Sample records for gmelina arborea roxb

  1. Induction of Hairy Roots in Gmelina arborea Roxb. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shrutika Dhakulkar; Sujata Bhargava; T. R. Ganapathi; V. A. Bapat

    A b s t r a c t Seedling tissues of Gmelina arborea, a medicinally important tree species, were infected with wild type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATTCC 15834, which led to the induction of hairy roots in 32% of the explants. Transgenic nature of the hairy roots was confirmed by PCR using rolB specific primers, and subsequently by Southern analysis

  2. Effect of aluminium toxicity on growth responses and antioxidant activities in Gmelina arborea Roxb. inoculated with AM fungi.

    PubMed

    Dudhane, Mayura; Borde, Mahesh; Jite, Paramjit Kaur

    2012-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviating the adverse Aluminium effects on growth and antioxidant activity was tested in Gmelina plants. Under greenhouse and aluminium stress condition, the mycorrhizal Gmelina plants showed good growth as compared to non mycorrhizal Gmelina plants. Mycorrhizal colonization in Gmelina was found not to be significantly influenced by aluminium concentrations. Results also indicate that symbiotic association was successfully established between Glomus intraradices and Gmelina plants and mycorrhizal colonization consequently increased the biomass of Gmelina. The root proline accumulation was found to increase in mycorrhizal Gmelina plants for osmotic adjustment of stress tissues under first and second level of Aluminium stress. It was observed that Mycorrhizal colonization increased the shoot root Peroxidase and Superoxide dismutase activities in mycorrhizal Gmelina under second level of Aluminium stress. Mycorrhizal fungi play a major role in phytostabilization by secreting one of the glycoprotein, i.e., Glomalin, which stabilizes the Aluminium in soil as well as in the roots of Gmelina plants. PMID:22908633

  3. Root distribution of Acioa barteri, Alchornea cordifolia, Cassia siamea and Gmelina arborea in an acid Ultisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Ruhigwa; M. P. Gichuru; B. Mambani; N. M. Tariah

    1992-01-01

    A major constrait to alley cropping is the competition of tree or shrub roots with those of companion food crops for available water and nutrients in the topsoil. Root distribution patterns of Acioa barteri, Alchornea cordifolia, Cassia siamea and Gmelina arborea grown on an acid Ultisol at Onne in the humid forest zone of southeastern Nigeria were examined to a

  4. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1–1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash values were also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higher than leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications. PMID:23569939

  5. EFECTO DEL ÁCIDO INDOLBUTÍRICO (AIB) Y TIPO DE ESTACA EN EL ENRAIZADO DE Gmelina arborea Roxb. EFFECT OF INDOL-BUTIRIC ACID (IBA) AND TYPE OF CUTTING ON ROOTING OF Gmelina arborea Roxb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Ruiz García; J. Jesús; Vargas Hernández; Víctor Manuel Cetina Alcalá; Ángel Villegas Monter

    2005-01-01

    the basal ones (43.7 and 38.3 %, respectively), with 30 % more roots formed. IBA application inhibited rooting capacity of apical cuttings, but stimulated it on intermediate and basal cuttings; the highest root- ing percentage was obtained on apical cuttings without IBA (80 %) and on intermediate cuttings with 2.0 mg g -1 IBA (83 %). No signifi- cant differences

  6. Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn.

    E-print Network

    Hicks, Van Joseph

    1980-01-01

    older material by Coorts and Hull {1972) with the highbrush blueberry {Vaccinium corymbosum), and also with various ulmus species {Doran and McKenzie 1949, Bretz and Swingle 1950, and Schreiber and Kawase 1975). Successful rooting of softwood... (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ) by hard and softwood cuttings. The Plant Propagator 18(2):9-12. 9 d, J. 1974. 9 9 d t' f i9~1t d~gl 7 by cuttings. New Zealand J. Forestry Sci. 4(2):191-203. Davis, E. A. 1970. Propagation of shrub oak from cuttings. Bot. Gaz. 131...

  7. Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn. 

    E-print Network

    Hicks, Van Joseph

    1980-01-01

    in American elm and mulberry. Basal cuttings also have been shown to be superior to terminal cuttings in rooting ability with the apple and 91 lt d 5th 1955, Th dlyl915), d~t' 1 h' scleroxylon (Okoro 1974) . Ilier (1970) working with willows, reported... propagation principles and practices. 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 662 p. Ilier, S. 1970. Effect of the position of the cutting in the shoot on the rooting and shoot growth of some willows. Nauch Trud Lesotekh Inst 18...

  8. Bioactive flavanoids from Glycosmis arborea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycosmis is a genus of evergreen glabrous shrub and distributed all over India. It possesses various medicinal properties and is used in indigenous medicine for cough, rheumatism, anemia, and jaundice. Glycosmis arborea is a rich source of alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins, as well as flavonoids. Results The chemical investigation of methanol fraction of the leaves of G. arborea led to the isolation of one new flavone C-glycoside along with three known flavanoids, named as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[4-hydroxy-3-(methoxy methyl) phenyl]-6-C-?-d-glucopyranosyl flavone (4), 5,7,4?-trihydroxy-3?-methoxy flavone (1), 5,4?-dihydroxy-3?-methoxy-7-O-?-d-glucupyranosyl flavanone (2), and 5,4?-dihydroxy-3?-methoxy-7-O-(?-l-rhamnosyl-(1??6?)-?-d-glucopyranosyl) flavanone (3), respectively. The structures of all compounds were elucidated with the help of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Pure compounds and fractions were evaluated for pest antifeedant and antimicrobial activity. Conclusion Four compounds were isolated from the leaves of G. arborea. Among them, compound 4 showed significant antimicrobial activity. PMID:23497605

  9. Effects of Dimethoate on Tree Frog (Hyla arborea) Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferah SAYIM; Uur KAYA

    Considering the global decline of amphibian populations, the present study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of tree frogs to a common pesticide, dimethoate. Our study reports the effects of dimethoate on 21 st - and 25 th -stage Hyla arborea larvae under standardized laboratory conditions in an acute toxicity test using the static system. Specimens used for testing were obtained

  10. Monoterpene indole alkaloids from the twigs of Kopsia arborea.

    PubMed

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Raksat, Achara; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2014-10-01

    The phytochemistry of Kopsia arborea Blume has received considerable attention, which has resulted in the isolation of a number of new unusual indole alkaloids with intriguing structures. In this study, a new eburnane-type alkaloid, phutdonginin (1), together with eight known alkaloids: 19-OH-(-)- eburnamonine (2), melodinine E (3), kopsinine (4), kopsilongine (5), kopsamine (6), (-)-methylenedioxy-1 1,12-kopsinaline (7), decarbomethoxykopsiline (8), and vincadifformine (9), were isolated from the twigs of K. arborea. Their structures were characterized extensively by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS. All compounds were submitted to TLC screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Only kopsamine and decarbomethoxykopsiline showed AChE inhibition with MIR values of 12.5 and 6.25 ?g, respectively, compared with galanthamine (positive control, 0.004 ?g). In addition, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited moderate antibacterial activity against E. coli TISTR 780 with the MIC value of 32 .g/mL. PMID:25522533

  11. Nine microsatellite loci developed from the octocoral, Paragorgia arborea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coykendall, Dolly K.; Morrison, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    Paragorgia arborea, or bubblegum coral, occurs in continental slope habitats worldwide, which are increasingly threatened by human activities such as energy development and fisheries practices. From 101 putative loci screened, nine microsatellite markers were developed from samples taken from Baltimore canyon in the western North Atlantic Ocean. The number of alleles ranged from two to thirteen per locus and each displayed equilibrium. These nuclear resources will help further research on population connectivity in threatened coral species where mitochondrial markers are known to lack fine-scale genetic diversity.

  12. Monthly variation in the chemical composition of Eisenia arborea J.E. Areschoug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Hernández-Carmona; Silvia Carrillo-Domínguez; Dora Luz Arvizu-Higuera; Y. Elizabeth Rodríguez-Montesinos; J. Iván Murillo-Álvarez; Mauricio Muñoz-Ochoa; Rosa María Castillo-Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    The brown alga Eisenia arborea is the second most abundant brown alga along the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. Samples of E. arborea were collected in Bahía Asunción, BCS, over 10 months. Chemical composition was analyzed from dried alga (%, dw): moisture\\u000a (10.34%), protein (9.44%), ash (24.77%), lipids (0.60%), fiber (5.22%), and carbohydrates (49%). Gross energy was

  13. Extraocular control of photorefractoriness in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1989-07-01

    Photorefractoriness, a reversible state of unresponsiveness to daylengths of gonadostimulatory duration, terminates seasonal breeding in many photoperiodic species of birds. Whether the eyes are components of the mechanism that triggers photorefractoriness is an important, but heretofore unresolved, question. Although a role for extraocular photoreception in the mechanism of photoinduced gonadal growth is well documented, the eyes may be important in the mechanism of photorefractoriness if, as some evidence suggests, they are gonadoinhibitory. With American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), I here confirm that the absence of eyes does not impede photoinduced testicular growth and establish that an extraocular mechanism mediates the transition from photosensitivity to photorefractoriness: Tree sparrows blinded by bilateral ocular enucleation, when photosensitivity to long days or by miniature self-powered lights implanted atop the skull, showed marked testicular growth and then, as evidenced by spontaneous testicular regression, became photorefractory, as did sighted controls. PMID:2804201

  14. Dracaena arborea alleviates ultra-structural spermatogenic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a common complication in diabetic men and experimental animals, mainly due to loss of germ cells by apoptotic cell death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dracaena arborea in streptozotocin-induced ultra-structural spermatogenic alterations in Wistar rats. Methods Diabetic animals were orally treated with Millipore water (10?ml/kg), sildenafil citrate (1.44?mg/kg) or Dracaena arborea aqueous (500?mg/kg) and ethanol (100?mg/kg) extracts for three weeks. A group of non diabetic rats received Millipore water (10?ml/kg) and served as healthy control group. Blood glucose was monitored at the beginning and the end of the study. One day after the last treatment, animals were sacrificed and the testes immediately removed were morphologically observed and prepared for electron microscopy analysis of spermatogenesis. Results Our results showed that Dracaena arborea was devoid of any anti-hyperglycemic activity. In the untreated diabetic rats, hyperglycemia severely damaged the testes morphology as well as the spermatogenic process as evidenced by the: thickness of basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule; mitochondria alteration; abnormal spermatocyte cells displaying polymorphous nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis; and disorganization and degeneration of sperm germ cells. Administration of sildenafil citrate and Dracaena arborea extracts to the diabetic rats improved testes morphology and reversed, although not completely, the impairment of spermatogenesis; this alleviating effect was more pronounced in animals treated with the aqueous extract (500?mg/kg) of Dracaena arborea. Conclusion Dracaena arborea improves testes morphology and restores spermatogenesis in type 1 diabetic rats, without having major anti-hyperglycemic properties. These effects could be attributed to saponins, flavonoids, phenols and sterols revealed in this plant, which could be a useful component in the treatment of diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction. PMID:23548080

  15. Estimating population size in the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea ) using individual recognition and chorus counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Pellet; Véronique Helfer; Glenn Yannic

    2007-01-01

    Chorus counts are widely used to assess population abundance in breeding anurans. It is however unclear how such counts translate into true population sizes. We monitored chorus activity in two populations of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) over three years, while simultaneously conducting a capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study on breeding males. Three to four capture sessions were made each year,

  16. Somatic hybrid plants between the forage legumes Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborea L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nenz; F. Pupilli; F. Damiani; S. Arcioni

    1996-01-01

    Interspecific somatic hybrid plants were obtained by symmetrical electrofusion of mesophyll protoplasts of Medicago sativa with callus protoplasts of Medicago arborea. Somatic hybrid calli were picked manually from semi-solid culture medium after they were identified by their dual color in fluorescent light. Twelve putative hybrid calli were selected and one of them regenerated plants. The morphogenesis of the somatic hybrid

  17. The thyroid and photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Wilson; B. D. Reinert

    1993-01-01

    To explore the role of the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), the effects of (1) thyroxine administered in drinking water to thyroid-intact photosensitive or photorefractory birds, and (2) radiothyroidectomy before and after photostimulation and during photorefractoriness were examined. Chronic administration of pharmacological doses of thyroxine induced testicular growth and

  18. A STUDY OF FASTING IN TREE SPARROWS (SPIZELLA ARBOREA) AND DARK-EYED

    E-print Network

    A STUDY OF FASTING IN TREE SPARROWS (SPIZELLA ARBOREA) AND DARK-EYED JUNCOS (JUNCO HYEMALIS-eyed Juncos(]uncohyemalis)and Tree Sparrows(Spizellaarborea)differ in the extent for prolongedperiodsor stormsprevent feed- ing. Like many other speciesthatwinter in the north-temperatezone, juncos

  19. Time of Thyroidectomy Variably Affects Seasonality in Female American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred E Wilson; Bryan D Reinert

    1999-01-01

    Female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were injected with Na131I before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation in order to study the effect of time of thyroidectomy on three components of seasonality: thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt. Thyroidectomy before or at the onset of photostimulation abolished all components of seasonality; birds exhibited only minor thyroid-independent

  20. The Thyroid and the Hypothalamus–Pituitary–Ovarian Axis in American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan D. Reinert; Fred E. Wilson

    1996-01-01

    Prompted by evidence of a linkage between the thyroid gland and seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we measured circulating T4(L-thyroxine), hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone, variant I), pituitary and plasma LH (luteinizing hormone), and ovarian mass in euthyroid females moved from short to long days. Our purpose was to correlate temporal changes in T4and cGnRH-I

  1. Hypothalamic neurosecretion and photoinduced testicular growth in the tree sparrow, Spizella arborea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred E. Wilson; G. Roger Hands

    1968-01-01

    To assess the role of the hypothalamic neurosecretory system in the mechanism of photoperiodic control of testicular growth in Spizella arborea, we have examined the effect of (1) photostimulation on the density of paraldehyde-fuchsin-stainable (PAF+) material in the neurovascular zone of the median eminence, and (2) interruption of the hypothalamo-hypophysial (neurosecretory) tract on the photoperiodic testicular response. Birds were captured

  2. Stem elongation and runnering in the mutant strawberry, Fragaria vesca L. ArboreaStaudt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Guttridge

    1973-01-01

    The long-stemmed strawberry mutant Fragaria vesca arboreaStaudt (arb\\/arb) was crossed with a non-runnering form (r\\/r) of everbearing strawberry F. vesca semperflorensDuch. and the four recessive everbearing segregants were identified (arb\\/arb, r\\/r), (arb\\/arb, +\\/+), (+, r\\/r) and (+, +). The longstemmed segregants runnered even when the dominant gene for runnering was absent. The morphological similarity between the mutant arb\\/arb and the

  3. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V H

    2014-01-01

    Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100?g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32?mg and 102.85?mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8?mg Iron, and 121 and 325?mg phosphorus in 100?g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85?Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the water chestnut kernel, Trapa bispinosa are reported. In this paper, the recent reports on nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of Trapa bispinosa Roxb, as a medicinal and nutritional food, are reviewed. PMID:24669216

  4. Affinity of Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea extracts on different cerebral receptors.

    PubMed

    Nencini, Cristina; Cavallo, Federica; Bruni, Giancarlo; Capasso, Anna; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Giorgi, Giorgio; Micheli, Lucia

    2006-05-24

    Iresine herbstii Hook. (Amaranthaceae) and Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerheim (Solanaceae) are used in the northern Peruvian Andes for magic-therapeutical purposes. The traditional healers use Iresine herbstii with the ritual aim to expel bad spirits from the body. Furthermore, Iresine herbstii was used in association with other plants, such as Trichocereus pachanoi Britt. et Rose, for divination, to diagnose diseases, and to take possession of another identity. Also, species of Brugmansia have been reported to be used during ritual practices for magical and curative purposes. Given the above evidence, the aim of the present study is to evaluate if the central effects of Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea could be associated with interaction with SNC receptors. Two Iresine herbstii extracts (methanolic and aqueous) and one Brugmansia arborea aqueous extract were tested for in vitro affinity on 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), D1, D2, alpha(1), and alpha(2) receptors by radioligand binding assays. The biological materials for binding assay (cerebral cortex) were taken from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The extracts affinity for receptors is definite as inhibition percentage of radioligand/receptor binding and measured as the radioactivity of remaining complex radioligand/receptor. The data obtained for Iresine extracts have shown a low affinity for the 5-HT(1A) receptor and no affinity for 5-HT(2A) receptor. Otherwise the methanolic extract showed affinity for 5-HT(2C) receptor (IC(50): 34.78 microg/ml) and for D1 receptor (IC(50): 19.63 microg/ml), instead the Iresine aqueous extract displayed a lower affinity for D1 (48.3% at the maximum concentration tested) and a higher value of affinity for D2 receptors (IC(50): 32.08 microg/ml). The Brugmansia aqueous extract displayed affinity for D1 receptors (IC(50): 17.68 microg/ml), D2 receptors (IC(50): 15.95 microg/ml) and weak affinity for the serotoninergic receptors. None of the three extracts showed relevant affinity to the alpha(1), and alpha(2) receptors. The results of our experiments indicate that Iresine herbstii methanolic extract was able to interact with the central 5-HT(2C) and D1 receptors and Iresine herbstii aqueous extract showed affinity for D2 receptors, thus confirming their ritual use. Instead Brugmansia arborea was able to interact only with the central dopamine receptors tested. Parallel studies are currently in progress for evaluating the extracts affinity and active components towards these and other receptor types (GABAergic). PMID:16406412

  5. Free and Bound Volatile Chemicals in Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Yang, Lili; Li, Jingming; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) is a popular and desirable fruit that is widely cultivated in China. Despite its popularity, the free volatile chemicals and glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) of mulberry have been minimally studied. To this end, we have investigated these compounds in 4 mulberry cultivars via solid phase extraction (SPE) and headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 55 free volatile chemicals and 57 GBVs were identified and quantified. In 3 of the cultivars ("YFS," "T10," and "D10"), the GBVs were found in higher amounts than their free counterparts, corresponding to a ratio of 1.2 to 1.8. The characteristic aromas were determined by their odor activity values (OAVs) and by generating an aroma series (AS). A total of 20 volatile compounds had OAVs ? 1.0. In particular, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-nonenal, and eugenol had relatively high OAVs and were considered to be the key aromas contributing to the mulberry flavor. Consequently, mulberry was characterized by a variety of herbaceous scents having a background of sweet, spicy, fruity, and floral notes. The free volatiles exhibited strong herbaceous notes, whereas the GBVs were responsible for the sweet and spicy qualities of the fruit. Based on our results, 2 cultivars ("YFS" and "D10") are proposed to be good candidates suitable for the further development of mulberry-based food products due to their complex and desirable aromas. PMID:25817411

  6. Antiinflammatory effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, and its active principles.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Y

    1990-04-01

    The rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, are used in Indonesian folk medicine as cholagogues, aromatic stomachics, analgesics, a rheumatic remedy, etc. The present study was carried out to elucidate the antiinflammatory effect of the methanol extract obtained from these rhizomes and its active principles. The methanol extract was partitioned between ether and water, and then the ether-soluble fraction was extracted with n-hexane. The n-hexane-soluble fraction was chromatographed (fr. I-IV), fr. II was rechromatographed (fr. V-VII), and then fr. V was rechromatographed (fr. VIII-X) by silica gel column chromatography. The antiinflammatory activity of these fractions was investigated on carrageenin-induced edema in rats and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability as well as the writhing symptom in mice. The methanol extract (p.o.) showed both an antiinflammatory activity and an analgesic activity and these activities shifted successively to the ether-soluble fraction, the n-hexane-soluble fraction, fr. II, V and IX. The chemical structure of fr. IX was identified as germacrone. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory action of Curcuma xanthorrhiza is the result of the germacrone that it contains. PMID:2379278

  7. A proteomic analysis of Curcuma comosa Roxb. rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The similarly in plant physiology and the difficulty of plant classification, in some medicinal plant species, especially plants of the Zingiberaceae family, are a major problem for pharmacologists, leading to mistaken use. To overcome this problem, the proteomic base method was used to study protein profiles of the plant model, Curcuma comosa Roxb., which is a member of the Zingiberaceae and has been used in traditional Thai medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of postpartum uterine bleeding. Results Due to the complexity of protein extraction from this plant, microscale solution-phase isoelectric focusing (MicroSol-IEF) was used to enrich and improve the separation of Curcuma comosa rhizomes phenol-soluble proteins, prior to resolving and analyzing by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identification by tandem mass spectrometry. The protein patterns showed a high abundance of protein spots in the acidic range, including three lectin proteins. The metabolic and defense enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase, that are associated with antioxidant activity, were mainly found in the basic region. Furthermore, cysteine protease was found in this plant, as had been previously reported in other Zingiberaceae plants. Conclusion This report presents the protein profiles of the ginger plant, Curcuma comosa. Several interesting proteins were identified in this plant that may be used as a protein marker and aid in identifying plants of the Zingiberaceae family. PMID:21801377

  8. Estrogenic activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from curcuma xanthorrhiza ROXB.

    PubMed

    Anggakusuma; Yanti; Lee, Myoungsu; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2009-11-01

    Plant-derived estrogen-like compounds, or phytoestrogens, are given much attention due to their potential therapeutic use. In this study, xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ROXB. (Zingiberaceae), was evaluated for its estrogenic activity. It has been known that compounds acting as ligands for estrogen receptors (ERs) are considered to possess estrogenic activity. Therefore, the Gal-4/ER transactivation assay in transiently transfected African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells was used to examine the estrogenic activity of xanthorrhizol. Both subtypes of ERs, ERalpha and ERbeta, were involved in this assay. Further transactivation assays and pS2 mRNA analysis were also conducted in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer (MCF-7). Our results showed that xanthorrhizol significantly increased Gal-4/ER luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner and induced the endogenous ER-estrogen response element (ERE) interaction in MCF-7 cells. Xanthorrhizol also significantly enhanced the expression of the pS2 gene in MCF-7 cells. In contrast, treatment using ICI 182780, an ER antagonist, suppressed all activities induced by xanthorrhizol, indicating ER-dependant activities were involved. These results suggest that xanthorrhizol possesses estrogenic activity and its estrogenic effects are mediated by estrogen-induced gene expression. PMID:19881304

  9. Comparison of habitat-isolation parameters in relation to fragmented distribution patterns in the tree frog ( Hyla arborea )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire C. Vos; Anton H. P. Stumpel

    1996-01-01

    The distribution pattern of the tree frog (Hyla arborea) in an intensively used agricultural landscape in Zealand Flanders, was analyzed for effects of habitat fragmentation. The logistic regression models showed that the chance that a pond (potential reproduction site) was occupied by tree frogs depended on three isolation factors. The density of ponds within 750 m of the occupied pond

  10. Comparison of habitat-isolation parameters in relation to fragmented distribution patterns in the tree frog (Hyla arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire C; Anton H. P. Stumpel

    1995-01-01

    The distribution pattern of the tree frog (Hyla arborea) in an intensively used agricultural landscape in Zealand Flanders, was analyzed for effects of habitat fragmentation. The logistic regression models showed at a pond (potential reproduction site) was occupied by tree frogs depended on three isola- tion factors. The density of ponds within 750 m of the occupied pond was higher

  11. Corticosterone Treatment Has No Effect on Reproductive Hormones or Aggressive Behavior in Free-living Male Tree Sparrows, Spizella arborea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee B. Astheimer; William A. Buttemer; John C. Wingfield

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effect of corticosterone on plasma levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and luteinizing hormone) and territorial defense behavior in male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea. Birds receiving Silastic implants filled with corticosterone (B) had significantly higher plasma levels of B than control birds, which received empty implants, and exhibited pectoral muscle wastage and a decrease in body mass.

  12. Kopsiyunnanines J1 and J2, new strychnos-type homo-monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Kopsia arborea.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Koyama, Tetsuya; Wu, Yuqiu; Kogure, Noriyuki; Zhang, Rongping; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    Two new indole alkaloids, kopsiyunnanines J1 and J2, were isolated from Yunnan Kopsia arborea, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Kopsiyunnanines J1 and J2 are unprecedented Strychnos-type indole alkaloids having an additional C1 unit in the secologanin moiety of the molecule. PMID:25920218

  13. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC??)?=?22.44 ?g/mL; LC?? 40.65 ?g/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC???=?25.77 ?g/mL; LC?? 45.98 ?g/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC???=?27.83 ?g/mL; LC?? 48.92 ?g/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. PMID:25666372

  14. Essential Oils of Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. A New Report from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Choudhury; Anil C. Ghosh; Mina Choudhury; Piet A. Leclercq

    1997-01-01

    Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. (Lauraceae) is a “muga” silk worm fodder tree in Northeast India, with the local name “sualu.” The oils of this species, obtained by steam distillation of the fresh fruits, flowers and bark, were examined by high resolution GC and GC\\/MS for the first time. From the more than 50 compounds separated by GC, about 40 to

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, M.; Kannabiran, K.

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus bengalensis and Pterocarpus marsupium roxb was evaluated against pathogenic bacteria Stahylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia in an in vitro condition. Aqueous extracts from roots of H. indicus and barks of F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb were tested for antimicrobial activity using the zone of inhibition method and also screened for phytochemicals. The aqueous extract of P. marsupium roxb inhibited growth of bacteria with the minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.04 mg to 0.08 mg and extracts of F. bengalensis and H. indicus showed inhibition at the range of 0.04 mg to 0.1 mg against the bacteria tested. The susceptibility of bacterial pathogens was in the order of S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was synergistic with antibiotics tested. Results of the present study suggest that the aqueous extracts of H. indicus, F. bengalensis and P. marspium roxb has significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:20502584

  16. Antihyperglycemic effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Chiabchalard, Anchalee; Nooron, Nattakarn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading chronic diseases worldwide. In patients with poor glycemic control, high blood glucose level may lead to other life-threatening complications. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. (PA) leaves are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of crude extract from PA leaves on blood glucose level and the hypoglycemic mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to drink PA tea (test-group) or hot water (control group) 15 min after glucose loading (75 g) in a standard oral glucose tolerance test. To study hypoglycemic mechanisms, PA leaves were extracted using two different methods. Method 1; dried PA leaves were extracted with distilled water at 90°C for 15 min, and method 2; dried PA leaves were extracted with 95% ethanol. Both PA extracts were tested for ?-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, insulin stimulation, and glucose uptake stimulation. Results: The average of blood glucose level in the control group was 5.55 ± 0.98 mmol/l, while in PA treated group was 6.16 ± 0.79 mmol/l which were statistically different (P < 0.001). The results of antihyperglycemic mechanism showed that PA extracts, prepared both methods, could inhibit ?-glucosidase enzyme and induce insulin production in rat pancreatic cell (RINm5F) in dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The knowledge gained from this research can be used as a basis for a new drug discovery for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25709220

  17. Time of thyroidectomy variably affects seasonality in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1999-06-01

    Female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were injected with Na131I before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation in order to study the effect of time of thyroidectomy on three components of seasonality: thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt. Thyroidectomy before or at the onset of photostimulation abolished all components of seasonality; birds exhibited only minor thyroid-independent photoperiodic ovarian growth. Thyroidectomy on day 7 of photostimulation blocked the transition from photosensitivity to photorefractoriness; although birds showed thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, they neither exhibited ovarian regression nor initiated postnuptial molt. Thyroidectomy on day 14, 21, or 28 of photostimulation had no remarkable effect on any component of seasonality. We conclude that separate mechanisms control photoperiodic ovarian growth and photorefractoriness/molt and that, early during photostimulation, the thyroid has a codependent role in programming female tree sparrows for vernal as well as autumnal seasonal events. PMID:10336830

  18. Photosystem II photochemistry and physiological parameters of three fodder shrubs, Nitraria retusa , Atriplex halimus and Medicago arborea under salt stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fayçal Boughalleb; Mounir Denden; Bechir Ben Tiba

    2009-01-01

    Nitraria retusa and Atriplex halimus (xero-halophytes) plants were grown in the range 0–800 mM NaCl while Medicago arborea (glycophyte) in 0–300 mM NaCl. Salt stress caused a marked decrease in osmotic potential and a significant accumulation of\\u000a Na+ and Cl? in leaves of both species. Moderate salinity had a stimulating effect on growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration and stomatal conductance for

  19. Thyroid Dysfunction and Thyroxine-Dependent Programming of Photoinduced Ovarian Growth in American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan D. Reinert; Fred E. Wilson

    1996-01-01

    The time course of thyroid dysfunction after injecting 0.30 mCi Na131I was charted in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) transferred to long days on Day 0 and challenged with 30 ?g bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone on Postinjection Days 4, 7, 46, and 105. Serum T4(L-thyroxine) was not detectable in thyroidectomized birds, indicating complete thyroid dysfunction by Day 4 and no

  20. Analytical study of Kuberaksha/Kantaki Karanja Patra Churna [Caesalpinia Bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Goli Penchala; Trimurtulu, G.; Reddy, K. N.; Naidu, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Kuberaksha) is an Ayurvedic herb used in the management of malaria, liver disorders, worms, edematous conditions, etc. Based on classical Ayurvedic textual indications and recent pharmacological studies, its leaf powder was selected for studying its effect clinically on filaria. Before conducting the clinical trails, this leaf powder was subjected to certain chemical studies to find the pH, ash value, extractive values, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), etc. for standardization of the drug. PMID:22131720

  1. Sterculia villosa Roxb — A potential source of wood-fibre for pulp and paper making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Ghosh; P. P. Baruah

    1997-01-01

    Sterculia Villosa Roxb, is one of the fast-growing plant species abundantly available in the North Eastern Region of India. It is a medium-sized tree with grey bark about 2.50–2.65 cm thick in the mature plant. A full-grown tree attains a height of about 15–18 metres with a girth about 1.4–1.6 metres. The average wood fibre length is 1.2 mm. A

  2. Propagation of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. through in vitro shoot proliferation from cotyledonary nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Pradhan; S. Kar; S. Pattnaik; P. K. Chand

    1998-01-01

    A protocol is presented for micropropagation of an economically important timber-yielding forest tree, Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Sissoo). Multiple shoots were induced from cotyledonary nodes derived from 1-week-old axenic seedlings on Murashige\\u000a and Skoog's medium containing either N\\u000a 6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (Kn), isopentenyladenine (2iP) or thidiazuron (TDZ), with BA being the most effective growth\\u000a regulator. High-frequency shoot proliferation (99%) and maximum

  3. Efficient plant regeneration from cell suspension-derived callus of East Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Pradhan; S. Pattnaik; M. Dwari; S. N. Patnaik; P. K. Chand

    1998-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for the establishment of a proliferating cell suspension culture of East Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.) and efficient plant regeneration from callus derived from such cultures. Callus was induced from hypocotyl segments\\u000a derived from 1-week-old axenic seedlings on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) containing 10.8 ?M naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2.2 ?M benzyladenine (BA). Calli

  4. The thyroid and the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

    1996-07-01

    Prompted by evidence of a linkage between the thyroid gland and seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we measured circulating T4 (L-thyroxine), hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone, variant I), pituitary and plasma LH (luteinizing hormone), and ovarian mass in euthyroid females moved from short to long days. Our purpose was to correlate temporal changes in T4 and cGnRH-I with each other and with pituitary and plasma LH and ovarian mass. T4 increased early during photostimulation and peaked at Week 1 or 2 on 20L:4D (20 hr light:4 hr dark per day). Hypothalamic cGnRH-I also increased during photostimulation and peaked between Weeks 2 and 4. Pituitary and plasma LH peaked at Weeks 4 and 1, respectively, and ovarian mass increased significantly by Week 6. In a separate study, we charted the progression of postnuptial molt. Molt of the primary remiges began at Week 9, proceeded rapidly through Week 15, and was complete by Week 18. In view of a demonstrated role for the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in female tree sparrows and the time-dependent effects of thyroidectomy after photostimulation in male tree sparrows, the observation that circulating T4 increases early during photostimulation suggests the possibility of a causal relationship between the thyroid gland and the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, hence a thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:8812334

  5. Extraocular control of seasonal reproduction in female tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1990-03-01

    The work reported here explored extraocular control of seasonal reproduction in a photoperiodic species. Photosensitive female tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were subjected to bilateral or unilateral ocular enucleation or to sham operation and exposed to a photoregimen designed to stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, to induce photorefractoriness, and to restore photosensitivity. As revealed by plasma LH profiles constructed from measurements taken over 181 days, neither bilateral nor unilateral ocular enucleation had a substantive effect on photoinduced LH release, on the development of photorefractoriness, or on the recovery of photosensitivity. In a related experiment, photorefractory sighted females were implanted epicranially with miniature self-powered lights (SPLs) or with non-emitting helium blanks (HBs) and transferred to short days. After 8 weeks, SPLs and HBs were removed, and birds were challenged with long days. As indicated by plasma LH and ovarian responses to the challenge, previously HB-implanted birds had regained photosensitivity, but previously SPL-implanted birds remained photorefractory. When interpreted within the context of the effects of blinding, these findings suggest that an extraocular encephalic mechanism maintains photorefractoriness. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that photoinduced LH release and the biannual transitions between photosensitivity and photorefractoriness are controlled by an extraocular mechanism(s). PMID:2338219

  6. Topical Antinociceptive Effect of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker on Acute Corneal Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Inocêncio Leite, Laura Hévila; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Silva Coutinho, Thales; de Sousa, Severino Denício Gonçalves; Sampaio, Renata Souza; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the possible topical antinociceptive activity of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker essential oil (EOVA) and to clarify the underlying mechanism, using the acute model of chemical (eye wiping) nociception in mice. EOVA (25 to 200?mg/kg; p.o. and topical) evidenced significant antinociception against chemogenic pain in the test model of formalin-induced neuroinflammatory pain. Local application of 5?M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye produced a significant nociceptive behavior, characterized by eye wiping. The number of eye wipes was counted during the first 30?s. EOVA (25, 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg; p.o. and topical) significantly decreased the number of eye wipes. Naloxone, yohimbine, L-NAME, theophylline, glibenclamide, and ruthenium red had no effect on the antinociceptive effect of EOVA. However, ondansetron, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA), capsazepine, prazosin, and atropine prevented the antinociception induced by EOVA. These results indicate the topical antinociceptive effect of EOVA and showed that 5-HT, ?1, TRPV1, and central muscarinic receptors might be involved in the antinociceptive effect of EOVA in the acute corneal model of pain in mice. PMID:24660017

  7. In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (Asteraceae) Baker

    PubMed Central

    Colares, Aracélio Viana; Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    The search for new immunopharmacological chemical agents to treat various diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, such as leishmaniasis, for example, has led to the exploration of potential products from plant species and their main active ingredients. Antimonial drugs are the current treatment for leishmaniasis. These drugs cause major side effects and frequent discontinuation of treatment. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (VAEO) and its major compound ?-bisabolol against Leishmania amazonensis. The essential oil and ?-bisabolol showed activity against promastigotes (IC50 7.35 and 4.95??g/mL resp.) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 12.58 and 10.70??g/mL, resp.). Neither product showed any cytotoxicity on treated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis of promastigotes incubated with VAEO or ?-bisabolol at 30??g/mL, showed morphological changes with the accumulation of vesicles electrodense lipid inclusions. The results give evidence that both VAEO and ?-bisabolol have potential as new therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis. PMID:23935675

  8. Multimodality: a way to cope with road traffic noise? The case of European treefrog (Hyla arborea).

    PubMed

    Troïanowski, Mathieu; Melot, Geoffrey; Lengagne, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    In the last decades, traffic noise has become a new challenge for efficient animal communication and several studies suggest that it is involved in population declines. Although poorly investigated in a traffic noise context, communication is generally multimodal, which can be viewed as a way to improve communication efficiency by allowing shift from a sensory modality to another when one modality suffers from noise. In the present study, we investigated multimodal shift in the European treefrog (Hyla arborea), a species using both acoustic and visual cues during male quality assessment task performed by females. Females were used in a discrimination task in two environmental conditions: with or without traffic noise. In traffic noise conditions, we showed that females' reliance on acoustic signal embedded in noise pollution did not decrease in favour of visual signals, therefore showing that females do not shift between modalities in response to traffic noise. Although, we did not evidence multimodal shift in our study, many species facing traffic noise present multimodal communication, and should be investigated to evaluate the importance of multimodal shift as a way to cope with traffic noise pollution. PMID:25151940

  9. Anatomical changes induced by increasing NaCl salinity in three fodder shrubs, Nitraria retusa , Atriplex halimus and Medicago arborea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fayçal Boughalleb; Mounir Denden; Bechir Ben Tiba

    2009-01-01

    Nitraria retusa and Atriplex halimus (xero-halophytes) plants were grown in the range 0–800 mM NaCl while Medicago arborea (glycophyte) in 0–300 mM NaCl. Plants were harvested after 120 days of salt-treatment. The present study was designed to\\u000a study the effect of salinity on root, stem and leaf anatomy, water relationship, and plant growth in greenhouse conditions.\\u000a Salinity induced anatomical changes in the roots,

  10. Isolation and identification of new phytoconstituents from the fruit extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopal; Chauhan, Baby; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) (large cardamom), cultivated in the northern Himalayas, are used to treat stomach disorders, pulmonary diseases and liver complaints. Phytochemical investigation of the fruits led to the isolation of four new chemical compounds characterised as geranil-3(10)-en-9-olyl octadec-9-enoate, geranil-3(10)-en-9-carboxyl-?-D-arabinopyranoside, geranilan-9-carboxy-?-L-arabinopyranoside and stigmast-5-en-3?-ol-3?-D-arabinopyranosyl-2'-(3?-methoxy) benzoate-3'-octadec-9?,12?,15?-trienoate, along with the known compounds oleodilinolein and glyceryl trilinoleniate on the basis of spectral data analysis. PMID:24274834

  11. The thyroid and photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1993-01-01

    To explore the role of the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), the effects of (1) thyroxine administered in drinking water to thyroid-intact photosensitive or photorefractory birds, and (2) radiothyroidectomy before and after photostimulation and during photorefractoriness were examined. Chronic administration of pharmacological doses of thyroxine induced testicular growth and usually regression in initially photosensitive birds held on short or intermediate daylengths. Some thyroxine-treated birds with regressed testes were absolutely photorefractory, but most remained photosensitive. Exogenous thyroxine never induced testicular growth in photorefractory birds moved to short days, though it often impeded, and sometimes even blocked, the recovery of photosensitivity. Although circumstantial, these effects of exogenous thyroxine are consistent with an hypothesis that assigns to thyroid hormones two roles--one stimulatory and the other inhibitory--in the control of seasonal reproduction. Radiothyroidectomy before photostimulation inhibited (but did not prevent) photoinduced testicular growth, blocked spontaneous testicular regression, suppressed molt, and prevented photorefractoriness. Moreover, as demonstrated by testicular growth after thyroxine replacement therapy, radiothyroidectomy during photorefractoriness later restored photosensitivity despite continued photostimulation. Thus, euthyroidism is an essential condition for maximizing (but not for initiating) photoinduced testicular growth and for triggering and maintaining photorefractoriness in photostimulated tree sparrows. However, when performed early during photostimulation, radiothyroidectomy neither immediately induced nor later blocked spontaneous testicular regression. Thus, endogenous thyroid hormones and long days may interact during a critical period to program a sequence of physiological events that plays out as photorefractoriness in chronically photostimulated birds. Such an organizational event cannot be permanent, for seasonal reproduction is episodic and its control mechanism necessarily cyclic. Because thyroidectomy simulated the well-known restorative effect of short days (and exogenous thyroxine impeded it), short days may dissipate photorefractoriness by creating a milieu wherein thyroid hormones are deficient or inactive. PMID:8151015

  12. Structure and biochemical properties of starch from an unconventional source—Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Policegoudra; S. M. Aradhya

    2008-01-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Its rhizomes are morphologically resemblant to ginger (Zingiber officinale) but endowed with raw mango flavor. Mango ginger is largely used in the preparation of pickles. Due to its exotic flavor and medicinal property, they are also used in the preparation of special foods, beverages and pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This

  13. Leaf mineral concentrations of Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis growing in the proximity of a natural CO2 spring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEP P ENUELAS; I OLANDA F ILELLA; R OBERTO T OGNETTI

    2001-01-01

    Leaf mineral concentrations of co-occurring Erica arborea, Juniperus communis and Myrtus communis were measured at bimonthly intervals throughout a year in a natural CO2 spring and in a nearby control site with similar soil chemistry in a Mediterranean environment. There were different responses to the elevated (CO2) (c. 700 m LL -1) of the spring site plants depending on the

  14. Vocalizations match auditory processing in the American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea), dark-eyed junco (Junco hyelmalis), and house finch (Carpodacous mexicanus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren E Brierley

    2011-01-01

    We compared the auditory processing and vocalizations of the American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea), dark-eyed junco ( Junco hyelmalis), and house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) to determine the degree to which vocal signals and auditory systems match in these species. We used the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and the frequency following response (FFR) to determine the ABR auditory thresholds (the lowest

  15. Uptake of CeO2 nanoparticles and its effect on growth of Medicago arborea In vitro plantlets.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Garay, Aranzazu; Pintos, Beatriz; Manzanera, Jose Antonio; Lobo, Carmen; Villalobos, Nieves; Martín, Luisa

    2014-10-01

    The present study analyzes some effects of nano-CeO2 particles on the growth of in vitro plantlets of Medicago arborea when the nanoceria was added to the culture medium. Various concentrations of nano-CeO2 and bulk ceric oxide particles in suspension form were introduced to the agar culture medium to compare the effects of nanoceria versus ceric oxide bulk material. Germination rate and shoot dry weight were not affected by the addition of ceric oxide to the culture media. Furthermore, no effects were observed on chlorophyll content (single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) measurements) due to the presence of either nano- or micro-CeO2 in the culture medium. When low concentrations of nanoceria were added to the medium, the number of trifoliate leaves and the root length increased but the root dry weight decreased. Also the values of maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F m) showed a significant decrease. Dark-adapted minimum fluorescence (F 0) significantly increased in the presence of 200 mg L(-1) nanoceria and 400 mg L(-1) bulk material. Root tissues were more sensitive to nanoceria than were the shoots at lower concentrations of nanoceria. A stress effect was observed on M. arborea plantlets due to cerium uptake. PMID:25104098

  16. Scaling Erica arborea transpiration from trees up to the stand using auxiliary micrometeorological information in a wax myrtle-tree heath cloud forest (La Gomera, Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2013-09-01

    We investigate evapotranspiration, sap flow and top soil water content variations in a wax myrtle-tree heath ('fayal-brezal' in Spanish) cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands) over a 1-year period. We provide transpiration estimates for one of the representative species, the shrubby needle-like Erica arborea L., present in this relict subtropical forest. An ad hoc tree up to the stand scaling method that combines the sap flow and auxiliary reference evapotranspiration data is illustrated, showing to be useful when sap flow in a limited number of trees has been monitored. Individual daily-based scaling curves of the Gompertz type were necessary to explain the observed sap flow variability in E. arborea during the 1-year period investigated (r(2)???0.953 with mode of r(2)?=?0.9999). The mean daily sap flow of an E. arborea individual amounted to 8.37?±?5.65 kg day(-1) tree(-1), with a maximum of 20.48 kg day(-1) tree(-1), yielding an annual total of 3052.89 kg tree(-1). A comparison of the computed daily transpiration with the continuous micrometeorological time series monitored in the studied plot suggested that solar radiation was the main driving force of transpiration in E. arborea (cross correlation index?=?0.94). Fog may also affect tree transpiration via its reduction of radiation and temperature, such that during foggy periods the mean daily water loss estimate of E. arborea was 5.35?±?4.30 kg day(-1) tree(-1), which sharply contrasted with the 2.4-fold average transpiration values obtained for fog-free days, i.e., 12.81?±?4.33 kg day(-1) tree(-1). The annual water balance rendered a 288 mm year(-1) water input to the forest and evidenced the need for accurately quantifying the contribution of fog water dripping from the canopy. PMID:24072518

  17. Phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies in mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.; Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Jatoi, Shakeel Ahmad; Kikuchi, Akira; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Watanabe, Kazuo N

    2007-06-01

    Curcuma amada Roxb. is an important species known as mango ginger due to its characteristic raw-mango aroma. It has a long history of traditional uses ranging from folk medicine to several culinary preparations. The phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies of C. amada are reviewed. The rhizome is rich in essential oils, and more than 130 chemical constituents with biomedical significance have been isolated from it. Its antibacterial, insecticidal, antifungal and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The conservation of indigenous knowledge by proper documentation is suggested. The chemotaxonomy, allelopathy and genetic diversity of C. amada have not yet been explored, and many such studies are possible. This review was compiled to provide consolidated information covering different aspects of the plant, to provide a basis on which to plan future studies and to promote sustainable use of C. amada. PMID:17397131

  18. Inhibitory effect of panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia panduarata Roxb. on melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Han Kon; Kim, Jin-Woong; Yoon, Ji Hoon; Cho, Yumi; Hwang, Jae Kwan

    2010-11-01

    Hyperpigmentation disorders are associated with abnormal accumulation of melanin pigments, thus melanin synthesis inhibitors have been of great interest as target molecules for cosmetic and medicinal purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effect of panduratin A, isolated from Kaempferia pandurata Roxb., on melanogenesis and its related enzymes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase related protein-2 (TRP-2) in melan-a murine melanocytes. The IC(50) values of panduratin A for melanogenesis and tyrosinase were 9.6 ?m and 8.2 ?m, respectively, while those of arbutin as a positive control were 990 ?m and 660 ?m, respectively. In western blot analysis, panduratin A also significantly decreased tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 protein levels. These results indicate that panduratin A effectively inhibits melanin biosynthesis, thus creating the possibility of developing a new skin-whitening agent. PMID:21031615

  19. Effect of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard against experimentally-induced gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, S S; Santani, D D

    2004-10-01

    Effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of the stem bark of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, have been studied on ethanol, ethanol-indomethacin and pylorus ligated gastric ulcers in experimental animals. Oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract (extract A3) inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol in a dose dependent manner. The protective effect of extract A3 against ethanol induced gastric lesions was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)). Further, extract A3 inhibited increase in vascular permeability due to ethanol administration. Extent of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in animals treated with extract. Extract A3 also inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by pylorus ligation, when administered both orally and intraperitoneally. Moreover, pretreatment with extract A3 increased mucus production and glycoprotein content, which was evident from the rise in mucin activity and TC: PR ratio. PMID:15551386

  20. Protective effect of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. (family: Fabaceae) leaves against experimentally induced diarrhoea and peristalsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-06-20

    Ethnopharmacological relevance:Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. (family: Fabaceae; Indian Rosewood), is used in India, especially in rural communities by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhoea. However, scientific evidence does not exist in any literature to substantiate the claim of therapeutic success of the plant species in diarrhoea. Aim:To study the protective effect of ethanol extract from D. sissoo Roxb. ex DC. leaves (EDSL) against experimentally induced diarrhoea and peristalsis in mice. Materials and METHODS: Castor oil-induced diarrhoea and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4)-induced diarrhoea tests were used to assess the antidiarrhoeal activity of D. sissoo. Gastrointestinal tract transit of charcoal meal test and barium sulphate milk was used to assess the peristalsis activity of the extract, while the acute toxicity study and determination of total phenolics and total flavonoids were carried out using well-established protocols and methods. PMID:23788395

  1. Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M Naveena; S. K Mendiratta; A. S. R Anjaneyulu

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method for improving tenderness and overall qualities of tough buffalo meat using plant proteolytic enzymes from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Their tenderizing efficacy was compared with the most popular enzyme papain. 3×3×3 cm chunks from Biceps femoris muscles of spent Murrah buffaloes (4–5 years age) were marinated

  2. Shoot organogenesis and plantlet regeneration from hypocotyl-derived cell suspensions of a tree legume, Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pattnaik; C. Pradhan; S. K. Naik; P. K. Chand

    2000-01-01

    Summary  A complete and efficient protocol is presented for plant regeneration from cell-suspension cultures of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., an economically important leguminous tree. Factors influencing callus initiation, establishment of cell-suspension\\u000a culture, callus formation from embredded microcolonies, and shoot organogenesis from suspension-derived callus were identified.\\u000a Of the two different auxins tested, callus induction was better on a medium containing naphthalene acetic acid

  3. The emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea as the dominant infecting serovar following the summer of natural disasters in Queensland, Australia 2011.

    PubMed

    Wynwood, S J; Craig, S B; Graham, G C; Blair, B R; Burns, M A; Weier, S L; Collet, T A; McKay, D B

    2014-06-01

    The following research reports the emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea as the dominant infecting serovar following the summer of disasters and the ensuing clean up in Queensland, Australia during 2011. For the 12 month period (1 January to 31 December) L. borgpetersenii serovar Arborea accounted for over 49% of infections. In response to a flooding event public health officials need to issue community wide announcements warning the population about the dangers of leptospirosis and other water borne diseases. Communication with physicians working in the affected community should also be increased to update physicians with information such as clinical presentation of leptospirosis and other waterborne diseases. These recommendations will furnish public health officials with considerations for disease management when dealing with future disaster management programs. PMID:25134896

  4. Mitochondrial apoptosis contributes to the anti-cancer effect of Smilax glabra Roxb.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yujing; Su, Yahui; Qu, Like; Xu, Shuo; Meng, Lin; Cai, Shao-Qing; Shou, Chengchao

    2011-11-30

    Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR), a member of the Smilacaceae family and a rhizome of the Liliaceae plant, has shown anti-inflammation and detoxification properties, and a few studies reported its anti-cancer effect. In this study, we showed that SGR inhibited growth of human breast cancer cell line MCF7, colon carcinoma cell line HT-29, and gastric cancer cell line BGC-823 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SGR could inhibit tumor growth of HT-29 in Balb/c nude mice and murine hepatoma H22 cells in ICR mice. SGR elicited apoptotic cell death, as confirmed by DNA ladder formation, changes in nuclear morphology, and the increased FITC-Annexin-V/PI staining. Permeabilization of mitochondrial membrane (MMP), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevation of intracellular [Ca(2+)], relocation of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase-3 were found to be associated with the initiation of apoptosis by SGR treatment. Using microarray analysis, we found the changes in expression profiles of genes related to apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle control in the cells treated with SGR. Our results demonstrated the mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis by which SGR exerts the anti-cancer effect. PMID:21920417

  5. Screening of molluscicidal strain against Oncomelania hupensis from the rhizosphere of medicinal plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Guo, Danzhao; Chen, Jun; Du, Xiangping; Han, Bangxing

    2010-07-01

    The research aimed to screen and exploit molluscicidal microorganisms against Oncomelania hupensis, from the rhizosphere of medicinal plant, Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and one strain named as SL-30 was obtained with excellent molluscicidal activity. The freeze-dried powder of exocellular broth (EXB) of SL-30 could kill 100% of snails at a concentration of 48 mg/l for a submerged period of 24 h, with stabile molluscicidal activity at a temperature lower than 60°C; furthermore, it could be gradually degraded after exposure to illumination for 15 days. The freeze-dried powder of SL-30's EXB was safe to fresh fish and shrimp, even at a concentration beyond LC(90) of 24-h exposure period. The glycogen and total protein content of soft tissues of snails decreased after treating with SL-30's EXB, and glycogen content's decreasing rate had a linear relationship with molluscicidal activity. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence showed that strain SL-30 had a higher similarity to Aspergillus fumigatus with bootstrap value 98%; accordingly, it was identified as a species of Aspergillus. PMID:20931072

  6. Screening of molluscicidal strain against Oncomelania hupensis from the rhizosphere of medicinal plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Danzhao; Chen, Jun; Du, Xiangping; Han, Bangxing

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to screen and exploit molluscicidal microorganisms against Oncomelania hupensis, from the rhizosphere of medicinal plant, Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and one strain named as SL-30 was obtained with excellent molluscicidal activity. The freeze-dried powder of exocellular broth (EXB) of SL-30 could kill 100% of snails at a concentration of 48 mg/l for a submerged period of 24 h, with stabile molluscicidal activity at a temperature lower than 60°C; furthermore, it could be gradually degraded after exposure to illumination for 15 days. The freeze-dried powder of SL-30’s EXB was safe to fresh fish and shrimp, even at a concentration beyond LC90 of 24-h exposure period. The glycogen and total protein content of soft tissues of snails decreased after treating with SL-30’s EXB, and glycogen content’s decreasing rate had a linear relationship with molluscicidal activity. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence showed that strain SL-30 had a higher similarity to Aspergillus fumigatus with bootstrap value 98%; accordingly, it was identified as a species of Aspergillus. PMID:20931072

  7. Comparison of conventional and non conventional methods of extraction of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

    PubMed

    Devgun, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid H

    2012-01-01

    The renewed interest in plant-derived drugs has led to an increased need for efficient extraction methods. The present investigation was an attempt to evaluate and compare the conventional methods of extraction with non conventional methods of extraction, such as ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methods. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. has been reported to contain bioactive phytochemicals, e.g., pterostilbene (3',5'-dimethoxy-4-stilbenol). The results showed that among the conventional extraction methods, percolation gave the highest yield. The non conventional methods were optimized. The extraction yield was the highest in case of MAE. The phytochemical screening of the extracts indicated similar groups of compounds in all the extracts. The thin layer chromatography showed the presence of pterostilbene in the extracts obtained by using percolation, MAE and UAE. In these extracts the quantification of pterostilbene was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography and the method was validated. The MAE method extracted significantly higher amount of pterostilbene. PMID:22594262

  8. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Effects of Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. in Rats: Involvement of Enzyme Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Jamwal, Rohitash; Dethe, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. (BF) is traditionally used to manage male sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED). Methanol extract of BF (bark) inhibited Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK-II) enzyme activity in vitro with an IC50 of 20.29 ± 1.83??g/mL. The relaxant effect of methanol extract of BF (MEBF) was studied on phenylephrine precontracted corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) isolated from young rats. The effect of MEBF treatment on sexual behaviour of both young (5 month) and aged (24 month) rats was also studied in addition to the influence on smooth muscle, collagen (collagen-I and -III) level in penis, and sperm characteristics of young and aged rats. MEBF relaxed CCSM up to 21.77 ± 2.57% and increased sexual behavior of young and aged rats. This increase in sexual function could be attributed to ROCK-II inhibition and increase in ratio of smooth muscle to collagen level in rat penile tissue. Increased sperm production and decreased defective sperms in young and aged rats corroborate the usefulness of Butea frondosa in male infertility in addition to ED. PMID:24069061

  9. Antibacterial activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lee Young; Shim, Jae-Seok; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-09-01

    Xanthorrhizol, isolated from the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., is a sesquiterpene compound with a molecular weight of 218. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of xanthorrhizol against foodborne pathogens. The antibacterial activity of xanthorrhizol was measured in terms of the MIC and the MBC. MICs and MBCs of xanthorrhizol against Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were 8, 16, 8, 8, 16, 8 microg/ml and 16, 32, 16, 16, 16, 16 microg/ml, respectively. The bactericidal study, as determined by the viable cell count method, revealed that xanthorrhizol treatment at 4 x MIC reduced viable cells by at least 6 to 8 log for all six foodborne pathogens in 4 h. Xanthorrhizol maintained its antibacterial activity after thermal treatments (121 degrees C, 15 min) under various pH ranges (pH 3.0, 7.0, and 11.0). These results strongly suggest that xanthorrhizol, conferring strong antibacterial activity with thermal and pH stability, can be effectively used as a natural preservative to prevent the growth of foodborne pathogens. PMID:18810881

  10. Corticosterone treatment has no effect on reproductive hormones or aggressive behavior in free-living male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea.

    PubMed

    Astheimer, L B; Buttemer, W A; Wingfield, J C

    2000-02-01

    We examined the effect of corticosterone on plasma levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and luteinizing hormone) and territorial defense behavior in male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea. Birds receiving Silastic implants filled with corticosterone (B) had significantly higher plasma levels of B than control birds, which received empty implants, and exhibited pectoral muscle wastage and a decrease in body mass. We evaluated the hormonal and agonistic responses of the two implanted groups of birds using a simulated territorial intrusion (STI) 2 to 4 days after they were implanted. Corticosterone-treated and control birds did not differ in their circulating levels of reproductive hormones or in their behavioral responses to STI (latency to respond to intrusion, number of songs, and closest approach to a decoy and tape recording). Unlike previous studies of north temperate passerines, high physiological levels of exogenous B had no effect either on circulating levels of reproductive hormones or on territorial behaviors associated with breeding. Nonetheless, untreated tree sparrows do mount a robust adrenocortical response, having a two- to fourfold increase in plasma B levels during a 1-h period of capture. Thus, adrenocortical responsiveness is maintained in these birds, but elevated levels of glucocorticoids do not suppress reproductive hormones or associated behaviors. We believe that this hormonal and behavioral refractoriness to glucocorticoids-or uncoupling of the stress response from the reproductive axis-may be advantageous for species having extreme temporal constraints on their breeding schedules. PMID:10712856

  11. Onset of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis following adminstration of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gupta; U. K. Mazumder; D. K. Pal; S. Bhattacharya

    2003-01-01

    The effect of methanolic extract (ME) of Cuscuta reflexa stem Roxb. and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed on the onset of reproductive maturity and the ovarian steroidogenesis was studied by means of biochemical techniques. ME of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Corchorus olitorius seed treatment causes a remarkable delay in sexual maturation as evidenced by the age at vaginal opening and apperance

  12. Screening of selected biological activities of artocarpus lakoocha roxb (moraceae) fruit pericarp.

    PubMed

    Shailendra Kumar, M B; Rakesh Kumar, M C; Bharath, A C; Vinod Kumar, H R; Prashith Kekuda, T R; Nandini, K C; Rakshitha, M N; Raghavendra, H L

    2010-09-01

    Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb (Moraceae) is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Khasi Hills and Western Ghats. Objectives of the present study were to determine antibacterial, antioxidant, anthelmintic and insecticidal efficacy of methanol extract of A. lakoocha fruit pericarp. Antibacterial activity was tested against by Agar well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging ability was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined using adult Indian earthworm. Insecticidal activity was tested against second and third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The extract has shown dose dependent antibacterial, antioxidant, anthelmintic and insecticidal activity. Among bacteria, S. aureus has shown more susceptibility than K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The extract exhibited marked antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH free radical. The IC50 value for extract was found to be 49.42?g/ml. The extract exhibited marked anthelmintic activity by causing paralysis and death of worms and the effect was found to be dose dependent. The extract concentration 100mg/ml has shown marked anthelmintic effect than standard drug. In insecticidal study, the 2(nd) instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than 3(rd) instar larvae. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins and alkaloids. The presence of these phytoconstituents might be responsible for the biological activities of extract tested. The extract could be used to treat free radical damage, bacterial and helmintic infections and to control insect vectors. Further studies on isolation of constituents and their bio-efficacies in vitro and in vivo are under investigation. PMID:24825993

  13. Solirubrobacter phytolaccae sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from roots of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Wei, Linfang; Ouyang, Shan; Wang, Yao; Shen, Xihui; Zhang, Lei

    2014-03-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated GTGR-8(T), which formed white colonies, was isolated from roots of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. collected from Taibai Mountain in Shaanxi Province, north-west China. Strain GTGR-8(T) grew optimally at 28-30 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GTGR-8(T) was a member of the genus Solirubrobacter and was closely related to Solirubrobacter pauli B33D1(T) (98.9% similarity), Solirubrobacter ginsenosidimutans BXN5-15(T) (97.0%) and Solirubrobacter soli Gsoil 355(T) (96.9%). No other recognized bacterial species showed more than 94.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the novel isolate. The only respiratory quinone of strain GTGR-8(T) was MK-7(H4) and the major fatty acids (>5%) were iso-C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c, C17?:?1?8c, C18?:?3?6c (6,9,12) and C17?:?1?6c. The DNA G+C content was 71.0 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness for strain GTGR-8(T) with respect to its closest relatives, S. pauli KCTC 9974(T) and S. ginsenosidimutans KCTC 19420(T), was 52.5 and 24.5%, respectively. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, strain GTGR-8(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Solirubrobacter, for which the name Solirubrobacter phytolaccae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GTGR-8(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2013011(T)?=?KCTC 29190(T)). PMID:24254741

  14. SCREENING OF SELECTED BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ARTOCARPUS LAKOOCHA ROXB (MORACEAE) FRUIT PERICARP

    PubMed Central

    Shailendra Kumar, M. B.; Rakesh Kumar, M. C.; Bharath, A. C.; Vinod Kumar, H. R.; Prashith Kekuda, T. R.; Nandini, K. C.; Rakshitha, M. N.; Raghavendra, H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb (Moraceae) is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Khasi Hills and Western Ghats. Objectives of the present study were to determine antibacterial, antioxidant, anthelmintic and insecticidal efficacy of methanol extract of A. lakoocha fruit pericarp. Antibacterial activity was tested against by Agar well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging ability was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined using adult Indian earthworm. Insecticidal activity was tested against second and third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The extract has shown dose dependent antibacterial, antioxidant, anthelmintic and insecticidal activity. Among bacteria, S. aureus has shown more susceptibility than K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The extract exhibited marked antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH free radical. The IC50 value for extract was found to be 49.42?g/ml. The extract exhibited marked anthelmintic activity by causing paralysis and death of worms and the effect was found to be dose dependent. The extract concentration 100mg/ml has shown marked anthelmintic effect than standard drug. In insecticidal study, the 2nd instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than 3rd instar larvae. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins and alkaloids. The presence of these phytoconstituents might be responsible for the biological activities of extract tested. The extract could be used to treat free radical damage, bacterial and helmintic infections and to control insect vectors. Further studies on isolation of constituents and their bio-efficacies in vitro and in vivo are under investigation. PMID:24825993

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity studies on the stems and roots of Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen-Xia; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Yi; Meng, Da-Li; Yan, Dan

    2015-08-01

    Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Its stems and roots have been used for the treatment of rheumatism and fever while the leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent to relieve pain. In order to support its traditional Chinese medicinal uses, five animal models were designed and the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the 70% EtOH-H2O extracts of J. lanceolarium (EJL) were investigated. Meanwhile, biochemical parameters such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in blood serum of rats exposed to acute (carrageenan) inflammation model were evaluated. At doses of 400mg/kg, EJL exhibited higher anti-inflammation effect than that of indomethacin and better analgesic activity than that of aspirin (P<0.001). Furthermore, eleven isolated compounds including six lignanoids (1, 2, 6, 7, 8, and 11) and five iridoids (3, 4, 5, 9, and 10) were isolated from the active extracts and showed significant anti-inflammatory activities with the IC50 values of 1.76-5.22mg/mL, respectively, when testing their inhibitory effects on phospholipase A2in vitro. The results demonstrated that the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be attributed to inhibit the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids, production on both COX-2 and 5-LOX, and then finally inhibit the release of prostaglandins (PGs), which suggested that EJL had a non-selective inhibitory effect on the release or actions of these mediators, and might be a dual LOX-COX inhibitor for the treatment of inflammation from the natural resource. The studies on the animals and the inflammatory mediators, along with the bioactive compounds presumed that the existences of iridoids and lignanoids could be response for their bioactivities of the whole plants. PMID:26055344

  16. Solirubrobacter taibaiensis sp. nov., isolated from a stem of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Lingfang; Si, Meiru; Li, Changfu; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Yahong; Shen, Xihui

    2014-08-01

    A white-coloured bacterium, designated strain GTJR-20(T), was isolated from a stem of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. collected from Taibai Mountain in Shaanxi Province, north-west China, and was subjected to a taxonomic study by using a polyphasic approach. The novel isolate was found to grow optimally at 28-30 °C, at pH 7.5-8.0 and in the absence of NaCl. Cells were observed to be Gram-stain positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and non-motile. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7(H4) and the major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C16:0 (35.8 %), C18:1 ?9c (17.7 %), C17:1 ?6c (11.0 %), C17:1 ?8c (7.8 %) and C18:3 ?6c (6, 9, 12) (7.2 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 71.6 mol %. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GTJR-20(T) is a member of the genus Solirubrobacter and is closely related to Solirubrobacter phytolaccae GTGR-8(T) (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, 98.4 %), Solirubrobacter soli KCTC 12628(T) (97.8 %), Solirubrobacter pauli KCTC 9974(T) (97.7 %) and Solirubrobacter ginsenosidimutans KCTC 19420(T) (97.6 %). No other recognized bacterial species showed more than 94.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the novel isolate. DNA-DNA relatedness values for strain GTJR-20(T) with respect to its closely related neighbours S. phytolaccae GTGR-8(T), S. soli KCTC 12628(T), S. pauli KCTC 9974(T) and S. ginsenosidimutans KCTC 19420(T) were 48.3 ± 8.6, 21.3 ± 5.2, 36.8 ± 6.2 and 36.0 ± 5.5 %, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, strain GTJR-20(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Solirubrobacter, for which the name Solirubrobacter taibaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GTJR-20(T) (=CCTCC AB 2013308(T) = KCTC 29222(T)). PMID:24846053

  17. Thyroid dysfunction and thyroxine-dependent programming of photoinduced ovarian growth in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

    1996-07-01

    The time course of thyroid dysfunction after injecting 0.30 mCi Na131I was charted in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) transferred to long days on Day 0 and challenged with 30 micrograms bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone on Postinjection Days 4, 7, 46, and 105. Serum T4 (L-thyroxine) was not detectable in thyroidectomized birds, indicating complete thyroid dysfunction by Day 4 and no restoration of thyroid function by Day 105. By contrast, serum T4 concentrations in similarly challenged thyroid-intact controls greatly exceeded assay sensitivity. To determine whether a single injection of T4 can program thyroidectomized female tree sparrows for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt, as it can thyroidectomized male tree sparrows, thyroidectomized females were injected with T4 (100 micrograms) or alkaline vehicle (V) either on the first day of photostimulation or 1 week before photostimulation (during which time injected T4 likely was cleared metabolically). Females injected with T4 on the first day of photostimulation showed robust ovarian growth similar to that reported for photostimulated euthyroid females. Both groups of V-injected females, as well as females injected with T4 1 week before photostimulation, showed slow, but reliable, ovarian growth, indicating that thyroidectomized birds can detect an increase in day length. When birds were moved at Week 7.5 or 9 to constant light and given T4 in drinking water (a qualitative assay for absolute photorefractoriness), only one tested photorefractory and molted. The remaining birds, including those injected with T4 1 week before photostimulation and both groups of V-injected controls, tested photosensitive and did not molt. Taken together, these results indicate that T4, or one of its metabolites, programs thyroidectomized female tree sparrows for ovarian growth early during photostimulation. A single T4 injection (100 micrograms) on the first day of photostimulation usually also programs thyroidectomized male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and molt. Such an injection is far less effective in programming females for these two late-season events. PMID:8812336

  18. Thyroid hormone acts centrally to programme photostimulated male american tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for vernal and autumnal components of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid hormone and long days interact to programme American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for seasonality (i.e. thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic gonadal growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial moult). This study explored in radiothyroidectomized (THX) males given thyroid hormone replacement therapy whether thyroid hormone acts within the brain and, additionally, the identity of the putative tissue-active thyroid hormone. The minimum dose (30 ng) of L-thyroxine (T4) that restored all components of seasonality when given i.c.v. daily during the first 21 days of photostimulation restored no component of seasonality when given s.c. The same dose of L-triiodothyronine (T3) also was ineffective when administered s.c., but restored photoperiodic testicular growth (though neither photorefractoriness nor postnuptial moult) when admiministered i.c.v. Three of seven birds given a 10-fold lower dose of T4 (3 ng) exhibited thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic testicular growth, albeit damped. The other four birds given 3 ng T4 and all birds given 3 ng T3 responded like THX controls, exhibiting only slight thyroid hormone-independent photoperiodic testicular growth. The highest dose (300 ng) of T3 restored all components of seasonality only when administered i.c.v. daily during the first 49 days of photostimulation. This demonstration in American tree sparrows is the first in any species that the thyroid-dependent transition from the breeding season to the non-breeding season can be effected by T3. The same dose of reverse T3 administered daily over the same 49 days restored photoperiodic testicular growth in only half of 10 subjects and photorefractoriness and moult in none. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that thyroid hormone acts centrally to programme photostimulated male American tree sparrows for all components of seasonality. The most parsimonious interpretation of the data, including the threshold-like effect of 3 ng T4, favours T4 as the tissue-active thyroid hormone for vernal as well as autumnal events, but does not entirely exclude T3. PMID:10692147

  19. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid analysis of Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Maheshu, Vellingiri; Priyadarsini, Deivamarudhachalam Teepica; Sasikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam

    2014-10-01

    Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. is a traditional food consumed as vegetable or pickle in arid regions of India and eaten during famines. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat diabetes, inflammation and etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties (DPPH, TEAC, TAA, FRAP, OH? and NO? radical scavenging activities) of the different extracts from aerial parts. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids of the extracts were also determined. The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models used. Methanol and water extracts had good total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity was correlated well with the amount of total phenolics present in the extracts. The extracts and its components may be used as an additive in food preparations and nutraceuticals. PMID:25328180

  20. Identification of a DNA marker linked to sex determination in Calamus tenuis Roxb., an economically important rattan species in northeast India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabalee Sarmah; Ramendra Nath Sarma

    2011-01-01

    Calamus tenuis (Roxb.), a versatile, dioecious rattan species predominant in northeast India, has emerged as an economical material for\\u000a light furniture and cottage industries. For the genetic improvement of the species, it is essential to be able to recognize\\u000a male and female plants at the seedling stage. Screening of genomic DNA with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was\\u000a used to

  1. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Launaea procumbens Roxb. (Labiateae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) and Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jigna Parekh; Sumitra Chanda

    The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Launaea procumbens Roxb. (Labiateae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) and Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinically important bacteria viz. Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC8750, Bacillus cereus ATCC11778, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13048, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIM2719, Proteus mirabilis NCIM224, Proteus vulgaris NCTC8313, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes ATCC17440, Salmonella

  2. Thyroid hormone-dependent seasonality in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea ): effects of GC1, a thyroid receptor ß-selective agonist, and of iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Mishra; F. E. Wilson; T. S. Scanlan; G. Chiellini

    2004-01-01

    To explore the role of TH in the control of seasonality [i.e., photoperiodic testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt] in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea), we performed experiments in which THX males were simultaneously photostimulated and given TH replacement therapy. In the first experiment, equimolar concentrations (1X=1.3 nmol) of T4, T3, or GC-1, an iodine-free TR? agonist, were administered

  3. Volatile constituents of Amomum maximum Roxb and Amomum microcarpum C. F. Liang & D. Fang: two Zingiberaceae grown in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le T; Dai, Do N; Thang, Tran D; Bach, Tran T; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the hydrodistillation of different parts of Amomum maximum Roxb and Amomum muricarpum C. F. Liang & D. Fang (Zingiberaceae) grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionisation detectoorand gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The major compounds identified in the oils of A. maximum were ?-pinene (20.4-40.8%), ?-pinene (6.8-15.0%), ?-elemene (2.5-12.8%) and ?-caryophyllene (2.3-10.3%). Moreover, ?-phellandrene (11.6%) was present in the root oil. The main compound identified in all the oil samples of A. muricarpum was ?-pinene (24.1-54.7%) and ?-pinene (9.2-25.9%). In addition, limonene (7.4%) and ?-3-carene (9.4%) were present in the leaves and stem oils, respectively. However, while ?-phellandrene (8.3%) could be seen prominent in the root oil, the fruits contained significant amount of zingiberene (6.3%). The largest amount of ?-muurolol (13.0%) was found in the flower oil. PMID:25600992

  4. Effect of withdrawing long days from male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): implications for understanding thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies, we withdrew thyroid hormones by thyroidectomy before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation and showed that male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) are programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by or before Week 3 on long days. In this corollary study, we withdrew long days before or after the control circuits had been programmed. After 1 day to 4 wk on long days, groups of thyroid-intact males were returned to short days until Week 7, when they were moved to constant light and evaluated for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt. Long-day controls held 7 wk on long days showed robust testicular growth through Week 6 and then spontaneous testicular regression. Testes of short-day controls and of males photostimulated for 1 day remained small. In all other groups, photostimulation induced testicular growth, which gave way to regression during exposure to short days. Long-day controls tested photorefractory at Week 7 and initiated molt by Week 10. All other groups tested photosensitive and did not molt. Our demonstration that long days are required for expression of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroid-intact male tree sparrows previously programmed for these events suggests that long days create a milieu that is permissive for expression. PMID:9472917

  5. Ann. For. Sci. 66 (2009) 507 Available online at: c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2009 www.afs-journal.org

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2009-01-01

    ; accepted 23 January 2009) Keywords: Gmelina arborea / lateral growth rate / tropical rain-forest / fast.afs-journal.org DOI: 10.1051/forest/2009031 Original article Effects of the lateral growth rate on wood quality mature. · Les qualités du xylème ont facilement atteint des valeurs justifiant l'exploitation exception

  6. Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 ?g/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 ?g/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-? (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a TH1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of TH1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs. PMID:23109818

  7. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25473360

  8. The photoperiodic control circuit in euthyroid American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) is already programmed for photorefractoriness by week 4 under long days.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether spontaneous testicular regression in male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) that were thyroidectomized at week 4 of photostimulation manifests photorefractoriness, as it does in chronically photostimulated euthyroid controls. On the basis of our demonstration that exogenous thyroxine stimulates the gonads only when recipient birds are photosensitive, male tree sparrows were thyroidectomized at week 4 of photostimulation (20 h light:4 h dark) and given thyroxine periodically to assay for photosensitivity. When initiated at weeks 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16 of photostimulation, thyroxine replacement therapy had no effect on testis size until week 16, when most recipient birds showed robust testicular growth. The inductive effect of exogenous thyroxine at week 16 confirms that chronic thyroidectomy dissipates photorefractoriness and simulates the effect of short days. The failure of replacement thyroxine to halt spontaneous testicular regression between week 7 and week 13 establishes that spontaneous testicular regression after thyroidectomy manifests photorefractoriness. Moreover, the failure of replacement thyroxine to induce testicular growth between week 4 and week 7 indicates that by week 4 of photostimulation, at least 3 weeks before photoinduced testicular growth ends, male tree sparrows are programmed for photorefractoriness. This conclusion is strengthened by the finding that thyroidectomy at week 4 of photostimulation does not uncouple photorefractoriness and postnuptial moult, which in euthyroid tree sparrows are tightly linked. In another experiment, photosensitive thyroid-intact tree sparrows were moved from 8 h light:16 h dark to 20 h light:4 h dark and given exogenous thyroxine or vehicle through week 6 of photostimulation. Exogenous thyroxine augmented testicular growth. PMID:7616501

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) stem bark aqueous extracts against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rise of antibiotic resistance among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have caused concerns for the treatment of MRSA infections. Hence, search for an alternative therapy for these infections is inevitable. Folk Indian medicine refers to the use of leaf and stem bark powder of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) in treatment of skin infections, but no scientific report establishes its antibacterial activity. Methods Direct aqueous extracts and sequential aqueous extracts of the stem bark of T. alternifolia (using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as other solvents) were prepared by soxhlet extraction. The antibiotic sensitivity profiles of the clinical isolates were determined against 18 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The methicillin resistance among S. aureus (MRSA) was confirmed by PCR amplification of mecA gene. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extracts. The micro-dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against the test organism. To further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the extract, cell cytotoxicity was checked on Vero cells by MTT assay. Chemical profiling of the extract was done by HPTLC method. Results The aqueous extracts of T. alternifolia stem bark exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, particularly against clinical isolates of MRSA and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extract against the isolates ranged from 600–800 ?g/ml. The extract did not exhibit cytotoxic activity against Vero cells even at the concentration of 4 mg/ml. The chemical profiling revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and steroids. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts did not exhibit antibacterial activity. Conclusion Our results offer a scientific basis for the traditional use of T. alternifolia in the treatment of skin infections, showing that the plant extract has an enormous potential as a prospective alternative therapy against MRSA skin infections. The present study lays the basis for future studies, to validate the possible use of T. alternifolia as a candidate in the treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:24066905

  10. Quantitative determination of curcuminoids in Curcuma rhizomes and rapid differentiation of Curcuma domestica Val. and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lechtenberg, Matthias; Quandt, Bettina; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2004-01-01

    The three major curcuminoids, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis-demethoxycurcumin, from Curcuma domestica Val. (Curcuma longa L.) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) were fully separated and quantified in less than 5 min using a capillary zone electrophoresis method with standard fused-silica capillaries and photodiode array detection. An electrolyte solution of 20 mM phosphate, 50 mM sodium hydroxide and 14 mM beta-cyclodextrin was found to be appropriate. Quantification was performed with 3,4-dimethoxy-trans-cinnamic acid as internal standard, and the limit of detection was 0.01 mg/mL. Extraction, stabilisation during sample storage and quantification procedures were optimised and carried out with drugs and commercial curry powder from different provenances. The results were compared with the photometric method of the monograph Curcumae xanthorrhizae rhizoma of the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:15202598

  11. NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines mediated protective effect of Indigofera caerulea Roxb. on CCl4 induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ponmari, Guruvaiah; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan; Lakshmi, P T V; Guruvayoorappan, C

    2014-12-01

    Indigofera caerulea Roxb. is a well known shrub among native medical practitioners in folk medicine used for the treatment of jaundice, epilepsy, night blindness and snake bites. It is also reported to have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However its actual efficacy and hepatoprotective mechanism in particular is uncertain. Thus the present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of the methanolic extract of I. caerulea Roxb. leaves (MIL) and elucidation of its mode of action against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury in rats. HPLC analysis of MIL when carried out showed peaks close to standard ferulic acid and quercetin. Intragastric administration of MIL up to 2000 mg/kg bw, didn't show any toxicity and mortality in acute toxicity studies. During "in-vivo" study, hepatic injury was established by intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 3 ml/kg bw (30% CCl4 in olive oil; v/v) twice a week for 4 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, hepatoprotective activity of MIL assessed using two different doses (100 and 200mg/kg bw) showed that intra-gastric administration of MIL (200mg/kg bw) significantly attenuates liver injury. Investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that MIL treatment was capable of reducing inflammation by an antioxidant defense mechanism that blocks the activation of NF-?B as well as inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? and IL-1?. The results suggest that MIL has a significant hepatoprotective activity which might be due to the presence of phytochemicals namely analogues of ferulic acid and other phytochemicals which together may suppress the inflammatory signaling pathways and promote hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 intoxicated liver damage. PMID:25445959

  12. Therapy with methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb and Ocimum sanctum Linn reverses dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in alloxan induced type I diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prem Kumar; Baxi, Darshee; Banerjee, Sudip; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-07-01

    Methanolic extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (P. marsupium) and Ocimum sanctum Linn (O. sanctum) were prepared separately and then administered to both non-diabetic and alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats as a mixture of both at a dosage of 500mg/kg body weight, and its effect was checked on serum and tissue lipids together with corticosterone, estrogen and progesterone profile. Further, tissue load of metabolites (cholesterol), enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status together with lipid peroxidation levels and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage were also assessed. Results of the present study strongly support the possibility of this herbal combination in humans to meet the objective of achieving a holistic amelioration and cure of diabetes as, the herbal extract mixture of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous antioxidant levels to the pre diabetic status. Herbal preparations are ideal candidates of choice and in this context, the present combination of P. marsupium and O. sanctum provides compelling evidence for a holistic efficacy in amelioration of associated diabetic manifestations/dysregulations. PMID:21106356

  13. Optimization of Reflux Conditions for Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Extraction and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40?mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4?mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8?mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601?mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan. PMID:25147852

  14. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activities of two closely related species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Halijah; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Syamsir, Devi Rosmy; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), ?-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and ?-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

  15. Antihyperglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Extract and Its Active Compound Xanthorrhizol in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Xanthorrhizol, a natural compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Java turmeric), has been reported to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties; however, its effects on metabolic disorders remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of xanthorrhizol (XAN) and C. xanthorrhiza extract (CXE) with standardized XAN on hyperglycemia and inflammatory markers in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. Treatment with XAN (10 or 25?mg/kg/day) or CXE (50 or 100?mg/kg/day) significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in HFD-induced obese mice. XAN and CXE treatments also lowered insulin, glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), and triglyceride (TG) levels in serum. Epididymal fat pad and adipocyte size were decreased by high doses of XAN (26.6% and 20.1%) and CXE (25.8% and 22.5%), respectively. XAN and CXE treatment also suppressed the development of fatty liver by decreasing liver fat accumulation. Moreover, XAN and CXE significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue (27.8–82.7%), liver (43.9–84.7%), and muscle (65.2–92.5%). Overall, these results suggest that XAN and CXE, with their antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities, might be used as potent antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25053966

  16. Antihyperglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Extract and Its Active Compound Xanthorrhizol in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Bo; Kim, Changhee; Song, Youngwoo; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Xanthorrhizol, a natural compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Java turmeric), has been reported to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties; however, its effects on metabolic disorders remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of xanthorrhizol (XAN) and C. xanthorrhiza extract (CXE) with standardized XAN on hyperglycemia and inflammatory markers in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. Treatment with XAN (10 or 25?mg/kg/day) or CXE (50 or 100?mg/kg/day) significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in HFD-induced obese mice. XAN and CXE treatments also lowered insulin, glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), and triglyceride (TG) levels in serum. Epididymal fat pad and adipocyte size were decreased by high doses of XAN (26.6% and 20.1%) and CXE (25.8% and 22.5%), respectively. XAN and CXE treatment also suppressed the development of fatty liver by decreasing liver fat accumulation. Moreover, XAN and CXE significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue (27.8-82.7%), liver (43.9-84.7%), and muscle (65.2-92.5%). Overall, these results suggest that XAN and CXE, with their antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities, might be used as potent antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25053966

  17. Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin

    2013-07-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

  18. Manganese-mitigation of cadmium toxicity to seedling growth of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. is controlled by the manganese/cadmium molar ratio under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Zhang, Yuxiu; Chai, Tuanyao; Tan, Jinjuan; Wang, Jianwu; Feng, Shanshan; Liu, Geyu

    2013-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) can interact with cadmium (Cd) in environments and influence the toxic effect of Cd on plants. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Mn/Cd ratio and plant Cd-toxicity along Cd concentrations. In this paper, we studied the effects of external Mn/Cd molar ratios (0, 10, 30, 50 and 60) on Cd toxicity in the Mn hyperaccumulator and Cd tolerant plant, Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., at three Cd levels (50, 100 and 200 ?M) under hydroponic conditions. Our result showed that seedling growth (y) under Cd stress was strongly positively related to the solution Mn/Cd molar ratio (SMCR). The relationship between the two variables under solution Cd concentrations was well explained by the linear regression model y=a+b1 (SMCR)+b2 (Solution-Cd). Increasing SMCR significantly reduced the Cd concentration and increased the Mn concentration in plant tissues. However, seedling growth was consistent with the shoot Mn/Cd molar ratio rather than with the Mn or Cd concentrations in plant tissues. At low levels of SMCR (e.g. 0 and 10), elevation of Mn distribution in shoot tissues might be a mechanism in P. acinosa seedlings to defend against Cd-toxicity. In comparison with low levels of SMCR, high levels of SMCR (e.g. 50 and 60) greatly alleviated lipid peroxidation and plant water-loss, and enhanced photosynthesis. However, the alleviated lipid peroxidation in the Mn-mitigation of Cd toxicity was likely to be the secondary effect resulting from the antagonism between Mn and Cd in the plant. PMID:24095921

  19. Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRX?39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

  20. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, ZA; Bachar, SC; Qais, N

    2012-01-01

    Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders. PMID:23493235

  1. Synergistic activity of aqueous extracts mixtures of some Nigerian plants against Maruca vitrata and Clavigralla tomentosicollis on field cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Oparaeke

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted under rain fed conditions in two seasons to test the effectiveness of seven different plant extract mixtures for management of Maruca vitrata (Fab.) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. The application of 10:10% w\\/w of peels of Citrus sinensis + Gmelina arborea leaf extracts, fruits of Capsicum annum + Eucalyptus citriodora leaf extracts, and peels of

  2. Assessment of fodder quality of leaves of multipurpose trees in subtropical humid climate of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chander Datt; M. Datta; N. P. Singh

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of 12 species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Gliricidia maculata, Leucaena leucocephala, Samanea saman, Azadirachta\\u000a indica, Eucalyptus hybrida, Gmelina arborea, Michelia champaca, Morus alba, and Tectona grandis) of Multipurpose trees and shrubs (MPTs) grown in the agroforestry arboretum were evaluated for their nutritional characteristics\\u000a in terms of proximate composition, cell wall constituents, total tannins, major (Ca and

  3. Biomass yield and energy value of some fast-growing multipurpose trees in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Fuwape; Shadrach O. Akindele

    1997-01-01

    The above-ground biomass yield of seven-year-old trees of Gliricidia sepium, Gmelina arborea and Leucaena leucocephala grown for fuel production were assessed. The combustion properties of the fuelwood and charcoal produced from the trees (moisture content, density, percentage fixed carbon, volatile matter, micro-elemental composition and heat of combustion) were determined. There were significant differences in the above-ground biomass and the charcoal

  4. A test of the hypothesis that T3 is the "seasonality" thyroid hormone in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): intracerebroventricular infusion of iopanoic acid, an inhibitor of T3 synthesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    2001-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) is the bioactive "seasonality" thyroid hormone in American tree sparrows (Spizella (arborea). The experimental approach coupled thyroid hormone replacement therapy after radiothyroidectomy with photostimulation and intracerebroventricular infusion of iopanoic acid, an inhibitor of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine synthesis and degradation. Endpoints were testis length, molt score, and hypothalamic content of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1. The hypothesis predicts that thyroidectomized male tree sparrows moved to long days and given thyroxine in combination with iopanoic acid will lack L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and so will not express thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic testicular growth (a vernal component of seasonality) and photorefractoriness or postnuptial molt (autumnal components of seasonality). It further predicts that iopanoic acid will enhance the efficacy of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and so will facilitate the expression of seasonality in thyroidectomized males given L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine replacement therapy. Iopanoic acid had no significant effect on any component of seasonality in thyroid-intact males given vehicle, or in thyroidectomized males given thyroxine or L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine. Thyroid-intact males, as well as thyroidectomized males infused with thyroxine alone, commonly expressed all components of seasonality. Thyroidectomized males given L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine alone exhibited photoperiodic testicular growth, but did not become photorefractory or initiate molt. While these results confirm that thyroid hormone acts centrally to program American tree sparrows for seasonality, they do not support the hypothesis that L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine is the bioactive "seasonality" thyroid hormone, and they challenge the view that thyroxine is merely a prohormone. PMID:11302527

  5. Effects of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) replacement therapy on the programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroidectomized male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to long days.

    PubMed

    Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

    1997-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that T3 (triiodothyronine) is the tissue-active "seasonality" hormone by determining whether T3 could mimic T4 (thyroxine) and program photostimulated thyroidectomized (THX) male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for three components of seasonality (i.e., full-blown testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt). Photosensitive males were radiothyroidectomized, transferred to long days 4 weeks later, and administered 14 daily injections (s.c.) of alkaline saline (V) containing 0.1, 1, or 10 micrograms T4 or T3. THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received only V. After 5 additional weeks on long days, all birds were tested for photosensitivity/photorefractoriness. Periodically during the experiment, primary flight feathers were scored for molt, and testis length was monitored by laparotomy. As an independent measure of reproductive (i.e., photosensitive vs. photorefractory) state, hypothalami collected at the end of the experiment were assayed for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content. Like THI controls, THX males administered 1 or 10 micrograms T4 exhibited full-blown testicular growth and then regression, initiated molt, and had low hypothalamic cGnRH-I, indicating that photostimulated birds that received mid- or high-dose T4 replacement therapy had been programmed for all three components of seasonality. On the other hand, both THX controls and THX males administered low-dose (0.1 microgram) T3 replacement therapy exhibited only modest testicular growth, signifying that neither group had been programmed for any component of seasonality. By contrast, photostimulated THX males that received 0.1 microgram T4, or 1 or 10 micrograms T3, were programmed for testicular growth, but not for photorefractoriness or molt. Collectively, these results show that subcutaneously administered T3 mimicked T4 imperfectly and suggest either that T3 does not program photostimulated male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt, or that T3 does not cross the blood-brain barrier as efficiently as does T4. PMID:9360316

  6. Thyroid hormone-dependent seasonality in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): effects of GC-1, a thyroid receptor beta-selective agonist, and of iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M K; Wilson, F E; Scanlan, T S; Chiellini, G

    2004-08-01

    To explore the role of TH in the control of seasonality [i.e., photoperiodic testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt] in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we performed experiments in which THX males were simultaneously photostimulated and given TH replacement therapy. In the first experiment, equimolar concentrations (1X = 1.3 nmol) of T4, T3, or GC-1, an iodine-free TRbeta agonist, were administered s.c. daily during the first 21 days of photostimulation. Two additional THX groups received GC-1 at 0.1X or 10X, and THX and THI control groups received vehicle. In the second experiment, T4 or T3, alone or in combination with the deiodinase inhibitor IOP, was injected i.m. twice daily during the first 14 days of photostimulation. In both experiments, end points were testis length and molt score. In the first experiment, THI birds given vehicle and THX birds given T4 replacement therapy exhibited all three components of seasonality. THX birds given T3 or GC-1 (1X or 10X) showed a subdued photoperiodic testicular response, but they did not become photorefractory or initiate molt. THX birds that received 0.1X GC-1 or vehicle exhibited none of the components of seasonality. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that photoperiodic testicular growth, a vernal component of seasonality, is a TRbeta-mediated response and suggest that T4 may activate TRbeta more efficiently than does T3 or GC-1. By contrast, the failure both of T3 and of GC-1, but not of T4, to program photostimulated THX males for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt suggests that autumnal components of seasonality may be TRalpha-mediated responses solely to T4. In the second experiment, IOP administered alone had no significant impact on seasonality. THX birds that received T4 with or without IOP showed all components of seasonality, whereas birds that received T3 with or without IOP showed only photoperiodic testicular growth. These results challenge the widely held view that T4 is merely a prohormone for T3 and support the emerging view that T4 has intrinsic hormonal activity. Because IOP augmented the photoperiodic testicular response in T3-treated THX birds, T3 may act either independently or co-dependently with T4 in programming vernal seasonal events. PMID:15235810

  7. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb Leaf Extract Down-Regulates Expression of PPAR?2 and Leptin Genes in High Fat Diet Fed C57BL/6J Mice and Retards in Vitro 3T3L1 Pre-Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Thounaojam, Menaka C.; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Ramani, Umed V.; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.; Ramachandran, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPAR?2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPAR?2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity. PMID:21845103

  8. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. PMID:25462462

  9. The Timing of Thyroid-Dependent Programming in Seasonally Breeding Male American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred E. Wilson; Bryan D. Reinert

    1996-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that euthyroid male American tree sparrows are already programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by Week 4 of photostimulation. To explore more precisely when, during early photostimulation, thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal events occurs, photosensitive male tree sparrows were radiothyroidectomized or sham thyroidectomized on the first day of photostimulation (Week 0) or at Weeks 1 or

  10. Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1986-04-01

    Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

  11. An androgen-independent mechanism maintains photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1985-10-01

    A series of experiments was performed to clarify whether photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is maintained by an androgen-dependent mechanism. Castration did not raise plasma LH in photorefractory males held under a daily photoperiod of 20 h light:4 h darkness (20L:4D). Castrated photorefractory males were implanted with the antiandrogen cyproterone or injected s.c. with the antiandrogen flutamide to determine whether androgens which may be resistant to castration inhibit LH secretion. Neither cyproterone nor flutamide raised plasma LH above values found in castrated control birds. Castrated photorefractory males were treated with testosterone to determine whether plasma LH in photorefractory males is androgen-suppressible. Concentrations of plasma LH were independent of plasma testosterone over a wide range of concentrations. The lack of LH response to castration, to castration coupled with antiandrogen therapy, and to castration coupled with testosterone replacement argues that photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is maintained by an androgen-independent mechanism. PMID:4045352

  12. The timing of thyroid-dependent programming in seasonally breeding male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1996-07-01

    There is convincing evidence that euthyroid male American tree sparrows are already programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by Week 4 of photostimulation. To explore more precisely when, during early photostimulation, thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal events occurs, photosensitive male tree sparrows were radiothyroidectomized or sham thyroidectomized on the first day of photostimulation (Week 0) or at Weeks 1 or 3 thereafter. Birds were monitored for testicular growth and regression over 8 or 12 weeks and then tested for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness by exposing them to constant light and exogenous L-thyroxine for 4 weeks. Molt of the primary flight feathers was scored periodically, and at the end of the experiment, hypothalami were saved for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) assay. Because (1) the thyroid is already dysfunctional by Day 4 after radiothyroidectomy, (2) thyroid-dependent photoinduced gonadal growth is programmed growth, and as demonstrated here, (3) testis length at Week 6 on long days (i.e., maximum or near-maximum testis size) is independent of the time of thyroidectomy at or after the onset of photostimulation, we conclude that male American tree sparrows were programmed for photoperiodic testicular growth during the first week of photostimulation. Based on measurements of testis length and hypothalamic cGnRH-I content, only 2 of 11 birds thyroidectomized at Week 1 were already programmed for photorefractoriness by Week 1, whereas all birds thyroidectomized at Week 3 were so programmed by Week 3. Marked differences in molt scores between photorefractory (thyroidectomized and euthyroid) and photosensitive (thyroidectomized) birds argue that postnuptial molt also was programmed roughly between Weeks 1 and 3. To explain these results, we ascribe organizational-like actions directly or indirectly to endogenous thyroid hormones and argue that the onset of photostimulation opens a window, during which time euthyroid male American tree sparrows are programmed for seasonality. A clear dissociation of photorefractoriness from photoperiodic testicular growth in birds thyroidectomized at Week 1 suggests that separate control circuits mediate these two annually periodic events. PMID:8812339

  13. Consequences of genetic erosion on fitness and phenotypic plasticity in European tree frog populations (Hyla arborea)

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Consequences of genetic erosion on fitness and phenotypic plasticity in European tree frog erosion is assumed to decrease the mean fitness of populations (Reed & Frankham, 2003). Numerous stud- ies; Schlichting, 2008). However, the effects of genetic erosion may interact with pheno- typic plasticity patterns

  14. Floral herbivore effect on the sex expression of an andromonoecious plant, Isomeris arborea (Capparaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Krupnick; Arthur E. Weis

    1998-01-01

    Flower-feeding insects may influence the reproductive behavior of their host plant. In plants with labile sex expression, the ratio of maternal to paternal investment may change in response to damage, an effect that goes beyond the direct reduction of plant gametes. We examined the effects of floral herbivory by the beetle Meligethes rufimanus (Nitidulidae) on the ratio of hermaphroditic flowers

  15. Cornuvesica: A little known mycophilic genus with a unique biology and unexpected new species.

    PubMed

    Marincowitz, Seonju; Duong, Tuan A; Wilhelm de Beer, Z; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the biology of the monotypic genus Cornuvesica (Microascales), apart from that isolates are notoriously difficult to culture on artificial media. A recent collection of material resembling this genus from freshly made wounds on Gmelina arborea in Indonesia, provided an opportunity to reconsider all available material of Cornuvesica falcata, type species of the genus. In addition to morphological comparisons, multigene phylogenetic analyses were made using sequences of the SSU, ITS, LSU and TEF-1? genes. Our results showed that the holotype of Cor. falcata from pine in Canada differed from all other material previously considered to represent this species and also from the new Indonesian collections. The collections considered represented three additional species that we describe here as new. Three New Zealand isolates and an isolate from UK were respectively described as Cor. acuminata and Cor. crypta, while the Indonesian isolates were described as Cor. magnispora. Phylogenies based on the SSU and LSU data sets showed that Cornuvesica spp. do not belong in the Ceratocystidaceae as previously suggested, but represent a distinct lineage in the Microascales that has yet to be named. Results showed that culture filtrates from other fungi or ferric chloride markedly stimulated the growth of Cor. magnispora. PMID:26058537

  16. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  17. Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.

    PubMed

    Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

  18. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explant of dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson).

    PubMed

    Karata?, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Ç?nar, Ay?egül; Dogan, Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10-1.60 mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/L IBA and 500 mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10 mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10 mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10 mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20-1.00 mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6-9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

  19. In vitro Antioxidant Potential in Sequential Extracts of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    Reenu, J.; Azeez, Shamina; Bhageerathy, Chempakam

    2015-01-01

    Present study deals with antioxidant potential of sequential extracts of fresh and dried rhizomes of Curcuma caesia, using solvents viz., hexane, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water, which was analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species assay. Total phenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. C. caesia showed significant antioxidant activity in chloroform, benzene and ethyl acetate extracts. The chloroform extract was highly effective as free radical scavengers, electron-donating agents and reducing molybdate ions except for reducing lipid peroxidation. The highest total phenol content was also exhibited by chloroform and benzene extracts. Antioxidant potential expressed by C. caesia in the sequential extracts could be effectively utilized for identification of the bioactive compounds for future phytopharmacological applications. PMID:25767317

  20. Methyl jasmonate and yeast extract stimulate mitragynine production in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. shoot culture.

    PubMed

    Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Choo-Malee, Jutarat; Charoonratana, Tossaton; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2012-10-01

    Mitragynine is a pharmacologically-active terpenoid indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa leaves. Treatment with methyl jasmonate (10 ?M) for 24 h and yeast extract (0.1 mg/ml) for 12 h were the optimum conditions of elicitation of mitragynine accumulation in a M. speciosa shoot culture. The former elicitor gave 0.11 mg mitragynine/g dry wt. Tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase mRNA levels were enhanced in accordance with mitragynine accumulation. PMID:22714271

  1. Development of indirect competitive ELISA for quantification of mitragynine in Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth.).

    PubMed

    Limsuwanchote, Supattra; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Keawpradub, Niwat; Putalun, Waraporn; Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) against mitragynine (MG), an analgesic alkaloid from Kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa), was produced. MG was coupled to carrier proteins employing either 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS), a zero-length cross linker or a 5-carbon length glutaraldehyde cross linker. To confirm the immunogenicity, the hapten numbers were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Preparation of the MAb was accomplished by the electrofusion method. Hybridoma 1A6 that was constructed from the fusion between splenocytes of EDC/NHS conjugate immunized mice and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells was selected, cloned twice and expanded. The cross-reactivities (CRs) of this MAb 1A6 with a series of indole alkaloids were 30.54%, 24.83% and 8.63% for speciogynine, paynantheine and mitraciliatine, respectively. Using this MAb, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed with a measurement range of 32.92-250 ?g/mL. Quantitative analysis of the MG contents in plant samples by icELISA correlated well with the standard high performance liquid chromatography method (R(2)=0.994). The MAb against mitragynine provided a tool for detection of MG in Kratom preparations. PMID:25216455

  2. Limitation of mitragynine biosynthesis in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. through tryptamine availability.

    PubMed

    Charoonratanaa, Tossaton; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Georgiev, Milen I; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Metabolite profiles of Mitragyna speciosa were determined by means of 1H NMR-based and HPLC-based analyses. The results indicated that high contents of secologanin, caffeic acid, gallic acid, epigallocatechin, and mitragynine were accumulated in leaves. In M. speciosa, feedings of tryptamine, tryptophan, phenylalanine or tyrosine significantly increased the mitragynine contents. Feedings of tryptamine and loganin also enhanced the mitragynine accumulation, but feeding of loganin only did not affect the mitragynine level. The mRNA levels of anthranilate synthase alpha subunit (ASA), tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), and strictosidine synthase (STR) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in control plants and those exposed to methyl jasmonate (MJ; 10 microM). All genes responded to MJ after a 24-h treatment. The mitragynine contents were also enhanced and corresponded to the transcript levels. From the present results we conclude that a high content of secologanin together with a undetectable level of tryptamine in M. speciosa feature the limitation of mitragynine biosynthesis. Additionally, expression of all the genes limits production of an essential precursor for mitragynine production. PMID:24459773

  3. Mechanism of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in Bassia latifolia Roxb. flowers.

    PubMed

    Wakte, Kantilal V; Kad, Trupti D; Zanan, Rahul L; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2011-07-01

    The flowers of Bassia latifolia are known to contain 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the compound responsible for pleasant aroma in basmati and other scented rice. Four growth stages of Bassia flowers were identified and 2AP contents were analysed in each stage. It was found that 2AP (3.30 ppm) gets synthesized only in fleshy corolla of mature flowers (fourth stage). The activity of ?-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (AADH); an enzyme responsible for synthesis of ?-aminobutyricacid (GABA) from ?-aminobutyraldehyde (GABald) was assessed in these four stages. The AADH activity was absent in the fourth stage. It was concluded that ceased activity of AADH in fourth stage flowers leads to the accumulation of ?-aminobutyraldehyde which is cyclised spontaneously to ?(1)-pyrroline, the key precursor of 2AP. ?(1)-pyrroline further reacts unenzymatically with methylglyoxal to form 2AP. PMID:23573014

  4. Sedative and antiepileptic effects of Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. in mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagakannan, Pandian; Shivasharan, Basavaraj D.; Veerapur, Veeresh P.; Thippeswamy, Boreddy S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sedative and antiepileptic activities of ethanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba (ACE) bark in various experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: ACE was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. We used ketamine-induced sleeping time model to test the sedative property of the extract where, onset and duration of sleep were observed. A paradigm of anticonvulsant models (pentylenetetrazole, isoniazid and maximal electroshock-induced seizures) were used to evaluate its protective effect against absence and generalized types of seizures. Onset of clonic convulsions, tonic extension and time of death were observed in PTZ and INH-induced seizure models. In MES model, duration of tonic hind leg extension and onset of stupor were observed. Results: ACE showed significant increase in ketamine induced sleeping time. It also exhibited significant increase (P<0.05, 0.01 and 0.001) in latency to clonic convulsion, tonic extension and time of death in PTZ and INH models at all tested doses, whereas in the MES model, the lower dose was found to be effective when compared with the higher doses (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusion: The results of the present investigation demonstrated that ACE possesses sedative and antiepileptic activities. PMID:22144777

  5. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Kalpesh Ramdas; Patil, Chandragouda Raosaheb; Jadhav, Ramchandra Baburao; Mahajan, Vallabh Krishnalal; Patil, Prabhakar Raosaheb; Gaikwad, Pradeep Sampatrao

    2011-01-01

    The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA) and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10?mg?kg?1?day?1, p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders. PMID:19770265

  6. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb. on paracetamol induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Sabeena Hussain; Namdeo, Ajay Gajanan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum (E. monogynum) on paracetamol induced toxicity. Methods Methanolic extract of leaves of E. monogynum was given in doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for 7 d and toxicity was induced by paracetamol (2 mg/kg) on Day 8. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was used as reference standard. After 24 h of toxicity induction blood samples were collected from retro-orbital plexsus and analyzed for serum parameters like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminse, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Livers isolated were studied for histopathological changes. Results Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of E. monogynum leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. Prior administration of this extract restored the elevated levels serum markers as compared to toxic group which is also confirmed by the histopathological changes observed. Conclusions The present study showed that methanolic extract of leaves of E. monogynum possess hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. The constituents from the stems of Garcinia cowa Roxb. and their cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Tian, Ze; Yang, Jun-shan

    2007-07-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides named garccowaside A, garccowaside B, garccowaside C, and three other known compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stems of Garcinia cowa. These structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Twelve compounds isolated from the stems of Garcinia cowa were tested for cytotoxic activities. PMID:17718199

  8. Effective Control of Postprandial Glucose Level through Inhibition of Intestinal Alpha Glucosidase by Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.)

    PubMed Central

    Ghadyale, Varsha; Takalikar, Shrihari; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of intestinal alpha glucosidase plays a major role in preventing rise in postprandial glucose level in diabetics. Cymbopogon martinii (CM) (family Poaceae) is used in traditional Indian medicine in treatment of diabetes mellitus. The alpha glucosidase inhibitory action of the plant is studied. The active component was separated using hot water extraction of the whole plant powder, differential solvent extraction, and silica gel column chromatography. The 30?:?70 toluene : ethyl acetate fraction showed optimum activity. The silica gel chromatography fraction demonstrated 98, 98, and 68% inhibition for starch, maltose, and sucrose, respectively, at 5?mg/kg body weight of rats. Intestinal absorption studies using noneverted intestinal sacs, as well as in vivo studies in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using oral glucose tolerance with maltose and sucrose load, revealed better inhibition of alpha glucosidase as compared to acarbose. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver Burk plot showed mixed to noncompetitive type of inhibition by CM. In vivo studies with maltose load of 2?mg and 3?mg/gm body weight showed a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition at 5?mg/kg body weight of CM as against 60?mg/kg body weight of acarbose. Thus CM is more effective alpha glucosidase inhibitor and at lower concentration than acarbose. PMID:21792369

  9. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on damping-off disease in Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. TABIN; A. ARUNACHALAM; K. SHRIVASTAVA; K. ARUNACHALAM

    Damping-off disease of Aquilaria agallocha seedlings caused by the pathogenic fungus (Pythium aphanidermatum) results in poor regeneration under natural conditions and in the nursery. In the present study, Glomus fasciculatum, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus was examined for its ability to reduce the rotting incidence of Aquilaria seedlings. Dual inoculations (AM+pathogen) restricted the progression of the pathogen in the root

  10. Clot Lysis and Antimitotic Study of Ficus glomerata Roxb Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shivasharanappa, Kirankumar; Londonkar, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the thrombolytic and antimitotic potentiality of various extracts of fruits of Ficus glomerata, a traditional medicinal plant, using an in vitro assay method. Three crude extracts such as petroleum ether (FGPE), chloroform (FGCE), and methanol (FGME) were used for the study, with a standard (streptokinase) and negative control (sterile distilled water) to validate the method. The thrombolytic nature of the plant was found significant with methanol extract and chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have recorded mild activity, when compared with the negative control (sterile distilled water). The extracts have shown mild clot lysis, that is, 2.16%, 23.06%, 27.60%, and 47.74% of sterile distilled water, FGPE, FGCE, and FGME, respectively, while the standard (streptokinase) has shown 74.22% clot lysis. FGME inhibited the root growth in number as well as length effectively, followed by FGPE, while FGCE exhibited moderate antimitotic activity and it was supported by mitotic index. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that among all the extracts of plant the methanolic extract has shown highest thrombolytic and antimitotic activity. PMID:25006495

  11. Remediation of nutrient-rich waters using the terrestrial plant, Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.

    PubMed

    Han, Ping; Kumar, Prakash; Ong, Bee-Lian

    2014-02-01

    Effective control of eutrophication is generally established through the reduction of nutrient loading into waterways and water bodies. An economically viable and ecologically sustainable approach to nutrient pollution control could involve the integration of retention ponds, wetlands and greenways into water management systems. Plants not only play an invaluable role in the assimilation and removal of nutrients, but they also support fauna richness and can be aesthetically pleasing. Pandanus amaryllifolius, a tropical terrestrial plant, was found to establish well in hydrophytic conditions and was highly effective in remediating high nutrient levels in an aquatic environment showing 100% removal of NO3(-)-N up to 200 mg/L in 14 days. Phosphate uptake by the plant was less efficient with 64% of the PO4(-)-P removed at the maximum concentration of 100 mg/L at the end of 6 weeks. With its high NO3(-)-N and PO4(3-)-P removal efficiency, P. amaryllifolius depleted the nutrient-rich media and markedly contained the natural colonization of algae. The impediment of algal growth led to improvements in the water quality with significant decreases in turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, the plants did not show stress symptoms when grown in high nutrient levels as shown by the changes in their biomass, total soluble proteins and chlorophyll accumulation as well as photochemical efficiency. Thus, P. amaryllifolius is a potential candidate for the mitigation of nutrient pollution in phytoremediation systems in the tropics as the plant requires low maintenance, is tolerant to the natural variability of weather conditions and fluctuating hydro-periods, and exhibit good nutrient removal capabilities. PMID:25076532

  12. In Vitro antimycotic activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. against opportunistic filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2007-05-01

    Xanthorrhizol was isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Zingiberaceae) and its in vitro activity against opportunistic filamentous fungi was evaluated using the NCCLS (M38-A) standard method. Xanthorrhizol was found to be active against all the species tested, namely Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes: the MICs being 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 4.0, 1.0 and 1.0 microg/mL, while the MFCs were 4.0, 4.0, 4.0, 8.0, 2.0 and 2.0 microg/mL, respectively. The susceptibility of six species of filamentous fungi to xanthorrhizol was comparable to that of the commercial antifungal, amphotericin B. Xanthorrhizol also has activity to inhibit the conidial germination of all tested species. The results strongly suggest that xanthorrhizol can be developed as a natural antifungal agent. PMID:17236167

  13. A testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive triggers photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1986-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is triggered by a testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive or by a photoperiod-induced hypersensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to testosterone negative feedback. Photosensitive male tree sparrows were transferred from 8 h light:16 h darkness (8L:16D) to 20L:4D. Birds were castrated bilaterally on day 28 of photostimulation. Beginning on day 33 and weekly thereafter until day 54, birds were given replacement testosterone (0-1.49 mumol) in s.c. polydimethylsiloxane capsules. Plasma samples collected on days 36, 43, 50 and 57 were assayed for LH. Plasma LH concentrations in birds without replacement testosterone were regarded as reflecting net photoperiodic drive in the absence of testosterone feedback, and the slopes of curves relating the logarithm of plasma LH concentration to dose of replacement testosterone were taken as quantitative measures of testosterone feedback sensitivity. The results showed that a testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive beginning between days 43 and 50 preceded any change in sensitivity to testosterone negative feedback. Such results provide compelling evidence that a testosterone-independent mechanism triggers the photorefractory state in male tree sparrows. PMID:3701241

  14. The drive on luteinizing hormone secretion in castrated tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to short days is daylength independent.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1990-03-01

    For many, if not most, photoperiodic species of birds, short days are nongonadostimulatory. The tacit assumption that short days are also nonphotostimulatory was tested by determining whether plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) in castrated tree sparrows exposed to short daily photoperiods (8 hr or less) are daylength dependent or independent. Castration of tree sparrows held on an 8-hr daily photoperiod evoked, within 2 weeks, a fivefold elevation in plasma LH concentration. Over the next 24 weeks, plasma LH concentrations of castrated birds were resistant, first to a stepwise reduction in daylength from 8 to 2 hr and later to a 2-, 4-, or 6-hr increase therein. At no time did LH concentrations differ among castrated birds held on the same or different short-day photoregimes. Conversely, at all times, LH concentrations of castrated birds, regardless of photoperiodic history, exceeded those of intact males held on an 8-hr daily photoperiod and sampled at the beginning of the experiment. These data, which argue that the drive on LH secretion in castrated tree sparrows exposed to short days is daylength independent and, therefore, likely intrinsic, verify the tacit assumption that short days are nonphotostimulatory. PMID:2338227

  15. Androgen feedback-dependent and -independent control of photoinduced LH secretion in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1985-04-01

    Photoperiodic control of gonadotrophin secretion in male tree sparrows was studied by examining changes in plasma LH in castrated birds retained on short daylengths and in castrated birds transferred to long daylengths. Plasma LH concentrations were markedly higher in photostimulated birds than in non-photostimulated birds throughout the 25-day experiment, and implantation of the antiandrogen cyproterone (free alcohol), which should have blocked the action of castration-resistant androgens, did not increase plasma LH in either group. Such results, obtained from birds in which testosterone feedback was inoperative, indicate that the gonadostimulatory effect of long daylengths in intact males must be mediated, at least in part, by an androgen feedback-independent mechanism. To determine whether changes in testosterone feedback facilitate gonadotrophin secretion during photostimulation, two feedback performance characteristics (i.e. set point (minimum concentration of testosterone that suppresses plasma LH) and sensitivity (change in plasma LH per unit change in testosterone)) were quantified by evaluating plasma LH responses of non-photostimulated castrated birds and of photostimulated castrated birds to replacement testosterone (0-4.16 mumol). The data indicate that, in addition to stimulating LH secretion by an androgen feedback-independent mechanism, long daylengths reduce feedback inhibition of LH secretion by increasing the putative set point and decreasing the sensitivity of the testosterone feedback mechanism. The feedback-independent effect is the predominant effect of photostimulation on LH secretion in male tree sparrows. PMID:3989422

  16. Testis-dependent and -independent effects of photoperiod on volumes of song control nuclei in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Bernard, D J; Wilson, F E; Ball, G F

    1997-06-20

    Songbirds exhibit seasonal changes in the volumes of song control nuclei. Birds on long, spring-like days have larger nuclei than do birds on short, winter-like days. The mechanisms mediating volumetric changes have not been determined unequivocally, but testosterone (T) is probably involved. This study examined whether testicular factors are uniquely responsible for seasonal changes in the song system, or whether photoperiod has testis-independent effects. Male American tree sparrows were exposed to one of three photoperiodic conditions: (1) Photosensitive birds were retained on short days (8L:16D). Plasma T is rarely detected in such birds. (2) Photosensitive birds were moved from short days to long days (20L:4D) and photostimulated for three weeks. Photostimulation elevates circulating T in photosensitive birds. (3) Photorefractory birds were held at least four months on 20L:4D. Such birds seldom have detectable levels of T, even though they are on long days. In each condition, there were both intact and castrated birds. Castration typically removes circulating T in tree sparrows. The volumes of the high vocal center (HVC), nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), and area X were measured. Song nuclei were largest in intact photostimulated birds. Other long-day birds (i.e. castrated photostimulated, and intact and castrated photorefractory groups) had larger song nuclei than did short-day intact or castrated photosensitive birds and did not differ from each other. These data indicate that photoperiod has both testis-dependent and -independent effects on the volumes of song control nuclei. PMID:9237531

  17. Testis-dependent and -independent effects of photoperiod on volumes of song control nuclei in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Bernard; Fred E. Wilson; Gregory F. Ball

    1997-01-01

    Songbirds exhibit seasonal changes in the volumes of song control nuclei. Birds on long, spring-like days have larger nuclei than do birds on short, winter-like days. The mechanisms mediating volumetric changes have not been determined unequivocally, but testosterone (T) is probably involved. This study examined whether testicular factors are uniquely responsible for seasonal changes in the song system, or whether

  18. Sustainable Harvesting of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arnot (Arjuna) and Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) Robinson (Maida) Bark in Central India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok K. Pandey; Asim K. Mandal

    2011-01-01

    Terminalia arjuna (“Arjuna”) in the family Combretaceae is a well-known medicinal tree whose bark is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine, particularly as cardiac tonic. Demand for Arjuna bark, both in India and abroad has been growing rapidly for over a decade. Litsea glutinosa (“Maida”) in the family Lauraceae is a medium size tree. Its bark is used to treat joint

  19. Sustainable Harvesting of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arnot (Arjuna) and Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) Robinson (Maida) Bark in Central India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok K. Pandey; Asim K. Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Terminalia arjuna (“Arjuna”) in the family Combretaceae is a well-known medicinal tree whose bark is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine, particularly as a cardiac tonic. Demand for Arjuna bark, both in India and abroad, has been growing rapidly for over a decade. Litsea glutinosa (“Maida”) in the family Lauraceae is a medium size tree. Its bark is used to treat

  20. Inositol methyl tranferase from a halophytic wild rice, Porteresia coarctata Roxb. (Tateoka): regulation of pinitol synthesis under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sonali; Patra, Barunava; Ray, Sudipta; Majumder, Arun Lahiri

    2008-10-01

    Methylated inositol D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol) accumulates in a number of plants naturally or in response to stress. Here, we present evidence for accumulation and salt-enhanced synthesis of pinitol in Porteresia coarctata, a halophytic wild rice, in contrast to its absence in domesticated rice. A cDNA for Porteresia coarctata inositol methyl transferase 1 (PcIMT1), coding for the inositol methyl transferase implicated in the synthesis of pinitol has been cloned from P. coarctata, bacterially overexpressed and shown to be functional in vitro. In silico analysis confirms the absence of an IMT1 homolog in Oryza genome, and PcIMT1 is identified as phylogenetically remotely related to the methyl transferase gene family in rice. Both transcript and proteomic analysis show the up-regulation of PcIMT1 expression following exposure to salinity. Coordinated expression of L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (PcINO1) gene along with PcIMT1 indicates that in P. coarctata, accumulation of pinitol via inositol is a stress-regulated pathway. The presence of pinitol synthesizing protein/gene in a wild halophytic rice is remarkable, although its exact role in salt tolerance of P. coarctata cannot be currently ascertained. The enhanced synthesis of pinitol in Porteresia under stress may be one of the adaptive features employed by the plant in addition to its known salt-exclusion mechanism. PMID:18643954

  1. Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. Methods The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 ?g/disc. Kanamycin (30 ?g/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Results The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 ?g/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 ?g/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p?

  2. Caffeine affects adventitious rooting and causes biochemical changes in the hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daizy R. Batish; Harminder Pal Singh; Mansimran Kaur; Ravinder Kumar Kohli; Surender Singh Yadav

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a purine alkaloid found naturally in over 100 plant species, has recently been viewed\\u000a as a safe chemical for management of pests including molluscs, slugs, snails, bacteria, and as a bird deterrent. It possesses\\u000a phytotoxicity against plant species, yet the mechanism of action is lacking. A study was conducted to determine the effect\\u000a of caffeine on the rooting

  3. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  4. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity and acute oral toxicity of standardized ethanolic extract of the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Sutha; Esfahani, Azadeh Sabetghadam; Ismail, Sabariah; Ramanathan, Surash; Yam, Mun Fei

    2010-04-01

    Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300-5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the paw licking time of rats in both early and late phases at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. In the acute oral toxicity study, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:20428088

  5. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals

  6. Profiling of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant and anticancer activities in pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) extracts from different locations of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytochemicals and antioxidants from plant sources are of increasing interest to consumers because of their roles in the maintenance of human health. Most of the secondary metabolites of herbs are used in a number of pharmaceutical products. Methods Secondary metabolites composition and content of five flavonoids and three phenolic acids were evaluated and determined in Pandanus amaryllifolius extracts from three different locations of Malaysia by RP-HPLC; Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay; The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) Assay was employed to screen anticancer activity of extracts against MCF-7 cancer cell line. Results Highest value of total flavonoids (TF) and total phenolics (TP) was observed in pandan extract from Bachok locattion (1.87 mg/g DW and 6.72 mg/g DW) followed by Klang (1.32 mg/g DW; 5.07 mg/g DW) and Pontian (1.12 mg/g DW; 4.88 mg/g DW). Rutin just detected from Bachok location with value of 0.082 mg/g DW. High content of epicatechin (0.035 mg/g DW) and naringin (0.325 mg/g DW) were observed from Bachok location while, highest content of catechin (0.613 mg/g DW) and kaempferol (0.278 mg/g DW) was observed in pandan extract from Klang location. The extract of pandan from Bachok exhibited highest value of gallic acid (0.423 mg/g DW) and cinnamic acid (0.084 mg/g DW). Ferrulic acid just detected from pandan extract of Bachok location with concentration of 0.281mg/g DW. Between studied locations Bachok exhibited highest value of DPPH (64.27%) and FRAP (517.2 ?m of Fe (II)/g) activity followed by Klang (52.16%; 448.6 ?m of Fe (II)/g) and Pontian (50.10%; 314.8 ?m of Fe (II)/g). The preliminary screening showed pandan extracts from 3 locations possessed anticancer promoting activity against MCF-7 cell line, with 78.3%, 70.5% and 67.4% inhibition rate, respectively. Maximum MCF-7cell line inhibition was observed in pandan extract from Bachok location. Conclusions The samples collected from the North (Bachok) exhibited the highest TP, TF antioxidant and anticancer activity while those from the Southern portion (Pontian) appeared to have the lowest content of TP, TF and antioxidant activity. PMID:24289290

  7. Insulin-secretagogue, antihyperlipidemic and other protective effects of gallic acid isolated from Terminalia bellerica Roxb. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cecily Rosemary Latha; P. Daisy

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus causes derangement of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism which eventually leads to a number of secondary complications. Terminalia bellerica is widely used in Indian medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes. The present study was carried out to isolate and identify the putative antidiabetic compound from the fruit rind of T. bellerica and assess its chemico-biological interaction in

  8. SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN THE TREE SPARROW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. MARGUERITE BAUMGARTNER

    row (Spizella arborea arborea), except for the description of molt which will be treated in full, only full-grown birds will be discussed. The growth of the nestling, development of feather tracts, etc., are a chapter in themselves and must be presented elsewhere. The following observations are based on specimens collected at Ithaca, New York, from October through April, and at

  9. Mycorrhiza (2006) 16: 125132 DOI 10.1007/s00572-005-0024-7

    E-print Network

    Thioulouse, Jean

    2006-01-01

    ) the effect on the growth of G. arborea, (2) the impact on the catabolic diversity of soil microbial) inoculation. After 4 months' culture in autoclaved soil, G. arborea seedlings were either harvested for growth was significantly and positively correlated with plant diversity. The substrate-induced respiration response

  10. Abstract.--Modulation of the adrenocortical stress response with respect to the degree of parental activity was investigated in three Arctic-breeding species of songbirds faced with lim-

    E-print Network

    Holberton, Rebecca L.

    sexo y entre sexos en individuos de Spizella arborea, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii y Passerculus and between both sexes of American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea), White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii), and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) breeding above the Arctic Circle

  11. Nutritional and microbiological features of little known legumes, Canavalia cathartica Thouars and C. maritima Thouars of the southwest coast of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Seena; K. R. Sridhar

    1 . The CSDs and mangroves of the southwest coast of India are rich niches for two under-exploited legumes, Canavalia cathartica Thouars (synonyms: C. m icrocarpa (DC.) Piper; C. turgida Graham ex A. Gray; C. virosa (Roxb.) Wight et Arn.; Dolichos virosus Roxb.; Lablab microcar- pus DC.), and Canavalia maritima Thouars (synonyms: C. lineata (Thunb.) DC.; C. obtusifolia (Lam.) DC.;

  12. Regional Variation in Non-Timber Forest Product Harvest Strategies, Trade, and Ecological Impacts: the Case of Black Dammar (Canarium strictum Roxb.) Use and Conservation in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Varghese; Tamara Ticktin

    2008-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide depend on the harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFP) for their livelihoods, and the importance of understanding the complex relationships between NTFP harvest and conservation is increasingly recognized. This study employs a cross-disciplinary, regional approach to identify some of the links between patterns of harvest, trade, and conservation of one of South India's most heavily harvested

  13. Heat-stress induced inhibition in growth and chlorosis in mungbean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is partly mitigated by ascorbic acid application and is related to reduction in oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramanpreet Kaur; Navneet Kaur; Kalpna Bhandhari; Neeru Kaushal; Kriti Gupta; T. S. Bains; Harsh Nayyar

    The rising temperatures (>35°C) are proving detrimental to summer-sown mungbean genotypes that experience inhibition of vegetative\\u000a and reproductive growth. In the present study, the mungbean plants growing hydroponically at varying temperatures of 30\\/20°C\\u000a (control), 35\\/25, 40\\/30, and 45\\/35°C (as day\\/night 12 h\\/12 h) with (50 ?M) or without ascorbic acid (ASC) were investigated\\u000a for effects on growth, membrane damage, chlorophyll loss, leaf water

  14. Rapid clonal propagation of three mulberries, Morus cathayana Hemsl., M. lhou Koiz. and M. serrata Roxb., through in vitro culture of apical shoot buds and nodal explants from mature trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pattnaik; P. K. Chand

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical shoot buds and nodal explants of Morus cathayana, M. lhou and M. serrata on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5-1.0 mg\\/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Addition of gibberellic acid (0.4 mg\\/l) along with BAP induced faster bud break both in apical shoot buds and nodal explants and also enhanced the frequency

  15. Rapid clonal propagation of three mulberries, Morus cathayana HemsL, M. lhou Koiz. and M. serrata Roxb., through in vitro culture of apical shoot buds and nodal explants from mature trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pattnaik; P. K. Chand

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical shoot buds and nodal explants ofMorus cathayana, M. lhou andM. serrata on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5–1.0 mg\\/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Addition of gibberellic acid (0.4 mg\\/l) along with BAP induced faster bud break both in apical shoot buds and nodal explants and also enhanced the frequency of bud

  16. Original Texas Land Survey as a Source for Pre-European Settlement Vegetation Mapping

    E-print Network

    Srinath, Indumathi

    2012-02-14

    and shrubs and woody vines such as Sophora affinis, Daubentonia longifolia, Cissus ampelops i s , C. arborea, Tecoma radicans and Clematis pitcher . Originally, these bottomlands were forested with a heavy growth of elm, hackberry, ash, pecan...

  17. vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA

    E-print Network

    Carrascal, Luis M.

    daurica Golondrina Dáurica 96 Hirundo rustica Golondrina Común 100 3 Lanius excubitor Alcaudón Real 92 3 Lanius senator Alcaudón Común 96 2 Lullula arborea Totovía 64 2 link Luscinia megarhynchos Ruiseñor Común

  18. vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA

    E-print Network

    Carrascal, Luis M.

    torquilla Torcecuello 48 3 link Lanius collurio Alcaudón Dorsirrojo 4 3 Lanius excubitor Alcaudón Real 76 3 Lanius senator Alcaudón Común 84 2 Loxia curvirostra Piquituerto Común 28 Lullula arborea Totovía 52 2

  19. vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA

    E-print Network

    Carrascal, Luis M.

    Dáurica 100 Hirundo rustica Golondrina Común 100 3 Jynx torquilla Torcecuello 24 3 link Lanius excubitor Alcaudón Real 84 3 Lanius senator Alcaudón Común 96 2 Lullula arborea Totovía 48 2 link Luscinia

  20. vertebradosibericos.org -AVES >> Presentacin del Atlas Virtual >> Mapas de distribucin y listado de especies ATLAS VIRTUAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES DE ESPAA

    E-print Network

    Carrascal, Luis M.

    Lanius excubitor Alcaudón Real 4 3 Loxia curvirostra Piquituerto Común 66 Lullula arborea Totovía 45 2 torquilla Torcecuello 25 3 link Lagopus mutus Lagópodo Alpino 54 + Lanius collurio Alcaudón Dorsirrojo 62 3

  1. Plantation forestry and forest conservation in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Aweto

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the depletion of Nigeria's natural forest resources consequent upon exploitation without adequate conservation. It also examines plantation forestry as the government's strategy for replenishing the country's lumber resources. It argues that it is ecologically unwise to clear-fell reserves of native rain forest and replant them with monoculture tree plantations, especially of the exotics, teak and gmelina, and

  2. The Origin of Indian Corn and its Relatives.

    E-print Network

    Mangelsdorf, Paul C. (Paul Christoph); Reeves, R. G. (Robert Gatlin)

    1939-01-01

    spathe flattened on one side with two longitudinal furrows; not constricted transversely. South India, Deccan, Bengal, United Provinces, Burma; Afghanistan, East Indies, Nagasaki, Yokohama. C. aqltatica Roxb. (Coix gigantea var. aquatica Watt). Plant...

  3. Original article Pattern of nectar secretion in wild cherry, Prunus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Pattern of nectar secretion in wild cherry, Prunus puddum Roxb, and the associated and their presence is of utmost importance for beekeeping in Himachal Pradesh, India. Wild cherry, Prunus pud- dum

  4. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 106) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 106) and C. arborea (45 × 106), respectively. The increase in height (60–70?cm), number of leaves (600–650), and yield of chili (120–150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  5. The influence of plant water stress on stomatal control of gas exchange at different levels of atmospheric humidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Osonubi; W. J. Davies

    1980-01-01

    Leaves of well-watered and mildly water-stressed seedlings of Betula pendula Roth. and Gmelina aroborea L. were subjected to a range of vapour pressure deficits (VPD) between 10 and 24 kPa. The stomatal conductance of birch seedlings decreased as VPD was increased and at least in mildly-stressed seedlings this response seemed to be closely linked to the water status of the

  6. Amino acid sequences of ferredoxins from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger: their similarities to those in other tropane-alkaloid-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Mino, Yoshiki; Yukita, Mayumi; Hiratsuka, Nobuhiro; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2005-08-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger have been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire S-carboxymethylcysteinyl proteins and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion. These two ferredoxins exhibited 1-8 differences in their amino acid sequences compared to those of other tropane-alkaloid-containing plants (Scopolia japonica, Datura stramonium, D. metel, and D. arborea), and only 1 or 4 differences compared to S. japonica and D. arborea. In contrast, 9-23 differences were observed among the other solanaceous ferredoxins. This suggests that tropane-alkaloid-containing plants are closely related taxonomically. PMID:16079510

  7. Leaf gas exchange characteristics and water- and nitrogen-use efficiencies of dominant grass and tree species in a West African savanna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Simioni; Xavier Le Roux; Jacques Gignoux; Adrian S. Walcroft

    2004-01-01

    Whereas leaf gas exchange properties are important to assess carbon and water fluxes in ecosystems worldwide, information of this type is scarce for savanna species. In this study, gas exchange characteristics of 2 C4 grass species (Andropogon canaliculatus and Hyparrhenia diplandra) and 2 C3 tree species (Crossopteryx febrifuga and Cussonia arborea) from the West-African savanna of Lamto (Ivory Coast) were

  8. Stem and root anatomical correlations with life form diversity, ecology, and systematics in Moringa (Moringaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. OLSON; S. CARLQUIST

    2001-01-01

    Four life forms (habits) are identified in the 13 species of Moringa (bottle trees, sarcorhizal trees, slender trees, and tuberous shrubs) which are examined for wood anatomical correlations with habit, ecology, and systematics. Wood anatomy is similar within habit classes except for the sarcorhizal trees. The four bottle tree species and M. arborea (one of the sarcorhizal trees) are characterized

  9. INCORPORATING OCCUPANCY MODELS IN DESIGNING STUDIES OF ANIMAL DISTRIBUTION: A GLIMPSE ON THE HABITAT USE OF AN AMPHIBIAN IN THE SAXON LANDSCAPES OF TRANSYLVANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIBOR HARTEL; COSMIN IOAN MOGA

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY. The importance of occupancy models in studying the habitat use and distribution of organisms was only relatively recently emphasized. Their advantage is that allow to predict the site occupancy and at the same time to quantitatively estimate the detection probability of the studied organism. Here we apply for the first time in Romania these models on Hyla arborea, a

  10. Distribution of amphibian larvae in Israeli habitats with changeable water availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gad Degani; Didi Kaplan

    1999-01-01

    Forty-one amphibian habitats of various types in northern Israel were examined, in which water availability ranged from one month in the year to all year round. Larvae of all six species of amphibians native to the region, Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vittatus (Urodela), Hyla arborea, Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda and Pelobates syriacus (Anura), were studied. The distribution of the species was

  11. A frog's-eye view of the landscape. Quantifying connectivity for fragmented amphibian populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Vos

    1999-01-01

    The spatial habitat requirements are studied for two amphibian species: the tree frog ( Hyla arborea ) and the moor frog ( Rana arvalis ). Fragmentation, the destruction of suitable habitat, results in small fragments that are separated by unsuitable habitat or barriers. Metapopulation theory implies that a species can survive on a regional level if local extinctions are compensated

  12. New records and range extensions in the North American lignicolous lichen flora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby Spribille; Curtis R. Björk

    Based on recent intensive studies of wood-dwelling lichens especially in western North America, we report a series of new records and range extensions. Six species are reported as new to North America: Arthonia ligniariella, Elixia flexella, Gyalideopsis helvetica, Lecidea scabridula, Lecidea symmictella and Xyloschistes platytropa. Chaenothecopsis nigra is again confirmed for North America. Buellia arborea, B. chloroleuca, Catillaria erysiboides, and

  13. A study of the mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Busti; F. Pupilli; F. De Marchis; S. Arcioni

    SUMMARY - Three somatic hybrid plants produced by protoplast fusion between Medicago sativa and each of the three species M. coerulea, M. falcata and M. arborea have been analysed for the composition of their mitochondrial DNA. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial genes in somatic hybrids and their parental lines showed various degrees of rearrangement. The M. sativa + M. coerulea

  14. Increased sensitivity of the serotonergic system during the breeding season in free-living American tree sparrows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd S. Sperry; Ignacio T. Moore; Simone L. Meddle; Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks; John C. Wingfield

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the physiological role of serotonin in regulating aggressive behaviour it is important to understand how this neuromodulator acts within the context of a naturally fluctuating social and physical environment. To accomplish this, we examined the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine during the breeding season in free-living male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in

  15. Long Days and Thyroxine Program American Tree Sparrows for Seasonality: Evidence for Temporal Flexibility of the Breeding Season of Euthyroid Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred E Wilson; Bryan D Reinert

    1999-01-01

    To explore the role of the thyroid in the control of seasonality, photosensitive female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were thyroidectomized (THX), moved to long days, and given daily injections of thyroxine (T4) for 3 weeks; THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received daily injections of alkaline vehicle. Birds were retained on long days 4 additional weeks and then moved to

  16. Avian seed preference and weight loss experiments: the effect of fungal endophyte-infected tall fescue seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Wolock Madej; Keith Clay

    1991-01-01

    The impact of endophytic fungus-infected seeds on seed predators is poorly understood. In this multiple trophic level investigation, seed preference experiments were conducted to determine whether five species of passerines (dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis; American tree sparrows, Spizella arborea; song sparrows, Melospiza melodia; chipping sparrows, Spizella pusilla; and house sparrows, Passer domesticus) recognize and preferentially consume noninfected (NI) over infected

  17. APPENDIX E: Vegetative species list of the Forest Lake Club, Pike Co., PA. Species are listed in alphabetical order according to scientific name

    E-print Network

    Syring, John

    /River floodplains Tree Betulaceae Betula papyrifera Paper birch Disturbed woods Tree Betulaceae Betula populifolia Amelanchier arborea Downy serviceberry Woods Tree Betulaceae Betula alleghaniensis Yellow birch Drainages Tree Betulaceae Betula lenta Sweet birch Disturbed woods Tree Betulaceae Betula nigra River birch Lake margin

  18. Studien an der Epiphysis cerebri und am Subcommissuralorgan der Frösche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Mautner

    1965-01-01

    1.In anaesthetized frogs (Rana temporaria L., Rana esculenta L., Hyla arborea L.) an in vivo examination of the roof of the brain is possible after the removal of the skull.2.Under the microscope the pineal gland shows a dense capillary network, that is to be considered as part of the extensive periventricular network. The afferent arteries of this vascular system are

  19. Efficient leaf ion partitioning, an overriding condition for abscisic acid-controlled stomatal and leaf growth responses to NaCl salinization in two legumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John V. Sibole; Catalina Cabot; Charlotte Poschenrieder; Juan Barcelo

    2003-01-01

    Two tree medics contrasting in salt tolerance, Medicago arborea and Medicago citrina, were com- pared to evaluate the relative importance of abscisic acid on leaf growth and stomatal responses to salt stress. Plants were grown for 30 d in solution culture with 1, 50, 100 or 200 mM NaCl. Salinized plants of M. citrina had lower Na+ and Cl- uptake

  20. Heathland and acid grassland creation on arable soils at Minsmere: identification of potential problems and a test of cropping to impoverish soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Marrs; C. S. R. Snow; K. M. Owen; C. E. Evans

    1998-01-01

    The RSPB is attempting to establish heathland and acid grassland on 158 ha of arable land at Minsmere, ultimately to benefit two species of rare breeding birds, the stone curlew Burhinus oedicnemus and the woodlark Lullula arborea. An initial study of the arable soils was carried out to assess their suitability for the establishment of Calluna heathland and acid grassland.

  1. Allegheny Institute of Natural History University of Pittsburgh at Bradford

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    , its young leaves are white- hairy beneath and have large, curved teeth on the margin. 18. Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea)--shrub or small tree, with smooth, light gray bark with longitudinal dark stripes. Striking display of white flowers on hillsides in early spring before most leaves unfold. Wildlife eat

  2. Feeding preferences and the relationships between food choice and assimilation efficiency in the herbivorous marine snail Lithopoma undosum (Turbinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Erin Cox; Steven N. Murray

    2006-01-01

    Preference rankings for 13 macrophytes were established for the subtidal herbivorous snail Lithopoma undosum using two-choice laboratory experiments and consumption rates. L. undosum did not discriminate among three kelp foods (Egregia menziesii, Eisenia arborea and Macrocystis pyrifera) but ate kelp preferentially and more rapidly over all but Ulva spp. among tested macrophytes. Secondary preferences were established for the red alga

  3. The effects of natural and induced short-term floods on four sugarcane accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated at the USDA/ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, FL to evaluate the potential for flood tolerance in several accessions from Saccharum barberi (Jeswiet) and S. sinense (Roxb. Amend. Jeswiet) sugarcane genera. The experimental design included 4 accessions, Kewal...

  4. Aphidicidal activity of some indigenous plant extracts against bean aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bidhan Chandra Das; Pankoj Kumar Sarker

    2008-01-01

    Aphidicidal activity of hot and cold water extracts of some indigenous plants, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem), Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton (akanda), Polygonum hydropiper L. (biskatali) and Ipomoea sepiaria J. Koenig ex Roxb. (bankalmi), were tested against the bean aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. Hot water extract of P. hydropiper and A. indica was found to be the most effective

  5. Starch grain breakdown in cotyledon cells of germinating mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Harris, N

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of the breakdown of starch grains during the mobilisation of reserves in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. seed germination are described. The starch grains show erosion from within leading to the formation of a hollow shell. The erosion is accompanied by intrusion of cytoplasm into the shell. No evidence of a vesicular transport system to or from the eroding face was found. PMID:24430969

  6. Molecular, functional and ultrastructural characterisation of plastids from six species of the parasitic flowering plant genus Cuscuta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. W. van der Kooij; K. Krause; I. Dörr; K. Krupinska

    2000-01-01

    .  ?Plastids of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., C. subinclusa D. et H., C. gronovii Willd. and C. campestris Yunck. possess thylakoids and contain both chlorophyll a and b in a ratio similar to that of stem tissue of the systematically closely related but ‘normal’ green Ipomoea tricolor. In contrast, plastids of C. odorata R. et P. and C. grandiflora H.B.K. do not

  7. Preliminary Assay on Antioxidative Activity of some Lauraceae Barks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pannee Denrungruang

    Hook. f.), ????? (Neolitsea zeylanica Merr.), ??????? (Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm.), ????? (Cinnamomum iners Blume), ?????? (Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr.), ?????? (Litsea petiolata Hook. f.), ????? (Persea kurzii Kosterm.) ??? ???????? (Litsea glutinosa C.B. Robins.) ??????????????????????????????????? DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) ??????????????????? ??? ??????????????????????? ????????????????????????????? 30 ???? ??? ???????????? ???????????????????????? (absorbance) ??? ??????????? ? 515 nm ????????? ?? UV-VIS spectrophotometer ????????? EC50

  8. Chemical Nature of a Plant-Virus Inhibitor from Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Jones; M. Jacobson; R. P. KAHN

    1959-01-01

    THE inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus infection of primary bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) by extracts of various portions of rice plants has been described recently1. The inhibitor or inhibitors present in rice resemble those derived from other plants such as spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.)2, poke weed (Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. var. esculenta)3, New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia expansa Murr.)4,

  9. Evaluation of certain leaf extracts against red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acarina: Tetranychidae) infesting tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duraikannu Vasanthakumar; Amsalingam Roobakkumar; Mariappan S. R. Subramaniam; Pandian Kumar; Chandran Sundaravadivelan; Azariah Babu

    2012-01-01

    Leaf extracts of some common plants such as Vitex negundo (Linn. & Paracetamol), Gliricidia maculata (HBK), Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck), Morinda tinctoria (Roxb) and Pongamia glabra (Vent) were evaluated for their acaricidal activity against the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae, in the laboratory using the leaf disc method under controlled conditions. Leaves collected from the above mentioned plants were shade-dried followed

  10. Effect of Soil Sodicity on the Growth and Cation Composition of Palmarosa and Lemongrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Prasad; Dinesh Kumar; D. V. Singh

    1998-01-01

    The effects of soil sodicity on the growth, yield, and cation composition of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud Wats) were studied in a pot experiment. The plant height, number of tillers, and herb yield of both species significantly decreased as the exchangeable sodium in soil increased. A 50 percent reduction in herb yield over control

  11. Effect of residual sodium carbonate in irrigation water on the soil sodication and yield of palmarosa ( Cymbopogon martinni) and lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Prasad; Dinesh Kumar; D. V. Singh

    2001-01-01

    The effects of residual sodium carbonate (RSC) in irrigation water on soil sodication and yield and cation composition of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats) and lemongrass (Cymbopogonflexuosus Steud Wats) were studied in the open bottom reinforced concrete cemented (RCC) cylindrical barrels embedded in the field and filled with sandy loam soils. The results indicated that the increasing RSC in irrigation

  12. CULTIVATED, DICOTYLEDONOUS TAXA AT THE NC STATE UNIVERSITY HERBARIUM

    E-print Network

    Krings, Alexander

    - lanaceae, Fabaceae, and Aceraceae (Table 1). The largest genera are Quercus (44 taxa), Acer (44 taxa. pungens Lindau Hygrophila H. polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson ACERACEAE 2/45 Acer A. argutum Maxim. A. A. nigrum Michx. A. opalus Mill. A. palmatum Thunb. A. pensylvanicum L. A. platanoides L. A

  13. Cloning and characterization of PR5 gene from Curcuma amada and Zingiber officinale in response to Ralstonia solanacearum infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Prasath; I. El-Sharkawy; S. Sherif; K. S. Tiwary; S. Jayasankar

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), is an important spice crop that is badly affected by Ralstonia solanacearum wilt. Ginger does not set seed and sexual recombination has never been reported. In spite of extensive search in its habitats,\\u000a no resistance source to Ralstonia induced bacterial wilt, could be located in ginger. Curcuma amada Roxb. is a potential donor for bacterial wilt

  14. Effects of flooding and salinity on photosynthesis and water relations of four Southeastern Coastal Plain forest species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. McLeod; J. K. McCarron; W. H. Conner

    1996-01-01

    The influence of flooding and salinity on photosynthesis and water relations was examined for four common coastal tree species [green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.). Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.), and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard)]. Both chronic (as might be associated with sea level rise) and acute (similar to hurricane storm surges) exposures to

  15. Flooding and salinity effects on growth and survival of four common forested wetland species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Conner; K. W. McLeod; J. K. McCarron

    1997-01-01

    The survival, growth, and biomass of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.), Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.), and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) seedlings were examined in an experiment varying water levels (watered, flooded) and salinity levels (0, 2, and 10 ppt, plus a simulated storm surge with 32 ppt saltwater). All seedlings, except for

  16. Relationships of the Woody Medicago Species (Section Dendrotelis) Assessed by Molecular Cytogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Marcela; Castro, Mercedes; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The organization of rDNA genes in the woody medic species from the agronomically important Medicago section Dendrotelis was analysed to gain insight into their taxonomic relationships, to assess the levels of infraspecific variation concerning ribosomal loci in a restricted and fragmented insular species (M. citrina) and to assess the nature of its polyploidy. Methods Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA genes in the three species of section Dendrotelis (M. arborea, M. citrina, M. strasseri) and the related M. marina from section Medicago. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to assess the genomic relationships of the polyploid M. citrina with the putatively related species from section Dendrotelis. Key Results The diploid (2n = 16) M. marina has a single 45S and two 5S rDNA loci, a pattern usually detected in previous studies of Medicago diploid species. However, polyploid species from section Dendrotelis depart from expectations. The tetraploid species (2n = 32) M. arborea and M. strasseri have one 45S rDNA locus and two 5S rDNA loci, whereas in the hexaploid (2n = 48) M. citrina four 45S rDNA and five 5S rDNA loci have been detected. No single chromosome of M. citrina was uniformly labelled after using genomic probes from M. arborea and M. strasseri. Instead, cross-hybridization signals in M. citrina were restricted to terminal chromosome arms and NOR regions. Conclusions FISH results support the close taxonomic interrelationship between M. arborea and M. strasseri. In these tetraploid species, NOR loci have experienced a diploidization event through physical loss of sequences, a cytogenetic feature so far not reported in other species of the genus. The high number of rDNA loci and GISH results support the specific status for the hexaploid M. citrina, and it is suggested that this species is not an autopolyploid derivative of M. arborea or M. strasseri. Further, molecular cytogenetic data do not suggest the hypothesis that M. arborea and M. strasseri were involved in the origin of M. citrina. FISH mapping can be used as an efficient tool to determine the genomic contribution of M. citrina in somatic hybrids with other medic species. PMID:18413655

  17. Density, climate and varying return points: an analysis of long-term population fluctuations in the threatened European tree frog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Pellet; Benedikt R. Schmidt; Fabien Fivaz; Nicolas Perrin; Kurt Grossenbacher

    2006-01-01

    Experimental research has identified many putative agents of amphibian decline, yet the population-level consequences of these agents remain unknown, owing to lack of information on compensatory density dependence in natural populations. Here, we investigate the relative importance of intrinsic (density-dependent) and extrinsic (climatic) factors impacting the dynamics of a tree frog (Hyla arborea) population over 22 years. A combination of log-linear

  18. New mitochondrial genome organization in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa including the parent-specific amplification of substoichiometric mitochondrial DNA units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pupilli; P. Labombarda; S. Arcioni

    2001-01-01

    Three somatic hybrid plants produced by protoplast fusion between Medicago sativa and each of the three species Medicago coerulea, Medicago falcata and Medicago arborea have been analysed for the composition of their mitochondrial DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis\\u000a of mitochondrial genes in somatic hybrids and their parental lines showed various degrees of rearrangement. The M. sativa+M. coerulea hybrid

  19. A repetitive and species-specific sequence as a tool for detecting the genome contribution in somatic hybrids of the genus Medicago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ornella Calderini; Fulvio Pupilli; Francesco Paolocci; Sergio Arcioni

    1997-01-01

    A highly repeated sequence (C300) was cloned from Medicago coerulea and its organization in the M. sativa-coerulea-falcata complex, M. arborea, and three somatic hybrids involving M. sativa, was investigated. Southern-blot analysis revealed a tandemly repeated array and a species-specificity of the sequence to\\u000a those species belonging to the complex. Various degrees of amplification of C300 were detected among the species

  20. Nitrogen and Carbon Concentrations, and Stable Isotope Ratios in Mediterranean Shrubs Growing in the Proximity of a CO 2 spring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tognetti; J. Peñuelas

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in foliage nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) concentrations and ?15N and ?13C ratios were monitored during a year in Erica arborea, Myrtus communis and Juniperus communis co-occurring at a natural CO2 spring (elevated [CO2], about 700 ?mol mol?1) and at a nearby control site (ambient [CO2], 360 ?mol mol?1) in a Mediterranean environment. Leaf N concentration was lower

  1. Comparative field water relations of three Mediterranean shrub species co-occurring at a natural CO2 vent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Tognetti; Antonio Minnocci; Josep Penuelas; Antonio Raschi; Mike B. Jones

    2000-01-01

    density and degree of sclerophylly) showed site- dependent variations, but degree and sign of such Annual variations in the water relations and stomatal changes varied with the species and\\/or the season. response of Erica arborea, Myrtus communis and Measurements of discrimination against 13C provided Juniperus communis occurring at a natural CO 2 vent evidence for long-term decreases of water use

  2. Plants of Ornamental Value for the Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    E-print Network

    Friend, W. H. (William Heartsill)

    1942-01-01

    , Huisache, Retama, Orchid Tree, Desert Willow (Chilopsis linearis), Bignonia Tree (Tabebuia species). and Coral Tree (Erythrina herbacea var. arborea). Specimen trees should be used with care to add interest to the landscape scheme. Monkey Puzzle...-E VALLEY OF 'TEXBS 10 floral arrangements. A. Caileyana produces gray-green foliage and yellow globular flower clusters. A. BaiZeyana var. purpurea produces very small blue-green foliage tipped with purple. (Leguminosae.) Acacia ctcltriformis. Knife...

  3. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts from eleven spice plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömer Ertürk

    2006-01-01

    Eleven ethanolic extracts from spices of Melissa officinalis, Mentha piperita, Laurus nobilis, Rhus coriaria, Dianthus coryophyllum, Piper nigrum, Capsicum annum,\\u000a Juniperus oxycedrus, Erica arborea, Colutea arborescens, and Cuminum cyminum collected from various regions of Turkey and local markets were assayed for the in vitro antibacterial activity against 3 Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and 2 Gram-negative bacteria

  4. Epiphytic lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Steševi?, Danijela; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 120 taxa of lichens (117 species) and three species of lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro is presented. The lichens Biatora chrysantha, Caloplaca monacensis, Candelariella efflorescens, Loxospora elatina, Micarea adnata, Ochrolechia arborea, O. microstictoides, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physconia enteroxantha, Ph. grisea, Rinodina capensis, R. polysporoides, R. pyrina, Scoliciosporum umbrinum var. corticolum, Xanthoria candelaria, X. ulophyllodes and the lichenicolous fungi Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Telogalla olivieri, and Xanthoriicola physciae are new to Montenegro. PMID:22318890

  5. The fate of ribosomal genes in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa: three different outcomes including the rapid amplification of new spacer-length variants.

    PubMed

    Cluster, P D; Calderini, O; Pupilli, F; Crea, F; Damiani, F; Arcioni, S

    1996-10-01

    We have characterized the genetic consequences of somatic hybridization within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of three interspecific hybrids, each involving M. sativa as one of the parents. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphisms (RFLPs) of rDNA spacers and fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) of an 18S-gene probe to mitotic chromosomes were used to compare parental and hybrid species. The M. sativa-coerulea hybrid retained all six parental nucleolar-organizing regions (NORs) and all parental RFLPs representing a complete integration of rDNA. The M. sativa-arborea hybrid retained five of six parental NORs while losing half of the arborea-specific RFLPs, indicating that simple chromosome loss of one arborea NOR accounted for the RFLP losses. Dramatic alterations occurred within the M. sativa-falcata hybrid where five of six parental NORs were retained and new rDNA RFLPs were created and amplified differentially among somaclonal-variant plants. The molecular basis of the new RFLPs involved increased numbers of a 340-bp subrepeating element within the rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS), suggesting that recurrent cycles of unequal recombination occurred at high frequency within the rDNA in somatic lineages. PMID:24162411

  6. Inhibitory effect of compounds from Zingiberaceae species on human platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Jantan, I; Raweh, S M; Sirat, H M; Jamil, S; Mohd Yasin, Y H; Jalil, J; Jamal, J A

    2008-04-01

    Twelve compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Kaempferia rotunda Linn., Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb., Curcuma aromatica Valeton and Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Family: Zingiberaceae) and three synthesized derivatives of xanthorrhizol were evaluated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid- (AA), collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood. Antiplatelet activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by the Chrono Log whole blood aggregometer using an electrical impedance method. Among the compounds tested, curcumin from C. aromatica, cardamonin, pinocembrine and 5,6-dehydrokawain from A. mutica and 3-deacetylcrotepoxide from K. rotunda showed strong inhibition on platelet aggregation induced by AA with IC(50) values of less than 84 microM. Curcumin was the most effective antiplatelet compound as it inhibited AA-, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 37.5, 60.9 and 45.7 microM, respectively. PMID:17913483

  7. Inhibitory effects of compounds from Zingiberaceae species on platelet activating factor receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Pisar, Mazura; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Basar, Norazah; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Jalil, Juriyati

    2004-12-01

    Ten compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. and Kaempferia rotunda Linn. (Family: Zingiberaceae) were investigated for their platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonistic activities on rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, four compounds showed significant inhibitory effects. Alpinetin and 5,6-dehydrokawain isolated from A. mutica exhibited IC50 values of 41.6 and 59.3 microM, respectively. The IC50 values of 3-deacetylcrotepoxide and 2-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from K. rotunda were 45.6 and 57.4 microM, respectively. 1-Methoxy-2-methyl-5-(1',5'-dimethylhex-4'-enyl)-benzene, synthesized by methylation of xanthorrhizol which was obtained from C. xanthorrhiza, showed an IC50 value of 40.9 microM. The results indicated that these compounds were relatively strong PAF receptor binding inhibitors. PMID:15742349

  8. Unusual germination and seedling development in two monocotyledonous dicotyledons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P A Philomena; C K Shah

    1985-01-01

    Morphology of germination and seedling development have been studied inNymphaea lotus Auct. varpubescens (Willd) HK. f. and Th. andTrapa natans L. varbispinosa (Roxb.) Makino.Nymphaea germination has been grouped as a separate type, namely,Nymphaeal and that ofTrapa asTrapael. InNymphaea andTrapa seedlings, the extension growth is at the mid portion of the cotyledon (mesocotyl) unlike at its base as in the monocotyledons.

  9. Vegetative propagation of Litsea monopetala , a wild tropical medicinal plant: Effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on stem cuttings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarit Kumar Baul; Mohammad Mosharraf Hossain; Mohammad Mezbahuddin; Mohammed Mohiuddin

    In this study we investigated the rooting ability and the growth performance of juvenile single-node leafy stem cuttings of\\u000a Litsea monopetala (Roxb) Pers. collected from two mature mother trees preserved in the hill forest of Chittagong district, Bangladesh. The\\u000a rooting ability of cuttings was studied under 0%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) treatments. Significantly\\u000a better rooting response (p

  10. Salt tolerance and water use by Dalbergia sissoo during the establishment stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Singh; P. S. Minhas; O. S. Tomar; R. K. Gupta

    1996-01-01

    For rehabilitation of soils rendered barren owing to salinity problems, adaptation to site conditions, water use, and multiple uses form the important criteria of tree selection. Therefore, 6?month?old saplings of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. were transplanted in lysimeters (0.45 m diameter and 1.0 m deep) during July 1992 to measure their water use and salinity tolerance during the initial growth stages.

  11. Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Asokan Bagavan; Abdul Abduz Zahir

    2011-01-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study\\u000a was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone,\\u000a and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus

  12. An HPTLC Method for the Evaluation of Two Medicinal Plants Commercially Available in the Indian Market Under the Common Trade Name Brahmadandi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somashekar A. Padashetty; Shrihari H. Mishra

    2007-01-01

    Brahmadandi is an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) for the treatment of numerous\\u000a diseases. A literature search revealed that different plants are available on the market under the trade name Brahmadandi\\u000a viz., roots of Echinops echinatus Roxb, and the aerial parts of Tricholepis glaberrima DC which are sold either in their crude or in

  13. Biomass Partitioning and Gas Exchange in Dalbergia sissoo seedlings under water stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Singh; G. Singh

    2003-01-01

    Biomass, leaf water potential (?l), net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), leaf to air temperature difference (Tdiff), and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) were measured in the seedlings of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. grown under irrigation of 20 (W1), 14 (W2), 10 (W3), and 8 (W4) mm. Treatments were maintained by re-irrigation when water content of the

  14. Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Bagavan

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex

  15. Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; C. Venkatesan

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate,\\u000a hexane, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus

  16. Dormancy as exaptation to protect mimetic seeds against deterioration before dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Novembre, Ana D. L. C.; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; Marcos Filho, Júlio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Mimetic seeds simulate the appearance of fleshy fruits and arilled seeds without producing nutritive tissues as a reward for seed dispersers. In this strategy of seed dispersal, seeds may remain attached to the mother plant for long periods after maturity, increasing their availability to naïve seed dispersers. The hypothesis that seed coat impermeability in many tropical Fabaceae with mimetic seeds serves as an exaptation to protect the seeds from deterioration and rotting while awaiting dispersal was investigated. Methods Seed coat impermeability was evaluated in five mimetic-seeded species of tropical Fabaceae in south-eastern Brazil (Abarema langsdorffii, Abrus precatorius, Adenanthera pavonina, Erythrina velutina and Ormosia arborea) and in Erythrina speciosa, a ‘basal’ species in its genus, which has monochromatic brown seeds and no mimetic displays. Seed hardness was evaluated as a defence against accelerated ageing (humid chamber at 41 °C for 144 h). Seed development and physiological potential of O. arborea was evaluated and the effect of holding mature seeds in pods on the mother plant in the field for a period of 1 year under humid tropical conditions was compared with seeds stored under controlled conditions (15 °C and 40 % relative air humidity). Key Results All five mimetic-seeded species, and E. speciosa, showed strong coat impermeability, which protected the seeds against deterioration in accelerated ageing. Most O. arborea seeds only became dormant 2 months after pod dehiscence. Germination of seeds after 1 year on the plant in a humid tropical climate was 56 %, compared with 80 % for seeds stored in controlled conditions (15 °C, 45 % relative humidity). Seedling shoot length after 1 year did not differ between seed sources. Conclusions Dormancy acts in mimetic-seeded species as an exaptation to reduce seed deterioration, allowing an increase in their effective dispersal period and mitigating the losses incurred by low removal rates by naïve avian frugivores. PMID:20354070

  17. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Distribution of Deep-Water Gorgonian Corals in Relation to Seabed Topography on the Norwegian Margin

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ruiju; Purser, Autun; Unnithan, Vikram; Guinan, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between deep-water coral distribution and seabed topography is important for understanding the terrain habitat selection of these species and for the development of predictive habitat models. In this study, the distribution of the deep-water gorgonians, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, in relation to terrain variables at multiple scales of 30 m, 90 m and 170 m were investigated at Røst Reef, Traena Reef and Sotbakken Reef on the Norwegian margin, with Ecological Niche Factor Analysis applied. To date, there have been few published studies investigating this aspect of gorgonian distribution. A similar correlation between the distribution of P. arborea and P. resedaeformis and each particular terrain variable was found at each study site, but the strength of the correlation between each variable and distribution differed by reef. The terrain variables of bathymetric position index (BPI) and curvature at analysis scales of 90 m or 170 m were most strongly linked to the distribution of both species at the three geographically distinct study sites. Both gorgonian species tended to inhabit local topographic highs across all three sites, particularly at Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef, with both species observed almost exclusively on such topographic highs. The tendency for observed P. arborea to inhabit ridge crests at Røst Reef was much greater than was indicated for P. resedaeformis. This investigation identifies the terrain variables which most closely correlate with distribution of these two gorgonian species, and analyzes their terrain habitat selection; further development of predictive habitat models may be considered essential for effective management of these species. PMID:22912887

  18. Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Stone, R.P.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Kellogg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising <6% of the isolates. The clone libraries showed dramatically different bacterial communities between corals of the same species collected at different sites, with no clear pattern of conserved bacterial consortia. Two of the clone libraries (one from each coral species) were dominated by Tenericutes, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating the remaining sequences. The other libraries were more diverse and had a more even distribution of bacterial phyla, showing more similarity between genera than within coral species. Here we report the first microbiological characterization of P. arborea, P. superba, and C. koolsae. FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  19. Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures. PMID:24933904

  20. Pigmentation and spectral absorbance signatures in deep-water corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway.

    PubMed

    Elde, Anette C; Pettersen, Ragnhild; Bruheim, Per; Järnegren, Johanna; Johnsen, Geir

    2012-06-01

    The pigmentation and corresponding in vivo and in vitro absorption characteristics in three different deep-water coral species: white and orange Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, collected from the Trondheimsfjord are described. Pigments were isolated and characterized by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LC-TOF MS). The main carotenoids identified for all three coral species were astaxanthin and a canthaxanthin-like carotenoid. Soft tissue and skeleton of orange L. pertusa contained 2 times more astaxanthin g(-1) wet weight compared to white L. pertusa. White and orange L. pertusa were characterized with in vivo absorbance peaks at 409 and 473 nm, respectively. In vivo absorbance maxima for P. arborea and P. resedaeformis was typically at 475 nm. The shapes of the absorbance spectra (400-700 nm) were species-specific, indicated by in vivo, in vitro and the corresponding difference spectra. The results may provide important chemotaxonomic information for pigment when bonded to their proteins in vivo, bio-prospecting, and for in situ identification, mapping and monitoring of corals. PMID:22822381

  1. Kaennacowanols A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the roots of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Kaennakam, Sutin; Siripong, Pongpun; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2015-04-01

    Three new xanthones, named kaennacowanols A-C (1-3), along with nineteen known xanthones were isolated from the roots of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB and HeLa cell lines. Compounds 17 and 22 showed good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 values of 7.97 and 9.10?M, respectively. On the other hand, compound 15 showed good cytotoxicity against HeLa cell with IC50 value of 9.34?M. PMID:25771120

  2. Investigation on antibacterial and antioxidant activities, phenolic and flavonoid contents of some thai edible plants as an alternative for antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Cho, S; Paik, H D; Choi, C W; Nam, K T; Hwang, S G; Kim, S K

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 ?g/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 ?g/mL and 183 ?g/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Flavonoid content of methanol extracts in S. grandiflora L. T was 22.5 ?g/mL and the highest among plant extracts tested. These results indicated that C. aurantifolia Swingle, S. grandiflora L., P. sarmentosum Roxb, and C. domestica Valeton have antibacterial and antioxidant activities and can be used as alternative antibiotics or potential feed additives for the control of animal pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25178298

  3. Hg and Cd Induced Changes in Proline Content and Activities of Proline Biosynthesizing Enzymes in Phaseolus Aureus and Triticum Aestivum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Shaw; N. P. Rout

    2002-01-01

    The effect of mercury and cadmium, in the form of HgCl2 and CdCl2 respectively, on proline accumulation and two key proline biosynthesizing enzymes, ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), was investigated in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. and Triticum aestivum L. The 5-d-old seedlings were exposed to 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mM concentrations of the metals in Hoagland solution for

  4. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    Beans, NFA Red kidney beans, dry, cooked, fat not added in cooking 457;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Kidney beans;Mean of 8 studies 720.1 Beans, NFA Soybeans, cooked, fat not added in cooking 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Mean of 2 studies 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Soya beans, canned (Canada) 720.1 Beans, NFA Mung beans, fat not added in cooking 468;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Mung beans;Mung bean (Phaseolus areus Roxb.

  5. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

  6. Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

  7. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100??g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  8. Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Joana; Sarmento, Pedro; Carretero, Miguel A.; White, Piran C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis) occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest) at three different scales: local (pond), intermediate (400 metres radius buffer) and broad (1000 metres radius buffer). Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc), we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on the presence of Salamandra salamandra, while no effect on any of the other species was detected. In conclusion, eucalypts had limited effects on the amphibian community at the intermediate and broad scales, but predatory fish had a major impact when considering all the scales combined. The over-riding importance of introduced fish as a negative impact suggests that forest managers should prevent new fish introductions and eradicate fish from already-occupied ponds whenever possible. PMID:26061096

  9. Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning.

    PubMed

    Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M

    2012-11-01

    Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments. PMID:22286321

  10. Long Recording Sequences: How to Track the Intra-Individual Variability of Acoustic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lengagne, Thierry; Gomez, Doris; Josserand, Rémy; Voituron, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed acoustic technologies - like automatic recording units - allow the recording of long sequences in natural environments. These devices are used for biodiversity survey but they could also help researchers to estimate global signal variability at various (individual, population, species) scales. While sexually-selected signals are expected to show a low intra-individual variability at relatively short time scale, this variability has never been estimated so far. Yet, measuring signal variability in controlled conditions should prove useful to understand sexual selection processes and should help design acoustic sampling schedules and to analyse long call recordings. We here use the overall call production of 36 male treefrogs (Hyla arborea) during one night to evaluate within-individual variability in call dominant frequency and to test the efficiency of different sampling methods at capturing such variability. Our results confirm that using low number of calls underestimates call dominant frequency variation of about 35% in the tree frog and suggest that the assessment of this variability is better by using 2 or 3 short and well-distributed records than by using samples made of consecutive calls. Hence, 3 well-distributed 2-minutes records (beginning, middle and end of the calling period) are sufficient to capture on average all the nightly variability, whereas a sample of 10 000 consecutive calls captures only 86% of it. From a biological point of view, the call dominant frequency variability observed in H. arborea (116Hz on average but up to 470 Hz of variability during the course of the night for one male) challenge about its reliability in mate quality assessment. Automatic acoustic recording units will provide long call sequences in the near future and it will be then possible to confirm such results on large samples recorded in more complex field conditions. PMID:25970183

  11. Non-Invasive Measurement of Frog Skin Reflectivity in High Spatial Resolution Using a Dual Hyperspectral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, Frank; Walter, Achim; Greven, Hartmut; Rascher, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Background Most spectral data for the amphibian integument are limited to the visible spectrum of light and have been collected using point measurements with low spatial resolution. In the present study a dual camera setup consisting of two push broom hyperspectral imaging systems was employed, which produces reflectance images between 400 and 2500 nm with high spectral and spatial resolution and a high dynamic range. Methodology/Principal Findings We briefly introduce the system and document the high efficiency of this technique analyzing exemplarily the spectral reflectivity of the integument of three arboreal anuran species (Litoria caerulea, Agalychnis callidryas and Hyla arborea), all of which appear green to the human eye. The imaging setup generates a high number of spectral bands within seconds and allows non-invasive characterization of spectral characteristics with relatively high working distance. Despite the comparatively uniform coloration, spectral reflectivity between 700 and 1100 nm differed markedly among the species. In contrast to H. arborea, L. caerulea and A. callidryas showed reflection in this range. For all three species, reflectivity above 1100 nm is primarily defined by water absorption. Furthermore, the high resolution allowed examining even small structures such as fingers and toes, which in A. callidryas showed an increased reflectivity in the near infrared part of the spectrum. Conclusion/Significance Hyperspectral imaging was found to be a very useful alternative technique combining the spectral resolution of spectrometric measurements with a higher spatial resolution. In addition, we used Digital Infrared/Red-Edge Photography as new simple method to roughly determine the near infrared reflectivity of frog specimens in field, where hyperspectral imaging is typically difficult. PMID:24058464

  12. Isolation and release characteristics of starch from the rhizome of Indian Palo.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to isolate and evaluate the morphological, physicochemical and drug release properties of starch from the rhizome of Indian Palo (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.). Morphological study revealed that the shape of the isolated starch varied from oval to elliptical. Isolated starch showed high water-holding capacity. Mineral content and Ash value were found to be very low. Amylose content was found to be 12.12 ± 0.01%. FTIR data confirmed polysaccharide nature of the starch. Swelling and solubility was found to be increase with an increase in the temperature. Initially, paste clarity was high, and gradually it decreased with the increase of storage time. TGA showed that the starch is thermally stable up to 250 °C. In-vitro release study revealed that the starch retarded the release of drug in the acidic pH of the stomach; therefore, it can be used as an excipient in a sustained-release formulation. PMID:25150596

  13. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  14. Antioxidant activity in the extracts of two edible aroids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, P; Misra, T K; Singh, I D

    2010-01-01

    Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC(50) values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC(50) values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198

  15. Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2011-01-01

    Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species. PMID:21738554

  16. Dillapiol: a pyrethrum synergist for control of the Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Liu, S Q; Scott, I M; Pelletier, Y; Kramp, K; Durst, T; Sims, S R; Arnason, J T

    2014-04-01

    Dillapiol, the main constituent in dill Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Apiaceae) oil and wild pepper, Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae), is an effective cytochrome P450 inhibitor similar to piperonylbutoxide (PBO). Laboratory and field trials with pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) vis. extracts combined with dillapiol (1:5 and 1:16 ratio) were effective against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In the laboratory, pyrethrum efficacy was increased 2.2-fold with the SS strain and 9.1-fold with the RS strains by using pyrethrum + dillapiol. Two field trials with the pyrethrum + dillapiol formulation demonstrated efficacy > or = 10 times than that of pyrethrum alone. The residual activity (half-life) of the combination exposed to direct sunlight was 3 h but it increased to 10.7 h by adding 2% of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate. PMID:24772563

  17. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  18. [Wound management with coconut oil in Indonesian folk medicine].

    PubMed

    Sachs, M; von Eichel, J; Asskali, F

    2002-04-01

    The medical plants which are used to treat wounds and injuries by the ethnic group of Ngada on Flores, an Eastern Indonesian island, will be presented. Additionally, the coconut oil used to treat wounds and to conserve medicinal plants will be analysed biochemically. The people of Ngada use the following plants for wound treatment: seeds of the betel nut (Areca catechu L.), fruits of papaya (Carica papaya L.), leaves of the Indian Hydrocotyle (Centelle asiatica L.), the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. and Curcumara xanthorrhiza Roxb.), leaves of betel (Piper betel L.). Coconut oil is particularly useful because of its biochemical structure: unlike olive oil and animal fatty tissue, it consists of short-chained and saturated fatty acids. These qualities in coconut oil prevent it from becoming oxidized and rancid, thus making it suitable for the preservation of medicinal plants and for wound treatment. PMID:12063927

  19. A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

  20. Development of a voltammetric sensor for diospyrin determination in nanomolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Costa, Cicero; Miranda, Paulo R B; Hazra, Banasri; Das Sarma, Madhushree; de Cássia Silva Luz, Rita; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

    2006-02-15

    A sensor based on glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with cobalt tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CoTSPc) and a poly-l-lysine (PLL) film is proposed for diospyrin determination in nanomolar concentrations with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. The modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity presenting much higher peak currents than those measured on a bare GC electrode. Linear response range, sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) were of 1-120nmoll(-1), 220.46nAlnmol(-1)cm(-2) and 0.3nmoll(-1), respectively. The repeatability of the proposed sensor, evaluated in term of relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), was measured as 4.4% for 10 experiments in 50mumoll(-1) diospyrin samples. The developed sensor was applied for the determination of diospyrin in the crude extracts of the stem-bark of Diospyros montana Roxb. and the average recovery for these samples was 101.9 (+/-3.1)%. PMID:18970475

  1. Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

    2014-02-15

    Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol. PMID:24507290

  2. Screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in plants used in Thai traditional rejuvenating and neurotonic remedies.

    PubMed

    Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Temkitthawon, Prapapan; Chuenchom, Kanchanaporn; Yuyaem, Thitaree; Thongnoi, Warawit

    2003-12-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor has been used as a drug for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In order to search for new AChE inhibitors, 32 plants used in Thai traditional rejuvenating and neurotonic remedies were collected. The plant methanolic extracts were tested for AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric method in 96-welled microplates. The results showed that the methanolic extracts from roots of Stephania suberosa Forman. and Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. at concentration of 0.1 mg/ml inhibited more than 90% of AChE activity. At the same concentration, four extracts, i.e. stems of Piper interruptum Opiz., seeds of Piper nigrum L., rootbarks of Butea superba Roxb. and roots of Cassia fistula L. extracts showed 50-65% inhibitory activity on AChE. The rest of the extracts showed the AChE inhibitory activity below 50%. PMID:14611889

  3. Efficacy and safety of Stephania glabra: an alkaloid-rich traditional medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers (Menispermaceae) has long been used for the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis, dysentery, hyperglycaemia, cancer, fever, intestinal complaints, sleep disturbances and inflammation in many Asian countries. It mainly contains alkaloids and, until now, over 30 alkaloids such as bisbenzylisoquinolines, hasubanalactams, berberines and aporphines have been isolated from its tuber. Most of its traditional medicinal activities are scientifically approved by various in vitro and in vivo studies. It shows remarkable anti-psychotic, anti-diabetic, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial and anti-hypertensive activities. This work includes comprehensive information on the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of S. glabra. This review also focuses on the future perspectives with main emphasis on the establishment of therapeutic index and safety index of the plant. This review concludes that S. glabra has a great potential to treat various diseases, and could be used as a source for novel healthcare products in the near future, which needs further studies. PMID:25186139

  4. Tree ring evidence of a 20th century precipitation surge in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first attempt to develop an annual (August-July) precipitation series back to AD 1330 using a tree ring data network of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) from the Lahaul-Spiti region in the western Himalaya, India. The rainfall reconstruction reveals high magnitude multidecadal droughts during the 14th and 15th centuries and thenceforth a gradual increase in precipitation. Increasingly wet conditions during the 20th century are consistent with other long-term precipitation reconstructions from high Asia and reflect a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle, coincident with what is anticipated due to global warming. Significant relationships between reconstructed precipitation and precipitation records from central southwest Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, ENSO (NINO4-SST) variability and summer monsoon rainfall over central northeast India underscore the utility of our data in synoptic climatology.

  5. Effect of coating the wells of a polystyrene microtiter plate with xanthorrhizol on the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2006-01-01

    Colonization on the surface of tooth by Streptococcus mutans is an important step in the initiation of dental plaque. Polystyrene microtiter plates have been employed to study bacterial colonization and biofilm formation of periodontal bacteria. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of coating the wells of a polystyrene microtiter plate with xanthorrhizol isolated from java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) on Strep. mutans biofilm formation. Our studies demonstrated that coating of a polystyrene microtiter plate with 5 microg/ml of xanthorrhizol resulted in significant (up to 60%) reduction of adherent cells compared to that of cells in uncoated wells. This result suggests that xanthorrhizol displays potent activity in preventing Strep. mutans biofilm formation. PMID:17009296

  6. [Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

    2013-03-01

    White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

  7. Systematic analysis of animals used in medieval Azerbaijan medicine.

    PubMed

    Alakbarli, Farid

    2006-06-01

    In order to study the special composition of animals used in the medieval medicine of Azerbaijan, a wide range of medieval sources on medicine and pharmacognosy from the collection of the Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences in Baku has been studied. About 40 medieval sources from the 10-18th centuries including 17 manuscripts in Turkic, Persian and Arabic have been selected as the objects of this study. As a result, 150 species of animals described in medieval Azerbaijani books on medicine and pharmacy have been identified. Many of the identified animals are mammals, (47 species or 31% of total number of identified species). The medieval authors describe 12 species of reptiles and 4 species of Amphibians (frogs, toads, salamanders and tree-frogs (Hyla arborea). 15 species of fishes described in medieval manuscripts have been identified. The identified molluscs are cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), mussel (Mytilus edulis), octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and snail (Helix pomatia). Most crustaceans used in medieval Azerbaijan medicine belong to Decopoda. Medieval manuscripts contain numerous names of various worms and insects (ants, flies, beetles, etc.), however their exact identification is rather difficult. As usual, medieval authors unite a number of species under one name and do not give sufficient information about their morphology. Results of the research create grounds for the idea that the recommendations of the medieval authors on the medicinal application of animals can be applied to modern medicine once they have been experimentally and clinically tested. PMID:17153727

  8. A comprehensive multilocus assessment of sparrow (Aves: Passerellidae) relationships.

    PubMed

    Klicka, John; Keith Barker, F; Burns, Kevin J; Lanyon, Scott M; Lovette, Irby J; Chaves, Jaime A; Bryson, Robert W

    2014-08-01

    The New World sparrows (Emberizidae) are among the best known of songbird groups and have long-been recognized as one of the prominent components of the New World nine-primaried oscine assemblage. Despite receiving much attention from taxonomists over the years, and only recently using molecular methods, was a "core" sparrow clade established allowing the reconstruction of a phylogenetic hypothesis that includes the full sampling of sparrow species diversity. In this paper, we use mitochondrial DNA gene sequences from all 129 putative species of sparrow and four additional (nuclear) loci for a subset of these taxa to resolve both generic and species level relationships. Hypotheses derived from our mitochondrial (2184 base pairs) and nuclear (5705 base pairs) DNA data sets were generally in agreement with respect to clade constituency but differed somewhat with respect to among-clade relationships. Sparrow diversity is defined predominantly by eight well-supported clades that indicate a lack of monophyly for at least three currently recognized genera. Ammodramus is polyphyletic and requires the naming of two additional genera. Spizella is also polyphyletic with Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea) as a taxonomic "outlier". Pselliophorus is embedded within a larger Atlapetes assemblage and should be merged with that group. This new hypothesis of sparrow relationships will form the basis for future comparative analyses of variation within songbirds. PMID:24792084

  9. Synopsis of Nekemias Raf., a segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae) disjunct between eastern/southeastern Asia and eastern North America, with ten new combinations

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jun; Boggan, John; Nie, Ze-Long

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Nekemias (Vitaceae) was first recognized by Rafinesque in 1838. It has been treated as a synonym of Ampelopsis Michx. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that Ampelopsis as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the genera of Vitaceae, we herein segregate the Ampelopsis sect. Leeaceifoliae lineage from Ampelopsis and recognize these taxa in Nekemias Raf., which has a disjunct distribution in eastern to southeastern Asia and eastern North America. Nomenclatural changes are made for nine species and one variety: Nekemias arborea (L.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias cantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias celebica (Suess.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias chaffanjonii (H. Lév. & Van.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias gongshanensis (C.L. Li) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias hypoglauca (Hance) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla (Diels & Gilg) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla var. jiangxiensis (W.T. Wang) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, and Nekemias rubifolia (Wall.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie. A taxonomic key is provided for the genus to facilitate identification. PMID:25383008

  10. A New Name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian Coral Formerly Known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A Hawaiian species of antipatharian coral previously identified as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766, is described as Antipathes griggi Opresko, n. sp. The species forms tall, bushy colonies with elongate, upright terminal branches, often arranged uniserially. Spines are conical, mostly 0.20 to 0.26 mm tall, apically bifurcated, multilobed to jagged in appearance, and covered over most of their surface with small roundish to elongate papillae. Minute secondary spines may occur on some of the thicker branches. Polyps are 1 to 1.6 mm in transverse diameter. The species resembles A. fruticosa Gray in branching pattern, size of spines, and presence of secondary spines but differs in morphology and density of the spines (thicker, more crowded primary spines and fewer secondary spines in A. griggi). Other related species differ from A. griggi in having more widely spreading and irregularly arranged branches, no secondary spines, and either smaller spines with fewer apical lobes (A. curvata van Pesch, A. arborea Dana, and A. galapagensis Deichmann) or larger spines with the apical lobes arranged in a somewhat coronate pattern [A. spinulosa (Schultze) and A. lentipinna Brook].

  11. Plant Species Monitoring in the Canary Islands Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.

    2012-07-01

    The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.

  12. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  13. A phylogenetic analysis of the emberizid sparrows based on three mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Carson, Rebecca J; Spicer, Greg S

    2003-10-01

    Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have examined the taxonomic relationships among a number of typical emberizid sparrow genera. To help clarify these relationships, we sequenced a 1673 base pair fragment for the complete sequence of three mitochondrial genes: adenosine triphosphatase (Atp8 and Atp6) and cytochrome oxidase subunit III (COIII) for 38 sparrow species, along with Passerina amoena (Cardinalidae) and Piranga ludoviciana (Thraupidae) which were selected as the outgroups. Our analysis confirms the monophyly of traditional genera such as Junco, Melospiza, and Zonotrichia. Although Calcarius and Plectrophenax are often thought to be putative emberizids, all our analyses placed these genera basal to all other sparrows examined. As observed with Calcarius, Spizella did not form a monophyletic group, with S. arborea being the sister-taxon to Passerella iliaca. Our analyses also suggest that Aimophila ruficeps is probably more closely related to the "brown towhees" (Pipilo aberti, P. crissalis, and P. fuscus) than its putative congeners. The genus Ammodramus was also not monophyletic, since it appears that Passerculus sandwichensis is more closely related to A. henslowii and A. leconteii then either one is related to its congener A. savannarum. Finally, our analyses exhibited other unsuspected associations, such as the sister-taxon relationships between Amphispiza bilineata and the Chondestes grammacus/Calamospiza melanocorys clade, and Amphispiza belli and Pooecetes gramineus. PMID:12967606

  14. [Mydriasis caused by plant contact].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H; Wilhelm, B; Schiefer, U

    1991-01-01

    Uni- or bilateral dilatation of pupils that are not reactive to light and lack miosis in response to 1% pilocarpine may be caused by contact with plants containing alkaloids such as scopolamine and atropine. Other causes of a non-light-reactive dilated pupil, such as Adie's tonic pupil, third nerve palsy and lesion of the mesencephalic pretectal region, must be excluded before testing the iris sphincter reaction to 1% pilocarpine. Among the naturally growing flowers in Germany, deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), jimson weed (thornapple, Datura stramonium) and black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) contain enough alkaloids to cause mydriasis by direct contact. However, in most cases an accidental mydriasis by plants in Germany is caused by Datura arborea taxa, e.g. Datura suaveolens, D. candida, D. aurea and D. sanguinea. They contain up to 0.6% dry weight scopolamine. These plants can grow very large and are often planted in tubs. They have to be cut back each year before the winter. This is typically how the eye is contaminated by parts of the plants, which can cause dilatation of the pupil mimicing a neuroophthalmological disorder. PMID:1757054

  15. Stable C and N isotopic composition of cold-water corals from the Newfoundland and Labrador continental slope: Examination of trophic, depth and spatial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Jamieson, Robyn E.; Edinger, Evan N.; Wareham, Vonda E.

    2008-10-01

    With the aim of understanding of the trophic ecology of cold-water corals, this paper explores the tissue ?13C and ?15N values of 11 'coral' species (8 alcyonacean, 1 antipatharian, 1 pennatulacean, 1 scleractinian) collected along the Newfoundland and Labrador continental slope. Isotopic results delimit species along continua of trophic level and food lability. With an isotopic signature similar to macrozooplankton, Paragorgia arborea occupies the lowest trophic level and most likely feeds on fresh phytodetritus. Primnoa resedaeformis occupies a slightly higher trophic level, likely supplementing its diet with microzooplankton. Bathypathes arctica, Pennatulacea and other alcyonaceans ( Acanella arbuscula, Acanthogorgia armata, Anthomastus grandiflorus, Duva florida, Keratoisis ornata, Paramuricea sp.) had higher ?13C and ?15N values, suggesting these species feed at higher trophic levels and on a greater proportion of more degraded POM. Flabellum alabastrum had an isotopic signature similar to that of snow crab, indicating a primarily carnivorous diet. Isotopic composition did not vary significantly over a depth gradient of 50-1400 m. Coral ?13C increased slightly (<1‰) from the Hudson Strait to the southern Grand Banks, but ?15N did not. By modulating the availability and quality of suspended foods, substrate likely exerts a primary influence on the feeding habits of cold-water corals.

  16. Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species

    PubMed Central

    Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Fernandez, Maria P.; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

    2014-01-01

    Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere. PMID:24864264

  17. Impacts of direct human activity and climate change on north Ethiopian mountain landscapes over 140 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Hurni, Hans; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Ritler, Alfons; Crummey, Donald; Nievergelt, Bernhard; Moeyersons, Jan; Munro, Neil

    2010-05-01

    Studies on recent environmental change in tropical areas are generally conducted over limited time scales. This study makes a multi-scale assessment over a time span of 140 years, in one of the world's most degraded areas: the highlands of Northern Ethiopia. 300 landscapes, pictured on historical photographs, starting 1868, were re-photographed and environmental changes apparent on the paired photographs were analysed through expert rating. General tendencies appearing include an improved vegetation cover nowadays as compared to any period of the last 140 years, with a second optimum in the early 20th century. In the uppermost areas (above 3500 m a.s.l.) an upward shift of the upper tree line (Erica arborea) is observed, demonstrating that global warming takes also place in this region. At lower elevations, increased vegetation cover is the result of 25 years of intense rehabilitation activities. Physical soil and water conservation follows the same trend. Regional variations occurring in these trends are observed and discussed. The findings are substantiated by field investigations. The positive changes that result from these conservation activities in the north Ethiopian highlands are an issue of global concern as they show that (1) in our study area direct human impact on the environment is overriding and (2) severe land degradation should not always be irreversible.

  18. Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis)

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Goli Penchala; Naidu, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug ‘Nityananda Rasa’ 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was found significant in Gr. III and non-significant in Gr. I and Gr. II. PMID:23049193

  19. Cultural and management practices for the Chinese tallow tree as a biomass fuel source: Final report, 1978-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cowles, J.R.; Scheld, H.W.

    1987-12-01

    The growth and cultural conditions of the Chinese tallow tree, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb., were studied over a 6-year period. Plots from seeds or seedlings at designated densities and plots established in natural stands were studied. The maximum growth rate of the Chinese tallow tree in a marginal soil near the Texas gulf coast was 10 to 15 dry tons/hectare/year. The young trees were able to withstand long periods of flooding as well as extended dry periods. The tree species also is resistant to diseases and pathogens. The Chinese tallow tree is particularly adaptable to close spacing, direct seeding, coppicing, and short-rotation growth cycles. These factors all favor the economic usefulness of the tree as a bioenergy species. In addition, the tallow tree is economically valuable in honey production and as a chemical feedstock. Fertilization is important during the early phases of stand establishment but has diminished usefulness in subsequent years. The Chinese tallow tree appears to be an excellent bioenergy species in the southern coastal areas of the United States and especially in marginal soils. The Chinese tallow tree has the potential of producing 15 to 20 tons/hectare annually by coppicing on a 5- to 8-year rotation at close spacings. 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Flavonoid and stilbenoid production in callus cultures of Artocarpus lakoocha.

    PubMed

    Maneechai, Suthira; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

    2012-09-01

    Callus cultures of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb., established from seedling explants and maintained on woody plant medium containing 1mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1mg/l benzyladenine, were studied for their chemical constituents and biosynthetic potential of secondary metabolites. Four prenylflavones and prenylated stilbenes, along with nine known polyphenolic compounds, were isolated and elucidated for their structures through extensive analysis of their NMR and MS data. Among the 13 isolates, it appeared that seven of them are prenylated derivatives of 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavones, and four are prenylated derivatives of 2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene (oxyresveratrol), suggesting that the biosynthetic pathways of these two polyphenolic groups and their prenylating enzymes are highly expressed in A. lakoocha callus cultures. A study on the growth-product relationship of the callus cultures showed that the secondary metabolites were all formed simultaneously during the rapid growth phase of the culture cycle, with various prenylflavones, and a prenylated stilbene as major constituents. In assays for DPPH free radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibitory potential, the stilbenoids appeared to possess moderate effects, whereas the flavonoids showed only weak activity. PMID:22769436

  1. Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

  2. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

  3. Control of storage protein metabolism in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans: role of endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Chrispeels, M J; Boulter, D

    1975-06-01

    The autodigestive proteolytic activity of extracts of cotyledons of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) increased 4- to 5-fold during germination. A similar increase was found in the ability of these extracts to digest added casein or mung bean globulins. The increase occurred after a 2-day lag during the next 2 to 3 days of germination and coincided with the period of rapid storage protein breakdown. To understand which enzyme(s) may be responsible for this increase in proteolytic activity, the hydrolytic activity of cotyledon extracts toward a number of synthetic substrates and proteins was measured. Germination was accompanied by a marked decline in leucine aminopeptidase, while carboxypeptidase increased about 50%. There were no dramatic changes in either alpha-mannosidase or N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, enzymes which may be involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrate moieties of the reserve glycoproteins. The increase in general proteolytic activity was closely paralleled by a 10-fold increase in endopeptidase activity. This activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide. Studies with inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes showed that reagents which blocked sulfhydryl groups also inhibited the rise in general proteolytic activity. Our results suggest that the appearance of a sulfhydryl-type endopeptidase activity is a necessary prerequisite for the rapid metabolism of the reserve proteins which accompanies germination. PMID:16659204

  4. Molecular, functional and ultrastructural characterisation of plastids from six species of the parasitic flowering plant genus Cuscuta.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, T A; Krause, K; Dörr, I; Krupinska, K

    2000-04-01

    Plastids of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., C. subinclusa D. et H., C. gronovii Willd. and C. campestris Yunck. possess thylakoids and contain both chlorophyll a and b in a ratio similar to that of stem tissue of the systematically closely related but 'normal' green Ipomoea tricolor. In contrast, plastids of C. odorata R. et P. and C. grandiflora H.B.K. do not contain any chlorophyll or possess thylakoids. Light-driven electron transport, as measured by oxygen evolution and indicated by analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence, was present in all chlorophyll-containing species. The photosystem II efficiency was low and ranged from 0.511 to 0.687. The plastid rbcL gene could not be detected in C. odorata, but was present in all other tested species. Neither rbcL transcripts nor the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) could be detected in C. odorata and C. grandiflora. Low amounts of the large subunit of Rubisco were detected immunologically in all other Cuscuta species. Apparently, the genus Cuscuta comprises species with different degrees of plastid functionality, ranging from intact chloroplasts, via plastids with impaired protein production and gene expression to plastids with reduced plastome gene content. PMID:10805440

  5. Utilization of extrusion technology for the development of millet based complementary foods.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi Devi, N; Shobha, S; Alavi, Sajid; Kalpana, K; Soumya, M

    2014-10-01

    Millet based complementary foods were developed using sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), rice (Oryza Sativa), besan (Cicer arietinum; Bengal gram dhal flour), legume mix (Green gram and roasted Bengal gram; Phaseolus aureus Roxb and Cicer arietinum) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) with a lab scale twin screw extruder. The extrudates were subjected to acceptability studies initially and at the end of the storage period i.e. 3 months at laboratory level by panel of judges using a 5-point hedonic scale. Physico-chemical characteristics like bulk density, piece density and expansion ratio were measured and proximate principles were assessed. Soy and legume mix were found to have low bulk density as well as high expansion ratio. The developed extrudates were made into fine powder and sieved through a 60 mm mesh. Malted ragi flour at 15 % level was added to the powdered extrudates to develop the complementary mixes with low bulk density. Raw formulas without malt and with malt; extruded mixes without malt and with malt were studied for viscosity. The developed mixes were made into porridge and fed to the infants and the opinions about the acceptability of mixes were collected from the mothers. The complementary mixes with malted ragi showed reduced viscosity and formed good, smooth slurry and well accepted both by children and their mothers. Extruded soy and legume mixes with addition of 15 % malt were found to have satisfactory functional characteristics and nutritive value and can be explored for bulk preparation. PMID:25328236

  6. Expression of diverse midgut serine proteinases in the sericigenous Lepidoptera Antheraea assamensis (Helfer) is influenced by choice of host plant species.

    PubMed

    Saikia, M; Singh, Y T; Bhattacharya, A; Mazumdar-Leighton, S

    2011-02-01

    Antheraea assamensis is reared on various species of the Lauraceae family from north-east India for its distinctive cocoon silk. We demonstrate differential expression of digestive trypsin and chymotrypsins in larvae feeding on a primary host, Persea bombycina Kosterm., in comparison to larvae feeding on Litsea monopetala Roxb. using in vitro proteolytic assays, zymogram analyses with proteinase inhibitors, restriction digestion of RNA-PCR amplicons and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Eight novel members of the serine proteinase gene family were identified, including an intron-spliced trypsin (AaPb4) and seven putative chymotrypsins (AaPb2, AaPb4, AaPb12, AaLm4, AaLm6, AaLm19 and AaLm29). Midgut transcript levels of the putative trypsin were higher in larvae fed P. bombycina whereas levels of transcripts encoding putative chymotrypsins were higher in larvae reared on L. monopetala. Complex, differential expression of sequence divergent midgut serine proteinases may reflect the ability of lepidopteran larvae to feed on different species of host plants. Possible implications of host plant choice on the digestive physiology of A. assamensis are discussed. PMID:20854480

  7. The effects of panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia pandurata on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type-1 procollagen in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Seok; Kwon, Yi-Young; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-02-01

    Exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light on the skin induces photoaging associated with up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and decreased collagen synthesis. We investigated the effects of panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia pandurata Roxb. on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and type-1 procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Cultured human fibroblasts were irradiated with UV (20 mJ/cm (2)) and panduratin A was added into the medium of the fibroblast culture. The expressions of MMP-1 and type-1 procollagen levels were measured using Western blot analysis and RT-RCR. Panduratin A in the range of 0.001 - 0.1 microM significantly reduced the expression of MMP-1 and induced the expression of type-1 procollagen at the protein and mRNA gene levels. Panduratin A showed stronger activity than epigallocatechin 3- O-gallate (EGCG) known as a natural anti-aging agent. The results suggest that panduratin A can be a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging brought about by UV. PMID:18253916

  8. Inhibitory effect of panduratin A on UV-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in dermal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Seok; Kwon, Yi-Young; Han, Young-Sun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-10-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) induces photoaging associated with up-regulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activities and decreased collagen synthesis. We previously reported that panduratin A, a chalcone compound isolated from KAEMPFERIA PANDURATA Roxb ., decreased MMP-1 expression in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Here, we have investigated the effect of panduratin A on UV-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling modules such as extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK), Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. Treatment with panduratin A in the range of 0.001 - 0.1 microM significantly inhibited UV-induced ERK, JNK and p38 activation. Moreover, inhibition of ERK, JNK and p38 by panduratin A resulted in decreased c-Fos expression and c-Jun phosphorylation induced by UV, which led to inhibition of activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity. Panduratin A showed stronger activity than epigallocatechin 3- O-gallate (EGCG) known as a natural anti-aging agent. The results suggest that panduratin A can down-regulate UV-induced MMP-1 expression by inhibiting the MAPKs pathways and AP-1 activation. AP-1:activator protein-1 EGCG:epigallocatechin 3- O-gallate ERK:extracellular-regulated protein kinase JNK:c-Jun N-terminal kinase MAPK:mitogen-activated protein kinase MMP:matrix metalloproteinase UV:ultraviolet. PMID:18683126

  9. Assessment of local management practices on the population ecology of some medicinal plants in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sher, Hassan; Elyemeni, Mohammad; Khan, Abdur Rehman; Sabir, Amjad

    2011-04-01

    A study on the assessment of local management practices on the population of three medicinal plants viz.: Persicaria amplexicaule. D. Don., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted during 2002-2004 in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan. The objective of the study was to know the impact of current management practices on the population size of targeted plants. The study showed that the involvement of locals in the gathering of targeted plants varied with the change in elevation. Among the targeted plants V. serpens was collected by large majorities of people (83.3%) at 2700 m followed by 72% at 2300 m and 37% at 1900 m. V. jatamansi was harvested by a small number of people (18.1%) at 1900 and 2300 m each, followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. While P. amplexicaule was harvested by a few collectors (9.1%) at 1900 m and 9.6% at 2300 m followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. The study concluded that these species have been extracted so heavily in the past that they are found now sparsely in some sites of the study area. Secondly, due to loss of its habitat by deforestation and encroachment of land for cultivation its population is on the decline towards extinction. Therefore, the current study recommends the conservation of the remaining populations of targeted plants through active participation of local communities. PMID:23961117

  10. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments. PMID:24809291

  11. Antischistosomal Activity of Two Active Constituents Isolated from the Leaves of Egyptian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sanaa A; El-Regal, Nagy S; Saeed, Samar M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of two active constituents isolated from the leaves of Egyptian medicinal plants. D-mannitol a naturally occurring sugar isolated from the leaves Ixora undulata Roxb., and the pectin a linear chain homogalacturonan (HG) polysaccharide isolated from the leaves of Linum grandiflorum Desf. (scarlet flax). Both are evaluated for their therapeutic effect against schistosomiasis with biochemical and histochemical evaluations and compared with praziquantel, a reference drug. Biochemical studies of hepatic glucose, the glycogen content, and total serum protein were carried out, and histochemical evaluations through serum protein fractions separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with different molecular weights (260–10 kDa) were made in all groups, in addition to liver and body weight. D-mannitol and pectin show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions through enhancing most protein fractions in the serum of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Also, the glucose and glycogen content in injured liver tissues improved, in addition liver and body weight in the infected groups. Thus they may be of therapeutic potential in the treatment hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  12. Inhibition of Apoplastic Calmodulin Impairs Calcium Homeostasis and Cell Wall Modeling during Cedrus deodara Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Lv, Xueqin; Li, Hong; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong; Jin, Biao; Chen, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most well-studied Ca2+ transducers in eukaryotic cells. It is known to regulate the activity of numerous proteins with diverse cellular functions; however, the functions of apoplastic CaM in plant cells are still poorly understood. By combining pharmacological analysis and microscopic techniques, we investigated the involvement of apoplastic CaM in pollen tube growth of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. It was found that the tip-focused calcium gradient was rapidly disturbed as one of the early events after application of pharmacological agents, while the cytoplasmic organization was not significantly affected. The deposition and distribution of acidic pectins and esterified pectins were also dramatically changed, further perturbing the normal modeling of the cell wall. Several protein candidates from different functional categories may be involved in the responses to inhibition of apoplastic CaM. These results revealed that apoplastic CaM functions to maintain the tip-focused calcium gradient and to modulate the distribution/transformation of pectins during pollen tube growth. PMID:23405148

  13. The leaf essential oils of five Vietnamese Desmos species (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Dai, Do Ngoc; Hoi, Tran Minh; Thang, Tran Dinh; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2012-02-01

    The leaf essential oils of five Desmos species from Vietnam have been extracted by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analyses. The plant samples were Desmos cochinchinensis Lour., D. penduculosus (A. DC.) Ban, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis Ban, D. chinensis Lour., and D. dumosus (Roxb.) Saff. The oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.9%-88.9%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%-30.9%). The oxygenated counterparts were less common. The quantitatively significant constituents of the oils were alpha-pinene (2.4%-12.1%), beta-elemene (2.2-39.5%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9-26.3%), germacrene D (9.9-15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (2.0-11.4%) and alpha-humulene (3.8-7.5%). The studied oils could be classified into two chemical forms: oils with abundance of beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D and alpha-pinene (D. cochinchinensis, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis, D. chinensis and D. Dumosus) and oil with high amounts of beta-elemene, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D (D. penduculosus). PMID:22474966

  14. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu.

    PubMed

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Ramesh, B; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N; Babu, K Suresh

    2015-05-01

    "Triphalaguggulu" is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of "Triphalaguggulu" preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  15. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 ?g/g and Cu 36.3 ?g/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  16. Formulation, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro study of chitosan/HPMC blends-based herbal blended patches.

    PubMed

    Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Madaka, Fameera; Chusut, Tun; Saingam, Worawan; Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Boonme, Prapaporn

    2015-02-01

    The current work prepared chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blends and studied the possibility of chitosan/HPMC blended patches for Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The blended patches without/with crude Z. cassumunar oil were prepared by homogeneously mixing the 3.5% w/v of chitosan solution and 20% w/v of HPMC solution, and glycerine was used as plasticizer. Then, they were poured into Petri dish and produced the blended patches in hot air oven at 70?±?2°C. The blended patches were tested and evaluated by the physicochemical properties: moisture uptake, swelling ratio, erosion, porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, and photographed the surface and cross-section morphology under SEM technique. Herbal blended patches were studied by the in vitro release and skin permeation of active compound D. The blended patches could absorb the moisture and became hydrated patches that occurred during the swelling of blended patches. They were eroded and increased by the number of porous channels to pass through out for active compound D. In addition, the blended patches indicated the compatibility of the blended ingredients and homogeneous smooth and compact. The blended patches made from chitosan/HPMC blends provide a controlled release and skin permeation behavior of compound D. Thus, the blended patches could be suitably used for herbal medicine application. PMID:25233803

  17. A Scientific Validation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Attributes of Trichosanthes dioica.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Sharad Kumar; Srivastava, Amrita Kumari; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Watal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to scientifically validate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) which has been traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. This plant commonly known as "Sespadula" in English has not been explored scientifically so far for its glycemic potential except by our research group. The study was conducted with variable doses on normal, mild, and severe diabetics models, and several biochemical parameters including blood glucose level (BGL) were assessed. Maximum fall in BGL of 23.8% in normal rats and of 31.3% in mild diabetic rats was observed during their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) with the dose of 1000?mg?kg(-1). In severely diabetic animals after 4 weeks treatment with FBG, postprandial glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced by 28.7, 30.7, 57.2, and 18.5%, whereas high density lipoprotein, total protein, hemoglobin, and body weight were increased by 33.0, 36.7, 15.7 and 16.7%, respectively. Moreover, urine sugar was reduced from +4 to +1. Thus, the study scientifically validates the traditional use of T. diocia in diabetes management and could be developed as an effective oral agent for treating diabetes mellitus and complications associated with it. PMID:23984089

  18. Evaluation of the antipsychotic potential of aqueous fraction of Securinega virosa root bark extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Magaji, M G; Mohammed, M; Magaji, R A; Musa, A M; Abdu-Aguye, I; Hussaini, I M

    2014-03-01

    Securinega virosa (Roxb ex. Willd) Baill. is a plant which is commonly used in African traditional medicine in management of mental illness. Previous study showed that the crude methanolic root bark extract of the plant possesses antipsychotic activity. In this study, the antipsychotic potential of the residual aqueous fraction of the plant was evaluated using two experimental models, apomorphine induced stereotypic climbing behaviour and swim induced grooming, all in mice. The effect of the fraction on haloperidol-induced catalepsy was also evaluated. The fraction significantly reduced the mean climbing score at the highest dose tested (500 mg/kg). In the swim-induced grooming test, the fraction significantly and dose-dependently (125-500 mg/kg) decreased the mean number and mean duration of swim-induced grooming activity in mice. Similarly, the standard haloperidol (1 mg/kg) significantly (p?

  19. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  20. Volatiles of Curcuma mangga Val. & Zijp (Zingiberaceae) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu Abdul; Blagojevi?, Polina D; Radulovi?, Niko S; Boylan, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    Analysis by GC and GC/MS of the essential oil obtained from Malaysian Curcuma mangga Val. & Zijp (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes allowed the identification of 97 constituents, comprising 89.5% of the total oil composition. The major compounds were identified as myrcene (1; 46.5%) and ?-pinene (2; 14.6%). The chemical composition of this and additional 13 oils obtained from selected Curcuma L. taxa were compared using multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis). The results of the statistical analyses of this particular data set pointed out that 1 could be potentially used as a valuable infrageneric chemotaxonomical marker for C. mangga. Moreover, it seems that C. mangga, C. xanthorrhiza Roxb., and C. longa L. are, with respect to the volatile secondary metabolites, closely related. In addition, comparison of the essential oil profiles revealed a potential influence of the environmental (geographical) factors, alongside with the genetic ones, on the production of volatile secondary metabolites in Curcuma taxa. PMID:22083913

  1. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu

    PubMed Central

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P. R. Rao; Ramesh, B.; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    “Triphalaguggulu” is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of “Triphalaguggulu” preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  2. Molecular characterization of an MYB transcription factor from a succulent halophyte involved in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pushp Sheel; Agarwal, Parinita; Gupta, Kapil; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses like drought, salinity and extreme temperature significantly affect crop productivity. Plants respond at molecular, cellular and physiological levels for management of stress tolerance. Functional and regulatory genes play a major role in controlling these abiotic stresses through an intricate network of transcriptional machinery. Transcription factors are potential tools for manipulating stress tolerance since they control a large number of downstream genes. In the present study, we have isolated SbMYB44 from a succulent halophyte, Salicornia brachiata Roxb. SbMYB44 with an open-reading frame of 810 bp encodes a protein of 269 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 30.31 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.29. The in silico analysis revealed that the SbMYB44 protein contains the conserved R2R3 imperfect repeats, two SANT domains and post-translational modification sites. The SbMYB44 transcript showed up-regulation in response to salinity, desiccation, high temperature, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The SbMYB44 recombinant protein showed binding to dehydration-responsive cis-elements (RD22 and MBS-1), suggesting its possible role in stress signalling. Overexpression of SbMYB44 enhanced the growth of yeast cells under both ionic and osmotic stresses. PMID:25986050

  3. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  4. Genetic diversity in some perennial plant species with-in short distances.

    PubMed

    Pandeya, S C; Chandra, A; Pathak, P S

    2007-01-01

    Distinct morphophysiological variations observed for over 2 years with-in short distances among four perennial plants indicated genetic diversity among the lines growing at three places. The isozyme and SDS polyacrylamide gel banding patterns as genetic markers were used to investigate four perennial species, namely Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Delonix regia (Boj.) Refin., Cassia fistula L. and Calotropis procera R. Br. Plant materials collected from three locations (Agra, Gwalior and Lucknow) differing in climo-edaphic variables were examined for 4 enzyme systems, viz., esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (EST, PPO, PRX and SOD). Among the four isozymes SOD and PRX revealed best discriminating power. Protein banding patterns as well as zymogram revealed that Dalbergia sissoo growing at Gwalior was closer to that of Agra; Delonix regia depicted highest similarity between Lucknow and Agra and Calotropis procera of Lucknow location was more closer to Gwalior than Agra. The results confirm genetic diversity in the species as a means of adaptation to differing climo-edaphic variables. PMID:17717991

  5. Antiulcer and antimicrobial activity of Anogeissus latifolia.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, R; Vijayakumar, M; Singh, M; Rao, Ch V; Shirwaikar, A; Rawat, A K S; Pushpangadan, P

    2006-06-15

    Ethnobotanically, the bark of Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guill. and Perr.(Combretaceae) has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and skin diseases. We studied the antiulcer potential and antimicrobial activity of the 50% aqueous alcoholic extract in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the above-mentioned disorders. Gastroprotective potential of the Anogeissus latifolia extract (ALE) (100 and 200mg/kg/body weight) was studied on aspirin, cold-resistant stress (CRS), pylorus ligated (PL) and ethanol-induced ulcers. Status of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase along with lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also studied in CRS-induced ulcers. The results of the present study showed for the first time that the ALE possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the formation of ulcers induced by physical and chemical agents with a maximum of 84.16% curation (200mg/kg body weight) in CRS-induced ulcers. ALE decreased LPO and SOD with concomitant increase in catalase activity in CRS-induced ulcers. Moderate antibacterial activity and antifungal activity was also observed. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) showed the presence of gallic acid and ellagic acid (0.95%, w/w, 0.25%, w/w, respectively) in the plant. These findings could justify, at least partially, the inclusion of this plant in the management of gastric disorders in traditional medicine. PMID:16413714

  6. Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (1–4) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19?±?1.10 and 15.82?±?1.11 ?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34 mg/g to 0.53 mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity. PMID:24125526

  7. Effect of Standardized Boesenbergia pandurata Extract and Its Active Compound Panduratin A on Skin Hydration and Barrier Function in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seon Wook; Rhim, Dong-Bin; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2015-03-01

    The skin plays a key role in protecting the body from the environment and from water loss. Cornified envelope (CE) and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) are considered as the primary regulators of skin hydration and barrier function. The CE prevents loss of water from the body and is formed by cross-linking of several proteins. Among these proteins, filaggrin is an important protein because NMF is produced by the degradation of filaggrin. Proteases, including matriptase and prostasin, stimulate the generation of filaggrin from profilaggrin and caspase-14 plays a role in the degradation of filaggrin. This study elucidated the effects of an ethanol extract of Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., known as fingerroot, and its active compound panduratin A on CE formation and filaggrin processing in HaCaT, human epidermal keratinocytes. B. pandurata extract (BPE) and panduratin A significantly stimulated not only CE formation but also the expression of CE proteins, such as loricrin, involucrin, and transglutaminase, which were associated with PPAR? expression. The mRNA and protein levels of filaggrin and filaggrin-related enzymes, such as matriptase, prostasin, and caspase-14 were also up-regulated by BPE and panduratin A treatment. These results suggest that BPE and panduratin A are potential nutraceuticals which can enhance skin hydration and barrier function based on their CE formation and filaggrin processing. PMID:25866745

  8. Xanthorrhizol induces apoptosis through ROS-mediated MAPK activation in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and inhibits DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Yeon; An, Jeong Mi; Chung, Won-Yoon; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Kim, Du Sik; Seo, Su Ryeon; Seo, Jeong Taeg

    2013-04-01

    Xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, has been known to inhibit the growth of human colon, breast, liver and cervical cancer cells. In this study, xanthorrhizol decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis and decreased the level of full-length PARP in SCC-15 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. A decrease in cell viability and PARP degradation was not prevented by treatment with the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk in xanthorrhizol-treated cells. Xanthorrhizol treatment elevated intracellular Ca(2+) and ROS levels in SCC-15 cells. Treatment with a Ca(2+) chelator, EGTA/AM, did not affect xanthorrhizol- induced cytotoxicity, but cell viability was partly recovered by treatment with endogenous antioxidant, GSH, or hydroxy radical trapper, MCI-186. Furthermore, the viability of xanthorrhizol-treated SCC-15 cells was significantly restored by treatment with SB203580 and/or SP600125 but not significantly by PD98059 treatment. Xanthorrhizol-induced activation of p38 MAPK and JNK was blocked by MCI-186. Finally, xanthorrhizol suppressed the number of tumors in buccal pouches and increased the survival rate in hamsters treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. In conclusion, xanthorrhizol may induce caspase-independent apoptosis through ROS-mediated p38 MAPK and JNK activation in SCC-15 OSCC cells and prevent chemical-induced oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, xanthorrhizol seems to be a promising chemopreventive agent. PMID:22627996

  9. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of xanthorrhizol in hippocampal neurons and primary cultured microglia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chol Seung; Jin, Da-Qing; Mok, Hyejung; Oh, Sang Jin; Lee, Jung Uk; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Ha, Ilho; Han, Jung-Soo

    2005-12-15

    Xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb (Zingiberaceae), has antibacterial activities and protective effects against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the activities of xanthorrhizol as an antioxidant or antiinflammatory agent using neuronal and microglial cells. Xanthorrhizol had potent neuroprotective effects on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the murine hippocampal HT22 cell line. Also, xanthorrhizol inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. The properties of xanthorrhizol as an antiinflammatory agent were investigated in microglial activation by lipopolysaccharide. It reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase, which consequently resulted in the reduction of nitric oxide. The production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in activated microglial cells, was reduced by xanthorrhizol. These results suggest that xanthorrhizol could be an effective candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease- and other neurological disease-related ROS and inflammation. PMID:16273545

  10. Xanthorrhizol exhibits antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells via apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yew Hoong; Azimahtol, Hawariah Lope Pihie; Abdullah, Noor Rain

    2006-01-01

    Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb (Zingiberaceae). Xanthorrhizol was tested for a variety of important pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. An antiproliferation assay using the MTT method indicated that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, with an EC50 value of 1.71 microg/ml. Three parameters including annexin-V binding assay, Hoechst 33258 staining and accumulation of sub-G1 population in DNA histogram confirmed the apoptosis induction in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Western-blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein expression. However, xanthorrhizol did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, bax, at a concentration of 1 microg/ml, 2.5 microg/ml and 5 microg/ml. The level of p53 was greatly increased, whilst PARP-1 was cleaved to 85 kDa subunits, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol at a dose-dependent manner. These results, thereby, suggest that xanthorrhizol has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of bcl-2, p53 and PARP-1 protein levels. PMID:17201174

  11. Xanthorrhizol has a potential to attenuate the high dose cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Hong, Kyoung Ok; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2005-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug, but it can produce undesirable side effects such as nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. A single dose of cisplatin (45 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly elevated the levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and the kidney to body weight ratio, but the pretreatment of xanthorrhizol (200 mg/kg/day, per os) for 4 days significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The preventive effect of xanthorrhizol was more efficacious than that of curcumin with the same amount (200 mg/kg). However, this effect seemed not to be related with the ability of xanthorrhizol to regulate the DNA-binding activities of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1). This is first time the preventive effect of xanthorrhizol on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity has been demonstrated, and these data suggest that the administration of xanthorrhizol is a promising approach in the treatment of nephrotoxicity caused by cisplatin. PMID:15582203

  12. Antiinflammatory Activity of Gynura bicolor (??? Hóng Fèng Cài) Ether Extract Through Inhibits Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Liu, Kai-Li; Chen, Pei-Yin; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated effects of the Gynura bicolor (Roxb. and Willd.) DC. ether extract (GBEE) on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 production on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. A composition analysis of GBEE showed that the major compounds were b-carotene, chlorophyll, and quercetin, respectively. Furthermore, NO and PGE2 levels of 120 ?g/ml GBEE-treated cells were 70% and 9.8%, respectively, than those of cells treated with LPS alone. Immunoblots assays showed that the GBEE dose-dependently suppressed LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein levels. The GBEE significantly decreased cytosolic phosphorylated (p)-I?Ba and nuclear p65 protein expressions. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays indicated that the GBEE effectively inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation induced by LPS. These results support a role of the GBEE in suppressing activation of NF-?B to inhibit NO and PGE2 production in the LPS-induced inflammatory response by RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:24716155

  13. Identification of natural inhibitors against angiotensin I converting enzyme for cardiac safety using induced fit docking and MM-GBSA studies

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Balakrishnan; Parasuraman, Subramani; Raveendran, Ramasamy; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cleistanthins A and B are isolated compounds from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus Roxb (Euphorbiaceae). This plant is poisonous in nature which causes cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypotension, nonspecific ST-T changes and QTc prolongation. The biological activity predictions spectra of the compounds show the presence of antihypertensive, diuretic and antitumor activities. Objective: Objective of the present study was to determine the in silico molecular interaction of cleistanthins A and B with Angiotensin I- Converting Enzyme (ACE-I) using Induced Fit Docking (IFD) protocols. Materials and Methods: All the molecular modeling calculations like IFD docking, binding free energy calculation and ADME/Tox were carried out using Glide software (Schrödinger LLC 2009, USA) in CentOS EL-5 workstation. Results: The IFD complexes showed favorable docking score, glide energy, glide emodel, hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions between the active site residues of ACE-I and the compounds. Binding free energy was calculated for the IFD complexes using Prime MM-GBSA method. The conformational changes induced by the inhibitor at the active site of ACE-I were observed based on changes of the back bone C? atoms and side-chain chi (x) angles. The various physicochemical properties were calculated for these compounds. Both cleistanthins A and B showed better docking score, glide energy and glide emodel when compared to captopril inhibitor. Conclusion: These compounds have successively satisfied all the in silico parameters and seem to be potent inhibitors of ACE-I and potential candidates for hypertension. PMID:25298685

  14. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

  15. Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

    2010-11-01

    The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  16. Increased sensitivity of the serotonergic system during the breeding season in free-living American tree sparrows.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Todd S; Moore, Ignacio T; Meddle, Simone L; Benowitz-Fredericks, Z Morgan; Wingfield, John C

    2005-02-10

    In order to understand the physiological role of serotonin in regulating aggressive behaviour it is important to understand how this neuromodulator acts within the context of a naturally fluctuating social and physical environment. To accomplish this, we examined the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine during the breeding season in free-living male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in Northern Alaska. During this time period males are maximally aggressive towards territorial intruders. Male, territorial sparrows were injected with either vehicle or a 10 mg/kg dose of fluoxetine. One hour later, aggression was measured using a simulated territorial intrusion. Depending upon when birds were sampled, the aggression scores for vehicle and fluoxetine treatments were grouped according to the number of days after territorial behaviour was initiated. The three groups were: early, days 1-5; middle, days 6-10; and late, days 11-15. There was a significant overall difference between groups (F(5,36)=5.18, P<0.0015). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that the level of aggression did not differ between the three groups of saline injected birds. However, fluoxetine injected birds showed a time dependent decrease in aggression. When compared to control birds the middle and late fluoxetine groups had significantly less aggression. Furthermore, the late group of fluoxetine treated birds were significantly less aggressive than the early group of fluoxetine birds. This demonstrates that free-living male ATSPs show a rapid change in their behavioural response to fluoxetine across the first 2 weeks of the breeding season. The rapidity of the change in responsiveness suggests a dynamic sensitivity of the serotonergic system. PMID:15617778

  17. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  18. Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

    In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, ?-pinene and ?-pinene for rosemary and ?-pinene, linalool and ?-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 ?g Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 ?mol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

  19. Does forest fragmentation affect the same way all growth-forms?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Amezaga, Ibone; Onaindia, Miren

    2012-02-01

    Fragmentation of natural habitats is one of the main causes of the loss of biodiversity. However, all plants do not respond to habitat fragmentation in the same way due to differences in species traits. We studied the effect of patch size and isolation on the biodiversity of vegetation in the mixed-oak forests in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The aim was to evaluate whether all the growth-forms of vegetation are equally affected by forest fragmentation in order to improve the management strategies to restore this type of vegetation. This study has shown that the effect of the area and spatial isolation of the patches was not the same for the different growth-forms. Fragmentation had a mainly negative effect on the richness and diversity of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbaceous growth-forms. Moreover, the presence and/or cover of woodland herbaceous species (such as Lamiastrum galeobdolon and Helleborus viridis) and of woodland ferns (namely Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Asplenium trichomanes, Polystichum setiferum, Dryopteris affinis) were negatively affected by patch size, possibly due to the reduction of habitat quality. These species have been replaced by more generalist species (such as Cardamine pratensis, Cirsium sp., Pulmonaria longifolia or Rumex acetosella) in small patches. Patch isolation had a negative effect on the presence of forest specialist species (namely, L. galeobdolon, Frangula alnus, Hypericum androsaemum, A. adiantum-nigrum and Athyrium filix-femina) and favored colonization by more generalist species such as Cirsium sp., Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea or Ulex sp. Thus, in this region special attention should be paid to the conservation of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbs. In conservation policy focused on forest specialist species, the most valuable species in forest ecosystems, conservation of large forest areas should be promoted. PMID:21924813

  20. Roles of Seed and Establishment Limitation in Determining Patterns of Afrotropical Tree Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Connie J.; Poulsen, John R.; Levey, Doug J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the relative importance of the multiple processes that limit recruitment may hold the key to understanding tropical tree diversity. Here we couple theoretical models with a large-scale, multi-species seed-sowing experiment to assess the degree to which seed and establishment limitation shape patterns of tropical tree seedling recruitment in a central African forest. Of five randomly selected species (Pancovia laurentii, Staudtia kamerunensis, Manilkara mabokeensis, Myrianthus arboreas, and Entandophragma utile), seedling establishment and survival were low (means of 16% and 6% at 3 and 24 months, respectively), and seedling density increased with seed augmentation. Seedling recruitment was best explained by species identity and the interaction of site-by-species, suggesting recruitment probabilities vary among species and sites, and supporting the role of niche-based mechanisms. Although seed augmentation enhanced initial seedling density, environmental filtering and post-establishment mortality strongly limited seedling recruitment. The relative importance of seed and establishment limitation changed with seed and seedling density and through time. The arrival of seeds most strongly affected local recruitment when seeds were nearly absent from a site (? 1 seed m2), but was also important when seeds arrived in extremely high densities, overwhelming niche-based mortality factors. The strength of seed limitation and density-independent mortality decreased significantly over time, while density-dependent mortality showed the opposite trend. The varying strengths of seed and establishment limitation as a function of juvenile density and time emphasize the need to evaluate their roles through later stages of a tree’s life cycle. PMID:23691023

  1. Roles of seed and establishment limitation in determining patterns of afrotropical tree recruitment.

    PubMed

    Clark, Connie J; Poulsen, John R; Levey, Doug J

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the relative importance of the multiple processes that limit recruitment may hold the key to understanding tropical tree diversity. Here we couple theoretical models with a large-scale, multi-species seed-sowing experiment to assess the degree to which seed and establishment limitation shape patterns of tropical tree seedling recruitment in a central African forest. Of five randomly selected species (Pancovia laurentii, Staudtia kamerunensis, Manilkara mabokeensis, Myrianthus arboreas, and Entandophragma utile), seedling establishment and survival were low (means of 16% and 6% at 3 and 24 months, respectively), and seedling density increased with seed augmentation. Seedling recruitment was best explained by species identity and the interaction of site-by-species, suggesting recruitment probabilities vary among species and sites, and supporting the role of niche-based mechanisms. Although seed augmentation enhanced initial seedling density, environmental filtering and post-establishment mortality strongly limited seedling recruitment. The relative importance of seed and establishment limitation changed with seed and seedling density and through time. The arrival of seeds most strongly affected local recruitment when seeds were nearly absent from a site (? 1 seed m(2)), but was also important when seeds arrived in extremely high densities, overwhelming niche-based mortality factors. The strength of seed limitation and density-independent mortality decreased significantly over time, while density-dependent mortality showed the opposite trend. The varying strengths of seed and establishment limitation as a function of juvenile density and time emphasize the need to evaluate their roles through later stages of a tree's life cycle. PMID:23691023

  2. Microbial biomass production from rice straw hydrolysate in airlift bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Long; Wang, Zhao

    2005-09-10

    Rice straw is a by-product of rice production, and a great bioresource as raw biomass material for manufacturing value-adding protein for animal feedstock, which has been paid more and more attention. In the present work, utilizing rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate for microbial biomass production in 11.5L external-loop airlift bioreactors was investigated. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through acid-hydrolyzing rice straw was used for the culture of yeast Candida arborea AS1.257. The influences of gas flow rate, initial liquid volume, hole diameter of gas sparger and numbers of sieve plates on microbial biomass production were examined. The best results in the external-loop airlift bioreactor were obtained under 9.0 L initial liquid volume, 1.1 (v/v)/min gas flow rate during culture time of 0-24 h and 1.4 (v/v)/min gas flow rate of 24-48 h at 29+/-1 degrees C. The addition of the sieve plates in the riser of the external-loop airlift bioreactor increased productivity. After 48 h, under optimized operation conditions, crude protein productivity with one sieve and two sieves were 13.6 mg/mL and 13.7 mg/mL, respectively, comparing 12.7 mg/mL without sieves in the airlift bioreactor and 11.7 mg/mL in the in the 10-L mechanically stirred tank bioreactor. It is feasible to operate the external-loop airlift bioreactors and possible to reduce the production cost for microbial biomass production from the rice straw hydrolysate. PMID:15978690

  3. Bioactive compounds, RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics, and antioxidant activity of some Portuguese shrub species extracts.

    PubMed

    Luís, Angelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2011-12-01

    In the ecosystem of Serra Da Estrela, some plant species have the potential to be used as raw material for extraction of bioactive products. The goal of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents of the methanolic extracts of some shrubs (Echinospartum ibericum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Juniperus communis, Ruscus aculeatus, Rubus ulmifolius, Hakea sericea, Cytisus multiflorus, Crataegus monogyna, Erica arborea and Ipomoea acuminata), and then to correlate the phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity of each extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu's method was used for the determination of total phenols, and tannins were then precipitated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); a colorimetric method with aluminum chloride was used for the determination of flavonoids, and a Dragendorff's reagent method was used for total alkaloid estimation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene bleaching tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity of extracts. The identification of phenolic compounds present in extracts was performed using RP-HPLC. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was observed. The RP-HPLC procedure showed that the most common compounds were ferulic and ellagic acids and quercetin. Most of the studied shrubs have significant antioxidant properties that are probably due to the existence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. It is noteworthy to emphasize that for Echinospartum ibericum, Hakea sericea and Ipomoea acuminata, to the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical studies have been undertaken nor their use in traditional medicine been described. PMID:22312726

  4. Can Treeline Shift in Tropical Africa be Used As Proxy to Study Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, M.; Frankl, A.; De Ridder, M.; Guyassa, E.; Beeckman, H.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-12-01

    The important ecosystem services of the vulnerable high altitude forests of the tropical African highlands are under increasing environmental and human pressure. The afro-alpine treeline forms an apparent and temperature-responsive vegetation boundary and is therefore potentially valuable as a proxy of climate change in the tropics. However, a review of the current literature about treeline dynamics in tropical Africa indicates that climate change did not cause rising treelines, due to high human pressure and growing human population densities. On average the treeline is depressed below its climatic limit by 400 ± 300 meter, but regional differences are high and there are still many uncertainties. A multidisciplinary study of treeline dynamics is conducted in the north Ethiopian highlands. The Erica arborea L. treeline is studied over a century, using satellite imagery, aerial photographs, repeat photography and dendroclimatology. Repeat photography is proven a unique tool for the identification of treeline dynamics on the long-term. Results in the Simen Mts. indicate a treeline rise of more than 100 meters since the early 20th century. In contrast, historical satellite and aerial imagery indicate that there has been strong deforestation since the last 30 years and a significant (p<0.05) but small rise of the treeline elevation of 11 ± 4 vertical meters in Lib Amba Mt. Dendroclimatological results indicate a weak but significant (p<0.05) correlation between tree ring width and interannual precipitation patterns. However, since treelines in the African tropical mountains are strongly disturbed by human and livestock pressure, they cannot directly be used as a proxy for climate change.

  5. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muchtaridi; Diantini, Adjeng; Subarnas, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L.) leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L.) herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L.) bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb.) rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s) that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%), 0.1 (55.72%), 0.5 (60.75%), and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%), respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, ?-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  6. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

    2012-02-01

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. PMID:21792590

  7. Partial characterization of a protease inhibitor which inhibits the major endopeptidase present in the cotyledons of mung beans.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, B; Chrispeels, M J

    1976-07-01

    Germination of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Roxb.) is accompanied by an increase in the activity of the endopeptidase involved in storage protein metabolism. Enzyme activity in the cotyledons increases 25-fold during the first 5 days of germination. The cotyledons also contain inhibitory activity against the endopeptidase, and this inhibitory activity declines during germination, suggesting that inhibitors may play a role in regulating the activity of the endopeptidase.The inhibitory activity against the mung bean endopeptidase is due to the presence of two inhibitors which can be separated by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The two inhibitors have approximate molecular weights of 12,000 and smaller than 2,000 daltons. The large inhibitor coelutes with trypsin inhibitor on Sephadex G-100, but these two inhibitory activities can be separated by means of a trypsin affinity column.The inhibitory activity disappears slowly from crude extracts incubated at 6 C and more rapidly when the extracts are incubated at 25 C or 37 C. The disappearance of inhibitory activity is accompanied by a rise of the endopeptidase activity, but an examination of the kinetics of these two phenomena suggests that they are not causally related. Fractionation of the cellular organelles on sucrose gradients shows that the inhibitory activity is not associated with the protein bodies, but rather with the cytosol. Our results suggest that the endopeptidase inhibitor(s) does not regulate the increase in endopeptidase activity which accompanies germination or the metabolism of storage protein. We, therefore, postulate that the inhibitor(s) may function in protecting the cytoplasm from accidental rupturing of the protease-containing protein bodies. PMID:16659606

  8. Inhibitory effect of panduratin A on c-Jun N-terminal kinase and activator protein-1 signaling involved in Porphyromonas gingivalis supernatant-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human oral epidermoid cells.

    PubMed

    Yanti; Lee, Myoungsu; Kim, Daeyoung; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2009-10-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a type of Gram-negative periodontopathogen, causes periodontal disease by activating intracellular signaling pathways that produce excessive inflammatory responses such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Recently, we reported that panduratin A, a chalcone compound isolated from Kaempferia pandurata ROXB., caused the decreased levels of MMP-9 secretion, protein, and gene expression in human oral epidermoid KB cells exposed to P. gingivalis supernatant. In this study, we clarified if mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling mediated MMP-9 expression by examining the effect of specific MAPK inhibitors, i.e. U0126, SB203580, and SP600125, on P. gingivalis supernatant-stimulated MMP-9 expression in KB cells. We next elucidated the molecular mechanism by which panduratin A attenuated signaling pathways involved in MMP-9 expression by performing gelatin zymography, Western blotting, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and promoter assays. Exposure of KB cells to P. gingivalis supernatant up-regulated the expression of MMP-9 protein and gene, and activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) element, MAPK phosphorylation (extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)), and transcription factors (Elk1, c-Jun, and c-Fos). A JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly attenuated MMP-9 gene expression and AP-1 activity in KB cells in response to P. gingivalis supernatant. Similar to SP600125, panduratin A was found to strongly suppress the level of phosphorylated JNK and block AP-1 activity in P. gingivalis supernatant-stimulated KB cells. In summary, JNK and AP-1 are the major signaling for P. gingivalis supernatant-stimulated MMP-9 expression in KB cells, and panduratin A markedly down-regulates MMP-9 expression through inhibition of these signaling. PMID:19801842

  9. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

  10. Optimization of aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem in relation to soil nitrogen status for the cultivation of fish and aquatic food crops of the Indian subtropics.

    PubMed

    Puste, A M; Das, D K

    2001-12-01

    A case study was undertaken during wet and postwet seasons to improve the perennial and alternate submerged saucer-shaped ponded lands (tal and semi-tal lands) in the coasts and northeastern plains of the Indian subtropics through pisciculture and cultivation of starch- and protein-rich aquatic food crops like water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.) and makhana or fox nut (Euryale ferox Salisb.). The study revealed that the physico-chemical properties of soils (pH, organic C, organic matter, available N, P, and K) as well as quality of water (pH, EC, BOD, COD, CO3 +, HCO3-, NO3-N, SO4-S-, and Cl-), growing fish, makhana, and water chestnut was remarkably influenced by different moisture regimes and exhibited a significant improvement of soil health. The amount of organic C, available N, P, and K content were found significantly highest in the treatment where makhana was grown under alternate flooding and drying situation with a depth >2 m as compared to other treatments. Such enrichment of soil fertility, particularly in available N and P content, might be due to the accumulation of considerable amounts of biomass and fish excreta and their subsequent decomposition in situ in the soils. Therefore, the present study suggests that the N-enriched soil may effectively be utilized further for growing subsequent arable crops surroundings during summer season, which not only saves the amount of applied N fertilizer but also increases the apparent N efficiency with simultaneous increase in yield, and would benefit the farmers in this region. PMID:12805737

  11. Simultaneous Measurements of Steady State Chlorophyll a Fluorescence and CO2 Assimilation in Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Suan-Chin; Woo, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Rates of CO2 assimilation and steady state chlorophyll a fluorescence were measured simultaneously at different intercellular partial pressures of CO2 in attached cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Deltapine 16) leaves at 25°C. Electron transport activity for CO2 assimilation plus photorespiration was calculated for these experiments. Under light saturating (1750 microeinsteins per square meter per second) and light limiting (700 microeinsteins per square meter per second) conditions there was a good correlation between fluorescence and the calculated electron transport activity at 19 and 200 millibars O2, and between fluorescence and rates of CO2 assimilation at 19 millibars but not 200 millibars O2. The values of fluorescence measured at about 220 microbars intercellular CO2 were not greatly affected by increasing O2 from 19 to 800 millibars. Fluorescence increased with light intensity at any one intercellular CO2 partial pressure. But the values obtained for fluorescence, expressed as a ratio of the maximum fluorescence obtained in DCMU-treated tissue, over the same range of CO2 partial pressure at 500 microeinsteins per square meter per second were similar to those obtained at 1000 and 2000 microeinsteins per square meter per second. There were two phases in the observed correlation between fluorescence and calculated electron transport activity: an initial inverse relationship at low CO2 partial pressures which reversed to a positive correlation at higher values of CO2 partial pressures. Similar results were observed in the C3 species Helianthus annuus L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Brassica chinensis. In all C4 species (Zea mays L., Sorghum bicolor L., Panicum maximum Jacq., Amaranthus edulis Speg., and Echinochloa frumentacea [Roxb.] Link) examined changes in fluorescence were directly correlated with changes in CO2 assimilation rates. The nature and the extent to which Q (primary quencher) and high-energy state (qE) quenching function in determining the steady state fluorescence obtained during photosynthesis in leaves is discussed. PMID:16664735

  12. Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renne, I.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Johnson, Randall L.A.; Bridges, W.C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Plants possessing generalized dispersal syndromes are likely to be more invasive than those relying on specialist dispersal agents. To address this issue on a local and regional scale, avian seed dispersal of the invasive alien Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was assessed in forests and spoil areas of South Carolina and along forest edges in Louisiana during the 1997-99 fruiting seasons. Tallow trees in these floristically distinct habitats had a few common and many casual visitors, and considerable species overlap among habitats was found. However, bird species differed in the importance of dispersing and dropping seeds among habitats. Important dispersal agents common to forests and spoil areas of South Carolina included Northern Flicker, American Robin and Redwinged Blackbird, whereas Red-bellied Woodpecker and European Starling were important in the former and latter habitat, respectively. In Louisiana, Red-bellied Woodpecker, American Robin, Northern Cardinal and Eastern Bluebird dispersed many seeds. Nearly all species foraging on seeds were winter residents. Estimated numbers of seeds dispersed and dropped were higher in spoil areas of South Carolina than in Louisiana because of higher numbers of individuals per visit, higher seed consumption and seed dropping rates, and longer foraging durations. Within South Carolina, more seeds were dispersed and dropped in spoil areas than in forests because of higher numbers of birds per visit. These findings show that among habitats, tallow tree attracts diverse but variable coteries of dispersal agents that are qualitatively similar in seed usage patterns. We suggest that its generalized dispersal syndrome contributes to effective seed dispersal by many bird species throughout its range. Effects of differential avian use among locales may include changes in local bird communities, and differing tallow tree demographics and invasion patterns.

  13. Anti-HIV-1 activity, protease inhibition and safety profile of extracts prepared from Rhus parviflora

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, extracts prepared from the leaves of Rhus parviflora Roxb. (Anacardiaceae) were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity, which have been traditionally used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, insomnia and epilepsy. Methods Aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts prepared from leaves of the plant were tested for their cytotoxicity and anti-HIV property using reporter gene based assays as well as human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Further these extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease activity. Safety profile of the extracts was determined on viability of Lactobacillus sp., secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by vaginal keratinocytes and transepithelial resistance. Results Both aqueous (IC50?=?15 ?g/ml) and 50% ethanolic (IC50?=?26 ?g/ml) extracts prepared from leaves of R. parviflora showed anti-HIV activity in TZM-bl cells wherein the virus was treated with the extracts prior to infection. Further, both the extracts also inhibited virus load in HIV infected CEM-GFP cells and human PBLs. The anti-HIV activity is mediated through inhibition of HIV-1 protease activity. Both the extracts did not disturb the integrity of monolayer formed by intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The extracts when tested up to 100 ?g/ml did not significantly reduce the viability of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. casei. The extracts (100 ?g/ml) did not reveal any cytotoxic effect on vaginal keratinocytes (Vk2/E6E7). Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by Vk2/E6E7 cells treated with both the plant extracts were within the non-inflammatory range. Conclusions The studies reported herein showed in vitro anti-HIV activity and preliminary safety profile of the extracts prepared from the leaves of R. parviflora. PMID:24059266

  14. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber extracts against human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume belonging to the family of Araceae, is a perennial herb commonly known as elephant foot yam. Its tuber has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, abdominal tumors, piles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) namely petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MeF) on human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and 5,5’,6,6’ tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME were found to produce considerable cytotoxicity in human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were substantiated by DAPI, annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MeF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect were observed in PEF treated cells. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25657798

  15. Structure and Function of Shisham Forests in Central Himalaya, India: Dry Matter Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    LODHIYAL, NEELU; LODHIYAL, L. S.; PANGTEY, Y. P. S.

    2002-01-01

    The biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of 5? to 15?year?old Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests growing in central Himalaya were estimated. Allometric equations were developed for all above? and below?ground components of trees and shrubs for each stand. Understorey forest floor biomass and litter fall were also estimated in forest stands. The biomass (dry matter), forest floor biomass (standing crop litter), tree litter fall and NPP of trees and shrubs increased with increasing age of the forest stand, whereas the dry matter and herb NPP decreased significantly (P < 0·001) with increasing age of the forest. Total forest biomass and NPP ranged from 58·7 (5?year?old stand) to 136·1 t ha–1 (15?year?old stand) and 12·6 (5?year?old stand) to 20·3 t ha–1 year–1 (15?year?old stand), respectively. Of these values, tree biomass accounted for 85·7 (5?year?old stand) to 90·1 % (15?year?old) of total forest biomass, and tree NPP for 72·2 (5?year?old) to 82·3 % (15?year?old) of total forest NPP. The biomass accumulation ratio (BAR) of the bole component (bole wood + bole bark) increased with increasing age of the forest stand. The bole BAR was 5·8 (5?year?old stand) to 7·9 (15?year?old stand). However, total BAR of the forest stand ranged from 5·5 (5?year?old) to 7·5 (15?year?old). PMID:12096818

  16. Hypotensive, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Diuretic Activities of the Aqueous-methanol Extract of Ipomoea reniformis

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Qaiser; Aslam, Naveed

    2013-01-01

    Ipomoea reniformis Roxb. (Convolvulaceae) is a small, weedy herb used for the management of cardiac problems in traditional systems of medicine in India and Pakistan. Objective of the present study was to investigate the hypotensive, diuretic and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of the aqueous-methanol (30:70) crude extract of the dried aerial parts of I. reniformis (Ir.Cr.) in rats. To record blood pressure lowering effects of the Ir.Cr, different doses of the extract were administered through jugular vein to the ketamine-diazepam anesthetized normotensive rats and blood pressure was recorded via carotid artery. ACE inhibitory activity of the extract was studied in-vitro; using hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine as substrate, the product hippurate was quantified spectrophotometrically after reacting with cyanuric chloride/dioxane reagent. Effects of intraperitoneal administration of the extract on urine and urinary electrolyte excretion were also investigated in rats. The extract (Ir.Cr.) produced 21.51 ± 3.41, 28.99 ± 2.30, 53.34 ± 0.88 and 61.71 ± 3.37% fall in mean arterial blood pressure of the anesthetized rats at the doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/Kg, respectively. Ir.Cr. was found to have serum ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 value of 422 ± 21.16 ?g/mL. The extract also increased urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion significantly at the doses of 30 and 50 mg/Kg in rats. The study concludes that the crude extract of Ipomoea reniformis (Ir.Cr.) has hypotensive, ACE inhibitory and diuretic activities, which provide the scientific justification for the traditional uses of the plant as cardioprotective, antihypertensive and diuretic remedy. PMID:24523757

  17. Continuous hot pressurized solvent extraction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging compounds from Taiwan yams (Dioscorea alata).

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yen; Tu, Yu-Xun; Wu, Cheng-Tar; Jong, Ting-Ting; Chang, Chieh-Ming J

    2004-04-01

    This study investigates a semicontinuous hot pressurized fluid extraction process and the scavenging activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical of the extract from Taiwan yams (Dioscorea alata). Liquid-liquid extractions were preliminarily employed to generate six fractions, initially extracted by ethanol. Then, the aqueous solution of dried crude ethanol extract was sequentially fractionated by hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The EC50 value was defined as the UV absorption of DPPH concentrations sufficiently decreased to 50% of the original value. It was found that all peel portions have a better effect on scavenging of the DPPH free radical than meat portions, especially for the ethyl acetate partition of the peel portion of Tainung #2 yam. Its EC50 value (14.5 microg mL(-1)) was even lower than that of ascorbic acid (21.4 microg mL(-1)). Furthermore, semicontinuous hot pressurized ethanol was superior to hot pressurized water in extracting the compound scavenging the DPPH radical from the Purpurea-Roxb peel. The recovery of four unknown compounds corresponded to the scavenging ratio of DPPH free radical in the hot pressurized ethanol extract. Finally, three-level and four-factor experimental design revealed that ethanol ratio and temperature were the most effective factors in order. Conditions of 80% of aqueous ethanol, 20.0 kg/kg solid ratio, 180 psig (1.342 MPa), and 100 degrees C were preferred to extract those antioxidants from the yam peel. PMID:15053534

  18. Comparison of the volatile oil composition of three Atalantia species.

    PubMed

    Das, Arun K; Swamy, P S

    2013-05-01

    The members of the genus Atalantia belonging to the family Rutaceae have many uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the chemical composition of essential oils of three species of Atalantia namely Atalantia monophylla (Roxb.) DC., Atalantia racemosa Wight. and Atalantia wightii Tanaka. The extract percentage of the obtained essential oil was found to be 0.2, 0.17 and 0.31% in A. monophylla, A. racemosa and A. wightii respectively. The major compounds identified were alpha-Asarone (28.82%), Sabinene (13.19%), Eugenol methyl ether (12.71%), 1,2-Dimethoxy-4-(2-methoxyethenyl)benzene (11.63%) and beta-Pinene (5.3%) in the essential oil of A. monophylla. In A. racemosa, T-Cadinol (11.08%), Caryophyllene oxide (9.78%), beta-Caryophyllene (9.20%), Spathulenol (7.21%), beta-Phellandrene (5.67%) and Decanal (4.01%) and in A. wightii beta-Caryophyllene (16.37%), D-Limnonene (12.15%), Decanal (10.49%), beta-Myrcene (7.67%), Tetradecanal (6.99%), Caryophyllene oxide (6.29%) and Hexadecylene oxide (5.87%) were the main constituents. Sesquiterpenes were the major class of compounds in A. racemosa and A. wightii, while in A. monophylla the essential oil was predominated by ether compounds. The results showed that GC/MS analysis of essential oils is a significant step in the bio-chemical profiling and bio-prospecting of Atalantia species. PMID:24617143

  19. Antiproliferative property and apoptotic effect of xanthorrhizol on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yew Hoong; Nordin, Fariza Juliana; Tee, Thiam Tsui; Azimahtol, Hawariah Lope Pihie; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2008-01-01

    Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb (Zingerberaceae). Recent studies of xanthorrhizol in cell cultures strongly support the role of xanthorrhizol as an antiproliferative agent. In our study, we tested the antiproliferative effect of xanthorrhizol using different breast cancer cell lines. The invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was then selected for further investigations. Treatment with xanthorrhizol caused 50% growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells at 8.67 +/- 0.79 microg/ml as determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled cytochrome c revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the release of cytochrome c respectively. This was further confirmed by Western-blotting, where cytochrome c was showed to migrate from mitochondrial fraction to the cytosol fraction of treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Caspase activity assay showed the involvement of caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-6 or caspase-8 in MDA-MB-231 apoptotic cell death. Subsequently, cleavage of PARP-1 protein is suggested. These data suggest treatment with xanthorrhizol modulates MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway subsequent to the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the modulation of PARP-1 protein. PMID:19189649

  20. Xanthorrhizol inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced acute inflammation and two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis by blocking the expression of ornithine decarboxylase, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase through mitogen-activated protein kinases and/or the nuclear factor-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won Yoon; Park, Jae Hee; Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Heui Ok; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Lee, Sang Kook; Park, Kwang Kyun

    2007-06-01

    Xanthorrhizol is an active component isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) that is traditionally used in Indonesia for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we found that the topical application of xanthorrhizol before 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment significantly inhibits TPA-induced mouse ear edema and TPA-induced tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated ICR mouse skin. The topical application of xanthorrhizol following the induction of papillomas with TPA-induced hyperplasia and dysplasia also reduced tumor multiplicity and incidence in DMBA-initiated mouse skin. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor-promoting activity of xanthorrhizol, its effect on the TPA-induced expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the upstream signaling molecules controlling these proteins were explored in mouse skin. The pre-treatment with xanthorrhizol inhibited the expression of ODC, iNOS and COX-2 proteins and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in both mouse skin with TPA-induced acute inflammation and DMBA-initiated mouse skin promoted by TPA for 19 weeks. When mouse skin was treated after TPA-induced production of papillomas, xanthorrhizol remarkably suppressed the expression of ODC, iNOS and COX-2 and inhibited the activation of NF-kappaB. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that xanthorrhizol suppressed the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, p38, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and Akt in mice after topical application for 6 weeks following the induction of papillomas. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that xanthorrhizol not only delays or inhibits tumor formation, but also reverses the carcinogenic process at pre-malignant stages by reducing the protein levels of ODC, iNOS and COX-2 regulated by the NF-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinases and/or Akt. PMID:17234720

  1. Abrogation of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice by xanthorrhizol is related to its effect on the regulation of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Hong, Kyoung Ok; Chung, Won-Yoon; Hwang, Jae Kwan; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2004-05-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug, but at high dose, it can produce undesirable side effects such as hepatotoxicity. Because Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) has been traditionally used to treat liver disorders, the protective effect of xanthorrhizol, which is isolated from C. xanthorrhiza, on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity was evaluated in mice. The pretreatment of xanthorrhizol (200 mg/kg/day, po) for 4 days prevented the hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin (45 mg/kg, ip) with statistical significance. Interestingly, it abrogated cisplatin-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which consequently affected mRNA expression levels of NF-kappaB-dependent genes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), even in part. It also attenuated the cisplatin-suppressed DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1). Using differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR), seven upregulated genes including S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) mRNA and antigenic determinant for rec-A protein mRNA and five downregulated genes including caseinolytic protease X (ClpX) mRNA and ceruloplasmin (CP) mRNA by cisplatin were identified. Although these mRNA expression patterns were not totally consistent with gel shift patterns, altered expression levels by cisplatin were reversed by the pretreatment of xanthorrhizol. In conclusion, the ability of xanthorrhizol to regulate the DNA-binding activities of transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1, could be one possible mechanism to elucidate the preventive effect of xanthorrhizol on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, genes identified in this study could be helpful to understand the mechanism of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Finally, the combination treatment of xanthorrhizol and cisplatin may provide more advantage than single treatment of cisplatin in cancer therapy. PMID:15094305

  2. A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators. PMID:24595752

  3. [Effect of environmental factors on the growth and fatty acid composition of five endophytic fungi from Sapium sebiferum].

    PubMed

    Dai, Chuanchao; Yu, Boyang; Xu, Zenglai; Yuan, Sheng

    2003-09-01

    Five fungi species including Rhizoctonia sp., Sclerotium sp., Acremoniell sp., Chaetomium sp. and Pestalotiopsis sp. screened from the inner bark of Sapium sebiferum (Lével) Roxb. were used to study their growth under different environmental factors, with the biomass and fatty acid composition as main indexes to elucidate the relationship between plant and its endophytic fungi. Compared with that from synthesized medium, a higher biomass was harvested when the fungi were cultured on liquid potato dextrose medium; the unsaturation index of fatty acid (IUFA) was lower, and the main fatty acids in the fungi were linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid. Compared with the fungi grown on the synthesized medium without Sapium sebiferum's extract, the Sclerotium sp. growth was promoted, and the others were inhibited when the extract was added to the synthesized medium. At the same time, the IUFA were increased. When 0-1.0 mol.L-1 NaCl was added in Sclerotium sp.'s culture medium, the biomass was not changed notably; IUFA in 0-0.5 mol.L-1 NaCl was not significantly different, while in the range of 0.6-1.0 mol.L-1 NaCl, the IUFA was decreased with increasing concentration of NaCl. It indicated that fungus had a stronger tolerance to salt. Sclerotium sp.'s growth was promoted, and the IUFA was increased when plant oil was added in the synthesized medium. The biomass was the highest by adding 1.5% plant oil. The results mentioned above were some way related to the symbiotic relations between the endophytic fungi and their host plant. PMID:14733013

  4. Generation, annotation, analysis and database integration of 16,500 white spruce EST clusters

    PubMed Central

    Pavy, Nathalie; Paule, Charles; Parsons, Lee; Crow, John A; Morency, Marie-Josee; Cooke, Janice; Johnson, James E; Noumen, Etienne; Guillet-Claude, Carine; Butterfield, Yaron; Barber, Sarah; Yang, George; Liu, Jerry; Stott, Jeff; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Siddiqui, Asim; Holt, Robert; Marra, Marco; Seguin, Armand; Retzel, Ernest; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2005-01-01

    Background The sequencing and analysis of ESTs is for now the only practical approach for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in conifers because their very large genomes are unlikely to be sequenced in the near future. Our objective was to produce extensive collections of ESTs and cDNA clones to support manufacture of cDNA microarrays and gene discovery in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss). Results We produced 16 cDNA libraries from different tissues and a variety of treatments, and partially sequenced 50,000 cDNA clones. High quality 3' and 5' reads were assembled into 16,578 consensus sequences, 45% of which represented full length inserts. Consensus sequences derived from 5' and 3' reads of the same cDNA clone were linked to define 14,471 transcripts. A large proportion (84%) of the spruce sequences matched a pine sequence, but only 68% of the spruce transcripts had homologs in Arabidopsis or rice. Nearly all the sequences that matched the Populus trichocarpa genome (the only sequenced tree genome) also matched rice or Arabidopsis genomes. We used several sequence similarity search approaches for assignment of putative functions, including blast searches against general and specialized databases (transcription factors, cell wall related proteins), Gene Ontology term assignation and Hidden Markov Model searches against PFAM protein families and domains. In total, 70% of the spruce transcripts displayed matches to proteins of known or unknown function in the Uniref100 database (blastx e-value < 1e-10). We identified multigenic families that appeared larger in spruce than in the Arabidopsis or rice genomes. Detailed analysis of translationally controlled tumour proteins and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase families confirmed a twofold size difference. Sequences and annotations were organized in a dedicated database, SpruceDB. Several search tools were developed to mine the data either based on their occurrence in the cDNA libraries or on functional annotations. Conclusion This report illustrates specific approaches for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in an organism that is very distantly related to any of the fully sequenced genomes. The ArboreaSet sequences and cDNA clones represent a valuable resource for investigations ranging from plant comparative genomics to applied conifer genetics. PMID:16236172

  5. Long days and thyroxine program american tree sparrows for seasonality: evidence for temporal flexibility of the breeding season of euthyroid females.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1999-01-01

    To explore the role of the thyroid in the control of seasonality, photosensitive female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were thyroidectomized (THX), moved to long days, and given daily injections of thyroxine (T4) for 3 weeks; THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received daily injections of alkaline vehicle. Birds were retained on long days 4 additional weeks and then moved to constant light and given T4 in drinking water for 5 weeks in order to test for photorefractoriness. Endpoints were ovarian mass, molt score, and hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content; data were collected as independent measures at intervals of 1 to 5 weeks. THX females given T4 replacement therapy (THXT4 females) exhibited all components of seasonality (i.e., photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt), as did THI females. THX females not given replacement T4 were aseasonal: They showed only minor thyroid-independent photoperiodic ovarian growth; they remained photosensitive, despite chronic photostimulation; and they did not initiate postnuptial molt. Collectively, these observations support, and extend to female tree sparrows, our model of seasonality in male tree sparrows, wherein control circuits are programmed for gonadal growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt by interactive effects of long days and thyroid hormone during the first 3 weeks of photostimulation. The unexpected finding that constant light and/or exogenous T4 extended the simulated breeding seasons of some THI females prompted us to investigate the nature and expression of photorefractoriness. Our approach was to evaluate the same endpoints as before in chronically photostimulated THI females either retained on long days, with or without T4 in drinking water, or moved to constant light, with or without T4. The results showed that exposure to constant light (not T4) near the end of a simulated breeding season can-though usually it does not-temporarily extend the breeding season and prevent the onset of postnuptial molt. It remains unclear whether these perturbations caused by constant light reflect a transitional relative photorefractoriness or merely a delay in the onset of absolute photorefractoriness. In either case, the thyroid- and daylength-dependent programs controlling seasonality in female American tree sparrows have a heretofore undemonstrated potential for limited temporal flexibility. PMID:9882552

  6. The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities. Thereby, depending on the level of habitat quality that is aimed at, different measures may provide the most efficient solution. Lower levels of conservation can be achieved with low-cost adapted CPAs, such as an increased cutting height, reduced sowing density and grubbing instead of ploughing. Higher levels of conservation require e.g. grassland-like managed buffer strips around ponds in sensible areas, which incur much higher on-farm conservation costs. PMID:23164542

  7. Herbal preparation extract for skin after radiotherapy treatment. Part One--Preclinical tests.

    PubMed

    Skalska-Kami?ska, Agnieszka; Wo?niak, Anna; Paduch, Roman; Kocjan, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Naran R is a herbal composition made of Plantago lanceolate folium, Malvae arboreae flos, Calendulae flos, Chamomillae inflorescentia, Lamii albi flos to prepare compresses or to wash skin with inflammations. The extract of this preparation is mixed to be applied as an ointment on patients' skin after radiotherapy. Experiments performed in vitro are part of pre-clinical tests with Naran R ointment. This study examined the impact of the plant composition for ethanol-water extract on human skin fibroblasts (HSF) culture. Samples of extract, prepared from patented amounts of herbs, were in the range of 25-225 ?g/mL. Six methods were applied: standard spectrophotometric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red (NR) uptake assay, DPPH free radical scavenging test, labeling of cytoskeleton F-actin, staining of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) and trypan blue coloration. The extract concentration 75 ?g/mL was established as safe for application on human skin. In labeling of F-actin with rhodamine-phalloidin dye at this concentration the cytoskeleton was stable. The extract did not influence the membrane stability and had positive influence on the proliferation activity. It was confirmed in AgNOR test during incubation with extract, which led to formation of larger amount of smaller nucleolins. In DPPH scavenging activity test, the extract revealed over 8% higher free-radical scavenging activity in comparison to control. After trypan blue staining, the extract in concentration 125 ?g/mL significantly lowered the cell viability. When the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity of the extracts were analyzed, MTT and Neutral Red (NR) methods were used. The cells' viability was maintained on a constant level (80-110%) after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. During all time of NR test (72 h) and even when 225 ?g/mL of extract was applied, the viability of cells was in range 80-110% of control. Positive influence of the extract on investigated cells structure and proliferation, lack of toxicity and increasing anti-oxidant activity enable to consider this preparation as a natural remedy with potential application in skin therapy after radiation. PMID:25362806

  8. Climatic belt dynamics on a tropical mountain under strong anthropogenic and zoogenic impact: Mt Tsebet (3946 m a.s.l.) in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Yirga, Gidey; Guyassa, Etafa; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Poesen, Jean; Hemp, Andreas; Haile, Mitiku

    2010-05-01

    The links between decreasing size and volume of the glaciers in East Africa's tropical mountains and the position of climatic belts on the one hand and global warming on the other have led to various interpretations on the occurrence of global warming and its magnitude and impacts in this part of the world. Here, we investigate the existence of temperature changes in East Africa and their impacts in high mountain regions by analyzing the position of climatically determined vegetation belts on Mt. Tsebet (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3946 m a.s.l.) in northern Ethiopia between 1986 and 2010. This 27 km² massif, which was first surveyed and photographed in 1868, was chosen as a study area because, unlike Simien Mountains or Bale Mts. (Ethiopia), the antropogenic and zoogenic impact on the environment has not been reduced through time. By choosing Tsebet, we avoided areas that have become recently protected (such as the above-mentioned national parks); there, trees that newly grow more upslope might be ascribed to the protected status. In protected areas, the position of upper cropland limits may be controlled by regulations that prevent farmers from expanding farmlands upslope, even if climatic and topographic conditions would allow doing so. On Tsebet, where direct human and zoogenic impact exists up to the highest elevations, we will establish the position of two temperature-linked vegetation limits (i.e. Erica arborea and Hordeum vulgare or barley) in 1986, 1994 and 2010, through fieldwork (February 2010) and aerial photo interpretation. Changes in population density in the villages around Mt. Tsebet will be analysed through house counting on aerial photographs. The fieldwork will include a stay in mountain villages, during which interviews will be done on dates and reasons for shifting of the cultivation limit. The results will be analysed through geostatistical methods and will provide a better understanding of the magnitude of air temperature and possibly precipitation changes in this region and of the interaction between climate forcing and direct human intervention in densely populated tropical mountains.

  9. Histochemical and biochemical observations on storage protein metabolism and protein body autolysis in cotyledons of germinating mung beans.

    PubMed

    Harris, N; Chrispeels, M J

    1975-08-01

    Storage protein hydrolysis in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) was examined by histochemical techniques, and the autolytic capacity of isolated protein bodies was studied with biochemical methods. The localization of endopeptidase activity within the cotyledons was studied using an India ink-gelatin film technique. After 24 hours of imbibition, a low level of endopeptidase activity was found throughout the storage tissues of the cotyledons. A marked increase in activity was noted in cells farthest from the vascular bundles 48 to 60 hours after the start of imbibition. The decrease in storage protein followed the same spatial distribution starting in the cells farthest from the bundles. The cotyledons contain a population of cells in various stages of endopeptidase activity enhancement and storage protein degradation. A wave of endopeptidase activity moves progressively through the cotyledons towards the vascular bundles leaving behind areas devoid of stored reserves and low in endopeptidase activity. Observations on the morphology of protein bodies during germination indicate that the membrane surrounding them remains intact, while the reserves disappear. This result suggests that the protein bodies may be undergoing autolysis. To determine whether this may indeed be the case, protein bodies were isolated from the meal of mung bean seeds using an aqueous medium containing 80% glycerol. The protein body preparations and the cytoplasm were assayed for the presence of a number of enzymes which may be involved in the breakdown of the storage proteins. The protein bodies contained all, or nearly all, of the carboxypeptidase, alpha-mannosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, and caseolytic activity. The cytoplasm contained all, or most, of the leucine aminopeptidase and the trypsin-like activity (benzoyl arginine-p-nitroanalide as substrate). Incubation of the isolated protein bodies resulted in the release of amino acids. An analysis of the products of hydrolysis indicated that very little, if any, storage protein was being hydrolyzed during the incubation. Hydrolysis of the storage proteins present in the protein bodies was greatly accelerated by the addition of extracts from the cotyledons of 4-day-old seedlings. The results suggest that new enzymic activities not present in the protein bodies isolated from dry seeds must either be activated or synthesized and possibly added to the protein bodies before storage protein breakdown can begin. PMID:16659290

  10. Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists and students. Phenological studies by the Mat-Su Career and Technical High School students helped scientists working with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to determine the best time for an aerial survey of bald eagle nests in the Matanuska Susitna Valley in Alaska. GLOBE student phenological data have also been used as part of a doctoral student dissertation, included in presentations at professional meetings and peer- reviewed scientific papers. Pre- and post- engagement assessment data have indicated a significant increase in content knowledge and science skills of pre-college students who have engaged in phenology investigations. Phenological investigations meet educational standards, help students understand the Earth as a system, do not require expensive equipment, and enable students across the globe to learn science by doing science.

  11. Structure and Function of Shisham Forests in Central Himalaya, India: Nutrient Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    LODHIYAL, NEELU; LODHIYAL, L. S.; PANGTEY, Y. P. S.

    2002-01-01

    The structure and function of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests were investigated in relation to nutrient dynamics in 5? to 15?year?old stands growing in central Himalaya. Nutrient concentrations and storage in different layers of vegetation were in the order: tree > shrub > herb. Forest soil, litter and vegetation accounted for 80·1–91·9, 1·0–1·5 and 7·0–18·4 %, respectively, of the total nutrients in the system. There were considerable reductions (trees 32·8–43·1; shrubs 26·2–32·4; and herbs 18·8–22·2 %) in nutrient concentrations of leaves during senescence. Nutrient uptake by the vegetation as a whole and also by the different components, with and without adjustment for internal recycling, was investigated. Annual transfer of litter nutrients to the soil from vegetation was 74·8–108·4 kg ha–1 year–1 N, 5·6–8·4 kg ha–1 year–1 P and 38·7–46·9 kg ha–1 year–1 K. Turnover rate and time for different nutrients ranged between 56 and 66 % year–1 and 1·5 and 1·8 years, respectively. The turnover rate of litter indicates that over 50 % of nutrients in litter on the forest floor are released, which ultimately enhances the productivity of the forest stand. The nutrient use efficiency in Shisham forests ranged from 136 to 143 kg ha–1 year–1 for N, 1441 to 1570 kg ha–1 year–1 for P and 305 to 311 kg ha–1 year–1 for K. Compared with natural oak forest (265 kg ha–1 year–1) and an exotic eucalypt plantation (18 kg ha–1 year–1), a higher proportion of nutrients was retranslocated in Shisham forests, largely because of higher leaf tissue nutrient concentrations. This indicates a lower nutrient use efficiency of Shisham compared with eucalypt and oak. Compartment models for nutrient dynamics have been developed to represent the distribution of nutrients pools and net annual fluxes within the system. PMID:12096819

  12. Development and validation of a HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of phytolaccagenin in rat plasma and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fenghuan; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Fueth, Matthias; Swarts, Steven; Okunieff, Paul; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2015-03-25

    Radix Phytolaccae (the dried root of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. or Phytolacca americana L.) is widely used in East Asian countries for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. The active component of Radix Phtolaccae is Phytolcaccagenin a triterpenoid saponin. Phytolcaccagenin has anti-inflammatory activities that exceed those of Esculentoside A and its derivatives regarding suppression of LPS-induced inflammation, and has a lower toxicity profile with less hemolysis. To date, no information is available about analytical method and pharmacokinetic studies of phytolaccagenin. To explore PK profile of this compound, a HPLC-MS/MS assay of phytolaccagenin in rat plasma was developed and validated. The method was fully validated according to FDA Guidance for industry. The detection was performed by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode via electrospray ionization. The monitored transitions were m/z 533.2>515.3 for Phytolcaccagenin, and 491.2>473.2 for I.S. The analysis was performed on a Symmetry C18 column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 3.5 ?m) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid water at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with a 1:1 splitter ratio. The method was validated with a LLOQ of 20 ng/ml and an ULOQ of 1000 ng/ml. The response versus concentration data were fitted with 1/x weighting and the correlation coefficient (r) were greater than 0.999. The average matrix effect and the average extraction recovery were acceptable. This validation in rat plasma demonstrated that phytolaccagenin was stable for 30 days when stored below -20°C, for 6h at room temperature (RT, 22°C), for 12 h at RT for prepared control samples in auto-sampler vials, and during three successive freeze/thaw cycles results at -20°C. The validated method has been successfully applied to an intravenous bolus pharmacokinetic study of phytolaccagenin in male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 mg/kg, i.v.). Blood samples taken from 0 to 24h after injection were collected, and data analyzed with WinNonlin. The half-life and clearance were 1.4±0.9 h and 2.1±1.1 L/h/kg, respectively. PMID:25575173

  13. Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes. PMID:20712897

  14. Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombus formed in blood vessels lead to atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs sometimes cause serious and fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases although they show little toxicity in some cases. Aqueous extracts of herbs used in thrombolysis have been reported before with cytotoxic data, however, the organic extracts of herbs have not been documented. This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity. Methods An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., Ageratum conyzoides L., Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Leucas aspera Willd., Senna sophera L. Roxb., and Solanum torvum Swartz. using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Briefly, venous blood drawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. Results Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed 18.12 ± 2.34%, 48.9 ± 2.44%, 39.30 ± 0.96%, 37.32 ± 2.00%, 31.61 ± 2.97% and 31.51 ± 0.57% and clot lysis respectively. Among the herbs studied Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera showed very significant (p < 0.0001) percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to reference drug streptokinase (75.00 ± 3.04%). In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, the extracts Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed LC50 values 508.86 ± 6.62,41.16 ± 1.26, 2.65 ± 0.16, 181.67 ± 1.65, 233.37 ± 7.74 and 478.40 ± 3.23 ?g/ml, respectively, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76 ± 0.04). Conclusion Through our study it was found that Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera possessed effective thrombolytic properties whereas Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed moderate to mild thrombolytic effects while Ageratum conyzoides showed no significant effect. No extract was found cytoxic compared to positive control. Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent with in vivo effects to improve the atherothrombotic patients. However, Clausena suffruticosa could be the best one to use in this purpose. PMID:23363538

  15. Tree-ring footprints of drought variability in last ?300 years over Kumaun Himalaya, India and its relationship with crop productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ram R.; Misra, Krishna G.; Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Kotlia, Bahadur S.; Misra, Sandhya

    2015-06-01

    We reconstructed Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a metric of drought, using tree-ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) prepared from two ecologically homogeneous settings in the Kumaun Himalaya, India. The reconstruction employing first principal component of the two site chronologies in linear regression model helped in extending 7-month SPI of May (SPI7-May) back to 1720 CE. The calibration model capturing 60% of variance in the observed SPI series (1902-1967) is the strongest so far from the Indian region. On achieving such a robust tree-ring calibration we are of the opinion that SPI should provide a better option to develop long-term drought records for the data scarce Himalayan region. The SPI reconstruction revealed high year-to-year variability with 1816 (SPI -1.92) and 1737 (SPI +2.33) the driest and the wettest years respectively. The five year mean of reconstructed SPI revealed multiyear droughts in 1920-1924, 1782-1786, 1812-1816, 1744-1748, 1964-1968 and pluvial phases in 1911-1915, 1723-1727, 1788-1792, 1758-1762 and 1733-1737. The SPI7-May was found to be significantly correlated with wheat-barley productivity data of Almora in Kumaun, close to our tree ring sites (r = 0.60, two-tailed p < 0.0001). However, we observed that the wheat-barley productivity data, to some extent, were better correlated with 7-month SPI of April (SPI7-April) (r = 0.69, two-tailed p < 0.0001). The difference in relationship of wheat-barley productivity and SPI of above two periods is largely due to the prevailing crop phenology in the region. The wheat and barley crops sown in October-November are usually harvested in May when the Himalayan cedar trees are in active vegetation phase of seasonal growth in Almora region. We observed strong and significant correlation in SPI7-May and SPI7-April (r = 0.75, two-tailed p = 0.0001) underpinning that the tree-ring derived SPI7-May could also be taken as a proxy of wheat-barley production in Almora region. This observation also stands for the past as we noted that most of the droughts recorded in our reconstruction (SPI <1) were associated with rabi crop failures in the Kumaun Himalaya. The findings of this study establish that the SPI7-May developed from tree rings should serve as an important base line data to quantify the impact of droughts on forest as well as rabi crop productivity in hilly terrains of the Kumaun Himalaya in long-term perspective.