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1

Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol and Chloroform Extracts of Gmelina Arborea Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gmelina arborea is commonly known as Gamhar, a fast growing tree throughout India. In Ayurveda it has been observed that root bark and fruits are useful in treatment of leprosy, vaginal discharge and also anthelmenthic. Five principal bioactive compounds such as Alkaloids, Saponins, Steroids, Flavonoids and Glycosides were investigated in Methanol and Chloroform extracts of Gmelina arborea. Three active compounds:

Amrutha V. Audipudi; Bhaskar V. S. Chakicherla

2

Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry as well as histology were studied. Results: The administration of ME from the G. arborea bark at 300–5000 mg/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the clinical signs. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of ME was 5000 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the general condition, growth, organ weights, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry values, or gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. Conclusion: ME of G. arborea was found safe in acute and repeated dose toxicity studies when tested in mice and rats.

Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

2012-01-01

3

World view of Gmelina arborea : opportunities and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gmelina arborea Roxb. (gmelina) occurs naturally in 11 countries in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia. Approximately 700,000?ha of gmelina have now been established in plantations, small woodlots and agroforestry settings in west-central and eastern Africa, southeast Asia, the South Pacific, and northern Latin America. It is expected that planting areas will expand to 800,000?ha by 2020. The species has

W. S. Dvorak

2004-01-01

4

Diseases and insect pests of Gmelina arborea : real threats and real opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gmelina arborea Roxb. (gmelina) is a rapidly growing tree, which due to its drought tolerance and excellent wood properties, is emerging as an important plantation species. Perhaps the greatest threat to plantations of this tree is damage due to pests and diseases. Numerous insect pests and pathogens have been recorded in stands of gmelina in areas where the trees are

M. J. Wingfield; D. J. Robison

2004-01-01

5

Effect of aluminium toxicity on growth responses and antioxidant activities in Gmelina arborea Roxb. inoculated with AM fungi.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviating the adverse Aluminium effects on growth and antioxidant activity was tested in Gmelina plants. Under greenhouse and aluminium stress condition, the mycorrhizal Gmelina plants showed good growth as compared to non mycorrhizal Gmelina plants. Mycorrhizal colonization in Gmelina was found not to be significantly influenced by aluminium concentrations. Results also indicate that symbiotic association was successfully established between Glomus intraradices and Gmelina plants and mycorrhizal colonization consequently increased the biomass of Gmelina. The root proline accumulation was found to increase in mycorrhizal Gmelina plants for osmotic adjustment of stress tissues under first and second level of Aluminium stress. It was observed that Mycorrhizal colonization increased the shoot root Peroxidase and Superoxide dismutase activities in mycorrhizal Gmelina under second level of Aluminium stress. Mycorrhizal fungi play a major role in phytostabilization by secreting one of the glycoprotein, i.e., Glomalin, which stabilizes the Aluminium in soil as well as in the roots of Gmelina plants. PMID:22908633

Dudhane, Mayura; Borde, Mahesh; Jite, Paramjit Kaur

2012-08-01

6

Displacement of an herbaceous plant species community by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Gmelina arborea , an exotic tree, grown in a microcosm experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Gmelina, Yemane) is a fast growing tree, native from India and considered as a potentially invasive woody plant in\\u000a West Africa. Mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings with Glomus intraradices was performed to study (1) the effect on the growth of G. arborea, (2) the impact on the catabolic diversity of soil microbial communities and (3) the influence on

Arsene Sanon; Pascal Martin; Jean Thioulouse; Christian Plenchette; Rodolphe Spichiger; Michel Lepage; Robin Duponnois

2006-01-01

7

Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant

Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

2010-01-01

8

Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1–1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash values were also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higher than leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

2012-01-01

9

Iridoid glycoside-based quantitative chromatographic fingerprint analysis: a rational approach for quality assessment of Indian medicinal plant Gambhari (Gmelina arborea).  

PubMed

A sensitive, selective and robust qualitative and quantitative densitometric high-performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of iridoid glycoside in the aerial part of Gambhari (Gmelina arborea). Iridoid gycoside 6-O-(2'',3''-dibenzoyl)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (IG) was used as a chemical marker for the standardization of G. arborea plant extracts. The separation was performed on aluminum Kieselgel 60F254 TLC plates using chloroform-methanol as mobile phase. The quantitation of IG was carried out using the densitometric reflection/absorption mode at 240 and 430 nm after post-chromatographic derivatization with vanillin-sulphuric acid reagent. A precise and accurate quantification can be performed in the linear working concentration range of 1000-5000 ng/spot with good correlation (r2=0.994). The method was validated for peak purities, precision, robustness, limit of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ), etc., as per ICH guidelines. Specificity of quantitation was confirmed using retention factor (R(f)), UV-vis spectral correlation and ESI-MS spectra of marker compound (IG) in sample track. PMID:18524530

Yadav, Akhilesh K; Tiwari, N; Srivastava, P; Singh, Subhash C; Shanker, K; Verma, Ram K; Gupta, Madan M

2008-08-01

10

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Cleome viscosa and Gmelina asiatica.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extracts of the leaves and flowers of Cleome viscosa and roots of Gmelina asiatica were tested for antimicrobial activity. The two plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly significative against Escherichia coli , Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaf extract of C. viscosa showed moderate activity against pathogenic fungi. PMID:16325351

Sudhakar, M; Rao, Ch V; Rao, P M; Raju, D B

2006-01-01

11

Gastroprotective effect of standardized leaf extract from Careya arborea on experimental gastric ulcers in rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: The leaf of Careya arborea Roxb. (Lecthidaceae) has been advocated in Ayurveda for the treatment of various disorders, including ulcers, healing of wounds and several skin diseases. Objective: The 70% ethanol (EtOH) extract of C. arborea leaves (CALE) was investigated for its gastroprotective effect in different gastric ulcer models. Materials and methods: CALE (100, 200, and 400?mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, twice daily for 5?d, for preventing aspirin (ASP)-, EtOH-, pylorus ligation (PL)-, and cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced ulcer in rats. The status of the antioxidant enzymes in CRS-induced ulcers, H(+)K(+)ATPase activity, gastric wall mucous in EtOH-induced ulcer, and gastric secretion parameters were estimated in the PL-induced ulcer model. Results: CALE exhibited significant (p?arborea possesses significant gastro-protective activity, probably due to its free radical scavenging activity, and validate the folklore claim. PMID:24635213

Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Rao, Chandana V

2014-08-01

12

Novel cytotoxic diterpenes from Casearia arborea.  

PubMed

Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane-methanol extract of the roots of Casearia arborea yielded five novel clerodane diterpenes, casearborins A-E (1-5), as well as cucurbitacin B. The presence of cucurbitacins glycosides was also detected. The absolute configuration of casearborin E was determined by X-ray crystallography. PMID:10843580

Beutler, J A; McCall, K L; Herbert, K; Herald, D L; Pettit, G R; Johnson, T; Shoemaker, R H; Boyd, M R

2000-05-01

13

Amino acid sequence of ferredoxin from Datura arborea.  

PubMed

The complete amino acid sequence of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Datura arborea, "Tree Datura", has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire Cm-protein and of the peptides obtained by tryptic digestion and CNBr treatment. The D. arborea ferredoxin exhibited three and four differences, respectively, in the amino acid sequences when compared with the ferredoxins of D. stramonium and D. metel (herbaceous species). This result supports the idea of Bernhardi and Safford that 'Tree Datura' such as D. arborea should be considered as one section of the genus Datura and not a separate genus. PMID:7765623

Mino, Y

1994-09-01

14

Isolation and characterization of glucocapparin in Isomeris arborea nutt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isomeris arborea (Capparaceae), is the only woody caper endemic to southern California and northern Baja. Methylglucosinolate, also known as glucocapparin, was the only glucosinolate found inI. arborea organs by paper chromatography of the thiourea derivatives and was quantitatively determined by gas chromatography by hydrolytic products. The concentration of glucocapparin ranged from an average of 4.6 mg\\/g wet weight in mature

Matthew J. Blua; Zac Hanscom

1986-01-01

15

Exploration and Identification of Alternative Raw Materials for Paper and Newsprint Manufacture: Cold Soda Pulping of Various Eucalyptus Species and Gmelina Arborea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Properties of cold soda pulps from various Eucalypt species, viz., Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus deglupta and Eucalyptus torelliana were compared. Excepting the pulps of E. globulous, the remaining were bleac...

T. C. Mantri Y. K. Sharma V. Raghunath D. Ghosh S. Bharati

1978-01-01

16

Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview  

PubMed Central

Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc.

Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

2012-01-01

17

Chemical characterization and synergistic antibiotic activity of volatile compounds from the essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils have been traditionally used for respiratory tract infections, and are used nowadays as ethnic medicines for\\u000a colds. The objective of this work was to study the antibiotic-modifying activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker using gaseous contact. Stems of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker (Asteracea) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was

N. K. A. Santos; H. D. M. Coutinho; G. S. B. Viana; Fabíola F. G. Rodrigues; José G. M. Costa

2011-01-01

18

Gastroprotective mechanism of Vanillosmopsis arborea bark essential oil.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to clarify the mechanism of gastroprotection by Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker essential oil (EOVA) using ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice. Gastric lesions were significantly reduced by EOVA (200 and 400 mg/kg). Chemical analysis showed that the major compound of EOVA was alpha-bisabolol. Pretreatment of mice with yohimbine, the alpha2-antagonist, greatly suppressed the gastroprotective effect of OEVA. Furthermore, OEVA gastroprotection was not attenuated in mice pretreated with indomethacin, L-NAME or glibenclamide, the respective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, nitric oxide synthase and K(+)(ATP) channel activation. These data suggest that OEVA affords gastroprotection most possibly by alpha2-receptor activation. PMID:19013222

de O Leite, Gerlânia; da Penha, Antonia Rosângela; Fernandes, Cícera N; Souza, Heloísa Helena F; da Costa, José Galberto M; Campos, Adriana R

2009-01-01

19

Somatic hybrid plants between the forage legumes Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific somatic hybrid plants were obtained by symmetrical electrofusion of mesophyll protoplasts of Medicago sativa with callus protoplasts of Medicago arborea. Somatic hybrid calli were picked manually from semi-solid culture medium after they were identified by their dual color in fluorescent light. Twelve putative hybrid calli were selected and one of them regenerated plants. The morphogenesis of the somatic hybrid

E. Nenz; F. Pupilli; F. Damiani; S. Arcioni

1996-01-01

20

Amino acid sequences of ferredoxins from Scopolia japonica and Lycium chinense: their similarities to that of Datura arborea.  

PubMed

The complete amino acid sequences of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins from Scopolia japonica and Lycium chinense have been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire Cm-proteins and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestions. These two ferredoxins exhibited only 2-7 differences in the amino acid sequence when compared to the Datura-ferredoxins (D. stramonium, D. metel, and D. arborea), and especially only 2 or 3 differences compared to D. arborea. On the contrary, 8-19 differences were observed among the other solanaceous ferredoxins. This suggests that S. japonica and L. chinense are closely related taxonomically to Datura plants, especially to D. arborea. PMID:12392097

Mino, Yoshiki

2002-10-01

21

Floral origin markers of heather honeys: Calluna vulgaris and Erica arborea  

Microsoft Academic Search

`Heather' is commonly used to qualify honeys issuing from the Ericaceae family. As mellissopalynology and sensory assessments alone were not sufficient to authenticate their floral origin, volatile compounds from Erica arborea and Calluna vulgaris unifloral honeys were investigated. Flavours were isolated via dichloromethane solubilisation, followed by a Likens-Nickerson simultaneous steam-distillation\\/solvent extraction. The extracts exhibited an intense honey aroma, representative of

Christine Guyot; Vincent Scheirman; Sonia Collin

1999-01-01

22

In vitro binding receptors study by Valeriana adscendens, Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea extracts.  

PubMed

In this work we examined the affinity and the selectivity of V. adscendens, Iresine herbstii Hook. (Amaranthaceae) and Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerheim (Solanaceae) towards 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C) serotononergic, D(1) and D(2) dopaminergic, alpha (1) and alpha (2) adrenergic receptors by radioligand assays. The results show weak affinity to 5-HT(1A) only for the aqueous extract of V. adscendens and no affinity for 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C) serotononergic receptors, alpha (1) and alpha(2) adrenergic receptors and D(2) receptors. As it regards D(1) receptors, only for the methanolic extract the IC(50) value was determinable. The data obtained for I. herbstii extracts have shown a low affinity for the 5-HT(1A) receptor (22.44%) and no affinity for 5-HT(2A) receptor. Otherwise these extracts showed affinity for 5-HT(2C) receptor but only for the methanolic extract the IC(50) value (inhibitory concentration 50%) was: 34.8 microg/ml. The B. arborea aqueous extract displayed weak affinity for all receptors tested, the highest levels of inhibition at the maximum concentration tested (125 microg/ml) were 38% for the 5-HT(1A), 16% for the 5-HT(2A) and 39% for the 5-HT(2C) receptor. The results of our experiments indicate that V. adscendens, Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea were able to interact with the central 5-HT receptors thus confirming their ritual use. PMID:18045210

Capasso, Anna; De Feo, Vincenzo

2007-11-01

23

An antioxidant protein in Curcuma comosa Roxb. Rhizomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcuma comosa Roxb. is an indigenous Thai herb which is usually used as a food ingredient but it is also used in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of uterine inflammation. The crude protein extract from the rhizomes of this plant was found to possess free radical scavenging capacity, as detected by the DPPH assay. This antioxidant activity was purified

Apaporn Boonmee; Chantragan Srisomsap; Aphichart Karnchanatat; Polkit Sangvanich

2011-01-01

24

Affinity of Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea extracts on different cerebral receptors.  

PubMed

Iresine herbstii Hook. (Amaranthaceae) and Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerheim (Solanaceae) are used in the northern Peruvian Andes for magic-therapeutical purposes. The traditional healers use Iresine herbstii with the ritual aim to expel bad spirits from the body. Furthermore, Iresine herbstii was used in association with other plants, such as Trichocereus pachanoi Britt. et Rose, for divination, to diagnose diseases, and to take possession of another identity. Also, species of Brugmansia have been reported to be used during ritual practices for magical and curative purposes. Given the above evidence, the aim of the present study is to evaluate if the central effects of Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea could be associated with interaction with SNC receptors. Two Iresine herbstii extracts (methanolic and aqueous) and one Brugmansia arborea aqueous extract were tested for in vitro affinity on 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), D1, D2, alpha(1), and alpha(2) receptors by radioligand binding assays. The biological materials for binding assay (cerebral cortex) were taken from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The extracts affinity for receptors is definite as inhibition percentage of radioligand/receptor binding and measured as the radioactivity of remaining complex radioligand/receptor. The data obtained for Iresine extracts have shown a low affinity for the 5-HT(1A) receptor and no affinity for 5-HT(2A) receptor. Otherwise the methanolic extract showed affinity for 5-HT(2C) receptor (IC(50): 34.78 microg/ml) and for D1 receptor (IC(50): 19.63 microg/ml), instead the Iresine aqueous extract displayed a lower affinity for D1 (48.3% at the maximum concentration tested) and a higher value of affinity for D2 receptors (IC(50): 32.08 microg/ml). The Brugmansia aqueous extract displayed affinity for D1 receptors (IC(50): 17.68 microg/ml), D2 receptors (IC(50): 15.95 microg/ml) and weak affinity for the serotoninergic receptors. None of the three extracts showed relevant affinity to the alpha(1), and alpha(2) receptors. The results of our experiments indicate that Iresine herbstii methanolic extract was able to interact with the central 5-HT(2C) and D1 receptors and Iresine herbstii aqueous extract showed affinity for D2 receptors, thus confirming their ritual use. Instead Brugmansia arborea was able to interact only with the central dopamine receptors tested. Parallel studies are currently in progress for evaluating the extracts affinity and active components towards these and other receptor types (GABAergic). PMID:16406412

Nencini, Cristina; Cavallo, Federica; Bruni, Giancarlo; Capasso, Anna; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Giorgi, Giorgio; Micheli, Lucia

2006-05-24

25

AN ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF HYDROMETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF URTICA PARVIFLORA ROXB.  

PubMed Central

Antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. (family Urticaceae) was investigated by different in vitro methods, namely, nitric oxide scavenging, DPPH scavenging, and reducing power assay. In the present study, plant extract exhibited dose dependent free radical scavenging and reducing activity. The antioxidant activity of the hydromethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. was compared with ascorbic acid as standard. In addition, phytochemical screening of hydromethanolic extract of the plant was undertaken to identify the phytochemicals present in the extract. Phytochemical examination revealed the presence of alkaloids, polysaccharides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides and tannins. It was concluded that the extract contains important phytoconstituents responsible for antioxidant effect. The study indicated that Urtica parviflora could protect the cell injury caused by the reactive oxygen species and might be a valuable source of antioxidant both for medicine and food industry

Pandey, Savita; Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Sah, Mukesh Lal; Mishra, Devendra

2010-01-01

26

Effects of Brugmansia arborea Extract and Its Secondary Metabolites on Morphine Tolerance and Dependence in Mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate, in vivo, the effect of a Brugmansia arborea extract (BRU), chromatographic fractions (FA and FNA), and isolated alkaloids on the expression and the acquisition of morphine tolerance and dependence. Substances were acutely (for expression) or repeatedly (for acquisition) administered in mice treated with morphine twice daily for 5 or 6 days, in order to make them tolerant or dependent. Morphine tolerance was assessed using the tail-flick test at 1st and 5th days. Morphine dependence was evaluated through the manifestation of withdrawal symptoms induced by naloxone injection at 6th day. Results showed that BRU significantly reduced the expression of morphine tolerance, while it was ineffective to modulate its acquisition. Chromatographic fractions and pure alkaloids failed to reduce morphine tolerance. Conversely BRU, FA, and pure alkaloids administrations significantly attenuated both development and expression of morphine dependence. These data suggest that Brugmansia arborea Lagerh might have human therapeutic potential for treatment of opioid addiction.

Mattioli, Laura; Bracci, Antonio; Titomanlio, Federica; Perfumi, Marina; De Feo, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

27

A new guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone from Curcuma leucorrhiza Roxb.  

PubMed

A naturally occurring guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone (1), along with 10 known compounds (2-11), was isolated from the chloroform extract of the dried rhizomes of Curcuma leucorrhiza Roxb. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 1 expressed antioxidant activity. The taxonomic status of C. leucorrhiza is briefly discussed based on the chemotaxonomic significance of these findings. PMID:24484237

Asem, Satyavama Devi; Laitonjam, Warjeet Singh

2014-01-01

28

Assessment of alternative land management practices using hydrological simulation and a decision support tool: Arborea agricultural region, Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying the impact of land use on water supply and quality is a primary focus of environmental management. In this work we apply a semidistributed hydrological model (SWAT) to predict the impact of different land management practices on water and agricultural chemical yield over a long period of time for a study site situated in the Arborea region of central

P. Cau; C. Paniconi

2007-01-01

29

Spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation in the widespread antitropical deep-sea coral Paragorgia arborea.  

PubMed

Numerous deep-sea species have apparent widespread and discontinuous distributions. Many of these are important foundation species, structuring hard-bottom benthic ecosystems. Theoretically, differences in the genetic composition of their populations vary geographically and with depth. Previous studies have examined the genetic diversity of some of these taxa in a regional context, suggesting that genetic differentiation does not occur at scales of discrete features such as seamounts or canyons, but at larger scales (e.g. ocean basins). However, to date, few studies have evaluated such diversity throughout the known distribution of a putative deep-sea species. We utilized sequences from seven mitochondrial gene regions and nuclear genetic variants of the deep-sea coral Paragorgia arborea in a phylogeographic context to examine the global patterns of genetic variation and their possible correlation with the spatial variables of geographic position and depth. We also examined the compatibility of this morphospecies with the genealogical-phylospecies concept by examining specimens collected worldwide. We show that the morphospecies P. arborea can be defined as a genealogical-phylospecies, in contrast to the hypothesis that P. arborea represents a cryptic species complex. Genetic variation is correlated with geographic location at the basin-scale level, but not with depth. Additionally, we present a phylogeographic hypothesis in which P. arborea originates from the North Pacific, followed by colonization of the Southern Hemisphere prior to migration to the North Atlantic. This hypothesis is consistent with the latest ocean circulation model for the Miocene. PMID:23094936

Herrera, S; Shank, T M; Sánchez, J A

2012-12-01

30

Selecting seed trees for a forest restoration program: a case study using Spondias axillaris Roxb. (Anacardiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spondias axillaris Roxb. (Anacardiaceae) (synonym: Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Burtt and Hill) is an exceptionally effective framework tree species for restoring seasonal tropical forest ecosystems to degraded sites throughout south and south-east Asia. Criteria were developed to select superior parent seed trees, based on nursery performance and field establishment. Seed progenies were collected from 41 S. axillaris parent trees, growing in

Greuk Pakkad; Franck Torre; Stephen Elliott; David Blakesley

2003-01-01

31

Spasmolytic, bronchodilatory and antioxidant activities of Erythrina superosa Roxb.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the possible antioxidant, spasmolytic, bronchodilator and antioxidant activities of Erythrina suberosa Roxb. flowers. The crude aqueous methanolic extract of Erythrina suberosa Roxb. flowers (Es.Cr), on application to isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, caused concentration dependent relaxation of the spontaneous contractions as well as inhibition of K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions, suggested that Es.Cr exhibited spasmolytic activity may possibly be mediated through Ca(2+) channel blocking effect. This was confirmed further as Es.Cr treatment of the isolated rabbit jejunum preparations resulted in a rightward shift in the Ca(2+) concentration-response curves in a manner similar to verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. Similarly, Es.Cr on application to isolated rabbit tracheal preparations; caused the concentration dependent relaxation of the carbachol (1 microM) and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions indicating its bronchodilator activity in a manner similar to verapamil. The crude methanolic extract of Erythrina suberosa exhibited antioxidant activity as manifested by strong scavenging activity on DPPH free radicals, whereas weaker scavenging activity was shown on NO free radicals in comparison with standard antioxidant quercetin, which is equally potent against both free radicals. It is concluded from this study that the crude aqueous methanolic extract of the flowers of Erythrina suberosa Roxb. possesses the antioxidant, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities likely to be mediated through Ca(2+) channel blocking mechanism. PMID:23285672

Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Nisar, Uzair; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qadir, M Imran

2012-01-01

32

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF Lagerstroemia parviflora Roxb.  

PubMed

The benzene extract of the leaves of Lagerstroemia paviflora Roxb was tested for its Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against Gram Positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lactobacillus arabinosus and gram negative strains E.Coli, Shigella dysenteriae, shigella sonnei, shigella boydii, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae. Further the zones of inhibition Produced by the crude extract against four selected bacterial strains were measured and compared with those produced by the standard antibiotic Ciprofloxacin against the same bacterial strains. PMID:22557054

Mazumder, A; Singn, S K; Mazumder, R; Basu, S P; Saha, B P

2002-01-01

33

Diuretic Activity Of Root Extracts of Dalbergia Spinosa Roxb  

PubMed Central

The benzene, alcoholic and aqueous root extracts (75mg/kg each)of Dalbergia spinosa Roxb were studied for its diuretic activity by using male albino rats by adopting the method of Tipschitz. The alcoholic extract increased the urine volume and electrolytes sodium, potassium and chloride, which is similar to the standard drug Furosemide (100mg/ kg) by inhibiting sodium, potassium, and chloride ion co-transport at thick ascending loop of henle. The present study showed that the alcoholic extract has significant diuretic activity comparable with standard drug Furosemide in producing urinary output and excretion of sodium,potassium and chloride in mEq/ lit/ 6 hrs

Jaiganesh, K.P.; Akilandeshwari, S.; Senthamarai, R.

2009-01-01

34

Diuretic activity of root extracts of dalbergia spinosa roxb.  

PubMed

The benzene, alcoholic and aqueous root extracts (75mg/kg each)of Dalbergia spinosa Roxb were studied for its diuretic activity by using male albino rats by adopting the method of Tipschitz. The alcoholic extract increased the urine volume and electrolytes sodium, potassium and chloride, which is similar to the standard drug Furosemide (100mg/ kg) by inhibiting sodium, potassium, and chloride ion co-transport at thick ascending loop of henle. The present study showed that the alcoholic extract has significant diuretic activity comparable with standard drug Furosemide in producing urinary output and excretion of sodium,potassium and chloride in mEq/ lit/ 6 hrs. PMID:22557314

Jaiganesh, K P; Akilandeshwari, S; Senthamarai, R

2009-01-01

35

Antiulcer Activity of Hydroalchol Extract of Momordica dioica roxb. Fruit  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate antiulcer activity of hydroalcohol extract of Momordica dioica Roxb. fruit. Momordica dioica Roxb. fruit extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, twice daily for 5 days for prevention from ethanol, cold-restraint stress and pylorus ligation-induced ulcers. Estimation of H+-K+ ATPase activity and gastric wall mucous were performed in ethanol-induced ulcer model, antioxidant enzyme activities was carried out in cold-restraint stress-induced ulcer model, and various gastric secretion parameters like volume of gastric juice, acid output, and pH value were estimated in pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model. A significant reduction in lesion index was observed in ulcer-induced animals pre treated with extract at different doses when compared with ulcerated rats in all models. A significant decrease occurred in the level of H+-K+ ATPase, volume of gastric juice, and acid output. Gastric wall mucus and pH were increased significantly. These showed dose-dependent action of extract. LPO and antioxidant enzyme levels of SOD were decreased, but CAT enzyme showed significant increase. Thus the results indicate that the Momordica dioica extract possess antiulcerogenic effect, that attributable to augmentation of gastric defense mechanisms.

Vijayakumar, M.; Eswaran, M. Bavani; Ojha, S. K.; Rao, CH. V.; Rawat, A. K. S.

2011-01-01

36

A protective effect of Curcuma comosa Roxb. on bone loss in estrogen deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceCurcuma comosa Roxb. or Wan chak motluk is an indigenous medicinal herb and has traditionally been used among postmenopausal women for relief of unpleasant menopausal symptoms.

Jittima Weerachayaphorn; Aporn Chuncharunee; Chitrawina Mahagita; Buarong Lewchalermwongse; Apichart Suksamrarn; Pawinee Piyachaturawat

2011-01-01

37

Habitat fragmentation causes bottlenecks and inbreeding in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea).  

PubMed Central

A genetic study of the European tree frog, Hyla arborea, in Denmark was undertaken to examine the population structure on mainland Jutland and the island of Lolland after a period of reduction in suitable habitat and population sizes. The two regions have experienced the same rate of habitat loss but fragmentation has been more severe on Lolland. Genetic variation based on 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellites was analysed in 494 tree frogs sampled from two ponds in Jutland and 10 ponds on Lolland. A significant overall deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations could be attributed to three ponds, all on Lolland. This was most probably caused by an inbreeding effect reducing fitness, which was supported by the observed significant negative correlation between larva survival and mean F(IS) value and mean individual inbreeding coefficient. A significant reduction in genetic variation (bottleneck) was detected in most of the ponds on Lolland. Population-structure analysis suggested the existence of at least 11 genetically different populations, corresponding to most of the sampled population units. The results indicated that the populations were unique genetic units and could be used to illustrate the migration pattern between newly established ponds arisen either by natural colonization of tree frogs or by artificial introduction. A high degree of pond fidelity in the tree frogs was suggested. A severe fragmentation process reducing population size and fitness within some of the populations probably caused the significant reduction in genetic variation of tree frog populations on Lolland.

Andersen, Liselotte W.; Fog, Kare; Damgaard, Christian

2004-01-01

38

In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (Asteraceae) Baker.  

PubMed

The search for new immunopharmacological chemical agents to treat various diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, such as leishmaniasis, for example, has led to the exploration of potential products from plant species and their main active ingredients. Antimonial drugs are the current treatment for leishmaniasis. These drugs cause major side effects and frequent discontinuation of treatment. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (VAEO) and its major compound ? -bisabolol against Leishmania amazonensis. The essential oil and ? -bisabolol showed activity against promastigotes (IC50 7.35 and 4.95? ? g/mL resp.) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 12.58 and 10.70? ? g/mL, resp.). Neither product showed any cytotoxicity on treated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis of promastigotes incubated with VAEO or ? -bisabolol at 30? ? g/mL, showed morphological changes with the accumulation of vesicles electrodense lipid inclusions. The results give evidence that both VAEO and ? -bisabolol have potential as new therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis. PMID:23935675

Colares, Aracélio Viana; Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

2013-01-01

39

Phenological documentation of an invasive species, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.  

PubMed

Phenological documentation and plant invasion are key contemporary issues in the biological sciences. Recognizing this, the present paper describes the phenological stages of an invasive species, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. A tree of the species was marked, and daily visits were made for recording its phenology. The Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt and CHemical industry (BBCH) scale was used for documenting the same. Of the total ten principal stages, eight were observed in the species. These stages started with bud development (stage 01) in the month of March and ended with leaf fall (stage 97) in the month of December. Descriptions of the phenological stages and their dates are provided in the text. It is hoped that such a phenological scale will be helpful in managing plant invasion. PMID:24633786

Jaryan, Vikrant; Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Gupta, R C; Singh, R D

2014-07-01

40

Drought impact on water use efficiency and intra-annual density fluctuations in Erica arborea on Elba (Italy).  

PubMed

Erica arborea (L) is a widespread Mediterranean species, able to cope with water stress and colonize semiarid environments. The eco-physiological plasticity of this species was evaluated by studying plants growing at two sites with different soil moistures on the island of Elba (Italy), through dendrochronological, wood-anatomical analyses and stable isotopes measurements. Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) were abundant in tree rings, and were identified as the key parameter to understand site-specific plant responses to water stress. Our findings showed that the formation of IADFs is mainly related to the high temperature, precipitation patterns and probably to soil water availability, which differs at the selected study sites. The recorded increase in the (13) C-derived intrinsic water use efficiency at the IADFs level was linked to reduced water loss rather than to increasing C assimilation. The variation in vessel size and the different absolute values of ?(18) O among trees growing at the two study sites underlined possible differences in stomatal control of water loss and possible differences in sources of water uptake. This approach not only helped monitor seasonal environmental differences through tree-ring width, but also added valuable information on E.?arborea responses to drought and their ecological implications for Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. PMID:23848555

Battipaglia, Giovanna; DE Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Saurer, Matthias; Aronne, Giovanna; Linke, Petra; Cherubini, Paolo

2014-02-01

41

Range-Wide Sex-Chromosome Sequence Similarity Supports Occasional XY Recombination in European Tree Frogs (Hyla arborea)  

PubMed Central

In contrast with mammals and birds, most poikilothermic vertebrates feature structurally undifferentiated sex chromosomes, which may result either from frequent turnovers, or from occasional events of XY recombination. The latter mechanism was recently suggested to be responsible for sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea). However, no single case of male recombination has been identified in large-scale laboratory crosses, and populations from NW Europe consistently display sex-specific allelic frequencies with male-diagnostic alleles, suggesting the absence of recombination in their recent history. To address this apparent paradox, we extended the phylogeographic scope of investigations, by analyzing the sequences of three sex-linked markers throughout the whole species distribution. Refugial populations (southern Balkans and Adriatic coast) show a mix of X and Y alleles in haplotypic networks, and no more within-individual pairwise nucleotide differences in males than in females, testifying to recurrent XY recombination. In contrast, populations of NW Europe, which originated from a recent postglacial expansion, show a clear pattern of XY differentiation; the X and Y gametologs of the sex-linked gene Med15 present different alleles, likely fixed by drift on the front wave of expansions, and kept differentiated since. Our results support the view that sex-chromosome homomorphy in H. arborea is maintained by occasional or historical events of recombination; whether the frequency of these events indeed differs between populations remains to be clarified.

Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-01-01

42

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects  

PubMed Central

Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100?g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32?mg and 102.85?mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8?mg Iron, and 121 and 325?mg phosphorus in 100?g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85?Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the water chestnut kernel, Trapa bispinosa are reported. In this paper, the recent reports on nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of Trapa bispinosa Roxb, as a medicinal and nutritional food, are reviewed.

Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V. H.

2014-01-01

43

Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects.  

PubMed

Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100?g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32?mg and 102.85?mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8?mg Iron, and 121 and 325?mg phosphorus in 100?g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85?Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the water chestnut kernel, Trapa bispinosa are reported. In this paper, the recent reports on nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of Trapa bispinosa Roxb, as a medicinal and nutritional food, are reviewed. PMID:24669216

Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V H

2014-01-01

44

Leaf mineral concentrations of Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis growing in the proximity of a natural CO2 spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf mineral concentrations of co-occurring Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis were measured at bimonthly intervals throughout a year in a natural CO2 spring and in a nearby control site with similar soil chemistry in a Mediterranean environment. There were different responses to the elevated (CO2) (c. 700 m LL -1) of the spring site plants depending on the

JOSEP P ENUELAS; I OLANDA F ILELLA; R OBERTO T OGNETTI

2001-01-01

45

Bronchodilator activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb  

PubMed Central

Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for infectious diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. has been used in Indian system of medicine in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold, colic pain, etc. Stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. has been used as a decoction in traditional claims. So, our traditional claims enforced us to evaluate its bronchodilator activity. We have evaluated its bronchodilator activity in milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology models. The aqueous extract of stem bark in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg showed significant activity.

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhujbal, S. S.; Deoda, R. S.; Mudgade, S. C.

2010-01-01

46

A proteomic analysis of Curcuma comosa Roxb. rhizomes  

PubMed Central

Background The similarly in plant physiology and the difficulty of plant classification, in some medicinal plant species, especially plants of the Zingiberaceae family, are a major problem for pharmacologists, leading to mistaken use. To overcome this problem, the proteomic base method was used to study protein profiles of the plant model, Curcuma comosa Roxb., which is a member of the Zingiberaceae and has been used in traditional Thai medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of postpartum uterine bleeding. Results Due to the complexity of protein extraction from this plant, microscale solution-phase isoelectric focusing (MicroSol-IEF) was used to enrich and improve the separation of Curcuma comosa rhizomes phenol-soluble proteins, prior to resolving and analyzing by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identification by tandem mass spectrometry. The protein patterns showed a high abundance of protein spots in the acidic range, including three lectin proteins. The metabolic and defense enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase, that are associated with antioxidant activity, were mainly found in the basic region. Furthermore, cysteine protease was found in this plant, as had been previously reported in other Zingiberaceae plants. Conclusion This report presents the protein profiles of the ginger plant, Curcuma comosa. Several interesting proteins were identified in this plant that may be used as a protein marker and aid in identifying plants of the Zingiberaceae family.

2011-01-01

47

Evaluation of Mungbean 'Phaseolus aureus roxb' Strains at Columbia, Missouri in 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two hundred and three strains of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown in 1971 at Columbia, MO, and evaluated for plant and seed characteristics. The strains originated from many sources and represented a diverse group of genotypes. All of the str...

J. M. Yohe

1972-01-01

48

Antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb was evaluated against pathogenic bacteria Stahylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia in an in vitro condition. Aqueous extracts from roots of H. indicus and barks of F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb were tested for antimicrobial activity using the zone of inhibition method and also screened for phytochemicals. The aqueous extract of P. marsupium roxb inhibited growth of bacteria with the minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.04 mg to 0.08 mg and extracts of F. bengalensis and H. indicus showed inhibition at the range of 0.04 mg to 0.1 mg against the bacteria tested. The susceptibility of bacterial pathogens was in the order of S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was synergistic with antibiotics tested. Results of the present study suggest that the aqueous extracts of H. indicus, F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb has significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

Gayathri, M.; Kannabiran, K.

2009-01-01

49

Effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. on gonadotropin release in immature female rats and ovarian histology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we are reporting in vivo effect of aqueous extracts of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Fam. Symplocaceae) on serum FSH and LH levels in immature female Sprague–Dawley rats under basal conditions. Symplocos racemosa is used in Indian System of Medicine (ISM) for various female disorders. Aqueous extract on oral administration significantly stimulated serum FSH level (P < 0.016)

Kamlesh Kumar Bhutani; Atul N Jadhav; Vandana Kalia

2004-01-01

50

Analysis of the Oil of Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.,) Growing in Sikkim  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the seeds of green, freshly dried and those available in the local market of large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. A total of 33 components were identified by mass spectra and relative retention indices. The major component of the oil was 1,8-cineole (81.5–86%).

P. K. Rout; D. Sahoo; K. S. Jena; Y. R. Rao

2003-01-01

51

Two new C21 steroidal glycosides from Marsdenia tenacissima (ROXB.) WIGHT et ARN.  

PubMed

Two new C(21) steroidal glycosides, tenacissoside L (1), tenacissoside M (2), were isolated from the stems of Marsdenia tenacissima (ROXB.) WIGHT et ARN. Their structures were elucidated, respectively, by means of chemical and spectral data, including ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR. PMID:16651770

Wang, Shu; Lai, Yu-Han; Tian, Bao; Yang, Lin

2006-05-01

52

Antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Background: Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for different diseases. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering natural products that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine as an antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, anticolic pain, anticancer, antidiabetic etc. The plant was also reported for its antiasthmatic, bronchodilatory, antiallegic and many more such activities. Objective: To evaluate the antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Materials and Methods: We have studied the effect of aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. at a doses 100 ?g/mL in the isolated goat tracheal chain preparation in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg/kg doses orally in passive paw anaphylaxis in rat, clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice models in vivo for its antihistaminic activity. Results: Aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. significantly (***P<0.001) inhibits the percentage contraction at concentration of 100 ?g/mL in goat tracheal chain preparation. A. excelsa Roxb. extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also significantly reduced (**P<0.01) the paw volume at fourth hour and the percentage inhibition was found to be 13.98%, 28.49%, 42.47% and 46.77% respectively. The aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and chlorpheniramine maleate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited (*P<0.05, **P< 0.01) clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice at 150 min after the administration of clonidine. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. possess significant antihistaminic activity (H1-antagonist) and can be attributed to bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic activity etc. Hence detailed study needs to be conducted to evaluate the phytoconstituent responsible for the above mentioned results and their clinical efficacy in the treatment of related diseases.

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Z. A.; Singh, P.; Bhujbal, S. S.; Deoda, R. S.

2011-01-01

53

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits  

PubMed Central

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100–200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase.

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

2011-01-01

54

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits.  

PubMed

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1-10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 10(6) cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100-200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C; Patidar, Arjun O; Malviya, K G; Shivhare-Malviya, K K

2011-07-01

55

Aqueous two-phase extraction, identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry ( Morus atropurpurea Roxb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE), identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) were investigated in this study. The optimal differential partitioning of mulberry anthocyanins (MAY) and sugars was achieved in a system (pH 4.5, temperature=35±1°C) composed of 30% (w\\/w) ethanol, 20% (w\\/w) concentration of ammonium sulphate, 10% (w\\/w) mulberry juice and 40% (w\\/w) water. The multiple partitioning

Xiangyang Wu; Linghong Liang; Ye Zou; Ting Zhao; Jiangli Zhao; Fang Li; Liuqing Yang

2011-01-01

56

Properties of acetolactate synthase from sulfonylurea-resistant Scirpus juncoides Roxb. var. ohwianus T. Koyama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18; ALS) from sulfonylurea-resistant (SUR) Scirpus juncoides Roxb. var. ohwianus T. Koyama were studied biochemically and physiologically in comparison with those from sulfonylurea-susceptible weed (SUS). GR50 values for growth inhibition and I50 values for ALS inhibition by imazosulfuron were determined for both SUR and SUS. Imazosulfuron controlled the SUS above 80% at the dosage more

Yasushi Tanaka

2003-01-01

57

Efficient Regeneration of Curcuma amada Roxb. Plantlets from Rhizome and Leaf Sheath Explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol is outlined for direct and indirect regeneration of a medicinally valuable Curcuma amada Roxb. using rhizome and leaf sheath explants. Multiple shoots were obtained from rhizome explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 4.44 µM BA and 1.08 µM a-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA). For indirect regeneration, semi-friable callus obtained from leaf sheath explants on MS medium with

S. Prakash; R. Elangomathavan; S. Seshadri; K. Kathiravan; S. Ignacimuthu

2004-01-01

58

Enhancement of vascular relaxation in rat aorta by phytoestrogens from Curcuma comosa Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to examine the effects and mechanisms of Curcuma comosa Roxb., an indigenous medicinal plant containing phytoestrogens, on vascular relaxation. Using an organ bath system, acute exposure of intact or endothelium-denuded aortic rings to the hexane extract of C. comosa or an isolated diarylheptanoid compound, D3, did not induce relaxation. However, pre-incubation of aortic rings for 20 min

Suttira Intapad; Apichart Suksamrarn; Pawinee Piyachaturawat

2009-01-01

59

Mitochondrial apoptosis contributes to the anti-cancer effect of Smilax glabra Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR), a member of the Smilacaceae family and a rhizome of the Liliaceae plant, has shown anti-inflammation and detoxification properties, and a few studies reported its anti-cancer effect. In this study, we showed that SGR inhibited growth of human breast cancer cell line MCF7, colon carcinoma cell line HT-29, and gastric cancer cell line BGC-823 in a

Yujing Gao; Yahui Su; Like Qu; Shuo Xu; Lin Meng; Shao-Qing Cai; Chengchao Shou

2011-01-01

60

Analytical study of Kuberaksha/Kantaki Karanja Patra Churna [Caesalpinia Bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder  

PubMed Central

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Kuberaksha) is an Ayurvedic herb used in the management of malaria, liver disorders, worms, edematous conditions, etc. Based on classical Ayurvedic textual indications and recent pharmacological studies, its leaf powder was selected for studying its effect clinically on filaria. Before conducting the clinical trails, this leaf powder was subjected to certain chemical studies to find the pH, ash value, extractive values, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), etc. for standardization of the drug.

Prasad, Goli Penchala; Trimurtulu, G.; Reddy, K. N.; Naidu, M. L.

2010-01-01

61

Cardioprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Materials and Methods: U. parviflora Roxb. (350 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, p.o) was administered for 15 days in rats. MI was induced with a single dose of ISO (200 mg/kg, s.c.) on the 14th and 15th day. At the end of the experimental period (i.e., on the day 16), serum and heart tissues were collected and total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein, triglyceride and malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and body weight were determined. Results: Administration of ISO in control rats showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase serum cholesterol alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the levels of heart tissues as compared with respective control groups. Rats treated with U. parviflora significantly (P < 0.01) decreased ALT, AST, ALP, LDL and TC. Moreover, there was an increased CAT and GSH levels in rat treated with U. parviflora Roxb. as compared with the control group. Conclusion: U. parviflora (350 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) is effective in controlling serum LDL levels and reduced cardiac complication in experimentally induced MI in rats.

Barman, Nishith Ranjan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Datta, Rana; Kar, Prasanna Kumar

2013-01-01

62

The role of nocturnal vision in mate choice: females prefer conspicuous males in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea)  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal frog species rely extensively on vocalization for reproduction. But recent studies provide evidence for an important, though long overlooked, role of visual communication. In many species, calling males exhibit a conspicuous pulsing vocal sac, a signal bearing visually important dynamic components. Here, we investigate female preference for male vocal sac coloration—a question hitherto unexplored—and male colour pattern in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Under nocturnal conditions, we conducted two-choice experiments involving video playbacks of calling males with identical calls and showing various naturally encountered colour signals, differing in their chromatic and brightness components. We adjusted video colours to match the frogs' visual perception, a crucial aspect not considered in previous experiments. Females prefer males with a colourful sac and a pronounced flank stripe. Both signals probably enhance male conspicuousness and facilitate detection and localization by females. This study provides the first experimental evidence of a preference for specific vocal sac spectral properties in a nocturnal anuran species. Vocal sac coloration is based on carotenoids and may convey information about male quality worthwhile for females to assess. The informative content of the flank stripe remains to be demonstrated.

Gomez, Doris; Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry; Plenet, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre; Lena, Jean-Paul; Thery, Marc

2009-01-01

63

Induction of apoptosis in murine leukemia by diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diarylheptanoids, isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma comosa Roxb., have several biological activities including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation. The present study investigated the\\u000a effect of five diarylheptanoids isolated from C. comosa rhizome on the proliferation of murine P388 leukemic cells. Compound-092, (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, bearing a catechol moiety, was the most potent diarylheptanoid (IC50 of 4 ?M) in inhibiting P388 leukemic cell viability by

Surawat Jariyawat; Thanapol Thammapratip; Kanoknetr Suksen; Podchanart Wanitchakool; Jintapat Nateewattana; Arthit Chairoungdua; Apichart Suksamrarn; Pawinee Piyachaturawat

64

An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.  

PubMed

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, anti steroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa. PMID:22409913

Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Dixit, Vinod K

2012-03-01

65

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. in mice and on human neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. on cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in mice and the phagocytic effect on human neutrophils. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. at two dose levels of 250and 500 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 13 days to albino mice and cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg i.p.) was administered on 11th,12th, and 13th days, 1 hour after the administration of the respective treatment. On 14th day blood was collected and the hematological parameters were evaluated. The two extracts in the concentration range 100,50,25,12 and 6.25 ?g were also tested for phagocytic effect on human neutrophils using the in vitro models–nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye test, phagocytosis of Candida albicans, and chemotaxis assay. Results: Methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. showed significant counteracting effect (P < 0.01) to cyclophosphamide-induced reduction in total WBC, differential leucocyte count, platelet counts, RBC counts, and hemoglobin levels. The extracts of the plant in the concentration range 100,50,25,12, and 6.25 ?g also showed significant (P < 0.01) phagocytic effect on human neutrophils in the parameters studied. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. exhibited immunomodulatory property in both in vivo and in vitro models.

Heroor, Sanjeev; Beknal, Arun Kumar; Mahurkar, Nitin

2013-01-01

66

Effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. on gonadotropin release in immature female rats and ovarian histology.  

PubMed

In the present study we are reporting in vivo effect of aqueous extracts of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Fam. Symplocaceae) on serum FSH and LH levels in immature female Sprague-Dawley rats under basal conditions. Symplocos racemosa is used in Indian System of Medicine (ISM) for various female disorders. Aqueous extract on oral administration significantly stimulated serum FSH level (P < 0.016) along with the rise in serum LH level (P < 0.001). Moreover, histopathological studies revealed enhanced folliculogenesis, presence of mature follicles and detached oocytes, which are result of increased FSH and LH levels. Further, an increase in the ovary weight of treated animals was found due to observed FSH surge. These results are in concordance with the traditional use of the drug for female disorders. PMID:15261983

Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Jadhav, Atul N; Kalia, Vandana

2004-09-01

67

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) were administered by p.o. route. The antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (P < 0.01). At the above doses, the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract of D. sissoo may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavanoids. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanolic extract was not toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight. PMID:22470239

Asif, Mohammad; Kumar, Arun

2011-01-01

68

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark  

PubMed Central

The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) were administered by p.o. route. The antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (P < 0.01). At the above doses, the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract of D. sissoo may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavanoids. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanolic extract was not toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight.

Asif, Mohammad; Kumar, Arun

2011-01-01

69

Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in the seeded diploid banana Musa ornata Roxb.  

PubMed

Somatic embryos of a seeded diploid ornamental banana (Musa ornata Roxb.) were obtained from zygotic embryos cultured on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) medium with the auxin 2,4-D (0.5, 1, 2 mg/l) and 5% CW. Removal of 2,4-D and transferral to Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) (1972) salts with CW followed by basal MS led to embryo germination and growth. Plantlet production was obtained using filter paper bridges in liquid half-strength SH medium with 1% sucrose. The remarkable phenotypic fidelity of somatic embryos to that of zygotic embryos and the presence of a haustorium-like outgrowth on the somatic embryos is described. PMID:11538845

Cronauer-Mitra, S S; Krikorian, A D

1988-01-01

70

Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in the seeded diploid banana Musa ornata Roxb.  

PubMed

Somatic embryos of a seeded diploid ornamental banana (Musa ornata Roxb.) were obtained from zygotic embryos cultured on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) medium with the auxin 2,4-D (0.5, 1, 2 mg/l) and 5% CW. Removal of 2,4-D and transferral to Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) (1972) salts with CW followed by basal MS led to embryo germination and growth. Plantlet production was obtained using filter paper bridges in liquid half-strength SH medium with 1% sucrose. The remarkable phenotypic fidelity of somatic embryos to that of zygotic embryos and the presence of a haustorium-like outgrowth on the somatic embryos is described. PMID:24241408

Cronauer-Mitra, S S; Krikorian, A D

1988-01-01

71

Changes in isoenzymes of soluble malate dehydrogenase during germination of mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus\\u000a Roxb.) cv. Pusa Baisakhi were surface sterilized and sown both in Petri dishes and sand culture containing aqueous solutions of\\u000a four different saltsviz. NaCl, KC1, Na2SO4 and K2SO4 each at 5 and 10 m ?-1 cm-1. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isoenzymes were studied in different plant parts of mung bean at suitable intervals during germination

I. S. Sheoean; O. P. Garg

1980-01-01

72

Floating-leaved macrophyte ( Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb) beds have significant effects on sediment resuspension in Lake Taihu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb is a common floating-leaved macrophyte in China. In this study, the effects of Trapa on sediment resuspension in Lake Taihu, a large, shallow, eutrophic lake in eastern China, were investigated using sediment\\u000a traps. The study was conducted at stations with and without Trapa beds from 7 September to 18 October, 2003. Results showed that sediment resuspension rates

Peisheng Huang; Boping Han; Zhengwen Liu

73

Floating-leaved macrophyte ( Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb) beds have significant effects on sediment resuspension in Lake Taihu, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb is a common floating-leaved macrophyte in China. In this study, the effects of Trapa on sediment resuspension in Lake Taihu, a large, shallow, eutrophic lake in eastern China, were investigated using sediment\\u000a traps. The study was conducted at stations with and without Trapa beds from 7 September to 18 October, 2003. Results showed that sediment resuspension rates

Peisheng Huang; Boping Han; Zhengwen Liu

2007-01-01

74

The role of cytokinins on in vitro shoot production in Salix tetrasperma Roxb.: a tree of ecological importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A valuable tropical tree, Salix tetrasperma Roxb. commonly known as Indian willow has been investigated for its in vitro regeneration potential using nodal explants\\u000a obtained from a 30-year-old elite tree. Agar-solidified Woody Plant Medium (WPM) containing different concentrations of Plant\\u000a Growth Regulators (PGRs) was used in the study. Shoot induction response was best on WPM supplemented with 6-benzyladenine\\u000a (5.0 ?M) where

Naseem Ahmad; Mohammad Anis

2011-01-01

75

Efficient control of air pollution through plants, a cost-effective alternative: studies on Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.  

PubMed

Plants can be used as both passive biomonitors and biomitigators in urban and industrial environments to indicate the environmental quality and to ameliorate pollution level in a locality. Many studies reveal that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of air pollution on comparative basis with reference to changes in photosynthetic pigments, plant height, leaves, as well as, biochemical parameters of plants of different sites around Udaipur city receiving varying levels of pollution load. The investigated tree species Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Family: Fabaceae) exhibited a reduction in various physiological and biochemical growth parameters that correspond with air pollution levels at different sites. The tree species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, leaf area, and chlorophyll and total carbohydrate and total protein concentration in the leaves. Our studies suggest that D. sissoo Roxb. can successfully be grown in an area for monitoring air pollution, where it is mild and droughts are common. It will prove as an ideal tree species to control pollution effectively beside acting as a shade tree and being a source of food for birds and animals. By plantation of D. sissoo Roxb., mitigative measure at the polluted sites to control generation of particulate matter and the air quality required can be ensured. Our results also confirm that industrial and vehicular air pollution level in Udaipur city is shifting beyond limits. PMID:23423551

Kapoor, C S; Bamniya, B R; Kapoor, K

2013-09-01

76

Antineoplastic activity of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch bark extracts (in vitro).  

PubMed

Cancer remains the major public health concern with a number of cancer patients relying on chemotherapy as a treatment option. Although, advances in biomedical research have led to increased anticancer agents in recent years, the treatment is not always effective due to resistance, toxicity or other factors. Phytochemicals and their active components isolated from plants have provided diversified effective drugs many of them are currently used against cancer and other diseases. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch (Ulmaceae) is a widely distributed plant in many parts of the world, also grown in gardens of Pakistan. It is an ornamental plant with certain medicinal characteristics due to many valuable and active phyto constituents in various parts of the plant. We looked at in vitro antineoplastic effects of four different extracts, in butanol (BMBU), hexane (BMHx), ethyl acetate (BMET) and chloroform (BMCHF), from bark of Holoptelea integrifolia on small cell lung cancer, breast, prostate, coloretal and hepatocellular cancer cell lines. Plant extracts BMHx and BMET showed significant cytotoxic effects on breast and prostate cancer cells. These preliminary studies are encouraging to proceed further this research in future, regarding the isolation of active phytoconstituents in these extracts as well as its mechanism in chemoprevention and combination anticancer therapy. PMID:24191320

Guo, Huiqin; Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Amir; Xu, Rui-Hua; Mansoor, Najia; Tiwari, Amit K; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2013-11-01

77

Bone sparing effect of a novel phytoestrogen diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Phytoestrogens have been implicated in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, an active phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa Roxb, diarylheptanoid (DPHD), (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, was found to strongly promote human osteoblast function in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated the protective effect of DPHD on ovariectomy-induced bone loss (OVX) in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with 17?-estradiol (E2, 10 µg/kg Bw) as a positive control. Treatment of OVX animals with DPHD at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg Bw for 12 weeks markedly increased bone mineral density (BMD) of tibial metaphysis as measured by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT). Histomorphometric analysis of bone structure indicated that DPHD treatment retarded the ovariectomy-induced deterioration of bone microstructure. Ovariectomy resulted in a marked decrease in trabecular bone volume, number and thickness and these changes were inhibited by DPHD treatment, similar to that seen with E2. Moreover, DPHD decreased markers of bone turnover, including osteocalcin and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. These results suggest that DPHD has a bone sparing effect in ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss and prevents deterioration of bone microarchitecture by suppressing the rate of bone turnover. Therefore, DPHD appears to be a promising candidate for preserving bone mass and structure in the estrogen deficient women with a potential role in reducing postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:24244350

Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Wichit, Patsorn; Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2013-01-01

78

Induction of apoptosis in murine leukemia by diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa Roxb.  

PubMed

Diarylheptanoids, isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma comosa Roxb., have several biological activities including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation. The present study investigated the effect of five diarylheptanoids isolated from C. comosa rhizome on the proliferation of murine P388 leukemic cells. Compound-092, (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, bearing a catechol moiety, was the most potent diarylheptanoid (IC(50) of 4 ?M) in inhibiting P388 leukemic cell viability by causing DNA breakage and inducing apoptosis. Apoptotic cell death was characterized by the presence of chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA fragmentation, and externalization of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine. This compound increased caspase-3 activity about fivefold above the untreated control, decreased the intracellular reduced glutathione level, and impaired mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In the presence of Cu(II) ion, the compound exhibited a pro-oxidant activity causing DNA strand breakage and enhancing the anti-proliferative activity. The results provide evidence for the pro-oxidant activity of the diarylheptanoid bearing a catechol moiety in the induction of apoptosis in murine P388 leukemia. PMID:21766178

Jariyawat, Surawat; Thammapratip, Thanapol; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Nateewattana, Jintapat; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2011-12-01

79

Long-term effect of phytoestrogens from Curcuma comosa Roxb. on vascular relaxation in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Phytoestrogens have been implicated as promising therapeutic agents to treat the vascular impairment seen in menopausal women. The present study investigated the long-term effects of phytoestrogens from Curcuma comosa Roxb. on vascular relaxation of isolated thoracic aorta from ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Treatment of OVX rats for 12 weeks with C. comosa powder, hexane extract, and a novel phytoestrogen, diarylheptanoid-D3, [(3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol] prevented impairment of the endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine in OVX, but not the endothelium-denude aortic ring relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside. These data suggest that the vascular relaxation effect of C. comosa is mediated via endothelial cells. Treatment with D3 also increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and estrogen receptor-? (ER?) protein expression in the aorta of OVX rats and suppressed elevated tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) expression in OVX aortic rings. These results indicate that C. comosa treatment prevents impairment of vascular relaxation in estrogen-deficient animals via the ER-eNOS pathway as well as through its ability to promote an anti-inflammatory response. PMID:22225491

Intapad, Suttira; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Suvitayawat, Wisuda; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2012-01-25

80

Estrogenic activity of diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa Roxb. Requires metabolic activation.  

PubMed

Curcuma comosa Roxb. has traditionally been used as a dietary supplement for health promotion in peri- and postmenopausal women in Thailand. We investigated the estrogenic activity of 7 naturally occurring diarylheptanoids from the extracts of C. comosa both in vitro and in vivo. A yeast recombinant system containing human estrogen receptor alpha, coactivator TIF2 and a beta-galactosidase reporter gene was used to determine estrogenic activity of diarylheptanoids metabolically activated with rat liver S9-fraction prior to the assay. The most potent compound was (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, with a relative potency of 4% compared to 17beta-estradiol. The metabolic activation of diarylheptanoids markedly enhanced their efficiency. The chemical structure required for estrogenic activity of diarylheptanoids was the presence of a keto group at C3 and absence of hydroxyl moiety in ring B. Only diarylheptanoids showing full estrogenic efficiency in vitro were able to elicit uterotrophic activity of in immature ovariectomized rat. This is the first evidence for in vivo estrogenic activity of diarylheptanoids from C. comosa. This novel class of natural phytoestrogens has the potential to be developed for use as dietary supplement in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. PMID:19143535

Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Ponglikitmongkol, Mathurose; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2009-02-11

81

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. Fruitagainst CCl4 Inducesd Hepatic Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

In India, a number of medicinal plants and their formulations are used to cure hepatic disorders in traditional systems of medicine. No systemic study has been done on protective effect of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae) to treat hepatic diseases. Protective action of C. trigonus fruit extracts was evaluated in this study in animal model of hepatotoxicity, which was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Forty two healthy female albino Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were divided in to seven groups of 6. Group 1 was normal control group; Group 2, the hepatotoxic group was given CCl4; Group 3 was administered standard drug (Liv-52); Groups 4-7 received pet. ether, chloroform, alcohol and aqueous fruit extract (300 mg/kg) with CCl4. The parameters studied were alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and serum bilirubin activities. The hepatoprotective activity was also supported by histopathological studies of liver tissue. Results of the biochemical studies of blood samples of CCl4 treated animals showed significant increase in the levels of serum enzyme activities, reflecting the liver injury caused by CCl4. Whereas blood samples from the animals treated with chloroform and aqueous fruit extracts showed significant and alcohol extract showed highly significant decrease in the levels of serum markers, indicating the protection of hepatic cells. The results revealed that alcoholic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus could afford highly significant protection against CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury.

Patil, Kalpana; MohammedImtiaz, Shaikh; Singh, Anoop; Bagewadi, Varsha; Gazi, Shaikh

2011-01-01

82

Growth and mitochondrial respiration of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) germinated at low pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedlings were grown hypobarically to assess the effects of low pressure (21-24 kilopascals) on growth and mitochondrial respiration. Control seedlings grown at ambient pressure (101 kilopascals) were provided amounts of O2 equivalent to those provided experimental seedlings at reduced pressure to factor out responses to O2 concentration and to total pressure. Respiration was assayed using washed mitochondria, and was found to respond only to O2 concentration. Regardless of total pressure, seedlings grown at 2 millimoles O2 per liter had higher state 3 respiration rates and decreased percentages of alternative respiration compared to ambient (8.4 millimoles O2 per liter) controls. In contrast, seedling growth responded to total pressure but not to O2 concentration. Seedlings were significantly larger when grown under low pressure. While low O2 (2 millimoles O2 per liter) diminished growth at ambient pressure, growth at low pressure in the same oxygen concentration was enhanced. Respiratory development and growth of mungbean seedlings under low pressure is unimpaired whether oxygen or air is used as the chamber gas, and further, low pressure can improve growth under conditions of poor aeration.

Musgrave, M. E.; Gerth, W. A.; Scheld, H. W.; Strain, B. R.

1988-01-01

83

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and diuretic activity of Polygonum lanatum Roxb.  

PubMed

The hexane (PLH), ethyl acetate (PLE) and methanol (PLM) extracts of dried whole plant parts of Polygonum lanatum Roxb. (Family, Polygonaceae) obtained by successive cold extraction, were subjected to evaluate anti-inflammatory, analgesic and diuretic activity in experimental animals. Oral administration of either PLH and PLM at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight showed statistically significant (p < 0.001) inhibition of rat paw edema by 41.09% and 30.15%, respectively, which was comparable to that of standard drug phenylbutazone (42.15%). Compared to the inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing by aminopyrine (69.94%, p < 0.001), treatment with either PLH, PLE or PLM elicited significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing reflex by 44.80% (p < 0.001), 33.87% (p < 0.01) and 62.29% (p < 0.001), respectively. In addition, mild to potent diuretic activity was observed after oral administration of these extracts in Swiss albino mice. PMID:16380352

Saha, Achinto; Chowdhury, Kawshik Kumar; Bachar, Sitesh Chandra; Roy, Suvash Chandra; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar

2005-10-01

84

Novel inhibitors of human DOPA decarboxylase extracted from Euonymus glabra Roxb.  

PubMed

Dopamine, a biogenic amine with important biological functions, is produced from l-DOPA by DOPA decarboxylase (DDC). DDC is a potential target to modulate the production of dopamine in several pathological states. Known inhibitors of DDC have been used for treatment of Parkinson's disease but suffered low specificity and diverse side effects. In the present study, we identified and characterized a novel class of natural-product-based selective inhibitors for DDC from the extract of Euonymus glabra Roxb. by a newly developed high-throughput enzyme assay. The structures of these inhibitors are dimeric diarylpropane, a unique chemical structure containing a divalent dopamine motif. The most effective inhibitors 5 and 6 have an IC50 of 11.5 ± 1.6 and 21.6 ± 2.7 ?M in an in vitro purified enzyme assay, respectively, but did not inhibit other homologous enzymes. Compound 5 but not 6 dose-dependently suppressed the activity of hDDC and dopamine levels at low micromolar concentrations in cells. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship analyses revealed that p-benzoquinone might be a crucial moiety of these inhibitors for inhibiting hDDC. The natural-product-based selective inhibitors of hDDC could serve as a chemical lead for developing improved drugs for dopamine-related disease states. PMID:24471650

Ren, Jie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jin, Huizi; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Yueyang; Wu, Fang; Zhang, Weidong

2014-04-18

85

Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf and root bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the pharmacognostic characters of an important medicinal plant, Holoptelea integrifolia (H. integrifolia) Roxb. Methods The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, macroscopic and fluorescence analysis. Results The characteristic microscopic features of leaves were observed as trichomes, multicellular trichomes, xylem cells, phloem cells, collenchyma, vascular bundles, spongy parenchyma and palisade cells. The characteristic microscopic features of root bark included cork cambium, primary cortex, phloem fibers, medullary rays, endodermis, pericycle and lignified fibers in the transverse section and longitudinal section. The characteristic microscopy of root bark powder showed the presence of cortex cells, sieve tubes, calcium oxalate crystals and lignified fibers. Macroscopic study showed that leaf shape-oval, apex-acute, base-cordate and leaf margin was entire with glabrous surface, bitter taste and characteristic odour. The morphological features of root bark showed deep fissured, rough and firm surface with rhitydome and the periderm parallel to cambium. Conclusions Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of H. integrifolia.

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Karunesh; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Tarun; Kumar, Ajay; Prakash, Om

2012-01-01

86

Within- and among-population impact of genetic erosion on adult fitness-related traits in the European tree frog Hyla arborea  

PubMed Central

Assessing in wild populations how fitness is impacted by inbreeding and genetic drift is a major goal for conservation biology. An approach to measure the detrimental effects of inbreeding on fitness is to estimate correlations between molecular variation and phenotypic performances within and among populations. Our study investigated the effect of individual multilocus heterozygosity on body size, body condition and reproductive investment of males (that is, chorus attendance) and females (that is, clutch mass and egg size) in both small fragmented and large non-fragmented populations of European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Because adult size and/or condition and reproductive investment are usually related, genetic erosion may have detrimental effects directly on reproductive investment, and also on individual body size and condition that in turn may affect reproductive investment. We confirmed that the reproductive investment was highly size-dependent for both sexes. Larger females invested more in offspring production, and larger males attended the chorus in the pond more often. Our results did not provide evidence for a decline in body size, condition and reproductive effort with decreased multilocus heterozygosity both within and among populations. We showed that the lack of heterozygosity–fitness correlations within populations probably resulted from low inbreeding levels (inferior to ca. 20% full-sib mating rate), even in the small fragmented populations. The detrimental effects of fixation load were either low in adults or hidden by environmental variation among populations. These findings will be useful to design specific management actions to improve population persistence.

Luquet, E; Lena, J-P; David, P; Prunier, J; Joly, P; Lengagne, T; Perrin, N; Plenet, S

2013-01-01

87

Impact assessment of a high-speed railway line on species distribution: application to the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) in Franche-Comté.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work is to assess the potential long-distance effect of a high-speed railway line on the distribution of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) in eastern France by combining graph-based analysis and species distribution models. This combination is a way to integrate patch-level connectivity metrics on different scales into a predictive model. The approach used is put in place before the construction of the infrastructure and allows areas potentially affected by isolation to be mapped. Through a diachronic analysis, comparing species distribution before and after the construction of the infrastructure, we identify changes in the probability of species presence and we determine the maximum distance of impact. The results show that the potential impact decreases with distance from the high-speed railway line and the largest disturbances occur within the first 500 m. Between 500 m and 3500 m, the infrastructure generates a moderate decrease in the probability of presence with maximum values close to -40%. Beyond 3500 m the average disturbance is less than -10%. The spatial extent of the impact is greater than the dispersal distance of the tree frog, confirming the assumption of the long-distance effect of the infrastructure. This predictive modelling approach appears to be a useful tool for environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. The results of the species distribution assessment may provide guidance for field surveys and support for conservation decisions by identifying the areas most affected. PMID:23685273

Clauzel, Céline; Girardet, Xavier; Foltête, Jean-Christophe

2013-09-30

88

Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats  

PubMed Central

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels.

Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

2011-01-01

89

Micropropagation of a Thai medicinal plant for women’s health, Curcuma comosa Roxb., via shoot and microrhizome inductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of explant types, plant growth regulators, and sucrose concentrations on shoot and microrhizome inductions\\u000a of Curcuma\\u000a comosa Roxb., an important Thai medicinal plant for women’s health. Explant types significantly affected shoot induction of the\\u000a plant. The maximum shoot multiplication rate of 11.82 ± 1.03 shoots\\/responding explant was obtained when culturing terminal\\u000a bud explants on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS)

Sureerat Lo-apirukkul; Thaya Jenjittikul; Promchit Saralamp; Sompop Prathanturarug

90

Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Premna herbacea Roxb. in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the root nodules of Premna herbacea Roxb. (PH) was investigated for its in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity. Two extracts, aqueous and alcoholic; two fractions of alcoholic extract, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay, trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay. Alcoholic

Isha Dhamija; Nitesh Kumar; S. N. Manjula; Vipan Parihar; M. Manjunath Setty; K. S. R. Pai

91

Solirubrobacter phytolaccae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from roots of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated GTGR-8(T), which formed white colonies, was isolated from roots of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. collected from Taibai Mountain in Shaanxi Province, north-west China. Strain GTGR-8(T) grew optimally at 28-30 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GTGR-8(T) was a member of the genus Solirubrobacter and was closely related to Solirubrobacter pauli B33D1(T) (98.9% similarity), Solirubrobacter ginsenosidimutans BXN5-15(T) (97.0%) and Solirubrobacter soli Gsoil 355(T) (96.9%). No other recognized bacterial species showed more than 94.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the novel isolate. The only respiratory quinone of strain GTGR-8(T) was MK-7(H4) and the major fatty acids (>5%) were iso-C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c, C17?:?1?8c, C18?:?3?6c (6,9,12) and C17?:?1?6c. The DNA G+C content was 71.0 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness for strain GTGR-8(T) with respect to its closest relatives, S. pauli KCTC 9974(T) and S. ginsenosidimutans KCTC 19420(T), was 52.5 and 24.5%, respectively. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, strain GTGR-8(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Solirubrobacter, for which the name Solirubrobacter phytolaccae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GTGR-8(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2013011(T)?=?KCTC 29190(T)). PMID:24254741

Wei, Linfang; Ouyang, Shan; Wang, Yao; Shen, Xihui; Zhang, Lei

2014-03-01

92

Enhancement of vascular relaxation in rat aorta by phytoestrogens from Curcuma comosa Roxb.  

PubMed

The present study aims to examine the effects and mechanisms of Curcuma comosa Roxb., an indigenous medicinal plant containing phytoestrogens, on vascular relaxation. Using an organ bath system, acute exposure of intact or endothelium-denuded aortic rings to the hexane extract of C. comosa or an isolated diarylheptanoid compound, D3, did not induce relaxation. However, pre-incubation of aortic rings for 20 min with hexane extract of C. comosa (10 microg/ml) or the isolated diarylheptanoid compound, D3, (0.1, 1 and 10 microg/ml) markedly enhanced endothelial-dependent relaxation in response to ACh. The hexane extract did not modulate the relaxation of denuded aortic rings in response to SNP, which suggested a predominant effect on endothelial cells rather than on vascular smooth muscle cells. Co-incubation with ICI 182,780 (estrogen receptor antagonist), L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or ODQ (guanylase cyclase inhibitor) inhibited the enhancing effects of C. comosa on ACh-induced relaxation. These findings suggest that the actions of C. comosa are mediated through estrogen receptor (ER) and NO-cGMP-dependent mechanisms. In addition, C. comosa also increased the phosphorylation of serine 1177 eNOS and serine 473 Akt proteins, and these effects were abolished by ICI 182,780. The results suggest that C. comosa acutely increases endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortic rings through the ER-Akt-eNOS pathway. This is the first evidence indicating non-genomic action of a novel phytoestrogen from C. comosa, on vascular relaxation. PMID:19665059

Intapad, Suttira; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2009-10-01

93

Improvements of insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats by a novel phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa Roxb  

PubMed Central

Background Curcuma comosa Roxb. (C. comosa) is an indigenous medicinal herb that has been used in Thailand as a dietary supplement to relieve postmenopausal symptoms. Recently, a novel phytoestrogen, (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol or compound 049, has been isolated and no study thus far has investigated the role of C. comosa in preventing metabolic alterations occurring in estrogen-deprived state. The present study investigated the long-term effects (12 weeks) of C. comosa hexane extract and compound 049 on insulin resistance in prolonged estrogen-deprived rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with C. comosa hexane extract (125 mg, 250 mg, or 500 mg/kg body weight (BW)) and compound 049 (50 mg/kg BW) intraperitoneally three times per week for 12 weeks. Body weight, food intake, visceral fat weight, uterine weight, serum lipid profile, glucose tolerance, insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose transport activity, and GLUT-4 protein expression were determined. Results Prolonged ovariectomy resulted in dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport, as compared to SHAM. Treatment with C. comosa hexane extract and compound 049, three times per week for 12 weeks, markedly reduced serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, improved insulin sensitivity and partially restored uterine weights in ovariectomized rats. In addition, compound 049 or high doses of C. comosa hexane extract enhanced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and increased muscle GLUT-4 protein levels. Conclusions Treatment with C. comosa and its diarylheptanoid derivative improved glucose and lipid metabolism in estrogen-deprived rats, supporting the traditional use of this natural phytoestrogen as a strategy for relieving insulin resistance and its related metabolic defects in postmenopausal women.

2012-01-01

94

Gastroprotective Potential of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Stem Bark against Diclofenac-Induced Gastric Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark possesses anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antioxidant properties. This plant is used traditionally in the Indian system of medicine to treat emesis, ulcers, leucoderma, dysentery, stomach complaints, and skin disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcer effects of D. sissoo stem bark methanol extract (DSME) against the diclofenac sodium-induced ulceration in rat. Methods The DSME (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats once a day for 10 days in diclofenac-treated rats. The gastroprotective effects of DSME were determined by assessing gastric-secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free acidity, and total acidity. Biochemical studies of gastric mucosa were conducted to estimate the levels of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SHs), lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs)], reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), levels of scavenging antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Moreover, adherent mucus content and histological studies were performed on stomach tissues. Results Administration of DSME significantly decreased the ulcer index, TBARSs, H2O2, and MPO activity in gastric mucosa of the ulcerated rats. Activities of enzymic antioxidants, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, GST and GSH, and NP-SH contents were significantly increased with DSME administration in the gastric mucosa of diclofenac-treated rats. Volume of gastric juice, total and free acidity were decreased, whereas pH of the gastric juice was increased with the administration of DSME + diclofenac. Our results show that DSME administration is involved in the prevention of ulcer through scavenging of free radicals. Results of histopathological studies supported the gastroprotective activities of DSME. Conclusion The results of this study showed that DSME exhibit potential gastroprotective activity probably due to its antioxidant and cytoprotection ability.

Khan, Muhammad Israr; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

2013-01-01

95

A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat and its bearing on palaeoclimatic interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea macroptera Dyer, which is a prominent member of the tropical evergreen forests of the Malayan Peninsula. The present finding, along with the other megafossil records described from the same area, indicates a typical tropical vegetation with a warm and humid climate at the time of deposition in contrast to the present day xeric vegetation in the area. As the family Dipterocarpaceae no longer exists in western India, it is essential to discuss the time of its extinction and possible causes, which may include drastic changes in the climate of the region. The present finding also supports the theory of a Malaysian origin for the family in contrast to the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin.

Shukla, Anumeha; Guleria, J. S.; Mehrotra, R. C.

2012-02-01

96

Dietary kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) flesh inhibits triacylglycerol absorption and lowers the risk for development of fatty liver in rats.  

PubMed

Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) is a cucurbitaceous vegetable native to India and Bangladesh. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.), a species related to kakrol, has been shown to have pharmacological properties including antidiabetic and antisteatotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary kakrol on lipid metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN-76 formula diets containing 3% freeze-dried powders of whole kakrol or bitter gourd for two weeks. Results showed significantly lowered liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats fed on both diets. Fecal lipid excretion increased in rats fed the kakrol diet, and lymphatic transport of triacylglycerol and phospholipids decreased in rats fed the kakrol diet after permanent lymph cannulation. Furthermore, n-butanol extract from kakrol caused a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. These results indicate that the mechanisms of action on lipid metabolism in kakrol and bitter gourd are different and that dietary kakrol reduces liver lipids by inhibiting lipid absorption. PMID:21791551

Sato, Masao; Ueda, Takatoshi; Nagata, Kazuko; Shiratake, Sawako; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Kawakami, Mitsuo; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi; Shirouchi, Bungo; Imaizumi, Katsumi

2011-10-01

97

Kinetics of Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase Using Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.: A Potential Antidepressant Herbal Ingredient with Antioxidant Activity.  

PubMed

The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and effect of Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. (Poaceae) leaves on the activity of monoamine oxidase and kinetics of enzyme inhibition. Ethanol extract of C. martinii and rat brain mitochondrial monoamine oxidase preparation ware used to study the kinetics of enzyme inhibition using double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. The DPPH was used as a source of free radical to evaluate antioxidant potential. It is observed that, the ethanolic extract of C. martinii inhibits the monoamine oxidase activity with competitive mode of inhibition. The V(max) (0.01 mM/min) remained constant while, K(m) varied from 21.00 ± 1.1, 43.33 ± 1.5 and 83.33 ± 1.4 mM for 100-500 ?g/ml concentration of C. martinii. The K(i) values were calculated to be 90.00 ± 0.87, 75.00 ± 0.69, 68.18 ± 0.68 ?g for 100-500 ?g/ml concentration of C. martini. It also shows a significant DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine) radical scavenging (IC(50) = 0.34 ± 0.05 mg/ml) and reducing activity (IC(50) = 0.70 ± 0.22 mg/ml). The C. martini can be considered as a possible source of MAO inhibitor used in the treatment of depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:22754197

Gacche, R N; Shaikh, R U; Chapole, S M; Jadhav, A D; Jadhav, S G

2011-07-01

98

Micropropagation of a Thai medicinal plant for women's health, Curcuma comosa Roxb., via shoot and microrhizome inductions.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of explant types, plant growth regulators, and sucrose concentrations on shoot and microrhizome inductions of Curcuma comosa Roxb., an important Thai medicinal plant for women's health. Explant types significantly affected shoot induction of the plant. The maximum shoot multiplication rate of 11.82 ± 1.03 shoots/responding explant was obtained when culturing terminal bud explants on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 18.16 ?M thidiazuron for 8 weeks. Subsequently, they were transferred to a semi-solid MS medium without plant growth regulators for 4 weeks. The regenerated shoots produced roots spontaneously. Rooted plantlets were successfully transferred to the soil. Microrhizome induction was significantly influenced by sucrose concentrations, but not by 6-benzyladenine (BA). Liquid MS medium with a combination of 17.76 ?M BA and 50 g L(-1) sucrose was optimal for microrhizome induction of C. comosa. After 12 weeks of culture, the microrhizome induction rate was 3.36 ± 0.44 microrhizomes/responding explant. Starch accumulation in microrhizomes increased with higher sugar concentration and with longer duration of culture. The microrhizomes were allowed to germinate under greenhouse conditions and further developed into normal plants. The protocols established will be used for the production of uniform plantlets suitable for field plantation for the herbal industry. PMID:21850476

Lo-apirukkul, Sureerat; Jenjittikul, Thaya; Saralamp, Promchit; Prathanturarug, Sompop

2012-04-01

99

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of an aqueous extract from flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry.  

PubMed

A screening of 5 plants used for making drinks in Vietnam revealed a Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry flower bud extract to have the highest inhibitory activity against the alpha-glucosidase enzyme. The anti-hyperglycemic effects of an aqueous extract from flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (CO), a commonly used material for drink preparation in Vietnam, were therefore investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the CO extract inhibited the rat-intestinal maltase and sucrase activities, with IC50 values of 0.70 and 0.47 mg/ml, respectively. These values are lower than those for a guava leaf extract (GE; IC50 0.97 and 1.28 mg/ml, respectively). Postprandial blood glucose testing of normal mice and STZ-induced diabetic rats by maltose loading (2 g/kg body weight (bw)) showed that the blood glucose reduction with CO (500 mg/kg bw) was slightly less than that with acarbose (25 mg/kg bw) but was more potent than that with GE (500 mg/kg bw). In an 8-week experiment, the blood glucose level of STZ diabetic rats treated with 500 mg of CO/kg bw/day was markedly decreased in comparison with that of non-treated diabetic rats. Consequently, CO is considered to be a promising material for preventing and treating diabetes. PMID:17213665

Mai, Truong Tuyet; Chuyen, Nguyen Van

2007-01-01

100

In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from the rhizome of Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) against Candida albicans biofilms.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on Candida albicans biofilms at adherent, intermediate, and mature phase of growth. C. albicans biofilms were formed in flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The biofilms of C. albicans at different phases of development were exposed to xanthorrhizol at different concentrations (0.5 µg/mL-256 µg/mL) for 24 h. The metabolic activity of cells within the biofilms was quantified using the XTT reduction assay. Sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) were determined at 50% and 80% reduction in the biofilm OD??? compared to the control wells. The SMIC?? and SMIC?? of xanthorrhizol against 18 C. albicans biofilms were 4--16 µg/mL and 8--32 µg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the activity of xanthorrhizol in reducing C. albicans biofilms OD??? was dependent on the concentration and the phase of growth of biofilm. Xanthorrhizol at concentration of 8 µg/mL completely reduced in biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at adherent phase, whereas 32 µg/mL of xanthorrhizol reduced 87.95% and 67.48 % of biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at intermediate and mature phases, respectively. Xanthorrhizol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and therefore might have potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections. PMID:22969012

Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2013-07-01

101

Suppression by Curcuma comosa Roxb. of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate stimulated human mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcuma comosa Roxb. is a medicinal plant that has traditionally been used in Thailand for treatment of inflammation in postpartum uterine bleeding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its anti-inflammatory effects using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and human pro-monocytic cell line (U937). Pretreatment with hexane or ethanol extract or two diarylhepatanoids (5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene and 7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene) of C. comosa

Amorntus Sodsai; Pawinee Piyachaturawat; Samaisukh Sophasan; Apichart Suksamrarn; Molvibha Vongsakul

2007-01-01

102

Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 ?g/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 ?g/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-? (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a TH1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of TH1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs.

Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

2012-01-01

103

Influence of forage harvesting regimes on dynamics of biological dinitrogen fixation of a tropical woody legume.  

PubMed

Effects of three forage harvesting regimes-total removal of foliage and branches once (T-12) or twice a year (T-6) and 50% removal every 2 months (P-2)-on growth and biological dinitrogen fixation of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp were studied under subhumid tropical conditions in Guadeloupe, French Antilles. Gliricidia sepium was grown in association with the perennial C(4) grass Dichantium aristatum (Poir) C.E. Hubbard in a two-storied fodder production system. The medium-term effects of pruning on N(2) fixation were assessed by the (15)N natural abundance method. Gmelina arborea Roxb. was used as the non-fixing reference. The trees in the T-12 regime followed the natural phenological cycle, and flowering and podfilling at the beginning of the dry season reduced both foliage and nodule biomass. The T-6 regime impeded flowering, and only a few flowers, on older branches, were produced in the P-2 regime. In trees in the T-12, T-6, and P-2 regimes, fixed N comprised 54-87, 54-92, and 60-87%, respectively, of the total N in aboveground biomass, depending on sampling date. Total annual accumulation of N in harvestable aboveground biomass was highest in trees in the T-6 regime at 313 kg ha(-1), of which 204 kg ha(-1) of N was fixed from the atmosphere. In all treatments, about 70% of the N exported per year from the plot in the fodder harvest came from N(2) fixation. Thus, N(2) fixation makes an important contribution to the N economy of the G. sepium-D. aristatum forage production system, and greatly reduces the need for fertilizer application. PMID:12651525

Nygren, Pekka; Cruz, Pablo; Domenach, Anne Marie; Vaillant, Victor; Sierra, Jorge

2000-01-01

104

Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer properties of the seed extracts of Syzygium fruticosum Roxb. growing in Rajshahi, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background The use of plants and their derived substances increases day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents owing to their versatile applications. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants having anticancer properties from plant origin since oxidants play a crucial role in developing various human diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Sygygium fruticosum (Roxb.) (abbreviated as SF). Methods The dried coarse powder of seeds of SF was exhaustively extracted with methanol and the resulting crude methanolic extract (CME) was successively fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate to get petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and lastly aqueous (AQF) fraction. The antioxidant activities were determined by several assays: total antioxidant capacity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The in vivo anticancer activity of SF was determined on Ehrlich’s Ascite cell (EAC) induced Swiss albino mice. Results All the extractives showed strong antioxidant activities related to the standard. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the fractions was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>PEF>CHF. The TAC of EAF at 320 ?g/mL was 2.60±0.005 which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of standard catechin (1.37 ± 0.005). The ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>AA>CHF>PEF. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of EAF was 4.85 ?g/mL, whereas that of BHT was 9.85 ?g/mL. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, the EAF showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 of 43.3 and 68.11 ?g/mL, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition assay was positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with both DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic contents of SF were also positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Based on antioxidant activity, EAF was selected for cytotoxic assay and it was found that EAF inhibited 67.36% (p < 0.01) cell growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg (ip) on day six of EAC cell incubation. Conclusions Our results suggest that EAF of seeds of SF possess significant antioxidant and moderate anticancer properties. Seeds of SF may therefore be a good source for natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.

2013-01-01

105

Urinary stone formation: Efficacy of seed extract of Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman on growth inhibition of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of aqueous seed extract of Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman on in vitro crystallization and growth patterns of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O, CHPD) crystals was studied using single diffusion gel growth technique. Reduction in growth of CHPD crystals was noticed with increasing concentrations of seed extract. The morphology of CHPD or brushite crystals was studied by microscopy. The structural changes of the treated crystals were assessed by SEM, FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DTA analysis. It is expected that this multidisciplinary approach for in vitro crystallization and characterization of CHPD crystals will provide a better explanation to develop novel strategies for prevention of urinary stones.

Diana, K. J.; George, K. V.

2013-01-01

106

Human-Altered Tree-Based Habitats and Their Value in Conserving Bird and Bat Diversity in Northeast Luzon, The Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the conservation value of smallholder tree-based systems for bird and bat species in the human-altered\\u000a landscape of the Cagayan Valley, Northeast Luzon. Birds and bats in village homegardens, small Gmelina arborea plantations and uncultivated shrub-land were surveyed in 11 localities, using 118 point counts for birds and 34 mist-net-lines\\u000a for bats. A total of 1,093 individual birds

M. Van Weerd; D. J. Snelder

107

A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats  

PubMed Central

Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test drugs were administered orally in the dose of 9ml/kg. Group I received vehicle (distilled water), Group II received leaf decoction of Premna obtusifolia Linn, Group III received leaf decoction of Premna latifolia Roxb and Group IV received indomethacin as standard anti-inflammatory drug. Test drugs and indomethacinwere administered one hour prior to the injection of 0.05 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw of rats. Study findings indicate that leaves of both the species of Premna have anti-inflammatory potential, P. latifoliabeing superior to P. obtusifolia.

Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

2011-01-01

108

Suppression by Curcuma comosa Roxb. of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate stimulated human mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

Curcuma comosa Roxb. is a medicinal plant that has traditionally been used in Thailand for treatment of inflammation in postpartum uterine bleeding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its anti-inflammatory effects using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and human pro-monocytic cell line (U937). Pretreatment with hexane or ethanol extract or two diarylhepatanoids (5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene and 7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene) of C. comosa significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta, from phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated PBMC and U937 cells. In PMA-stimulated U937 cells, the two C. comosa diarylhepatanoids reduced the expression of TNF-alpha and suppressed expression of IkappaB kinase and activation of nuclear factor kappa B. These results indicated that C. comosa and its diarylheptanoids have anti-inflammatory properties which could be exploited for clinical use. PMID:17321476

Sodsai, Amorntus; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Sophasan, Samaisukh; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Vongsakul, Molvibha

2007-04-01

109

Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), ?-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and ?-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits.

Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

2014-01-01

110

Safety assessment of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil, its antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activity and efficacy as antimicrobial in preservation of Piper nigrum L. fruits.  

PubMed

The investigation deals with antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant efficacy of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil (EO), its two major constituents and their comparison with five commonly used organic acid preservatives. The chemical profile of EO, characterized through GC and GC-MS analysis, revealed linalool (56.10%) and methyl cinnamate (19.73%) as major components. The EO, linalool and methyl cinnamate completely inhibited the growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus (LHP-10) as well as aflatoxin B(1) secretion at different concentrations. Methyl cinnamate was found to be more efficacious than EO, linalool and five organic acid preservatives, showing antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy at a low concentration (0.6 ?l/ml) and the nature of its toxicity was fungicidal. However, EO showed strong antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value at 5.6 ?l/ml. Moreover, EO was found to have negligible mammalian toxicity as its LD(50) value, determined through oral administration on mice, was calculated to be 6124?l/kg body weight during safety profile assessment. During in vivo investigation on fruit systems, the Zanthoxylum EO, when tested as fumigant, provided 66.27% and 86.33% protection respectively at 1.25 ?l/ml and 2.5 ?l/ml against fungi infesting Piper nigrum L. fruits demonstrating its practical efficacy as a plant based antimicrobial for post harvest application. PMID:22137251

Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, N K

2012-02-01

111

Changes in the levels of photosynthetic pigments in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Exposed to Hg and Cd at two stages of development: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect

Since the recognition of the toxic potential of heavy metals, their concentration levels in the environmentally sensitive places are being monitored rigorously. In addition, their biological effects are being studied to better assess their impact on the environment, and to identify suitable test systems for biomonitoring low level contaminations. Photosynthetic processes are widely studied endpoints in metal toxicity testing involving plants. Considering the importance of photosynthetic pigments in energy transduction, variations in their levels, especially that of chlorophylls, in response to heavy metals have also been studied by some workers. However, a detailed and comparative study of such variations giving importance not only to chlorophylls but also to carotenoids is lacking. The present study was designed to study the same. Keeping in view the report of Patro (1993) that the cultivated lands in and around the Angul-Talcher industrial belt, adjacent to Bhubaneswar, are under severe threats of pollution by heavy metals released from a thermal power plant and various industrial and mining activities in the region, a widely cultivated legume, Phaseolus aureus Roxb., was selected as the test species. The metals used were Hg and Cd which are well recognized land pollutants from secondary sources. This study also reports how the changes in pohotsynthetic pigments and the toxicity of the two metals are dependent on the stage of development at which the test species is exposed to the metals, information on which is scant. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Shaw, B.P. [Institute of Life Sciences, Orissa (Indonesia)

1995-10-01

112

Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), ? -pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and ? -pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

Ibrahim, Halijah; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Syamsir, Devi Rosmy; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

2014-01-01

113

Antihyperglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Extract and Its Active Compound Xanthorrhizol in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice  

PubMed Central

Xanthorrhizol, a natural compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Java turmeric), has been reported to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties; however, its effects on metabolic disorders remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of xanthorrhizol (XAN) and C. xanthorrhiza extract (CXE) with standardized XAN on hyperglycemia and inflammatory markers in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. Treatment with XAN (10 or 25?mg/kg/day) or CXE (50 or 100?mg/kg/day) significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in HFD-induced obese mice. XAN and CXE treatments also lowered insulin, glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), and triglyceride (TG) levels in serum. Epididymal fat pad and adipocyte size were decreased by high doses of XAN (26.6% and 20.1%) and CXE (25.8% and 22.5%), respectively. XAN and CXE treatment also suppressed the development of fatty liver by decreasing liver fat accumulation. Moreover, XAN and CXE significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue (27.8–82.7%), liver (43.9–84.7%), and muscle (65.2–92.5%). Overall, these results suggest that XAN and CXE, with their antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities, might be used as potent antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

2014-01-01

114

Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1st, 4th, 8th, 14th, 17th, and 21st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. Statistics: The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. Conclusions: The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners.

Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, S. D.

2014-01-01

115

Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Premna herbacea Roxb. in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model.  

PubMed

In the present study, the root nodules of Premna herbacea Roxb. (PH) was investigated for its in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity. Two extracts, aqueous and alcoholic; two fractions of alcoholic extract, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay, trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay. Alcoholic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction were found to be the most effective in BSL assay, trypan blue exclusion assay. In vivo antitumor activity was screened in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model and the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model. The extracts and the fractions were tested at two dosages (250 and 500 mg/kg) by intraperitoneally (i.p.) route on every alternate day upto 13th day. Cisplatin was used as positive control in both studies in single dose (day 1) 3.5 mg/kg by i.p. route. In EAC model, ascites tumor was induced by inoculating 2.5 million of EAC cells i.p. alcoholic extract at 500 mg/kg was the most effective in elevating MST, reduction in body weight in EAC induced tumor. Only the effective extract i.e., alcoholic extract were studied for hematological and antioxidant parameter. It showed a restoring effect on altered hematological parameters and a significant improvement in biochemical parameters at 250 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract. These results explain the toxicity of 500 mg/kg might be high. In the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model, solid tumor was developed by i.m. injection of 1 million DLA cells. Both the extracts and the fractions possessed potent antitumor activity against solid tumor models by significantly reducing the solid tumor weight and volume. PMID:21920724

Dhamija, Isha; Kumar, Nitesh; Manjula, S N; Parihar, Vipan; Setty, M Manjunath; Pai, K S R

2013-03-01

116

Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin

2013-07-01

117

Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection  

PubMed Central

Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae.

Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

2014-01-01

118

Active compound of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. down-regulates the expression of genes involved in joint erosion in a human synovial fibroblast cell line.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the synovium. It is involved in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), resulting in joint inflammation and erosion. Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has long been used to reduce joint pain and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activities of an active compound of Z. cassumunar, (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol (compound D), against cytokine-induced up-regulation of catabolic genes involved in cartilage degradation in RA. Synovial fibroblast cell line, SW982, was cultured in media containing interleukin-1? (IL-1?), in the presence or absence of compound D at the concentration range of 1 to 100 µM. After 24 hours, the cells were analyzed for the expressions of MMPs, IL-1? and interleukin-1?-converting enzyme (ICE) by RT-PCR. MMPs activities in the culture media were analyzed by zymographic techniques. Dexamethasone was used as the positive control. It was found that compound D at the concentration of 10 - 100 µM significantly decreased the mRNA expressions of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -13 which was induced by IL-1? (P<0.05) concomitantly with a decrease in activities of these MMPs in the culture media. An increase in the mRNA expression of IL-1? and ICE was also suppressed by compound D. The results suggest that the potent activities of this compound may be involved in the reduction of IL-1? protein synthesis in both pro-form and active form which played an important role in up-regulation of MMPs. This study first revealed the chondroprotective activity of Z. cassumunar in the transcriptional level by suppressing cytokine-induced catabolic genes which caused cartilage erosion in RA. PMID:24082324

Chaiwongsa, Rujirek; Ongchai, Siriwan; Boonsing, Phorani; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Panthong, Ampai; Reutrakul, Vichai

2012-01-01

119

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats.  

PubMed

Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders. PMID:23493235

Mahmud, Za; Bachar, Sc; Qais, N

2012-10-01

120

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders.

Mahmud, ZA; Bachar, SC; Qais, N

2012-01-01

121

Manganese-mitigation of cadmium toxicity to seedling growth of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. is controlled by the manganese/cadmium molar ratio under hydroponic conditions.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) can interact with cadmium (Cd) in environments and influence the toxic effect of Cd on plants. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Mn/Cd ratio and plant Cd-toxicity along Cd concentrations. In this paper, we studied the effects of external Mn/Cd molar ratios (0, 10, 30, 50 and 60) on Cd toxicity in the Mn hyperaccumulator and Cd tolerant plant, Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., at three Cd levels (50, 100 and 200 ?M) under hydroponic conditions. Our result showed that seedling growth (y) under Cd stress was strongly positively related to the solution Mn/Cd molar ratio (SMCR). The relationship between the two variables under solution Cd concentrations was well explained by the linear regression model y=a+b1 (SMCR)+b2 (Solution-Cd). Increasing SMCR significantly reduced the Cd concentration and increased the Mn concentration in plant tissues. However, seedling growth was consistent with the shoot Mn/Cd molar ratio rather than with the Mn or Cd concentrations in plant tissues. At low levels of SMCR (e.g. 0 and 10), elevation of Mn distribution in shoot tissues might be a mechanism in P. acinosa seedlings to defend against Cd-toxicity. In comparison with low levels of SMCR, high levels of SMCR (e.g. 50 and 60) greatly alleviated lipid peroxidation and plant water-loss, and enhanced photosynthesis. However, the alleviated lipid peroxidation in the Mn-mitigation of Cd toxicity was likely to be the secondary effect resulting from the antagonism between Mn and Cd in the plant. PMID:24095921

Liu, Huimin; Zhang, Yuxiu; Chai, Tuanyao; Tan, Jinjuan; Wang, Jianwu; Feng, Shanshan; Liu, Geyu

2013-12-01

122

Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection.  

PubMed

Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

2014-01-01

123

Sida rhomboidea. Roxb Leaf Extract Down-Regulates Expression of PPAR?2 and Leptin Genes in High Fat Diet Fed C57BL/6J Mice and Retards in Vitro 3T3L1 Pre-Adipocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPAR?2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPAR?2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity.

Thounaojam, Menaka C.; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Ramani, Umed V.; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.; Ramachandran, A. V.

2011-01-01

124

Bold enterprise in Amazon basin  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the Jari project in Brazil is to produce food and forest products for world markets by developing a 15,000 square km tract in the Amazon basin. A pumpmill and power plant came on stream in 1979 and since then have been meeting production targets of high quality bleached pulp. The key to the success of the project has been the introduction of a fast-growing hardwood native to S.E. Asia- Gmelina arborea which reaches a height of 30 m after 10 years, and is suitable for most wood products: pulp, sawn timber, veneer, plywood and particleboard. It is stated that preparations are under-way to introduce Jari hardwood to European markets.

Johnston, D.

1980-08-30

125

Pharmacognostical studies of Hymenodictyon orixence (Roxb.) Mabb. leaf.  

PubMed

Hymenodictyon orixence is medicinally important plant found in India, Malaysia and Africa. Due to overexploitation the population of this species has decreased very rapidly. The present study includes pharmacognostical examination of this species. It includes morphological, anatomical, chemical and chromo-fingerprinting characters of Hymenodictyon orixence leaf. PMID:20814524

Reddy, Mallesh; Chaturvedi, Alka A

2010-04-01

126

Antibacterial Activity of Leaves of Cadaba trifoliata (Roxb.) Wt. & Arn  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Cadaba trifoliata was evaluated by cup plate method against bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes, Erwinia and Escherichia coli. The ethanol extract of the leaves demonstrated a high degree of activity against all the tested bacterial strains except Erwinia and Acinetobacter, whereas the aqueous extract of the leaves showed moderate activity against E. coli, B. subtilis and Staph. aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes.

Mythreyi, R.; Sasikala, E.; Geetha, A.; Madhavan, V.

2009-01-01

127

Antibacterial Activity of Leaves of Cadaba trifoliata (Roxb.) Wt. & Arn.  

PubMed

Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Cadaba trifoliata was evaluated by cup plate method against bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes, Erwinia and Escherichia coli. The ethanol extract of the leaves demonstrated a high degree of activity against all the tested bacterial strains except Erwinia and Acinetobacter, whereas the aqueous extract of the leaves showed moderate activity against E. coli, B. subtilis and Staph. aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes. PMID:20336203

Mythreyi, R; Sasikala, E; Geetha, A; Madhavan, V

2009-03-01

128

Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb.  

PubMed

Extract of gum resin of B. serrata containing 60% acetyl 11-keto beta boswellic acid (AKBA) along with other constituents such as 11-keto beta-boswellic acid (KBA), acetyl beta-boswellic acid and beta-boswellic acid has been evaluated for antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing activity using passive paw anaphylaxis and compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mast cell methods. The extract inhibited the passive paw anaphylaxis reaction in rats in dose-dependant manner (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, po). However, the standard dexamethasone (0.27 mg/kg, po) revealed maximum inhibition of edema as compared to the extract. A significant inhibition in the compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mast cells in dose-dependant manner (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, po) was observed thus showing mast cell stabilizing activity. The standard disodium cromoglycate (50 mg/kg, ip) was found to demonstrate maximum per cent protection against degranulation as compared to the extract containing 60% AKBA. The results suggest promising antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing activity of the extract. PMID:15320503

Pungle, Pratibha; Banavalikar, M; Suthar, A; Biyani, M; Mengi, S

2003-12-01

129

Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

2013-01-01

130

Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

2009-10-01

131

Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.  

PubMed

Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423

Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

2011-05-01

132

Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.  

PubMed

Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

2014-01-01

133

Incorporation of strontium into the calcium carbonate crystals of the endolymphatic sac in the tree frog (Hyla arborea japonica).  

PubMed

Tree frogs were loaded with strontium chloride (SrCl2). The incorporation of strontium metal into the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals located both in the inner ear and in the endolymphatic sac was studied by x-ray microanalysis (XMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the inner ear, strontium was not recognized except for traces in a few crystals. When observed by SEM, these crystals had a faceted body and two pointed ends with rather smooth surfaces. However, in the endolymphatic sac, which greatly expands into the spinal canal, strontium was clearly present at every surface of all crystals. Careful examinations by point and line XMA revealed that strontium x-ray counts were highest at the pointed ends and decreased sharply and then gradually toward the equator of the crystals. SEM observations revealed that the crystals in the endolymphatic sac always had rough and irregular surfaces regardless of their shapes and sizes. Calcium was always found in crystals of both organs. Except for calcium and strontium, other elements including sodium and heavier elements were negligible in XMA. These findings suggest that strontium is incorporated into the crystals only in the endolymphatic sac, and the rough-surfaced covering of these crystals reflects newly deposited strontium salt. It seems to indicate that these crystals grow predominantly by accretion. PMID:3619090

Kawamata, S

1987-06-01

134

In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. Results Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were controlled by higher amounts/levels of leaf extracts. Phytochemicals of all plants were qualitatively estimated. Conclusions A majority of timber-yielding plants studied had in vitro control capacity against MDR uropathogenic bacteria.

Mishra, Monali P.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

2013-01-01

135

Bioactivity studies of the individual ingredients of the Dashamularishta.  

PubMed

The bioactivity studies of the individual ingredients of Dashamularishta--a classical Ayurvedic preparation were done with the aqueous extracts of the individual ingredients. The Aegle marmelos Correa. exhibited severe toxicity to the brine shrimp (BST) nauplii, wheat rootlet growth (WRG) inhibition bioassay and lettuce seed germination (LSG) bioassay. It exhibited no inhibition to the growth of PPR and Reo virus in vero cell line. The Oroxylum indicum exhibited moderate toxicity to the BST and WRG, but it is not toxic to the LSG. It exhibited no inhibition to the growth of PPR and Reo virus. The Stereospermum suaveolens exhibited severe toxicity to the BST and LSG, but it is not toxic to the WRG. It exhibited total inhibition to the growth of Reo virus, but it has not effect on the PPR virus. The Premna integrifolia showed severe toxicity to the BST, but it was not toxic to the WRG and LSG. It exhibited no inhibition to the growth of PPR and Reo virus. The Gmelina arborea exhibited severe toxicity to the BST and WRG, but it is not toxic to the LSG. It exhibited no inhibition to the growth of PPR and Reo virus. The Solanum xanthocarpum showed mild toxicity to the BST, WRG and LSG. It exhibited 75% inhibition to the growth of Reo virus. The Solanum indicum showed no toxicity to the BST, WRG and LSG. It exhibited 75% inhibition to the growth of PPR virus. The Desmodium gangeticum showed no toxicity to the BST, but moderate toxicity to the WRG and LSG. It exhibited total inhibition to the growth of PPR virus. The Uraria lagopoides showed no toxicity to the BST, WRG and LSG. It exhibited total inhibition to the growth of Reo virus. The Tribulus terrestris showed no toxicity to the BST, but showed moderate toxicity to the WRG and LSG. It exhibited 75% inhibition to the growth of both PPR and Reo virus. PMID:16414581

Jabbar, Shaila; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Choudhuri, M Shahabuddin K; Sil, Bijon K

2004-01-01

136

Potential anti-inflammatory effect of Leea macrophylla Roxb. leaves: a wild edible plant.  

PubMed

Leea macrophylla (Leeaceae) is a wild edible plant with ethomedicinal importance as anti-inflammatory agent. However, no systematic studies on its anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms have been reported. Present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of L. macrophylla leaves. Phytochemical investigation revealed presence of sterols, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid in extract. Methanol extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide stimulated production of inflammatory mediators viz. prostaglandin E2, tumor necrotic factor-?, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1? in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Additionally, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of this extract was evaluated by using carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma assays in experimental rats. Oral administration of extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) exhibited dose dependant inhibition of carrageenan induced inflammation (p<0.05) and the reduction of the granuloma tissue formation (p<0.05-0.01). The extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) exhibited significant central and peripheral analgesic activity in hot-plate test (p<0.01) and acetic acid induced writhing test (p<0.05-0.01) respectively in experimental mice. Treatment with extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) significantly reduced the yeast provoked elevated body temperature (p<0.05-0.01) in experimental rats. These results confirmed the traditional anti-inflammatory indication of L. macrophylla leaves. PMID:23831308

Dewanjee, Saikat; Dua, Tarun K; Sahu, Ranabir

2013-09-01

137

Chemical composition and nutritive value of tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The rainy tropical climate of Surinam proves to be most suitable for the growth of kudzu in monoculture as well as mixed with grasses. Kudzu has been especially used as ground cover inCitrus growing. In order to get some idea of the nutritive value of this legume the organic and mineral components have been analysed in some 40 samples

J. G. P. Dirven

1965-01-01

138

Evaluation of biological activities of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and its chemical constituents.  

PubMed

Phytochemicals investigation on rhizomes of Alpinia mutica has afforded five compounds namely 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), flavokawin B (2), pinostrobin (3) and pinocembrin (4) together with ?-sitosterol (5). All crude extracts of the plant demonstrated strong cytotoxicity against CEMss (human T4 lymphoblastoid) cancer cells with IC50 values less than 19 ?g/mL, while flavokawin B (2) was the most cytotoxic isolate with IC50 value 1.86±0.37 ?g/mL. Most of the crude extracts and isolated compounds showed weak activity in antimicrobial and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity tests. PMID:23455212

Mustahil, Noorul Adawiyah; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Ali, Nor Azah; Lian, Gwendoline Ee-Cheng

2013-03-01

139

Distribution of Metals in Aquatic Edible Plants: Trapa Natans (Roxb.) Makino and Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the water bodies being used for the cultivation ofedible aquatic plants (Trapa natans and Ipomoeaaquatica) in Lucknow district, U.P., India, were found to becontaminated with a variety of toxic metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Mn andPb). The concentration of metals Cr, Pb and Fe in water was muchhigher than recommended permissible limits of WHO (1995). Theedible parts of these

Upendra N. Rai; Sarita Sinha

2001-01-01

140

Distribution of metals in aquatic edible plants: Trapa natans (Roxb.) Makino and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.  

PubMed

Most of the water bodies being used for the cultivation of edible aquatic plants (Trapa natans and Ipomoea aquatica) in Lucknow district, U.P., India, were found to be contaminated with a variety of toxic metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Mn and Pb). The concentration of metals Cr, Pb and Fe in water was much higher than recommended permissible limits of WHO (1995). The edible parts of these plants bioconcentrated metals from their surrounding water significantly. Therefore, the present study was planned to assess the metal concentration in edible part of plants which was collected from various water bodies used for cultivation of these crops. Despite varying levels of metals found in various fruit parts of T. natans, the metal accumulation in kernel was alarming. However, metal content decreased significantly in various parts after boiling the fruit. Similarly, I. aquatica also accumulated significantly higher amounts of these metals in leaves, however the metal accumulating potential varied considerably depending upon level of metal contamination in the water body in which they were growing. The importance of these findings in the exploitation of these aquatic crops to meet the demand of food and health perspectives for human beings is highlighted. PMID:11554485

Rai, U N; Sinha, S

2001-09-01

141

Activity-guided isolation of antioxidant xanthones from Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karsten (Gentianaceae).  

PubMed

An activity-guided isolation and purification process was used to identify the DPPH (l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging components of Swertia chirayita. A dry, whole plant of S. chirayita was extracted with different solvents and tested for its DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The acetone?:?water (8?:?2) extract showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, which was column chromatographed to obtain decussatin, swertianin, bellidifolin, isobellidifolin, amarogentin, swertianolin and mangiferin as active components. Good correlation was observed between TPC and DPPH scavenging activity among the extracts. The unique structure of xanthones, including the catecholic moiety and the completely conjugated system, enables them to be promising antioxidants. PMID:21985644

Singh, Pradeep Pratap; Ambika; Chauhan, Shive Murat Singh

2012-01-01

142

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on damping-off disease in Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damping-off disease of Aquilaria agallocha seedlings caused by the pathogenic fungus (Pythium aphanidermatum) results in poor regeneration under natural conditions and in the nursery. In the present study, Glomus fasciculatum, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus was examined for its ability to reduce the rotting incidence of Aquilaria seedlings. Dual inoculations (AM+pathogen) restricted the progression of the pathogen in the root

T. TABIN; A. ARUNACHALAM; K. SHRIVASTAVA; K. ARUNACHALAM

143

Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explant of Dwarf Hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson)  

PubMed Central

Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10–1.60?mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10?mg/L IBA and 500?mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10?mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10?mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10?mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20–1.00?mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6–9 for the best plant growth and development.

Karatas, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; C?nar, Aysegul; Dogan, Muhammet

2013-01-01

144

Effective Control of Postprandial Glucose Level through Inhibition of Intestinal Alpha Glucosidase by Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.).  

PubMed

Inhibition of intestinal alpha glucosidase plays a major role in preventing rise in postprandial glucose level in diabetics. Cymbopogon martinii (CM) (family Poaceae) is used in traditional Indian medicine in treatment of diabetes mellitus. The alpha glucosidase inhibitory action of the plant is studied. The active component was separated using hot water extraction of the whole plant powder, differential solvent extraction, and silica gel column chromatography. The 30?:?70 toluene : ethyl acetate fraction showed optimum activity. The silica gel chromatography fraction demonstrated 98, 98, and 68% inhibition for starch, maltose, and sucrose, respectively, at 5?mg/kg body weight of rats. Intestinal absorption studies using noneverted intestinal sacs, as well as in vivo studies in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using oral glucose tolerance with maltose and sucrose load, revealed better inhibition of alpha glucosidase as compared to acarbose. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver Burk plot showed mixed to noncompetitive type of inhibition by CM. In vivo studies with maltose load of 2?mg and 3?mg/gm body weight showed a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition at 5?mg/kg body weight of CM as against 60?mg/kg body weight of acarbose. Thus CM is more effective alpha glucosidase inhibitor and at lower concentration than acarbose. PMID:21792369

Ghadyale, Varsha; Takalikar, Shrihari; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

2012-01-01

145

Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity. Methods Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature. Conclusions The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods.

Sasmal, S; Majumdar, S; Gupta, M; Mukherjee, A; Mukherjee, PK

2012-01-01

146

Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by Curcuma comosa Roxb. ethanol extract.  

PubMed

The protective effect of an ethanol extract of Curcuma comosa against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in mice was studied. Adult male mice were pretreated for 4 days with the ethanol extract of C. comosa [100-200 mg/kg body weight (BW), orally (p.o.)] before injection of cisplatin (12.5 mg/kg BW, intraperitoneally (i.p.)). Five days later the mice were killed, and blood samples were collected to determine blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine levels. Kidneys were examined histopathologically and levels of lipid peroxidation, gluthathione (GSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined. Histological examinations revealed degenerative changes and tubular necrosis in mice treated with cisplatin, which were improved by pretreatment with C. comosa ethanol extract. Cisplatin raised BUN, creatinine, and kidney lipid peroxidation levels, and lowered kidney GSH content and levels of GPx, SOD, and CAT activities, all of which (except SOD and CAT) could be restored to normal values by pretreatment with 200 mg/kg BW of C. comosa ethanol extract. In addition, the ethanol extract of C. comosa and its isolated diarylheptanoid compound also exhibited radical scavenging activities. The results suggest that the ethanol extract of C. comosa exhibits effective protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity mediated through its antioxidant activity. PMID:19536611

Jariyawat, Surawat; Kigpituck, Pranida; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Chaovanalikit, Arusa; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2009-10-01

147

Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by Curcuma comosa Roxb. ethanol extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of an ethanol extract of Curcuma comosa against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in mice was studied. Adult male mice were pretreated for 4 days with the ethanol\\u000a extract of C. comosa [100–200 mg\\/kg body weight (BW), orally (p.o.)] before injection of cisplatin (12.5 mg\\/kg BW, intraperitoneally (i.p.)).\\u000a Five days later the mice were killed, and blood samples were collected to determine

Surawat Jariyawat; Pranida Kigpituck; Kanoknetr Suksen; Aporn Chuncharunee; Arusa Chaovanalikit; Pawinee Piyachaturawat

2009-01-01

148

Clot Lysis and Antimitotic Study of Ficus glomerata Roxb Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to investigate the thrombolytic and antimitotic potentiality of various extracts of fruits of Ficus glomerata, a traditional medicinal plant, using an in vitro assay method. Three crude extracts such as petroleum ether (FGPE), chloroform (FGCE), and methanol (FGME) were used for the study, with a standard (streptokinase) and negative control (sterile distilled water) to validate the method. The thrombolytic nature of the plant was found significant with methanol extract and chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have recorded mild activity, when compared with the negative control (sterile distilled water). The extracts have shown mild clot lysis, that is, 2.16%, 23.06%, 27.60%, and 47.74% of sterile distilled water, FGPE, FGCE, and FGME, respectively, while the standard (streptokinase) has shown 74.22% clot lysis. FGME inhibited the root growth in number as well as length effectively, followed by FGPE, while FGCE exhibited moderate antimitotic activity and it was supported by mitotic index. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that among all the extracts of plant the methanolic extract has shown highest thrombolytic and antimitotic activity.

Shivasharanappa, Kirankumar; Londonkar, Ramesh

2014-01-01

149

Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explant of dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson).  

PubMed

Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10-1.60 mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/L IBA and 500 mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10 mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10 mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10 mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20-1.00 mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6-9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

Karata?, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Ç?nar, Ay?egül; Dogan, Muhammet

2013-01-01

150

Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb. on paracetamol induced toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum (E. monogynum) on paracetamol induced toxicity. Methods Methanolic extract of leaves of E. monogynum was given in doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for 7 d and toxicity was induced by paracetamol (2 mg/kg) on Day 8. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was used as reference standard. After 24 h of toxicity induction blood samples were collected from retro-orbital plexsus and analyzed for serum parameters like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminse, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Livers isolated were studied for histopathological changes. Results Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of E. monogynum leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. Prior administration of this extract restored the elevated levels serum markers as compared to toxic group which is also confirmed by the histopathological changes observed. Conclusions The present study showed that methanolic extract of leaves of E. monogynum possess hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.

Syed, Sabeena Hussain; Namdeo, Ajay Gajanan

2013-01-01

151

Evaluation of the toxicological profile of the leaves and young twigs of Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn) roxb.  

PubMed

Acute and sub-acute toxicological effects of ethanolic extract of the leaves and young twigs of Caesalpinia bonduc were carried out on albino rats. Single extract doses from 2000 to 5000 mg/kg body weight were administered orally and monitored for 14 days in acute study, while extract doses from 200 to 1600 mg/kg body weight were orally administered daily for 28 days in sub-acute study and recovery was assessed 14 days after dosing. Biochemical, haematological and histopathological examinations were carried out. There was no mortality in the experimental animals in all acute treatment doses. However, there were significant alterations in the biomarkers and induced cellular damage to the liver in all acute treatment doses. In the sub-acute toxicity treatment, the assessed biomarkers were unaffected at extract dose of 200 mg/kg body weight compared to control, while significant changes were observed in rats administered with extract doses of 400 mg/kg body weight and above. No significant difference was observed between the tested groups and the recovery groups in the sub-acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of C. bonduc could be toxic to selected organs of the rat body in acute and sub-acute treatments. PMID:24311878

Ogunlana, Olubanke O; Ogunlana, Oluseyi E; Adeneye, Adejuwon A; Udo-Chijioke, Oac; Dare-Olipede, Ti; Olagunju, Joseph A; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A

2013-01-01

152

Studies on flavonoid metabolism. Biosynthesis of (+)-[14C]catechin by the plant Uncaria gambir Roxb  

PubMed Central

1. The formation of (+)-[14C]catechin has been demonstrated in Uncaria gambir after the administration of 14CO2 and [1-14C]acetate. 2. By alkaline degradation to phloroglucinol and protocatechuic acid it has been shown that administration of 14CO2 resulted in equal labelling of the A and B rings of catechin, whereas [1-14C]-acetate gave rise to labelling largely in the A ring. 3. Incorporation of 14C from both 14CO2 and [1-14C]acetate into (+)-catechin was greater in young than in older leaves.

Das, N. P.; Griffiths, L. A.

1967-01-01

153

Antidiabetic activity of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. and analysis of phytoconstituents.  

PubMed

The crude powder, ethanolic extract and aqueous, chloroform, hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions of ethanolic extract of heart wood of P. marsupium showed marked improvement on oral glucose tolerance post sucrose load in normal rats. All these fractions except aqueous fraction showed improvement on oral glucose tolerance post sucrose load on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The crude powder, ethanolic extract and hexane and n-butanol fractions showed marked decline in blood glucose level on STZ-induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg body weight) when given to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 10 consecutive days declined blood glucose, improved OGTT and increased their serum insulin levels. The ethanolic extract also showed marked improvement on oral glucose tolerance on high fat-low dosed STZ-induced diabetic rats and neonatally STZ treated rats. The ethanolic extract of P. marsupium also showed marked antidyslipidemic effects on high fat diet fed Syrian golden hamsters. Altered renal and hepatic function markers and serum insulin levels of high fat diet fed-low dosed STZ-treated diabetic rats were also found towards normalization when these animals were treated with ethanolic extract of P. marsupium for 28 consecutive days. The four out of five phenolic C-glycosides isolated from n-butanol fraction of ethanolic extract of P. marsupium enhanced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) in a dose dependent manner. It may primarily be concluded that phenolic-C-glycosides present in P. marsupium heart wood are the phytoconstituents responsible for the antihyperglycemic activity and validate the claim of antidiabetic activity of heart wood of P. marsupium. PMID:23821824

Mishra, Akansha; Srivastava, Rohit; Srivastava, Swayam Prakash; Gautam, Sudeep; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

2013-05-01

154

In vitro propagation of the bamboo (Bambusa tulda Roxb.) through shoot proliferation.  

PubMed

An efficient protocol has been developed for the in vitro propagation of Bambusa tulda through shoot proliferation. Shoots from 3-week-old aseptically grown seedlings were used to initiate cultures. Multiple shoots were obtained on liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (8×10(-6)M) and kinetin (4×10(-6)M). Continuous shoot proliferation at a rate of 4-5 fold every three weeks was achieved through forced axillary branching. More than 90% of the shoots could be rooted on a modified MS medium containing indoleacetic acid (1×10(-5)M) and coumarin (6.8×10(-5)M). Following simple hardening procedures, the in vitro raised plants were transferred to the soil with more than 80% success. PMID:24227171

Saxena, S

1990-12-01

155

Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae)  

PubMed Central

The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA) and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10?mg?kg?1?day?1, p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders.

Patil, Kalpesh Ramdas; Patil, Chandragouda Raosaheb; Jadhav, Ramchandra Baburao; Mahajan, Vallabh Krishnalal; Patil, Prabhakar Raosaheb; Gaikwad, Pradeep Sampatrao

2011-01-01

156

Effective Control of Postprandial Glucose Level through Inhibition of Intestinal Alpha Glucosidase by Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.)  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of intestinal alpha glucosidase plays a major role in preventing rise in postprandial glucose level in diabetics. Cymbopogon martinii (CM) (family Poaceae) is used in traditional Indian medicine in treatment of diabetes mellitus. The alpha glucosidase inhibitory action of the plant is studied. The active component was separated using hot water extraction of the whole plant powder, differential solvent extraction, and silica gel column chromatography. The 30?:?70 toluene : ethyl acetate fraction showed optimum activity. The silica gel chromatography fraction demonstrated 98, 98, and 68% inhibition for starch, maltose, and sucrose, respectively, at 5?mg/kg body weight of rats. Intestinal absorption studies using noneverted intestinal sacs, as well as in vivo studies in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using oral glucose tolerance with maltose and sucrose load, revealed better inhibition of alpha glucosidase as compared to acarbose. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver Burk plot showed mixed to noncompetitive type of inhibition by CM. In vivo studies with maltose load of 2?mg and 3?mg/gm body weight showed a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition at 5?mg/kg body weight of CM as against 60?mg/kg body weight of acarbose. Thus CM is more effective alpha glucosidase inhibitor and at lower concentration than acarbose.

Ghadyale, Varsha; Takalikar, Shrihari; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

2012-01-01

157

Anti-Allergic Effects of Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) Flesh Extract  

PubMed Central

We examined the inhibitory effect of the extract of kakrol extracted by 3 types of solvent (water, 50% and 100% ethanol) on histamine release in human basophilic KU812 cells. The water extract of kakrol flesh showed the strongest inhibitory effect on histamine release as compared with the other extracts. Therefore, we evaluated whether water extract of kakrol flesh had a suppressive effect on development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in picryl chloride-treated NC/Nga mice. The dietary kakrol flesh water extract alleviated the development of skin lesions in ears accompanied by lower IgE levels and inflammatory cytokines levels in serum. These results indicate that the water extract of kakrol flesh might have therapeutic potential for allergic responses in vitro and in vivo.

KIM, Yoon Hee; IDA, Megumi; YAMASHITA, Shuya; TSUKAMOTO, Shuntaro; KUMAZOE, Motofumi; SUMIDA, Mami; KAWAKAMI, Mitsuo; YAMADA, Koji; TACHIBANA, Hirofumi

2012-01-01

158

Hypoglycemic activity of aqueous extract of Urtica parviflora roxb. in normoglycemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves of Urtica parviflora were evaluated for hypoglycemic effect in normal rats using both 18 hr fasted rat model and oral glucose tolerance test. The aqueous extract of leaves showed a good hypoglycemic response in both the models, while ethanolic extract exhibited very week but insignificant effect, only in 18 hr

Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah; Mukesh Lal Sah; Vijay Juyal; Savita Pandey

2010-01-01

159

Antidiarrhoeal Activity of the Alcoholic Extract of the Leaves of Butea frondosa Koen. Ex Roxb  

PubMed Central

The study evaluated the antidiarrhoeal property of the alcohol extract of Butea frondosa leaf on mice and rats. Studies revealed that at a dose of 25 and 75 mg/kg a considerable reduction in the extent of diarrhoea was observed but at a dose of 100 mg/kg the animals appeared completely constipated when subjected to castor oil induced diarrhoea and intestinal motility model. Therefore, Butea frondosa can be regarded as an effective antidiarrhoeal.

Banji, D.; Banji, Otilia; Shanthmurthy, M.; Singh, M.

2010-01-01

160

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ?-amyrin, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines.

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

2014-01-01

161

New Subgenus of Wyeomyia (Diptera: Culicidae), with the Reclassification and Redescription of Wyeomyia (Davismyia) Arborea, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) Tarsata and Sabethes (Sabethes) Carrilloi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new subgenus, Exallomyia, of the genus Wyeomyia is established for three species previously included in the subgenera Davismyia and Dendromyia, and in the genus and nominate subgenus Sabethes. The terminalia of the holotype males of the three species, t...

E. L. Peyton R. E. Harbach

1991-01-01

162

Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals

Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

2012-04-01

163

Phenolic-linked biochemical rationale for the anti-diabetic properties of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Flem.) Karst.  

PubMed

The crude extract of Swertia chirayita, an important medicinal plant of Nepal, is locally used for many diseases including type 2 diabetes. In this study, crude aqueous and 12% ethanol solution extracts of S.?chirayita collected from nine districts of Nepal were analyzed for anti-diabetic-linked anti-hyperglycemia potential using in vitro biochemical assays. There was moderate-to-high positive correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of both extracts and moderate-to-high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Although the anti-diabetic property of S.?chirayita is mainly attributed to the phytochemical swerchirin present in its hexane fraction, we propose that the crude extract of this plant used in local healing also has anti-hyperglycemia potential. The crude extracts indicated the presence of three main phytochemicals mainly mangiferin, swertiamarin, and amarogentin and their derivatives. Among the standard compounds (mangiferin, swertiamarin, and amarogentin), mangiferin showed ?-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical inhibitory activity indicating anti-hyperglycemia potential. PMID:22523004

Phoboo, Susanna; Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Barbosa, Ana Cristina Lopes; Sarkar, Dipayan; Bhowmik, Prasanta C; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Shetty, Kalidas

2013-02-01

164

Promotion of growth in mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) by selenium is associated with stimulation of carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

The mungbean plants were grown hydroponically in the absence (control) or presence of 0.1, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 ppm selenium (as sodium selenate) for 10 days. The growth of shoots and roots increased with application of selenium with greater extent in shoots. With 0.5 and 0.75 ppm Se levels, the shoot growth was stimulated by 24% to 27% over control, respectively, while the roots showed a corresponding increase of 18-19%, respectively. The shoot-to-root ratio was enhanced significantly with Se application and maximum effects occurred at 0.75 ppm Se. A significant increase was observed in chlorophyll and cellular respiration ability with 0.5 and 0.75 ppm selenium. The increase in growth by selenium was accompanied by elevation of starch, sucrose and reducing sugars. The activity of starch hydrolysing enzymes--amylases and sucrose hydrolysing enzyme--invertase was stimulated significantly with selenium. This was associated with elevation of activities of sucrose synthesising enzymes--sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase. It was concluded that increase in growth of shoots and roots by application of Se was possibly the result of up-regulation of enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism thus providing energy substrates for enhanced growth. PMID:20936436

Malik, Jahid Ali; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Sharma, Suchi; Kaur, Navneet; Kaur, Ramanpreet; Pathania, D; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kaushal, Neeru; Singh, Kamaljit; Srivastava, Alok; Nayyar, Harsh

2011-10-01

165

Influence of biofertilizers and nitrogen source level on the growth and yield of Echinochloa frumentacea (Roxb.) Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, the effect of biofertilizers (Azotobacter and Azospirillum) and synthetic fertilizers (urea) were studied separately and in different combinations to establish morphological, biochemical, yield and biomass effects of Echinochloa frumentacea. Both bacterial inoculants at all levels and combination of chemical nitrogen show an increase in growth, yield and biochemical components when compared to the control (with out

B. R. Chandrasekar; G. Ambrose; N. Jayabalan

166

Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves  

PubMed Central

Background Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. Methods The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 ?g/disc. Kanamycin (30 ?g/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Results The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 ?g/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 ?g/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p?

2013-01-01

167

Separation and quantification of terpenoids of Boswellia serrata Roxb. extract by planar chromatography techniques (TLC and AMD).  

PubMed

An high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method for the separation of boswellic acids, the active constituents in Boswellia serrata extract, has been developed and TLC of these compounds on silica by automated multiple development (AMD) using solvent gradients was performed. Enhancement of the separation of boswellic acids on HPTLC plates was carried out by AMD chromatography. Densitometric analysis of the developed plate was carried out to quantify the four boswellic acids. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) were quantified by densitometric scanning of the developed plate at 254 nm. beta-Boswellic acid (BA) and acetyl-beta-boswellic acid (ABA) were quantified after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent at 560 nm. The AMD system provided a clean separation according to polarity for each of the four groups studied and good results were obtained. The proposed HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major boswellic acids BA, ABA, KBA, and AKBA was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine quality control and for the quantification of these compounds in plant materials. The study of market products revealed significant variations in the content of these pharmacologically active compounds in commercial samples. PMID:17069256

Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Shikov, Alexander N; Makarov, Valery G

2006-09-01

168

Terminalia Arjuna (Roxb.) Modulates Circulatory Antioxidants on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene- induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Oral cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide and India has recorded the highest incidence (40-50%) of oral malignancy. This study is designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark (TaBet) on circulatory lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods Male Syrian golden hamsters painted with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on the buccal pouches and developed oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Results The enhanced Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in circulation of tumor-bearing animals was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Administration of TaBet (500 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas, decreased lipid peroxidation and enhanced the levels of antioxidants. Conclusion The chemopreventive potential of TaBet is probably due to its antilipidperoxidative effect or the presence of some potent bioactive chemopreventive principles in the bark of Terminalia arjuna. The results of the present study indicate that T. arjuna may emerge as a putative chemopreventive agent against oral carcinogenesis.

Dhanarasu, Sasikumar; Selvam, Mathi; Salama, Suzan M. Abdel-Tawab; Shanmugam, Manoharan; Sethuraman, Prema

2010-01-01

169

Identification and analysis of expressed sequence tags present in xylem tissues of kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser).  

PubMed

The large-scale genomic resource for kelampayan was generated from a developing xylem cDNA library. A total of 6,622 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated through high-throughput 5' EST sequencing of cDNA clones. The ESTs were analyzed and assembled to generate 4,728 xylogenesis unigenes distributed in 2,100 contigs and 2,628 singletons. About 59.3 % of the ESTs were assigned with putative identifications whereas 40.7 % of the sequences showed no significant similarity to any sequences in GenBank. Interestingly, most genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and several other cell wall biosynthesis genes were identified in the kelampayan EST database. The identified genes in this study will be candidates for functional genomics and association genetic studies in kelampayan aiming at the production of high value forests. PMID:25049467

Ho, Wei-Seng; Pang, Shek-Ling; Abdullah, Julaihi

2014-07-01

170

Sustainable Harvesting of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arnot (Arjuna) and Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) Robinson (Maida) Bark in Central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia arjuna (“Arjuna”) in the family Combretaceae is a well-known medicinal tree whose bark is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine, particularly as a cardiac tonic. Demand for Arjuna bark, both in India and abroad, has been growing rapidly for over a decade. Litsea glutinosa (“Maida”) in the family Lauraceae is a medium size tree. Its bark is used to treat

Ashok K. Pandey; Asim K. Mandal

2012-01-01

171

Sustainable Harvesting of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arnot (Arjuna) and Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) Robinson (Maida) Bark in Central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia arjuna (“Arjuna”) in the family Combretaceae is a well-known medicinal tree whose bark is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine, particularly as cardiac tonic. Demand for Arjuna bark, both in India and abroad has been growing rapidly for over a decade. Litsea glutinosa (“Maida”) in the family Lauraceae is a medium size tree. Its bark is used to treat joint

Ashok K. Pandey; Asim K. Mandal

2011-01-01

172

?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? LACK OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA COMOSA EXTRACT ON MICRONUCLEUS FORMATION OF MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS ?????? ??????? , ?????? ??????????? , ????? ????? , ????? ?????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

????????: ???????????? (Curcuma comosa Roxb.) ????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) ??????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? 250, 500 ???? 1000 ??.\\/ ??.??.??? ????????????????? ???????????????????? 24 ??? 48 ???????????????????? ??? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????PCE ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (p<0.05)???????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? Abstract: Curcuma comosa Roxb.commonly known as Waan chak mod look, is widely used as in indigenous medicine

Lakana Himakoun; Punya Temcharoen

173

Small-scale Agar ( Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) Based Cottage Enterprises in Maulvibazar District of Bangladesh: Production, Marketing and Potential Contribution to Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, trade in agar-based products is growing rapidly due to their recent adoption as an ingredient in the cosmetics and\\u000a pharmaceuticals sector. In Bangladesh, people living in some north-eastern districts have been engaged in the production,\\u000a processing and trading of such products for several decades. These practices, which they consider as the lifeblood of their\\u000a existence, have been inherited from

Mohammed S. Uddin; Sharif A. Mukul; Mohammed Abu Sayed A. Khan; Mohammed Alamgir; Mohammad S. Alam

2008-01-01

174

Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. in hyperlipidemic rats: an evidence of participation of oxidative stress in hyperlipidemia.  

PubMed

Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity profiles of ethanolic extracts of Symplocos racemosa (EESR) were studied by triton-WR1339 (acute) and high fat diet induced (chronic) hyperlipidemic rat models. In both the models, a significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and decrease in high density lipoproteins (HDL) in serum were observed. EESR (200 and 400 mg/kg) and simvastatin (10 mg/kg) administered orally reduced the elevated serum lipids (TC, TG, VLDL, LDL), restored the decreased HDL and improved the atherogenic index. In high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic model, EESR treatment prevented the increased formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver, restored the depleted liver antioxidants, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase significantly. The increased liver cholesterol, HMG-CoA reductase activity and body weight of hyperlipidemic rats were significantly reduced by EESR treatment. The EESR inhibited HMG-CoA reductase, a rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, thereby causing hypolipidemic effects. EESR treatment also improved histoarchitecture of hepatocytes in hyperlipidemic rats. Experimental findings demonstrated anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity of EESR, which may be directly or indirectly related to its antioxidant activity. The hypolipidemic activity of EESR may be due to the presence of flavonoids phenolic compounds, phenolic glycosides and steroids. PMID:24617014

Durkar, A M; Patil, R R; Naik, S R

2014-01-01

175

Effect of storage temperature and dormancy-breaking treatments on seed germination, moisture content and seed vigor in gum karaya (Sterculia urens Roxb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterculia urens is a commercially important tree with wide applications. Although it reproduces by seed, its germination requirements are not known. The seed also suffers with dormancy. The present study is an attempt to understand the proper storage conditions and also the type of dormancy in seeds of Sterculia urens. The optimum temperature for storage of seeds was found to

P. Subhashini Devi; B. Satyanarayana; A. Arundhati; T. Raghava Rao

2012-01-01

176

Effects of Post-coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The abortifacient claim of Senna alata (S. alata) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Methods Twenty four Pregnant rats (143.99±1.21 g) allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/ body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Conclusion Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract.

Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Musa, Isa Fakai

2012-01-01

177

Rohitukine, a chromone alkaloid and a precursor of flavopiridol, is produced by endophytic fungi isolated from Dysoxylum binectariferum Hook.f and Amoora rohituka (Roxb).Wight & Arn.  

PubMed

Rohitukine, a chromone alkaloid, has gained considerable international attention in recent years because of its novel semi-synthetic derivative, flavopiridol and P-276-00. Both these molecules are in advanced stages of clinical development and trial for cancer treatment. Recently, flavopiridol was approved as an orphan drug for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cancer. The natural occurrence of rohitukine is restricted to only four plant species, Amoora rohituka and Dysoxylum binectariferum (both from the Meliaceae family) and from Schumanniophyton magnificum and Schumanniophyton problematicum (both from the Rubiaceae family). Recently, an endophytic fungi isolated from D. binectariferum was reported to produce rohitukine in culture. In this study, we report the production of rohitukine and its subsequent attenuation by endophytic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC-11383), Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC-11384) and Fusarium solani (MTCC-11385), all isolated from D. binectariferum and Gibberella fujikuroi (MTCC-11382) isolated from Amoora rohituka. The fungal rohitukine which was analyzed by HPLC, LC-MS and LC-MS/MS was identical to reference rohitukine and that produced by the plant. The rohitukine content in the mycelial samples ranged from 192.78?g to 359.55?g100g(-1) of dry weight of and in broth it ranged from 14.10 to 71.90?g100ml(-1). In all the fungal cultures, the production declined from first to fourth sub-culture. Studies are underway to unravel the mechanism by which the fungi produce the host metabolite in culture. PMID:24215673

Kumara, P Mohana; Soujanya, K N; Ravikanth, G; Vasudeva, R; Ganeshaiah, K N; Shaanker, R Uma

2014-03-15

178

Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve medicinal plants were screened, namely Abrus precatorius L., Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delonix regia L., Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Ficus benghalensis L., Gmelina asiatica L., Santalum album L., and Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem, for potential antibacterial activity against 5 medically important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus

Jigna PAREKH; Darshana JADEJA; Sumitra CHANDA

2005-01-01

179

Diarylheptanoid 7-(3,4 dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene from Curcuma comosa Roxb. protects retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exposure to oxidative stress causes damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells which may lead to the development of age-related macular degeneration, the major cause of vision loss in humans. Anti-oxidants provide a natural defense against retinal cell damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-oxidant activity and protective effect of two diarylheptanoids isolated from a medicinal

Thunchnok Jitsanong; Kornnika Khanobdee; Pawinee Piyachaturawat; Kanokpan Wongprasert

2011-01-01

180

Diarylheptanoid 7-(3,4 dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene from Curcuma comosa Roxb. protects retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to oxidative stress causes damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells which may lead to the development of age-related macular degeneration, the major cause of vision loss in humans. Anti-oxidants provide a natural defense against retinal cell damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-oxidant activity and protective effect of two diarylheptanoids isolated from a medicinal herb Curcuma comosa; 7-(3,4 dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene (compound A), and 1,7-diphenyl-4(E),6(E)-heptadien-3-ol (compound B) against oxidative stress (H(2)O(2))-induced human retinal pigment epithelial (APRE-19) cell death. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay indicated that the anti-oxidant activity (IC(50)) of compound A was similar to that of vitamin C. Pre-treatment of ARPE-19 cells with 20 ?M compound A for 4h afforded greater protection against the insult from 500 ?M H(2)O(2), compared to a similar protection period for compound B. Compound A lowered H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde formation and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, compound A ameliorated the H(2)O(2)-induced decrease in anti-oxidant enzyme activities and subsequent apoptotic cell death in ARPE-19 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. These results suggest that compound A protects ARPE-19 cells against oxidative stress, in part, by enhancing several anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. Therefore, compound A may have therapeutic potential for diseases associated with oxidative stress, particularly degenerative retinal diseases. PMID:21044678

Jitsanong, Thunchnok; Khanobdee, Kornnika; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

2011-02-01

181

Amino acid sequences of ferredoxins from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger: their similarities to those in other tropane-alkaloid-containing plants.  

PubMed

The complete amino acid sequences of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger have been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire S-carboxymethylcysteinyl proteins and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion. These two ferredoxins exhibited 1-8 differences in their amino acid sequences compared to those of other tropane-alkaloid-containing plants (Scopolia japonica, Datura stramonium, D. metel, and D. arborea), and only 1 or 4 differences compared to S. japonica and D. arborea. In contrast, 9-23 differences were observed among the other solanaceous ferredoxins. This suggests that tropane-alkaloid-containing plants are closely related taxonomically. PMID:16079510

Mino, Yoshiki; Yukita, Mayumi; Hiratsuka, Nobuhiro; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

2005-08-01

182

Stem and root anatomical correlations with life form diversity, ecology, and systematics in Moringa (Moringaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four life forms (habits) are identified in the 13 species of Moringa (bottle trees, sarcorhizal trees, slender trees, and tuberous shrubs) which are examined for wood anatomical correlations with habit, ecology, and systematics. Wood anatomy is similar within habit classes except for the sarcorhizal trees. The four bottle tree species and M. arborea (one of the sarcorhizal trees) are characterized

M. E. OLSON; S. CARLQUIST

2001-01-01

183

Potential pharmacological applications of polyphenolic derivatives from marine brown algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the isolation and characterization of the biologically active components from seaweeds have gained much attention from various research groups across the world. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins are one among them. Among marine algae, brown algal species such as Ecklonia cava, Eisenia arborea, Ecklonia stolinifera and Eisenia bicyclis have been studied for

Noel Vinay Thomas; Se-Kwon Kim

2011-01-01

184

Additions to the hyphomycete genus Veronaea as phytoparasitic species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species of Veronaea, V. ficina on Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae), V. grewiicola on Grewia asiatica L. (Tiliaceae), and V. hippocratiae on Hippocratia arborea Willd. (Celastraceae), collected from forests of Nepal and the Terai belt of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, are described, illustrated and compared with related taxa.

R. N. Kharwar; R. K. Singh

2004-01-01

185

Additions to the hyphomycete genus Veronaea as phytoparasitic species.  

PubMed

Three new species of Veronaea, V. ficina on Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae), V. grewiicola on Grewia asiatica L. (Tiliaceae), and V. hippocratiae on Hippocratia arborea Willd. (Celastraceae), collected from forests of Nepal and the Terai belt of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, are described, illustrated and compared with related taxa. PMID:15293943

Kharwar, R N; Singh, R K

2004-01-01

186

Feeding preferences and the relationships between food choice and assimilation efficiency in the herbivorous marine snail Lithopoma undosum (Turbinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preference rankings for 13 macrophytes were established for the subtidal herbivorous snail Lithopoma undosum using two-choice laboratory experiments and consumption rates. L. undosum did not discriminate among three kelp foods (Egregia menziesii, Eisenia arborea and Macrocystis pyrifera) but ate kelp preferentially and more rapidly over all but Ulva spp. among tested macrophytes. Secondary preferences were established for the red alga

T. Erin Cox; Steven N. Murray

2006-01-01

187

Grazing effects of ungulates in a Galician oak forest (northwest Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of roe and red deer on an oak forest in Galicia studying the vegetation (floristic composition, nutritive value and biomass) in an established enclosure and outside is described. A decrease in number and biomass of the species was generally observed outside after 3 years due to the pressure of grazing, although species like Erica arborea nearly doubled its

M. P. González Hernández; Fco. Javier Silva-Pando

1996-01-01

188

Nutrient content of seeds of some wild plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of the fruits of some wild plants; Cassipourea congoensis (Tunti), Nuclea latifolia (Luzzi), Deterium microcarpum (Tallow), Balanites aegytiaca (Betu), and Gemlin arborea (Melina) were analysed to establish their proximate compositions and the physico-chemical characteristics of the oils. The physico-chemical characteristics measured include saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV) and percentage free fatty

I. I. Nkafamiya; U. U. Modibbo; A. J. Manji; D. Haggai

189

Relationships of the Woody Medicago Species (Section Dendrotelis) Assessed by Molecular Cytogenetic Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The organization of rDNA genes in the woody medic species from the agronomically important Medicago section Dendrotelis was analysed to gain insight into their taxonomic relationships, to assess the levels of infraspecific variation concerning ribosomal loci in a restricted and fragmented insular species (M. citrina) and to assess the nature of its polyploidy. Methods Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA genes in the three species of section Dendrotelis (M. arborea, M. citrina, M. strasseri) and the related M. marina from section Medicago. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to assess the genomic relationships of the polyploid M. citrina with the putatively related species from section Dendrotelis. Key Results The diploid (2n = 16) M. marina has a single 45S and two 5S rDNA loci, a pattern usually detected in previous studies of Medicago diploid species. However, polyploid species from section Dendrotelis depart from expectations. The tetraploid species (2n = 32) M. arborea and M. strasseri have one 45S rDNA locus and two 5S rDNA loci, whereas in the hexaploid (2n = 48) M. citrina four 45S rDNA and five 5S rDNA loci have been detected. No single chromosome of M. citrina was uniformly labelled after using genomic probes from M. arborea and M. strasseri. Instead, cross-hybridization signals in M. citrina were restricted to terminal chromosome arms and NOR regions. Conclusions FISH results support the close taxonomic interrelationship between M. arborea and M. strasseri. In these tetraploid species, NOR loci have experienced a diploidization event through physical loss of sequences, a cytogenetic feature so far not reported in other species of the genus. The high number of rDNA loci and GISH results support the specific status for the hexaploid M. citrina, and it is suggested that this species is not an autopolyploid derivative of M. arborea or M. strasseri. Further, molecular cytogenetic data do not suggest the hypothesis that M. arborea and M. strasseri were involved in the origin of M. citrina. FISH mapping can be used as an efficient tool to determine the genomic contribution of M. citrina in somatic hybrids with other medic species.

Rosato, Marcela; Castro, Mercedes; Rossello, Josep A.

2008-01-01

190

Distribution of some rare plants along saurashtra coast and neighbouring Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper records with brief notes new records and localities for the occurrence of the following flowering plants from Saurashtra\\u000a coast and neighbouring islands:Merremia quinquefolia (L.) Hall. f.,Euphorbia heterophylla L.,Kedrostis rostrata (Rottl.) Cogn.,Portulaca tuberosa Roxb.,Grewia villosa Willd.,Alhagi pseudalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv.,Delonix elata (L.) Gamble,Psilostachys sericea (Koen. ex Roxb.) Hook. f.,Maerua arenaria Hook. f. and Thoms. var.scabra Hook. f. and Thoms.,Vogelia

T. Ananda Rao; B. Safui

1963-01-01

191

Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of ferredoxin-cDNAs among some Datura plants.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of partial ferredoxin (Fd)-cDNAs (corresponding to the amino acid sequence of 22-87 in the total 97 amino acids of ferredoxin) were determined for Datura arborea, D. stramonium, D. metel, and related Datura plants. Non-synonymous substitutions were noted at 4 positions and a synonymous substitution was seen at position 82 (Gln [CAA] (arborea) vs. Gln [CAG] (stramonium and metel)). The nucleotide sequence of Fd-cDNA may provide more detailed information regarding the relative taxonomic positions of plants than the amino acid sequence. However, Datura plants in the same section (metel, fastuosa, and innoxia) and of different varieties (stramonium var. stramonium and stramonium var. tatula) showed identical Fd-cDNA nucleotide sequences. This result suggests that there are very close relationships among the plants in each group. PMID:15577229

Mino, Yoshiki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Harada, Yuichi; Kuroda, Kazumichi

2004-12-01

192

Factors influencing food choice by the seaweed-eating marine snail Norrisianorrisi (Trochidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through two-choice gustatory experiments, a?preference hierarchy was established?for?the?herbivorous gastropod Norrisianorrisi Sowerby, with laminarialean kelps preferred over all other seaweeds. Among the kelps, laminae of Macrocystispyrifera were slightly preferred over Egregiamenziesii, and both were strongly preferred over sporophylls of Eiseniaarborea. E.arborea, the least preferred kelp, was consistently chosen over other algae common in the snail's habitat (Halidrysdioica, Dictyotaflabellata, and Pterocladiacapillacea) and

R. L. Wakefield; S. N. Murray

1998-01-01

193

Epiphytic lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro  

PubMed Central

A list of 120 taxa of lichens (117 species) and three species of lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro is presented. The lichens Biatora chrysantha, Caloplaca monacensis, Candelariella efflorescens, Loxospora elatina, Micarea adnata, Ochrolechia arborea, O. microstictoides, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physconia enteroxantha, Ph. grisea, Rinodina capensis, R. polysporoides, R. pyrina, Scoliciosporum umbrinum var. corticolum, Xanthoria candelaria, X. ulophyllodes and the lichenicolous fungi Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Telogalla olivieri, and Xanthoriicola physciae are new to Montenegro.

Bilovitz, Peter O.; Stesevic, Danijela; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2011-01-01

194

Distribution and diversity of species associated with deep-sea gorgonian corals off Atlantic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the associated fauna of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis. Composition and distribution of this fauna is described based on material from the continental shelf and slope off Atlantic\\u000a Canada (300–600 m depth). Samples were collected from five areas with Remotely Operated Vehicle, video grab, and bottom trawl.\\u000a The collected material consists of 25

Lene Buhl-Mortensen; Pål B. Mortensen

195

Description and biology of two new species of Neotropical Liriomyza Mik (Diptera, Agromyzidae), mining leaves of Bocconia (Papaveraceae).  

PubMed

Liriomyza mystica Boucher & Nishida, sp. n., and Liriomyza prompta Boucher & Nishida, sp. n. are described from Costa Rica. Both species were reared from leaves of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae). The latter species was also reared from B. arborea S. Watson. Larvae of L. mystica mine primary veins of large, relatively old, mature leaves, and L. prompta mine blades of small to large, mature leaves. These represent the first record of agromyzids feeding on Bocconia. Biological information is also given and illustrated. PMID:24478590

Boucher, Stéphanie; Nishida, Kenji

2014-01-01

196

Protection of potato virus X infection by plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from the roots ofBoerhaavia diffusa L., stems ofCuscuta reflexa Roxb. or leaves ofEuphorbia hirta L. have shown a potential protective effect on the infection of potato virus X, in hypersensitive and systemic hosts. The\\u000a inhibition by these extracts was systemic and sensitive to actinomycin D.

L. P. Awasthi; K. Mukerjee

1980-01-01

197

Phytochemical Investigation and Pharmocological Studies of the Flowers of Pithecellobium Dulce  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects from the fresh flowers of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth, belonging to the family of Leguminosae subfamily Mimosoideae, a glycoside quercitin has been isolated. The ethyl acetate soluble of P. dulce containing the above glycoside was studied both in silico and in vitro for the anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. The concatenation of the in silico and in

P. G. R. Chandran; S. Balaji

2008-01-01

198

Components of the Volatile Concentrate of Agarwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent extracts obtained from four kinds of agarwood (Kanankoh and Jinkoh), all of which were collected in Vietnam and imported via Hong Kong, were analyzed using fused silica capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometric techniques. The difference between Kanankoh (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) and other agarwood (Jinkoh—tentatively identified as A. sinensis (Lour.) Gilg.) was studied by comparing the compositions of

Masakazu Ishihara; Tomoyuki Tsuneya; Kenji Uneyama

1993-01-01

199

Effect of the aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha stems on the immediate hypersensitivity reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of the aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. (Thymelaeaceae) on the immediate hypersensitivity reactions. The aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha stems showed inhibitory effects on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, anaphylaxis induced by compound 48\\/80, and histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). The morphological examination also clearly showed that the extract prevented the degranulation of RPMC

Y. C. Kim; E. H. Lee; Y. M. Lee; H. K. Kim; B. K. Song; H. M. Kim

1997-01-01

200

Essential Oil of Eaglewood Tree: a Product of Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of eaglewood tree (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) has been considered to be a pathological product. An investigation was carried out to study the difference in composition of oils obtained from healthy, naturally infected and artificially inoculated eaglewood using GC and GC\\/MS analyses. This investigation showed a marked difference in the oil compositions among the treatments with regards to

Phatik Tamuli; Paran Boruah; Subhan C. Nath; Piet Leclercq

2005-01-01

201

Isolation of Anisyl Acetone from Agarwood Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. was analyzed using GC\\/MS. The main constituents were found to be agarospirol (12.1%) and jinkoh-eremol (10.0%). Anisyl acetone was isolated as a minor constituent and fully characterized from a commercial sample of agarwood oil.

Manfred Meier; Birgit Kohlenberg; Norbert A. Braun

2003-01-01

202

Biotechnological applications in agriculture: A new source of edible oil and production of biofertilizer and antioxidant from its by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia belerica Roxb (Combretaceae) known as bahera, found abundant in tropical Asia, is a source of new edible oil (37% by dry weight of kernel), biofertilizer, tannin and antioxidant. The oilcake contains high amount of nitrogen (8.34%). On biochemical evaluation form the oil cake it is evident that about 60% NaCl extractable protein is digestible which can be converted into

D. Bera; D. Lahiri; Antonella De Leonardis; K. B. De; A. Nag

2007-01-01

203

?-Chymotrypsin inhibiting benzylated glycosides from Symplocos racemosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new benzylated glycosides, locoracemosides A, B and C (1–3) were isolated from the bark of the stem of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical evidences. They displayed in vitro inhibitory activity against ?-chymotrypsin.

Muhammad A. Rashid; Viqar U. Ahmad; Muhammad A. Abbasi; Zulfiqar Ali; Nasir Rasool; Muhammad Zubair; Muhammad A. Lodhi; Muhammad I. Choudhary; Ikhlas A. Khan

2008-01-01

204

New salirepin derivatives from Symplocos racemosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytochemical investigation of the n-butanol soluble fraction of the bark of stem of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. yielded two new phenolic glycosides of salirepin series, symplocuronic acid (1) and sympocemoside (2), while salirepin (3) was isolated for the first time from this plant. The structures of the new compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR techniques along with other

V. U. Ahmad; M. A. Rashid; M. A. Abbasi; N. Rasool; M. Zubair

2007-01-01

205

Potent in vitro Antitumor Activity of Symplocos racemosa against Leukaemia and Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Assessment of anti-tumor activity of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Symplococaceae) plant extracts. Methods: Plant bark was procured, identified and verified. Chloroform, butanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared and their cytotoxic activity determined using the XTT salt based cytotoxicity assay in 96- micro plate format against one leukaemia and one cervical cancer cell line. Cyclophosphamide was used as positive control.

Bhuvan P. Raval; Maulik P. Suthar; Rakesh K. Patel

2009-01-01

206

Molecular, functional and ultrastructural characterisation of plastids from six species of the parasitic flowering plant genus Cuscuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Plastids of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., C. subinclusa D. et H., C. gronovii Willd. and C. campestris Yunck. possess thylakoids and contain both chlorophyll a and b in a ratio similar to that of stem tissue of the systematically closely related but ‘normal’ green Ipomoea tricolor. In contrast, plastids of C. odorata R. et P. and C. grandiflora H.B.K. do not

T. A. W. van der Kooij; K. Krause; I. Dörr; K. Krupinska

2000-01-01

207

Effect of Herbal Molluscicides and Their Combinations on the Reproduction of the Snail Lymnaea acuminata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sublethal treatment (20 and 60% of LC 50\\/24 h) of the plant-derived molluscicides Annona squamosa Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn. and their combinations with other herbal molluscicides, such as Cedrus deodara Roxb, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, bulb powder of Allium sativum Linn. and Polianthes tuberosa Linn., and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Rosc., and acetogenins extracted from the seeds

Amrita Singh; D. K. Singh

2004-01-01

208

Antihyperglycemic activity of Teramnus labialis (Fabaceae).  

PubMed

In vivo bioassay-guided fractionation of the aqueous alcohol extract of the aerial parts of Teramnus labialis (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae), using C57BL/Ks-db/db mice as a model for type 2 diabetes, yielded an active fraction containing a mixture of coumarins. The major coumarin present in the active fraction was identified as fraxidin. PMID:10715850

Fort, D M; Rao, K; Jolad, S D; Luo, J; Carlson, T J; King, S R

2000-01-01

209

[Studies on chemical constituents of Choerospondias axillaris].  

PubMed

Ten compounds were isolated from the dry fruit of Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Burtt et Hill. Their structures were elucidated as dihydroquercetin(1), quercetin(2), protocatechuic acid(3), gallic acid(4), 3,3'-di-o-methylellagic acid(5), beta-sitosterol(6), daucosterol (7), stearic acid(8), triacontanoic acid(9), octacosanol(10) by IR, EI-MS and NMR. PMID:12858769

Lian, Zhu; Zhang, Chengzhong; Li, Chong; Zhou, Yawei

2003-01-01

210

Evaluation of certain leaf extracts against red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acarina: Tetranychidae) infesting tea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf extracts of some common plants such as Vitex negundo (Linn. & Paracetamol), Gliricidia maculata (HBK), Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck), Morinda tinctoria (Roxb) and Pongamia glabra (Vent) were evaluated for their acaricidal activity against the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae, in the laboratory using the leaf disc method under controlled conditions. Leaves collected from the above mentioned plants were shade-dried followed

Duraikannu Vasanthakumar; Amsalingam Roobakkumar; Mariappan S. R. Subramaniam; Pandian Kumar; Chandran Sundaravadivelan; Azariah Babu

2012-01-01

211

Efficacy of Essential Oil of Amomum subulatum as a Novel Aflatoxin B1 Suppressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from different parts of 12 plants belonging to eight angiospermic families were extracted and tested for activity against two toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus link. through the poisoned food technique. The oil of the spice plant Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) was found effective against two strains of A. flavus, completely inhibiting their mycelial growth at 750 ?g

Priyanka Singh; Bhawana Srivastava; Ashok Kumar; N. K. Dubey; Rajesh Gupta; Tanu

2008-01-01

212

Assessment of local management practices on the population ecology of some medicinal plants in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the assessment of local management practices on the population of three medicinal plants viz.: Persicaria amplexicaule. D. Don., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted during 2002–2004 in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan. The objective of the study was to know the impact of current management practices on the population

Hassan Sher; Mohammad Elyemeni; Abdur Rehman Khan; Amjad Sabir

2011-01-01

213

Effects of combinations of heavy metal pollutants on Cuscuta reflexa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of combinations of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr on the variables of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in natural condition were studied. All of the combinations of heavy metals tested decreased Hill reaction activity, chlorophyll and protein contents and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were best visible with the treatments of (As + Cd +

Sasadhar Jana; Aloke Bhattacharjee

1988-01-01

214

Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1). PMID:15693713

Jantan, I; Rafi, I A A; Jalil, J

2005-01-01

215

Blood sugar lowering potentiality of selected Cucurbitaceae plants of Indian origin.  

PubMed

Using five experimental models, the blood sugar lowering efficacy of eight plants of Cucurbitaceae family has been assessed. The ethanolic extract of Cucumis sativus Linn, Cucumis melo utilissimum Roxb, Cucumis melo Linn, Benincasa hispida Thunb Cogn and Tricosanthes anguina Nees, when administered in 250 mg/kg dose, orally to rats failed to lower blood sugar or to depress the peak value, after glucose load. However, ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia Linn plant and Coccinia indica Whit and Arn root significantly lowered blood sugar in fasted model and depressed the peak value in glucose loaded model. Ethanolic extract of Tricosanthes dioica Roxb plant caused a significant lowering of blood sugar in fasted rats and depressed the peak value in glucose loaded single and longterm fed groups of rats. The ethanolic extract of the aerial part of T. dioica also induced significant depression in the peak values in the glucose loaded models. PMID:2620957

Chandrasekar, B; Mukherjee, B; Mukherjee, S K

1989-08-01

216

Early life history of deep-water gorgonian corals may limit their abundance.  

PubMed

Deep-water gorgonian corals are long-lived organisms found worldwide off continental margins and seamounts, usually occurring at depths of ?200-1,000 m. Most corals undergo sexual reproduction by releasing a planktonic larval stage that disperses; however, recruitment rates and the environmental and biological factors influencing recruitment in deep-sea species are poorly known. Here, we present results from a 4-year field experiment conducted in the Gulf of Maine (northwest Atlantic) at depths >650 m that document recruitment for 2 species of deep-water gorgonian corals, Primnoa resedaeformis and Paragorgia arborea. The abundance of P. resedaeformis recruits was high, and influenced by the structural complexity of the recipient habitat, but very few recruits of P. arborea were found. We suggest that divergent reproductive modes (P. resedaeformis as a broadcast spawner and P. arborea as a brooder) may explain this pattern. Despite the high recruitment of P. resedaeformis, severe mortality early on in the benthic stage of this species may limit the abundance of adult colonies. Most recruits of this species (?80%) were at the primary polyp stage, and less than 1% of recruits were at stage of 4 polyps or more. We propose that biological disturbance, possibly by the presence of suspension-feeding brittle stars, and limited food supply in the deep sea may cause this mortality. Our findings reinforce the vulnerability of these corals to anthropogenic disturbances, such as trawling with mobile gear, and the importance of incorporating knowledge on processes during the early life history stages in conservation decisions. PMID:23762358

Lacharité, Myriam; Metaxas, Anna

2013-01-01

217

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Distribution of Deep-Water Gorgonian Corals in Relation to Seabed Topography on the Norwegian Margin  

PubMed Central

Investigating the relationship between deep-water coral distribution and seabed topography is important for understanding the terrain habitat selection of these species and for the development of predictive habitat models. In this study, the distribution of the deep-water gorgonians, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, in relation to terrain variables at multiple scales of 30 m, 90 m and 170 m were investigated at Røst Reef, Traena Reef and Sotbakken Reef on the Norwegian margin, with Ecological Niche Factor Analysis applied. To date, there have been few published studies investigating this aspect of gorgonian distribution. A similar correlation between the distribution of P. arborea and P. resedaeformis and each particular terrain variable was found at each study site, but the strength of the correlation between each variable and distribution differed by reef. The terrain variables of bathymetric position index (BPI) and curvature at analysis scales of 90 m or 170 m were most strongly linked to the distribution of both species at the three geographically distinct study sites. Both gorgonian species tended to inhabit local topographic highs across all three sites, particularly at Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef, with both species observed almost exclusively on such topographic highs. The tendency for observed P. arborea to inhabit ridge crests at Røst Reef was much greater than was indicated for P. resedaeformis. This investigation identifies the terrain variables which most closely correlate with distribution of these two gorgonian species, and analyzes their terrain habitat selection; further development of predictive habitat models may be considered essential for effective management of these species.

Tong, Ruiju; Purser, Autun; Unnithan, Vikram; Guinan, Janine

2012-01-01

218

Retinoic acid homeostasis regulates meiotic entry in developing anuran gonads and in Bidder's organ through Raldh2 and Cyp26b1 proteins.  

PubMed

The vitamin A (retinol) and its metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) affect vertebrate gametogenesis. The level of RA in cells relies on the balance between its synthesis and degradation. The sex-dependent equilibrium is reached in different ways in various species. It is known that RA induces meiosis in developing gonads in mouse, chicken and urodel amphibians, but its role in anuran amphibians has not been studied. Here we show in six anuran species (Xenopus laevis, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo viridis, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria) that cultured undifferentiated gonads were insensitive to RA treatment, but the RA induced ectopic meiosis in cultured larval testes. In larval testes of all studied species, the exogenous RA induced leptotene phase of I meiotic prophase in gonia, but only in H. arborea and B. viridis gonia progressed to zygotene phase. In the cultured developing ovaries, exogenous RA led to increase in the number of oocytes as compared to the control. Inhibition of either RA synthesis or RA-receptors prevented meiotic entry in larval gonads of all species. Exogenous RA rescued this inhibitory effect demonstrating that the balance in RA homeostasis plays a key role in meiotic entry in anuran gonads. The localization of two enzymes, Raldh2 and Cyp26b1, which antagonistically control RA levels and whose abundance suggests the sites of RA synthesis and degradation respectively, showed two distinct expression patterns specific for (i) X. laevis, H. arborea, R. arvalis, R. temporaria and (ii) B. bombina, B. viridis. Thus, RA, in correlation with specific expression patterns of Raldh2 and Cyp26b, induces meiosis during gonad development in anurans. In addition, in B. viridis, RA signalling seems important for development of the Bidder's organ containing oocytes both in males and females. PMID:24056063

Piprek, Rafal P; Pecio, Anna; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z; Szymura, Jacek M

2013-01-01

219

Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.  

PubMed

Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307

Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

1987-01-01

220

Effects of inorganic nitrogen forms on growth, morphology, nitrogen uptake capacity and nutrient allocation of four tropical aquatic macrophytes ( Salvinia cucullata, Ipomoea aquatica, Cyperus involucratus and Vetiveria zizanioides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the growth and morphological responses, nitrogen uptake and nutrient allocation in four aquatic macrophytes when supplied with different inorganic nitrogen treatments (1) NH4+, (2) NO3?, or (3) both NH4+ and NO3?. Two free-floating species (Salvinia cucullata Roxb. ex Bory and Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) and two emergent species (Cyperus involucratus Rottb. and Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small)

Arunothai Jampeetong; Hans Brix; Suwasa Kantawanichkul

221

l DOPA ( l -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) affects rooting potential and associated biochemical changes in hypocotyl of mung bean, and inhibits mitotic activity in onion root tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to explore the effect of l-DOPA (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) on the rooting potential of hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. var. SML-32) and related biochemical changes at the post-expression phase. At lower concentrations of (0.0001–0.1 mM) l-DOPA, there was no change in rooting potential, though the average number of roots per cutting and root length were significantly

Daizy R. Batish; Pansy Gupta; Harminder Pal Singh; Ravinder Kumar Kohli

2006-01-01

222

Caffeic acid inhibits in vitro rooting in mung bean [ Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] hypocotyls by inducing oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeic acid (CA), which is ubiquitously present in plants, is a potent phytotoxin affecting plant growth and physiology.\\u000a The aim of our study was to investigate whether CA-induced inhibition of adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean {Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek [Phaseolus aureus Roxb.]} involves the induction of conventional stress responses. The effect of CA (0–1000 ?M) on ARF in mung

Harminder Pal Singh; Shalinder Kaur; Daizy R. Batish; Ravinder Kumar Kohli

2009-01-01

223

Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of buagafuran in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of buagafuran (BF, 4-butyl-?-agarofuran), a promising antianxiety drug isolated from Gharu-wood (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb), were investigated in rats. BF plasma concentration was determined in rats after oral and intravenous doses by GC-TOF-MS. BF showed nonlinear pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of 4, 16, and 64 mg\\/kg. The AUC0–? and Cmax did not increase proportionally

Jin-Ping Hu; Wen-Jie Wang; Hui Chen; Ya-Wei Li; Jiang-Hong Fan; Yan Li

2011-01-01

224

Kinetics studies on triacontanyl palmitate: a urease inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of inhibition of jack bean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases was investigated by triacontanyl palmitate (1) which is a long-chain fatty ester and has been isolated from Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Lineweaver–Burk, Dixon plots, and their secondary replots showed that 1 is a non-competitive inhibitor of these enzymes. Ki values were found to be 60.03?±?1.72 and 88.23?±?0.31?µM against jack bean

Muhammad Arif Lodhi; Muhammad Athar Abbasi; Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary; Viqar Uddin Ahmad

2007-01-01

225

New salirepin derivatives from Symplocos racemosa.  

PubMed

The phytochemical investigation of the n-butanol soluble fraction of the bark of stem of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. yielded two new phenolic glycosides of salirepin series, symplocuronic acid (1) and sympocemoside (2), while salirepin (3) was isolated for the first time from this plant. The structures of the new compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR techniques along with other spectral evidences and by comparison with the published data of closely related compounds. PMID:17566912

Ahmad, V U; Rashid, M A; Abbasi, M A; Rasool, N; Zubair, M

2007-01-01

226

Reduction of plasma cholesterol by Curcuma comosa extract in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the extract of Curcuma comosa Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) on lipid metabolism was investigated in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters. Intragastric administration of the ethyl acetate extract of C. comosa rhizome (0–500 mg\\/kg per day) to hypercholesterolaemic animals for 7 days decreased both plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of plasma cholesterol levels was accompanied by a

Pawinee Piyachaturawat; Jinda Charoenpiboonsin; Chaivat Toskulkao; Apichart Suksamrarn

1999-01-01

227

Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone,\\u000a and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir

2011-01-01

228

Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex

G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Bagavan

2010-01-01

229

Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate,\\u000a hexane, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus

G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; C. Venkatesan

2009-01-01

230

Biomass Partitioning and Gas Exchange in Dalbergia sissoo seedlings under water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass, leaf water potential (?l), net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), leaf to air temperature difference (Tdiff), and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) were measured in the seedlings of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. grown under irrigation of 20 (W1), 14 (W2), 10 (W3), and 8 (W4) mm. Treatments were maintained by re-irrigation when water content of the

B. Singh; G. Singh

2003-01-01

231

Ficus palaeoracemosa sp. nov. - A new fossil leaf from the Kasauli Formation of Himachal Pradesh and its palaeoclimatic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fossil leaf impression is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kasauli-Kalka road section, Himachal Pradesh. The characteristic leaf venation pattern suggests that it has a close affinity with Ficus L., particularly with F. racemosa L. (= F. glomerata Roxb.). Its presence indicates a warm and humid climate in the region during the deposition of sediments, in contrast to the present day cooler and less humid climate.

Srivastava, Gaurav; Srivastava, Rashmi; Mehrotra, R. C.

2011-04-01

232

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

2011-01-01

233

Effects of novel anxiolytic 4-butyl-alpha-agarofuran on levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Butyl-?-agarofuran (AF-5) is a new compound derived from ?-agarofuran, a constituent extracted from Aquillaria agallocha Roxb. Our previous research has shown that AF-5 has significant antianxiety activity in several animal models. In this study, an antianxiety effect was observed in a social interaction test after acute treatment with AF-5 (0.5–4.0 mg\\/kg, i.p.) in rats. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrochemical detection

Yi Zhang; Weijun Wang; Jianjun Zhang

2004-01-01

234

Protein chemotaxonomy of the solanaceae. VI. Amino acid sequence of ferredoxin from Nicotian tabacum.  

PubMed

The complete amino acid sequence of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Nicotiana tabacum has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire Cm-protein and of the peptides obtained by trypsin and Asp-N endoproteinase digestions. This ferredoxin exhibited 9, 10, 8, and 10 differences respectively in its amino acid sequence, when compared with the ferredoxins of Datura stramonium, D. metel, D. arborea, and Physalis alkekengi var.francheti but 17-28 differences for other angiosperms, and 34-37 differences for fern and horsetails. These results are in agreement with the taxonomic position for these plants. PMID:9989672

Mino, Y; Iwao, M

1999-01-01

235

Amino acid sequence of ferredoxin from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti.  

PubMed

The complete amino acid sequence of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire Cm-protein and of the peptides obtained by trypsin and endoproteinase Asp-N digestions. This ferredoxin exhibited ten, ten, and nine differences respectively in the amino acid sequence, when compared with the ferredoxins of Datura stramonium, D. metel, and D. arborea, but 21-28 differences for other angiosperms, and 34-37 differences for fern and horsetails. These results are in harmony with the taxonomic position for these plants. PMID:9862138

Mino, Y; Yasuda, K

1998-11-01

236

Gamma sensitivity of forest plants of Western Ghats.  

PubMed

Seeds of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam., Garcinia xanthochymus Hook., Saraca asoca Roxb., Rourea minor Gaertn., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz., Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) bail., Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. and Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. were collected from different regions of Western Ghats and exposed to different doses of gamma radiation using Co-60 source. The effect of irradiation was examined on germination, growth and vigor parameters. Decrease in the germination and growth attributes with increased dose was observed in A. hirsutus, G. xanthochymus and S. asoca and thus indicating sensitivity of these plants to radiation. In contrast, enhancement in the germination (percentage), vigor and generation of leaves was observed for P. marsupium, T. chebula, H. integrifolia and O. indicum. These plants were classified as radiation tolerant because of the ability of their seedlings to successfully establish under radiation stress. R. minor and A. lindleyana were able to maintain viability up to 100 Gy dose, however, any further increase in the dose found to have negative effect. PMID:24631785

Akshatha; Chandrashekar, K R

2014-06-01

237

Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.  

PubMed

Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

2011-01-01

238

Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits  

PubMed Central

Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

2010-01-01

239

Pigmentation and Spectral Absorbance Signatures in Deep-Water Corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway  

PubMed Central

The pigmentation and corresponding in vivo and in vitro absorption characteristics in three different deep-water coral species: white and orange Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, collected from the Trondheimsfjord are described. Pigments were isolated and characterized by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LC-TOF MS). The main carotenoids identified for all three coral species were astaxanthin and a canthaxanthin-like carotenoid. Soft tissue and skeleton of orange L. pertusa contained 2 times more astaxanthin g?1 wet weight compared to white L. pertusa. White and orange L. pertusa were characterized with in vivo absorbance peaks at 409 and 473 nm, respectively. In vivo absorbance maxima for P. arborea and P. resedaeformis was typically at 475 nm. The shapes of the absorbance spectra (400–700 nm) were species-specific, indicated by in vivo, in vitro and the corresponding difference spectra. The results may provide important chemotaxonomic information for pigment when bonded to their proteins in vivo, bio-prospecting, and for in situ identification, mapping and monitoring of corals.

Elde, Anette C.; Pettersen, Ragnhild; Bruheim, Per; Jarnegren, Johanna; Johnsen, Geir

2012-01-01

240

Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising <6% of the isolates. The clone libraries showed dramatically different bacterial communities between corals of the same species collected at different sites, with no clear pattern of conserved bacterial consortia. Two of the clone libraries (one from each coral species) were dominated by Tenericutes, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating the remaining sequences. The other libraries were more diverse and had a more even distribution of bacterial phyla, showing more similarity between genera than within coral species. Here we report the first microbiological characterization of P. arborea, P. superba, and C. koolsae. FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

Gray, M. A.; Stone, R. P.; Mclaughlin, M. R.; Kellogg, C. A.

2011-01-01

241

Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands.  

PubMed

Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising <6% of the isolates. The clone libraries showed dramatically different bacterial communities between corals of the same species collected at different sites, with no clear pattern of conserved bacterial consortia. Two of the clone libraries (one from each coral species) were dominated by Tenericutes, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating the remaining sequences. The other libraries were more diverse and had a more even distribution of bacterial phyla, showing more similarity between genera than within coral species. Here we report the first microbiological characterization of P. arborea, P. superba, and C. koolsae. PMID:21223327

Gray, Michael A; Stone, Robert P; McLaughlin, Molly R; Kellogg, Christina A

2011-04-01

242

[Identification of Daturae flos and its adulterants based on DNA barcoding technique].  

PubMed

To identify the original plant of Daturae Flos from its adulterants by DNA barcoding, the sequences of ITS2, psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL of four species including Datura metel, Darura innoxia, Darura stramonium and Brugmansia arborea were compared and analyzed. The PCR and sequencing success rate of the four regions (ITS2, psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL) was 100%, 90%, 100% and 85%, respectively. Sequences were assembled with CodonCode Aligner. K2P distances were calculated and NJ tree was performed by MEGA 4.1. Thirty SNPs were found among ITS2 sequences, and 33 insert/deletes were found among psbA-trnH intergenic regions. The interspecific K2P distance of ITS2 and psbA-trnH was obviously higher than that of the intraspecific one. As to matK and rbcL, there was no "Barcoding Gap" existing between inter- and intra-specific distances. The NJ trees of the four regions/combinations were built separately. Samples of Brugmansia arborea were clustered into one clade, and the other species of Datura L. formed another clade. The results showed that either ITS2 or psbA-trnH was useful to identify Daturae Flos from its adulterants. PMID:22260038

Han, Jian-ping; Li, Mei-ni; Luo, Kun; Liu, Mei-zi; Chen, Xiao-chen; Chen, Shi-lin

2011-11-01

243

Untitled  

Cancer.gov

Beans, NFA Red kidney beans, dry, cooked, fat not added in cooking 457;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Kidney beans;Mean of 8 studies 720.1 Beans, NFA Soybeans, cooked, fat not added in cooking 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Mean of 2 studies 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Soya beans, canned (Canada) 720.1 Beans, NFA Mung beans, fat not added in cooking 468;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Mung beans;Mung bean (Phaseolus areus Roxb.

244

Kinetics studies on triacontanyl palmitate: a urease inhibitor.  

PubMed

The mechanism of inhibition of jack bean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases was investigated by triacontanyl palmitate (1) which is a long-chain fatty ester and has been isolated from Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Lineweaver-Burk, Dixon plots, and their secondary replots showed that 1 is a non-competitive inhibitor of these enzymes. K(i) values were found to be 60.03 +/- 1.72 and 88.23 +/- 0.31 microM against jack bean and B. pasteurii ureases, respectively. PMID:17616900

Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

2007-07-10

245

Activities of the Pharmaceutical Technology Institute of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation with medicinal, insecticidal and insect repellent plants.  

PubMed

In addition to original research, Far-Manguinhos, the Pharmaceutical Division of the Brazilian Ministry of Health's Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), devotes major attention to the finalising of products for use in public health campaigns or, under contract, for private industrial development. Emphasis is on standardisation, adequate supply, safety in use and efficacy. Among the products discussed in this summary of some of its activities in the chemical and pharmaceutical fields are medicinal plants Bidens pilosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Copaifera species, Mentha crispa, Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. and other Phyllanthus species, insecticidal plants, Lonchocarpus urucu and Quassia amara, and the insect antifeedant plants Carapa guianensis and Pterodon emarginatus. PMID:10412493

Gilbert, B; Teixeira, D F; Carvalho, E S; De Paula, A E; Pereira, J F; Ferreira, J L; Almeida, M B; Machado, R da S; Cascon, V

1999-01-01

246

Effects of Kaempferol on the Oxidative Properties of Intact Plant Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The effects of kaempferol on the oxidative and phosphorylative properties of plant mitochondria from potato tubers and etiolated mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyls were investigated. Kaempferol inhibited the state 3 oxidation rate of malate, NADH, and succinate, but was without effect on the ascorbate-tetramethyl p-phenylenediamine oxidation rate. The inhibition was almost the same whether the mitochondria were in state 3 or in an uncoupled state 3. When 180 micromolar kaempferol was added during state 4, the tight coupling of succinate or NADH oxidation was not released. The results obtained indicate that kaempferol inhibits the mitochondrial electron flow at, or just after, the flavoprotein site.

Ravanel, Patrick; Tissut, Michel; Douce, Roland

1982-01-01

247

Potential pharmacological applications of polyphenolic derivatives from marine brown algae.  

PubMed

Recently, the isolation and characterization of the biologically active components from seaweeds have gained much attention from various research groups across the world. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins are one among them. Among marine algae, brown algal species such as Ecklonia cava, Eisenia arborea, Ecklonia stolinifera and Eisenia bicyclis have been studied for their potential biological activities. Majority of the investigations on phlorotannins derived from brown algae have exhibited their potentiality as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihypertensive, anti-allergic, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition and in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibition activity. In this review, we have made an attempt to discuss the potential biological activities of phlorotannins from marine brown algae and their possible candidature in the pharmaceutical applications. PMID:22004951

Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

2011-11-01

248

Extreme heterochiasmy and nascent sex chromosomes in European tree frogs  

PubMed Central

We investigated sex-specific recombination rates in Hyla arborea, a species with nascent sex chromosomes and male heterogamety. Twenty microsatellites were clustered into six linkage groups, all showing suppressed or very low recombination in males. Seven markers were sex linked, none of them showing any sign of recombination in males (r=0.00 versus 0.43 on average in females). This opposes classical models of sex chromosome evolution, which envision an initially small differential segment that progressively expands as structural changes accumulate on the Y chromosome. For autosomes, maps were more than 14 times longer in females than in males, which seems the highest ratio documented so far in vertebrates. These results support the pleiotropic model of Haldane and Huxley, according to which recombination is reduced in the heterogametic sex by general modifiers that affect recombination on the whole genome.

Berset-Brandli, Laura; Jaquiery, Julie; Broquet, Thomas; Ulrich, Yuko; Perrin, Nicolas

2008-01-01

249

In vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils and chemical components from three medicinal plants found in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The prophylactic and therapeutic arsenal against malaria is quite restricted and all the antimalarials currently in use have limitations. Thus, there is a need to investigate medicinal plants in the search for phytochemicals which can be developed into drugs. In our investigation, essential oils (EOs) were obtained from Vanillosmopsis arborea (Gardner) Baker, Lippia sidoides Cham. and Croton zehntneri Pax & K. Hoffm., aromatic plants abundant in northeastern Brazil, which are found in the caatinga region and are used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of these EOs was characterized by GC-MS, and monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were well represented. We assessed the in vitro activity of these EOs and also individual EO chemical components against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (K1 strain) and the in vivo activity of EOs in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. The acute toxicity of these oils was assessed in healthy mice and in vitro cytotoxicity was determined at different concentrations against HeLa cells and mice macrophages. The EO of V. Arborea was partially active only when using the subcutaneous route (inhibited from 33 up to 47 %). In relation to the EOs, L. sidoides and C. zehntneri were active only by the oral route (per gavage) and partially inhibited the growth of P. berghei from 43 up to 55 % and showed good activity against P. falciparum in vitro (IC (50) = 7.00, 10.50, and 15.20 µg/mL, respectively). Individual EO constituents ?-bisabolol, estragole, and thymol also exhibited good activity against P. falciparum (IC (50) = 5.00, 30.70, and 4.50 µg/mL, respectively). This is the first study showing evidence for the antimalarial activity of these species from northeastern Brazil and the low toxicity of their EOs. PMID:22441836

Mota, Magaly L; Lobo, Lis Tavares Coelho; Costa, José M Galberto da; Costa, Leandro S; Rocha, Hugo A O; Rocha e Silva, Luiz F; Pohlit, Adrian M; Neto, Valter F de Andrade

2012-05-01

250

Stronger transferability but lower variability in transcriptomic- than in anonymous microsatellites: evidence from Hylid frogs.  

PubMed

A simple way to quickly optimize microsatellites in nonmodel organisms is to reuse loci available in closely related taxa; however, this approach can be limited by the stochastic and low cross-amplification success experienced in some groups (e.g. amphibians). An efficient alternative is to develop loci from transcriptome sequences. Transcriptomic microsatellites have been found to vary in their levels of cross-species amplification and variability, but this has to date never been tested in amphibians. Here, we compare the patterns of cross-amplification and levels of polymorphism of 18 published anonymous microsatellites isolated from genomic DNA vs. 17 loci derived from a transcriptome, across nine species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea and Hyla cinerea group). We established a clear negative relationship between divergence time and amplification success, which was much steeper for anonymous than transcriptomic markers, with half-lives (time at which 50% of the markers still amplify) of 1.1 and 37 My, respectively. Transcriptomic markers are significantly less polymorphic than anonymous loci, but remain variable across diverged taxa. We conclude that the exploitation of amphibian transcriptomes for developing microsatellites seems an optimal approach for multispecies surveys (e.g. analyses of hybrid zones, comparative linkage mapping), whereas anonymous microsatellites may be more informative for fine-scale analyses of intraspecific variation. Moreover, our results confirm the pattern that microsatellite cross-amplification is greatly variable among amphibians and should be assessed independently within target lineages. Finally, we provide a bank of microsatellites for Palaearctic tree frogs (so far only available for H. arborea), which will be useful for conservation and evolutionary studies in this radiation. PMID:24345298

Dufresnes, Christophe; Brelsford, Alan; Béziers, Paul; Perrin, Nicolas

2014-07-01

251

Characterisation and immuno-stimulating activity of polysaccharides from Thai medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. and Pueraria candollei Wall. Ex Benth. var. mirifica (Shaw et Suvat.) C. Niyomdham, the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb, Ocimum basilicum L., Psidium guajava and Andrographis paniculata (Burn. f.) Nees, the stems of Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf ExG), and the fruits of Psidium guajava and Scaphium scaphigerum. The immunological impacts of the polysaccharides on T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated by flow cytometric (immunofluorescence) analysis using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a positive control. It was found that the polysaccharides enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, ranging from 4.5 to 27.0% at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1), while the activity of SEB was 13.3%. The medicinal plants showing the highest immuno-stimulating activity were the tubers of Butea superba Roxb. The water-extracted tubers contained 60.0% (w/w) carbohydrates with 6.6% (w/w) uronic acid. The major constituent monosaccharides of the tubers were 28.2 mol% galactose, 10.5 mol% arabinose and 36.4 mol% glucose. PMID:20812129

Burana-Osot, J; Pattanapanyasat, K; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sukapirom, K; Toida, T

2010-09-01

252

Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

2013-10-01

253

Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.  

PubMed

In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

Aberoumand, Ali

2009-01-01

254

Conformational analysis of an anti-androgenic, (E,E)-8-hydroxygermacrene B, using NOESY and dynamic NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

(E,E)-8-Hydroxygermacrene B was prepared by ketone reduction of germacrone, a naturally occurring compound from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. with NaBH4 at low temperature (4°C). This compound showed remarkable in vitro anti-androgenic activity (IC50 0.15±0.022mM) applicable to male baldness treatments. NMR analysis at -50°C indicated that there were four conformational isomers of (E,E)-8-hydroxygermacrene B in a ratio of 48:40:8:4. The major conformers were assigned by (1)H NMR and 2D-NOESY NMR spectroscopy as having methyl groups at C-10 and C-4 in up-down (UD) orientations (48% predominance) and UU (40%). (1)H NMR spectra implied another two minor conformers with these methyls having DU (8%) and DD (4%) orientations. PMID:24951332

Srivilai, Jukkarin; Khorana, Nantaka; Waranuch, Neti; Suphrom, Nungruthai; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

2014-08-01

255

Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

2012-01-01

256

Pharmacognostic and antifungal investigations of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudrakasha)  

PubMed Central

Rudrakasha is the dried bead obtained from the ripe fruit of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. (Family: Elaeocarpaceae). Microscopic studies revealed the presence of a hard endocarp with lignified isodiametric sclereids, seeds with membranous seed coat, which enclosed a dense cellular endosperm comprising of calcium oxalate druses. Physicochemical parameters showed that total ash was 1.36 times and 1.56 times more than the acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash, respectively. Further, ethanol had a maximum extractable value of 2.4% and moisture content was found to be 9.7%. Different extracts, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water were prepared. Chemically the extracts showed the presence of phytosterols, fats, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins and tannins. The extracts were evaluated for antifungal activity on different fungal strains. Chlorofom and ethanol extracts have high antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Whereas, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts showed moderate inhibition against Aspergillus niger.

Singh, B.; Chopra, A.; Ishar, M.P.S.; Sharma, A.; Raj, T.

2010-01-01

257

Curcuma longa extract as a histological dye for collagen fibres and red blood cells  

PubMed Central

Crude ethanolic extract and column chromatographic fractions of the Allepey cultivar of Curcuma longa Roxb, commonly called turmeric (tumeric) in commerce, were used as a stain for tissue sections. Staining was carried out under basic, acidic and neutral media conditions. Inorganic and organic dissolution solvents were used. The stain was used as a counterstain after alum and iron haematoxylins. C. longa stained collagen fibres, cytoplasm, red blood cells and muscle cells yellow. It also stained in a fashion similar to eosin, except for its intense yellow colour. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the active column fraction revealed that it contained flavonoids, free anthraquinone and deoxy sugar. A cheap, natural dye can thus be obtained from C. longa.

Avwioro, O G; Onwuka, S K; Moody, J O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Oduola, T; Ekpo, O E; Oladele, A A

2007-01-01

258

Studies on selection and characterization of a stress-tolerant sugarcane cell line.  

PubMed

A sugarcane (Saccharum sinensis Roxb.) cell line R932 resistant to growth inhibition by the proline analogue hydroxyproline was selected. R932 showed greater tolerance to PEG and low temperature stress than the donor. The line R932 showed larger accumulation of proline (x3.2) than the sensitive donor. In vitro enzymic analysis of gamma-glutamyl kinase involved in the proline biosynthesis showed that the enzyme in the R932 was less sensitive to inhibition by 50-mM exogenous proline than that in the donor. The results suggested that the change in gamma-glutamyl kinase properties might lead to excessive accumulation of proline, and the elevated proline contents might in turn lead to an increase in tolerance to environmental stress. PMID:8562854

Chen, H; Kuang, B; Wang, J

1995-01-01

259

Trehalose Toxicity in Cuscuta reflexa1  

PubMed Central

?,?-Trehalose induced a rapid blackening of the terminal 2.5-centimeter region of excised Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. vine. The incorporation of radioactivity from [14C]glucose into alkali-insoluble fraction of shoot tip was markedly inhibited by 12 hours of trehalose feeding to an excised vine. This inhibition was confined to the apical segment of the vine in which cell elongation occurred. The rate of blackening of shoot tip explants was hastened by the addition of gibberellic acid A3, which promoted elongation growth of isolated Cuscuta shoot tips. The symptom of trehalose toxicity was duplicated by 2-deoxyglucose, which has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of cell wall synthesis in yeast. The observations suggest that trehalose interferes with the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides, the chief component of which was presumed to be cellulose.

Veluthambi, K.; Mahadevan, S.; Maheshwari, Ramesh

1982-01-01

260

Structure determination of bioactive galloyl derivatives by NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The investigation of the chemical constituents of Symplocos racemosa Roxb led to the isolation of two new glycosides, symcomoside A (1) and symcomoside B (2), together with one known glycoside, tortoside C (3), which is reported for the first time from this plant. The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, from chemical evidence and by comparison with published data for closely related compounds. Symcomoside B (2) showed potent inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase in a concentration-dependent fashion with an IC50 value of 0.733 +/- 0.033 mM whereas symcomoside A (1) showed very weak inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase (9.90% in 0.70 mM). PMID:15772993

Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Zubair, Muhammad; Athar Abbasi, Muhammad; Abid Rashid, Muhammad; Rasool, Nasir; Nahar Khan, Shamsun; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Kousar, Farzana

2005-06-01

261

A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.  

PubMed

A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

2014-01-01

262

Screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in plants used in Thai traditional rejuvenating and neurotonic remedies.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor has been used as a drug for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In order to search for new AChE inhibitors, 32 plants used in Thai traditional rejuvenating and neurotonic remedies were collected. The plant methanolic extracts were tested for AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method in 96-welled microplates. The results showed that the methanolic extracts from roots of Stephania suberosa Forman. and Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. at concentration of 0.1 mg/ml inhibited more than 90% of AChE activity. At the same concentration, four extracts, i.e. stems of Piper interruptum Opiz., seeds of Piper nigrum L., rootbarks of Butea superba Roxb. and roots of Cassia fistula L. extracts showed 50-65% inhibitory activity on AChE. The rest of the extracts showed the AChE inhibitory activity below 50%. PMID:14611889

Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Temkitthawon, Prapapan; Chuenchom, Kanchanaporn; Yuyaem, Thitaree; Thongnoi, Warawit

2003-12-01

263

Detection of sugarcane bacilliform virus in sugarcane germplasm.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV), a badnavirus was found in sugarcane genotypes of Saccharum officinarum L., S. barberi Jesw., S. sinense Roxb., S. robustum Brand and Jesw., and Saccharum hybrids. In most of the suspected genotypes the virus was found associated with clear foliar symptoms. However, certain symptom-free clones carried the virus too. The virus was detected by immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in suspected clones. The virions measured about 108-118 x 20-21 nm in size. The virus was serologically closely related to another badnavirus, banana streak virus (BSV). Virus titer was low in most of the genotypes. However, a close correlation between symptoms expression and virus titer existed in some genotypes. PMID:8886091

Viswanathan, R; Alexander, K C; Garg, I D

1996-02-01

264

Diarylheptanoids, new phytoestrogens from the rhizomes of Curcuma comosa: Isolation, chemical modification and estrogenic activity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new diarylheptanoids, a 1:2 mixture of (3S)- and (3R)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (13a and 13b) and 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-one (15), together with two synthetically known diarylheptanoids 1,7-diphenyl-(1E,3E,5E)-1,3,5-triene (9) and 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-one (16), and nine known diarylheptanoids, 2, 8, 10–12, 14, a 3:1 mixture of 17a and 17b, and 18, were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma comosa Roxb. The absolute stereochemistry of the isolated compounds

Apichart Suksamrarn; Mathurose Ponglikitmongkol; Kanjana Wongkrajang; Anon Chindaduang; Suthadta Kittidanairak; Aroon Jankam; Boon-ek Yingyongnarongkul; Narin Kittipanumat; Ratchanaporn Chokchaisiri; Pichit Khetkam; Pawinee Piyachaturawat

2008-01-01

265

Reduction of plasma cholesterol by Curcuma comosa extract in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters.  

PubMed

The influence of the extract of Curcuma comosa Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) on lipid metabolism was investigated in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters. Intragastric administration of the ethyl acetate extract of C. comosa rhizome (0-500 mg/kg per day) to hypercholesterolaemic animals for 7 days decreased both plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of plasma cholesterol levels was accompanied by a significant increase in the hepatic cholesterol content while the triglyceride content was not significantly changed. The increase of the hepatic cholesterol content was brought about by an expansion of the free cholesterol pool which specifically augments biliary cholesterol excretion. The C. comosa extract also increased plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and decreased plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. These results suggest that the C. comosa extract exerts a hypolipidaemic action by acceleration of lipid mobilization from extrahepatic tissue to the liver which subsequently increases excretion of cholesterol via the bile for excretion. PMID:10433478

Piyachaturawat, P; Charoenpiboonsin, J; Toskulkao, C; Suksamrarn, A

1999-08-01

266

Hypolipidemic effect of Curcuma comosa in mice.  

PubMed

The hypolipidemic effect of an ethyl acetate extract of the rhizome of Curcuma comosa Roxb was investigated in mice. Intragastric administration of the extract significantly decreased plasma lipid levels of both triglyceride and cholesterol but increased liver triglyceride content. Liver weight and plasma activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were not affected by a single administration. Prolonged treatment did not further decrease plasma lipid level but caused further increases in liver triglyceride content and weight. The lower plasma cholesterol activity of C. comose extract was found to be essentially associated with elevation of plasma HDL cholesterol level, increased excretion of fecal cholesterol and bile salt. The increase persisted throughout the period of treatment. These results suggest that C. comosa has hypolipidemic action. It exerts hypocholesterolemic activity by accelerating mobilization of cholesterol from peripheral tissues into liver and enhancing excretion of cholesterol and bile salt into feces. PMID:9209696

Piyachaturawat, P; Teeratagolpisal, N; Toskulkao, C; Suksamrarn, A

1997-01-01

267

Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae).  

PubMed

Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species. PMID:21738554

Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

2011-01-01

268

Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae)  

PubMed Central

Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species.

Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

2011-01-01

269

Angoline: A selective IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway inhibitor isolated from Zanthoxylum nitidum.  

PubMed

STAT3 signaling pathway is an important target for human cancer therapy. Thus, the identification of small-molecules that target STAT3 signaling will be of great interests in the development of anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to identify novel inhibitors of STAT3 pathway from the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. The bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOH extract of Z. nitidum using a STAT3-responsive gene reporter assay led to the isolation of angoline (1) as a potent and selective inhibitor of the STAT3 signaling pathway (IC50=11.56?M). Angoline inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and its target gene expression and consequently induced growth inhibition of human cancer cells with constitutively activated STAT3 (IC50=3.14-4.72?M). This work provided a novel lead for the development of anti-cancer agents targeting the STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:24863036

Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Qing; Ye, Yushan; Li, Wuguo; Qiu, Junxin; Liu, Jingli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen; Yu, Qiang

2014-01-01

270

Plant uptake of cadmium, zinc, and manganese from four contrasting soils amended with Cd-enriched sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Studies on the uptake of cadmium, zinc and manganese from Cd-enriched sewage sludge (0-80 mg Cd kg(-1)) amended Ultisol, Alfisol, Entisol and Vertisol by maize (Zea mays L.) followed by mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) revealed that in general, there was a progressive reduction in the dry matter yield of both the crops due to enhanced Cd concentrations in the soil-sludge mixture in all the soils except Ultisol. Significant enhancement in the Cd content of shoots of both the crops with increased sludge Cd was also noticed. Both native and Cd-enriched sewage sludge amendments enhanced the Zn content significantly but resulted in variable uptake of Mn by maize and mung bean shoots. Data on DTPA extractable Cd from soils (Ultisol, Alfisol and Entisol) after first crop (maize) harvest correlated significantly with forage Cd of second crop (mung bean) which indicated significant residual levels of Cd available for plant uptake. PMID:15328696

Ramachandran, V; Dsouza, T J

2002-08-01

271

Functional properties of thermally treated legume flours.  

PubMed

Functional properties of four thermally treated decorticated legume flours namely, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), black gram (Phaseolus f1p4o Roxb.), green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and lentils (Lens esculenta) were studied. Samples with moisture levels of 3.2, 3.3, 1.3 and 5.0% for all four were subjected to dry heat treatment in a covered vessel in pressure cooker. (Untreated flours served as controls. Thermal treatment lowered nitrogen solubility profiles of all flours and increased water absorption capacities in bengal gram (146) black gram (451) and lentil (206) over control values of 138, 441 and 180 ml/100 g of flour respectively. Fat absorption capacities decreased in thermally treated bengal gram and black gram (242 and 292) as against 298 and 303 ml/100 g for untreated samples respectively. Foaming capacity also showed a decrease in thermally treated bengal gram and black gram by 28 and 53% respectively over controls. Two deep fat fried Indian products namely, 'Seviya' and 'Chakli' were prepared using two of the legumes. Proximate compositional analysis revealed that products prepared with thermally treated flours absorbed less fat. The sensory scores for appearance, texture, flavour and overall quality obtained by Seviya were 6.04, 6.20, 5.98 and 6.40 for products prepared with untreated flour and 5.74, 5.78, 5.70 and 5.68 for product prepared with treated flour respectively. Chakli prepared with thermally treated flour obtained significantly lower scores of 6.08, 5.2, 5.42, and 5.88 as against 6.78, 6.68, 6.68 and 6.88 obtained by products prepared with untreated flour for similar attributes. PMID:9205596

Nagmani, B; Prakash, J

1997-05-01

272

Quantifying the success of improved forest management from dendrochronology: examples from North Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing environmental and human pressure on the vulnerable environment of the North Ethiopian highlands requires sustainable management to avoid further land degradation. High altitude forests play a key role in this environmental balance and are very important for local livelihoods. They function as a hygric buffer by capturing and storing rainfall, which reduces soil erosion and protects against flooding, landslides and rock fall. The hygric buffer effect of mountain forests also provides water for downstream sources and for agriculture in the surrounding lowlands. Improved understanding of the growing patterns, ring formation and forest structure of this afro-alpine high altitude Erica arborea L. forests is essential to improve sustainable forest management practices. This paper studies two mountain forests in the North Ethiopian Highlands under contrasting management conditions; Lib Amba of the Abune Yosef Mt. range (12°04'N, 39°22'E, 3993 m a.s.l.) which is completely protected since five years and Mt. Ferrah Amba (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3939 m a.s.l.) which is still strongly influenced by anthropo-zoogenic impacts. Dendrochronological results from cambial marked stem discs show complex but annual growth ring formations that reflect these differences in anthropo-zoogenic pressure; Tree-ring width is significantly wider in Mt. Lib Amba. Improved insight in the growing pattern of Erica arborea L. forests is also given by monitoring of tree growth and seedling recruitment in experimental plots since 2012 and by studying the relation between tree growth and the geomorphology and soil thickness. Seedling recruitment and vegetation indices indicate that tree growth is significantly better in the protected forest of Lib Amba. One of the key elements for sustainable land management is the creation of forests at critical locations. Insight in the response of tree growth to different types of land management and different morphological conditions can help to identify these critical locations. But most importantly, dendrochronological results have proven to be a valuable tool for objective validation of the success of land management strategies on a short term.

Jacob, Miro; De Ridder, Maaike; Frankl, Amaury; Guyassa, Etefa; Beeckman, Hans; Nyssen, Jan

2014-05-01

273

Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods: Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Ceará state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor compounds. The larvicidal activity, based on the percentage of larval mortality, was evaluated after 24 h exposure to the treatments. Results: All species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compound and literature data. The extract from Vanillosmopsis arborea was the most active with an LC50 of 3.9 ?g/ml. Best results were shown by Lantana montevidensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 8?g/ml] and Escherichia coli (MIC 32 ?g/ml), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium against E. coli (MIC, 256 ?g/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 64 ?g/ml) and Croton zenhtneri against S. aureus (MIC 64 ?g/ml). Conclusion: Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes was present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays.

da Costa, Jose Galberto M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Brito, Samara A.; Pereira, Carla Karine B.; Souza, Erlanio O.; Rodrigues, Fabiola Fernandes G.

2010-01-01

274

Population Genetic Structure of a Sandstone Specialist and a Generalist Heath Species at Two Levels of Sandstone Patchiness across the Strait of Gibraltar  

PubMed Central

Many habitat specialist species are originally composed of small, discontinuous populations because their habitats are naturally fragmented or patchy. They may have suffered the long-term effects of natural patchiness. Mediterranean heathlands, a representative habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar region, are associated with nutrient-poor, acidic sandstone soils. Sandstone soil patches in the African side of the Strait (Tangier) are, in general, smaller and more scattered than in the European side (Algeciras). In this study, we analyze the effect of this sandstone patchiness on the population genetic diversity and structure of two Erica species from these Mediterranean heathlands that differ in their edaphic specificity, E. australis, sandstone specialist, and E. arborea, generalist. Average levels of within-population genetic diversity and gene flow between populations were significantly lower in Tangier (high sandstone patchiness) than in Algeciras (low patchiness) for the sandstone specialist, whereas no differences between both sides of the Strait were detected in the edaphic generalist. Since most endemic species in Mediterranean heathlands of the Strait of Gibraltar are sandstone specialists, these results highlight an increased vulnerability to loss of genetic diversity and local extinction of the heathland endemic flora in the Tangier side of the Strait of Gibraltar.

Gil-Lopez, Manuel Jesus; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Ojeda, Fernando

2014-01-01

275

Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species.  

PubMed

Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere. PMID:24864264

Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Fernandez, Maria P; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

2014-01-01

276

Plant Species Monitoring in the Canary Islands Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.

Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.

2012-07-01

277

Serovar Diversity of Pathogenic Leptospira Circulating in the French West Indies  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical bacterial diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, very little is known about the circulating etiological agents of leptospirosis in this region. In this study, we describe the serological and molecular features of leptospires isolated from 104 leptospirosis patients in Guadeloupe (n?=?85) and Martinique (n?=?19) and six rats captured in Guadeloupe, between 2004 and 2012. Methods and Findings Strains were studied by serogrouping, PFGE, MLVA, and sequencing 16SrRNA and secY. DNA extracts from blood samples collected from 36 patients in Martinique were also used for molecular typing of leptospires via PCR. Phylogenetic analyses revealed thirteen different genotypes clustered into five main clades that corresponded to the species: L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii, L. noguchi, and L. santarosai. We also identified L. kmetyi in at least two patients with acute leptospirosis. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that this species has been identified in humans. The most prevalent genotypes were associated with L. interrogans serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Copenhageni, L. kirschneri serovar Bogvere, and L. borgpetersenii serovar Arborea. We were unable to identify nine strains at the serovar level and comparison of genotyping results to the MLST database revealed new secY alleles. Conclusions The overall serovar distribution in the French West Indies was unique compared to the neighboring islands. Typing of leptospiral isolates also suggested the existence of previously undescribed serovars.

Bourhy, Pascale; Herrmann Storck, Cecile; Theodose, Rafaelle; Olive, Claude; Nicolas, Muriel; Hochedez, Patrick; Lamaury, Isabelle; Zinini, Farida; Bremont, Sylvie; Landier, Annie; Cassadou, Sylvie; Rosine, Jacques; Picardeau, Mathieu

2013-01-01

278

Effects of vaccination against bluetongue on milk production and quality in cattle vaccinated with live-attenuated monovalent type 2 vaccine.  

PubMed

The first epidemic of bluetongue (BT) to affect the three regions of Sardinia, Sicily and Calabria (Italy) in 2000 induced high economic losses caused by the disease itself and by the cessation of ruminant movements both within, and out of, the infected areas. In order to reduce virus circulation, and to create a resistant livestock population, the Italian Ministry of Health ruled, in May 2001, that all sheep, cattle, goats and water buffalo, in infected and in neighbouring regions, be vaccinated. The live-attenuated BTV-2 monovalent vaccine produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products in South Africa was to be used. Accordingly, in 2002, 98.6% of the sheep and goats, and 88.1% of the cattle, on Sardinia were vaccinated. Included was the vaccination of >70% of the cattle in the province of Oristano where >18,000 dairy cows in >220 herds are concentrated in the municipality of Arborea (Oristano) and which account for 65-70% of the milk produced in Sardinia. Using data collected at the centralised dairy co-operative since 1999 the quantity and quality of milk produced before vaccination against bluetongue was compared to that produced after vaccination. The following variables were analysed: average milk production/cow/month, monthly average fat content (%), monthly average protein content (%), average monthly somatic cell count and average monthly platelet count. The findings indicate that vaccination against BTV-2 in Sardinian dairy cattle did not impact negatively upon milk quantity nor milk quality. PMID:20422604

Giovannini, A; Conte, A; Panichi, G; Calistri, P; Dessì, M; Foddis, F; Schintu, A; Caporale, V

2004-01-01

279

A comprehensive multilocus assessment of sparrow (Aves: Passerellidae) relationships.  

PubMed

The New World sparrows (Emberizidae) are among the best known of songbird groups and have long-been recognized as one of the prominent components of the New World nine-primaried oscine assemblage. Despite receiving much attention from taxonomists over the years, and only recently using molecular methods, was a "core" sparrow clade established allowing the reconstruction of a phylogenetic hypothesis that includes the full sampling of sparrow species diversity. In this paper, we use mitochondrial DNA gene sequences from all 129 putative species of sparrow and four additional (nuclear) loci for a subset of these taxa to resolve both generic and species level relationships. Hypotheses derived from our mitochondrial (2184 base pairs) and nuclear (5705 base pairs) DNA data sets were generally in agreement with respect to clade constituency but differed somewhat with respect to among-clade relationships. Sparrow diversity is defined predominantly by eight well-supported clades that indicate a lack of monophyly for at least three currently recognized genera. Ammodramus is polyphyletic and requires the naming of two additional genera. Spizella is also polyphyletic with Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea) as a taxonomic "outlier". Pselliophorus is embedded within a larger Atlapetes assemblage and should be merged with that group. This new hypothesis of sparrow relationships will form the basis for future comparative analyses of variation within songbirds. PMID:24792084

Klicka, John; Keith Barker, F; Burns, Kevin J; Lanyon, Scott M; Lovette, Irby J; Chaves, Jaime A; Bryson, Robert W

2014-08-01

280

Population Genetic Structure of a Sandstone Specialist and a Generalist Heath Species at Two Levels of Sandstone Patchiness across the Strait of Gibraltar.  

PubMed

Many habitat specialist species are originally composed of small, discontinuous populations because their habitats are naturally fragmented or patchy. They may have suffered the long-term effects of natural patchiness. Mediterranean heathlands, a representative habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar region, are associated with nutrient-poor, acidic sandstone soils. Sandstone soil patches in the African side of the Strait (Tangier) are, in general, smaller and more scattered than in the European side (Algeciras). In this study, we analyze the effect of this sandstone patchiness on the population genetic diversity and structure of two Erica species from these Mediterranean heathlands that differ in their edaphic specificity, E. australis, sandstone specialist, and E. arborea, generalist. Average levels of within-population genetic diversity and gene flow between populations were significantly lower in Tangier (high sandstone patchiness) than in Algeciras (low patchiness) for the sandstone specialist, whereas no differences between both sides of the Strait were detected in the edaphic generalist. Since most endemic species in Mediterranean heathlands of the Strait of Gibraltar are sandstone specialists, these results highlight an increased vulnerability to loss of genetic diversity and local extinction of the heathland endemic flora in the Tangier side of the Strait of Gibraltar. PMID:24878545

Gil-López, Manuel Jesús; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Ojeda, Fernando

2014-01-01

281

Toxic compounds in honey.  

PubMed

There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24214851

Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-07-01

282

Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species  

PubMed Central

Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere.

Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Fernandez, Maria P.; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

2014-01-01

283

Local variation in the distribution of benthic megafauna species associated with cold-water coral reefs on the Norwegian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability in the mix of species making up Cold-water coral reef communities is not well known. In this study abundances of a selection of megafauna (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata, Paragorgia arborea, Primnoa resedaeformis, Mycale lingua, Geodia baretti, Acesta excavata and fish) were quantified throughout 9 manned submersible video transects from 3 reef complexes (Røst Reef, Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef) on the Norwegian margin. Substrate type (coral structure, rubble, exposed hardground or soft sediment) was also recorded. Variations in the densities of these fauna (with respect to both reef complex and substrate type) were investigated, with spatial covariance between species assessed. For the majority of fauna investigated, densities varied by both reef and substrate. Spatial covariance indicated that some species may be utilising similar habitat niches, but that minor environmental differences may favour colonisation by one or other at a particular reef. Fish densities were generally higher in regions with biogenic substrate (coral structure and coral rubble substrates) than in areas of soft or hardground substrate. Further, fish were more abundant at the northerly Sotbakken Reef at time of study than elsewhere. Community structure varied by reef, and therefore management plans aimed at maintaining the biodiversity of reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin should take this lack of homogeneity into account.

Purser, Autun; Orejas, Covadonga; Gori, Andrea; Tong, Ruiju; Unnithan, Vikram; Thomsen, Laurenz

2013-02-01

284

Arbutin content and antioxidant activity of some Ericaceae species.  

PubMed

Quantitative analyses and investigation of antioxidant activity of herb and dry ethanolic extracts of five species from Ericaceae family (Arbutus unedo L., Bruckentalia spiculifolia Rchb., Calluna vulgaris Salisb., Erica arborea L. and Erica carnea L.) were performed. Total polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically and arbutin content was measured both spectrophotometrically and by HPLC coupled with DAD detection. Antioxidative properites of the ethanolic extracts were tested by means of FRAP (total antioxidant capacity), lipid peroxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A significant amount of arbutin was detected only in Arbutus unedo. All samples investigated showed excellent antioxidant activity. The best inhibition of lipid peroxidation has been shown by Bruckentalia spiculifolia herb extract (62.5 microg/ml; more than 95%), which contained the highest amount of flavonoids (11.79%). The highest scavenging activity was obtained with leave extract of Arbutus unedo (IC50 = 7.14 microg/ml). The leaves of A. unedo contained a small amount of flavonoids but high content of non-tannins polyphenols. PMID:19947168

Pavlovi?, R D; Lakusi?, B; Doslov-Kokorus, Z; Kovacevi?, N

2009-10-01

285

Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis)  

PubMed Central

At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug ‘Nityananda Rasa’ 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was found significant in Gr. III and non-significant in Gr. I and Gr. II.

Prasad, Goli Penchala; Naidu, M. L.

2012-01-01

286

Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

2010-11-01

287

Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

2010-11-01

288

Are summit metabolism and thermogenic endurance correlated in winter-acclimatized passerine birds?  

PubMed

Small birds exhibiting marked winter improvement of cold tolerance also show elevated summit metabolic rates (maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) in winter relative to summer. However, relatively large increases in cold tolerance can occur with only minor increments of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and geographic variation in cold tolerance is not always positively correlated with variation in maximum cold-induced metabolic rate. Thus, it is uncertain whether maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance are phenotypically correlated in small birds and no previous study has directly examined this relationship. I measured maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance (i.e., thermogenic endurance) over three winters in black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus, American tree sparrows Spizella arborea, and dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis. For raw thermogenic endurance data, residuals of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance from mass regressions were significantly and positively correlated in juncos and tree sparrows, and their correlation approached significance for chickadees. Log10 transformation of thermogenic endurance and mass data gave similar results. These data provide the first direct evidence for a phenotypic correlation between maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance in small birds, although much of the variance in thermogenic endurance is explained by factors other than maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and the degree of correlation differs among species. Nevertheless, these data suggest that physiological adjustments producing elevated thermogenic endurance also produce elevated maximum cold-induced metabolic rate in small birds. PMID:11585259

Swanson, D L

2001-08-01

289

Amplification, contraction and genomic spread of a satellite DNA family (E180) in Medicago (Fabaceae) and allied genera  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Satellite DNA is a genomic component present in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. The turnover of highly repetitive satellite DNA is an important element in genome organization and evolution in plants. Here we assess the presence and physical distribution of the repetitive DNA E180 family in Medicago and allied genera. Our goals were to gain insight into the karyotype evolution of Medicago using satellite DNA markers, and to evaluate the taxonomic and phylogenetic signal of a satellite DNA family in a genus hypothesized to have a complex evolutionary history. Methods Seventy accessions from Medicago, Trigonella, Melilotus and Trifolium were analysed by PCR to assess the presence of the repetitive E180 family, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping in somatic chromosomes. Key Results The E180 repeat unit was PCR-amplified in 37 of 40 taxa in Medicago, eight of 12 species of Trigonella, six of seven species of Melilotus and in two of 11 Trifolium species. Examination of the mitotic chromosomes revealed that only 13 Medicago and two Trigonella species showed FISH signals using the E180 probe. Stronger hybridization signals were observed in subtelomeric and interstitial loci than in the pericentromeric loci, suggesting this satellite family has a preferential genomic location. Not all 13 Medicago species that showed FISH localization of the E180 repeat were phylogenetically related. However, nine of these species belong to the phylogenetically derived clade including the M. sativa and M. arborea complexes. Conclusions The use of the E180 family as a phylogenetic marker in Medicago should be viewed with caution. Its amplification appears to have been produced through recurrent and independent evolutionary episodes in both annual and perennial Medicago species as well as in basal and derived clades.

Rosato, Marcela; Galian, Jose A.; Rossello, Josep A.

2012-01-01

290

Natural abundances of 15N and 13C in leaves of some N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing trees and shrubs in Syria.  

PubMed

A survey study was conducted on man-made plantations located at two different areas in the arid region of Syria to determine the variations in natural abundances of the (15)N and (13)C isotopes in leaves of several woody legume and non-legume species, and to better understand the consequence of such variations on nitrogen fixation and carbon assimilation. In the first study area (non-saline soil), the delta(15)N values in four legume species (Acacia cyanophylla,-1.73 per thousand Acacia farnesiana,-0.55 per thousand Prosopis juliflora,-1.64 per thousand; and Medicago arborea,+1.6 \\textperthousand) and one actinorhizal plant (Elaeagnus angustifolia,-0.46 to-2.1 per thousand) were found to be close to that of the atmospheric value pointing to a major contribution of N(2) fixing in these species; whereas, delta(15)N values of the non-fixing plant species were highly positive. delta(13)C per thousand; in leaves of the C3 plants were found to be affected by plant species, ranging from a minimum of-28.67 per thousand; to a maximum of-23 per thousand. However, they were relatively similar within each plant species although they were grown at different sites. In the second study area (salt affected soil), a higher carbon discrimination value (Delta(13)C per thousand) was exhibited by P. juliflora, indicating that the latter is a salt tolerant species; however, its delta(15)N was highly positive (+7.03 per thousand) suggesting a negligible contribution of the fixed N(2). Hence, it was concluded that the enhancement of N(2) fixation might be achieved by selection of salt-tolerant Rhizobium strains. PMID:20183233

Kurdali, F; Al-Shamma'a, M

2009-09-01

291

Assessment of very long-chain fatty acids as complementary or alternative natural fecal markers to n-alkanes for estimating diet composition of goats feeding on mixed diets.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the use of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) as an alternative or a complement to n-alkane markers for estimation of diet composition of goats fed 7 different diets, composed of different proportions of herbaceous (Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens) and heathland woody species (Erica umbellata, Erica cinerea, Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea, and Ulex gallii), in a metabolism study. Diet composition was estimated from VLCFA (i.e., C(22) to C(34)) and alkane (i.e., C(25) to C(33)) concentrations in diet and feces, by least squares procedures. For all plant species VLCFA concentrations were greater than their alkane concentrations, especially for the herbaceous species and U. gallii. In general, fecal recovery of both markers was incomplete and increased in a curvilinear (P < 0.001) fashion with carbon-chain length. The plants comprising the diets had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on fecal recovery of VLCFA and alkanes. Diet composition estimates based on VLCFA alone were less accurate (P = 0.013) than those obtained using alkanes alone. Combination of VLCFA and alkane data resulted in the most accurate (P < 0.05) estimates, indicating an increase on the discriminatory power among plant species. Use of uncorrected fecal marker concentrations provided the poorest estimates of diet composition, and use of individual recovery data and mean fecal recovery data of the dietary treatment yielded the most accurate ones. Results obtained in this study show that VLCFA have potential to be used as diet composition markers along with alkanes. PMID:19395523

Ferreira, L M M; Carvalho, S; Falco, V; Celaya, R; García, U; Santos, A S; Rodrigues, M A M; Osoro, K

2009-08-01

292

Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and various extracts of fruits of greater cardamom.  

PubMed

Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Bari ilaichi" is a well known plant used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders like gastric ulcer. Therefore antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and roots, essential oil and isolated vasicine from A. vasica were tested against various microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity was done by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition observed was compared with that of standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against microorganisms used in the study. The results of this study reveal that methanol extract of fruits of A. subulatum shows remarkable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli whereas in case of other microorganisms used it was found inferior to the standard drug used. Methanol extract of rind showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the essential oil isolated was effective against majority of microorganisms used viz. Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:21695005

Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, S

2010-09-01

293

Studies on thermal degradation and termite resistant properties of chemically modified wood.  

PubMed

A series of experiments were carried out to examine the resistant capacity of a chemically treated hard wood, Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb) Miq. to thermal and termite degradation. The treatment with thermosetting resins viz. urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) at 31-33 levels of weight percent gain (WPG) increased the strength property i.e. modulus of rupture (MOR) by 7.50-21.02% and stiffness i.e. modulus of elasticity (MOE) by 9.50-12.18% over the untreated one with no remarkable effect on specific gravity. The treated samples were found resistant to termite attack, while the untreated one was badly damaged by termites on 12 months' exposure to a termite colony. The thermal degradations of untreated and treated wood samples were studied using thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) techniques at heating rates 20 and 30 degrees C min(-1) in temperature range 30-650 degrees C. The treated wood was found to be thermally more stable than the untreated one. PMID:12139331

Deka, Manabendra; Saikia, C N; Baruah, K K

2002-09-01

294

Over-expression of the peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene cloned from halophyte Salicornia brachiata confers salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.  

PubMed

Salicornia brachiata Roxb., an extreme halophyte, is a naturally adapted higher plant model for additional gene resources to engineer salt tolerance in plants. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) plays a key role in protecting plants against oxidative stress and thus confers abiotic stress tolerance. A full-length SbpAPX cDNA, encoding peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase, was cloned from S. brachiata. The open reading frame encodes for a polypeptide of 287 amino acid residues (31.3-kDa protein). The deduced amino acid sequence of the SbpAPX gene showed characteristic peroxisomal targeting sequences (RKRAI) and a C-terminal hydrophobic region of 39 amino acid residues containing a transmembrane domain (TMD) of 23 amino acid residues. Northern blot analysis showed elevated SbpAPX transcript in response to salt, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid stress treatments. The SbpAPX gene was transformed to tobacco for their functional validation under stresses. Transgenic plants over-expressing SbpAPX gene showed enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants showed enhanced vegetative growth and germination rate both under normal and stressed conditions. Present study revealed that the SbpAPX gene is a potential candidate, which not only confers abiotic stress tolerance to plants but also seems to be involved in plant growth. PMID:24197564

Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

2014-06-01

295

Identification of seven Zingiberaceous species based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics of seeds  

PubMed Central

Background The fruits and seeds of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt. & Smith, Amomum kravanh Pierre ex Gagnep., Amomum subulatum Roxb., Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire, and Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton from Alpinia, Amomum, and Elettaria genera in the Zingiberaceae family are difficult to distinguish between each other. This study aims to identify the seeds of these seven species from Zingiberaceae family based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics. Methods We compared the morphological structures of seed coats by observing the microscopic characteristics of seeds in transverse sections. We described the macroscopic characteristics of seeds in detail. Results The seeds of these three genera could not be identified to the species level based on their macroscopic features. However, based on the anatomical features of the seed coat observed in transverse sections, a dichotomous key for these seven species was feasible. Conclusion Seven species in the Zingiberaceae family could be identified based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics of transverse section of seed.

2014-01-01

296

Determination of melatonin content in traditional Thai herbal remedies used as sleeping aids  

PubMed Central

Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora,?S. glandiflora,?M. charantia,?S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin.

2014-01-01

297

Inhibition of Apoplastic Calmodulin Impairs Calcium Homeostasis and Cell Wall Modeling during Cedrus deodara Pollen Tube Growth  

PubMed Central

Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most well-studied Ca2+ transducers in eukaryotic cells. It is known to regulate the activity of numerous proteins with diverse cellular functions; however, the functions of apoplastic CaM in plant cells are still poorly understood. By combining pharmacological analysis and microscopic techniques, we investigated the involvement of apoplastic CaM in pollen tube growth of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. It was found that the tip-focused calcium gradient was rapidly disturbed as one of the early events after application of pharmacological agents, while the cytoplasmic organization was not significantly affected. The deposition and distribution of acidic pectins and esterified pectins were also dramatically changed, further perturbing the normal modeling of the cell wall. Several protein candidates from different functional categories may be involved in the responses to inhibition of apoplastic CaM. These results revealed that apoplastic CaM functions to maintain the tip-focused calcium gradient and to modulate the distribution/transformation of pectins during pollen tube growth.

Wang, Li; Lv, Xueqin; Li, Hong; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong; Jin, Biao; Chen, Tong

2013-01-01

298

Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae).  

PubMed

The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and ?-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were ?-copaene (28.3%), ?-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil. PMID:24712088

Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

2014-01-01

299

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

300

Dermal pharmacokinetics of Terpinen-4-ol following topical administration of Zingiber cassumunar (plai) oil.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol in rats following topical administration of plai oil derived from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Unbound terpinen-4-ol concentrations in dermal tissue were measured by microdialysis. The dermal pharmacokinetic study of terpinen-4-ol was performed under non-occlusive conditions. The oil was topically applied at a dose of 2, 4, and 8 mg/cm2 plai oil corresponding to the amount of 1.0, 1.9, and 3.8 mg/cm2 terpinen-4-ol, respectively. Following topical application of the oil, terpinen-4-ol rapidly distributed into the dermis and demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics with no changes in the dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curves across the investigated dosage range. The mean percentages of free terpinen-4-ol distributed in the dermis per amount of administered were 0.39 ± 0.06 %, 0.41 ± 0.08 %, and 0.30 ± 0.03 % for 2, 4, and 8 mg/cm2 doses, respectively. The dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol could provide information for its further formulation development and therapy schedules. PMID:23027380

Chooluck, Kotchaphan; Singh, Rajendra P; Sathirakul, Korbtham; Derendorf, Hartmut

2012-11-01

301

Phosphodiesterase and thymidine phosphorylase-inhibiting salirepin derivatives from Symplocos racemosa.  

PubMed

A re-investigation of the chemical constituents of the stem bark of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. led to the isolation of four new glycosides, symplocomoside (1), symponoside (2), symplososide (3) and symploveroside (4). Benzoylsalireposide (5) and salireposide (6) were re-isolated from this plant. The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D-homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, chemical evidence, and by comparison with the published data of the closely related compounds. The glycosides 1-4 displayed in vitro inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase I with IC50 values of 122 +/- 0.017, 698 +/- 0.06, 722 +/- 0.03, 909 +/- 0.09 microM, respectively. The compounds 1-6 also showed in vitro inhibitory activity against thymidine phosphorylase with IC50 values of 189.96 +/- 1.02, 195.56 +/- 2.36, 207.61 +/- 1.06, 488.89 +/- 4.10, 427.20 +/- 5.36, 354.2 +/- 5.69 microM, respectively while 1 was also found to be a urease inhibitor with an IC50 value of 54.13 +/- 0.71 microM. PMID:15643556

Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Zubair, Muhammad; Fatima, Naheed; Farooq, Umar; Hussain, Sajjad; Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Choudhary, M Iqbal

2004-12-01

302

Geographic distributions and ecology of ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand.  

PubMed

The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand. PMID:24159689

Khumkratok, Sutthira; Boongtiang, Kriangsuk; Chutichudet, Prasit; Pramaul, Pairot

2012-10-01

303

A critical analysis of the environment impact assessment report of the 2000 MW lower subansiri hydroelectric project with special reference to the down stream ecology and people's livelihood.  

PubMed

The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) report of the 2000 MW Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Project prepared by the WAPCOS (Water and Power Consultancy Service, 2003) indicates that downstream survey was done only up to 7 km from the dam site without giving much importance to the actual scenario and avoiding some most crucial ecological aspects. In the report, insufficient records of terrestrial flora, phytoplanktons and fish diversity are given. No records of aquatic macrophytes, riparian flora, zooplanktons, avian fauna, floodplain crops, besides peoples' livelihood and diverse habitat provided by the river in its downstream are presented in the report. Especially the wetlands, associated and influenced by the unregulated Subansiri River did not find any place in the EIA report. Interestingly, no mention of the Ganges Dolphin--Platanista gangetica gangetica Roxb. could be found in the report, whereas the river provides a healthy habitat for a good number of this critically endangered fresh water dolphin. From our pre-impact study, it is clear that rich downstream ecology of the river with its present and existing environmental scenario will be adversely affected due to the construction and operation of the proposed project, and there will be distinct possibilities of elimination of other native species. In addition, people's livelihood will be affected largely through alteration of the flow regime of the river. In-depth study with comprehensive documentation of all biotic and abiotic parameters is obligatory before taking any decision about the operation of the 2000 MW Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Project. PMID:23505832

Baruah, Debojit; Dutta, Ranjit; Hazarika, Lakhi Prasad; Sarmah, Sarada Kanta

2011-10-01

304

Genetic diversity in some perennial plant species with-in short distances.  

PubMed

Distinct morphophysiological variations observed for over 2 years with-in short distances among four perennial plants indicated genetic diversity among the lines growing at three places. The isozyme and SDS polyacrylamide gel banding patterns as genetic markers were used to investigate four perennial species, namely Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Delonix regia (Boj.) Refin., Cassia fistula L. and Calotropis procera R. Br. Plant materials collected from three locations (Agra, Gwalior and Lucknow) differing in climo-edaphic variables were examined for 4 enzyme systems, viz., esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (EST, PPO, PRX and SOD). Among the four isozymes SOD and PRX revealed best discriminating power. Protein banding patterns as well as zymogram revealed that Dalbergia sissoo growing at Gwalior was closer to that of Agra; Delonix regia depicted highest similarity between Lucknow and Agra and Calotropis procera of Lucknow location was more closer to Gwalior than Agra. The results confirm genetic diversity in the species as a means of adaptation to differing climo-edaphic variables. PMID:17717991

Pandeya, S C; Chandra, A; Pathak, P S

2007-01-01

305

Curcuma comosa prevents the neuron loss and affects the antioxidative enzymes in hippocampus of ethanol-treated rats.  

PubMed

Curcuma comosa Roxb. is widely used as a gynaecological traditional medicine in South-East Asia and recent behavioral studies have shown that C. comosa extract significantly improved the spatial memory in rats. The present study investigated the protective effects of Curcuma comosa hexane extract on the ethanol (EtOH)-induced oxidation in rat brains. Young female Wistar rats were given 20% of EtOH intraperitoneally to induce the oxidative stress. Subsequently, C. comosa hexane extract was intraperitoneally co-administered at the doses of 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) b.wt. to the EtOH-induced rats for 14 days. The neuron densities of CA1, CA3 and CA4 areas of the hippocampus were counted and the activities of hippocampal Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were determined. EtOH significantly decreased the neuron densities in Cornu Ammonis (CA), including CA1 and CA3 areas; however, the decrease was prevented by C. comosa co-administration. EtOH administration also increased the CAT and GPx activities in the hippocampus which were reversed by C. comosa co-administration. Moreover, C. comosa administration increased the SOD activity in a dose-dependent manner in the EtOH treated groups. C. comosa prevented the neuron loss in the hippocampus caused by EtOH. The possible neural protective mechanism may involve with the changes in activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus. PMID:24199465

Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Hu, Ying; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

2012-04-15

306

A Scientific Validation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Attributes of Trichosanthes dioica  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to scientifically validate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) which has been traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. This plant commonly known as “Sespadula” in English has not been explored scientifically so far for its glycemic potential except by our research group. The study was conducted with variable doses on normal, mild, and severe diabetics models, and several biochemical parameters including blood glucose level (BGL) were assessed. Maximum fall in BGL of 23.8% in normal rats and of 31.3% in mild diabetic rats was observed during their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) with the dose of 1000?mg?kg?1. In severely diabetic animals after 4 weeks treatment with FBG, postprandial glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced by 28.7, 30.7, 57.2, and 18.5%, whereas high density lipoprotein, total protein, hemoglobin, and body weight were increased by 33.0, 36.7, 15.7 and 16.7%, respectively. Moreover, urine sugar was reduced from +4 to +1. Thus, the study scientifically validates the traditional use of T. diocia in diabetes management and could be developed as an effective oral agent for treating diabetes mellitus and complications associated with it.

Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Sharad Kumar; Srivastava, Amrita Kumari; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Watal, Geeta

2013-01-01

307

Structure-activity relationships of the nonredox-type non-competitive leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid.  

PubMed

Acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA) from Boswellia serrata Roxb. and italics Boswellia carterii Birdw. is the first selective, direct, non-competitive and non-redox-type inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, the key enzyme for leukotriene biosynthesis (Safayhi et al., 1992). Previously, we showed that AKBA interacts with the 5-lipoxygenase via a pentacyclic triterpene selective effector site (Safayhi et al., 1995). In order to study the impact of AKBA's functional groups on enzyme inhibition, natural and synthetic analogues of this boswellic acid were tested for 5-lipoxygenase inhibition in intact rat neutrophils (Sailer et al., 1996 a). The results reveal that the carboxylic group of AKBA combined with the 11-keto-group is essential for enzyme inhibition, whereas the acetoxy-group on position C-3 ? increases the affinity of AKBA to its effector site. Furthermore, other experiments demonstrated that minor structural modifications could cause a total loss of binding affinity and/or inhibitory activity of these compounds. PMID:23194865

Sailer, E R; Hoernlein, R F; Ammon, H P; Safayhi, H

1996-05-01

308

Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18975001

Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

2009-02-01

309

Biodistribution properties of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B using magnetic resonance imaging in a normal and tumoric animal model  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine the biodistribution properties of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B in rodents using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Cleistanthins A and B, constituents of Cleistanthus collinus Roxb., were labelled with gadolinium (Gd3+) directly and injected into normal and tumoric nude mice. The tissue signal intensity was measured using MRI to perform a noninvasive kinetic assay. Wistar rats were used for determination of the grayscale intensity to observe the distribution patterns of of cleistanthins A and B. Results: Cleistanthin A is kinetically more attractive to the gastrointestinal tract than is cleistanthin B, which gets accumulated in muscular tissues of mice in greater concentrations compared with cleistanthin A. Cleistanthin B but not cleistanthin A showed tumoric affinity and exhibited a tumor kinetic attraction in tumoric mice. In rats, cleistanthin A showed greater grayscale intensities in the brain, liver, and skeletal muscles in immediate post contrast MRI images, whereas the gadolinium tagged cleistanthin B showed higher grayscale intensities in the cardiac muscle and skeletal muscles in delayed post contrast MRI images. Conclusions: Cleistanthin A is more pharmacokinetically attractive to the gastrointestinal tract than cleistanthin B.

Parasuraman, Subramani; Raveendran, Ramasamy; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Ananthakrishnan, Ramesh; Jabbari-Arabzadeh, Ali; Alavidjeh, Mohammad Shafiee; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Elangovan, Sundararajan; Dhanapathi, Halanaik

2012-01-01

310

Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.  

PubMed

The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo. PMID:11332848

Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

2001-04-01

311

The leaf essential oils of five Vietnamese Desmos species (Annonaceae).  

PubMed

The leaf essential oils of five Desmos species from Vietnam have been extracted by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analyses. The plant samples were Desmos cochinchinensis Lour., D. penduculosus (A. DC.) Ban, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis Ban, D. chinensis Lour., and D. dumosus (Roxb.) Saff. The oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.9%-88.9%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%-30.9%). The oxygenated counterparts were less common. The quantitatively significant constituents of the oils were alpha-pinene (2.4%-12.1%), beta-elemene (2.2-39.5%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9-26.3%), germacrene D (9.9-15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (2.0-11.4%) and alpha-humulene (3.8-7.5%). The studied oils could be classified into two chemical forms: oils with abundance of beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D and alpha-pinene (D. cochinchinensis, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis, D. chinensis and D. Dumosus) and oil with high amounts of beta-elemene, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D (D. penduculosus). PMID:22474966

Dai, Do Ngoc; Hoi, Tran Minh; Thang, Tran Dinh; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

2012-02-01

312

Correlation between Chemical Composition of Curcuma domestica and Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Their Antioxidant Effect on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activity of the curcuminoids of Curcuma domestica L. and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. and eight compounds which are prevalent constituents of their rhizome oils were investigated in an effort to correlate human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antioxidant activity with the effect of the herbs and their components. The antioxidant activity was examined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) assay with human LDL as the oxidation substrate. The methanol extracts and rhizome oils of C. xanthorrhiza and C. domestica showed strong inhibitory activity on copper-mediated oxidation of LDL. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from the methanol extracts of both plants, exhibited stronger activity than probucol (IC50 value 0.57??mol/L) as reference, with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.33??mol/L. Xanthorrhizol, the most abundant component (31.9%) of the oil of C. xanthorrhiza, showed relatively strong activity with an IC50 value of 1.93??mol/L. The major components of C. domestica, ar-turmerone (45.8%) and zerumbone (3.5%), exhibited IC50 values of 10.18 and 24.90??mol/L, respectively. The high levels of curcuminoids in the methanol extracts and xanthorrhizol, ar-turmerone and zerumbone in the oils, and in combination with the minor components were responsible for the high LDL antioxidant activity of the herbs.

Jantan, Ibrahim; Saputri, Fadlina Chany; Qaisar, Muhammad Naeem; Buang, Fhataheya

2012-01-01

313

Nontargeted Identification of the Phenolic and Other Compounds of Saraca asoca by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Positive Electrospray Ionization and Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used for separation and identification of phenolic and other compounds in the water extracts of Saraca asoca (Roxb.), De. Wilde. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the distribution of phenolic compounds in the different parts of the plant. The identity of compounds was established through the comparison with standards and characteristic base peaks as well as other daughter ions. In crude extracts, 34 catechin derivatives, 34 flavonoids, and 17 other compounds were identified. Interestingly, further analysis of compounds showed plant part specific unique pattern of metabolites; that is, regenerated bark is observed to be the best source for catechin/catechin derivative while flowers were found to be the source for wide variety of flavonoids. Moreover, these plant part specific compounds can be used as biomarkers for the identification of plant material or herbal drugs. Overall, the present study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the phenolic components of this herb which may be helpful not only to understand their usage but also to contribute to quality control as well.

Mittal, Ashwani; Kadyan, Preeti; Gahlaut, Anjum

2013-01-01

314

Identification of astilbin metabolites produced by human intestinal bacteria using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.  

PubMed

Astilbin, mainly isolated from a commonly used herbal medicine, Smilax glabra Roxb (SGR), exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities and biological effects. It is metabolized by intestinal bacteria after oral administration which leads to the variation of ethnopharmacological profile of this traditional medicine. However, little is known on the interactions of this active compound with intestinal bacteria, which would be very helpful in unravelling how SGR works. In this study, different pure bacteria from human feces were isolated and were used to investigate their conversion capability of astilbin. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) technique combined with Metabolynx(TM) software was used to analyze astilbin and its metabolites. The parent compound and two metabolites (quercetin and eriodictyol) were detected in the isolated bacterial samples compared with blank samples. Quercetin was present in Enterococcus sp. 8B, 8-2 and 9-2 samples. Eriodictyol was only identified in Enterococcus sp. 8B sample. The metabolic routes and metabolites of astilbin produced by the different intestinal bacteria are reported for the first time. This will be useful for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic study of astilbin in vivo and the role of different intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of natural compounds. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24399635

Zhao, Min; Xu, Jun; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Jiang, Shu; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao

2014-07-01

315

The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.  

PubMed

Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples. PMID:24660477

Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

2014-01-01

316

Encapsulation of plai oil/2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun nanofibers for topical application.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) nanofiber mats and to incorporate plai oil (Zingiber Cassumunar Roxb.). The plai oil with 10, 20 and 30%?wt to polymer were incorporated in the PVP/HP?CD solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and structure of the PVP and PVP/HP?CD nanofiber mats with and without the plai oil were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal behaviors of the nanofiber mats were characterized using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Terpinen-4-ol was used as a marker of the plai oil. The amount of plai oil remaining in the PVP/HP?CD nanofiber mats was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectoscopy (GC-MS). The SEM images revealed that all of the fibers were smooth. The average diameter of fibers was 212-450?nm, and decreased with the increasing of plai oil content. The release characteristics of plai oil from the fiber showed the fast release followed by a sustained release over the experimental time of 24?h. The release rate ranged was in the order of 10%?>?20%???30% plai oil within 24?h. Electrospun fibers with 20% plai oil loading provided the controlled release and also showed the highest plai oil content. Hence, this electrospun nanofiber has a potential for use as an alternative topical application. PMID:23651060

Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Chuchote, Tudduo; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet

2014-06-01

317

Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

An ethnobotanical study was conducted in Comores (Ngazidja) about plant species used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, including malaria. Antimalarial activity of 76 vegetal extracts obtained from 17 species traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in vitro using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain (W2). Antiproliferative activity was evaluated on human monocytic THP1 cells and the selectivity index of the plant extracts was calculated. The results showed that 10 plant extracts had a moderate activity (5Roxb. Ex Willd.) Voigt subsp. virosa (Euphorbiaceae) (IC(50)=2 microg/ml), for roots decoction of Flueggea virosa (IC(50)=3 microg/ml) and for chloromethylenic roots extract of Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake subsp. grandis (DC.) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae) (IC(50)=3 microg/ml). Three other extracts showed moderate antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)<5 microg/ml): Vernonia colorata (aerial part), Piper capense L.f. (Piperaceae), and Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne (Asclepiadaceae) chloromethylenic extracts (IC(50)=6 microg/ml; 7 microg/ml and 9 microg/ml, respectively). All the plants tested displayed a low cytotoxicity on THP1 cells. PMID:18093769

Kaou, Ali Mohamed; Mahiou-Leddet, Valérie; Hutter, Sébastien; Aïnouddine, Sidi; Hassani, Said; Yahaya, Ibrahim; Azas, Nadine; Ollivier, Evelyne

2008-02-28

318

Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 ?g/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 ?g/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 ?g/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

2011-04-01

319

A new flavanone isolated from rhizoma smilacis glabrae and the structural requirements of its derivatives for preventing immunological hepatocyte damage.  

PubMed

From the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb., a new flavanone was isolated and named as smitilbin (1), together with 6 known compounds, engeletin (2), astilbin (3), dihydroquercetin (4), eurryphin (5), resveratrol (6), and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (7). These compounds were applied to the assay of liver nonparenchymal cells (NPC) against hepatocytes (HC) isolated from mice with an immunological liver injury. Against the NPC-caused elevation of ALT (alanine transminase) in culture supernatant from HC, the pretreatment of NPC with flavanoids (1-3) dose-dependently blocked the ALT release while 4, the aglycone of 3, did not. The chromone 5 showed a much stronger inhibition. Compound 6 also showed the activity. However, 1-7 did not show any suppression of NPC or CCl4-induced ALT release when they were used to pretreat HC. These results suggest that compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 could protect the hepatocyte damage from NPC through selectively producing the dysfunction of NPC with an essential requirement of rhamnose, and the chromone part in their structures may be critical for exhibiting the activity rather than through protecting the hepatocyte membranes. PMID:10083847

Chen, T; Li, J; Cao, J; Xu, Q; Komatsu, K; Namba, T

1999-02-01

320

Dillenia species: A review of the traditional uses, active constituents and pharmacological properties from pre-clinical studies.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Dillenia (Dilleniaceae) is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in tropical and subtropical trees of Southern Asia, Australasia, and the Indian Ocean Islands. Until now, only eight Dillenia species have been reported to be used traditionally in different countries for various medical purposes. Out of eight species, D. pentagyna (Roxb), D. indica (Linn.) and D. suffruticosa (Griffith Ex. Hook. F. & Thomsom Martelli) have been reported to be used to treat cancerous growth. Objective: The present review explored and provided information on the therapeutic potential of Dillenia species. Methods: Comprehensive and relevant literature on the therapeutic potential of Dillenia species was gathered through electronic databases including Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and books, without limiting the dates of publication. Results and conclusion: The review demonstrated that only a few Dillenia species have been proven scientifically for their therapeutic potential in pre-clinical studies, including D. pentagyna, D. indica, D. papuana (Martelli), D. meliosmifolia (Hook. F. Ex. Thomsom) and D. suffruticosa (Griffith Ex Hook. F. & Thomson). A few species of Dillenia have undergone isolation and characterization of compounds with lupeol and betulinic acids having tremendous pharmacological potential. Dillenia species warrant further studies on their therapeutic potential, which may eventually lead to the development of new drug candidates for treatment of various diseases. PMID:24766363

Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Armania, Nurdin

2014-07-01

321

A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

1989-01-01

322

[Morphological and histological studies of Chinese traditional drug "hua jiao" (pericarpium zanthoxyli) and its allied drugs].  

PubMed

The Chinese traditional drug "Hua Jiao" specified in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 1990 edition is the dried pericarp of ripe fruit of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc. or Z. bungeanum Maxim., family Rutaceae. It has been used for epigastric pain accompanied by cold sensation, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain due to intestinal parasitosis, ascariasis and used externally for eczema. By the investigation of the drug resources in the main producing areas and distributing regions (Sichuan, Guangxi, Henan, Liaoning, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces or Autonomous Regions), we found that there are pericarps derived from more than 18 spp. of Zanthoxylum used as drugs in China. In this paper, the morphological and histological characters of crude drugs derived from the following 8 species, viz. Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim., Z. schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc., Z. armatum DC., Z. simulans Hance, Z. avicennae (Lam.) DC., Z. ailanthoides Sieb. et Zucc., Z. molle Rehd. and Z. nitidum (Roxb.). DC. were described with illustrations. It was discovered that such features as the external characters of pericarp, the occurrence of hairs on fruit stalk, the presence and location of pigment and crystals of hesperidin, the thickness of the cell walls of endocarp and the presence and shape of nonglandular hairs on fruit stalk were important for the identification of these drugs. PMID:1823995

Xiong, Q B; Shi, D W

1991-01-01

323

In vitro assessment of relief to oxidative stress by different fractions of Boerhavia procumbens.  

PubMed

Methanolic extract of Boerhavia procumbens Bank ex Roxb. was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol sequentially after dissolving in distilled water. Phytochemical screening showed presence of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in large amount in chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fraction. The antioxidant activity of all these fractions and the remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by four methods such as: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, total antioxidant activity and ferric thiocyanate assay. Total phenolics were also determined. Some fractions showed noteworthy antioxidant activity. The results of the antioxidant activity revealed that the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed the highest value of percent inhibition of DPPH (82.54 ± 0.62) at the concentration of 125 ? g/ml. The IC(50) of this fraction was 37.11± 0.23 ?g/ml, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which have IC(50) of 12.1 ± 0.92 ?/mL. It also showed the highest FRAP value (251.08 ± 1.46 ?g of trolox equivalents) as well as the highest value of lipid peroxidation inhibition (57.21 ± 52%), the highest total antioxidant activity (0.549 ± 0.08) and also the highest total phenolic contents (77.1 ± 0.6) as compared to the studied fractions. Phytochemical screening showed high percentage of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in this fraction. PMID:22459462

Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Rubab, Kaniz; Rehman, Azizur; Riaz, Tauheeda; Shahzadi, Tayyaba; Khalid, Muniba; Ajaib, Muhammad

2012-04-01

324

Medicinal uses of honey (Quranic medicine) and its bee flora from Dera Ismail Khan District, KPK, Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study was carried out during 2005-2008 to identify existing plant species visited by workers of honeybees for nectar and pollen collection in Dera Ismail Khan (D.I.Khan) District, Pakistan. The honeybee species investigated in the area were, rock bee (Apis dorsata F.), little bee (A. florea F.) and European honeybee (A. mellifera L.). A detailed list of 86 plant species both wild and cultivated was prepared, out of which 12 species, Phulai (Acacia modesta Wall.), Sarsoon (Brassica campestris L.), Kaghzi nimboo (Citrus aurantifolia L.), Khatta (C. medica L.), Malta (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck.), Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.), Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.), Barseen (Trifolium alexandrianum L.), Shaftal (T. resupinatum L), Makai (Zea mays L.), Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.) and Jher beri (Z. numularia (Burm. f.) Wight & Arn.,) were found as major sources (table 1) for the production of surplus honey in a year at different localities in the District. Among the minor sources various plant species were included (table 2). These plants fill the flowering gaps between the major sources in various parts of the year and help in continuous supply of food to honey bees. PMID:23455201

Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Khan, Muhammad Aslam; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Kaleemullah

2013-03-01

325

Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories.  

PubMed

Tannins are increasingly recognized as dietary carcinogens and as antinutrients interfering with the system's full use of protein. Nevertheless, certain tannin-rich beverages, masticatories, and folk remedies, long utilized in African, Asiatic, Pacific, and Latin American countries, are now appearing in North American sundry shops and grocery stores. These include guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK.) from Brazil, kola nut (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. and C. acuminata Schott & Endl.) from West Africa, and betel nut (Areca catechu L.) from Malaya. The betel nut, or arecanut, has long been associated with oral and esophageal cancer because of its tannin content and the tannin contributed by the highly astringent cutch from Acacia catechu L. and Uncaria gambir Roxb. and the aromatic, astringent 'pan' (leaves of Piper betel L.) chewed with it. In addition to the constant recreational/social ingestion of these plant materials, they are much consumed as aphrodisiacs and medications. Guarana and kola nut enjoy great popularity in their native lands because they are also rich in caffeine, which serves as a stimulant. Research and popular education on the deleterious effects of excessive tannin intake could do much to reduce the heavy burden of early mortality and health care, especially in developing countries. PMID:1417698

Morton, J F

1992-01-01

326

Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (1–4) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19?±?1.10 and 15.82?±?1.11 ?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34 mg/g to 0.53 mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity.

2013-01-01

327

Effects of Rotenoids on Isolated Plant Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The effects of several rotenoids have been studied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber and etiolated mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyls mitochondria. The selective inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is characterized by several tests: (a) no effect can be observed on exogenous NADH or succinate oxidation; (b) malate oxidation is inhibited at pH 7.5; (c) one-third decrease of ADP/O ratio appears during malate oxidation at pH 6.5 or during ?-ketoglutarate, citrate, or pyruvate oxidation at a pH about 7; (d) during malate oxidation at pH 6.5, a transient inhibition appears which can be maintained by addition of exogenous oxaloacetate; (e) in potato mitochondria, the inhibition of malate oxidation disappears at pH 6.5 when NAD+ is added. Then, a one-third decrease of the ADP/O ratio can be measured. Such a selective inhibition of complex I is obtained with deguelin, tephrosin, elliptone, OH-12 rotenone, and almost all the rotenoids extracted from Derris roots. The presence of the rings A, B, C, D, E seems to be necessary for the selective inhibition. Opening of the E ring and hydroxylation of the 9 position (rot-2?-enoic acid) give a rotenoid derivative with multisite inhibitory activities on flavoproteins, which are quite comparable to those of common flavonoids such as kaempferol (Ravanel et al. 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 375-378).

Ravanel, Patrick; Tissut, Michel; Douce, Roland

1984-01-01

328

Antifungal potential of triphala churna ingredients against Aspergillus species associated with them during storage.  

PubMed

The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredients of triphala churna, i.e. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Terminalia chebula (Retz.) (Harada), collected from the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i.e. very low to very high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96 +/- 7.59%) was observed to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95 +/- 7.59%) and powder (25.07 +/- 6.05%). Terminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active against the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective against the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were observed to be ineffective against the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relationship between antifungal potential of herbal drugs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage. PMID:24199459

Gautam, Ajay K; Avasthi, Shubhi; Sharma, Anu; Bhadauria, Rekha

2012-03-01

329

Trichosanthes dioica root possesses stimulant laxative activity in mice.  

PubMed

Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), named 'pointed gourd' in English, is a dioecious climber grown in India. This study was aimed at evaluating the laxative activity of the aqueous extract of T. dioica root (TDA) in Swiss albino mice. The laxative activity of TDA (100 and 200?mg?kg(-1) body weight per os) was evaluated by assessing the excretory bowel activities in naive (non-constipated) and in drug (loperamide)-induced constipation in mice. Further, the gastrointestinal transit was measured in both naive and in constipated mice. Castor oil (0.5?mL/mouse per os) was used as the reference. TDA significantly and dose-dependently increased all the excretory bowel activities and gastrointestinal transit in both naive and constipated mice. TDA at 200?mg?kg(-1) body weight was found to be the most active, causing diarrhoea in mice. Thus, T. dioica root demonstrated stimulant laxative activity in Swiss mice, validating its traditional usage in India. PMID:21827370

Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

2012-01-01

330

Evaluation of intestinal transit time of root and leaves of Ipomea sepiaria.  

PubMed

Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig Ex. Roxb is considered to be one of the source plants of the classical herb Lakshmana. In folklore, the herb is well known for its laxative activity. This plant belongs to Convolvulaceae family. It is observed that the plants of this family especially the species of Ipomoea are rich in purgative resins. The present experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effect of leaf and root of I. sepiaria on intestinal transit time on Swiss albino mice and the test drugs were administered in dose of 400 mg/kg. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter. The results shows that both root and leaf samples of I. sepiaria have marked intestinal motility enhancing property, among which leaf sample is found to be better. Hence, for the therapeutic purpose leaf can be preferred to get better activity profile and also to prevent destructive harvesting of the plant. PMID:24696582

Majumder, Sayani; Ashok, B K; Nishteswar, K

2013-10-01

331

Hypotensive, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Diuretic Activities of the Aqueous-methanol Extract of Ipomoea reniformis  

PubMed Central

Ipomoea reniformis Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) is a small, weedy herb used for the management of cardiac problems in traditional systems of medicine in India and Pakistan. Objective of the present study was to investigate the hypotensive, diuretic and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the aqueous-methanol (30:70) crude extract of the dried aerial parts of I. reniformis (Ir.Cr.) in rats. To record blood pressure lowering effects of the Ir.Cr, different doses of the extract were administered through jugular vein to the ketamine-diazepam anesthetized normotensive rats and blood pressure was recorded via carotid artery. ACE inhibitory activity of the extract was studied in-vitro; using hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine as substrate, the product hippurate was quantified spectrophotometrically after reacting with cyanuric chloride/dioxane reagent. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the extract on urine and urinary electrolyte excretion were also investigated in rats. The extract (Ir.Cr.) produced 21.51 ± 3.41, 28.99 ± 2.30, 53.34 ± 0.88 and 61.71 ± 3.37% fall in mean arterial blood pressure of the anesthetized rats at the doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/Kg, respectively. Ir.Cr. was found to have serum ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 value of 422 ± 21.16 ?g/mL. The extract also increased urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion significantly at the doses of 30 and 50 mg/Kg in rats. The study concludes that the crude extract of Ipomoea reniformis (Ir.Cr.) has hypotensive, ACE inhibitory and diuretic activities, which provide the scientific justification for the traditional uses of the plant as cardioprotective, antihypertensive and diuretic remedy.

Jabeen, Qaiser; Aslam, Naveed

2013-01-01

332

Boesenbergia pandurata Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Regulating Lipid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Obesity, a chronic metabolic disorder, is characterized by enlarged fat mass and dysregulation of lipid metabolism. The medicinal plant, Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., has been reported to possess anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties; however, its anti-obesity activity is unexplored. The present study was conducted to determine whether B. pandurata extract (BPE), prepared from its rhizome parts, attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. BPE treatment decreased triglyceride accumulation in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral administration of BPE (200 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were suppressed by BPE administration. Fat pad masses were reduced in BPE-treated mice, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. Furthermore, BPE protected against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver by decreasing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. BPE also activated AMPK signaling and altered the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in white adipose tissue and liver. Taken together, these findings indicate that BPE attenuates HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and regulating lipid metabolism, suggesting a potent anti-obesity agent.

Kim, Dae-Young; Kim, Myung-Suk; Sa, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Bo; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2012-01-01

333

Chemical compositions and biological activities of Amomum subulatum essential oils from Nepal.  

PubMed

The essential oils from the seed and rind of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (collected from Nepal) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 87 components were identified among the two essential oils accounting for 99.1%, and 99.0% of the oils, respectively. The two essential oils were dominated by the monoterpenoids 1,8-cineole (60.8% and 39.0%), alpha-pinene (6.4% and 4.8%), beta-pinene (8.3% and 17.7%), and alpha-terpineol (9.8% and 12.3%). Allelopathic testing of the seed essential oil showed an inhibition of seed germination of Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne, with IC50 values of 1583 and 1674 microg/mL, respectively. The seed essential oil demonstrated a stronger seedling growth inhibition of L. perenne than of L. sativa. A. subulatum seed and rind oils also showed moderate brine shrimp lethality (LC50 = 28.1 +/- 3.0 and 15.0 +/- 9.0 microg/mL, respectively). The seed and rind oils were only marginally cytotoxic (20% and 30%% kill on MCF-7 cells at 100 microg/mL, respectively), and antibacterial (MIC > or = 313 microg/mL), but A. subulatum rind oil was appreciably active against the fungus Aspergillus niger (MIC = 19.5 microg/mL). The essential oils of A. subulatum were also screened for nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans and insecticidal activity against the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta x richteri). The seed oil was only marginally toxic to the fire ant (LC50 = 1500 microg/mL), but moderately toxic to the nematode and the fruit fly (LC50 = 341 and 441 microg/mL, respectively). PMID:23074918

Satyal, Prabodh; Dosoky, Noura S; Kincer, Brittany L; Setzer, William N

2012-09-01

334

Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plants possessing generalized dispersal syndromes are likely to be more invasive than those relying on specialist dispersal agents. To address this issue on a local and regional scale, avian seed dispersal of the invasive alien Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was assessed in forests and spoil areas of South Carolina and along forest edges in Louisiana during the 1997-99 fruiting seasons. Tallow trees in these floristically distinct habitats had a few common and many casual visitors, and considerable species overlap among habitats was found. However, bird species differed in the importance of dispersing and dropping seeds among habitats. Important dispersal agents common to forests and spoil areas of South Carolina included Northern Flicker, American Robin and Redwinged Blackbird, whereas Red-bellied Woodpecker and European Starling were important in the former and latter habitat, respectively. In Louisiana, Red-bellied Woodpecker, American Robin, Northern Cardinal and Eastern Bluebird dispersed many seeds. Nearly all species foraging on seeds were winter residents. Estimated numbers of seeds dispersed and dropped were higher in spoil areas of South Carolina than in Louisiana because of higher numbers of individuals per visit, higher seed consumption and seed dropping rates, and longer foraging durations. Within South Carolina, more seeds were dispersed and dropped in spoil areas than in forests because of higher numbers of birds per visit. These findings show that among habitats, tallow tree attracts diverse but variable coteries of dispersal agents that are qualitatively similar in seed usage patterns. We suggest that its generalized dispersal syndrome contributes to effective seed dispersal by many bird species throughout its range. Effects of differential avian use among locales may include changes in local bird communities, and differing tallow tree demographics and invasion patterns.

Renne, I. J.; Barrow, Jr. , W. C.; Johnson, Randall, L. A.; Bridges, Jr. , W. C.

2002-01-01

335

Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.  

PubMed

An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-06-01

336

A diarylheptanoid phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa, 1,7-diphenyl-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, accelerates human osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.  

PubMed

Curcuma comosa Roxb. is ginger-family plant used to relieve menopausal symptoms. Previous work showed that C. comosa extracts protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteopenia with minimal effects on reproductive organs, and identified the diarylheptanoid (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (DPHD) as the major active component of C. comosa rhizomes. At 1-10?M, DPHD increased differentiation in transformed mouse osteoblasts, but the effect of DPHD on normal bone cells was unknown. We examined the concentration dependency and mechanism of action of DPHD relative to 17?-estradiol in nontransformed human osteoblasts (h-OB). The h-OB were 10-100 fold more sensitive to DPHD than transformed osteoblasts: DPHD increased h-OB proliferation at 10nM and, at 100nM, activated MAP kinase signaling within 30 min. In long-term differentiation assays, responses of h-OB to DPHD were significant at 10nM, and optimal response in most cases was at 100 nM. At 7-21 days, DPHD accelerated osteoblast differentiation, indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast-specific mRNA production. Effects of DPHD were eliminated by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780. During differentiation, DPHD promoted early expression of osteoblast transcription factors, RUNX2 and osterix. Subsequently, DPHD accelerated production of bone structural genes, including COL1A1 and osteocalcin comparably to 17?-estradiol. In h-OB, DPHD increased the osteoprotegerin to RANKL ratio and supported mineralization more efficiently than 10nM 17?-estradiol. We conclude that DPHD promotes human osteoblast function in vitro effectively at nanomolar concentrations, making it a promising compound to protect bone in menopausal women. PMID:23557993

Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Robinson, Lisa J; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Blair, Harry C

2013-06-15

337

Diarylheptanoids, new phytoestrogens from the rhizomes of Curcuma comosa: Isolation, chemical modification and estrogenic activity evaluation.  

PubMed

Three new diarylheptanoids, a 1:2 mixture of (3S)- and (3R)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (13a and 13b) and 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-one (15), together with two synthetically known diarylheptanoids 1,7-diphenyl-(1E,3E,5E)-1,3,5-triene (9) and 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-one (16), and nine known diarylheptanoids, 2, 8, 10-12, 14, a 3:1 mixture of 17a and 17b, and 18, were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma comosa Roxb. The absolute stereochemistry of the isolated compounds has also been determined using the modified Mosher's method. The isolated compounds and the chemically modified analogues were evaluated for their estrogenic-like transcriptional activity using RT-PCR in HeLa cell line. Some of the isolated diarylheptanoids and their modified analogues exhibited estrogenic activity comparable to or higher than that of the phytoestrogen genistein. Based on the transcriptional activation of both estrogenic targets, Bcl-xL and ERbeta gene expression, the structural features for a diarylheptanoid to exhibit high estrogenic activity are the presence of an olefinic function conjugated with the aromatic ring at the 7-position, a keto group at the 3-position, and a phenolic hydroxyl group at the p-position of the aromatic ring attached to the 1-position of the heptyl chain. PMID:18554915

Suksamrarn, Apichart; Ponglikitmongkol, Mathurose; Wongkrajang, Kanjana; Chindaduang, Anon; Kittidanairak, Suthadta; Jankam, Aroon; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-ek; Kittipanumat, Narin; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn; Khetkam, Pichit; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2008-07-15

338

A diarylheptanoid phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa, 1,7-diphenyl-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, accelerates human osteoblast proliferation and differentiation  

PubMed Central

Curcuma comosa Roxb. is ginger-family plant used to relieve menopausal symptoms. Previous work showed that C. comosa extracts protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteopenia with minimal effects on reproductive organs, and identified the diarylheptanoid (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (DPHD) as the major active component of C. comosa rhizomes. At 1–10 ?M, DPHD increased differentiation in transformed mouse osteoblasts, but the effect of DPHD on normal bone cells was unknown. We examined the concentration dependency and mechanism of action of DPHD relative to 17?-estradiol in nontransformed human osteoblasts (h-OB). The h-OB were 10–100 fold more sensitive to DPHD than transformed osteoblasts: DPHD increased h-OB proliferation at 10 nM and, at 100 nM, activated MAP kinase signaling within 30 minutes. In long-term differentiation assays, responses of h-OB to DPHD were significant at 10 nM, and optimal response in most cases was at 100 nM. At 7–21 days, DPHD accelerated osteoblast differentiation, indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast-specific mRNA production. Effects of DPHD were eliminated by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780. During differentiation, DPHD promoted early expression of osteoblast transcription factors, RUNX2 and osterix. Subsequently, DPHD accelerated production of bone structural genes, including COL1A1 and osteocalcin comparably to 17?-estradiol. In h-OB, DPHD increased the osteoprotegerin to RANKL ratio and supported mineralization more efficiently than 10 nM 17?-estradiol. We conclude that DPHD promotes human osteoblast function in vitro effectively at nanomolar concentrations, making it a promising compound to protect bone in menopausal women.

Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Robinson, Lisa J.; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Blair, Harry C.

2013-01-01

339

A Phytoestrogen Diarylheptanoid Mediates Estrogen Receptor/Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? Protein-dependent Activation of the Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Estrogen promotes growth in many tissues by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Recently, ASPP 049, a diarylheptanoid isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb., has been identified as a phytoestrogen. This investigation determined the involvement of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the estrogenic activity of this diarylheptanoid in transfected HEK 293T and in mouse preosteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells using a TOPflash luciferase assay and immunofluorescence. ASPP 049 rapidly activated T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor-mediated transcription activity and induced ?-catenin accumulation in the nucleus. Interestingly, the effects of ASPP 049 on the transcriptional activity and induction and accumulation of ?-catenin protein in the nucleus of MC3T3-E1 cells were greater compared with estradiol. Activation of ?-catenin in MC3T3-E1 cells was inhibited by ICI 182,780, suggesting that an estrogen receptor is required. In addition, ASPP 049 induced phosphorylations at serine 473 of Akt and serine 9 of GSK-3?. Moreover, ASPP 049 also induced proliferation and expressions of Wnt target genes Axin2 and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, ASPP 049 increased alkaline phosphatase expression, and activity that was abolished by DKK-1, a blocker of the Wnt/?-catenin receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that ASPP 049 from C. comosa induced osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation through ER?-, Akt-, and GSK-3?-dependent activation of ?-catenin signaling. Our findings provide a scientific rationale for using C. comosa as a dietary supplement to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women.

Bhukhai, Kanit; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Bhummaphan, Narumol; Janjorn, Keatdamrong; Thongon, Natthakan; Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chairoungdua, Arthit

2012-01-01

340

A phytoestrogen diarylheptanoid mediates estrogen receptor/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3? protein-dependent activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Estrogen promotes growth in many tissues by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Recently, ASPP 049, a diarylheptanoid isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb., has been identified as a phytoestrogen. This investigation determined the involvement of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the estrogenic activity of this diarylheptanoid in transfected HEK 293T and in mouse preosteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells using a TOPflash luciferase assay and immunofluorescence. ASPP 049 rapidly activated T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor-mediated transcription activity and induced ?-catenin accumulation in the nucleus. Interestingly, the effects of ASPP 049 on the transcriptional activity and induction and accumulation of ?-catenin protein in the nucleus of MC3T3-E1 cells were greater compared with estradiol. Activation of ?-catenin in MC3T3-E1 cells was inhibited by ICI 182,780, suggesting that an estrogen receptor is required. In addition, ASPP 049 induced phosphorylations at serine 473 of Akt and serine 9 of GSK-3?. Moreover, ASPP 049 also induced proliferation and expressions of Wnt target genes Axin2 and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, ASPP 049 increased alkaline phosphatase expression, and activity that was abolished by DKK-1, a blocker of the Wnt/?-catenin receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that ASPP 049 from C. comosa induced osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation through ER?-, Akt-, and GSK-3?-dependent activation of ?-catenin signaling. Our findings provide a scientific rationale for using C. comosa as a dietary supplement to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:22936801

Bhukhai, Kanit; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Bhummaphan, Narumol; Janjorn, Keatdamrong; Thongon, Natthakan; Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chairoungdua, Arthit

2012-10-19

341

The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

2012-11-01

342

Comparison of the volatile oil composition of three Atalantia species.  

PubMed

The members of the genus Atalantia belonging to the family Rutaceae have many uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the chemical composition of essential oils of three species of Atalantia namely Atalantia monophylla (Roxb.) DC., Atalantia racemosa Wight. and Atalantia wightii Tanaka. The extract percentage of the obtained essential oil was found to be 0.2, 0.17 and 0.31% in A. monophylla, A. racemosa and A. wightii respectively. The major compounds identified were alpha-Asarone (28.82%), Sabinene (13.19%), Eugenol methyl ether (12.71%), 1,2-Dimethoxy-4-(2-methoxyethenyl)benzene (11.63%) and beta-Pinene (5.3%) in the essential oil of A. monophylla. In A. racemosa, T-Cadinol (11.08%), Caryophyllene oxide (9.78%), beta-Caryophyllene (9.20%), Spathulenol (7.21%), beta-Phellandrene (5.67%) and Decanal (4.01%) and in A. wightii beta-Caryophyllene (16.37%), D-Limnonene (12.15%), Decanal (10.49%), beta-Myrcene (7.67%), Tetradecanal (6.99%), Caryophyllene oxide (6.29%) and Hexadecylene oxide (5.87%) were the main constituents. Sesquiterpenes were the major class of compounds in A. racemosa and A. wightii, while in A. monophylla the essential oil was predominated by ether compounds. The results showed that GC/MS analysis of essential oils is a significant step in the bio-chemical profiling and bio-prospecting of Atalantia species. PMID:24617143

Das, Arun K; Swamy, P S

2013-05-01

343

Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains.  

PubMed

In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indica L., Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Sebania sesban (L.) Merr. and Xylia xylocarpa Roxb. Taub., collected from South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds. All the samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (3.12-6.69 g/100 g DM), tannins (1.10-4.41 g/100 g DM), L-Dopa (1.34-5.45 g/100 g DM) and phytic acid (0.98-3.14 g/100 g DM). In general, the seed materials of X. xylocarpa recorded high levels of total free phenolics and tannins, whereas the maximum levels of L-Dopa and phytic acid were noticed in M. gigantea and S. sesban, respectively. Further, presently investigated all the bioactive compounds were drastically reduced during soaking in tamarind solution + cooking as well as soaking in alkaline solution + cooking, and thus these treatments were considered to be more aggressive practices. Open-pan roasting also demonstrated a significant reduction of total free phenolics, tannins and moderate loss of L-Dopa and phytic acid. Alternatively, sprouting + oil-frying showed significant level of increase of total free phenolics (9-27%) and tannins (12-28%), but diminishing effect on phytic acid and L-Dopa. Hence, among the presently employed treatments, sprouting + oil-frying could be recommended as a suitable treatment for the versatile utilization of these wild under-utilized legume grains for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases. PMID:24293686

Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K

2012-12-01

344

Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models  

PubMed Central

While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis.

Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.

2010-01-01

345

A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.  

PubMed

Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators. PMID:24595752

Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

2014-06-01

346

Hypotensive, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Diuretic Activities of the Aqueous-methanol Extract of Ipomoea reniformis.  

PubMed

Ipomoea reniformis Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) is a small, weedy herb used for the management of cardiac problems in traditional systems of medicine in India and Pakistan. Objective of the present study was to investigate the hypotensive, diuretic and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the aqueous-methanol (30:70) crude extract of the dried aerial parts of I. reniformis (Ir.Cr.) in rats. To record blood pressure lowering effects of the Ir.Cr, different doses of the extract were administered through jugular vein to the ketamine-diazepam anesthetized normotensive rats and blood pressure was recorded via carotid artery. ACE inhibitory activity of the extract was studied in-vitro; using hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine as substrate, the product hippurate was quantified spectrophotometrically after reacting with cyanuric chloride/dioxane reagent. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the extract on urine and urinary electrolyte excretion were also investigated in rats. The extract (Ir.Cr.) produced 21.51 ± 3.41, 28.99 ± 2.30, 53.34 ± 0.88 and 61.71 ± 3.37% fall in mean arterial blood pressure of the anesthetized rats at the doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/Kg, respectively. Ir.Cr. was found to have serum ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 value of 422 ± 21.16 ?g/mL. The extract also increased urine volume and urinary Na(+) excretion significantly at the doses of 30 and 50 mg/Kg in rats. The study concludes that the crude extract of Ipomoea reniformis (Ir.Cr.) has hypotensive, ACE inhibitory and diuretic activities, which provide the scientific justification for the traditional uses of the plant as cardioprotective, antihypertensive and diuretic remedy. PMID:24523757

Jabeen, Qaiser; Aslam, Naveed

2013-01-01

347

Chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of essential oils of Plectranthus cylindraceus and Meriandra benghalensis from Yemen.  

PubMed

The chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaves of Plectranthus cylindraceus Hoechst. ex. Benth. (EOPC) and Meriandra benghalensis (Roxb.) Benth. (EOMB) were investigated. Sixteen compounds were identified in P. cylindraceus oil representing 94.5% of the oil content with thymol (68.5%), terpinolene (5.3%), beta-selinene (4.7%), beta-caryophyllene (4.0%), delta-cadinol (2.1%), and arcurcumene (1.7%) as the major compounds. In M. benghalensis oil, 12 compounds were identified, which made up 82.0% of the total oil. The most abundant constituents were camphor (43.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.7%), alpha-eudesmol (5.8%), caryophyllene oxide (5.8%), camphene (5.3%) and bomeol (3.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated against five microorganisms with the disc diffusion test, the broth micro-dilution method and a semiquantitative bioautographic test. The most sensitive microorganisms for P. cylindraceus oil were S. aureus, B. subtilis, and C. albicans with inhibition zones of 38, 42, and 43 mm and MIC values of 0.39, 0.18, and, 0.18 microL/mL, respectively. M. benghalensis oil showed weak to moderate activity against the tested microorganisms. 2,2-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed to study the potential antioxidant activities of both oils. The antioxidant activity of P. cylindraceus oil (IC50 34.5 microg/mL) appeared to be higher than that of M. benghalensis oil (IC50 935 microg/mL). At a concentration of 100 microg/mL, EOMB showed a stronger cytotoxic activity, with growth inhibition of 71% against HT29 tumor cells, than EOPC (18%). PMID:22978239

Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Wursterb, Martina; Denkert, Annika; Arnold, Norbert; Fadail, Iman; Al-Didamony, Gamal; Lindequist, Ulrike; Wessjohann, Ludger; Setzer, William N

2012-08-01

348

A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).  

PubMed

Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging. PMID:11537665

Musgrave, M E; Vanhoy, M A

1989-01-01

349

The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.  

PubMed

This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities. Thereby, depending on the level of habitat quality that is aimed at, different measures may provide the most efficient solution. Lower levels of conservation can be achieved with low-cost adapted CPAs, such as an increased cutting height, reduced sowing density and grubbing instead of ploughing. Higher levels of conservation require e.g. grassland-like managed buffer strips around ponds in sensible areas, which incur much higher on-farm conservation costs. PMID:23164542

Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

2013-01-15

350

Type of litter determines the formation and properties of charred material during wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances all over the World, affecting both the amount and composition of forest floor and mineral soils. In comparison with unburnt areas, wildfire-affected forest floor usually shows lower contents of labile C compounds and higher concentrations of recalcitrant aromatic forms. These changes in composition can have important impact on biogeochemical cycles and therefore ecosystem functions. Although burning of different types of litter can lead to different amount and types of pyrogenic compounds, this aspect has not been evaluated yet. The effect of wildfire on SOM composition and stability were evaluated in five major types of non-wood litter in Mediterranean ecosystems: Pinus nigra, E. arborea, P. pinaster, U. europaeus and Eucalyptus globulus. In each of these ecosystems, forest floor samples from different soil burn severities were sampled. Soil burnt severities were based on visual signs of changes in forest floor and deposition of ash. Pyrogenic carbon quality were analysed using elementary analysis, solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (FTIR) and thermal analysis (simultaneous DSC-TG). The study showed that the different types of litter influenced the formation and characteristics of charred material. They differed in the temperature at which they start to be formed, the amounts of charred compounds and in their chemical composition. The resulting charred materials from the different litter, showed an important variability in the degree of carbonitation/aromatization. Unlike the biochar obtained through pyrolysis of woody sources, which contains exclusively aromatic structures, in the charred material produced in some litter, lignin, cellulose and even cellulose persist even in the high soil burnt severity. Coinciding with increases in aromatic contents, important decreases in atomic H/C and O/C ratios were recorded. However, the values found in some litters, were higher than 0.5, suggesting that low degree of carbonization/aromatization. Although burning also led to compounds of higher thermal recalcitrance (increases in T50 values), values recorded in some litters were lower than those measured in highly polycondensed aromatic compounds. The differences found among the different forest floor cannot be only attributable to the initial SOM composition of the litter. Other aspects, such as the different thermal sensitivity, flammability and different conditions during wildfire (temperatures, combustion duration, oxygen concentrations) could also have contributed.

Chavez, Bruno; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Salgado, Josefa; García-Oliva, Felipe; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

2014-05-01

351

Climatic belt dynamics on a tropical mountain under strong anthropogenic and zoogenic impact: Mt Tsebet (3946 m a.s.l.) in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The links between decreasing size and volume of the glaciers in East Africa's tropical mountains and the position of climatic belts on the one hand and global warming on the other have led to various interpretations on the occurrence of global warming and its magnitude and impacts in this part of the world. Here, we investigate the existence of temperature changes in East Africa and their impacts in high mountain regions by analyzing the position of climatically determined vegetation belts on Mt. Tsebet (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3946 m a.s.l.) in northern Ethiopia between 1986 and 2010. This 27 km² massif, which was first surveyed and photographed in 1868, was chosen as a study area because, unlike Simien Mountains or Bale Mts. (Ethiopia), the antropogenic and zoogenic impact on the environment has not been reduced through time. By choosing Tsebet, we avoided areas that have become recently protected (such as the above-mentioned national parks); there, trees that newly grow more upslope might be ascribed to the protected status. In protected areas, the position of upper cropland limits may be controlled by regulations that prevent farmers from expanding farmlands upslope, even if climatic and topographic conditions would allow doing so. On Tsebet, where direct human and zoogenic impact exists up to the highest elevations, we will establish the position of two temperature-linked vegetation limits (i.e. Erica arborea and Hordeum vulgare or barley) in 1986, 1994 and 2010, through fieldwork (February 2010) and aerial photo interpretation. Changes in population density in the villages around Mt. Tsebet will be analysed through house counting on aerial photographs. The fieldwork will include a stay in mountain villages, during which interviews will be done on dates and reasons for shifting of the cultivation limit. The results will be analysed through geostatistical methods and will provide a better understanding of the magnitude of air temperature and possibly precipitation changes in this region and of the interaction between climate forcing and direct human intervention in densely populated tropical mountains.

Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Yirga, Gidey; Guyassa, Etafa; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Poesen, Jean; Hemp, Andreas; Haile, Mitiku

2010-05-01

352

Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration <1000 ppm, play a structural role in the organisms and use proteins as a carrier to their target site. Their toxicity depends on their concentration, speciation and reactions with other elements. In volcanic environments, significant amounts of trace elements discharged from gas emissions, contribute to produce air particulate. Nisyros Island is a stratovolcano located at the South Aegean active Volcanic Arc. Intense hydrothermal activity characterise the Lakki caldera. In particular, the fumaroles located in the craters of Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos Dome and the area comprising Phlegeton, Polyvotes Micros and Polyvotes Megalos discharge hydrothermal fluids rich in H2O (91- 99%), SO2 and H2S. Their temperatures are almost 100o C and H2S is highly abundant accounting for 8-26 % of the released dry gas phase. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field trip on Nisyros island, 39 samples of top soils and 31 of endemic plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in particular for Tl, Rb, Zn, Mn, As, Pb, Se, Bi, Al. The highest concentrations were found both in soils and plants close to the most active fumarolic areas of Stefanos, Kaminakia and Polyvotes and also close to the Geothermal Drill (exploration well). Moreover, both soils and plants showed a good correlation between Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, Bi-Pb, Ba-Sr, Bi-Tl, Ti-Al, Ni-Al, Tl-As, Te-Tl, Te-Se as well as REE's. From the comparison between Cistus sp. and Erica sp. we found a significant enrichment in the former respect to the latter, making Cistus sp. the most suitable plant for biomonitoring studies at Nisyros.

Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

2014-05-01

353

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50)?=37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90)?=166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50)?=26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90)?=127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90)?=324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

2010-11-01

354

Artocarpus lakoocha heartwood extract as a novel cosmetic ingredient: evaluation of the in vitro anti-tyrosinase and in vivo skin whitening activities.  

PubMed

The heartwood extract of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. was evaluated for the in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity and the in vivo melanin-reducing efficacy in human volunteers. The IC(50) of the extract and oxyresveratrol, its major active ingredient, against mushroom tyrosinase was determined to be 0.76 and 0.83 mug mL(-1), respectively. The extract dissolved in propylene glycol was subsequently tested in female volunteers using a parallel clinical trial with self-control (n = 20 per group). The first group received the 0.25% w/v A. lakoocha solution as the test solution, whereas the second and the third group, respectively, received 0.25% licorice extract and 3% kojic acid as the reference solutions in the same solvent. The subjects in each group twice daily applied the test (or reference) solution in one of her upper arm, whereas the remaining arm was treated with only propylene glycol (self-control) for 12 weeks. The melanin content of each application site was measured using Mexameter every week and calculated as % reduction in melanin content relative to the initial melanin value (% whitening). The value of % whitening was then compared between the product-treated and the propylene glycol-treated arms within the same subject using paired t-test (alpha = 0.05). The A. lakoocha extract was the most effective agent, giving the shortest onset of significant whitening effect after only 4 weeks of application (P < 0.05), followed by 3% kojic acid (6 weeks) and 0.25% licorice extract (10 weeks). The effect also increased with time with maximum whitening observed at week 12 for A. lakoocha extract. When the extract was formulated as an oil-in-water emulsion, its whitening efficacy was further enhanced. Daily application of 0.1% w/w A. lakoocha lotion to the upper arms (n = 25) and cheeks (n = 15) of volunteers produced significant whitening over the lotion base after 2 and 3 weeks, respectively (P < 0.05). Thus, the preliminary study suggested that the heartwood extract of A. lakoocha may have a promising potential for use as an effective and economical skin-whitening agent. PMID:18489267

Tengamnuay, P; Pengrungruangwong, K; Pheansri, I; Likhitwitayawuid, K

2006-08-01

355

Patterns of leaf conductance and water potential of five Himalayan tree species.  

PubMed

We studied variations in water relations and drought response in five Himalayan tree species (Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. (chilaune) and Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (dhale katus) at an elevation of 1400 m, Quercus lanata Smith (banjh) and Rhododendron arboreum Smith (lali gurans) at 2020 m, and Quercus semecarpifolia Smith (khasru) at 2130 m) at Phulchowki Hill, Kathmandu, Nepal. Soil water potential at 15 (Psi(s15)) and 30 cm (Psi(s30)) depths, tree water potential at predawn (Psi(pd)) and midday (Psi(md)), and leaf conductance during the morning (g(wAM)) and afternoon (g(wPM)) were observed from December 1998 to April 2001, except during the monsoon months. There was significant variation among sites, species and months in Psi(pd), Psi(md), g(wAM) and g(wPM), and among months for all species for Psi(s15). Mean Psi(pd) and Psi(md) were lowest in Q. semecarpifolia (-0.40 and -1.18 MPa, respectively) and highest in S. wallichii (-0.20 and -0.63 MPa, respectively). The minimum Psi value for all species (-0.70 to -1.79 MPa) was observed in March 1999, after 4 months of unusually low rainfall. Some patterns of Psi(pd) were related to phenology and leaf damage. During leafing, Psi(pd) often increased. Mean g(wAM) and g(wPM) were highest in Q. semecarpifolia (172 and 190 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and lowest in C. indica (78 and 74 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Soil water potential (Psi) at 15 cm depth correlated with plant Psi in all species, but rarely with g(wAM) and not with g(wPM). Plant Psi declined with increasing elevation, whereas g(w) increased. As Psi(pd) declined, so did maximal g(w), but overall, g(w) was correlated with Psi(pd) only for R. arboreum. Schima wallichii maintained high Psi, with low stomatal conductance, as did Castanopsis indica, except that C. indica had low Psi during dry months. Rhododendron arboreum maintained high Psi(pd) and g(w), despite low soil Psi. Quercus lanata had low g(w) and low Psi(pd) in some months, but showed no correlation between tree Psi and g(w). Quercus semecarpifolia, which grows at the highest elevation, had low soil and plant Psi and high g(w). PMID:15059769

Poudyal, K; Jha, P K; Zobel, D B; Thapa, C B

2004-06-01

356

Diarylheptanoid Phytoestrogens Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Curcuma comosa: Biologic Actions in Vitro and in Vivo Indicate Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background Diarylheptanoids isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb. have been recently identified as phyto estrogens. However, the mechanism underlying their actions has not yet been identified. Objectives We characterized the estrogenic activity of three active naturally occurring diarylheptanoids both in vitro and in vivo. Methods We characterized mechanisms of estrogenic action of the diarylheptanoids (3S)-1,7-diphenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (D1), 1,7-diphenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-one (D2), and (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (D3) by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, a mammalian transfection model, and a uterotrophic assay in mice. Results All diarylheptanoids up-regulated estrogen-responsive genes in estrogen-responsive breast cancer cells (MCF-7). In HepG2 cells transfected with estrogen receptor (ER) ? or different ER? functional receptor mutants and the Vit-ERE-TATA-Luc reporter gene, all diarylheptanoids induced transcription through a ligand-dependent human ER?-ERE–driven pathway, which was abolished with ICI 182,780 (ER antagonist), whereas only D2 was active with ER?. An ER? mutant lacking the functional AF2 (activation function 2) region was not responsive to 17?-estradiol (E2) or to any of the diarylheptanoids, whereas ER? lacking the AF1 domain exhibited wild-type–like activity. D3 markedly increased uterine weight and proliferation of the uterine epithelium in ovariectomized mice, whereas D1 and D2 were inactive. D3, like E2, up-regulated lactoferrin (Ltf) gene expression. The responses to D3 in the uterus were inhibited by ICI 182,780. In addition, D3 stimulated both classical (Aqp5) and nonclassical (Cdkn1a) ER-mediated gene regulation. Conclusions The results suggest that the D3 diarylheptanoid is an agonist for ER both in vitro and in vivo, and its biological action is ER? selective, specifically requiring AF2 function, and involves direct binding via ER as well as ERE-independent gene regulation.

Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Ponglikitmongkol, Mathurose; Arao, Yukitomo; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Korach, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01

357

Induction of selective cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human T4-lymphoblastoid cell line (CEMss) by boesenbergin a isolated from boesenbergia rotunda rhizomes involves mitochondrial pathway, activation of caspase 3 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest  

PubMed Central

Background Boesenbergia rotunda (Roxb.) Schlecht (family zingiberaceae) is a rhizomatous herb that is distributed from north-eastern India to south-east Asia, especially in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Previous research has shown that the crude extract of this plant has cytotoxic properties. The current study examines the cytotoxic properties of boesenbergin A isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda. Methods MTT assay was used to check the cytotoxicity of boesenbergin A. The morphological assessment of apoptosis was monitored using normal and fluorescence microscopy. The early and late phase of apoptosis was investigated using annexin V and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were performed to investigate the mechanism of cell death. In addition, the protein levels of Bax, Bcl2 and HSP 70 were also analyzed using western blot. Assays of caspase =-3/7, -8 and =-9 were carried out in order to test for induction during treatment. Lastly, cell cycle progression was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results Boesenbergin A was found to have the highest toxicity towards CEMss cancer cells (IC50?=?8??g/ml). The morphology of CEMss cells after treatment showed evidence of apoptosis that included blebbing and chromatin condensation. The annexin V assay revealed that early apoptosis is induced after treatment. The DNA laddering assay confirmed that DNA fragmentation had occurred during late apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis indicated that boesenbergin A was able to induce G2/M phase arrest in CEMss cells. The activity of caspases -3/7, -8 and -9 was increased after treatment which indicates both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are induced during apoptosis. The involvement of mitochondria was established by increased mitochondrial membrane potential and up and down regulation of Bcl2 and Bax proteins as well as HSP70. Conclusion In conclusion, the results demonstrated that boesenbergin A induced apoptosis of CEMss cells through Bcl2/Bax signaling pathways with the involvement of caspases and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The current findings warrant further research on boesenbergin A as a novel chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia intervention including studies in animal models.

2013-01-01

358

Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists and students. Phenological studies by the Mat-Su Career and Technical High School students helped scientists working with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to determine the best time for an aerial survey of bald eagle nests in the Matanuska Susitna Valley in Alaska. GLOBE student phenological data have also been used as part of a doctoral student dissertation, included in presentations at professional meetings and peer- reviewed scientific papers. Pre- and post- engagement assessment data have indicated a significant increase in content knowledge and science skills of pre-college students who have engaged in phenology investigations. Phenological investigations meet educational standards, help students understand the Earth as a system, do not require expensive equipment, and enable students across the globe to learn science by doing science.

Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

2011-12-01

359

Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.  

PubMed

In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (?PSII?=?(Fm(')?-F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in photoprotection. Trees with different water uses and leaf lifespans appear to employ different photoprotective mechanisms to overcome the unfavorable dry-season drought. Our data may suggest that future changes in precipitation will strongly impinge on forest structure and functions. PMID:24336612

Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

2014-01-01

360

The long-term effects on aggregate stability (AS) from a forest fire of varying intensity in a Mediterranean environment (1994-2012).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can affect many soil properties and this fact is deeply connected with fire severity, intensity, soil type and many others factors. Aggregate stability (AS) indicates the soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. AS is one of the factors that strongly affect on soil erodibility and infiltration. This property can be used as an indicator of the state of the soil structure and physical stability. The aim of this study is to analyze the soil AS of a determined area that suffered a wildfire in 1994 and compare them with a control area with the same characteristics. The study area is located in the Cadiretes Massif, in the northernmost zone of the Catalan Coastal Ranges, northeast Spain, at an altitude of around 190 - 250 m.a.m.s.l. The Cadiretes Massif is predominantly granite, although soils developed over Paleozoic metamorphic rocks such as schist and slates can also be found. In some areas metamorphic features underlie this relief. The massif is covered by dense Mediterranean vegetation, e.g. Quercus suber, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, and in some places Pinus pinaster plantations are found. This area receives about 700 - 800 mm of annual rainfall, with a fairly marked seasonal variability. The maximum is registered in autumn. Summer temperatures often surpass 25°C, while in winter temperatures are generally mild. The predominant soil type in Cadiretes is classified as a Lithic Xerept, with a 15 cm deep sandy-loam A horizon. In the control forest area, this horizon is protected by a 3 cm deep O horizon of moder humus. Three areas with different burnt intensity were identified in 1994 and they are the same plots that were chosen to sample in 2012. The 4 plots (Low intensity, Medium Intensity, High Intensity and Control) had the same orientation (S) and slope (5%). The TDI (Ten Drop Impact) test, that simulates rainfall impact on aggregates, was used to measure AS in the laboratory. Twenty samples were collected per plot. Ten aggregates for each plot, of 4 - 4.8 mm were selected and subjected to the impact of 10 drops from a burette fixed at a height of 1 m. the aggregates were placed on a 2.8 mm sieve to allow the disaggregated sample to flow away. The drops of distilled water weighed 0.1 ± 0.001 g and had a diameter of 5.8 mm. The statistical comparison between the four treatments (high, medium and low intensity and control area) in 2012 samples shows that the disintegration percentage is higher in the high intensity area (13.5%). Medium and low intensity areas showed less percentage of aggregate disintegration: 10.4 and 11.1 respectively but still higher than the control area's one (5.45%). This analysis has demonstrated that after 18 years there are still significant AS differences between the three areas with different burnt intensity and the control area. Keywords: forest fire, aggregate stability, TDI test, Mediterranean area

Velasco, Antonio; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2013-04-01

361

Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum" level of the Gran Dolina cave (Atapuerca) that has yielded H. antecessor remains at ca 960 ky. When compared with Orce localities of similar age (i.e. Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3) that have yielded strong evidence of hominin presence (mainly lithic industries), it appears that they have a fairly similar environmental pattern, having in common a good representation of woodland and water-edge areas, even though dry environments are more developed in Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3 than in Sima del Elefante and Gran Dolina. H. antecessor may have thus lived under a warm-humid climate in a patchy landscape mainly composed of humid meadows and riparian woodlands. Such a landscape may have provided favourable conditions for a high diversity of large mammals, as well as for hiding and escaping from large carnivores.

Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

2010-11-01

362

Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish priorities for future research directions in chemical management of submersed plants. The priorities we identified include: (A) improving methods for evaluating non-target impacts of herbicides with an emphasis on threatened and endangered species, or species of special concern; (B) improving herbicide performance in flowing-water environments, including irrigation canals; (C) screening and developing new herbicides to supplement fluridone for large-scale or whole-lake management approaches; (D) screening and developing new organic algaecides to supplement the use of copper-based compounds; (E) developing risk assessment tools to educate the public on the risks of invasive species and chemical management options; (F) increasing cooperative research with ecologists and fisheries scientists to evaluate the long-term impacts of invasive species introductions and herbicide programs on native plant assemblages, water quality, and fish populations; and (G) improving the integration of chemical control technology with other aquatic plant management disciplines. While circumstances may dictate setting new priorities or dropping current ones, the list we have generated represents our vision of the needs that will require the greatest focus over the next several years.

Getsinger, K. D.; Netherland, M. D.; Grue, C. E.; Koschnick, T. J.

2008-01-01

363

Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Thrombus formed in blood vessels lead to atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs sometimes cause serious and fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases although they show little toxicity in some cases. Aqueous extracts of herbs used in thrombolysis have been reported before with cytotoxic data, however, the organic extracts of herbs have not been documented. This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity. Methods An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., Ageratum conyzoides L., Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Leucas aspera Willd., Senna sophera L. Roxb., and Solanum torvum Swartz. using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Briefly, venous blood drawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. Results Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed 18.12 ± 2.34%, 48.9 ± 2.44%, 39.30 ± 0.96%, 37.32 ± 2.00%, 31.61 ± 2.97% and 31.51 ± 0.57% and clot lysis respectively. Among the herbs studied Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera showed very significant (p < 0.0001) percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to reference drug streptokinase (75.00 ± 3.04%). In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, the extracts Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed LC50 values 508.86 ± 6.62,41.16 ± 1.26, 2.65 ± 0.16, 181.67 ± 1.65, 233.37 ± 7.74 and 478.40 ± 3.23 ?g/ml, respectively, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76 ± 0.04). Conclusion Through our study it was found that Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera possessed effective thrombolytic properties whereas Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed moderate to mild thrombolytic effects while Ageratum conyzoides showed no significant effect. No extract was found cytoxic compared to positive control. Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent with in vivo effects to improve the atherothrombotic patients. However, Clausena suffruticosa could be the best one to use in this purpose.

2013-01-01