba and nuclear p65 protein expressions. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays indicated that the GBEE effectively inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation induced by LPS. These results support a role of the GBEE in suppressing activation of NF-?B to inhibit NO and PGE2 production in the LPS-induced inflammatory response by RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:24716155

Wu, Chih-Chung; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Liu, Kai-Li; Chen, Pei-Yin; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

2013-01-01

284

Hydrodynamically mediated macrophyte silica dynamics.  

PubMed

In most aquatic ecosystems, hydrodynamic conditions are a key abiotic factor determining species distributions and abundance of aquatic plants. Resisting stress and keeping an upright position often relies on investment in tissue reinforcement, which is costly to produce. Silica could provide a more economical alternative. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the response of two submerged species, Egeria densa Planch. and Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth., to dissolved silicic acid availability and exposure to hydrodynamic stress. The results were verified with a third species in a field study (Nuphar lutea (L.) Smith). Biogenic silica (BSi) concentration in both stems and leaves increases with increasing dissolved silica availability but also with the presence of hydrodynamic stress. We suggest that the inclusion of extra silica enables the plant to alternatively invest its energy in the production of lignin and cellulose. Although we found no significant effects of hydrodynamic stress on cellulose or lignin concentrations either in the laboratory or in the field, BSi was negatively correlated with cellulose concentration and positively correlated with lignin concentration in samples collected in the field study. This implies that the plant might perform with equal energy efficiency in both standing and running water environments. This could provide submerged species with a tool to respond to abiotic factors, to adapt to new ecological conditions and hence potentially colonise new environments. PMID:22512916

Schoelynck, J; Bal, K; Puijalon, S; Meire, P; Struyf, E

2012-11-01

285

Utilization of extrusion technology for the development of millet based complementary foods.  

PubMed

Millet based complementary foods were developed using sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), rice (Oryza Sativa), besan (Cicer arietinum; Bengal gram dhal flour), legume mix (Green gram and roasted Bengal gram; Phaseolus aureus Roxb and Cicer arietinum) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) with a lab scale twin screw extruder. The extrudates were subjected to acceptability studies initially and at the end of the storage period i.e. 3 months at laboratory level by panel of judges using a 5-point hedonic scale. Physico-chemical characteristics like bulk density, piece density and expansion ratio were measured and proximate principles were assessed. Soy and legume mix were found to have low bulk density as well as high expansion ratio. The developed extrudates were made into fine powder and sieved through a 60 mm mesh. Malted ragi flour at 15 % level was added to the powdered extrudates to develop the complementary mixes with low bulk density. Raw formulas without malt and with malt; extruded mixes without malt and with malt were studied for viscosity. The developed mixes were made into porridge and fed to the infants and the opinions about the acceptability of mixes were collected from the mothers. The complementary mixes with malted ragi showed reduced viscosity and formed good, smooth slurry and well accepted both by children and their mothers. Extruded soy and legume mixes with addition of 15 % malt were found to have satisfactory functional characteristics and nutritive value and can be explored for bulk preparation. PMID:25328236

Lakshmi Devi, N; Shobha, S; Alavi, Sajid; Kalpana, K; Soumya, M

2014-10-01

286

Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

2014-01-01

287

Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

2014-10-01

288

Chemical studies on the polysaccharides of Salicornia brachiata.  

PubMed

A group of 12 polysaccharide extracts were prepared from the tips, stem and roots of an Indian halophyte Salicornia brachiata Roxb. obtained by sequential extractions with cold water (CW), hot water (HW), aqueous ammonium oxalate (OX) and aqueous sodium hydroxide (ALK) solutions. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that all the polysaccharide extract samples consisted primarily of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, glucose, whereas ribose and xylose were present only in some of the extracts. All the extracts exhibited low apparent viscosity (1.47-2.02 cP) and sulphate and contained no prominent toxic metal ions. Fucose was detected only in OX extract of the roots. These polysaccharides were found to be heterogeneous and highly branched (glycoside linkage analysis, size-exclusion chromatography, (13)C-NMR, FT-IR, circular dichroism and optical rotation data). Physico-chemical analyses of these polysaccharides including uronic acid, sulphate and protein contents were also carried out. This constitutes the first report on the profiling of Salicornia polysaccharides. PMID:25129748

Sanandiya, Naresh D; Siddhanta, A K

2014-11-01

289

Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18975001

Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

2009-02-01

290

Inhibition of Apoplastic Calmodulin Impairs Calcium Homeostasis and Cell Wall Modeling during Cedrus deodara Pollen Tube Growth  

PubMed Central

Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most well-studied Ca2+ transducers in eukaryotic cells. It is known to regulate the activity of numerous proteins with diverse cellular functions; however, the functions of apoplastic CaM in plant cells are still poorly understood. By combining pharmacological analysis and microscopic techniques, we investigated the involvement of apoplastic CaM in pollen tube growth of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. It was found that the tip-focused calcium gradient was rapidly disturbed as one of the early events after application of pharmacological agents, while the cytoplasmic organization was not significantly affected. The deposition and distribution of acidic pectins and esterified pectins were also dramatically changed, further perturbing the normal modeling of the cell wall. Several protein candidates from different functional categories may be involved in the responses to inhibition of apoplastic CaM. These results revealed that apoplastic CaM functions to maintain the tip-focused calcium gradient and to modulate the distribution/transformation of pectins during pollen tube growth. PMID:23405148

Wang, Li; Lv, Xueqin; Li, Hong; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong; Jin, Biao; Chen, Tong

2013-01-01

291

[Studies on the alkaloids of Erythrina plants].  

PubMed

The alkaloidal components of eight Erythrina plants (Leguminosae), E. arborescence Roxb., E. orientalis (L.) Murr, E. crysta-galli Linn, E. crysta-galli (L.) cv. Maruba Deiko H. Murata, E. x bidwilli Lindl, E. poeppigiana (Walp) O. F. Cook, E. glauca Willd, and E. variegata L. were examined. As a result of this study, five new oxo-erythrinan alkaloids, erythrinine (8), 11-hydroxyerysotrine (9), erysotramidine (10), erytharbine (11), crystamidine (12) and a di-benz[d,f]azonine type alkaloid, erybidine (2), were isolated respectively. Two tetrahydroprotoberberine type alkaloids, scoulerine (4) and coreximine (5), were also isolated from E. orientalis (L.) Murr. A new synthetic route to erythrinan alkaloids was developed, via the cis -C/D-ring fused 15-methoxy-16-hydroxyerythrinan-2, 8-dione (49) as a key intermediate, from the enol methyl derivative (48) which was obtained by Birch reduction of the benzyl amide (47). The total synthesis of (+/-)-erysotramidine (10), an oxo-erythrinan alkaloid, including a novel ring cleavage of the aza-tricyclo[3.2.0.0] compound (70) with phenylselenyl chloride is described. PMID:10375996

Ito, K

1999-05-01

292

A Scientific Validation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Attributes of Trichosanthes dioica  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to scientifically validate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) which has been traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. This plant commonly known as “Sespadula” in English has not been explored scientifically so far for its glycemic potential except by our research group. The study was conducted with variable doses on normal, mild, and severe diabetics models, and several biochemical parameters including blood glucose level (BGL) were assessed. Maximum fall in BGL of 23.8% in normal rats and of 31.3% in mild diabetic rats was observed during their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) with the dose of 1000?mg?kg?1. In severely diabetic animals after 4 weeks treatment with FBG, postprandial glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced by 28.7, 30.7, 57.2, and 18.5%, whereas high density lipoprotein, total protein, hemoglobin, and body weight were increased by 33.0, 36.7, 15.7 and 16.7%, respectively. Moreover, urine sugar was reduced from +4 to +1. Thus, the study scientifically validates the traditional use of T. diocia in diabetes management and could be developed as an effective oral agent for treating diabetes mellitus and complications associated with it. PMID:23984089

Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Sharad Kumar; Srivastava, Amrita Kumari; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Watal, Geeta

2013-01-01

293

Nontargeted Identification of the Phenolic and Other Compounds of Saraca asoca by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Positive Electrospray Ionization and Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used for separation and identification of phenolic and other compounds in the water extracts of Saraca asoca (Roxb.), De. Wilde. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the distribution of phenolic compounds in the different parts of the plant. The identity of compounds was established through the comparison with standards and characteristic base peaks as well as other daughter ions. In crude extracts, 34 catechin derivatives, 34 flavonoids, and 17 other compounds were identified. Interestingly, further analysis of compounds showed plant part specific unique pattern of metabolites; that is, regenerated bark is observed to be the best source for catechin/catechin derivative while flowers were found to be the source for wide variety of flavonoids. Moreover, these plant part specific compounds can be used as biomarkers for the identification of plant material or herbal drugs. Overall, the present study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the phenolic components of this herb which may be helpful not only to understand their usage but also to contribute to quality control as well. PMID:23986876

Mittal, Ashwani; Kadyan, Preeti; Gahlaut, Anjum

2013-01-01

294

The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.  

PubMed

Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples. PMID:24660477

Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

2014-01-01

295

Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.  

PubMed

The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo. PMID:11332848

Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

2001-04-01

296

Determination of melatonin content in traditional Thai herbal remedies used as sleeping aids  

PubMed Central

Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora,?S. glandiflora,?M. charantia,?S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin. PMID:24393215

2014-01-01

297

Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

2014-01-01

298

Production of rohitukine in leaves and seeds of Dysoxylum binectariferum: An alternate renewable resource.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Rohitukine is an important precursor for the synthesis of potential anticancer drugs flavopiridol (Sanofi-Aventis) and P-276-00 (Piramal Healthcare Limited, Mumbai, India). Trunk bark of Dysoxylum binectariferum (Roxb.) Hook. f. ex Bedd. (Meliaceae) is the widely used source for isolation of rohitukine. However, removal of trunk bark threatens the survival of the tree. Objective: To investigate the amount of rohitukine accumulated in other tissues of D. binectariferum. Materials and methods: Rohitukine standard was isolated from leaves of D. binectariferum. Its purity was ascertained using HR-MS and NMR. Crude extracts were prepared from different tissues of D. binectariferum. Rohitukine content in all the tissues was quantified by HPLC. Results: Rohitukine accumulates in a significant amount in seeds, trunk bark, leaves, twigs, and fruits of D. binectariferum. Seeds have the highest rohitukine content (2.42%, dry weight) followed by trunk bark (1.34%, dry weight), leaves (1.064%, dry weight), twigs (0.844% dry weight), and fruits (0.4559% dry weight). Discussion and conclusion: Seeds and leaves of D. binectariferum could be used as alternate renewable sources for isolation of rohitukine. PMID:25472605

Mahajan, Vidushi; Sharma, Neha; Kumar, Sunil; Bhardwaj, Vikram; Ali, Asif; Khajuria, R K; Bedi, Y S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

2014-12-01

299

A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation  

PubMed Central

The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O–H structure at 2940 cm?1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid). PMID:20814525

Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P.; Mukherjee, A.

2010-01-01

300

Evaluation of repellent properties of botanical extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

In recent times, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. The present study explored the effects of crude leaf ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. on repellent activity against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extracts of A. lineata, C. hirsutus, and E. prostrata and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with the different extracts tested. The ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata showed 100% repellency in 120 min; acetone extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus and methanol extract of T. erecta showed complete protection in 90 min at 250 ppm, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and C. hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the C. tritaeniorhynchus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the repellent activity against Japanese encephalitis, C. tritaeniorhynchus of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20480375

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

2010-08-01

301

Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles.  

PubMed

Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels (Menispermaceae), Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) and Tagetes erecta L. (Compositae) on ovicidal and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of egg hatching in methanol extracts of Andrographis lineata, Cocculus hirsutus and T. erecta were 16, 12 and 16 exerted at 500 ppm, respectively. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was 97.77 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency was 42.06 at 31.25 ppm in methanol and acetone extracts of Andrographis lineata and Andrographis paniculata, respectively. The oviposition activity index values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Culex tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:20372924

Elango, G; Rahuman, A Abdul; Kamaraj, C; Zahir, A Abduz; Bagavan, A

2010-06-01

302

Isolation and Characterization of Antibacterial Compound from a Mangrove-Endophytic Fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108.  

PubMed

Microorganisms, especially endophytic fungi that reside in the tissue of living mangrove plants, seem to play a major role in meeting the general demand for new biologically active substances. During the course of screening for biologically active secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms, an antibiotic compound containing an indole and a diketopiperazine moiety was isolated from the culture medium of Penicillium chrysogenum, (MTCC 5108), an endophytic fungus on the mangrove plant Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.). The cell free culture medium of P. chrysogenum showed significant activity against Vibrio cholerae, (MCM B-322), a pathogen causing cholera in humans. Bioassay guided chemical characterization of the crude extract led to the isolation of a secondary metabolite possessing a molecular formula C19H21O2N3. Its antibacterial activity was comparable with standard antibiotic, streptomycin. This compound (1) was found to be (3,1'-didehydro-3[2?(3'?,3'?-dimethyl-prop-2-enyl)-3?-indolylmethylene]-6-methyl pipera-zine-2,5-dione) on the basis of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. PMID:24293720

Devi, Prabha; Rodrigues, Cheryl; Naik, C G; D'Souza, L

2012-12-01

303

Flavonoid and stilbenoid production in callus cultures of Artocarpus lakoocha.  

PubMed

Callus cultures of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb., established from seedling explants and maintained on woody plant medium containing 1mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1mg/l benzyladenine, were studied for their chemical constituents and biosynthetic potential of secondary metabolites. Four prenylflavones and prenylated stilbenes, along with nine known polyphenolic compounds, were isolated and elucidated for their structures through extensive analysis of their NMR and MS data. Among the 13 isolates, it appeared that seven of them are prenylated derivatives of 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavones, and four are prenylated derivatives of 2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene (oxyresveratrol), suggesting that the biosynthetic pathways of these two polyphenolic groups and their prenylating enzymes are highly expressed in A. lakoocha callus cultures. A study on the growth-product relationship of the callus cultures showed that the secondary metabolites were all formed simultaneously during the rapid growth phase of the culture cycle, with various prenylflavones, and a prenylated stilbene as major constituents. In assays for DPPH free radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibitory potential, the stilbenoids appeared to possess moderate effects, whereas the flavonoids showed only weak activity. PMID:22769436

Maneechai, Suthira; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

2012-09-01

304

Total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential of extracts of medicinal plants of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven plant organs, traditionally used as drugs, collected in Pakistan, were extracted with 70% acetone and analyzed for their total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential. Seven extracts showed more than 85% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro as compared with blank. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 233.6 microg/l +/- 28.3) was the strongest antioxidant in our test system. The IC50 results indicate that the extracts of Nymphaea lotus L. flowers, Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile beans, Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits, and Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, brown) were stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol, while Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruit coat), Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, black) and Ricinus communis L. leaves were weaker antioxidant extracts than alpha-tocopherol and BHT. Total phenolics concentration, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, showed close correlation with the antioxidant activity. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis with diode array detection at 280 nm, of the seven extracts indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol aglycones and their glycosides as main phenolics compounds. This information, based on quick screening methods, enables us to proceed towards more detailed chemical and pharmacological understanding of these plant materials. PMID:11837686

Saleem, A; Ahotupa, M; Pihlaja, K

2001-01-01

305

Formulation, Physicochemical Characterization, and In Vitro Study of Chitosan/HPMC Blends-Based Herbal Blended Patches.  

PubMed

The current work prepared chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blends and studied the possibility of chitosan/HPMC blended patches for Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The blended patches without/with crude Z. cassumunar oil were prepared by homogeneously mixing the 3.5% w/v of chitosan solution and 20% w/v of HPMC solution, and glycerine was used as plasticizer. Then, they were poured into Petri dish and produced the blended patches in hot air oven at 70?±?2°C. The blended patches were tested and evaluated by the physicochemical properties: moisture uptake, swelling ratio, erosion, porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, and photographed the surface and cross-section morphology under SEM technique. Herbal blended patches were studied by the in vitro release and skin permeation of active compound D. The blended patches could absorb the moisture and became hydrated patches that occurred during the swelling of blended patches. They were eroded and increased by the number of porous channels to pass through out for active compound D. In addition, the blended patches indicated the compatibility of the blended ingredients and homogeneous smooth and compact. The blended patches made from chitosan/HPMC blends provide a controlled release and skin permeation behavior of compound D. Thus, the blended patches could be suitably used for herbal medicine application. PMID:25233803

Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Madaka, Fameera; Chusut, Tun; Saingam, Worawan; Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Boonme, Prapaporn

2015-02-01

306

Molecular, functional and ultrastructural characterisation of plastids from six species of the parasitic flowering plant genus Cuscuta.  

PubMed

Plastids of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., C. subinclusa D. et H., C. gronovii Willd. and C. campestris Yunck. possess thylakoids and contain both chlorophyll a and b in a ratio similar to that of stem tissue of the systematically closely related but 'normal' green Ipomoea tricolor. In contrast, plastids of C. odorata R. et P. and C. grandiflora H.B.K. do not contain any chlorophyll or possess thylakoids. Light-driven electron transport, as measured by oxygen evolution and indicated by analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence, was present in all chlorophyll-containing species. The photosystem II efficiency was low and ranged from 0.511 to 0.687. The plastid rbcL gene could not be detected in C. odorata, but was present in all other tested species. Neither rbcL transcripts nor the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) could be detected in C. odorata and C. grandiflora. Low amounts of the large subunit of Rubisco were detected immunologically in all other Cuscuta species. Apparently, the genus Cuscuta comprises species with different degrees of plastid functionality, ranging from intact chloroplasts, via plastids with impaired protein production and gene expression to plastids with reduced plastome gene content. PMID:10805440

van der Kooij, T A; Krause, K; Dörr, I; Krupinska, K

2000-04-01

307

Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, ?-pinene and ?-pinene for rosemary and ?-pinene, linalool and ?-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 ?g Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 ?mol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

308

Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.  

PubMed

One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

2007-07-01

309

Does forest fragmentation affect the same way all growth-forms?  

PubMed

Fragmentation of natural habitats is one of the main causes of the loss of biodiversity. However, all plants do not respond to habitat fragmentation in the same way due to differences in species traits. We studied the effect of patch size and isolation on the biodiversity of vegetation in the mixed-oak forests in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The aim was to evaluate whether all the growth-forms of vegetation are equally affected by forest fragmentation in order to improve the management strategies to restore this type of vegetation. This study has shown that the effect of the area and spatial isolation of the patches was not the same for the different growth-forms. Fragmentation had a mainly negative effect on the richness and diversity of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbaceous growth-forms. Moreover, the presence and/or cover of woodland herbaceous species (such as Lamiastrum galeobdolon and Helleborus viridis) and of woodland ferns (namely Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Asplenium trichomanes, Polystichum setiferum, Dryopteris affinis) were negatively affected by patch size, possibly due to the reduction of habitat quality. These species have been replaced by more generalist species (such as Cardamine pratensis, Cirsium sp., Pulmonaria longifolia or Rumex acetosella) in small patches. Patch isolation had a negative effect on the presence of forest specialist species (namely, L. galeobdolon, Frangula alnus, Hypericum androsaemum, A. adiantum-nigrum and Athyrium filix-femina) and favored colonization by more generalist species such as Cirsium sp., Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea or Ulex sp. Thus, in this region special attention should be paid to the conservation of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbs. In conservation policy focused on forest specialist species, the most valuable species in forest ecosystems, conservation of large forest areas should be promoted. PMID:21924813

Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Amezaga, Ibone; Onaindia, Miren

2012-02-01

310

Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

2010-11-01

311

Bioactive compounds, RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics, and antioxidant activity of some Portuguese shrub species extracts.  

PubMed

In the ecosystem of Serra Da Estrela, some plant species have the potential to be used as raw material for extraction of bioactive products. The goal of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents of the methanolic extracts of some shrubs (Echinospartum ibericum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Juniperus communis, Ruscus aculeatus, Rubus ulmifolius, Hakea sericea, Cytisus multiflorus, Crataegus monogyna, Erica arborea and Ipomoea acuminata), and then to correlate the phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity of each extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu's method was used for the determination of total phenols, and tannins were then precipitated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); a colorimetric method with aluminum chloride was used for the determination of flavonoids, and a Dragendorff's reagent method was used for total alkaloid estimation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene bleaching tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity of extracts. The identification of phenolic compounds present in extracts was performed using RP-HPLC. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was observed. The RP-HPLC procedure showed that the most common compounds were ferulic and ellagic acids and quercetin. Most of the studied shrubs have significant antioxidant properties that are probably due to the existence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. It is noteworthy to emphasize that for Echinospartum ibericum, Hakea sericea and Ipomoea acuminata, to the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical studies have been undertaken nor their use in traditional medicine been described. PMID:22312726

Luís, Angelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

2011-12-01

312

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Vietnamese edible plants and their relationships with polyphenol contents.  

PubMed

The prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases by using the beneficial biological effects of polyphenolic plants have attracted increasing interest from nutritional scientists. The a-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts from 28 common Vietnamese edible plants, comprising 4 groups (plants used for making drinks, edible wild vegetables, herbs, and dark green vegetables), were investigated in vitro. The polyphenol contents of these extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and calculated as catechin equivalents. The extracts from plants used for making drinks showed the highest activities for both a-glucosidase inhibition and as antioxidants, followed by edible wild vegetables, herbs, and dark green vegetables. Positive relationships among alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities, antioxidant activities and polyphenol contents of these 28 edible plants were found in both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Four new promising materials that are similar to or better than guava leaf extract, including Syzygium zeylanicum, Cleistocalyx operculatus, Horsfieldia amygdalina and Careya arborea demonstrated high alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (93, 76, 68 and 67%, respectively) at the final concentration of 0.8 mg lyophilized material/mL solution and antioxidant activity (85, 87, 78 and 80%, respectively) at the final concentration of 30 pg lyophilized material/mL solution. These four edible plants contained significantly high polyphenol contents (equivalent to 251.7, 146.6, 136.6 and 168.6 mg of catechin/g dry weight, respectively). Thus, these four materials might be possible new sources of a-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidants suitable for use as functional foods in the future. PMID:17874833

Mai, Truong Tuyet; Thu, Nghiem Nguyet; Tien, Pham Gia; Van Chuyen, Nguyen

2007-06-01

313

Are summit metabolism and thermogenic endurance correlated in winter-acclimatized passerine birds?  

PubMed

Small birds exhibiting marked winter improvement of cold tolerance also show elevated summit metabolic rates (maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) in winter relative to summer. However, relatively large increases in cold tolerance can occur with only minor increments of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and geographic variation in cold tolerance is not always positively correlated with variation in maximum cold-induced metabolic rate. Thus, it is uncertain whether maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance are phenotypically correlated in small birds and no previous study has directly examined this relationship. I measured maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance (i.e., thermogenic endurance) over three winters in black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus, American tree sparrows Spizella arborea, and dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis. For raw thermogenic endurance data, residuals of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance from mass regressions were significantly and positively correlated in juncos and tree sparrows, and their correlation approached significance for chickadees. Log10 transformation of thermogenic endurance and mass data gave similar results. These data provide the first direct evidence for a phenotypic correlation between maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance in small birds, although much of the variance in thermogenic endurance is explained by factors other than maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and the degree of correlation differs among species. Nevertheless, these data suggest that physiological adjustments producing elevated thermogenic endurance also produce elevated maximum cold-induced metabolic rate in small birds. PMID:11585259

Swanson, D L

2001-08-01

314

Amplification, contraction and genomic spread of a satellite DNA family (E180) in Medicago (Fabaceae) and allied genera  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Satellite DNA is a genomic component present in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. The turnover of highly repetitive satellite DNA is an important element in genome organization and evolution in plants. Here we assess the presence and physical distribution of the repetitive DNA E180 family in Medicago and allied genera. Our goals were to gain insight into the karyotype evolution of Medicago using satellite DNA markers, and to evaluate the taxonomic and phylogenetic signal of a satellite DNA family in a genus hypothesized to have a complex evolutionary history. Methods Seventy accessions from Medicago, Trigonella, Melilotus and Trifolium were analysed by PCR to assess the presence of the repetitive E180 family, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping in somatic chromosomes. Key Results The E180 repeat unit was PCR-amplified in 37 of 40 taxa in Medicago, eight of 12 species of Trigonella, six of seven species of Melilotus and in two of 11 Trifolium species. Examination of the mitotic chromosomes revealed that only 13 Medicago and two Trigonella species showed FISH signals using the E180 probe. Stronger hybridization signals were observed in subtelomeric and interstitial loci than in the pericentromeric loci, suggesting this satellite family has a preferential genomic location. Not all 13 Medicago species that showed FISH localization of the E180 repeat were phylogenetically related. However, nine of these species belong to the phylogenetically derived clade including the M. sativa and M. arborea complexes. Conclusions The use of the E180 family as a phylogenetic marker in Medicago should be viewed with caution. Its amplification appears to have been produced through recurrent and independent evolutionary episodes in both annual and perennial Medicago species as well as in basal and derived clades. PMID:22186276

Rosato, Marcela; Galián, José A.; Rosselló, Josep A.

2012-01-01

315

Physiological adjustments to arid and mesic environments in larks (Alaudidae).  

PubMed

Because deserts are characterized by low food availability, high ambient temperature extremes, and absence of drinking water, one might expect that birds that live in these conditions exhibit a lower basal metabolic rate (BMR), reduced total evaporative water loss (TEWL), and greater ability to cope with high air temperatures than their mesic counterparts. To minimize confounding effects of phylogeny, we compared the physiological performance of four species of larks at ambient temperatures (T(a)'s) ranging from 0 degrees to 50 degrees C: hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni) live in hot and dry deserts, whereas skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea) occur in temperate mesic areas. Mass-adjusted BMR and TEWL were indistinguishable between hoopoe lark and Dunn's lark and between skylark and woodlark. When grouping the data of the two desert larks in one set and the data of the two mesic larks in another, desert larks are shown to have 43% lower BMR levels and 27% lower TEWL values than the mesic species. Their body temperatures (T(b)'s) were 1.1 degrees C lower, and the minimal dry heat transfer coefficients (h) were 26% below values for the mesic larks. When T(a) exceeded T(b), the h of hoopoe larks and Dunn's larks was high and indistinguishable from h at 40 degrees C, in contrast to the prediction that h should be decreased to minimize heat gain through conductance, convection, or radiation from the environment when T(a) exceeds T(b). PMID:12177833

Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B; Buschur, Michael E

2002-01-01

316

Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

2010-11-01

317

Increased sensitivity of the serotonergic system during the breeding season in free-living American tree sparrows.  

PubMed

In order to understand the physiological role of serotonin in regulating aggressive behaviour it is important to understand how this neuromodulator acts within the context of a naturally fluctuating social and physical environment. To accomplish this, we examined the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine during the breeding season in free-living male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in Northern Alaska. During this time period males are maximally aggressive towards territorial intruders. Male, territorial sparrows were injected with either vehicle or a 10 mg/kg dose of fluoxetine. One hour later, aggression was measured using a simulated territorial intrusion. Depending upon when birds were sampled, the aggression scores for vehicle and fluoxetine treatments were grouped according to the number of days after territorial behaviour was initiated. The three groups were: early, days 1-5; middle, days 6-10; and late, days 11-15. There was a significant overall difference between groups (F(5,36)=5.18, P<0.0015). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that the level of aggression did not differ between the three groups of saline injected birds. However, fluoxetine injected birds showed a time dependent decrease in aggression. When compared to control birds the middle and late fluoxetine groups had significantly less aggression. Furthermore, the late group of fluoxetine treated birds were significantly less aggressive than the early group of fluoxetine birds. This demonstrates that free-living male ATSPs show a rapid change in their behavioural response to fluoxetine across the first 2 weeks of the breeding season. The rapidity of the change in responsiveness suggests a dynamic sensitivity of the serotonergic system. PMID:15617778

Sperry, Todd S; Moore, Ignacio T; Meddle, Simone L; Benowitz-Fredericks, Z Morgan; Wingfield, John C

2005-02-10

318

Comparative phytochemical, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of various samples of Swertia Chirayita collected from various cities of Pakistan.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are crucial for about 80% of the world population in developing and developed countries for their primary and basic health care needs owing to better tolerability, superior compatibility with human body and having lesser side effects. The present study was conducted on various solvent extracts of three plant samples of Indian and Nepali origin Swertia Chirayita (Roxb.) Buch-ham (Chiratia) collected from various places to establish their comparative phytochemical analysis, chromatographic profile, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. Nepali Swertia Chirayita was found to have finest Chromatographic profile (TLC). Phytochemical analysis revealed Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, ascorbic acid, glycosides, steroids and triterpenoids in all samples. Different solvent fractions of the methanolic plant extracts of Swertia chirayita were assessed for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The grade of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT/ALT) and total bilirubin. The in-vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The methanolic and aqueous extracts, at a dose of 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg, produced significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. Decreased observed in the biochemical parameters suggests that the plant extracts possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities without any significant variation amongst them. These activities reside mainly in the methanolic extract of whole plant. PMID:25362620

Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Tabassum, Sobia; Malik, Farnaz; Riaz, Humayun

2014-11-01

319

Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.  

PubMed

An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-06-01

320

Growth and lead accumulation by the grasses Vetiveria zizanioides and Thysanolaena maxima in lead-contaminated soil amended with pig manure and fertilizer: a glasshouse study.  

PubMed

Bo Ngam lead mine soils contain high concentrations of lead (up 1% total Pb) and low amounts of organic matter and major nutrients (N, P, K). A glasshouse study was conducted to compare growth performance, metal tolerance and metal uptake by two grasses, Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O. Kuntze and four ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (three from Thailand: Surat Thani, Songkhla and Kamphaeng Phet, and one from Sri Lanka) and to study the effects of pig manure (20% and 40% w/w) and inorganic fertilizer (75 and 150 mg kg(-1)) amendments to this lead mine soil. The results showed that both T. maxima and V. zizanioides (Surat Thani and Songkhla) could tolerate high Pb concentrations in soil (10750 mg kg(-1)) and had very good growth performance. Application of pig manure increased electrical conductivity (EC) and reduced DTPA-extractable Pb concentration in the soils. Pig manure application improved the growth of vetiver, especially at 20%, application dosage. Vetiver had the highest biomass. T. maxima could not tolerate high EC values. The uptake by roots and transport of Pb to shoots of both species was reduced when soils were amended with pig manure. Application of inorganic fertilizer did not improve growth of vetiver but did improve that of T. maxima. Fertilizer application did not have any great influence on the Pb uptake in vetiver while T. maxima took up more Pb as a result of the fertilizer enhancing its biomass yield. Both species transported low Pb concentrations to shoots (8.3-179 mg kg(-1)) and accumulated higher concentrations in roots (107-911 mg kg(-1)). In summary, both species may be species well suited for phytostabilization in tropical lead mine areas. PMID:16828842

Rotkittikhun, P; Chaiyarat, R; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; Baker, A J M

2007-01-01

321

Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains.  

PubMed

In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indica L., Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Sebania sesban (L.) Merr. and Xylia xylocarpa Roxb. Taub., collected from South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds. All the samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (3.12-6.69 g/100 g DM), tannins (1.10-4.41 g/100 g DM), L-Dopa (1.34-5.45 g/100 g DM) and phytic acid (0.98-3.14 g/100 g DM). In general, the seed materials of X. xylocarpa recorded high levels of total free phenolics and tannins, whereas the maximum levels of L-Dopa and phytic acid were noticed in M. gigantea and S. sesban, respectively. Further, presently investigated all the bioactive compounds were drastically reduced during soaking in tamarind solution + cooking as well as soaking in alkaline solution + cooking, and thus these treatments were considered to be more aggressive practices. Open-pan roasting also demonstrated a significant reduction of total free phenolics, tannins and moderate loss of L-Dopa and phytic acid. Alternatively, sprouting + oil-frying showed significant level of increase of total free phenolics (9-27%) and tannins (12-28%), but diminishing effect on phytic acid and L-Dopa. Hence, among the presently employed treatments, sprouting + oil-frying could be recommended as a suitable treatment for the versatile utilization of these wild under-utilized legume grains for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases. PMID:24293686

Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K

2012-12-01

322

A Phytoestrogen Diarylheptanoid Mediates Estrogen Receptor/Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? Protein-dependent Activation of the Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Estrogen promotes growth in many tissues by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Recently, ASPP 049, a diarylheptanoid isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb., has been identified as a phytoestrogen. This investigation determined the involvement of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the estrogenic activity of this diarylheptanoid in transfected HEK 293T and in mouse preosteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells using a TOPflash luciferase assay and immunofluorescence. ASPP 049 rapidly activated T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor-mediated transcription activity and induced ?-catenin accumulation in the nucleus. Interestingly, the effects of ASPP 049 on the transcriptional activity and induction and accumulation of ?-catenin protein in the nucleus of MC3T3-E1 cells were greater compared with estradiol. Activation of ?-catenin in MC3T3-E1 cells was inhibited by ICI 182,780, suggesting that an estrogen receptor is required. In addition, ASPP 049 induced phosphorylations at serine 473 of Akt and serine 9 of GSK-3?. Moreover, ASPP 049 also induced proliferation and expressions of Wnt target genes Axin2 and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, ASPP 049 increased alkaline phosphatase expression, and activity that was abolished by DKK-1, a blocker of the Wnt/?-catenin receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that ASPP 049 from C. comosa induced osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation through ER?-, Akt-, and GSK-3?-dependent activation of ?-catenin signaling. Our findings provide a scientific rationale for using C. comosa as a dietary supplement to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:22936801

Bhukhai, Kanit; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Bhummaphan, Narumol; Janjorn, Keatdamrong; Thongon, Natthakan; Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chairoungdua, Arthit

2012-01-01

323

Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber extracts against human hepatoma cell line  

PubMed Central

Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume belonging to the family of Araceae, is a perennial herb commonly known as elephant foot yam. Its tuber has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, abdominal tumors, piles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) namely petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MeF) on human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and 5,5’,6,6’ tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME were found to produce considerable cytotoxicity in human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were substantiated by DAPI, annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MeF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect were observed in PEF treated cells. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25657798

Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

2014-01-01

324

Potential targets by pentacyclic triterpenoids from Callicarpa farinosa against methicillin-resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

The evolution of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus showed that there is no long-lasting remedy against this pathogen. The limited number of antibacterial classes and the common occurrence of cross-resistance within and between classes reinforce the urgent need to discover new compounds targeting novel cellular functions not yet targeted by currently used drugs. One of the experimental approaches used to discover novel antibacterials and their in vitro targets is natural product screening. Three known pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated for the first time from the bark of Callicarpa farinosa Roxb. (Verbenaceae) and identified as ?-amyrin [3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-3-ol], betulinic acid [3?-hydroxy-20(29)-lupaene-28-oic acid], and betulinaldehyde [3?-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-al]. These compounds exhibited antimicrobial activities against reference and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 2 to 512 ?g/mL. From the genome-wide transcriptomic analysis to elucidate the antimicrobial effects of these compounds, multiple novel cellular targets in cell division, two-component system, ABC transporters, fatty acid biosynthesis, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes and ?-lactam resistance pathways are affected, resulting in destabilization of the bacterial cell membrane, halt in protein synthesis, and inhibition of cell growth that eventually lead to cell death. The novel targets in these essential pathways could be further explored in the development of therapeutic compounds for the treatment of S. aureus infections and help mitigate resistance development due to target alterations. PMID:24508863

Chung, Pooi Yin; Chung, Lip Yong; Navaratnam, Parasakthi

2014-04-01

325

Anti-HIV-1 activity, protease inhibition and safety profile of extracts prepared from Rhus parviflora  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, extracts prepared from the leaves of Rhus parviflora Roxb. (Anacardiaceae) were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity, which have been traditionally used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, insomnia and epilepsy. Methods Aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts prepared from leaves of the plant were tested for their cytotoxicity and anti-HIV property using reporter gene based assays as well as human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Further these extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease activity. Safety profile of the extracts was determined on viability of Lactobacillus sp., secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by vaginal keratinocytes and transepithelial resistance. Results Both aqueous (IC50?=?15 ?g/ml) and 50% ethanolic (IC50?=?26 ?g/ml) extracts prepared from leaves of R. parviflora showed anti-HIV activity in TZM-bl cells wherein the virus was treated with the extracts prior to infection. Further, both the extracts also inhibited virus load in HIV infected CEM-GFP cells and human PBLs. The anti-HIV activity is mediated through inhibition of HIV-1 protease activity. Both the extracts did not disturb the integrity of monolayer formed by intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The extracts when tested up to 100 ?g/ml did not significantly reduce the viability of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. casei. The extracts (100 ?g/ml) did not reveal any cytotoxic effect on vaginal keratinocytes (Vk2/E6E7). Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by Vk2/E6E7 cells treated with both the plant extracts were within the non-inflammatory range. Conclusions The studies reported herein showed in vitro anti-HIV activity and preliminary safety profile of the extracts prepared from the leaves of R. parviflora. PMID:24059266

2013-01-01

326

Structure and Function of Shisham Forests in Central Himalaya, India: Dry Matter Dynamics  

PubMed Central

The biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of 5? to 15?year?old Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests growing in central Himalaya were estimated. Allometric equations were developed for all above? and below?ground components of trees and shrubs for each stand. Understorey forest floor biomass and litter fall were also estimated in forest stands. The biomass (dry matter), forest floor biomass (standing crop litter), tree litter fall and NPP of trees and shrubs increased with increasing age of the forest stand, whereas the dry matter and herb NPP decreased significantly (P < 0·001) with increasing age of the forest. Total forest biomass and NPP ranged from 58·7 (5?year?old stand) to 136·1 t ha–1 (15?year?old stand) and 12·6 (5?year?old stand) to 20·3 t ha–1 year–1 (15?year?old stand), respectively. Of these values, tree biomass accounted for 85·7 (5?year?old stand) to 90·1 % (15?year?old) of total forest biomass, and tree NPP for 72·2 (5?year?old) to 82·3 % (15?year?old) of total forest NPP. The biomass accumulation ratio (BAR) of the bole component (bole wood + bole bark) increased with increasing age of the forest stand. The bole BAR was 5·8 (5?year?old stand) to 7·9 (15?year?old stand). However, total BAR of the forest stand ranged from 5·5 (5?year?old) to 7·5 (15?year?old). PMID:12096818

LODHIYAL, NEELU; LODHIYAL, L. S.; PANGTEY, Y. P. S.

2002-01-01

327

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

2011-03-01

328

Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi.  

PubMed

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus L. Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. tested against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). All plant extracts showed moderate adulticidal activity and EI effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in ethyl acetate extract of A.lineata, chloroform extract of A. paniculata, acetone extract of C. hirsutus, and methanol extract of T. erecta (LD(50)?= 126.92, 95.82, 109.40, and 89.83 ppm; LD(90)?= 542.95, 720.82, 459.03, and 607.85 ppm); and effective EI was found in leaf acetone extract of the A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extracts of C. hirsutus, and T. erecta, (EI(50)?= 128.14, 79.39, 143.97, and 92.82 ppm; EI(90)?= 713.53, 293.70, 682.72, and 582.59 ppm), respectively, against A. subpictus. These results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of C. hirsutus and T. erecta have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity and EI of plant extracts against malaria vector. PMID:21136078

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

2011-06-01

329

Antitumor effects of novel compound, guttiferone K, on colon cancer by p21Waf1/Cip1-mediated G(0) /G(1) cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Low selectivity is one of the major problems of currently used anticancer drugs, therefore, there is a high demand for novel, selective antitumor agents. In this study, the anticancer effects and mechanisms of guttiferone K (GUTK), a novel polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol derivative isolated from Garcinia cowa Roxb., were examined for its development as a novel drug targeting colon cancer. GUTK concentration- and time-dependently reduced the viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells (IC(50) value 5.39 ± 0.22 ?M) without affecting the viability of normal human colon epithelial CCD 841 CoN cells and induced G(0) /G(1) cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells by down-regulating cyclins D1, D3 and cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, while selectively restoring p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 to levels comparable to those observed in normal colon cells, without affecting their levels in normal cells. GUTK (10.0 ?M) induced cleavage of PARP, caspases-3, -8 and -9 and chromatin condensation to stimulate caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. The addition of a JNK inhibitor, SP600125, partially reversed GUTK-induced caspase-3 activity, indicating the possible involvement of JNK in GUTK-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, GUTK (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the tumor volume in a syngeneic colon tumor model when used alone or in combination with 5-fluorouracil without toxicity to the mice. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor sections revealed a mechanism involving an increase in cleaved caspase-3 and a decrease in cell proliferation marker Ki-67. Our results support GUTK as a promising novel, potent and selective antitumor drug candidate for colon cancer. PMID:22733377

Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Yin, Chun; Xu, Hong Xi; Xu, Gang; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Cho, Chi Hin; Rudd, John Anthony; Lin, Ge

2013-02-01

330

Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plants possessing generalized dispersal syndromes are likely to be more invasive than those relying on specialist dispersal agents. To address this issue on a local and regional scale, avian seed dispersal of the invasive alien Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was assessed in forests and spoil areas of South Carolina and along forest edges in Louisiana during the 1997-99 fruiting seasons. Tallow trees in these floristically distinct habitats had a few common and many casual visitors, and considerable species overlap among habitats was found. However, bird species differed in the importance of dispersing and dropping seeds among habitats. Important dispersal agents common to forests and spoil areas of South Carolina included Northern Flicker, American Robin and Redwinged Blackbird, whereas Red-bellied Woodpecker and European Starling were important in the former and latter habitat, respectively. In Louisiana, Red-bellied Woodpecker, American Robin, Northern Cardinal and Eastern Bluebird dispersed many seeds. Nearly all species foraging on seeds were winter residents. Estimated numbers of seeds dispersed and dropped were higher in spoil areas of South Carolina than in Louisiana because of higher numbers of individuals per visit, higher seed consumption and seed dropping rates, and longer foraging durations. Within South Carolina, more seeds were dispersed and dropped in spoil areas than in forests because of higher numbers of birds per visit. These findings show that among habitats, tallow tree attracts diverse but variable coteries of dispersal agents that are qualitatively similar in seed usage patterns. We suggest that its generalized dispersal syndrome contributes to effective seed dispersal by many bird species throughout its range. Effects of differential avian use among locales may include changes in local bird communities, and differing tallow tree demographics and invasion patterns.

Renne, I.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Johnson, Randall L.A.; Bridges, W.C., Jr.

2002-01-01

331

Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration <1000 ppm, play a structural role in the organisms and use proteins as a carrier to their target site. Their toxicity depends on their concentration, speciation and reactions with other elements. In volcanic environments, significant amounts of trace elements discharged from gas emissions, contribute to produce air particulate. Nisyros Island is a stratovolcano located at the South Aegean active Volcanic Arc. Intense hydrothermal activity characterise the Lakki caldera. In particular, the fumaroles located in the craters of Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos Dome and the area comprising Phlegeton, Polyvotes Micros and Polyvotes Megalos discharge hydrothermal fluids rich in H2O (91- 99%), SO2 and H2S. Their temperatures are almost 100o C and H2S is highly abundant accounting for 8-26 % of the released dry gas phase. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field trip on Nisyros island, 39 samples of top soils and 31 of endemic plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in particular for Tl, Rb, Zn, Mn, As, Pb, Se, Bi, Al. The highest concentrations were found both in soils and plants close to the most active fumarolic areas of Stefanos, Kaminakia and Polyvotes and also close to the Geothermal Drill (exploration well). Moreover, both soils and plants showed a good correlation between Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, Bi-Pb, Ba-Sr, Bi-Tl, Ti-Al, Ni-Al, Tl-As, Te-Tl, Te-Se as well as REE's. From the comparison between Cistus sp. and Erica sp. we found a significant enrichment in the former respect to the latter, making Cistus sp. the most suitable plant for biomonitoring studies at Nisyros.

Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

2014-05-01

332

Herbal preparation extract for skin after radiotherapy treatment. Part One--Preclinical tests.  

PubMed

Naran R is a herbal composition made of Plantago lanceolate folium, Malvae arboreae flos, Calendulae flos, Chamomillae inflorescentia, Lamii albi flos to prepare compresses or to wash skin with inflammations. The extract of this preparation is mixed to be applied as an ointment on patients' skin after radiotherapy. Experiments performed in vitro are part of pre-clinical tests with Naran R ointment. This study examined the impact of the plant composition for ethanol-water extract on human skin fibroblasts (HSF) culture. Samples of extract, prepared from patented amounts of herbs, were in the range of 25-225 ?g/mL. Six methods were applied: standard spectrophotometric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red (NR) uptake assay, DPPH free radical scavenging test, labeling of cytoskeleton F-actin, staining of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) and trypan blue coloration. The extract concentration 75 ?g/mL was established as safe for application on human skin. In labeling of F-actin with rhodamine-phalloidin dye at this concentration the cytoskeleton was stable. The extract did not influence the membrane stability and had positive influence on the proliferation activity. It was confirmed in AgNOR test during incubation with extract, which led to formation of larger amount of smaller nucleolins. In DPPH scavenging activity test, the extract revealed over 8% higher free-radical scavenging activity in comparison to control. After trypan blue staining, the extract in concentration 125 ?g/mL significantly lowered the cell viability. When the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity of the extracts were analyzed, MTT and Neutral Red (NR) methods were used. The cells' viability was maintained on a constant level (80-110%) after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. During all time of NR test (72 h) and even when 225 ?g/mL of extract was applied, the viability of cells was in range 80-110% of control. Positive influence of the extract on investigated cells structure and proliferation, lack of toxicity and increasing anti-oxidant activity enable to consider this preparation as a natural remedy with potential application in skin therapy after radiation. PMID:25362806

Skalska-Kami?ska, Agnieszka; Wo?niak, Anna; Paduch, Roman; Kocjan, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

2014-01-01

333

Type of litter determines the formation and properties of charred material during wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances all over the World, affecting both the amount and composition of forest floor and mineral soils. In comparison with unburnt areas, wildfire-affected forest floor usually shows lower contents of labile C compounds and higher concentrations of recalcitrant aromatic forms. These changes in composition can have important impact on biogeochemical cycles and therefore ecosystem functions. Although burning of different types of litter can lead to different amount and types of pyrogenic compounds, this aspect has not been evaluated yet. The effect of wildfire on SOM composition and stability were evaluated in five major types of non-wood litter in Mediterranean ecosystems: Pinus nigra, E. arborea, P. pinaster, U. europaeus and Eucalyptus globulus. In each of these ecosystems, forest floor samples from different soil burn severities were sampled. Soil burnt severities were based on visual signs of changes in forest floor and deposition of ash. Pyrogenic carbon quality were analysed using elementary analysis, solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (FTIR) and thermal analysis (simultaneous DSC-TG). The study showed that the different types of litter influenced the formation and characteristics of charred material. They differed in the temperature at which they start to be formed, the amounts of charred compounds and in their chemical composition. The resulting charred materials from the different litter, showed an important variability in the degree of carbonitation/aromatization. Unlike the biochar obtained through pyrolysis of woody sources, which contains exclusively aromatic structures, in the charred material produced in some litter, lignin, cellulose and even cellulose persist even in the high soil burnt severity. Coinciding with increases in aromatic contents, important decreases in atomic H/C and O/C ratios were recorded. However, the values found in some litters, were higher than 0.5, suggesting that low degree of carbonization/aromatization. Although burning also led to compounds of higher thermal recalcitrance (increases in T50 values), values recorded in some litters were lower than those measured in highly polycondensed aromatic compounds. The differences found among the different forest floor cannot be only attributable to the initial SOM composition of the litter. Other aspects, such as the different thermal sensitivity, flammability and different conditions during wildfire (temperatures, combustion duration, oxygen concentrations) could also have contributed.

Chavez, Bruno; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Salgado, Josefa; García-Oliva, Felipe; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

2014-05-01

334

The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.  

PubMed

This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities. Thereby, depending on the level of habitat quality that is aimed at, different measures may provide the most efficient solution. Lower levels of conservation can be achieved with low-cost adapted CPAs, such as an increased cutting height, reduced sowing density and grubbing instead of ploughing. Higher levels of conservation require e.g. grassland-like managed buffer strips around ponds in sensible areas, which incur much higher on-farm conservation costs. PMID:23164542

Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

2013-01-15

335

Fire and drought affect plant communities and the greenhouse gas balance in a Mediterranean shrubland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicted changes in the seasonality and amount of rainfall under a changing climate have the potential to dramatically alter ecosystem function and species composition. Moreover, in fire-prone ecosystems, the joint effects of fire and increasing aridity may create irreversible changes to the services these ecosystems provide. To understand the effects of increasing drought and fire in a Mediterranean shrubland, we implemented an automated rainfall manipulation system, with rain-out shelters which automatically fold and unfold when conditions are rainy and dry, respectively. In January 2009, we implemented five different treatments, where annual precipitation was reduced by diminishing summer rainfall from the long-term historical average, up to a 40% reduction, following IPCC scenarios. In September 2009, we uninstalled all the shelters to burn the different plots, and reinstalled the shelters immediately afterwards. In this talk, we will present the preliminary results of an integrated experiment which aims at understanding the concomitant effects of fire and different drought intensities on the species composition and greenhouse gas balance (CO2, N2O and CH4) of a Mediterranean shrubland. We observed that plant growth was more severely affected by drought in the more shallow-rooted, malacophyllous shrub (from 116 to -7.2 mg/g/d in Cistus ladanifer), than in a deeper-rooted heather (from 5.5 to 66.9 mg/g/day in Erica arborea). This growth response was mediated by species-specific differences in hydraulics, leaf morphology and photosynthetic gas exchange of each species. Analyses of changes in species composition after fire are currently undergoing. The precipitation reduction treatments exerted drought stress on CH4 oxidizing microorganisms and thus reduced the CH4 sink strength of the ecosystem during the pre-fire period. Furthermore, the net CH4 uptake at the soil-atmosphere interface was reduced by the fire for a period of at least one month. Pedosphere-atmosphere N2O fluxes were mostly close to zero from May 2009 until one month after fire and affected neither by the precipitation manipulation nor by the fire.

Moreno, José M.; Parra, Antonio; Dannenmann, Michael; Ramírez, David A.; Diaz-Pines, Eugenio; Tejedor, Javier; Kitzler, Barbara; Karhu, Kristina; Resco, Victor; Povoas, Luciano

2010-05-01

336

Long days and thyroxine program american tree sparrows for seasonality: evidence for temporal flexibility of the breeding season of euthyroid females.  

PubMed

To explore the role of the thyroid in the control of seasonality, photosensitive female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were thyroidectomized (THX), moved to long days, and given daily injections of thyroxine (T4) for 3 weeks; THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received daily injections of alkaline vehicle. Birds were retained on long days 4 additional weeks and then moved to constant light and given T4 in drinking water for 5 weeks in order to test for photorefractoriness. Endpoints were ovarian mass, molt score, and hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content; data were collected as independent measures at intervals of 1 to 5 weeks. THX females given T4 replacement therapy (THXT4 females) exhibited all components of seasonality (i.e., photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt), as did THI females. THX females not given replacement T4 were aseasonal: They showed only minor thyroid-independent photoperiodic ovarian growth; they remained photosensitive, despite chronic photostimulation; and they did not initiate postnuptial molt. Collectively, these observations support, and extend to female tree sparrows, our model of seasonality in male tree sparrows, wherein control circuits are programmed for gonadal growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt by interactive effects of long days and thyroid hormone during the first 3 weeks of photostimulation. The unexpected finding that constant light and/or exogenous T4 extended the simulated breeding seasons of some THI females prompted us to investigate the nature and expression of photorefractoriness. Our approach was to evaluate the same endpoints as before in chronically photostimulated THI females either retained on long days, with or without T4 in drinking water, or moved to constant light, with or without T4. The results showed that exposure to constant light (not T4) near the end of a simulated breeding season can-though usually it does not-temporarily extend the breeding season and prevent the onset of postnuptial molt. It remains unclear whether these perturbations caused by constant light reflect a transitional relative photorefractoriness or merely a delay in the onset of absolute photorefractoriness. In either case, the thyroid- and daylength-dependent programs controlling seasonality in female American tree sparrows have a heretofore undemonstrated potential for limited temporal flexibility. PMID:9882552

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1999-01-01

337

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50)?=37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90)?=166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50)?=26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90)?=127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90)?=324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

2010-11-01

338

Dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on the anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activity in rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Asparagus adscendens Roxb (Liliaceae) has a promising role in modulation of various disorders such as leucorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes, senile pruritus, asthma, fatigue antifilarial, antifungal, spermatorrhea, and sexual debility/seminal weakness. Objective: To investigate dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activities with a view to emphasize the pharmacological basis. Materials and methods: Rats were divided into five groups: Group I (control), Groups II-IV (AARR treated, 100, 200, and 300?mg/kg body weight, respectively, orally for 30?d) and Group V (standard control treated with sildenafil citrate, 5?mg/kg body weight). On day 31, copulatory and potency tests were carried out and an autopsy was done to study the reproductive function, namely, organ weights, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production rate (DSP), and epididymal sperm counts (ESC). Results: AARR extract (200 and 300?mg/kg doses) caused a significant increase in body (p?

Bansode, Falgun Wanganuji; Arya, Kamal Ram; Singh, Rama Kant; Narender, T

2014-06-25

339

Balanced nitrogen economy as a flexible strategy on yield stabilizing and quality of aquatic food crops in wetland ecosystem.  

PubMed

In wetland ecosystem, nitrogen along with other elements and its management is most imperative for the production of so many aquatic food, non-food and beneficial medicinal plants and for the improvement of soil and water characteristics. With great significant importance of INM (integrated nutrient management) as sources, emphasizing on management on nitrogen as a key element and its divergence, a case study was undertaken on such aquatic food crops (starch and protein-rich, most popular and remunerative) in the farmers' field of low-lying 'Tal' situation of New Alluvial Zone of Indian subtropics. The study was designed in factorial randomized block design, where, three important aquatic food crops (water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.), makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) and water lily (Nymphaea spp.) as major factor and eleven combinations of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients as sub-factor was considered in the experiment. It revealed from the results that the production of fresh kernels or nuts of water chestnut (8.57 t ha(-1)), matured nut yield of makhana (3.06 t ha(-1)) and flower stalks of water-lily as vegetables (6.38 t ha(-1)) including its nutritional quality (starch, protein, sugar and minerals) was remarkably influenced with the application of both organic (neem oilcake @ 0.2 t ha(-1)) and inorganic sources (NPK @ 30:20:20 kg ha(-1) along with spraying of NPK @ 0.5% each over crop canopy at 20 days interval after transplanting) than the other INM combinations applied to the crops. Among the crops, highest WCYE (water chestnut yield equivalence) exhibited in makhana due to its high price of popped-form in the country, which is being exported to other countries at now. Sole application of both (organic and inorganic sources) with lower range did not produce any significant outcome from the study and exhibited lower value for all the crops. Besides production of food crops, INM also greatly influenced the soil and water characterization and it was favourably reflected in this study. The physico-chemical characteristics of soil (textural class, pH, organic carbon, organic matter, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) are most important and contributed a significant improvement due to cultivation of these aquatic crops. Analysis of such wet bodies represented the water characteristics (pH, BOD, COD, CO(3)(=), HCO(3)(-), NO(3)(-)N, SO(4)(-)S and Cl(-)) were most responsive, adaptable and quite favourable for the cultivation of these crops in this vast waste unused wetlands for the mankind without any environmental degradation. PMID:20549452

Puste, A M; Sarkar, P K; Das, D K

2005-09-01

340

Evidence for a proximate influence of winter temperature on metabolism in passerine birds.  

PubMed

The roles of ultimate and proximate factors in regulating basal and summit metabolic rates of passerine birds during winter have received little study, and the extent to which winter temperatures affect these variables is unknown. To address this question, we measured basal and summit (maximum cold-induced) metabolic rates in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), and American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) during winters from 1991/1992 to 1997 in southeastern South Dakota. Both temperature and these metabolic rates varied within and among winters. Least-squares regression revealed significant negative relationships for normalized basal and summit metabolism against mean winter temperature for all species pooled (R2=0.62 to 0.69, P

Swanson, D L; Olmstead, K L

1999-01-01

341

The long-term effects on aggregate stability (AS) from a forest fire of varying intensity in a Mediterranean environment (1994-2012).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can affect many soil properties and this fact is deeply connected with fire severity, intensity, soil type and many others factors. Aggregate stability (AS) indicates the soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. AS is one of the factors that strongly affect on soil erodibility and infiltration. This property can be used as an indicator of the state of the soil structure and physical stability. The aim of this study is to analyze the soil AS of a determined area that suffered a wildfire in 1994 and compare them with a control area with the same characteristics. The study area is located in the Cadiretes Massif, in the northernmost zone of the Catalan Coastal Ranges, northeast Spain, at an altitude of around 190 - 250 m.a.m.s.l. The Cadiretes Massif is predominantly granite, although soils developed over Paleozoic metamorphic rocks such as schist and slates can also be found. In some areas metamorphic features underlie this relief. The massif is covered by dense Mediterranean vegetation, e.g. Quercus suber, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, and in some places Pinus pinaster plantations are found. This area receives about 700 - 800 mm of annual rainfall, with a fairly marked seasonal variability. The maximum is registered in autumn. Summer temperatures often surpass 25°C, while in winter temperatures are generally mild. The predominant soil type in Cadiretes is classified as a Lithic Xerept, with a 15 cm deep sandy-loam A horizon. In the control forest area, this horizon is protected by a 3 cm deep O horizon of moder humus. Three areas with different burnt intensity were identified in 1994 and they are the same plots that were chosen to sample in 2012. The 4 plots (Low intensity, Medium Intensity, High Intensity and Control) had the same orientation (S) and slope (5%). The TDI (Ten Drop Impact) test, that simulates rainfall impact on aggregates, was used to measure AS in the laboratory. Twenty samples were collected per plot. Ten aggregates for each plot, of 4 - 4.8 mm were selected and subjected to the impact of 10 drops from a burette fixed at a height of 1 m. the aggregates were placed on a 2.8 mm sieve to allow the disaggregated sample to flow away. The drops of distilled water weighed 0.1 ± 0.001 g and had a diameter of 5.8 mm. The statistical comparison between the four treatments (high, medium and low intensity and control area) in 2012 samples shows that the disintegration percentage is higher in the high intensity area (13.5%). Medium and low intensity areas showed less percentage of aggregate disintegration: 10.4 and 11.1 respectively but still higher than the control area's one (5.45%). This analysis has demonstrated that after 18 years there are still significant AS differences between the three areas with different burnt intensity and the control area. Keywords: forest fire, aggregate stability, TDI test, Mediterranean area

Velasco, Antonio; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2013-04-01

342

Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum" level of the Gran Dolina cave (Atapuerca) that has yielded H. antecessor remains at ca 960 ky. When compared with Orce localities of similar age (i.e. Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3) that have yielded strong evidence of hominin presence (mainly lithic industries), it appears that they have a fairly similar environmental pattern, having in common a good representation of woodland and water-edge areas, even though dry environments are more developed in Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3 than in Sima del Elefante and Gran Dolina. H. antecessor may have thus lived under a warm-humid climate in a patchy landscape mainly composed of humid meadows and riparian woodlands. Such a landscape may have provided favourable conditions for a high diversity of large mammals, as well as for hiding and escaping from large carnivores.

Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

2010-11-01

343

Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish priorities for future research directions in chemical management of submersed plants. The priorities we identified include: (A) improving methods for evaluating non-target impacts of herbicides with an emphasis on threatened and endangered species, or species of special concern; (B) improving herbicide performance in flowing-water environments, including irrigation canals; (C) screening and developing new herbicides to supplement fluridone for large-scale or whole-lake management approaches; (D) screening and developing new organic algaecides to supplement the use of copper-based compounds; (E) developing risk assessment tools to educate the public on the risks of invasive species and chemical management options; (F) increasing cooperative research with ecologists and fisheries scientists to evaluate the long-term impacts of invasive species introductions and herbicide programs on native plant assemblages, water quality, and fish populations; and (G) improving the integration of chemical control technology with other aquatic plant management disciplines. While circumstances may dictate setting new priorities or dropping current ones, the list we have generated represents our vision of the needs that will require the greatest focus over the next several years.

Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

2008-01-01