Sample records for gmelina arborea roxb

  1. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb in experimentally induced inflammation and nociception

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A.; Panjabi, Ritesh; Patel, Vishvas; Tawade, Aditi; Gokhale, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gmelina arborea Roxb (Verbenaceae), also known as “Gambhari”, is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda. There are no meticulous scientific reports on effect of the plant on inflammation and pain. Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of aqueous extracts (AE) and methanol extracts (ME) of G. arborea. Materials and Methods: The AE and ME of stembark of G. arborea was prepared by cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction technique respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in Wistar albino rats in a model of acute plantar inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by using hot plate test and writhing test in Swiss albino mice. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: AE and ME at dose of 500 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition in carrageenan induced inflammation up to 30.15 and 31.21% respectively. In hot plate test, the AE and ME showed the maximum response of 8.8 ± 0.97 (P < 0.01) and 8.2 ± 1.24 (P < 0.01) respectively at dose of 500 mg/kg when compared with control. AE showed maximum inhibition of writhing response (84.3%) as compared to ME (77.9%) in writhing test at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: The findings suggested that G. arborea possess significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. PMID:24250144

  2. Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry as well as histology were studied. Results: The administration of ME from the G. arborea bark at 300–5000 mg/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the clinical signs. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of ME was 5000 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the general condition, growth, organ weights, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry values, or gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. Conclusion: ME of G. arborea was found safe in acute and repeated dose toxicity studies when tested in mice and rats. PMID:22778509

  3. WET POCKETS IN KILN-DRIED GMELINA ARBOREA LUMBER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Moya; F. A. Muñoz

    MOYA, R. R. & MUÑOZ, F. A. 2008. Wet pockets in kiln-dried Gmelina arborea lumber. In drying Gmelina arborea there are usually great differences in the final moisture content (MCf) between and within boards. In this research, the causes for the unevenness of MCf were studied. Wood from two young plantations (six years old) and two older plantations nearing rotation

  4. Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

  5. In vivo antioxidant and vasodilating activities of Gmelina arborea (Verberaceae) leaves hexane extract.

    PubMed

    Wansi, Sylvie L; Nyadjeu, Paulin; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît; Fodouop, Siaka F K; Donatien, Atsamo Albert; Kamanyi, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Gmelina arborea hexane leaves extract on markers of oxidative stress and its vasorelaxant effects on isolated rat aorta, in order to postulate the possible mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive properties of the plant. To evaluate the antioxidant effects of the extract, rats were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. With the exception to the group receiving Tween (2.5%), the other groups were treated either with NaCl (900mg/kg/day) alone, NaCl (900mg/kg/day) combined with vitamin C (5mg/kg/day) or Gmelina arborea extract (150mg/kg/day). At the end of eight weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and some organs as well as blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The in vitro vasodilating effects of the extract (0.5-1.5mg/ml) were evaluated using intact and denuded rat thoracic aortic rings or aorta pre-incubated in L-NAME (2µM), indomethacin (2µM) or glibenclamide (2µM) and contracted with phenylephrine (1µM). The in vivo effects of G. arborea hexane extract prevented both left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, it also modulated lipid metabolism. Moreover, the extract prevented lipid peroxidation, increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activity as well as NO level. On isolated rat aortic rings, the extract induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxant effects. Extract-induced vasodilation was reduced by mechanical denudation of the endothelium as well as pre-treatment with L-NAME, indomethacin or glibenclamide. These results indicate that Gmelina arborea hexane extract possesses bioactive compounds with antioxidant and vasorelaxant properties. PMID:23045387

  6. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1–1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash values were also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higher than leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications. PMID:23569939

  7. Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn.

    E-print Network

    Hicks, Van Joseph

    1980-01-01

    that the rooting of terminal cuttings was poor with Salix cinerea, while the position on the stem made no difference in rooting and growth of Salix fragilis, S. triandra, and S. viminalis x americana. The lower cuttings from two-year-old ~po ulus deltoides...

  8. Bioactive constituents of Leptadenia arborea.

    PubMed

    El-Hassan, A; El-Sayed, M; Hamed, A I; Rhee, I K; Ahmed, A A; Zeller, K P; Verpoorte, R

    2003-02-01

    The aerial part of Leptadenia arborea has been shown to contain pinoresinol (1), syringaresinol (2), leucanthemitol (3) and E-ferulaldehyde (4). These known compounds are being reported for the first time from this plant. Among them, syringaresinol has shown an inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase. The IC(50) (the concentration of 50% enzyme inhibition) value of this compound was 200 microg/ml. PMID:12628421

  9. Bioactive flavanoids from Glycosmis arborea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycosmis is a genus of evergreen glabrous shrub and distributed all over India. It possesses various medicinal properties and is used in indigenous medicine for cough, rheumatism, anemia, and jaundice. Glycosmis arborea is a rich source of alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins, as well as flavonoids. Results The chemical investigation of methanol fraction of the leaves of G. arborea led to the isolation of one new flavone C-glycoside along with three known flavanoids, named as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[4-hydroxy-3-(methoxy methyl) phenyl]-6-C-?-d-glucopyranosyl flavone (4), 5,7,4?-trihydroxy-3?-methoxy flavone (1), 5,4?-dihydroxy-3?-methoxy-7-O-?-d-glucupyranosyl flavanone (2), and 5,4?-dihydroxy-3?-methoxy-7-O-(?-l-rhamnosyl-(1??6?)-?-d-glucopyranosyl) flavanone (3), respectively. The structures of all compounds were elucidated with the help of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Pure compounds and fractions were evaluated for pest antifeedant and antimicrobial activity. Conclusion Four compounds were isolated from the leaves of G. arborea. Among them, compound 4 showed significant antimicrobial activity. PMID:23497605

  10. 36. ECONOMIC PROSPECTS OF SMALL-SCALE TREE FARMS IN BONTOC, SOUTHERN LEYTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatolio N. Polinar

    A study was conducted to investigate the economic returns of subsistence farmers from small- scale tree farms in Bontoc Municipality, Southern Leyte, and the reasons that influence attitudes of farmers towards tree domestication. Yemani (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla king.) are the most commonly planted timber species in Southern Leyte. They are frequently planted as intercrops in

  11. Discovery of novel diterpenoids from Sinularia arborea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Dai, Chang-Feng; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Chun-Yu; Li, Jan-Jung; Chen, Jih-Jung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sheu, Jyh-Horng; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2014-01-01

    Two novel diterpenoids, sinularbols A (1) and B (2), which were found to possess a new carbon skeleton were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia arborea. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and 2 displayed a moderately inhibitory effect on the generation of superoxide anion by human neutrophils. PMID:24445307

  12. Discovery of Novel Diterpenoids from Sinularia arborea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Dai, Chang-Feng; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Chun-Yu; Li, Jan-Jung; Chen, Jih-Jung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sheu, Jyh-Horng; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2014-01-01

    Two novel diterpenoids, sinularbols A (1) and B (2), which were found to possess a new carbon skeleton were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia arborea. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and 2 displayed a moderately inhibitory effect on the generation of superoxide anion by human neutrophils. PMID:24445307

  13. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc. PMID:22654406

  14. Secondary Metabolites from the Soft Coral Sinularia arborea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Dai, Chang-Feng; Lu, Mei-Chin; Li, Jan-Jung; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Yu-Chia; Su, Yin-Di; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2013-01-01

    Two new 13-hydroxycembrane diterpenoids, arbolides A (1) and B (2), along with a known trihydroxysteroid, crassarosterol A (3), were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia arborea. The structures of new cembranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Steroid 3 was found to exhibit cytotoxicity toward K562 and MOLT-4 leukemia. PMID:24005902

  15. Secondary metabolites from the soft coral Sinularia arborea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Dai, Chang-Feng; Lu, Mei-Chin; Li, Jan-Jung; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Yu-Chia; Su, Yin-Di; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2013-09-01

    Two new 13-hydroxycembrane diterpenoids, arbolides A (1) and B (2), along with a known trihydroxysteroid, crassarosterol A (3), were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia arborea. The structures of new cembranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Steroid 3 was found to exhibit cytotoxicity toward K562 and MOLT-4 leukemia. PMID:24005902

  16. Allelopathic potential of Medicago arborea , a Mediterranean invasive shrub

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Bousquet-Mélou; Sophie Louis; Christine Robles; Stéphane Greff; Sylvie Dupouyet; Catherine Fernandez

    2005-01-01

    Biological invasions are nowadays a major problem in ecology. Allelopathy has been shown to be involved in such invasions, but this mechanism has been little studied in France. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Medicago arborea, an invasive species in the French Mediterranean region. Foliar extracts were tested on three target species (Lactuca sativa,

  17. Monoterpene indole alkaloids from the twigs of Kopsia arborea.

    PubMed

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Raksat, Achara; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2014-10-01

    The phytochemistry of Kopsia arborea Blume has received considerable attention, which has resulted in the isolation of a number of new unusual indole alkaloids with intriguing structures. In this study, a new eburnane-type alkaloid, phutdonginin (1), together with eight known alkaloids: 19-OH-(-)- eburnamonine (2), melodinine E (3), kopsinine (4), kopsilongine (5), kopsamine (6), (-)-methylenedioxy-1 1,12-kopsinaline (7), decarbomethoxykopsiline (8), and vincadifformine (9), were isolated from the twigs of K. arborea. Their structures were characterized extensively by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS. All compounds were submitted to TLC screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Only kopsamine and decarbomethoxykopsiline showed AChE inhibition with MIR values of 12.5 and 6.25 ?g, respectively, compared with galanthamine (positive control, 0.004 ?g). In addition, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited moderate antibacterial activity against E. coli TISTR 780 with the MIC value of 32 .g/mL. PMID:25522533

  18. New cembranoids from the soft coral Sinularia arborea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Dai, Chang-Feng; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Yang-Chang; Sung, Ping-Jyun

    2014-03-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of the soft coral Sinularia arborea, a new cembrane-type diterpenoid, arbolide C (1), along with (+)-sarcophytol T (2), an enantiomer of the known cembrane, sarcophytol T, were isolated. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic methods and 1 was found to display an inhibitory effect on the release of elastase by human neutrophils. PMID:24689215

  19. (SPIZELLA ARBOREA) AND DARK-EYED JUNCOS (JUNCO HYEMALIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIKI M. STUEBE; ELLEN D. KETTER

    ABSTmCT.--Despite similarities in winter distribution, habitat selection, and food choice, Dark-eyed Juncos ()unco hyemalis) and Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) differ in the extent to which they store fat during winter, with juncos accumulating greater stores. Anticipating that Tree Sparrows might have some means of conserving energy during fasting and thus suffer no disadvantage when weather prevents feeding, we compared the

  20. Incorporation of the invasive mallow Lavatera arborea into the food web of an active seabird island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. HawkeJohn; John Mc K. Clark

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the invasive mallow Lavatera arborea in the terrestrial ecosystem of a flourishing seabird island in SE New Zealand using natural abundance stable isotope ratios\\u000a (13C\\/12C; 15N\\/14N, reported as ?13C and ?15N). Foliage samples of L. arborea came from transects encompassing three distinct environments (plateau, slope, storm-washed flat) across the island. Samples\\u000a of potential marine

  1. Extraocular control of photorefractoriness in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1989-07-01

    Photorefractoriness, a reversible state of unresponsiveness to daylengths of gonadostimulatory duration, terminates seasonal breeding in many photoperiodic species of birds. Whether the eyes are components of the mechanism that triggers photorefractoriness is an important, but heretofore unresolved, question. Although a role for extraocular photoreception in the mechanism of photoinduced gonadal growth is well documented, the eyes may be important in the mechanism of photorefractoriness if, as some evidence suggests, they are gonadoinhibitory. With American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), I here confirm that the absence of eyes does not impede photoinduced testicular growth and establish that an extraocular mechanism mediates the transition from photosensitivity to photorefractoriness: Tree sparrows blinded by bilateral ocular enucleation, when photosensitivity to long days or by miniature self-powered lights implanted atop the skull, showed marked testicular growth and then, as evidenced by spontaneous testicular regression, became photorefractory, as did sighted controls. PMID:2804201

  2. Somatic hybrid plants between the forage legumes Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborea L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nenz; F. Pupilli; F. Damiani; S. Arcioni

    1996-01-01

    Interspecific somatic hybrid plants were obtained by symmetrical electrofusion of mesophyll protoplasts of Medicago sativa with callus protoplasts of Medicago arborea. Somatic hybrid calli were picked manually from semi-solid culture medium after they were identified by their dual color in fluorescent light. Twelve putative hybrid calli were selected and one of them regenerated plants. The morphogenesis of the somatic hybrid

  3. The thyroid and photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Wilson; B. D. Reinert

    1993-01-01

    To explore the role of the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), the effects of (1) thyroxine administered in drinking water to thyroid-intact photosensitive or photorefractory birds, and (2) radiothyroidectomy before and after photostimulation and during photorefractoriness were examined. Chronic administration of pharmacological doses of thyroxine induced testicular growth and

  4. where mongooses do not occur (Swedberg, 1967). The West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea

    E-print Network

    Hedges, Blair

    NOTES 93 where mongooses do not occur (Swedberg, 1967). The West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea Linnaeus) has suffered losses in the West Indies due to mongoose predation (Kear and Williams is also threatened by the mongoose. The high concentration of White- cheeked Pintails on Green Cay, where

  5. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC50)?=?22.44 ?g/mL; LC90 40.65 ?g/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC50?=?25.77 ?g/mL; LC90 45.98 ?g/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50?=?27.83 ?g/mL; LC90 48.92 ?g/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. PMID:25666372

  6. Stem elongation and runnering in the mutant strawberry, Fragaria vesca L. ArboreaStaudt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Guttridge

    1973-01-01

    The long-stemmed strawberry mutant Fragaria vesca arboreaStaudt (arb\\/arb) was crossed with a non-runnering form (r\\/r) of everbearing strawberry F. vesca semperflorensDuch. and the four recessive everbearing segregants were identified (arb\\/arb, r\\/r), (arb\\/arb, +\\/+), (+, r\\/r) and (+, +). The longstemmed segregants runnered even when the dominant gene for runnering was absent. The morphological similarity between the mutant arb\\/arb and the

  7. The Thyroid and the Hypothalamus–Pituitary–Ovarian Axis in American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan D. Reinert; Fred E. Wilson

    1996-01-01

    Prompted by evidence of a linkage between the thyroid gland and seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we measured circulating T4(L-thyroxine), hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone, variant I), pituitary and plasma LH (luteinizing hormone), and ovarian mass in euthyroid females moved from short to long days. Our purpose was to correlate temporal changes in T4and cGnRH-I

  8. Time of Thyroidectomy Variably Affects Seasonality in Female American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred E Wilson; Bryan D Reinert

    1999-01-01

    Female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were injected with Na131I before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation in order to study the effect of time of thyroidectomy on three components of seasonality: thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt. Thyroidectomy before or at the onset of photostimulation abolished all components of seasonality; birds exhibited only minor thyroid-independent

  9. Hypothalamic neurosecretion and photoinduced testicular growth in the tree sparrow, Spizella arborea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred E. Wilson; G. Roger Hands

    1968-01-01

    To assess the role of the hypothalamic neurosecretory system in the mechanism of photoperiodic control of testicular growth in Spizella arborea, we have examined the effect of (1) photostimulation on the density of paraldehyde-fuchsin-stainable (PAF+) material in the neurovascular zone of the median eminence, and (2) interruption of the hypothalamo-hypophysial (neurosecretory) tract on the photoperiodic testicular response. Birds were captured

  10. Antiulcer Activity of Hydroalchol Extract of Momordica dioica roxb. Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, M.; Eswaran, M. Bavani; Ojha, S. K.; Rao, CH. V.; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate antiulcer activity of hydroalcohol extract of Momordica dioica Roxb. fruit. Momordica dioica Roxb. fruit extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, twice daily for 5 days for prevention from ethanol, cold-restraint stress and pylorus ligation-induced ulcers. Estimation of H+-K+ ATPase activity and gastric wall mucous were performed in ethanol-induced ulcer model, antioxidant enzyme activities was carried out in cold-restraint stress-induced ulcer model, and various gastric secretion parameters like volume of gastric juice, acid output, and pH value were estimated in pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model. A significant reduction in lesion index was observed in ulcer-induced animals pre treated with extract at different doses when compared with ulcerated rats in all models. A significant decrease occurred in the level of H+-K+ ATPase, volume of gastric juice, and acid output. Gastric wall mucus and pH were increased significantly. These showed dose-dependent action of extract. LPO and antioxidant enzyme levels of SOD were decreased, but CAT enzyme showed significant increase. Thus the results indicate that the Momordica dioica extract possess antiulcerogenic effect, that attributable to augmentation of gastric defense mechanisms. PMID:22923872

  11. Analysis of Secoiridoid Glucosides in Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb. by HPLC-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Ming SUN; Hui ZHANG; Jun-Shan YANG

    2009-01-01

    AimTo develop high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) for the analysis and identification of secoiridoid glucosides in Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb.

  12. Cytomorphological Studies on Stem of Luffa echinata Roxb.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, S; Patra, A; Wahi, Ak

    2010-07-01

    Luffa echinata Roxb., commonly known as Bindal in Hindi is used for its hypoglycemic activity in the indigenous system of medicine. No pharmacognostical study on stem is reported in the literature till date; therefore, it was decided to study macroscopical and cytomorphological characters in detail to bring out salient diagnostic features. The stem pieces available in the market are 1.5-17 cm long and 5-8 mm in diameter, showing yellowish-brown to brownish-black surface with longitudinal furrows, fracture is fibrous, and taste is bitter. Mature stem shows single-layered epidermis, seven layers of collenchyma below five ridges but one to two layers of parenchyma in rest of the region beneath the epidermis, continuous wide wavy layer of pericycle composed of three to eight layers of fiber. There are five conjoint bi-collateral open vascular bundles one below each ridge and additional four medullary vascular bundles in the pith each facing furrows. PMID:21042480

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Leptospira borgpetersenii Serovar Arborea, Queensland, Australia, 1998–2005

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Andrew T.; Symonds, Meegan L.; Dohnt, Michael F.; Craig, Scott B.; Smythe, Lee D.

    2010-01-01

    Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea is an emerging cause of leptospirosis in Australia. It was not previously recognized as an endemic serovar before the 1990s, but at that point, human infections with the serovar increased significantly. Using fluorescent-amplified fragment-length polymorphism (FAFLP) molecular typing, human and rodent isolates were compared genetically. Typing revealed 11 unique profiles among the 23 isolates examined; however, there was no clonality revealed between the human and rodent isolates. There was clonality among rodent isolates from geographically related areas. This study highlights the utility of Leptospira culture combined with FAFLP for the examination of the epidemiology of this disease. PMID:20889871

  14. Corticosterone Treatment Has No Effect on Reproductive Hormones or Aggressive Behavior in Free-living Male Tree Sparrows, Spizella arborea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee B. Astheimer; William A. Buttemer; John C. Wingfield

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effect of corticosterone on plasma levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and luteinizing hormone) and territorial defense behavior in male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea. Birds receiving Silastic implants filled with corticosterone (B) had significantly higher plasma levels of B than control birds, which received empty implants, and exhibited pectoral muscle wastage and a decrease in body mass.

  15. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V. H.

    2014-01-01

    Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100?g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32?mg and 102.85?mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8?mg Iron, and 121 and 325?mg phosphorus in 100?g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85?Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the water chestnut kernel, Trapa bispinosa are reported. In this paper, the recent reports on nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of Trapa bispinosa Roxb, as a medicinal and nutritional food, are reviewed. PMID:24669216

  16. A proteomic analysis of Curcuma comosa Roxb. rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The similarly in plant physiology and the difficulty of plant classification, in some medicinal plant species, especially plants of the Zingiberaceae family, are a major problem for pharmacologists, leading to mistaken use. To overcome this problem, the proteomic base method was used to study protein profiles of the plant model, Curcuma comosa Roxb., which is a member of the Zingiberaceae and has been used in traditional Thai medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of postpartum uterine bleeding. Results Due to the complexity of protein extraction from this plant, microscale solution-phase isoelectric focusing (MicroSol-IEF) was used to enrich and improve the separation of Curcuma comosa rhizomes phenol-soluble proteins, prior to resolving and analyzing by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identification by tandem mass spectrometry. The protein patterns showed a high abundance of protein spots in the acidic range, including three lectin proteins. The metabolic and defense enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase, that are associated with antioxidant activity, were mainly found in the basic region. Furthermore, cysteine protease was found in this plant, as had been previously reported in other Zingiberaceae plants. Conclusion This report presents the protein profiles of the ginger plant, Curcuma comosa. Several interesting proteins were identified in this plant that may be used as a protein marker and aid in identifying plants of the Zingiberaceae family. PMID:21801377

  17. Time of thyroidectomy variably affects seasonality in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1999-06-01

    Female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were injected with Na131I before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation in order to study the effect of time of thyroidectomy on three components of seasonality: thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt. Thyroidectomy before or at the onset of photostimulation abolished all components of seasonality; birds exhibited only minor thyroid-independent photoperiodic ovarian growth. Thyroidectomy on day 7 of photostimulation blocked the transition from photosensitivity to photorefractoriness; although birds showed thyroid-dependent photoperiodic ovarian growth, they neither exhibited ovarian regression nor initiated postnuptial molt. Thyroidectomy on day 14, 21, or 28 of photostimulation had no remarkable effect on any component of seasonality. We conclude that separate mechanisms control photoperiodic ovarian growth and photorefractoriness/molt and that, early during photostimulation, the thyroid has a codependent role in programming female tree sparrows for vernal as well as autumnal seasonal events. PMID:10336830

  18. Antihyperglycemic effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Chiabchalard, Anchalee; Nooron, Nattakarn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading chronic diseases worldwide. In patients with poor glycemic control, high blood glucose level may lead to other life-threatening complications. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. (PA) leaves are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of crude extract from PA leaves on blood glucose level and the hypoglycemic mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to drink PA tea (test-group) or hot water (control group) 15 min after glucose loading (75 g) in a standard oral glucose tolerance test. To study hypoglycemic mechanisms, PA leaves were extracted using two different methods. Method 1; dried PA leaves were extracted with distilled water at 90°C for 15 min, and method 2; dried PA leaves were extracted with 95% ethanol. Both PA extracts were tested for ?-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, insulin stimulation, and glucose uptake stimulation. Results: The average of blood glucose level in the control group was 5.55 ± 0.98 mmol/l, while in PA treated group was 6.16 ± 0.79 mmol/l which were statistically different (P < 0.001). The results of antihyperglycemic mechanism showed that PA extracts, prepared both methods, could inhibit ?-glucosidase enzyme and induce insulin production in rat pancreatic cell (RINm5F) in dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The knowledge gained from this research can be used as a basis for a new drug discovery for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25709220

  19. Continuous basal sprouting from a lignotuber:Arbutus unedo L. andErica arborea L., as woody Mediterranean examples.

    PubMed

    Mesléard, F; Lepart, J

    1989-03-01

    The two dominant species of the Corsican mattoral,Arbutus unedo L. andErica arborea L., can produce abundant sprouts from the lignotuber not only immediately after fire but also more or less continuously in the absence of major disturbance. The lignotuber appears to be more important during the early stages of development; the result is an increase in the number of sprouts during the 25 years following the establishment of the individuals. Later the lignotuber seems to lose the ability to ensure the development of new basal sprouts. A hypothesis is that the presence of a lignotuber is related to the growth form.Arbutus unedo andErica arborea show behaviour intermediate between acrotony and basitony, as the shoots show acrotony, and continuous sprouting is characteristic of basitonic species. The fact that sprouting from the lignotuber is not necessarily a result of fire suggests that the relation between fire and vegetation in the Mediterranean region should be reconsidered. PMID:23494355

  20. Thyroid Dysfunction and Thyroxine-Dependent Programming of Photoinduced Ovarian Growth in American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan D. Reinert; Fred E. Wilson

    1996-01-01

    The time course of thyroid dysfunction after injecting 0.30 mCi Na131I was charted in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) transferred to long days on Day 0 and challenged with 30 ?g bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone on Postinjection Days 4, 7, 46, and 105. Serum T4(L-thyroxine) was not detectable in thyroidectomized birds, indicating complete thyroid dysfunction by Day 4 and no

  1. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the methanol extract of Careya arborea bark in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natesan Senthilkumar; Shrishailappa Badami; Santoshkumar H. Dongre; Suresh Bhojraj

    2008-01-01

    The methanol extract of Careya arborea bark (MECA) was tested for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor-bearing mice.\\u000a Tumor control animals inoculated with EAC showed a significant alteration in the levels of antioxidant and hepatoprotective\\u000a parameters. The extract treatment at 50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg body weight doses given orally caused a significant reversal of\\u000a these biochemical

  2. ~ ~,_~.~. Management 1~LS F.VIE R Forest Ecologyand Management70 (1994) 135-145

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    ~ ~,~ and · ~ ~,_~.~. Management 1~LS F.VIE R Forest Ecologyand Management70 (1994) 135-145 Mineral in Gmelina arborea stands by relating growth rates to soil and site properties. All Gmelina plantations under density resulted in a clear improvement of the model, explain- ing 91% of the growth variability. Keywords

  3. Habitat fragmentation causes bottlenecks and inbreeding in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea).

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Liselotte W.; Fog, Kåre; Damgaard, Christian

    2004-01-01

    A genetic study of the European tree frog, Hyla arborea, in Denmark was undertaken to examine the population structure on mainland Jutland and the island of Lolland after a period of reduction in suitable habitat and population sizes. The two regions have experienced the same rate of habitat loss but fragmentation has been more severe on Lolland. Genetic variation based on 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellites was analysed in 494 tree frogs sampled from two ponds in Jutland and 10 ponds on Lolland. A significant overall deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations could be attributed to three ponds, all on Lolland. This was most probably caused by an inbreeding effect reducing fitness, which was supported by the observed significant negative correlation between larva survival and mean F(IS) value and mean individual inbreeding coefficient. A significant reduction in genetic variation (bottleneck) was detected in most of the ponds on Lolland. Population-structure analysis suggested the existence of at least 11 genetically different populations, corresponding to most of the sampled population units. The results indicated that the populations were unique genetic units and could be used to illustrate the migration pattern between newly established ponds arisen either by natural colonization of tree frogs or by artificial introduction. A high degree of pond fidelity in the tree frogs was suggested. A severe fragmentation process reducing population size and fitness within some of the populations probably caused the significant reduction in genetic variation of tree frog populations on Lolland. PMID:15306354

  4. The thyroid and the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

    1996-07-01

    Prompted by evidence of a linkage between the thyroid gland and seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we measured circulating T4 (L-thyroxine), hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone, variant I), pituitary and plasma LH (luteinizing hormone), and ovarian mass in euthyroid females moved from short to long days. Our purpose was to correlate temporal changes in T4 and cGnRH-I with each other and with pituitary and plasma LH and ovarian mass. T4 increased early during photostimulation and peaked at Week 1 or 2 on 20L:4D (20 hr light:4 hr dark per day). Hypothalamic cGnRH-I also increased during photostimulation and peaked between Weeks 2 and 4. Pituitary and plasma LH peaked at Weeks 4 and 1, respectively, and ovarian mass increased significantly by Week 6. In a separate study, we charted the progression of postnuptial molt. Molt of the primary remiges began at Week 9, proceeded rapidly through Week 15, and was complete by Week 18. In view of a demonstrated role for the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in female tree sparrows and the time-dependent effects of thyroidectomy after photostimulation in male tree sparrows, the observation that circulating T4 increases early during photostimulation suggests the possibility of a causal relationship between the thyroid gland and the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, hence a thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:8812334

  5. Extraocular control of seasonal reproduction in female tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1990-03-01

    The work reported here explored extraocular control of seasonal reproduction in a photoperiodic species. Photosensitive female tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were subjected to bilateral or unilateral ocular enucleation or to sham operation and exposed to a photoregimen designed to stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, to induce photorefractoriness, and to restore photosensitivity. As revealed by plasma LH profiles constructed from measurements taken over 181 days, neither bilateral nor unilateral ocular enucleation had a substantive effect on photoinduced LH release, on the development of photorefractoriness, or on the recovery of photosensitivity. In a related experiment, photorefractory sighted females were implanted epicranially with miniature self-powered lights (SPLs) or with non-emitting helium blanks (HBs) and transferred to short days. After 8 weeks, SPLs and HBs were removed, and birds were challenged with long days. As indicated by plasma LH and ovarian responses to the challenge, previously HB-implanted birds had regained photosensitivity, but previously SPL-implanted birds remained photorefractory. When interpreted within the context of the effects of blinding, these findings suggest that an extraocular encephalic mechanism maintains photorefractoriness. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that photoinduced LH release and the biannual transitions between photosensitivity and photorefractoriness are controlled by an extraocular mechanism(s). PMID:2338219

  6. In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (Asteraceae) Baker

    PubMed Central

    Colares, Aracélio Viana; Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    The search for new immunopharmacological chemical agents to treat various diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, such as leishmaniasis, for example, has led to the exploration of potential products from plant species and their main active ingredients. Antimonial drugs are the current treatment for leishmaniasis. These drugs cause major side effects and frequent discontinuation of treatment. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (VAEO) and its major compound ?-bisabolol against Leishmania amazonensis. The essential oil and ?-bisabolol showed activity against promastigotes (IC50 7.35 and 4.95??g/mL resp.) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 12.58 and 10.70??g/mL, resp.). Neither product showed any cytotoxicity on treated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis of promastigotes incubated with VAEO or ?-bisabolol at 30??g/mL, showed morphological changes with the accumulation of vesicles electrodense lipid inclusions. The results give evidence that both VAEO and ?-bisabolol have potential as new therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis. PMID:23935675

  7. Multimodality: a way to cope with road traffic noise? The case of European treefrog (Hyla arborea).

    PubMed

    Troïanowski, Mathieu; Melot, Geoffrey; Lengagne, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    In the last decades, traffic noise has become a new challenge for efficient animal communication and several studies suggest that it is involved in population declines. Although poorly investigated in a traffic noise context, communication is generally multimodal, which can be viewed as a way to improve communication efficiency by allowing shift from a sensory modality to another when one modality suffers from noise. In the present study, we investigated multimodal shift in the European treefrog (Hyla arborea), a species using both acoustic and visual cues during male quality assessment task performed by females. Females were used in a discrimination task in two environmental conditions: with or without traffic noise. In traffic noise conditions, we showed that females' reliance on acoustic signal embedded in noise pollution did not decrease in favour of visual signals, therefore showing that females do not shift between modalities in response to traffic noise. Although, we did not evidence multimodal shift in our study, many species facing traffic noise present multimodal communication, and should be investigated to evaluate the importance of multimodal shift as a way to cope with traffic noise pollution. PMID:25151940

  8. Plant regeneration from alginate-encapsulated somatic embryos of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay Kumar Singh; Suresh Chand

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for plant regeneration by encapsulation of somatic embryos obtained from callus cultures derived from semi-mature cotyledon explants of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (family Fabaceae). Embryogenic callus was developed from cotyledon pieces on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with 9.04 ?M 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.46 ?M kinetin. The somatic embryos were induced from embryogenic callus

  9. Pressurized Liquid and Superheated Water Extraction of Active Constituents from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orapin Chienthavorn; Thanaporn Poonsukcharoen; Thipamon Pathrakorn

    2011-01-01

    Active compounds, terpinene-4-ol and (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) butadiene (DMPBD), displaying anti-inflammatory activity, were successfully extracted from the rhizome of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using methanol or ethanol and by superheated water extraction (SWE). Optimum conditions of both techniques were 1 mL\\/min flow rate and 5 min static time. The extraction temperature and dynamic time of the PLE and the SWE

  10. Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda).

    PubMed

    Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Ji?í; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr

    2015-02-01

    European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridizationwere detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felixarabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show that introgression played an important role in the evolutionary history of the short-call tree frogs and occurred even between taxa supported as distinct species. PMID:25482363

  11. Anatomical changes induced by increasing NaCl salinity in three fodder shrubs, Nitraria retusa , Atriplex halimus and Medicago arborea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fayçal Boughalleb; Mounir Denden; Bechir Ben Tiba

    2009-01-01

    Nitraria retusa and Atriplex halimus (xero-halophytes) plants were grown in the range 0–800 mM NaCl while Medicago arborea (glycophyte) in 0–300 mM NaCl. Plants were harvested after 120 days of salt-treatment. The present study was designed to\\u000a study the effect of salinity on root, stem and leaf anatomy, water relationship, and plant growth in greenhouse conditions.\\u000a Salinity induced anatomical changes in the roots,

  12. The thyroid and photoperiodic control of seasonal reproduction in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1993-01-01

    To explore the role of the thyroid gland in the control of seasonal reproduction in obligately photoperiodic American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), the effects of (1) thyroxine administered in drinking water to thyroid-intact photosensitive or photorefractory birds, and (2) radiothyroidectomy before and after photostimulation and during photorefractoriness were examined. Chronic administration of pharmacological doses of thyroxine induced testicular growth and usually regression in initially photosensitive birds held on short or intermediate daylengths. Some thyroxine-treated birds with regressed testes were absolutely photorefractory, but most remained photosensitive. Exogenous thyroxine never induced testicular growth in photorefractory birds moved to short days, though it often impeded, and sometimes even blocked, the recovery of photosensitivity. Although circumstantial, these effects of exogenous thyroxine are consistent with an hypothesis that assigns to thyroid hormones two roles--one stimulatory and the other inhibitory--in the control of seasonal reproduction. Radiothyroidectomy before photostimulation inhibited (but did not prevent) photoinduced testicular growth, blocked spontaneous testicular regression, suppressed molt, and prevented photorefractoriness. Moreover, as demonstrated by testicular growth after thyroxine replacement therapy, radiothyroidectomy during photorefractoriness later restored photosensitivity despite continued photostimulation. Thus, euthyroidism is an essential condition for maximizing (but not for initiating) photoinduced testicular growth and for triggering and maintaining photorefractoriness in photostimulated tree sparrows. However, when performed early during photostimulation, radiothyroidectomy neither immediately induced nor later blocked spontaneous testicular regression. Thus, endogenous thyroid hormones and long days may interact during a critical period to program a sequence of physiological events that plays out as photorefractoriness in chronically photostimulated birds. Such an organizational event cannot be permanent, for seasonal reproduction is episodic and its control mechanism necessarily cyclic. Because thyroidectomy simulated the well-known restorative effect of short days (and exogenous thyroxine impeded it), short days may dissipate photorefractoriness by creating a milieu wherein thyroid hormones are deficient or inactive. PMID:8151015

  13. Vocalizations match auditory processing in the American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea), dark-eyed junco (Junco hyelmalis), and house finch (Carpodacous mexicanus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren E Brierley

    2011-01-01

    We compared the auditory processing and vocalizations of the American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea), dark-eyed junco ( Junco hyelmalis), and house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) to determine the degree to which vocal signals and auditory systems match in these species. We used the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and the frequency following response (FFR) to determine the ABR auditory thresholds (the lowest

  14. Range-wide sex-chromosome sequence similarity supports occasional XY recombination in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea).

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Stöck, Matthias; Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In contrast with mammals and birds, most poikilothermic vertebrates feature structurally undifferentiated sex chromosomes, which may result either from frequent turnovers, or from occasional events of XY recombination. The latter mechanism was recently suggested to be responsible for sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea). However, no single case of male recombination has been identified in large-scale laboratory crosses, and populations from NW Europe consistently display sex-specific allelic frequencies with male-diagnostic alleles, suggesting the absence of recombination in their recent history. To address this apparent paradox, we extended the phylogeographic scope of investigations, by analyzing the sequences of three sex-linked markers throughout the whole species distribution. Refugial populations (southern Balkans and Adriatic coast) show a mix of X and Y alleles in haplotypic networks, and no more within-individual pairwise nucleotide differences in males than in females, testifying to recurrent XY recombination. In contrast, populations of NW Europe, which originated from a recent postglacial expansion, show a clear pattern of XY differentiation; the X and Y gametologs of the sex-linked gene Med15 present different alleles, likely fixed by drift on the front wave of expansions, and kept differentiated since. Our results support the view that sex-chromosome homomorphy in H. arborea is maintained by occasional or historical events of recombination; whether the frequency of these events indeed differs between populations remains to be clarified. PMID:24892652

  15. Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.

    PubMed

    Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

    2009-07-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p < or = 0.05) mortality of both insect pests with a high residual contact activity against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p < or = 0.01) reduced, while progeny production and development of eggs within grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed. PMID:19817125

  16. Drought impact on water use efficiency and intra-annual density fluctuations in Erica arborea on Elba (Italy).

    PubMed

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; DE Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Saurer, Matthias; Aronne, Giovanna; Linke, Petra; Cherubini, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Erica arborea (L) is a widespread Mediterranean species, able to cope with water stress and colonize semiarid environments. The eco-physiological plasticity of this species was evaluated by studying plants growing at two sites with different soil moistures on the island of Elba (Italy), through dendrochronological, wood-anatomical analyses and stable isotopes measurements. Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) were abundant in tree rings, and were identified as the key parameter to understand site-specific plant responses to water stress. Our findings showed that the formation of IADFs is mainly related to the high temperature, precipitation patterns and probably to soil water availability, which differs at the selected study sites. The recorded increase in the (13) C-derived intrinsic water use efficiency at the IADFs level was linked to reduced water loss rather than to increasing C assimilation. The variation in vessel size and the different absolute values of ?(18) O among trees growing at the two study sites underlined possible differences in stomatal control of water loss and possible differences in sources of water uptake. This approach not only helped monitor seasonal environmental differences through tree-ring width, but also added valuable information on E.?arborea responses to drought and their ecological implications for Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. PMID:23848555

  17. Scaling Erica arborea transpiration from trees up to the stand using auxiliary micrometeorological information in a wax myrtle-tree heath cloud forest (La Gomera, Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2013-09-01

    We investigate evapotranspiration, sap flow and top soil water content variations in a wax myrtle-tree heath ('fayal-brezal' in Spanish) cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands) over a 1-year period. We provide transpiration estimates for one of the representative species, the shrubby needle-like Erica arborea L., present in this relict subtropical forest. An ad hoc tree up to the stand scaling method that combines the sap flow and auxiliary reference evapotranspiration data is illustrated, showing to be useful when sap flow in a limited number of trees has been monitored. Individual daily-based scaling curves of the Gompertz type were necessary to explain the observed sap flow variability in E. arborea during the 1-year period investigated (r(2)???0.953 with mode of r(2)?=?0.9999). The mean daily sap flow of an E. arborea individual amounted to 8.37?±?5.65 kg day(-1) tree(-1), with a maximum of 20.48 kg day(-1) tree(-1), yielding an annual total of 3052.89 kg tree(-1). A comparison of the computed daily transpiration with the continuous micrometeorological time series monitored in the studied plot suggested that solar radiation was the main driving force of transpiration in E. arborea (cross correlation index?=?0.94). Fog may also affect tree transpiration via its reduction of radiation and temperature, such that during foggy periods the mean daily water loss estimate of E. arborea was 5.35?±?4.30 kg day(-1) tree(-1), which sharply contrasted with the 2.4-fold average transpiration values obtained for fog-free days, i.e., 12.81?±?4.33 kg day(-1) tree(-1). The annual water balance rendered a 288 mm year(-1) water input to the forest and evidenced the need for accurately quantifying the contribution of fog water dripping from the canopy. PMID:24072518

  18. Determination of Copper and Zinc Pollutants in Ludwigia prostrata Roxb Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS).

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Aiguo; Jiang, Lixia; Liu, Yande; Jiang, Lihong; Hao, Yong; He, Bingbing

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to determine the concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in Ludwigia prostrata Roxb plants was investigated. Ludwigia prostrata Roxb plants were grown over a full growth cycle under controlled laboratory conditions in soils contaminated with heavy metals. The Cu and Zn concentrations in 72 L. prostrata Roxb samples were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and NIRS spectra were collected in the 1099-2500 nm range. Five mathematical treatments of the spectral data were compared prior to developing the calibration models (n = 48) using partial least squares regression methods. The two calibration models for Cu and Zn concentrations were evaluated according to the correlation coefficient of cross-validation (Rcv) and root mean squares error of cross-validation. The highest Rcv and the lowest RMSECV were obtained for Cu (0.9 and 7.24 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (0.94 and 19.17 mg kg(-1)), respectively. The results showed that near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for the rapid determination of Cu and Zn in leaves of L. prostrata Roxb plants. PMID:25760292

  19. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. in mice and on human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Heroor, Sanjeev; Beknal, Arun Kumar; Mahurkar, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. on cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in mice and the phagocytic effect on human neutrophils. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. at two dose levels of 250and 500 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 13 days to albino mice and cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg i.p.) was administered on 11th,12th, and 13th days, 1 hour after the administration of the respective treatment. On 14th day blood was collected and the hematological parameters were evaluated. The two extracts in the concentration range 100,50,25,12 and 6.25 ?g were also tested for phagocytic effect on human neutrophils using the in vitro models–nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye test, phagocytosis of Candida albicans, and chemotaxis assay. Results: Methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. showed significant counteracting effect (P < 0.01) to cyclophosphamide-induced reduction in total WBC, differential leucocyte count, platelet counts, RBC counts, and hemoglobin levels. The extracts of the plant in the concentration range 100,50,25,12, and 6.25 ?g also showed significant (P < 0.01) phagocytic effect on human neutrophils in the parameters studied. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. exhibited immunomodulatory property in both in vivo and in vitro models. PMID:23716887

  20. Effect of seed weight, light regime and substratum microsite on germination and seedling growth of Quercus semiserrata Roxb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. KHAN; UMA SHANKAR

    Seeds of Quercus semiserrata Roxb. vary widely in weight, and can be classi- fied into small (<5 g), intermediate (5 to 8 g) and heavy (>8 g) classes. Heavy seeds contain greater reserves of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and energy than intermediate-weight and small seeds. Seed weight has a strong effect on germination. Heavy seeds germinate early and show better germination

  1. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus Roxb. tubers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay; Dixit, Vinod K; Malviya, Neelesh; Ambawatia, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the extracts. Silymarin was used as a standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanolic extract was found hepatoprotective more potent than the aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity was also screened and found positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:19702175

  2. Involvement of peroxidase activity in developing somatic embryos of Medicago arborea L. Identification of an isozyme peroxidase as biochemical marker of somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Piedad; Martin, Luisa; Blazquez, Antonio; Guerra, Hilario; Villalobos, Nieves

    2014-01-15

    The legume Medicago arborea L. is very interesting as regards the regeneration of marginal arid soils. The problem is that it does not have a good germinative yield. It was therefore decided to regenerate via somatic embryogenesis and find a marker of embryogenic potential. In this study, peroxidase activity was evaluated in non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli from M. arborea L. A decrease in soluble peroxidase activity is observed in its embryonic calli at the time at which the somatic embryos begin to appear. This activity is always lower in embryonic calli than in non-embryonic ones (unlike what happens in the case of wall-bound peroxidases). These results suggest that peroxidases can be considered to be enzymes involved in somatic embryogenesis in M. arborea. In addition, isozyme analyses were carried out on protein extracts using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The band called P5 was detected only in embryogenic cultures at very early stages of development. This band was digested with trypsin and analyzed using linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometer. In P5 isoform a peroxidase-L-ascorbate peroxidase was identified. It can be used as a marker that allows the identification of embryological potential. PMID:24331422

  3. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  4. Effect of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard against experimentally-induced gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, S S; Santani, D D

    2004-10-01

    Effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of the stem bark of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, have been studied on ethanol, ethanol-indomethacin and pylorus ligated gastric ulcers in experimental animals. Oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract (extract A3) inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol in a dose dependent manner. The protective effect of extract A3 against ethanol induced gastric lesions was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)). Further, extract A3 inhibited increase in vascular permeability due to ethanol administration. Extent of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in animals treated with extract. Extract A3 also inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by pylorus ligation, when administered both orally and intraperitoneally. Moreover, pretreatment with extract A3 increased mucus production and glycoprotein content, which was evident from the rise in mucin activity and TC: PR ratio. PMID:15551386

  5. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

    2013-01-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING OF CRUDE EXTRACTS FROM RADERMACHERA XYLOCARPA (ROXB.) K. SCHUM.

    E-print Network

    Dinesh D. Khedkar; Anand; V. Oke; Dinesh D. Khedkar

    Extinction is a natural phenomenon which costs loss of around nine percent of the species every million years. Medicinally important plants are facing threat of extinction due to various reasons like habitat destruction, illegal trade and over exploitation in addition to climate change. These plants may vanish without complete knowledge of its biochemical attributes which endow them potential to cure numerous diseases. This has urged to study the complete phytochemical profile of such RET species to explore its appropriate medicinal value and the biomolecules behind those properties. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of plant parts like bark, wood, leaves and pods of Radermachera xylocarpa (ROXB.) K. SCHUM. was carried out with five different solvent extracts. Overall analysis revealed absence of tannins in almost all plant parts with the exception of water and ethanol extracts from the leaf. The alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, triterpenoids, etc. were reported in various plant parts in different extraction systems.

  7. Isolation and characterization of antioxidant and antibacterial compound from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Abiraj, K; Channe Gowda, D; Aradhya, S M

    2007-06-01

    The chloroform extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome was subjected to antioxidant activity-guided purification by repeated silica gel column chromatography to obtain a pure antioxidant compound. The structure was deduced by analyzing UV, IR, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer spectroscopy (2D-HMQCT) NMR spectral data, and named it as "Amadannulen", a novel compound. It exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity, super oxide radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and metal chelating activity. Amadannulen also showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. It also exhibited bactericidal activity against M. luteus, B. cereus and B. subtilis. PMID:17223394

  8. Transmission and detection of toria [ Brassica rapa L. subsp. dichotoma (Roxb.)] phyllody phytoplasma and identification of a potential vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehdi Azadvar; Virendra Kumar Baranwal; D. K. Yadava

    2011-01-01

    Phyllody disease associated with 16SrIX phytoplasma was observed in the range of 4.1–11% in 10 different lines of toria [Brassica rapa L. subsp. dichotoma (Roxb.)] in experimental fields of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during 2008 and 2009. The\\u000a toria phyllody (TP) phytoplasma was detected in all the symptomatic and 13.3% of asymptomatic toria plants by nested

  9. The role of cytokinins on in vitro shoot production in Salix tetrasperma Roxb.: a tree of ecological importance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naseem Ahmad; Mohammad Anis

    2011-01-01

    A valuable tropical tree, Salix tetrasperma Roxb. commonly known as Indian willow has been investigated for its in vitro regeneration potential using nodal explants\\u000a obtained from a 30-year-old elite tree. Agar-solidified Woody Plant Medium (WPM) containing different concentrations of Plant\\u000a Growth Regulators (PGRs) was used in the study. Shoot induction response was best on WPM supplemented with 6-benzyladenine\\u000a (5.0 ?M) where

  10. Effect of paper mill effluent on germination of green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and growth behaviour of it's seedlings.

    PubMed

    Malla, Luna; Mohanty, B K

    2005-06-01

    Effect of paper mill effluents on Phaseolus aureus Roxb was studied. The effluent significantly inhibited germination of root and shoot length. The bio-chemical injury does not appear spontaneously but with the increase in effluent treatment there is reduction in observed biochemical parameters (chlorophyll, protein, amino acid, nuclic acids and carbohydrate) which are negatively correlated. The shoots of the seedlings were found to be resistant; whereas roots of the seedlings were susceptible to paper mill effluent treatment. PMID:16334270

  11. Corticosterone treatment has no effect on reproductive hormones or aggressive behavior in free-living male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea.

    PubMed

    Astheimer, L B; Buttemer, W A; Wingfield, J C

    2000-02-01

    We examined the effect of corticosterone on plasma levels of reproductive hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and luteinizing hormone) and territorial defense behavior in male tree sparrows, Spizella arborea. Birds receiving Silastic implants filled with corticosterone (B) had significantly higher plasma levels of B than control birds, which received empty implants, and exhibited pectoral muscle wastage and a decrease in body mass. We evaluated the hormonal and agonistic responses of the two implanted groups of birds using a simulated territorial intrusion (STI) 2 to 4 days after they were implanted. Corticosterone-treated and control birds did not differ in their circulating levels of reproductive hormones or in their behavioral responses to STI (latency to respond to intrusion, number of songs, and closest approach to a decoy and tape recording). Unlike previous studies of north temperate passerines, high physiological levels of exogenous B had no effect either on circulating levels of reproductive hormones or on territorial behaviors associated with breeding. Nonetheless, untreated tree sparrows do mount a robust adrenocortical response, having a two- to fourfold increase in plasma B levels during a 1-h period of capture. Thus, adrenocortical responsiveness is maintained in these birds, but elevated levels of glucocorticoids do not suppress reproductive hormones or associated behaviors. We believe that this hormonal and behavioral refractoriness to glucocorticoids-or uncoupling of the stress response from the reproductive axis-may be advantageous for species having extreme temporal constraints on their breeding schedules. PMID:10712856

  12. Growth and mitochondrial respiration of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) germinated at low pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Gerth, W. A.; Scheld, H. W.; Strain, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedlings were grown hypobarically to assess the effects of low pressure (21-24 kilopascals) on growth and mitochondrial respiration. Control seedlings grown at ambient pressure (101 kilopascals) were provided amounts of O2 equivalent to those provided experimental seedlings at reduced pressure to factor out responses to O2 concentration and to total pressure. Respiration was assayed using washed mitochondria, and was found to respond only to O2 concentration. Regardless of total pressure, seedlings grown at 2 millimoles O2 per liter had higher state 3 respiration rates and decreased percentages of alternative respiration compared to ambient (8.4 millimoles O2 per liter) controls. In contrast, seedling growth responded to total pressure but not to O2 concentration. Seedlings were significantly larger when grown under low pressure. While low O2 (2 millimoles O2 per liter) diminished growth at ambient pressure, growth at low pressure in the same oxygen concentration was enhanced. Respiratory development and growth of mungbean seedlings under low pressure is unimpaired whether oxygen or air is used as the chamber gas, and further, low pressure can improve growth under conditions of poor aeration.

  13. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  14. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    PubMed Central

    Sreejith, M; Kannappan, N; Santhiagu, A; Mathew, Ajith P

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P<0.05) when compared with paralytic (7.33±0.206) and death time (18.60±0.229) of standard piperazine citrate at 100 mg/mL concentration. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents. PMID:24093785

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN LEAF GALL OF FICUS GLOMERATA ROXB. (MORACEAE)

    E-print Network

    Savitha Rs; Akshatha Jv; Nalini Ms

    Ficus glomerata Roxb., (Moraceae) is a large deciduous tree and plant parts such as root, bark, leaves, fruits and galls are used in therapeutics. The leaf gall of F. glomerata is induced by the insect Pauropsylla depressa. In the present study, the solvent extracts of leaves as well as the gall portion at various developmental stages were screened for the presence of phytochemicals in comparison to the normal leaves. The presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins were detected in normal and galled leaves, while most phytochemicals were present in the gall portion of the leaves. The gall stages as well as the gall leaves were tested for total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results indicated ~0.7-fold increase in the phenolic content of gall leaves (90µg/ml GAE) over the normal leaves (62.5µg/ml GAE). Comparison of phenolic contents among various stages of gall development namely, young, medium and mature indicated high phenolic content in young galls (123µg/ml GAE). Young galls depicted 80 % radical scavenging activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant activity in the insect-induced galls of F. glomerata.

  16. Screening of molluscicidal strain against Oncomelania hupensis from the rhizosphere of medicinal plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Danzhao; Chen, Jun; Du, Xiangping; Han, Bangxing

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to screen and exploit molluscicidal microorganisms against Oncomelania hupensis, from the rhizosphere of medicinal plant, Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and one strain named as SL-30 was obtained with excellent molluscicidal activity. The freeze-dried powder of exocellular broth (EXB) of SL-30 could kill 100% of snails at a concentration of 48 mg/l for a submerged period of 24 h, with stabile molluscicidal activity at a temperature lower than 60°C; furthermore, it could be gradually degraded after exposure to illumination for 15 days. The freeze-dried powder of SL-30’s EXB was safe to fresh fish and shrimp, even at a concentration beyond LC90 of 24-h exposure period. The glycogen and total protein content of soft tissues of snails decreased after treating with SL-30’s EXB, and glycogen content’s decreasing rate had a linear relationship with molluscicidal activity. Finally, phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence showed that strain SL-30 had a higher similarity to Aspergillus fumigatus with bootstrap value 98%; accordingly, it was identified as a species of Aspergillus. PMID:20931072

  17. Antineoplastic activity of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch bark extracts (in vitro).

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiqin; Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Amir; Xu, Rui-Hua; Mansoor, Najia; Tiwari, Amit K; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Cancer remains the major public health concern with a number of cancer patients relying on chemotherapy as a treatment option. Although, advances in biomedical research have led to increased anticancer agents in recent years, the treatment is not always effective due to resistance, toxicity or other factors. Phytochemicals and their active components isolated from plants have provided diversified effective drugs many of them are currently used against cancer and other diseases. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch (Ulmaceae) is a widely distributed plant in many parts of the world, also grown in gardens of Pakistan. It is an ornamental plant with certain medicinal characteristics due to many valuable and active phyto constituents in various parts of the plant. We looked at in vitro antineoplastic effects of four different extracts, in butanol (BMBU), hexane (BMHx), ethyl acetate (BMET) and chloroform (BMCHF), from bark of Holoptelea integrifolia on small cell lung cancer, breast, prostate, coloretal and hepatocellular cancer cell lines. Plant extracts BMHx and BMET showed significant cytotoxic effects on breast and prostate cancer cells. These preliminary studies are encouraging to proceed further this research in future, regarding the isolation of active phytoconstituents in these extracts as well as its mechanism in chemoprevention and combination anticancer therapy. PMID:24191320

  18. A study on the extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in treatment of cyclophosphamide induced alopecia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Hair loss is one of the most feared side effects of chemotherapy. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. The effect of extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in testosterone induced alopecia was reported. Objective In the present study, the efficacies of the extracts of Cuscuta reflexa in promoting hair growth in cyclophosphamide-induced hair loss have been determined. Materials and methods The study was performed by treated with petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa at the dose 250 mg/kg in male swiss albino rats. Cyclophosphamide (125 mg/kg) was used to induce alopecia. Results Groups treated with extracts of plant showed hair regrowth. Histopathology and gross morphologic observations for hair regrowth at shaved sites revealed active follicular proliferation. Conclusions It concluded that extracts of Cuscuta reflexa shown to be capable of promoting follicular proliferation or preventing hair loss in cyclophosphamide-induced hair fall. PMID:24393240

  19. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  20. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  1. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from Frankia strains in root nodules of Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, D R; Stephens, D W; Clawson, M L; Silvester, W B

    1996-01-01

    To study the global diversity of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing Frankia strains, a rapid method was used to isolate DNA from these actinomycetes in root nodules. The procedure used involved dissecting the symbiont from nodule lobes; ascorbic acid was used to maintain plant phenolic compounds in the reduced state. Genes for the small-subunit rRNA (16S ribosomal DNA) were amplified by the PCR, and the amplicons were cycle sequenced. Less than 1 mg (fresh weight) of nodule tissue and fewer than 10 vesicle clusters could serve as the starting material for template preparation. Partial sequences were obtained from symbionts residing in nodules from Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata. The sequences obtained from Ceonothus griseus and P. tridentata nodules were identical to the sequence previously reported for the endophyte of Dryas drummondii. The sequences from Frankia strains in Coriaria arborea and Coriaria plumosa nodules were identical to one another and indicate a separate lineage for these strains. The Frankia strains in Discaria toumatou nodules yielded a unique sequence that places them in a lineage close to bacteria that infect members of the Elaeagnaceae. PMID:8702283

  2. Pollination-induced oxidative stress in floral organs of Cymbidium pendulum (Roxb.) Sw. and Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. (Orchidaceae): A biochemical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucky K. Attri; Harsh Nayyar; Ravinder K. Bhanwra; Anju Pehwal

    2008-01-01

    A perusal of literature showed that a little is known about the metabolic changes related to senescence in orchid flowers. It was observed that unpollinated flowers of Cymbidium pendulum (Roxb.) Sw. remained fresh for 20 days and senesced within 8 days after pollination (DAP), while that of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. took 18 days when unpollinated but showed senescence in

  3. Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

  4. Thyroid dysfunction and thyroxine-dependent programming of photoinduced ovarian growth in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

    1996-07-01

    The time course of thyroid dysfunction after injecting 0.30 mCi Na131I was charted in female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) transferred to long days on Day 0 and challenged with 30 micrograms bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone on Postinjection Days 4, 7, 46, and 105. Serum T4 (L-thyroxine) was not detectable in thyroidectomized birds, indicating complete thyroid dysfunction by Day 4 and no restoration of thyroid function by Day 105. By contrast, serum T4 concentrations in similarly challenged thyroid-intact controls greatly exceeded assay sensitivity. To determine whether a single injection of T4 can program thyroidectomized female tree sparrows for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt, as it can thyroidectomized male tree sparrows, thyroidectomized females were injected with T4 (100 micrograms) or alkaline vehicle (V) either on the first day of photostimulation or 1 week before photostimulation (during which time injected T4 likely was cleared metabolically). Females injected with T4 on the first day of photostimulation showed robust ovarian growth similar to that reported for photostimulated euthyroid females. Both groups of V-injected females, as well as females injected with T4 1 week before photostimulation, showed slow, but reliable, ovarian growth, indicating that thyroidectomized birds can detect an increase in day length. When birds were moved at Week 7.5 or 9 to constant light and given T4 in drinking water (a qualitative assay for absolute photorefractoriness), only one tested photorefractory and molted. The remaining birds, including those injected with T4 1 week before photostimulation and both groups of V-injected controls, tested photosensitive and did not molt. Taken together, these results indicate that T4, or one of its metabolites, programs thyroidectomized female tree sparrows for ovarian growth early during photostimulation. A single T4 injection (100 micrograms) on the first day of photostimulation usually also programs thyroidectomized male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and molt. Such an injection is far less effective in programming females for these two late-season events. PMID:8812336

  5. Thyroid hormone acts centrally to programme photostimulated male american tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for vernal and autumnal components of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid hormone and long days interact to programme American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for seasonality (i.e. thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic gonadal growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial moult). This study explored in radiothyroidectomized (THX) males given thyroid hormone replacement therapy whether thyroid hormone acts within the brain and, additionally, the identity of the putative tissue-active thyroid hormone. The minimum dose (30 ng) of L-thyroxine (T4) that restored all components of seasonality when given i.c.v. daily during the first 21 days of photostimulation restored no component of seasonality when given s.c. The same dose of L-triiodothyronine (T3) also was ineffective when administered s.c., but restored photoperiodic testicular growth (though neither photorefractoriness nor postnuptial moult) when admiministered i.c.v. Three of seven birds given a 10-fold lower dose of T4 (3 ng) exhibited thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic testicular growth, albeit damped. The other four birds given 3 ng T4 and all birds given 3 ng T3 responded like THX controls, exhibiting only slight thyroid hormone-independent photoperiodic testicular growth. The highest dose (300 ng) of T3 restored all components of seasonality only when administered i.c.v. daily during the first 49 days of photostimulation. This demonstration in American tree sparrows is the first in any species that the thyroid-dependent transition from the breeding season to the non-breeding season can be effected by T3. The same dose of reverse T3 administered daily over the same 49 days restored photoperiodic testicular growth in only half of 10 subjects and photorefractoriness and moult in none. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that thyroid hormone acts centrally to programme photostimulated male American tree sparrows for all components of seasonality. The most parsimonious interpretation of the data, including the threshold-like effect of 3 ng T4, favours T4 as the tissue-active thyroid hormone for vernal as well as autumnal events, but does not entirely exclude T3. PMID:10692147

  6. Secondary forest regeneration under fast-growing forest plantations on degraded Imperata cylindrica grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riikka Otsamo

    2000-01-01

    Natural regeneration of native tree species in the understoreys of fast-growing plantation tree species (Acacia mangium, Gmelina arborea and Paraserianthes falcataria) and in adjacent natural riverine forest and non-cultivated grassland areas were studied on Imperata cylindrica grassland sites in Riam Kiwa plantation area, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Seedling and sapling densities as well as species composition and richness were assessed in

  7. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid analysis of Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Maheshu, Vellingiri; Priyadarsini, Deivamarudhachalam Teepica; Sasikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam

    2014-10-01

    Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. is a traditional food consumed as vegetable or pickle in arid regions of India and eaten during famines. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat diabetes, inflammation and etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties (DPPH, TEAC, TAA, FRAP, OH? and NO? radical scavenging activities) of the different extracts from aerial parts. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids of the extracts were also determined. The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models used. Methanol and water extracts had good total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity was correlated well with the amount of total phenolics present in the extracts. The extracts and its components may be used as an additive in food preparations and nutraceuticals. PMID:25328180

  8. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Sinchan; Saha, Soumen; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR) amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550?bp) was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism. PMID:25538949

  9. Antihyperlipidemic potential of Albizia amara (Roxb) Boiv. bark against Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic condition in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gundamaraju, Rohit; Hwi, Kim Kah; Singla, Rajeev K.; Vemuri, Ravi Chandra; Mulapalli, Sartaj Banu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The plant Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. bark was used in traditional medical practices of India to treat cardiovascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to screen the potential of A. amara against the condition of hyperlipidemia in rats. Materials and Methods: The antihyperlipidemic activity of A. amara ethanolic extract (AAEE) was studied on Triton X-100 induced model of hyperlipidemia in rats. Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was evidenced by an enhancement in the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL) and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL). Results: AAEE showed significant antihyperlipidemic effect by lowering the serum levels of biochemical parameters such as a significant reduction in the level of serum cholesterol, TG (104.1 ± 3.39), LDL (48.2 ± 2.19), VLDL (20.81 ± 0.67) and increase in HDL (47.25 ± 2.05) level with an increase in a dose of AAEE (41.39 ± 1.24) < (47.25 ± 2.05), which was similar to the standard drug atorvastatin. The results of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase also revealed that the plant extract was found to be safe on liver. Histopathological evaluation also revealed the positive effect of the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phytoconstituents such as saponins, glycosides and tannins. The preliminary chemical constituents stood as a strong evidence for the study. Conclusion: Summing up the evidences of the pragmatic study, we can conclude that the extract of A. amara (Roxb.) Boiv. Bark aids in declining the condition of hyperlipidemia in rats. PMID:25276061

  10. Thyroid hormone-dependent seasonality in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea ): effects of GC1, a thyroid receptor ß-selective agonist, and of iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Mishra; F. E. Wilson; T. S. Scanlan; G. Chiellini

    2004-01-01

    To explore the role of TH in the control of seasonality [i.e., photoperiodic testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt] in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea), we performed experiments in which THX males were simultaneously photostimulated and given TH replacement therapy. In the first experiment, equimolar concentrations (1X=1.3 nmol) of T4, T3, or GC-1, an iodine-free TR? agonist, were administered

  11. Effect of withdrawing long days from male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): implications for understanding thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies, we withdrew thyroid hormones by thyroidectomy before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation and showed that male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) are programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by or before Week 3 on long days. In this corollary study, we withdrew long days before or after the control circuits had been programmed. After 1 day to 4 wk on long days, groups of thyroid-intact males were returned to short days until Week 7, when they were moved to constant light and evaluated for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt. Long-day controls held 7 wk on long days showed robust testicular growth through Week 6 and then spontaneous testicular regression. Testes of short-day controls and of males photostimulated for 1 day remained small. In all other groups, photostimulation induced testicular growth, which gave way to regression during exposure to short days. Long-day controls tested photorefractory at Week 7 and initiated molt by Week 10. All other groups tested photosensitive and did not molt. Our demonstration that long days are required for expression of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroid-intact male tree sparrows previously programmed for these events suggests that long days create a milieu that is permissive for expression. PMID:9472917

  12. Within- and among-population impact of genetic erosion on adult fitness-related traits in the European tree frog Hyla arborea.

    PubMed

    Luquet, E; Léna, J-P; David, P; Prunier, J; Joly, P; Lengagne, T; Perrin, N; Plénet, S

    2013-04-01

    Assessing in wild populations how fitness is impacted by inbreeding and genetic drift is a major goal for conservation biology. An approach to measure the detrimental effects of inbreeding on fitness is to estimate correlations between molecular variation and phenotypic performances within and among populations. Our study investigated the effect of individual multilocus heterozygosity on body size, body condition and reproductive investment of males (that is, chorus attendance) and females (that is, clutch mass and egg size) in both small fragmented and large non-fragmented populations of European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Because adult size and/or condition and reproductive investment are usually related, genetic erosion may have detrimental effects directly on reproductive investment, and also on individual body size and condition that in turn may affect reproductive investment. We confirmed that the reproductive investment was highly size-dependent for both sexes. Larger females invested more in offspring production, and larger males attended the chorus in the pond more often. Our results did not provide evidence for a decline in body size, condition and reproductive effort with decreased multilocus heterozygosity both within and among populations. We showed that the lack of heterozygosity-fitness correlations within populations probably resulted from low inbreeding levels (inferior to ca. 20% full-sib mating rate), even in the small fragmented populations. The detrimental effects of fixation load were either low in adults or hidden by environmental variation among populations. These findings will be useful to design specific management actions to improve population persistence. PMID:23250010

  13. Anticancer Potential and Mechanism of Action of Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) Supercritical CO2 Extract in Human Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne V; Escalon, Enrique; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is among the less-investigated species of Curcuma for anticancer properties. We have investigated the anticancer potential and the mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) in the U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line. CA demonstrated higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin, and turmeric force with IC50, IC75, and IC90 values of 4.92 ?g/mL, 12.87 ?g/mL, and 21.30 ?g/mL, respectively. Inhibitory concentration values of CA for normal embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell line (mHypoE-N1) is significantly higher than glioblastoma cell line, indicating the specificity of CA against brain tumor cells. CompuSyn analysis indicates that CA acts synergistically with temozolomide and etoposide for the cytotoxicity with combination index values of <1. CA treatment also induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and downregulates genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, oncogenesis, and drug resistance in glioblastoma cells. PMID:25542408

  14. Luffa echinata Roxb. induces human colon cancer cell (HT-29) death by triggering the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Shang, Li-Hua; Li, Chun-Mei; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Che, De-Hai; Cao, Jing-Yan; Yu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The antiproliferative properties and cell death mechanism induced by the extract of the fruits of Luffa echinata Roxb. (LER) were investigated. The methanolic extract of LER inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29) in both dose-dependent and time-dependent manners and caused a significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells. In addition, obvious shrinkage and destruction of the monolayer were observed in LER-treated cells, but not in untreated cells. Analysis of the cell cycle after treatment of HT-29 cells with various concentrations indicated that LER extracts inhibited the cellular proliferation of HT-29 cells via G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle. The Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level determination revealed that LER extracts induced apoptotic cell death via ROS generation. In addition, LER treatment led to a rapid drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as a decrease in fluorescence. The transcripts of several apoptosis-related genes were investigated by RT-PCR analysis. The caspase-3 transcripts of HT-29 cells significantly accumulated and the level of Bcl-XL mRNA was decreased after treatment with LER extract. Furthermore, the ratio of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis genes (Bax and Bcl-2) was sharply increased from 1.6 to 54.1. These experiments suggest that LER has anticancer properties via inducing the apoptosis in colon cancer cells, which provided the impetus for further studies on the therapeutic potential of LER against human colon carcinoma. PMID:22592084

  15. Dietary kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) flesh inhibits triacylglycerol absorption and lowers the risk for development of fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masao; Ueda, Takatoshi; Nagata, Kazuko; Shiratake, Sawako; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Kawakami, Mitsuo; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi; Shirouchi, Bungo; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2011-10-01

    Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) is a cucurbitaceous vegetable native to India and Bangladesh. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.), a species related to kakrol, has been shown to have pharmacological properties including antidiabetic and antisteatotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary kakrol on lipid metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN-76 formula diets containing 3% freeze-dried powders of whole kakrol or bitter gourd for two weeks. Results showed significantly lowered liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats fed on both diets. Fecal lipid excretion increased in rats fed the kakrol diet, and lymphatic transport of triacylglycerol and phospholipids decreased in rats fed the kakrol diet after permanent lymph cannulation. Furthermore, n-butanol extract from kakrol caused a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. These results indicate that the mechanisms of action on lipid metabolism in kakrol and bitter gourd are different and that dietary kakrol reduces liver lipids by inhibiting lipid absorption. PMID:21791551

  16. Protective effect of Terminalia belerica Roxb. and gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Anjana; Bhadauria, Monika; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2007-01-19

    Terminalia belerica Roxb. is one of the oldest medicinal herb of India, is an ingredient of Indian Ayurvedic drug 'triphala' used for the treatment of digestion and liver disorders. Present study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Terminalia belerica fruit extract and its active principle, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) at different doses against carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Toxicant caused significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase. Hepatic lipid peroxidation level increased significantly whereas significant depletion was observed in reduced glutathione level after carbon tetrachloride administration. A minimum elevation was found in protein content on the contrary a significant fall was observed in glycogen content of liver and kidney after toxicant exposure. Activities of adenosine triphosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase inhibited significantly in both the organs after toxicity. Treatment with TB extract (200, 400 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and gallic acid (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) showed dose-dependent recovery in all these biochemical parameters but the effect was more pronounced with gallic acid. Thus it may be concluded that 200mg/kg dose of gallic acid was found to be most effective against carbon tetrachloride induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:17049775

  17. Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome).

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Mendiratta, S K; Anjaneyulu, A S R

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method for improving tenderness and overall qualities of tough buffalo meat using plant proteolytic enzymes from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Their tenderizing efficacy was compared with the most popular enzyme papain. 3×3×3 cm chunks from Biceps femoris muscles of spent Murrah buffaloes (4-5 years age) were marinated with distilled water (control), 2% (w/w) powdered cucumis extract, 5% (w/v) ginger extract or 0.2% (w/w) papain for 48 h at 4 °C and subjected to various physico-chemical, histological and sensory evaluations. An increase (p<0.01) in collagen solubility, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility, and reduction (p<0.01) in shear force values were observed in all enzyme-treated samples compared to control. Electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins also revealed extensive proteolysis and reduction in number of protein bands in all treated samples. Improvement (p<0.01) in flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores were observed in all enzyme-treated samples compared to controls. Ginger extract-treated meat samples received better scores for appearance, flavor, tenderness and overall acceptability. From these results, it is shown that ginger and cucumis can be used as an effective alternative to papain. PMID:22062404

  18. Suppression by Curcuma comosa Roxb. of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate stimulated human mononuclear cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amorntus Sodsai; Pawinee Piyachaturawat; Samaisukh Sophasan; Apichart Suksamrarn; Molvibha Vongsakul

    2007-01-01

    Curcuma comosa Roxb. is a medicinal plant that has traditionally been used in Thailand for treatment of inflammation in postpartum uterine bleeding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its anti-inflammatory effects using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and human pro-monocytic cell line (U937). Pretreatment with hexane or ethanol extract or two diarylhepatanoids (5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene and 7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene) of C. comosa

  19. The photoperiodic control circuit in euthyroid American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) is already programmed for photorefractoriness by week 4 under long days.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether spontaneous testicular regression in male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) that were thyroidectomized at week 4 of photostimulation manifests photorefractoriness, as it does in chronically photostimulated euthyroid controls. On the basis of our demonstration that exogenous thyroxine stimulates the gonads only when recipient birds are photosensitive, male tree sparrows were thyroidectomized at week 4 of photostimulation (20 h light:4 h dark) and given thyroxine periodically to assay for photosensitivity. When initiated at weeks 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16 of photostimulation, thyroxine replacement therapy had no effect on testis size until week 16, when most recipient birds showed robust testicular growth. The inductive effect of exogenous thyroxine at week 16 confirms that chronic thyroidectomy dissipates photorefractoriness and simulates the effect of short days. The failure of replacement thyroxine to halt spontaneous testicular regression between week 7 and week 13 establishes that spontaneous testicular regression after thyroidectomy manifests photorefractoriness. Moreover, the failure of replacement thyroxine to induce testicular growth between week 4 and week 7 indicates that by week 4 of photostimulation, at least 3 weeks before photoinduced testicular growth ends, male tree sparrows are programmed for photorefractoriness. This conclusion is strengthened by the finding that thyroidectomy at week 4 of photostimulation does not uncouple photorefractoriness and postnuptial moult, which in euthyroid tree sparrows are tightly linked. In another experiment, photosensitive thyroid-intact tree sparrows were moved from 8 h light:16 h dark to 20 h light:4 h dark and given exogenous thyroxine or vehicle through week 6 of photostimulation. Exogenous thyroxine augmented testicular growth. PMID:7616501

  20. In vitro propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Govind Kumar; Singh, Major; Rai, Neha Prakash; Bhardwaj, D R; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2012-07-01

    An efficient protocol for rapid in vitro clonal propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) genotype RSR/DR15 (female) and DR/NKB-28 (male) was developed through enhanced axillary shoot proliferation from nodal segments. Maximum shoot proliferation of 6.2 shoots per explant with 100 % shoot regeneration frequency was obtained from the female genotype on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium supplemented with 0.9??M N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate (CH). While from the male genotype the optimum shoot regeneration frequency (86.6 %) and 6.4 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.2??M BA. CH induced vigorous shoots, promoted callus formation, and proved inhibitory for shoot differentiation and shoot length, especially in explants from male genotype. Rooting was optimum on half-strength MS medium (male 92.8 %, female 74.6 %) containing 4.9??M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing a mixture of cocopit and perlite (1:1 ratio) and then to soil after 2-3 weeks. 84 % female and 81 % male regenerated plantlets survived and grew vigorously in the field. Genetic stability of the regenerated plants was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The amplification products were monomorphic in the in vitro propagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic integrity of in vitro propagated plants. This micropropagation procedure could be useful for raising genetically uniform planting material of known sex for commercial cultivation or build-up of plant material of a specific sex-type. PMID:23814442

  1. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25473360

  2. In vitro antibacterial activity of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) stem bark aqueous extracts against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rise of antibiotic resistance among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have caused concerns for the treatment of MRSA infections. Hence, search for an alternative therapy for these infections is inevitable. Folk Indian medicine refers to the use of leaf and stem bark powder of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) in treatment of skin infections, but no scientific report establishes its antibacterial activity. Methods Direct aqueous extracts and sequential aqueous extracts of the stem bark of T. alternifolia (using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as other solvents) were prepared by soxhlet extraction. The antibiotic sensitivity profiles of the clinical isolates were determined against 18 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The methicillin resistance among S. aureus (MRSA) was confirmed by PCR amplification of mecA gene. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extracts. The micro-dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against the test organism. To further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the extract, cell cytotoxicity was checked on Vero cells by MTT assay. Chemical profiling of the extract was done by HPTLC method. Results The aqueous extracts of T. alternifolia stem bark exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, particularly against clinical isolates of MRSA and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extract against the isolates ranged from 600–800 ?g/ml. The extract did not exhibit cytotoxic activity against Vero cells even at the concentration of 4 mg/ml. The chemical profiling revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and steroids. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts did not exhibit antibacterial activity. Conclusion Our results offer a scientific basis for the traditional use of T. alternifolia in the treatment of skin infections, showing that the plant extract has an enormous potential as a prospective alternative therapy against MRSA skin infections. The present study lays the basis for future studies, to validate the possible use of T. alternifolia as a candidate in the treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:24066905

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer properties of the seed extracts of Syzygium fruticosum Roxb. growing in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of plants and their derived substances increases day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents owing to their versatile applications. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants having anticancer properties from plant origin since oxidants play a crucial role in developing various human diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Sygygium fruticosum (Roxb.) (abbreviated as SF). Methods The dried coarse powder of seeds of SF was exhaustively extracted with methanol and the resulting crude methanolic extract (CME) was successively fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate to get petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and lastly aqueous (AQF) fraction. The antioxidant activities were determined by several assays: total antioxidant capacity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The in vivo anticancer activity of SF was determined on Ehrlich’s Ascite cell (EAC) induced Swiss albino mice. Results All the extractives showed strong antioxidant activities related to the standard. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the fractions was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>PEF>CHF. The TAC of EAF at 320 ?g/mL was 2.60±0.005 which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of standard catechin (1.37 ± 0.005). The ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>AA>CHF>PEF. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of EAF was 4.85 ?g/mL, whereas that of BHT was 9.85 ?g/mL. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, the EAF showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 of 43.3 and 68.11 ?g/mL, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition assay was positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with both DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic contents of SF were also positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Based on antioxidant activity, EAF was selected for cytotoxic assay and it was found that EAF inhibited 67.36% (p < 0.01) cell growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg (ip) on day six of EAC cell incubation. Conclusions Our results suggest that EAF of seeds of SF possess significant antioxidant and moderate anticancer properties. Seeds of SF may therefore be a good source for natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement. PMID:23800021

  4. Quantitative determination of curcuminoids in Curcuma rhizomes and rapid differentiation of Curcuma domestica Val. and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lechtenberg, Matthias; Quandt, Bettina; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2004-01-01

    The three major curcuminoids, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis-demethoxycurcumin, from Curcuma domestica Val. (Curcuma longa L.) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) were fully separated and quantified in less than 5 min using a capillary zone electrophoresis method with standard fused-silica capillaries and photodiode array detection. An electrolyte solution of 20 mM phosphate, 50 mM sodium hydroxide and 14 mM beta-cyclodextrin was found to be appropriate. Quantification was performed with 3,4-dimethoxy-trans-cinnamic acid as internal standard, and the limit of detection was 0.01 mg/mL. Extraction, stabilisation during sample storage and quantification procedures were optimised and carried out with drugs and commercial curry powder from different provenances. The results were compared with the photometric method of the monograph Curcumae xanthorrhizae rhizoma of the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:15202598

  5. NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines mediated protective effect of Indigofera caerulea Roxb. on CCl4 induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ponmari, Guruvaiah; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan; Lakshmi, P T V; Guruvayoorappan, C

    2014-12-01

    Indigofera caerulea Roxb. is a well known shrub among native medical practitioners in folk medicine used for the treatment of jaundice, epilepsy, night blindness and snake bites. It is also reported to have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However its actual efficacy and hepatoprotective mechanism in particular is uncertain. Thus the present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of the methanolic extract of I. caerulea Roxb. leaves (MIL) and elucidation of its mode of action against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury in rats. HPLC analysis of MIL when carried out showed peaks close to standard ferulic acid and quercetin. Intragastric administration of MIL up to 2000 mg/kg bw, didn't show any toxicity and mortality in acute toxicity studies. During "in-vivo" study, hepatic injury was established by intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 3 ml/kg bw (30% CCl4 in olive oil; v/v) twice a week for 4 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, hepatoprotective activity of MIL assessed using two different doses (100 and 200mg/kg bw) showed that intra-gastric administration of MIL (200mg/kg bw) significantly attenuates liver injury. Investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that MIL treatment was capable of reducing inflammation by an antioxidant defense mechanism that blocks the activation of NF-?B as well as inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? and IL-1?. The results suggest that MIL has a significant hepatoprotective activity which might be due to the presence of phytochemicals namely analogues of ferulic acid and other phytochemicals which together may suppress the inflammatory signaling pathways and promote hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 intoxicated liver damage. PMID:25445959

  6. Initial impacts of forest tree based agroforestry system on soil properties of a degraded watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loretto U. de la Cruz; Marco A. Galang

    2006-01-01

    The initial impacts of Forest Tree Based Agroforestry System (FTAS) on the characteristics of soils of a degraded pasture land were studied using a two factor factorial experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design. Factor A was combination of tree species (Gmelina arborea and Swietenia macrophylla) and spacing (2×2, 2×3, and 2×4 m) while Factor B consisted of three sampling periods

  7. Evaluation and selection of multipurpose tree for improving soil hydro-physical behaviour under hilly eco-system of north east India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Saha; J. M. S. Tomar; P. K. Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Soil hydro-physical behaviour was studied under a 20-year old agroforestry plantation consisting of five multipurpose tree\\u000a species (Pinus kesiya Royle ex-Gordon, Alnus nepalensis D.Don, Parkia roxburghii G.Don, Michelia oblonga Wall. and Gmelina arboria Roxb.) maintained under normal recommended practices at Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Complex, Umiam, Meghalaya,\\u000a India. The aim was to select tree species, which could act

  8. Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Organic Amendments to Enhance Growth of Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll. Arg. in Iron Ore Mine Wastelands.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Cassie R; Rodrigues, Bernard F

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. is a disturbance tolerant plant species with potential in mine wasteland reclamation. Our study aims at studying the phyto-extraction potential of M. peltata and determining plant-soil interaction factors effecting plant growth in iron ore mine spoils. Plants were grown in pure mine spoil and spoil amended with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Vermicompost (VC) along with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Rhizophagus irregularis. Pure and amended mine spoils were evaluated for nutrient status. Plant growth parameters and foliar nutrient contents were determined at the end of one year. FYM amendment in spoil significantly increased plant biomass compared to pure mine spoil and VC amended spoil. Foliar Fe accumulation was recorded highest (594.67?g/g) in pure spoil with no mortality but considerably affecting plant growth, thus proving to exhibit phyto-extraction potential. FYM and VC amendments reduced AM colonization (30.4% and 37% resp.) and plants showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency (-30.35 and -39.83 resp.). Soil pH and P levels and, foliar Fe accumulation are major factors determining plant growth in spoil. FYM amendment was found to be superior to VC as a spoil amendment for hastening plant growth and establishment in iron ore mine spoil. PMID:25495939

  9. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), ?-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and ?-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

  10. Optimization of Reflux Conditions for Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Extraction and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40?mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4?mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8?mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601?mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan. PMID:25147852

  11. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test drugs were administered orally in the dose of 9ml/kg. Group I received vehicle (distilled water), Group II received leaf decoction of Premna obtusifolia Linn, Group III received leaf decoction of Premna latifolia Roxb and Group IV received indomethacin as standard anti-inflammatory drug. Test drugs and indomethacinwere administered one hour prior to the injection of 0.05 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw of rats. Study findings indicate that leaves of both the species of Premna have anti-inflammatory potential, P. latifoliabeing superior to P. obtusifolia. PMID:23284207

  12. Antihyperglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Extract and Its Active Compound Xanthorrhizol in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Xanthorrhizol, a natural compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Java turmeric), has been reported to possess antioxidant and anticancer properties; however, its effects on metabolic disorders remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of xanthorrhizol (XAN) and C. xanthorrhiza extract (CXE) with standardized XAN on hyperglycemia and inflammatory markers in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice. Treatment with XAN (10 or 25?mg/kg/day) or CXE (50 or 100?mg/kg/day) significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in HFD-induced obese mice. XAN and CXE treatments also lowered insulin, glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), and triglyceride (TG) levels in serum. Epididymal fat pad and adipocyte size were decreased by high doses of XAN (26.6% and 20.1%) and CXE (25.8% and 22.5%), respectively. XAN and CXE treatment also suppressed the development of fatty liver by decreasing liver fat accumulation. Moreover, XAN and CXE significantly inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue (27.8–82.7%), liver (43.9–84.7%), and muscle (65.2–92.5%). Overall, these results suggest that XAN and CXE, with their antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities, might be used as potent antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25053966

  13. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 ?M Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 ?M activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:23573054

  14. The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective. PMID:25558167

  15. Micropropagation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent boswellic acid production in callus cultures of Boswellia serrata Roxb.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Tukaram D; Ghorpade, Ravi P; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Ahire, Mahendra L; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Chopra, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation through cotyledonary and leaf node and boswellic acid production in stem callus of a woody medicinal endangered tree species Boswellia serrata Roxb. is reported. The response for shoots, roots and callus formation were varied in cotyledonary and leafy nodal explants from in vitro germinated seeds, if inoculated on Murshige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with cytokinins and auxins alone or together. A maximum of 8.0?±?0.1 shoots/cotyledonary node explant and 6.9?±?0.1 shoots/leafy node explants were produced in 91 and 88 % cultures respectively on medium with 2.5 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg?l(-1) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Shoots treated with 2.5 ?M IBA showed the highest average root number (4.5) and the highest percentage of rooting (89 %). Well rooted plantlets were acclimatized and 76.5 % of the plantlets showed survival upon transfer to field conditions. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the micropropagated plants compared with mother plant revealed true-to-type nature. The four major boswellic acid components in calluses raised from root, stem, cotyledon and leaf explants were analyzed using HPLC. The total content of four boswellic acid components was higher in stem callus obtained on MS with 15.0 ?M IAA, 5.0 ?M BA and 200 mg?l(-1) PVP. The protocol reported can be used for conservation and exploitation of in vitro production of medicinally important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory metabolites of B. serrata. PMID:24381442

  16. Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin

    2013-07-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

  17. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, ZA; Bachar, SC; Qais, N

    2012-01-01

    Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders. PMID:23493235

  18. Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

  19. Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRX?39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

  20. Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.

    PubMed

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

  1. Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Premna herbacea Roxb. in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model.

    PubMed

    Dhamija, Isha; Kumar, Nitesh; Manjula, S N; Parihar, Vipan; Setty, M Manjunath; Pai, K S R

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the root nodules of Premna herbacea Roxb. (PH) was investigated for its in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity. Two extracts, aqueous and alcoholic; two fractions of alcoholic extract, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality (BSL) assay, trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay. Alcoholic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction were found to be the most effective in BSL assay, trypan blue exclusion assay. In vivo antitumor activity was screened in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model and the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model. The extracts and the fractions were tested at two dosages (250 and 500 mg/kg) by intraperitoneally (i.p.) route on every alternate day upto 13th day. Cisplatin was used as positive control in both studies in single dose (day 1) 3.5 mg/kg by i.p. route. In EAC model, ascites tumor was induced by inoculating 2.5 million of EAC cells i.p. alcoholic extract at 500 mg/kg was the most effective in elevating MST, reduction in body weight in EAC induced tumor. Only the effective extract i.e., alcoholic extract were studied for hematological and antioxidant parameter. It showed a restoring effect on altered hematological parameters and a significant improvement in biochemical parameters at 250 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract. These results explain the toxicity of 500 mg/kg might be high. In the Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA) model, solid tumor was developed by i.m. injection of 1 million DLA cells. Both the extracts and the fractions possessed potent antitumor activity against solid tumor models by significantly reducing the solid tumor weight and volume. PMID:21920724

  2. Manganese-mitigation of cadmium toxicity to seedling growth of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. is controlled by the manganese/cadmium molar ratio under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Zhang, Yuxiu; Chai, Tuanyao; Tan, Jinjuan; Wang, Jianwu; Feng, Shanshan; Liu, Geyu

    2013-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) can interact with cadmium (Cd) in environments and influence the toxic effect of Cd on plants. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Mn/Cd ratio and plant Cd-toxicity along Cd concentrations. In this paper, we studied the effects of external Mn/Cd molar ratios (0, 10, 30, 50 and 60) on Cd toxicity in the Mn hyperaccumulator and Cd tolerant plant, Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., at three Cd levels (50, 100 and 200 ?M) under hydroponic conditions. Our result showed that seedling growth (y) under Cd stress was strongly positively related to the solution Mn/Cd molar ratio (SMCR). The relationship between the two variables under solution Cd concentrations was well explained by the linear regression model y=a+b1 (SMCR)+b2 (Solution-Cd). Increasing SMCR significantly reduced the Cd concentration and increased the Mn concentration in plant tissues. However, seedling growth was consistent with the shoot Mn/Cd molar ratio rather than with the Mn or Cd concentrations in plant tissues. At low levels of SMCR (e.g. 0 and 10), elevation of Mn distribution in shoot tissues might be a mechanism in P. acinosa seedlings to defend against Cd-toxicity. In comparison with low levels of SMCR, high levels of SMCR (e.g. 50 and 60) greatly alleviated lipid peroxidation and plant water-loss, and enhanced photosynthesis. However, the alleviated lipid peroxidation in the Mn-mitigation of Cd toxicity was likely to be the secondary effect resulting from the antagonism between Mn and Cd in the plant. PMID:24095921

  3. A test of the hypothesis that T3 is the "seasonality" thyroid hormone in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): intracerebroventricular infusion of iopanoic acid, an inhibitor of T3 synthesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    2001-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) is the bioactive "seasonality" thyroid hormone in American tree sparrows (Spizella (arborea). The experimental approach coupled thyroid hormone replacement therapy after radiothyroidectomy with photostimulation and intracerebroventricular infusion of iopanoic acid, an inhibitor of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine synthesis and degradation. Endpoints were testis length, molt score, and hypothalamic content of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1. The hypothesis predicts that thyroidectomized male tree sparrows moved to long days and given thyroxine in combination with iopanoic acid will lack L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and so will not express thyroid hormone-dependent photoperiodic testicular growth (a vernal component of seasonality) and photorefractoriness or postnuptial molt (autumnal components of seasonality). It further predicts that iopanoic acid will enhance the efficacy of L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and so will facilitate the expression of seasonality in thyroidectomized males given L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine replacement therapy. Iopanoic acid had no significant effect on any component of seasonality in thyroid-intact males given vehicle, or in thyroidectomized males given thyroxine or L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine. Thyroid-intact males, as well as thyroidectomized males infused with thyroxine alone, commonly expressed all components of seasonality. Thyroidectomized males given L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine alone exhibited photoperiodic testicular growth, but did not become photorefractory or initiate molt. While these results confirm that thyroid hormone acts centrally to program American tree sparrows for seasonality, they do not support the hypothesis that L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine is the bioactive "seasonality" thyroid hormone, and they challenge the view that thyroxine is merely a prohormone. PMID:11302527

  4. The Transport of Gmelina Logs on the Rio Dulce

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martines, R.; Perlack, B.; Ranney, J.

    1997-02-01

    The Rio Dulce National Park is one of Guatemala's major environmental assets. The park contains the remaining remnants of an eastern Guatemalan tropical rainforest which has good but fast deteriorating value for the development of the ecotourism industry. The governmenial objective for the region as stated in the Master Plan for the park is ecotourism development and protection of biodiversity. The decisions to be made concerning the long-term, sustainable use of the natural resources of the Rio Dulce region appear to be directed by existing environmental laws and the Rio Dulce Master Plan. However, the wording of these instruments is ambiguous and lacks specific definitions and criteria for making necessary determinations. This, in combination with lack of enforcement in the region, has led to extensive disparity in interpretation of the laws and uncontrolled, conflicting actions by individuals and organizations.

  5. Effects of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) replacement therapy on the programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroidectomized male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to long days.

    PubMed

    Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

    1997-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that T3 (triiodothyronine) is the tissue-active "seasonality" hormone by determining whether T3 could mimic T4 (thyroxine) and program photostimulated thyroidectomized (THX) male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for three components of seasonality (i.e., full-blown testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt). Photosensitive males were radiothyroidectomized, transferred to long days 4 weeks later, and administered 14 daily injections (s.c.) of alkaline saline (V) containing 0.1, 1, or 10 micrograms T4 or T3. THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received only V. After 5 additional weeks on long days, all birds were tested for photosensitivity/photorefractoriness. Periodically during the experiment, primary flight feathers were scored for molt, and testis length was monitored by laparotomy. As an independent measure of reproductive (i.e., photosensitive vs. photorefractory) state, hypothalami collected at the end of the experiment were assayed for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content. Like THI controls, THX males administered 1 or 10 micrograms T4 exhibited full-blown testicular growth and then regression, initiated molt, and had low hypothalamic cGnRH-I, indicating that photostimulated birds that received mid- or high-dose T4 replacement therapy had been programmed for all three components of seasonality. On the other hand, both THX controls and THX males administered low-dose (0.1 microgram) T3 replacement therapy exhibited only modest testicular growth, signifying that neither group had been programmed for any component of seasonality. By contrast, photostimulated THX males that received 0.1 microgram T4, or 1 or 10 micrograms T3, were programmed for testicular growth, but not for photorefractoriness or molt. Collectively, these results show that subcutaneously administered T3 mimicked T4 imperfectly and suggest either that T3 does not program photostimulated male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt, or that T3 does not cross the blood-brain barrier as efficiently as does T4. PMID:9360316

  6. Thyroid hormone-dependent seasonality in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): effects of GC-1, a thyroid receptor beta-selective agonist, and of iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M K; Wilson, F E; Scanlan, T S; Chiellini, G

    2004-08-01

    To explore the role of TH in the control of seasonality [i.e., photoperiodic testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt] in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), we performed experiments in which THX males were simultaneously photostimulated and given TH replacement therapy. In the first experiment, equimolar concentrations (1X = 1.3 nmol) of T4, T3, or GC-1, an iodine-free TRbeta agonist, were administered s.c. daily during the first 21 days of photostimulation. Two additional THX groups received GC-1 at 0.1X or 10X, and THX and THI control groups received vehicle. In the second experiment, T4 or T3, alone or in combination with the deiodinase inhibitor IOP, was injected i.m. twice daily during the first 14 days of photostimulation. In both experiments, end points were testis length and molt score. In the first experiment, THI birds given vehicle and THX birds given T4 replacement therapy exhibited all three components of seasonality. THX birds given T3 or GC-1 (1X or 10X) showed a subdued photoperiodic testicular response, but they did not become photorefractory or initiate molt. THX birds that received 0.1X GC-1 or vehicle exhibited none of the components of seasonality. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that photoperiodic testicular growth, a vernal component of seasonality, is a TRbeta-mediated response and suggest that T4 may activate TRbeta more efficiently than does T3 or GC-1. By contrast, the failure both of T3 and of GC-1, but not of T4, to program photostimulated THX males for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt suggests that autumnal components of seasonality may be TRalpha-mediated responses solely to T4. In the second experiment, IOP administered alone had no significant impact on seasonality. THX birds that received T4 with or without IOP showed all components of seasonality, whereas birds that received T3 with or without IOP showed only photoperiodic testicular growth. These results challenge the widely held view that T4 is merely a prohormone for T3 and support the emerging view that T4 has intrinsic hormonal activity. Because IOP augmented the photoperiodic testicular response in T3-treated THX birds, T3 may act either independently or co-dependently with T4 in programming vernal seasonal events. PMID:15235810

  7. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract down-regulates expression of PPAR?2 and leptin genes in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J Mice and retards in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ramani, Umed V; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPAR?2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPAR?2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity. PMID:21845103

  8. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. PMID:25462462

  9. Blade Motion and Nutrient Flux to the Kelp, Eisenia arborea

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California 93950 Abstract. Marine algae rely to transport water actively, marine algae rely on currents and waves to move water over their surfaces, thereby been debated (for reviews, see Hurd, 2000; Roberson, 2001), and their effect in nature remains an open

  10. Micropropagation of mature Chinese tallow tree ( Sapium sebiferum Roxb.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Siril; U. Dhar

    1997-01-01

    An in vitro propagation technique based on axillary bud proliferation has been developed for matureSapium sebiferum trees. Nodal segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzyl adenine (1–10 µm and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (0–0.5 µm showed axillary bud proliferation. Shoots proliferated in vitro were multiplied on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.5 µm benzyl adenine and 0.25 µma-naphthaleneacetic

  11. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

  12. Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.

    PubMed

    Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants. PMID:24933892

  13. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  14. Floral herbivore effect on the sex expression of an andromonoecious plant, Isomeris arborea (Capparaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Krupnick; Arthur E. Weis

    1998-01-01

    Flower-feeding insects may influence the reproductive behavior of their host plant. In plants with labile sex expression, the ratio of maternal to paternal investment may change in response to damage, an effect that goes beyond the direct reduction of plant gametes. We examined the effects of floral herbivory by the beetle Meligethes rufimanus (Nitidulidae) on the ratio of hermaphroditic flowers

  15. Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in different reproductive states.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1986-04-01

    Testosterone sensitivity of the seminal sacs of castrated tree sparrows from each of three reproductive states was evaluated by measuring the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of replacement or plasma testosterone. Birds were exposed to exogenous testosterone for 38 days. Replacement doses less than 0.17 mumol or plasma concentrations less than about 0.7 nmol/l did not induce seminal-sac growth in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days, in photosensitive castrated birds transferred from short to long days, or in photorefractory castrated birds retained on long days. Higher replacement doses or plasma concentrations, however, stimulated log dose-dependent growth of the seminal sacs in castrated birds from all three reproductive states. The change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of the dose of replacement testosterone was less (P = 0.0495) in photosensitive castrated birds held on short days than in photosensitive castrated birds transferred to long days. A more critical test of sensitivity (i.e. the change in seminal-sac mass per unit change in the logarithm of mean plasma testosterone concentration) indicated, however, that sensitivity of the seminal sacs to testosterone is independent of reproductive state. That result, when considered in the context of the plasma testosterone profile of intact males during a simulated reproductive cycle, argues that the seminal sacs of sexually quiescent (photosensitive or photorefractory) tree sparrows are small not because of their insensitivity to androgens, but because of a deficiency of circulating androgens. PMID:3701240

  16. The Timing of Thyroid-Dependent Programming in Seasonally Breeding Male American Tree Sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred E. Wilson; Bryan D. Reinert

    1996-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that euthyroid male American tree sparrows are already programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by Week 4 of photostimulation. To explore more precisely when, during early photostimulation, thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal events occurs, photosensitive male tree sparrows were radiothyroidectomized or sham thyroidectomized on the first day of photostimulation (Week 0) or at Weeks 1 or

  17. An androgen-independent mechanism maintains photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1985-10-01

    A series of experiments was performed to clarify whether photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is maintained by an androgen-dependent mechanism. Castration did not raise plasma LH in photorefractory males held under a daily photoperiod of 20 h light:4 h darkness (20L:4D). Castrated photorefractory males were implanted with the antiandrogen cyproterone or injected s.c. with the antiandrogen flutamide to determine whether androgens which may be resistant to castration inhibit LH secretion. Neither cyproterone nor flutamide raised plasma LH above values found in castrated control birds. Castrated photorefractory males were treated with testosterone to determine whether plasma LH in photorefractory males is androgen-suppressible. Concentrations of plasma LH were independent of plasma testosterone over a wide range of concentrations. The lack of LH response to castration, to castration coupled with antiandrogen therapy, and to castration coupled with testosterone replacement argues that photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is maintained by an androgen-independent mechanism. PMID:4045352

  18. The timing of thyroid-dependent programming in seasonally breeding male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1996-07-01

    There is convincing evidence that euthyroid male American tree sparrows are already programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by Week 4 of photostimulation. To explore more precisely when, during early photostimulation, thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal events occurs, photosensitive male tree sparrows were radiothyroidectomized or sham thyroidectomized on the first day of photostimulation (Week 0) or at Weeks 1 or 3 thereafter. Birds were monitored for testicular growth and regression over 8 or 12 weeks and then tested for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness by exposing them to constant light and exogenous L-thyroxine for 4 weeks. Molt of the primary flight feathers was scored periodically, and at the end of the experiment, hypothalami were saved for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) assay. Because (1) the thyroid is already dysfunctional by Day 4 after radiothyroidectomy, (2) thyroid-dependent photoinduced gonadal growth is programmed growth, and as demonstrated here, (3) testis length at Week 6 on long days (i.e., maximum or near-maximum testis size) is independent of the time of thyroidectomy at or after the onset of photostimulation, we conclude that male American tree sparrows were programmed for photoperiodic testicular growth during the first week of photostimulation. Based on measurements of testis length and hypothalamic cGnRH-I content, only 2 of 11 birds thyroidectomized at Week 1 were already programmed for photorefractoriness by Week 1, whereas all birds thyroidectomized at Week 3 were so programmed by Week 3. Marked differences in molt scores between photorefractory (thyroidectomized and euthyroid) and photosensitive (thyroidectomized) birds argue that postnuptial molt also was programmed roughly between Weeks 1 and 3. To explain these results, we ascribe organizational-like actions directly or indirectly to endogenous thyroid hormones and argue that the onset of photostimulation opens a window, during which time euthyroid male American tree sparrows are programmed for seasonality. A clear dissociation of photorefractoriness from photoperiodic testicular growth in birds thyroidectomized at Week 1 suggests that separate control circuits mediate these two annually periodic events. PMID:8812339

  19. Kinetics of the Thermal Degradation of Erica Arborea by DSC: Hybrid Kinetic Method D. Cancellieri*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    factor (1/s) n: reaction order T: temperature (K) : heating rate (K/min) a0, a1, a2, a3: numerical loss (%) A: virgin fuel KL: reaction rate of char and volatiles formation B: evolved gases K1: reaction rate of reaction one B': oxidation products C: chars K2: reaction rate of reaction two D: ashes. hal

  20. In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monali P.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. Results Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were controlled by higher amounts/levels of leaf extracts. Phytochemicals of all plants were qualitatively estimated. Conclusions A majority of timber-yielding plants studied had in vitro control capacity against MDR uropathogenic bacteria. PMID:24524024

  1. A testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive triggers photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1986-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether photorefractoriness in male tree sparrows is triggered by a testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive or by a photoperiod-induced hypersensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to testosterone negative feedback. Photosensitive male tree sparrows were transferred from 8 h light:16 h darkness (8L:16D) to 20L:4D. Birds were castrated bilaterally on day 28 of photostimulation. Beginning on day 33 and weekly thereafter until day 54, birds were given replacement testosterone (0-1.49 mumol) in s.c. polydimethylsiloxane capsules. Plasma samples collected on days 36, 43, 50 and 57 were assayed for LH. Plasma LH concentrations in birds without replacement testosterone were regarded as reflecting net photoperiodic drive in the absence of testosterone feedback, and the slopes of curves relating the logarithm of plasma LH concentration to dose of replacement testosterone were taken as quantitative measures of testosterone feedback sensitivity. The results showed that a testosterone-independent reduction in net photoperiodic drive beginning between days 43 and 50 preceded any change in sensitivity to testosterone negative feedback. Such results provide compelling evidence that a testosterone-independent mechanism triggers the photorefractory state in male tree sparrows. PMID:3701241

  2. Androgen feedback-dependent and -independent control of photoinduced LH secretion in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1985-04-01

    Photoperiodic control of gonadotrophin secretion in male tree sparrows was studied by examining changes in plasma LH in castrated birds retained on short daylengths and in castrated birds transferred to long daylengths. Plasma LH concentrations were markedly higher in photostimulated birds than in non-photostimulated birds throughout the 25-day experiment, and implantation of the antiandrogen cyproterone (free alcohol), which should have blocked the action of castration-resistant androgens, did not increase plasma LH in either group. Such results, obtained from birds in which testosterone feedback was inoperative, indicate that the gonadostimulatory effect of long daylengths in intact males must be mediated, at least in part, by an androgen feedback-independent mechanism. To determine whether changes in testosterone feedback facilitate gonadotrophin secretion during photostimulation, two feedback performance characteristics (i.e. set point (minimum concentration of testosterone that suppresses plasma LH) and sensitivity (change in plasma LH per unit change in testosterone)) were quantified by evaluating plasma LH responses of non-photostimulated castrated birds and of photostimulated castrated birds to replacement testosterone (0-4.16 mumol). The data indicate that, in addition to stimulating LH secretion by an androgen feedback-independent mechanism, long daylengths reduce feedback inhibition of LH secretion by increasing the putative set point and decreasing the sensitivity of the testosterone feedback mechanism. The feedback-independent effect is the predominant effect of photostimulation on LH secretion in male tree sparrows. PMID:3989422

  3. The drive on luteinizing hormone secretion in castrated tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to short days is daylength independent.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1990-03-01

    For many, if not most, photoperiodic species of birds, short days are nongonadostimulatory. The tacit assumption that short days are also nonphotostimulatory was tested by determining whether plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) in castrated tree sparrows exposed to short daily photoperiods (8 hr or less) are daylength dependent or independent. Castration of tree sparrows held on an 8-hr daily photoperiod evoked, within 2 weeks, a fivefold elevation in plasma LH concentration. Over the next 24 weeks, plasma LH concentrations of castrated birds were resistant, first to a stepwise reduction in daylength from 8 to 2 hr and later to a 2-, 4-, or 6-hr increase therein. At no time did LH concentrations differ among castrated birds held on the same or different short-day photoregimes. Conversely, at all times, LH concentrations of castrated birds, regardless of photoperiodic history, exceeded those of intact males held on an 8-hr daily photoperiod and sampled at the beginning of the experiment. These data, which argue that the drive on LH secretion in castrated tree sparrows exposed to short days is daylength independent and, therefore, likely intrinsic, verify the tacit assumption that short days are nonphotostimulatory. PMID:2338227

  4. Testis-dependent and -independent effects of photoperiod on volumes of song control nuclei in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Bernard; Fred E. Wilson; Gregory F. Ball

    1997-01-01

    Songbirds exhibit seasonal changes in the volumes of song control nuclei. Birds on long, spring-like days have larger nuclei than do birds on short, winter-like days. The mechanisms mediating volumetric changes have not been determined unequivocally, but testosterone (T) is probably involved. This study examined whether testicular factors are uniquely responsible for seasonal changes in the song system, or whether

  5. On the recovery of photosensitivity in two passerine species, American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) and Harris' sparrows (Zonotrichia querula).

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E

    1990-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that a spontaneous increase in plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) signals recovery of photosensitivity in castrated passerine birds, LH concentrations were measured weekly in intact and in castrated photorefractory tree sparrows and Harris' sparrows transferred to short days. After 7 weeks on short days (Experiment 1) or after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 weeks (Experiment 2) were challenged with long days (1 week) to determine if photosensitivity had been restored. As evidenced by a significant LH response to photostimulation, tree sparrows had regained at least partial photosensitivity after 7 weeks on short days. However, during exposure to short days, plasma LH concentrations in castrated males did not differ from those in intact males, and plasma LH concentrations in intact or castrated males did not vary with time. The first indication that photosensitivity had been partially restored in Harris' sparrows came after 7 weeks on short days, when castrated males responded to photostimulation with a fourfold elevation in plasma LH concentration. However, before week 7 and through week 10, LH concentrations remained suppressed in both intact and castrated males retained on short days. These data show that recovery of photosensitivity in castrated tree sparrows and Harris' sparrows held on short days is not signaled by a spontaneous elevation in plasma LH concentration, and that plasma LH concentrations in acutely photosensitive intact male tree sparrows and Harris' sparrows held on short days are not suppressed because of gonadal negative feedback. PMID:2391029

  6. Testis-dependent and -independent effects of photoperiod on volumes of song control nuclei in American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea).

    PubMed

    Bernard, D J; Wilson, F E; Ball, G F

    1997-06-20

    Songbirds exhibit seasonal changes in the volumes of song control nuclei. Birds on long, spring-like days have larger nuclei than do birds on short, winter-like days. The mechanisms mediating volumetric changes have not been determined unequivocally, but testosterone (T) is probably involved. This study examined whether testicular factors are uniquely responsible for seasonal changes in the song system, or whether photoperiod has testis-independent effects. Male American tree sparrows were exposed to one of three photoperiodic conditions: (1) Photosensitive birds were retained on short days (8L:16D). Plasma T is rarely detected in such birds. (2) Photosensitive birds were moved from short days to long days (20L:4D) and photostimulated for three weeks. Photostimulation elevates circulating T in photosensitive birds. (3) Photorefractory birds were held at least four months on 20L:4D. Such birds seldom have detectable levels of T, even though they are on long days. In each condition, there were both intact and castrated birds. Castration typically removes circulating T in tree sparrows. The volumes of the high vocal center (HVC), nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), and area X were measured. Song nuclei were largest in intact photostimulated birds. Other long-day birds (i.e. castrated photostimulated, and intact and castrated photorefractory groups) had larger song nuclei than did short-day intact or castrated photosensitive birds and did not differ from each other. These data indicate that photoperiod has both testis-dependent and -independent effects on the volumes of song control nuclei. PMID:9237531

  7. Use of the Harmonic Direction Finder to study the terrestrial habitats of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea)

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    are susceptible to decline (John- son, 2003). The need for extensive and scientific knowledge on amphibians , Nicolas Perrin1 Although most amphibians spend a substan- tial part of their life in terrestrial habitats). This lack of information hinders the development and ap- plication of efficient amphibian conservation

  8. Antioxidant, anti-TB activities, phenolic and amide contents of standardised extracts of Piper sarmentosum Roxb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hussain; Z. Ismail; A. Sadikun; P. Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol and aqueous extracts of the different parts of Piper sarmentosum were analysed by HPLC for marker compounds to standardise these extracts. The standardised extracts were investigated for antioxidant activity (?-carotene linoleate model and DPPH model), anti-TB activity (microplate tetrazolium assay), and estimation of total phenolic and amide contents. The extracts of the different parts exhibited different antioxidant activity, phenolic

  9. In vitro Antioxidant Potential in Sequential Extracts of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    Reenu, J.; Azeez, Shamina; Bhageerathy, Chempakam

    2015-01-01

    Present study deals with antioxidant potential of sequential extracts of fresh and dried rhizomes of Curcuma caesia, using solvents viz., hexane, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water, which was analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species assay. Total phenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. C. caesia showed significant antioxidant activity in chloroform, benzene and ethyl acetate extracts. The chloroform extract was highly effective as free radical scavengers, electron-donating agents and reducing molybdate ions except for reducing lipid peroxidation. The highest total phenol content was also exhibited by chloroform and benzene extracts. Antioxidant potential expressed by C. caesia in the sequential extracts could be effectively utilized for identification of the bioactive compounds for future phytopharmacological applications.

  10. Ameliorative effect of Luffa acutangula Roxb. on doxorubicin induced cardiac and nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Vishal B; Thakare, Vishnu N; Suralkar, Anupama A; Naik, Suresh R

    2013-02-01

    The present study reports protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Luffa acutangula (HAELA) on doxorubicin (DXR) induced cardio and nephrotoxicity in mice by studying various serum biomarkers, antioxidants in target organs and histoarchitecture alterations. Pretreatment with HAELA reversed significantly the elevated serum biomarkers, alanine amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine phosphokinase in heart and kidney in DXR treated mice. In addition, HAELA treatment inhibited elevated malondialdehyde formation and restored the depleted glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase in heart and kidney tissue. The altered histoarchitecture of heart and kidney tissue due to DXR treatment were also improved with HAELA. The protective activity observed with HAELA on DXR induced cardio and nephrotoxicity in mice was found to be related to its antioxidant property which finally results in membrane stabilization. PMID:23923608

  11. Effective Control of Postprandial Glucose Level through Inhibition of Intestinal Alpha Glucosidase by Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.)

    PubMed Central

    Ghadyale, Varsha; Takalikar, Shrihari; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of intestinal alpha glucosidase plays a major role in preventing rise in postprandial glucose level in diabetics. Cymbopogon martinii (CM) (family Poaceae) is used in traditional Indian medicine in treatment of diabetes mellitus. The alpha glucosidase inhibitory action of the plant is studied. The active component was separated using hot water extraction of the whole plant powder, differential solvent extraction, and silica gel column chromatography. The 30?:?70 toluene : ethyl acetate fraction showed optimum activity. The silica gel chromatography fraction demonstrated 98, 98, and 68% inhibition for starch, maltose, and sucrose, respectively, at 5?mg/kg body weight of rats. Intestinal absorption studies using noneverted intestinal sacs, as well as in vivo studies in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using oral glucose tolerance with maltose and sucrose load, revealed better inhibition of alpha glucosidase as compared to acarbose. Kinetic studies using Lineweaver Burk plot showed mixed to noncompetitive type of inhibition by CM. In vivo studies with maltose load of 2?mg and 3?mg/gm body weight showed a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition at 5?mg/kg body weight of CM as against 60?mg/kg body weight of acarbose. Thus CM is more effective alpha glucosidase inhibitor and at lower concentration than acarbose. PMID:21792369

  12. Chemical composition and nutritive value of tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. P. Dirven

    1965-01-01

    Summary The rainy tropical climate of Surinam proves to be most suitable for the growth of kudzu in monoculture as well as mixed with grasses. Kudzu has been especially used as ground cover inCitrus growing. In order to get some idea of the nutritive value of this legume the organic and mineral components have been analysed in some 40 samples

  13. WITHDRAWN: Expression of Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Peng, Dan; Tan, XiaoFeng; Yuan, DeYi; Liu, XuanMing; Zhang, Lin

    2015-05-01

    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. PMID:24979737

  14. Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Sasmal, S; Majumdar, S; Gupta, M; Mukherjee, A; Mukherjee, PK

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity. Methods Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature. Conclusions The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods. PMID:23569847

  15. Anti-Allergic Effects of Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) Flesh Extract

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Yoon Hee; IDA, Megumi; YAMASHITA, Shuya; TSUKAMOTO, Shuntaro; KUMAZOE, Motofumi; SUMIDA, Mami; KAWAKAMI, Mitsuo; YAMADA, Koji; TACHIBANA, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    We examined the inhibitory effect of the extract of kakrol extracted by 3 types of solvent (water, 50% and 100% ethanol) on histamine release in human basophilic KU812 cells. The water extract of kakrol flesh showed the strongest inhibitory effect on histamine release as compared with the other extracts. Therefore, we evaluated whether water extract of kakrol flesh had a suppressive effect on development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in picryl chloride-treated NC/Nga mice. The dietary kakrol flesh water extract alleviated the development of skin lesions in ears accompanied by lower IgE levels and inflammatory cytokines levels in serum. These results indicate that the water extract of kakrol flesh might have therapeutic potential for allergic responses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24936343

  16. Anti-Allergic Effects of Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) Flesh Extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Ida, Megumi; Yamashita, Shuya; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Sumida, Mami; Kawakami, Mitsuo; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    We examined the inhibitory effect of the extract of kakrol extracted by 3 types of solvent (water, 50% and 100% ethanol) on histamine release in human basophilic KU812 cells. The water extract of kakrol flesh showed the strongest inhibitory effect on histamine release as compared with the other extracts. Therefore, we evaluated whether water extract of kakrol flesh had a suppressive effect on development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in picryl chloride-treated NC/Nga mice. The dietary kakrol flesh water extract alleviated the development of skin lesions in ears accompanied by lower IgE levels and inflammatory cytokines levels in serum. These results indicate that the water extract of kakrol flesh might have therapeutic potential for allergic responses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24936343

  17. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ?-amyrin, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

  18. Pollen Production, Microsporangium Dehiscence and Pollen Flow in Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxb. ex D. Don)

    PubMed Central

    KHANDURI, V. P.; SHARMA, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Microsporangium dehiscence, pollen production and dispersal were studied in Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) during 1998 and 1999. Microsporangium dehiscence showed diurnal periodicity and was found to be related to air temperature and relative air humidity, with a strobilus taking 2 d to dehisce completely in warmer conditions and 3 d in cooler ones. The frequency of flowering in C. deodara was highly variable during the two successive years; however, cyclical production of pollen grains was observed in 50 % of the trees. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air was found between 1200 and 1600 h, and this period was also noted to be the best time for pollination. Studying migration of pollen grains from isolated single trees in three directions showed that migration was not uniform in all directions. Long?distance transport of pollen grains was observed in the downhill direction. However, in the uphill and horizontal directions grains could travel only up to 97·5 and 195·1 m, respectively, and the frequency of pollen grains to the source frequency at these distances was only 1·9 and 2·5 %, respectively. The results suggest that an isolation barrier of 190 m may be considered as a minimum for the management of deodar seed orchards. PMID:12099533

  19. Remediation of nutrient-rich waters using the terrestrial plant, Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.

    PubMed

    Han, Ping; Kumar, Prakash; Ong, Bee-Lian

    2014-02-01

    Effective control of eutrophication is generally established through the reduction of nutrient loading into waterways and water bodies. An economically viable and ecologically sustainable approach to nutrient pollution control could involve the integration of retention ponds, wetlands and greenways into water management systems. Plants not only play an invaluable role in the assimilation and removal of nutrients, but they also support fauna richness and can be aesthetically pleasing. Pandanus amaryllifolius, a tropical terrestrial plant, was found to establish well in hydrophytic conditions and was highly effective in remediating high nutrient levels in an aquatic environment showing 100% removal of NO3(-)-N up to 200 mg/L in 14 days. Phosphate uptake by the plant was less efficient with 64% of the PO4(-)-P removed at the maximum concentration of 100 mg/L at the end of 6 weeks. With its high NO3(-)-N and PO4(3-)-P removal efficiency, P. amaryllifolius depleted the nutrient-rich media and markedly contained the natural colonization of algae. The impediment of algal growth led to improvements in the water quality with significant decreases in turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, the plants did not show stress symptoms when grown in high nutrient levels as shown by the changes in their biomass, total soluble proteins and chlorophyll accumulation as well as photochemical efficiency. Thus, P. amaryllifolius is a potential candidate for the mitigation of nutrient pollution in phytoremediation systems in the tropics as the plant requires low maintenance, is tolerant to the natural variability of weather conditions and fluctuating hydro-periods, and exhibit good nutrient removal capabilities. PMID:25076532

  20. In vitro propagation of a Saccharum officinarum (L.) and Sclerostachya fusca (Roxb.) A. Camus hybrid.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, J; Sreenivasan, T V

    1984-01-01

    Callus induction and plant differentiation were obtained in an intergeneric hybrid of Saccharum officinarum and Sclerostachya fusca. The sub clones showed morphological variation. Chromosome numerical variation was not observed but structural aberrations were noticed in some sub clones. The study indicates the use of tissue culture technique for inducing intergeneric gene transfer in Saccharum hybrids. PMID:24258543

  1. Potential anti-inflammatory effect of Leea macrophylla Roxb. leaves: a wild edible plant.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, Saikat; Dua, Tarun K; Sahu, Ranabir

    2013-09-01

    Leea macrophylla (Leeaceae) is a wild edible plant with ethomedicinal importance as anti-inflammatory agent. However, no systematic studies on its anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms have been reported. Present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of L. macrophylla leaves. Phytochemical investigation revealed presence of sterols, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid in extract. Methanol extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide stimulated production of inflammatory mediators viz. prostaglandin E2, tumor necrotic factor-?, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1? in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Additionally, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of this extract was evaluated by using carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma assays in experimental rats. Oral administration of extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) exhibited dose dependant inhibition of carrageenan induced inflammation (p<0.05) and the reduction of the granuloma tissue formation (p<0.05-0.01). The extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) exhibited significant central and peripheral analgesic activity in hot-plate test (p<0.01) and acetic acid induced writhing test (p<0.05-0.01) respectively in experimental mice. Treatment with extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) significantly reduced the yeast provoked elevated body temperature (p<0.05-0.01) in experimental rats. These results confirmed the traditional anti-inflammatory indication of L. macrophylla leaves. PMID:23831308

  2. Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by Curcuma comosa Roxb. ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Jariyawat, Surawat; Kigpituck, Pranida; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Chaovanalikit, Arusa; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2009-10-01

    The protective effect of an ethanol extract of Curcuma comosa against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in mice was studied. Adult male mice were pretreated for 4 days with the ethanol extract of C. comosa [100-200 mg/kg body weight (BW), orally (p.o.)] before injection of cisplatin (12.5 mg/kg BW, intraperitoneally (i.p.)). Five days later the mice were killed, and blood samples were collected to determine blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine levels. Kidneys were examined histopathologically and levels of lipid peroxidation, gluthathione (GSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined. Histological examinations revealed degenerative changes and tubular necrosis in mice treated with cisplatin, which were improved by pretreatment with C. comosa ethanol extract. Cisplatin raised BUN, creatinine, and kidney lipid peroxidation levels, and lowered kidney GSH content and levels of GPx, SOD, and CAT activities, all of which (except SOD and CAT) could be restored to normal values by pretreatment with 200 mg/kg BW of C. comosa ethanol extract. In addition, the ethanol extract of C. comosa and its isolated diarylheptanoid compound also exhibited radical scavenging activities. The results suggest that the ethanol extract of C. comosa exhibits effective protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity mediated through its antioxidant activity. PMID:19536611

  3. In vitro Antioxidant Potential in Sequential Extracts of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Reenu, J; Azeez, Shamina; Bhageerathy, Chempakam

    2015-01-01

    Present study deals with antioxidant potential of sequential extracts of fresh and dried rhizomes of Curcuma caesia, using solvents viz., hexane, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water, which was analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species assay. Total phenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. C. caesia showed significant antioxidant activity in chloroform, benzene and ethyl acetate extracts. The chloroform extract was highly effective as free radical scavengers, electron-donating agents and reducing molybdate ions except for reducing lipid peroxidation. The highest total phenol content was also exhibited by chloroform and benzene extracts. Antioxidant potential expressed by C. caesia in the sequential extracts could be effectively utilized for identification of the bioactive compounds for future phytopharmacological applications. PMID:25767317

  4. Development of indirect competitive ELISA for quantification of mitragynine in Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth.).

    PubMed

    Limsuwanchote, Supattra; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Keawpradub, Niwat; Putalun, Waraporn; Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) against mitragynine (MG), an analgesic alkaloid from Kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa), was produced. MG was coupled to carrier proteins employing either 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS), a zero-length cross linker or a 5-carbon length glutaraldehyde cross linker. To confirm the immunogenicity, the hapten numbers were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Preparation of the MAb was accomplished by the electrofusion method. Hybridoma 1A6 that was constructed from the fusion between splenocytes of EDC/NHS conjugate immunized mice and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells was selected, cloned twice and expanded. The cross-reactivities (CRs) of this MAb 1A6 with a series of indole alkaloids were 30.54%, 24.83% and 8.63% for speciogynine, paynantheine and mitraciliatine, respectively. Using this MAb, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed with a measurement range of 32.92-250 ?g/mL. Quantitative analysis of the MG contents in plant samples by icELISA correlated well with the standard high performance liquid chromatography method (R(2)=0.994). The MAb against mitragynine provided a tool for detection of MG in Kratom preparations. PMID:25216455

  5. Clot Lysis and Antimitotic Study of Ficus glomerata Roxb Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shivasharanappa, Kirankumar; Londonkar, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the thrombolytic and antimitotic potentiality of various extracts of fruits of Ficus glomerata, a traditional medicinal plant, using an in vitro assay method. Three crude extracts such as petroleum ether (FGPE), chloroform (FGCE), and methanol (FGME) were used for the study, with a standard (streptokinase) and negative control (sterile distilled water) to validate the method. The thrombolytic nature of the plant was found significant with methanol extract and chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have recorded mild activity, when compared with the negative control (sterile distilled water). The extracts have shown mild clot lysis, that is, 2.16%, 23.06%, 27.60%, and 47.74% of sterile distilled water, FGPE, FGCE, and FGME, respectively, while the standard (streptokinase) has shown 74.22% clot lysis. FGME inhibited the root growth in number as well as length effectively, followed by FGPE, while FGCE exhibited moderate antimitotic activity and it was supported by mitotic index. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that among all the extracts of plant the methanolic extract has shown highest thrombolytic and antimitotic activity. PMID:25006495

  6. Sedative and antiepileptic effects of Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. in mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagakannan, Pandian; Shivasharan, Basavaraj D.; Veerapur, Veeresh P.; Thippeswamy, Boreddy S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sedative and antiepileptic activities of ethanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba (ACE) bark in various experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: ACE was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. We used ketamine-induced sleeping time model to test the sedative property of the extract where, onset and duration of sleep were observed. A paradigm of anticonvulsant models (pentylenetetrazole, isoniazid and maximal electroshock-induced seizures) were used to evaluate its protective effect against absence and generalized types of seizures. Onset of clonic convulsions, tonic extension and time of death were observed in PTZ and INH-induced seizure models. In MES model, duration of tonic hind leg extension and onset of stupor were observed. Results: ACE showed significant increase in ketamine induced sleeping time. It also exhibited significant increase (P<0.05, 0.01 and 0.001) in latency to clonic convulsion, tonic extension and time of death in PTZ and INH models at all tested doses, whereas in the MES model, the lower dose was found to be effective when compared with the higher doses (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusion: The results of the present investigation demonstrated that ACE possesses sedative and antiepileptic activities. PMID:22144777

  7. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Meriandera benghalensis (Roxb.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Mothana, R A A; Jansen, R; Gruenert, R; Bednarski, P J; Lindequist, U

    2009-09-01

    Four abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the methanolic extract of the roots of Meriandera benghalensis and tested for their biological activity. Cryptotanshinone (2) and 17-hydroxycryptotanshinone (4) are known metabolites however the occurrence of tanshinone IIA (1) and przewaquinone A (3) from Meriandera benghalensis is reported for the first time. The four diterpenoids were identified by MS and one- and two dimensional NMR experiments. The isolated compounds were tested for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines (a lung cancer (A-427), a urinary bladder cancer (5637) and a breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line) and for their antibacterial effect against three Gram-positive bacterial strains. All four abietanes showed potent cytotoxic effect against all cancer cell lines (IC50 between 1 and 8 microM) as well as antibacterial effect against the bacteria tested (MIC values between 33 and 70 microM). PMID:19827307

  8. In vitro propagation of a multipurpose leguminous tree ( Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) using nodal explants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Kashif Husain; Mohammad Anis; Anwar Shahzad

    2008-01-01

    Pterocarpus marsupium (Bijasal) is a valuable multipurpose forest tree. The regeneration rate in natural habitat is low and the tree is overexploited.\\u000a An in vitro propagation protocol has been developed from nodal explants obtained from in vitro raised 18-day-old axenic seedlings.\\u000a The highest shoot regeneration frequency (85%), maximum number of multiple shoots (8.6) as well as length (4.8 cm) were induced

  9. Rapid multiplication of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.: a timber yielding tree legume through axillary shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting.

    PubMed

    Vibha, J B; Shekhawat, N S; Mehandru, Pooja; Dinesh, Rachana

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and improved method for in vitro propagation of mature tree of Dalbergia sissoo, an ecologically and commercially important timber yielding species, has been developed through axillary shoot proliferation. Bud breaking occurred from nodal shoot segments derived from rejuvenated shoots produced during early spring from a 20-25-year-old lopped tree, on MS medium containing 8.88 ?M benzylaminopurine (BAP). Multiple shoots differentiated (20-21shoots/node) on re-culture of explants on half-strength agar gelled amended MS medium with a combination of 2.22 ?M of BAP and 0.002 ?M of thidiazuron (TDZ) with 1.0 mM each of Ca(NO3)2, K2SO4, KCl, and NH4(SO4)2. The maximum shoot multiplication (29-30 shoots/node) was achieved on subculturing in the above mentioned but liquid medium. Furthermore, the problem of shoot tip necrosis and defoliation observed on solid medium were overcome by the use of liquid medium. Ex vitro rooting was achieved on soilrite after basal treatment of microshoots with 984 ?M of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 2 min. About 90 % microshoots were rooted on soilrite within 2-3 weeks under the greenhouse conditions. From 20 nodal shoot segments, about 435 hardened plants were acclimatized and transplanted. This is the first report for rapid in vitro propagation of mature trees of D. sissoo on liquid medium followed by ex vitro rooting. PMID:24554841

  10. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  11. Proteoglycans from Boswellia serrata Roxb. and B. carteri Birdw. and identification of a proteolytic plant basic secretory protein.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Andreas; König, Simone; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Sehlbach, Maria; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Peter-Katalinic, Jasna; Hensel, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Water-soluble high molecular weight compounds were isolated in yields of 21-22% from the oleogum of Boswellia serrata and B. carteri. Using anion exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, different proteoglycans were purified and characterized, leading to four principally different groups: (i) Hyp-/Ser-rich extensins with O-glycosidic attached arabinan side chains; (ii) Modified extensins, with arabinogalactosylated side chains containing GlA and 4-O-Me-GlcA; (iii) Glycoproteins with N-glycosidic side chains containing higher amounts of Fuc, Man and GluNH(2,) featuring a 200 kD metalloproteinase that has been de novo sequenced and is described for the first time; (iv) Type II arabinogalactans-proteins. Significant differences between the gums from the two species were observed in the protein content (6% vs 22%), offering the possibility of a quick differentiation of gums from both species for analytical quality control. The data also offer an insight into the plant response towards wound-closing by the formation of extensin and AGP-containing gum. PMID:22773449

  12. A stable serine protease, wrightin, from the latex of the plant Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br.: purification and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Ritu; Kumar, Reetesh; Jagannadham, M V

    2008-02-27

    Today proteases have become an integral part of the food and feed industry, and plant latex could be a potential source of novel proteases with unique substrate specificities and biochemical properties. A new protease named "wrightin" is purified from the latex of the plant Wrightia tinctoria (Family Apocynaceae) by cation-exchange chromatography. The enzyme is a monomer having a molecular mass of 57.9 kDa (MALDI-TOF), an isoelectric point of 6.0, and an extinction coefficient (epsilon1%280) of 36.4. Optimum activity is achieved at a pH of 7.5-10 and a temperature of 70 degrees C. Wrightin hydrolyzes denatured natural substrates such as casein, azoalbumin, and hemoglobin with high specific activity; for example, the Km value is 50 microM for casein as substrate. Wrightin showed weak amidolytic activity toward L-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide but completely failed to hydrolyze N-alpha-benzoyl- DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), a preferred substrate for trypsin-like enzymes. Complete inhibition of enzyme activity by serine protease inhibitors such as PMSF and DFP indicates that the enzyme belongs to the serine protease class. The enzyme was not inhibited by SBTI and resists autodigestion. Wrightin is remarkably thermostable, retaining complete activity at 70 degrees C after 60 min of incubation and 74% of activity after 30 min of incubation at 80 degrees. Besides, the enzyme is very stable over a broad range of pH from 5.0 to 11.5 and remains active in the presence of various denaturants, surfactants, organic solvents, and metal ions. Thus, wrightin might be a potential candidate for various applications in the food and biotechnological industries, especially in operations requiring high temperatures. PMID:18220346

  13. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Rhizobium leguminosarum on the growth and nutrient status of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REKHA BISHT; SHRUTI CHATURVEDI; RASHMI SRIVASTAVA; A. K. SHARMA; B. N. JOHRI

    2009-01-01

    Dalbergia sissoo, an important tree of tropical regions, is grown as monoculture or in agroforesty systems because of the quality of its wood and its effects on soil fertility through N2 fixation. Low soil fertility in tropical regions results in poor plant growth. This is significant in the case of forest trees, since they are generally transplanted without considering the

  14. In vitro regeneration in Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) -an important medicinal plant of semi-arid ecosystem of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Mahender S; Shekhawat, Narpat S

    2013-04-01

    An efficient regeneration protocol for Sarcostemma acidum - an important medicinal plant has been established. Callus initiated from nodal explant on MS medium with 2.0 mg?L(-1) of NAA + additives. Callus initiated was subcultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of NAA or 2,4-D. Out of these combinations, MS medium +1.0 mg?L(-1) of NAA + additives was found to be effective for the multiplication of callus. Subculture was done after an interval of 20-22 days. For differentiation of callus BAP or Kinetin alone was found to be less effective. Maximum frequency of shoot regeneration recorded on MS medium +1.0 mg?L(-1) of BAP?+?0.5 mg?L(-1) of Kinetin and 0.1 mg?L(-1) of NAA + additives. The in vitro differentiated shoots were excised and inoculated on 1/4 strength MS medium +2.0 mg?L(-1) of IBA?+?0.02 % activated charcoal for in vitro rooting. Maximum response (90 %) was recorded on this medium. In vitro differentiated shoots were inoculated on autoclaved soilrite® after treatment with root inducing auxins. Ex vitro rooting in this plant species has been reported for the first time. Eighty five percent of the shoots rooted under ex vitro conditions. Both in vitro and ex vitro rooted plantlets were hardened in a green house. PMID:24431495

  15. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of the Aqueous Fruit Extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb (L.) in Normal and Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHARMILA BANU; KUMAR G

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica (TD) at a dose of 50 ml\\/kg b.w in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Material-Methods: The aqueous fruit extracts of TD (50 ml\\/kg) were administered orally for 15 days, to normal and diabetic rats. The

  16. Inositol methyl tranferase from a halophytic wild rice, Porteresia coarctata Roxb. (Tateoka): regulation of pinitol synthesis under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sonali; Patra, Barunava; Ray, Sudipta; Majumder, Arun Lahiri

    2008-10-01

    Methylated inositol D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol) accumulates in a number of plants naturally or in response to stress. Here, we present evidence for accumulation and salt-enhanced synthesis of pinitol in Porteresia coarctata, a halophytic wild rice, in contrast to its absence in domesticated rice. A cDNA for Porteresia coarctata inositol methyl transferase 1 (PcIMT1), coding for the inositol methyl transferase implicated in the synthesis of pinitol has been cloned from P. coarctata, bacterially overexpressed and shown to be functional in vitro. In silico analysis confirms the absence of an IMT1 homolog in Oryza genome, and PcIMT1 is identified as phylogenetically remotely related to the methyl transferase gene family in rice. Both transcript and proteomic analysis show the up-regulation of PcIMT1 expression following exposure to salinity. Coordinated expression of L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (PcINO1) gene along with PcIMT1 indicates that in P. coarctata, accumulation of pinitol via inositol is a stress-regulated pathway. The presence of pinitol synthesizing protein/gene in a wild halophytic rice is remarkable, although its exact role in salt tolerance of P. coarctata cannot be currently ascertained. The enhanced synthesis of pinitol in Porteresia under stress may be one of the adaptive features employed by the plant in addition to its known salt-exclusion mechanism. PMID:18643954

  17. Curative effect of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume. tuber on N-nitrosodiethylamine- induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Ansil, Puthuparampil Nazarudeen; Nitha, Anand; Prabha, Santhibhavan Prabhakaran; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the curative effect of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in experimental rats. All of the rats except those in the normal control group received 0.02% NDEA orally (2 mL, 5 days/week) for the first 20 weeks of the experiment. In different treatment groups, after 20 weeks of NDEA challenge, rats were supplemented with ACME (125 and 250 mg/kg body weight, orally) for the following 28 days. In addition, a standard drug control group was supplemented with silymarin (100 mg/kg bw, orally), a known tumorsuppressive agent against HCC. Administration of ACME significantly inhibited the NDEA-induced increase of hepatic nodule incidence, nodule multiplicity, and serum biochemical indices, and improved the hepatocellular architecture in a dose-dependent manner. The biochemical analysis of hepatic tissues further demonstrated that ACME counteracts NDEA-induced oxidative stress through the restoration of antioxidant enzymes. NDEAadministered rats also showed amplified expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the liver, and decreased expression of this proliferative marker was clearly observed upon the supplementation of ACME. Notably, 250 mg/kg bw ACME supplementation showed better results than the other treatment regimens; this result might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant activity and inhibition of hepatic cell proliferation. PMID:25272059

  18. Caffeine affects adventitious rooting and causes biochemical changes in the hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daizy R. Batish; Harminder Pal Singh; Mansimran Kaur; Ravinder Kumar Kohli; Surender Singh Yadav

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a purine alkaloid found naturally in over 100 plant species, has recently been viewed\\u000a as a safe chemical for management of pests including molluscs, slugs, snails, bacteria, and as a bird deterrent. It possesses\\u000a phytotoxicity against plant species, yet the mechanism of action is lacking. A study was conducted to determine the effect\\u000a of caffeine on the rooting

  19. A high-performance molluscicidal ingredient against Oncomelania hupensis produced by a rhizospheric strain from Phytolacca acinosa Roxb

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Danzhao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Yidan; Yao, Hu; Han, Fang-An; Pan, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Background: Snail (Oncomelania hupensis) control is an important and effective preventive strategy in schistosomiasis control programs, and screening microbial molluscicidal agents is one of the most promising categories in biomolluscicides. Objective: To purify and identify the molluscicidal ingredient (MI) obtained from strain SL-30's exocellular broth. Materials and Methods: The active extracts extracted from SL-30's exocellular broth was purified on a silica gel column guided by molluscicidal activity assay against Oncomelania hupensis, then the MI was obtained. NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS/MS analysis was used to identify the molecular structure of the MI. Results: Molluscicidal activity bioassay showed that the MI exhibited significant molluscicidal activity with the LC50 values of 0.101, 0.062, and 0.022 mg/L, respectively, in the case of exposure period of 24 h. From 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, and 1H-13C HSQC spectra, partial important structure fragment was obtained, and the relative molecular weight of the MI showed 326 according to LC-MS analysis. Then, on these grounds, it was indicated that the molecular structure of the MI had a higher similarity to Gliotoxin with the molecular formula of C13 H14N2O4S2. The quasi-molecular ion of m/z 325.45 was further analyzed by MS2 as the parent ion, and two daughter ions obtained at m/z 295.11 [M-CH2OH]- and m/z 261.08 [M-CH2OH -2S]– Conclusion: The MI was finally confirmed as Gliotoxin. PMID:22262929

  20. Isolation, structural elucidation and in vitro antioxidant activity of compounds from chloroform extract of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Ahmad, Shamim; Mazumder, Avijit

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to isolate, characterise and explore in vitro antioxidant potential of compounds from the chloroform extract of Cedrus deodara wood belonging to Pinacae family. We have investigated the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of isolated compounds by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power ability. From the chloroform extract five sesquiterpenes namely atlantone, himaphenolone, atlantolone, deodardione and atlantone-2,3-diol were identified. Himaphenolone and deodardione from the chloroform extract of this plant have been isolated for the first time. A marked dose-dependent reducing power and strong TAC were found in favour of himaphenolone and atlantone-2,3-diol, respectively. Moreover, deodardione and atlantolone also exhibit good antioxidant potentials. However, atlantone has showed least antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the chloroform extract of C. deodara exhibited significant antioxidant potential mainly due to the presence of sesquiterpenes which may be responsible for various pharmacological activities of this plant. PMID:25103644

  1. The Consequences of Floral Herbivory for Pollinator Service to Isomeris arborea Author(s): Gary A. Krupnick, Arthur E. Weis, Diane R. Campbell

    E-print Network

    Weis, Arthur

    . Krupnick, Arthur E. Weis, Diane R. Campbell Source: Ecology, Vol. 80, No. 1 (Jan., 1999), pp. 125 THE CONSEQUENCES OF FLORAL HERBIVORY FOR POLLINATOR SERVICE TO ISOMERISARBOREA GARY A. KRUPNICK,1 ARTHUR E. WEIS

  2. The Effect of Floral Herbivory on Male and Female Reproductive Success in Isomeris arborea Author(s): Gary A. Krupnick and Arthur E. Weis

    E-print Network

    Weis, Arthur

    (s): Gary A. Krupnick and Arthur E. Weis Source: Ecology, Vol. 80, No. 1 (Jan., 1999), pp. 135-149 Published' AND ARTHUR E. WEIS Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine

  3. Abstract.--Modulation of the adrenocortical stress response with respect to the degree of parental activity was investigated in three Arctic-breeding species of songbirds faced with lim-

    E-print Network

    Holberton, Rebecca L.

    and between both sexes of American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea), White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia sexo y entre sexos en individuos de Spizella arborea, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii y Passerculus durante las dos etapas reproductivas (sólo en S. arborea y Z. leucophrys). En las tres especies, los

  4. Profiling of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant and anticancer activities in pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) extracts from different locations of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytochemicals and antioxidants from plant sources are of increasing interest to consumers because of their roles in the maintenance of human health. Most of the secondary metabolites of herbs are used in a number of pharmaceutical products. Methods Secondary metabolites composition and content of five flavonoids and three phenolic acids were evaluated and determined in Pandanus amaryllifolius extracts from three different locations of Malaysia by RP-HPLC; Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay; The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) Assay was employed to screen anticancer activity of extracts against MCF-7 cancer cell line. Results Highest value of total flavonoids (TF) and total phenolics (TP) was observed in pandan extract from Bachok locattion (1.87 mg/g DW and 6.72 mg/g DW) followed by Klang (1.32 mg/g DW; 5.07 mg/g DW) and Pontian (1.12 mg/g DW; 4.88 mg/g DW). Rutin just detected from Bachok location with value of 0.082 mg/g DW. High content of epicatechin (0.035 mg/g DW) and naringin (0.325 mg/g DW) were observed from Bachok location while, highest content of catechin (0.613 mg/g DW) and kaempferol (0.278 mg/g DW) was observed in pandan extract from Klang location. The extract of pandan from Bachok exhibited highest value of gallic acid (0.423 mg/g DW) and cinnamic acid (0.084 mg/g DW). Ferrulic acid just detected from pandan extract of Bachok location with concentration of 0.281mg/g DW. Between studied locations Bachok exhibited highest value of DPPH (64.27%) and FRAP (517.2 ?m of Fe (II)/g) activity followed by Klang (52.16%; 448.6 ?m of Fe (II)/g) and Pontian (50.10%; 314.8 ?m of Fe (II)/g). The preliminary screening showed pandan extracts from 3 locations possessed anticancer promoting activity against MCF-7 cell line, with 78.3%, 70.5% and 67.4% inhibition rate, respectively. Maximum MCF-7cell line inhibition was observed in pandan extract from Bachok location. Conclusions The samples collected from the North (Bachok) exhibited the highest TP, TF antioxidant and anticancer activity while those from the Southern portion (Pontian) appeared to have the lowest content of TP, TF and antioxidant activity. PMID:24289290

  5. Compartmentation of Phenolic Compounds and Phenylalanine AmmoniaLyase in Leaves of Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. and their Induction by Copper Sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Jane M. Santiago; Ricardo P. Louro; Dulce E. De Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    The compartmentation of phenolic compounds in mature leaves of Phyllanthus tenellus and their induction by copper sulphate were analysed at histological and subcellular levels. Light and electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the vacuoles of spongy cells were the main sites of phenolic accumulation. Spraying plants with copper sulphate induced punctated lesions formed by groups of necrotic cells which accumulated brownish

  6. Antimicrobial, resistance-modifying effects, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Mezoneuron benthamianum Baill., Securinega virosa Roxb. &Wlld. and Microglossa pyrifolia Lam.

    PubMed

    Dickson, R A; Houghton, P J; Hylands, P J; Gibbons, S

    2006-01-01

    Mezoneuron benthamianum, Securinega virosa and Microglossa pyrifolia are used in folk medicine in Ghana for the treatment of dermal infections and wounds. Petroleum spirit, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the plants were tested for antimicrobial activity against a battery of organisms using the agar well diffusion technique and a serial dilution microassay. The resistance modifying activities of these extracts on standard antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance have also been assessed. A 4-fold potentiation of the activity of norfloxacin was observed for ethanol and chloroform extracts of M. benthamianum and S. virosa, respectively, whilst the petroleum spirit extract resulted in a 2-fold potentiation with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range 8-16 microg/mL. Ethanol extracts of all three species, the petroleum spirit extract of M. benthamianum and the chloroform extracts of M. benthamianum and S. virosa, showed interesting antimicrobial activities. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using DPPH spectrophotometric and TBA lipid peroxidation assays were also conducted. Of the five extracts that showed antioxidant activities, the petroleum spirit and chloroform extracts of M. benthamianum rated most highly by displaying strong free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 15.33 and 19.72 microg/mL, respectively. Lipid peroxidation inhibition provided by the same two extracts also produced the lowest IC50 values for all the extracts tested, of 23.15 and 30.36 microg/mL. These findings therefore give some support to the ethnopharmacological use of the plants in the treatment of various skin diseases and wounds, as well as demonstrating the potential of some of the plants as sources of compounds possessing the ability to modulate bacterial multidrug resistance. PMID:16397919

  7. Sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for the estimation of diospyrin, a tumour inhibitory agent from the stem bark of Diospyros montana Roxb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N Ravishankara; Neeta Shrivastava; M. G Jayathirtha; Harish Padh; M Rajani

    2000-01-01

    Diospyrin, a tumour inhibitory agent from the stem bark of Diospyros montana was isolated and characterised. A sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for the estimation of diospyrin. The method was validated for precision (intra- and inter-day), repeatability and accuracy. The method was found to be precise, with the RSDs for intra-day in the range of 0.72–1.85% and

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian Folk Remedy, through Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Durbadal; Mukherjee, Hemanta; Mondal, Supriya; Jena, Aditya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Mondal, Keshab C.; Malhotra, Bharti; Samanta, Amalesh; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB) for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA), using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-12). Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-?B), and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-B?) by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-?Bp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway. PMID:25153081

  9. Chemopreventive effect of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) blume tuber against aberrant crypt foci and cell proliferation in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ansil, Puthuparampil Nazarudeen; Prabha, Santhibhavan Prabhakaran; Nitha, Anand; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death, both in men and women. This study investigated the effects of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, colonic cell proliferation, lipid peroxidative damage and the antioxidant status in a long term preclinical model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, viz., group I rats served as controls; group II rats treated as drug controls receiving 250 mg/ kg body weight of ACME orally; group III rats received DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously once a week for the first 15 weeks; groups IV, V and VI rats received ACME along with DMH during the initiation, post- initiation stages and the entire period of the study, respectively. All the rats were sacrificed at the end of 30 weeks and the intestinal and colonic tissues from different groups were subjected to biochemical and histological studies. Administration of DMH resulted in significant (p ? 0.05) intestinal and colonic lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduction of antioxidants such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S- transferase and reduced glutathione. Whereas the supplementation of ACME significantly (p ? 0.05) improved the intestinal and colonic MDA and reduced glutathione levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in DMH intoxicated rats. ACME administration also significantly suppressed the formation and multiplicity of ACF. In addition, the DMH administered rats showed amplified expression of PCNA in the colon and decreased expression of this proliferative marker was clearly noted with initiation, post-initiation and entire period of ACME treatment regimens. These results indicate that ACME could exert a significant chemopreventive effect on colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH. PMID:24175821

  10. SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN THE TREE SPARROW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. MARGUERITE BAUMGARTNER

    row (Spizella arborea arborea), except for the description of molt which will be treated in full, only full-grown birds will be discussed. The growth of the nestling, development of feather tracts, etc., are a chapter in themselves and must be presented elsewhere. The following observations are based on specimens collected at Ithaca, New York, from October through April, and at

  11. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 127, September 2013, pp. 125134 Impact assessment of a high-speed railway line on species

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of a high-speed railway line on species distribution: Application to the European tree frog (Hyla arborea of a high-speed railway line on the distribution of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) in eastern France of impact. The results show that the potential impact decreases with distance from the high-speed railway

  12. Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jigna PAREKH; Darshana JADEJA; Sumitra CHANDA

    2005-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants were screened, namely Abrus precatorius L., Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delonix regia L., Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Ficus benghalensis L., Gmelina asiatica L., Santalum album L., and Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem, for potential antibacterial activity against 5 medically important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus

  13. A descriptor list for morphological characterisation of Noni ( morinda citrifolia L)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Waki; T. Okpul; M. K. Komolong

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The descriptor list presented here is intended for assessing genetic diversity based on morphological variation and for cultivar identification in noni, Morinda citrifolia (L.): Rubiaceae (syns. M. bracteata Roxb., M. citrifolia var. bracteata (Roxb.) Hook f.; M. indica L.). This work examined the three botanical varieties viz. M. citrifolia var. citrifolia; M. citrifolia var. bracteata; and M. citrifolia var.

  14. EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION AND DIFFERENT PACKINGS USED FOR STORAGE OF THE DRUG BAHERA FRUIT (TERMINALIA BELLERICA ROXB) ON MICROFLORA POPULATION (FUNGI, PATHOGENIC BACTERIAL SP & SPC) AND ON THE PHYTOCONSTITUENTS (PROTEIN AND TANNIN)

    PubMed Central

    Sinh, M.; Sharma, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The sample was collected from their natural habital (Shivalik of Hardwar). Four type of packings were used for storage. These included polythene, cloth, paper and gunny bag. Unpacked sample was used as control. The study was conducted for a period of 24 months (Jan 1990 to Dec 1991). Te drug sample s subjected to the following study. Periodical changes in the microflora population (Fungi, Total Bacterial count (spc) and Pathogenic bacterial species) and on the important phyto constituents (Protein & Tannin of the drug collected from shivalik of Hardwar) during storage under the effect of gamma radiation and different packings (cloth, paper, polythene and Gunny Bag) used. PMID:22556894

  15. A phylogenetic analysis of the emberizid sparrows based on three mitochondrial genes

    E-print Network

    Spicer, Greg S.

    subunit III (COIII) for 38 sparrow species, along with Passerina amoena (Cardinalidae) and Piranga examined. As observed with Calcarius, Spizella did not form a monophyletic group, with S. arborea being

  16. Extreme heterochiasmy and nascent sex chromosomes in European tree frogs

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Extreme heterochiasmy and nascent sex chromosomes in European tree frogs Laura Berset arborea, a species with nascent sex chromosomes and male heterogamety. Twenty microsatellites were in females). This opposes classical models of sex chromosome evolution, which envision an initially small

  17. The influence of plant water stress on stomatal control of gas exchange at different levels of atmospheric humidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Osonubi; W. J. Davies

    1980-01-01

    Leaves of well-watered and mildly water-stressed seedlings of Betula pendula Roth. and Gmelina aroborea L. were subjected to a range of vapour pressure deficits (VPD) between 10 and 24 kPa. The stomatal conductance of birch seedlings decreased as VPD was increased and at least in mildly-stressed seedlings this response seemed to be closely linked to the water status of the

  18. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia".

    PubMed

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia." Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 10(6)) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 10(6)) and C. arborea (45 × 10(6)), respectively. The increase in height (60-70?cm), number of leaves (600-650), and yield of chili (120-150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  19. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 106) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 106) and C. arborea (45 × 106), respectively. The increase in height (60–70?cm), number of leaves (600–650), and yield of chili (120–150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  20. Amino acid sequences of ferredoxins from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger: their similarities to those in other tropane-alkaloid-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Mino, Yoshiki; Yukita, Mayumi; Hiratsuka, Nobuhiro; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2005-08-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger have been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire S-carboxymethylcysteinyl proteins and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion. These two ferredoxins exhibited 1-8 differences in their amino acid sequences compared to those of other tropane-alkaloid-containing plants (Scopolia japonica, Datura stramonium, D. metel, and D. arborea), and only 1 or 4 differences compared to S. japonica and D. arborea. In contrast, 9-23 differences were observed among the other solanaceous ferredoxins. This suggests that tropane-alkaloid-containing plants are closely related taxonomically. PMID:16079510

  1. Mechanisms and consequences of shell fouling in the kelp snail, Norrisia norrisi (Sowerby) (Trochidae): Indirect effects of octopus drilling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUSSELL J. SCHMITT; CRAIG W. OSENBERG; MARC G. BERCOVITCH

    1983-01-01

    The kelp snail, Nowisia norrisi (Sowerby), dwells on the large kelps Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) and Eisenia arborea Areschoug, and is rare on benthic substrata. Approximately 4% of the snail population is dislodged from plants each day. Per capita mortality of snails on the benthos is an order of magnitude greater than individuals on kelp. Even though snails displaced to the

  2. Whitebrush Response to Tebuthiuron and Picloram Pellets.

    E-print Network

    Scifres, C.J.; Embry, D.L.; Mutz, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    arborea Quercus stellata Opuntia sp. Setaria macrostachya Smilax bona-nox Aster spinosus Celtis pallida Opuntia leptocaulis Colubrina texensis Diospyros texana Stipa leucotricha Aristida sp. Acacia tortuosa Quercus nigra Ambrosia psilostachya... . Yellow thistle * - - Callicarpa americana Berberis trifoliolata Lycium berlandieri Acacia ridigula Quercus marilandica Buchloe dactyloides Leuchophyllum fru tescens Ambrosia artemisiifolia Hilaria berlangeri Lantana horrida Crataegus mollis...

  3. Copyright 2008 by the Genetics Society of America DOI: 10.1534/genetics.108.090746

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    -called differential seg- ment, which then progressively expands from the sex- determining region to the chromosome individuals with lowered fecundity. Second, sex differentiation may involve genes with sex Transcription Cofactor on the Nascent Sex Chromosomes of European Tree Frogs (Hyla arborea) H. Niculita

  4. 109Gea-Izquierdo et al. Xylem, temperature, and moisture availability International Association of Wood Anatomists, 2013 DOI 10.1163/22941932-00000010

    E-print Network

    109Gea-Izquierdo et al. ­ Xylem, temperature, and moisture availability © International Association Journal 34 (2), 2013: 109­126 XYLEM ADJUSTMENT IN ERICA ARBOREA TO TEMPERATURE AND MOISTURE AVAILABILITY of xylem architecture can be a species specific strategy to reduce vul- nerability to climate change

  5. Adaptive leaf structures in a Myrica-Erica stand on Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lausi; P. L. Nimis; M. Tretiach

    1988-01-01

    This study is based on a phytosociological table and a matrix of species and morphological characters. The relevés were taken along a transect in a Myrica faya-Erica arborea formation on Tenerife (Canary Islands). The analysis of the phytosociological table reveals a vegetational succession and a corresponding ecological gradient. The study of correlations between morphological and ecological data leads to the

  6. September 2012 ECoLoGiCAL RESToRATioN 30:3 iii 1. Ecological Restoration 30:1 (March 2012): In Snee et al.'s Restoration Note entitled, "Passive Soil Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    American Pokeweed Phytolacca americana FACU+ loblolly pine Pinus taeda FAC water elm Planera aquatica OBL status * red maple Acer rubrum FAC peppervine Ampelopsis arborea FAC+ American beautyberry Callicarpa American holly Ilex opaca var. opaca FAC- sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua FAC+ partridgeberry Mitchella

  7. A study of the mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Busti; F. Pupilli; F. De Marchis; S. Arcioni

    SUMMARY - Three somatic hybrid plants produced by protoplast fusion between Medicago sativa and each of the three species M. coerulea, M. falcata and M. arborea have been analysed for the composition of their mitochondrial DNA. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial genes in somatic hybrids and their parental lines showed various degrees of rearrangement. The M. sativa + M. coerulea

  8. Avian seed preference and weight loss experiments: the effect of fungal endophyte-infected tall fescue seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Wolock Madej; Keith Clay

    1991-01-01

    The impact of endophytic fungus-infected seeds on seed predators is poorly understood. In this multiple trophic level investigation, seed preference experiments were conducted to determine whether five species of passerines (dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis; American tree sparrows, Spizella arborea; song sparrows, Melospiza melodia; chipping sparrows, Spizella pusilla; and house sparrows, Passer domesticus) recognize and preferentially consume noninfected (NI) over infected

  9. Increased sensitivity of the serotonergic system during the breeding season in free-living American tree sparrows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd S. Sperry; Ignacio T. Moore; Simone L. Meddle; Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks; John C. Wingfield

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the physiological role of serotonin in regulating aggressive behaviour it is important to understand how this neuromodulator acts within the context of a naturally fluctuating social and physical environment. To accomplish this, we examined the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine during the breeding season in free-living male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in

  10. SKYLIGHT POLARIZATION PATTERNS AND THE ORIENTATION OF MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH P. ABLE

    1989-01-01

    Summary Patterns of polarized light present in the clear dusk sky provide directional information relevant to the orientation behaviour of migratory birds. Experiments performed with white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), North American night migrants, examined migratory orientation between the time of sunset and the first appearance of stars under several manipulations of skylight polarization patterns.

  11. Long Days and Thyroxine Program American Tree Sparrows for Seasonality: Evidence for Temporal Flexibility of the Breeding Season of Euthyroid Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred E Wilson; Bryan D Reinert

    1999-01-01

    To explore the role of the thyroid in the control of seasonality, photosensitive female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were thyroidectomized (THX), moved to long days, and given daily injections of thyroxine (T4) for 3 weeks; THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received daily injections of alkaline vehicle. Birds were retained on long days 4 additional weeks and then moved to

  12. THE TECHNIQUE OF NONINVASIVE DISTANT SEXING FOR FOUR MONOMORPHIC DENDROCYGNA WHISTLING DUCK SPECIES BY THEIR LOUD WHISTLES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ILYA VOLODIN; MARTIN KAISER; VERA MATROSOVA; ELENA VOLODINA; ANNA KLENOVA; OLGA FILATOVA; MARINA KHOLODOVA

    2009-01-01

    Here we present an acoustic approach for reliable sexing in four whistling duck species from the genus Dendrocygna and compare it with molecular and cloacal inspection techniques. In the four examined species, the White-faced Whistling Duck D. viduata, Fulvous Whistling Duck D. bicolor, Cuban Whistling Duck D. arborea and Red-billed Whistling Duck D. autumnalis, sexes are indistinguishable by appearance. However

  13. Relationships of the Woody Medicago Species (Section Dendrotelis) Assessed by Molecular Cytogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Marcela; Castro, Mercedes; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The organization of rDNA genes in the woody medic species from the agronomically important Medicago section Dendrotelis was analysed to gain insight into their taxonomic relationships, to assess the levels of infraspecific variation concerning ribosomal loci in a restricted and fragmented insular species (M. citrina) and to assess the nature of its polyploidy. Methods Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA genes in the three species of section Dendrotelis (M. arborea, M. citrina, M. strasseri) and the related M. marina from section Medicago. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to assess the genomic relationships of the polyploid M. citrina with the putatively related species from section Dendrotelis. Key Results The diploid (2n = 16) M. marina has a single 45S and two 5S rDNA loci, a pattern usually detected in previous studies of Medicago diploid species. However, polyploid species from section Dendrotelis depart from expectations. The tetraploid species (2n = 32) M. arborea and M. strasseri have one 45S rDNA locus and two 5S rDNA loci, whereas in the hexaploid (2n = 48) M. citrina four 45S rDNA and five 5S rDNA loci have been detected. No single chromosome of M. citrina was uniformly labelled after using genomic probes from M. arborea and M. strasseri. Instead, cross-hybridization signals in M. citrina were restricted to terminal chromosome arms and NOR regions. Conclusions FISH results support the close taxonomic interrelationship between M. arborea and M. strasseri. In these tetraploid species, NOR loci have experienced a diploidization event through physical loss of sequences, a cytogenetic feature so far not reported in other species of the genus. The high number of rDNA loci and GISH results support the specific status for the hexaploid M. citrina, and it is suggested that this species is not an autopolyploid derivative of M. arborea or M. strasseri. Further, molecular cytogenetic data do not suggest the hypothesis that M. arborea and M. strasseri were involved in the origin of M. citrina. FISH mapping can be used as an efficient tool to determine the genomic contribution of M. citrina in somatic hybrids with other medic species. PMID:18413655

  14. Exserohilum Leaf Spot on Tigergrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tigergrass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze ) is a popular ornamental grass grown throughout landscapes in South Florida. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was observed on tigergrass in the landscape and a commercial nursery in Homestead, FL. The causal agent of the leaf spot was isolated, cha...

  15. Innovations within upland rice-based systems in northern Vietnam with Tephrosia candida as fallow species, hedgerow, or mulch: net returns and farmers’ response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Hoang Fagerström; M. van Noordwijk; Thai Phien; Nguyen Cong Vinh

    2001-01-01

    Land degradation and crop yield decreases in tropical uplands in general and in southeast Asia have been recognised as the main problems arising from intensification of upland cultivation. With the purpose to search for solutions to these problems, agroforestry systems with a leguminous shrub Tephrosia candida (Roxb.) D.C. were experimentally tested on-farm in an upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) system

  16. A New Method of Separation of Organic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Vasisth; M. S. Muthana

    1953-01-01

    DURING attempts to purify a yellow crystalline compound obtained from acetone extract of resin, Canarium strictum Roxb., which could not be purified either by recrystallization with various solvents and mixtures of solvents or by chromatography over alumina and calcium sulphate, a new method of separation of organic compounds by fractional crystallization on filter paper has been developed.

  17. CULTIVATED, DICOTYLEDONOUS TAXA AT THE NC STATE UNIVERSITY HERBARIUM

    E-print Network

    Krings, Alexander

    - lanaceae, Fabaceae, and Aceraceae (Table 1). The largest genera are Quercus (44 taxa), Acer (44 taxa. pungens Lindau Hygrophila H. polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson ACERACEAE 2/45 Acer A. argutum Maxim. A. A. nigrum Michx. A. opalus Mill. A. palmatum Thunb. A. pensylvanicum L. A. platanoides L. A

  18. Janceolaroside A and janceoside A, two new compounds from the stems and roots of Jasminum lanceolarium.

    PubMed

    Lou, Lili; Han, Lingfei; Meng, Dali; Li, Ning; Li, Xian

    2011-06-01

    From the stems and roots of Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb., two new compounds, janceolaroside A and janceoside A, have been isolated along with three known compounds, (-)olivil 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-cycloolivil-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and syringin. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. PMID:21815403

  19. Fungicidal properties of some plants against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Shekhar; A. K. Dwivedi; S. C. Sharma

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of different plants was tested against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. The fungus was isolated from seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor cv. Amarchitra displaying damping?off symptoms. Out of fifty plants tried, extract obtained from seven plants, namely, Adenocalymna alliaceum L., Allium sativa L., Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, Carum capticum Benth, Citrus medica L., Lantana indica Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lamk,

  20. Tertiary indole alkaloids from leaves of Tabernaemontana dichotoma.

    PubMed

    Perera, P; Samuelsson, G; van Beek, T A; Verpoorte, R

    1983-03-01

    Seven indole alkaloids were isolated and identified from the leaves of Tabernaemontana dichotoma Roxb. The major alkaloids were: perivine, 19-epi-voacristine, 12-methoxy-voaphylline and vobasine. (-)apparicine, 19-epi-iboxygaine and isomethuenine occurred in minor amounts. PMID:17404903

  1. A Novel Azeotropic Mixture for Solvent Extraction of Edible Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bera; D. Lahiri; Antonella De Leonardis; K. B. De; A. Nag

    Hexane, the common solvent for extraction of edible oils from seeds is no more considered safe due to the presence of solvent in oil and also solvent vapour, a hazardous air pollutant. We have carried out the experiments with bahera (Terminalia bellerica Roxb) and flax seed (Linum usitatissimum ) oil as these oils are highly used in food for their

  2. Aphidicidal activity of some indigenous plant extracts against bean aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bidhan Chandra Das; Pankoj Kumar Sarker

    2008-01-01

    Aphidicidal activity of hot and cold water extracts of some indigenous plants, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem), Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton (akanda), Polygonum hydropiper L. (biskatali) and Ipomoea sepiaria J. Koenig ex Roxb. (bankalmi), were tested against the bean aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. Hot water extract of P. hydropiper and A. indica was found to be the most effective

  3. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

  4. Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

  5. Constituents from Terminalia species increase PPAR-Alpha and PPAR-Gamma levels and stimulate glucose uptake without enhancing adipocyte differentiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruits of Terminalia bellerica Roxb.(Combretaceae) and T. chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are important components of triphala, a popular Ayurvedic formulation, for treating diabetes in Indian traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the constituents of T. belleric...

  6. [Studies on chemical constituents of Choerospondias axillaris].

    PubMed

    Lian, Zhu; Zhang, Chengzhong; Li, Chong; Zhou, Yawei

    2003-01-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the dry fruit of Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Burtt et Hill. Their structures were elucidated as dihydroquercetin(1), quercetin(2), protocatechuic acid(3), gallic acid(4), 3,3'-di-o-methylellagic acid(5), beta-sitosterol(6), daucosterol (7), stearic acid(8), triacontanoic acid(9), octacosanol(10) by IR, EI-MS and NMR. PMID:12858769

  7. Effect of residual sodium carbonate in irrigation water on the soil sodication and yield of palmarosa ( Cymbopogon martinni) and lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Prasad; Dinesh Kumar; D. V. Singh

    2001-01-01

    The effects of residual sodium carbonate (RSC) in irrigation water on soil sodication and yield and cation composition of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats) and lemongrass (Cymbopogonflexuosus Steud Wats) were studied in the open bottom reinforced concrete cemented (RCC) cylindrical barrels embedded in the field and filled with sandy loam soils. The results indicated that the increasing RSC in irrigation

  8. Effect of Soil Sodicity on the Growth and Cation Composition of Palmarosa and Lemongrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Prasad; Dinesh Kumar; D. V. Singh

    1998-01-01

    The effects of soil sodicity on the growth, yield, and cation composition of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud Wats) were studied in a pot experiment. The plant height, number of tillers, and herb yield of both species significantly decreased as the exchangeable sodium in soil increased. A 50 percent reduction in herb yield over control

  9. Starch grain breakdown in cotyledon cells of germinating mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Harris, N

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of the breakdown of starch grains during the mobilisation of reserves in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. seed germination are described. The starch grains show erosion from within leading to the formation of a hollow shell. The erosion is accompanied by intrusion of cytoplasm into the shell. No evidence of a vesicular transport system to or from the eroding face was found. PMID:24430969

  10. The effects of natural and induced short-term floods on four sugarcane accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated at the USDA/ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, FL to evaluate the potential for flood tolerance in several accessions from Saccharum barberi (Jeswiet) and S. sinense (Roxb. Amend. Jeswiet) sugarcane genera. The experimental design included 4 accessions, Kewal...

  11. Diversity of members of the Streptomyces violaceusniger 16S rRNA gene clade in the legumes rhizosphere in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nevzat Sahin; Anil Sazak; Kiymet Güven; Meral Dogramaci

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of putatively novel streptomycetes were isolated from rhizosphere soils of Albizia distachya, Colutea arborescens, Gleditsia triancanthos, Medicago arborea, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, Spartium junceum, Tipuana tipu and Wisteria sinensis. Representative isolates were determined to 6 multi-membered and 11 single-membered colour groups based on their ability\\u000a to form pigments on oatmeal and peptone yeast extract iron agars. The largest

  12. Epiphytic lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Steševi?, Danijela; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 120 taxa of lichens (117 species) and three species of lichenicolous fungi from the northern part of Montenegro is presented. The lichens Biatora chrysantha, Caloplaca monacensis, Candelariella efflorescens, Loxospora elatina, Micarea adnata, Ochrolechia arborea, O. microstictoides, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physconia enteroxantha, Ph. grisea, Rinodina capensis, R. polysporoides, R. pyrina, Scoliciosporum umbrinum var. corticolum, Xanthoria candelaria, X. ulophyllodes and the lichenicolous fungi Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Telogalla olivieri, and Xanthoriicola physciae are new to Montenegro. PMID:22318890

  13. A repetitive and species-specific sequence as a tool for detecting the genome contribution in somatic hybrids of the genus Medicago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ornella Calderini; Fulvio Pupilli; Francesco Paolocci; Sergio Arcioni

    1997-01-01

    A highly repeated sequence (C300) was cloned from Medicago coerulea and its organization in the M. sativa-coerulea-falcata complex, M. arborea, and three somatic hybrids involving M. sativa, was investigated. Southern-blot analysis revealed a tandemly repeated array and a species-specificity of the sequence to\\u000a those species belonging to the complex. Various degrees of amplification of C300 were detected among the species

  14. Floral composition of a sphagnum bog in Robertson county, Texas

    E-print Network

    Rowell, Chester Morrison, Jr

    1949-01-01

    plants in zone three, other than the dominants, were as follows: Dewberry, Rubus velox Bailey Stretchberries, Smilax laurifolia L. (Figs. 11&12&+) Smilax ~lauca )Tait, Smilax rotundifolia L arche. Aa cuiurse yrMI j arete Peppervine, Cissus arborea... to Florida, The specimen from the Southworth bog was compared with herbarium specimens bi the same soecies to check identification. Rosaceae Rubus veL ox Bailey Blackberry Important member of zone III, also found in zones I and II Spring flowering...

  15. Description and biology of two new species of Neotropical Liriomyza Mik (Diptera, Agromyzidae), mining leaves of Bocconia (Papaveraceae).

    PubMed

    Boucher, Stéphanie; Nishida, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Liriomyza mystica Boucher & Nishida, sp. n., and Liriomyza prompta Boucher & Nishida, sp. n. are described from Costa Rica. Both species were reared from leaves of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae). The latter species was also reared from B. arborea S. Watson. Larvae of L. mystica mine primary veins of large, relatively old, mature leaves, and L. prompta mine blades of small to large, mature leaves. These represent the first record of agromyzids feeding on Bocconia. Biological information is also given and illustrated. PMID:24478590

  16. New mitochondrial genome organization in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa including the parent-specific amplification of substoichiometric mitochondrial DNA units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pupilli; P. Labombarda; S. Arcioni

    2001-01-01

    Three somatic hybrid plants produced by protoplast fusion between Medicago sativa and each of the three species Medicago coerulea, Medicago falcata and Medicago arborea have been analysed for the composition of their mitochondrial DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis\\u000a of mitochondrial genes in somatic hybrids and their parental lines showed various degrees of rearrangement. The M. sativa+M. coerulea hybrid

  17. Plants of Ornamental Value for the Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    E-print Network

    Friend, W. H. (William Heartsill)

    1942-01-01

    , Huisache, Retama, Orchid Tree, Desert Willow (Chilopsis linearis), Bignonia Tree (Tabebuia species). and Coral Tree (Erythrina herbacea var. arborea). Specimen trees should be used with care to add interest to the landscape scheme. Monkey Puzzle...-E VALLEY OF 'TEXBS 10 floral arrangements. A. Caileyana produces gray-green foliage and yellow globular flower clusters. A. BaiZeyana var. purpurea produces very small blue-green foliage tipped with purple. (Leguminosae.) Acacia ctcltriformis. Knife...

  18. The fate of ribosomal genes in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa: three different outcomes including the rapid amplification of new spacer-length variants.

    PubMed

    Cluster, P D; Calderini, O; Pupilli, F; Crea, F; Damiani, F; Arcioni, S

    1996-10-01

    We have characterized the genetic consequences of somatic hybridization within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of three interspecific hybrids, each involving M. sativa as one of the parents. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphisms (RFLPs) of rDNA spacers and fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) of an 18S-gene probe to mitotic chromosomes were used to compare parental and hybrid species. The M. sativa-coerulea hybrid retained all six parental nucleolar-organizing regions (NORs) and all parental RFLPs representing a complete integration of rDNA. The M. sativa-arborea hybrid retained five of six parental NORs while losing half of the arborea-specific RFLPs, indicating that simple chromosome loss of one arborea NOR accounted for the RFLP losses. Dramatic alterations occurred within the M. sativa-falcata hybrid where five of six parental NORs were retained and new rDNA RFLPs were created and amplified differentially among somaclonal-variant plants. The molecular basis of the new RFLPs involved increased numbers of a 340-bp subrepeating element within the rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS), suggesting that recurrent cycles of unequal recombination occurred at high frequency within the rDNA in somatic lineages. PMID:24162411

  19. The relationship of plasma indicators of lipid metabolism and muscle damage to overnight temperature in winter-acclimatized small birds.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David L; Thomas, Nathan E

    2007-01-01

    Plasma glycerol and triglyceride levels and creatine kinase (CK) activity may increase during long-distance flights in migratory birds, but plasma profiles of these metabolites have not previously been reported for small birds during thermoregulation in cold climates. We measured early morning levels of plasma glycerol, triglycerides and CK activity in four species of small birds overwintering in South Dakota, Junco hyemalis, Spizella arborea, Passer domesticus, and Carduelis tristis. We hypothesized that metabolite levels and CK activity might vary with overnight temperature (measured as the temperature just prior to dawn), with higher levels during colder temperatures which require elevated thermogenesis. Triglyceride and glycerol levels were not significantly related to temperature for any of the four species. Triglyceride levels were significantly positively associated with time since sunrise in J. hyemalis and C. tristis, and the time-temperature interaction was significant for S. arborea, suggesting rapid replacement of fat stores. Plasma glycerol levels were also significantly positively related to time since sunrise in J. hyemalis and C. tristis, but not in other species. Plasma CK activity showed a significant negative relationship to overnight temperature only for S. arborea. These results suggest that triglycerides do not comprise a major contribution to lipid supply during intense shivering in small birds. Similarly, intense shivering does not generally appear to result in muscle damage in small birds. PMID:17049895

  20. Spring precipitation variations over the western Himalaya, India, since A.D. 1731 as deduced from tree rings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayendra Singh; Ram R. Yadav

    2005-01-01

    Spring precipitation, representative of regional-scale features, was reconstructed since A.D. 1731 using 15 site ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lambert) G. Don), prepared from distantly located moisture-stressed sites in the western Himalayan region. This is so far the strongest tree-ring-based precipitation reconstruction in terms of variance explained in the calibration model (A.D. 1897-1986) from the

  1. Spring precipitation variations over the western Himalaya, India, since A.D. 1731 as deduced from tree rings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayendra Singh; Ram R. Yadav

    2005-01-01

    Spring precipitation, representative of regional-scale features, was reconstructed since A.D. 1731 using 15 site ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lambert) G. Don), prepared from distantly located moisture-stressed sites in the western Himalayan region. This is so far the strongest tree-ring-based precipitation reconstruction in terms of variance explained in the calibration model (A.D. 1897–1986) from the

  2. PLANT UPTAKE OF CADMIUM, ZINC, AND MANGANESE FROM FOUR CONTRASTING SOILS AMENDED WITH Cd-ENRICHED SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ramachandran; T. J. DSouza

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the uptake of cadmium, zinc and manganese from Cd-enriched sewage sludge (0–80 mg Cd kg) amended Ultisol, Alfisol, Entisol and Vertisol by maize (Zea mays L.) followed by mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) revealed that in general, there was a progressive reduction in the dry matter yield of both the crops due to enhanced Cd concentrations in the soil-sludge mixture in

  3. Extraction of hydroxyproline-containing proteins and pectic substances from cell walls of growing and non-growing mung bean hypocotyl segments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Bailey; H. Kauss

    1974-01-01

    Elongating upper and non-elongating lower segments of mung bean hypocotyls (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were compared in their ability to incorporate labelled polymers into their cell walls when fed with [14C]proline. The non-growing segments incorporated more amino acids into the walls and showed a higher degree of hydroxylation of the proline residues. The proportion of the [14C]polymer solubilized by chaotropic or

  4. Caffeic acid inhibits in vitro rooting in mung bean [ Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] hypocotyls by inducing oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harminder Pal Singh; Shalinder Kaur; Daizy R. Batish; Ravinder Kumar Kohli

    2009-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CA), which is ubiquitously present in plants, is a potent phytotoxin affecting plant growth and physiology.\\u000a The aim of our study was to investigate whether CA-induced inhibition of adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean {Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek [Phaseolus aureus Roxb.]} involves the induction of conventional stress responses. The effect of CA (0–1000 ?M) on ARF in mung

  5. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts of six plant species related to Citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Basri Jumin; Nobumasa Nito

    1996-01-01

    Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Fortunella polyandra (Ridl.), Atalantia bilocularis (Pieree ex Guill.), Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.), Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Corr., Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wils. and Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 mg l-1 BA and 0.6 M sorbitol.

  6. Biology of Blepharida-group flea beetles with first notes on natural history of Podontia congregata Baly, 1865 an endemic flea beetle from southern India (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)

    E-print Network

    Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal; Chaboo, Caroline S.

    2011-12-21

    Mignot 1971; Frost 1973; Furth 1998; Lee 1999; Furth and Lee 2000 Rhus cotinus Nutt. Riley 1874; Furth 1998 Natural History of Podontia congregata 101 Species Host plant Reference Rhus microphylla Engl. Furth 1998 Rhus trilobata Nutt. Furth 1998 Rhus...) hirsuta (Wiedemann) Burseraceae: Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. Stebbing 1914; Maulik 1926; Scherer 1969; Medvedev 1999 Asiophrida scaphoides (Baly) Anacardiaceae: Rhus L. Medvedev 1999 Burseraceae: Canarium L. Medvedev 1999 Blepharida Chevrolat...

  7. Reduction of plasma cholesterol by Curcuma comosa extract in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawinee Piyachaturawat; Jinda Charoenpiboonsin; Chaivat Toskulkao; Apichart Suksamrarn

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the extract of Curcuma comosa Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) on lipid metabolism was investigated in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters. Intragastric administration of the ethyl acetate extract of C. comosa rhizome (0–500 mg\\/kg per day) to hypercholesterolaemic animals for 7 days decreased both plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of plasma cholesterol levels was accompanied by a

  8. Chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and free-radical scavenging activities of the leaves of Ficus radicans ‘Variegata’ (Moraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Augusta Naressi; Marcos Alessandro dos Santos Ribeiro; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Maria Lucilia M. Zamuner; Willian Ferreira da Costa; Clara M. Abe Tanaka; Maria Helena Sarragiotto

    2011-01-01

    The methanol crude extract of the leaves of Ficus radicans Roxb. ‘Variegata’ (Moraceae) and the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous methanol fractions resulting from its fractionation were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and free-radical scavenging activities. The crude extract and fractions exhibited significant inhibition of inflammation in both croton oil (CO)-induced ear oedema in mice (p?

  9. Chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and free-radical scavenging activities of the leaves of Ficus radicans ‘Variegata’ (Moraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Augusta Naressi; Marcos Alessandro dos Santos Ribeiro; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Maria Lucilia M. Zamuner; Willian Ferreira da Costa; Clara M. Abe Tanaka; Maria Helena Sarragiotto

    2012-01-01

    The methanol crude extract of the leaves of Ficus radicans Roxb. ‘Variegata’ (Moraceae) and the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous methanol fractions resulting from its fractionation were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and free-radical scavenging activities. The crude extract and fractions exhibited significant inhibition of inflammation in both croton oil (CO)-induced ear oedema in mice (p?

  10. Cowabenzophenones A and B, two new tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione derivatives, from ripe fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Machan, Theeraphan; Phakhodee, Wong; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Two new tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione derivatives, cowabenzophenones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from ripe fruits of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione skeleton from the Garcinia genus is reported for the first time. PMID:24334104

  11. Pollination-induced floral senescence in orchids: Status of oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Attri; H. Nayyar; R. K. Bhanwra; S. P. Vij

    2008-01-01

    The orchid flowers may stay fresh in unpollinated state from few weeks to months but show rapid senescence upon pollination.\\u000a Metabolic changes related to this phenomenon are less well understood in orchid flowers. Presently, two orchid species, Aerides multiflora Roxb. and Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Bl., varying in their floral life span were evaluated for their postpollination-induced responses, involving the oxidative

  12. Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Bagavan

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex

  13. Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; C. Venkatesan

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate,\\u000a hexane, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus

  14. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Elango; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Abdul Rahuman

    2009-01-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone,\\u000a ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of

  15. Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

  16. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  17. Gamma sensitivity of forest plants of Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Akshatha; Chandrashekar, K R

    2014-06-01

    Seeds of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam., Garcinia xanthochymus Hook., Saraca asoca Roxb., Rourea minor Gaertn., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz., Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) bail., Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. and Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. were collected from different regions of Western Ghats and exposed to different doses of gamma radiation using Co-60 source. The effect of irradiation was examined on germination, growth and vigor parameters. Decrease in the germination and growth attributes with increased dose was observed in A. hirsutus, G. xanthochymus and S. asoca and thus indicating sensitivity of these plants to radiation. In contrast, enhancement in the germination (percentage), vigor and generation of leaves was observed for P. marsupium, T. chebula, H. integrifolia and O. indicum. These plants were classified as radiation tolerant because of the ability of their seedlings to successfully establish under radiation stress. R. minor and A. lindleyana were able to maintain viability up to 100 Gy dose, however, any further increase in the dose found to have negative effect. PMID:24631785

  18. Early Life History of Deep-Water Gorgonian Corals May Limit Their Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Lacharité, Myriam; Metaxas, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water gorgonian corals are long-lived organisms found worldwide off continental margins and seamounts, usually occurring at depths of ?200–1,000 m. Most corals undergo sexual reproduction by releasing a planktonic larval stage that disperses; however, recruitment rates and the environmental and biological factors influencing recruitment in deep-sea species are poorly known. Here, we present results from a 4-year field experiment conducted in the Gulf of Maine (northwest Atlantic) at depths >650 m that document recruitment for 2 species of deep-water gorgonian corals, Primnoa resedaeformis and Paragorgia arborea. The abundance of P. resedaeformis recruits was high, and influenced by the structural complexity of the recipient habitat, but very few recruits of P. arborea were found. We suggest that divergent reproductive modes (P. resedaeformis as a broadcast spawner and P. arborea as a brooder) may explain this pattern. Despite the high recruitment of P. resedaeformis, severe mortality early on in the benthic stage of this species may limit the abundance of adult colonies. Most recruits of this species (?80%) were at the primary polyp stage, and less than 1% of recruits were at stage of 4 polyps or more. We propose that biological disturbance, possibly by the presence of suspension-feeding brittle stars, and limited food supply in the deep sea may cause this mortality. Our findings reinforce the vulnerability of these corals to anthropogenic disturbances, such as trawling with mobile gear, and the importance of incorporating knowledge on processes during the early life history stages in conservation decisions. PMID:23762358

  19. Early life history of deep-water gorgonian corals may limit their abundance.

    PubMed

    Lacharité, Myriam; Metaxas, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water gorgonian corals are long-lived organisms found worldwide off continental margins and seamounts, usually occurring at depths of ?200-1,000 m. Most corals undergo sexual reproduction by releasing a planktonic larval stage that disperses; however, recruitment rates and the environmental and biological factors influencing recruitment in deep-sea species are poorly known. Here, we present results from a 4-year field experiment conducted in the Gulf of Maine (northwest Atlantic) at depths >650 m that document recruitment for 2 species of deep-water gorgonian corals, Primnoa resedaeformis and Paragorgia arborea. The abundance of P. resedaeformis recruits was high, and influenced by the structural complexity of the recipient habitat, but very few recruits of P. arborea were found. We suggest that divergent reproductive modes (P. resedaeformis as a broadcast spawner and P. arborea as a brooder) may explain this pattern. Despite the high recruitment of P. resedaeformis, severe mortality early on in the benthic stage of this species may limit the abundance of adult colonies. Most recruits of this species (?80%) were at the primary polyp stage, and less than 1% of recruits were at stage of 4 polyps or more. We propose that biological disturbance, possibly by the presence of suspension-feeding brittle stars, and limited food supply in the deep sea may cause this mortality. Our findings reinforce the vulnerability of these corals to anthropogenic disturbances, such as trawling with mobile gear, and the importance of incorporating knowledge on processes during the early life history stages in conservation decisions. PMID:23762358

  20. Description and biology of two new species of Neotropical Liriomyza Mik (Diptera, Agromyzidae), mining leaves of Bocconia (Papaveraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Stéphanie; Nishida, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Liriomyza mystica Boucher & Nishida, sp. n., and Liriomyza prompta Boucher & Nishida, sp. n. are described from Costa Rica. Both species were reared from leaves of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae). The latter species was also reared from B. arborea S. Watson. Larvae of L. mystica mine primary veins of large, relatively old, mature leaves, and L. prompta mine blades of small to large, mature leaves. These represent the first record of agromyzids feeding on Bocconia. Biological information is also given and illustrated. PMID:24478590

  1. Amphibians crossing the Bering Land Bridge: Evidence from holarctic treefrogs (Hyla, Hylidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Tang; Wang, Ji-Shan; Nian, Hui-Huang; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Wang, Jichao; Li, Yang; Rao, Ding-Qi; Klaus, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    Based on an updated, time-calibrated phylogeny and applying biogeographical model testing and diversification analysis, we re-examined systematics and biogeography of the Holarctic treefrog genus Hyla with a focus on the East Asian species. We analyzed four mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S rRNA, tRNA(Leu), ND1) and one nuclear gene (POMC) for 192 samples representing 30 species of Hyla. Based on our results we suggest that H. ussuriensis is a synonym of H. japonica. Specimens from Sakhalin and Kunashir Islands might represent a cryptic species within H. japonica. We confirm earlier hypotheses that the genus Hyla originated during the Eocene to Early Oligocene and that Eurasian species originated from two independent dispersal events from North America via the Bering Land Bridge. Middle Eocene to Oligocene dispersal gave rise to the most recent common ancestor of the West Palearctic H. arborea-group and the East Palearctic, newly defined, H. chinensis-group. The Northeast Asian H. japonica-group resulted from a second wave of colonization from the Nearctic. A trans-Atlantic dispersal route could be excluded. Dispersal of the H. arborea-group to the western Palearctic coincides with the closure of the Turgai Strait at the end of the Oligocene. Diversification of Hyla decreased at the end of the Middle Miocene, possibly coinciding with the end of the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum and the advent of cooler and drier climates in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:25765368

  2. Rodents and Leptospira transmission risk in Terceira island (Azores).

    PubMed

    Collares-Pereira, M; Mathias, M L; Santos-Reis, M; Ramalhinho, M G; Duarte-Rodrigues, P

    2000-01-01

    The role of rodents as Leptospira renal carriers in Terceira island was evaluated (1993-1995) through kidney culture and serology [microscopic aglutination test (MAT)] of 94 mice and rats. Fifty-nine animals were positive (n = 41 by serology + culturing; n = 11 serology; n = 7 culturing), presenting a wide distribution in man-made and natural areas. House mice had the highest bacteriological (82.9%) and serological (90.9%) rates, being strictly related to serovar arborea. Black rats were involved in the dispersion of all isolated L. interrogans sensu lato serovars (arborea, copenhageni and icterohaemorrhagiae). Logistic regression analysis and non-metric multi-dimensional scaling, relating Leptospira infection with biological and environmental variables, expressed that adult males Mus domesticus, sexually active and living in humid biotopes, mainly above 500 m, are the most likely reservoirs. This study emphasizes the role of house-mice in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in Terceira and the need of reducing the risk of Leptospira transmission through integrated control programmes, primarily focusing on adult house-mice in peri-domestic environments, before the breeding season. PMID:11484805

  3. Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

    2015-04-01

    In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on ?-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed. PMID:25406544

  4. Pigmentation and Spectral Absorbance Signatures in Deep-Water Corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Elde, Anette C.; Pettersen, Ragnhild; Bruheim, Per; Järnegren, Johanna; Johnsen, Geir

    2012-01-01

    The pigmentation and corresponding in vivo and in vitro absorption characteristics in three different deep-water coral species: white and orange Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, collected from the Trondheimsfjord are described. Pigments were isolated and characterized by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LC-TOF MS). The main carotenoids identified for all three coral species were astaxanthin and a canthaxanthin-like carotenoid. Soft tissue and skeleton of orange L. pertusa contained 2 times more astaxanthin g?1 wet weight compared to white L. pertusa. White and orange L. pertusa were characterized with in vivo absorbance peaks at 409 and 473 nm, respectively. In vivo absorbance maxima for P. arborea and P. resedaeformis was typically at 475 nm. The shapes of the absorbance spectra (400–700 nm) were species-specific, indicated by in vivo, in vitro and the corresponding difference spectra. The results may provide important chemotaxonomic information for pigment when bonded to their proteins in vivo, bio-prospecting, and for in situ identification, mapping and monitoring of corals. PMID:22822381

  5. Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Stone, R.P.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Kellogg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising <6% of the isolates. The clone libraries showed dramatically different bacterial communities between corals of the same species collected at different sites, with no clear pattern of conserved bacterial consortia. Two of the clone libraries (one from each coral species) were dominated by Tenericutes, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating the remaining sequences. The other libraries were more diverse and had a more even distribution of bacterial phyla, showing more similarity between genera than within coral species. Here we report the first microbiological characterization of P. arborea, P. superba, and C. koolsae. FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  6. Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures. PMID:24933904

  7. Glycaemic index of some commonly consumed foods in western India.

    PubMed

    Mani, U V; Prabhu, B M; Damle, S S; Mani, I

    1993-09-01

    Glycaemic index (GI) was determined in 36 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. The subjects were fed 50g carbohydrate portions of six foods consumed widely in India including Varagu (Plaspalum scorbiculatum) alone and in combination with whole and dehusked greengram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb), Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum), Jowar (Sorghum vulgare) and Ragi (Eleusine coracana). The GI of Varagu alone, Varagu in combination with whole greengram and Bajra was significantly lower than that of Ragi which produced a glycaemic response equivalent to that of the glucose load. PMID:24352140

  8. A new genus of Grapholitini from Africa related to Thaumatotibia (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Timm, Alicia E; Brown, John W

    2014-01-01

    Thaumatovalva gen. n. is described and illustrated from the Afrotropical region. As currently defined the genus includes four species: T. deprinsorum sp. n. from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. albolineana sp. n. (type species) from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. spinai (Razowski & Trematerra), comb. n., from Ethiopia and Nigeria; and T. limbata (Diakonoff), comb. n., from the Seychelles and Kenya. Thaumatovalva limbata has been reared from the fruit of Cordia somaliensis Baker and C. monoica Roxb. (Boraginaceae) in Kenya. Although structures of the male and female genitalia are extremely similar among three of the four species, male secondary scales on the under surface of the hindwing easily distinguish them. PMID:25197220

  9. A new Australian species of Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) and typification of two Australian Cucumis names, all based on specimens collected by Ferdinand Mueller in 1856.

    PubMed

    Telford, Ian R H; Schaefer, Hanno; Greuter, Werner; Renner, Susanne S

    2011-01-01

    As a result of his botanical explorations in northern Australia, Ferdinand von Mueller named several Cucurbitaceae that molecular data now show to be distinct, requiring their resurrection from unjustified synonymy. We here describe and illustrate Luffa saccata F. Muell. ex I.Telford, validating a manuscript name listed under Luffa graveolens Roxb. since 1859, and we lectotypify Cucumis picrocarpus F. Muell. and Cucumis jucundus F. Muell. The lectotype of the name Cucumis jucundus, a synonym of Cucumis melo, is mounted on the same sheet as the lectotype of Cucumis picrocarpus, which is the sister species of the cultivated Cucumis melo as shown in a recent publication. PMID:22171190

  10. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    Beans, NFA Red kidney beans, dry, cooked, fat not added in cooking 457;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Kidney beans;Mean of 8 studies 720.1 Beans, NFA Soybeans, cooked, fat not added in cooking 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Mean of 2 studies 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Soya beans, canned (Canada) 720.1 Beans, NFA Mung beans, fat not added in cooking 468;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Mung beans;Mung bean (Phaseolus areus Roxb.

  11. Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. H.; Cho, S.; Paik, H. D.; Choi, C. W.; Nam, K. T.; Hwang, S. G.; Kim, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 ?g/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 ?g/mL and 183 ?g/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Flavonoid content of methanol extracts in S. grandiflora L. T was 22.5 ?g/mL and the highest among plant extracts tested. These results indicated that C. aurantifolia Swingle, S. grandiflora L., P. sarmentosum Roxb, and C. domestica Valeton have antibacterial and antioxidant activities and can be used as alternative antibiotics or potential feed additives for the control of animal pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25178298

  12. A new Australian species of Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) and typification of two Australian Cucumis names, all based on specimens collected by Ferdinand Mueller in 1856

    PubMed Central

    Telford, Ian R. H.; Schaefer, Hanno; Greuter, Werner; Renner, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As a result of his botanical explorations in northern Australia, Ferdinand von Mueller named several Cucurbitaceae that molecular data now show to be distinct, requiring their resurrection from unjustified synonymy. We here describe and illustrate Luffa saccata F. Muell. ex I.Telford, validating a manuscript name listed under Luffa graveolens Roxb. since 1859, and we lectotypify Cucumis picrocarpus F. Muell. and Cucumis jucundus F. Muell. The lectotype of the name Cucumis jucundus, a synonym of Cucumis melo, is mounted on the same sheet as the lectotype of Cucumis picrocarpus, which is the sister species of the cultivated Cucumis melo as shown in a recent publication. PMID:22171190

  13. Ancient science of life Vol: XXII (2) October/2002 ????????????? PHYTOCHEMICAL OBSERVATION ON LEAF OF LAGERSTROMIA

    E-print Network

    Avijit Mazumber; S. P. Basu; B. P. Saha; R. Mazumder

    ABSTRACT: Phytochemical studies of leaf of the plant Lagerstroemia Parviflora Roxb (Lythraceae) reveals the presence of phytosterols, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and absence of saponin, flavanoid and triterpenoids have been reported in this plant for the first time. Lagerstroemia parviflora (Family-Lythracease) is known for its various medicinal properties. They are considered to be used by the tribals for sores, strangulation of intestine, syphilis, carbuncles and cough (1-5). The juice of the leaves is also used in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis (6). The leaf extracts of Lagerstroemia parviflora have been found to have significant

  14. Investigation on antibacterial and antioxidant activities, phenolic and flavonoid contents of some thai edible plants as an alternative for antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Cho, S; Paik, H D; Choi, C W; Nam, K T; Hwang, S G; Kim, S K

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 ?g/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 ?g/mL and 183 ?g/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Flavonoid content of methanol extracts in S. grandiflora L. T was 22.5 ?g/mL and the highest among plant extracts tested. These results indicated that C. aurantifolia Swingle, S. grandiflora L., P. sarmentosum Roxb, and C. domestica Valeton have antibacterial and antioxidant activities and can be used as alternative antibiotics or potential feed additives for the control of animal pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25178298

  15. [Primary study on rapid propagation of Curcuma xanthorrhiza].

    PubMed

    Lü, Ping; Wei, Li-jun; Pang, Xin-hua; Yu, Ben-chi; Su, Wen-pan; Ye, Qi-teng

    2007-04-01

    Using the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. as explant to induce the adventitious bud, multiplication and radication. The results showed that the inducing and differentiating of bud was better on MS + 6-BA 1.0 mg/L + NAA 0.5 mg/L, the multiplication of bud was on MS+6-BA 1.2 mg/L + NAA 0.l mg/L and the redication was on 1/2 MS + NAA 0.5 mg/L. PMID:17674783

  16. Hg and Cd Induced Changes in Proline Content and Activities of Proline Biosynthesizing Enzymes in Phaseolus Aureus and Triticum Aestivum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Shaw; N. P. Rout

    2002-01-01

    The effect of mercury and cadmium, in the form of HgCl2 and CdCl2 respectively, on proline accumulation and two key proline biosynthesizing enzymes, ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), was investigated in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. and Triticum aestivum L. The 5-d-old seedlings were exposed to 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mM concentrations of the metals in Hoagland solution for

  17. Kaennacowanols A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the roots of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Kaennakam, Sutin; Siripong, Pongpun; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2015-04-01

    Three new xanthones, named kaennacowanols A-C (1-3), along with nineteen known xanthones were isolated from the roots of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB and HeLa cell lines. Compounds 17 and 22 showed good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 values of 7.97 and 9.10?M, respectively. On the other hand, compound 15 showed good cytotoxicity against HeLa cell with IC50 value of 9.34?M. PMID:25771120

  18. Air pollution induced changes in the photosynthetic pigments of selected plant species.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P C; Swami, Abhishek

    2009-03-01

    Changes in the concentration of different photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll and carotenoids) were determined in the leaves of six tree species exposed to air pollution due to vehicular emissions. The six tree species, which are all economically important because of their being fruit bearers, used for timber fodder and as road side trees on the basis of their air pollution tolerance index. These included Mangifera indica L., Tectona grandis Linn.f , Shorea robusta Gaertn.f., Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch, Eucalyptus citridora Hook. Syn. and Mallotus philippinensis Muell-Arg. Reduction in chlorophyll 'a', 'b' and carotenoid was recorded in the leaf samples collected from polluted areas when compared with samples from control areas. The highest reduction in total chlorophyll was observed in Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) (48.73%) Planch whereas, the lowest reduction (17.84 %) was recorded in Mallotus philippinensis Muell-Arg. Similarly in case of carotenoid contents, highest reduction (43.02%) was observed in Eucalyptus citridora, and lowest in Mallotus philippinensis Muell-Arg (19.31%). The data obtained were further analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a significant change was recorded in the studied parameters. These studies clearly indicate that the vehicular induced air pollution reduces the concentration of photosynthetic pigments in the trees exposed to road side pollution. PMID:20121034

  19. Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.

    PubMed

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

  20. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

  1. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100??g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  2. [The morphology of amphibian skins: comparison between some species in different natural habitats].

    PubMed

    Bani, G

    1982-05-30

    A comparison in the morphology of the skin in different species of Amphibians has been performed in this note. Species examined had different natural habitat: some of them were closely dependent on a watery environment (Proteus anguinus, Triturus cristatus, Rana esculenta and R. graeca), whereas others were more or less adapted to life on land (Rana dalmatina, Salamandra salamandra, Bufo bufo, B. viridis and Hyla arborea). Structural patterns of both epidermis and derm varied from species to species; namely differences in the thickness of both epidermis and loose and compact layers of the derm have been found, as well as variations in the keratinization processes. Such findings reveal in each species distinctive features of the skin, related to either a watery or to a water-free environment. PMID:7115576

  3. Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning.

    PubMed

    Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M

    2012-11-01

    Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments. PMID:22286321

  4. Non-Invasive Measurement of Frog Skin Reflectivity in High Spatial Resolution Using a Dual Hyperspectral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, Frank; Walter, Achim; Greven, Hartmut; Rascher, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Background Most spectral data for the amphibian integument are limited to the visible spectrum of light and have been collected using point measurements with low spatial resolution. In the present study a dual camera setup consisting of two push broom hyperspectral imaging systems was employed, which produces reflectance images between 400 and 2500 nm with high spectral and spatial resolution and a high dynamic range. Methodology/Principal Findings We briefly introduce the system and document the high efficiency of this technique analyzing exemplarily the spectral reflectivity of the integument of three arboreal anuran species (Litoria caerulea, Agalychnis callidryas and Hyla arborea), all of which appear green to the human eye. The imaging setup generates a high number of spectral bands within seconds and allows non-invasive characterization of spectral characteristics with relatively high working distance. Despite the comparatively uniform coloration, spectral reflectivity between 700 and 1100 nm differed markedly among the species. In contrast to H. arborea, L. caerulea and A. callidryas showed reflection in this range. For all three species, reflectivity above 1100 nm is primarily defined by water absorption. Furthermore, the high resolution allowed examining even small structures such as fingers and toes, which in A. callidryas showed an increased reflectivity in the near infrared part of the spectrum. Conclusion/Significance Hyperspectral imaging was found to be a very useful alternative technique combining the spectral resolution of spectrometric measurements with a higher spatial resolution. In addition, we used Digital Infrared/Red-Edge Photography as new simple method to roughly determine the near infrared reflectivity of frog specimens in field, where hyperspectral imaging is typically difficult. PMID:24058464

  5. Stronger transferability but lower variability in transcriptomic- than in anonymous microsatellites: evidence from Hylid frogs.

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Brelsford, Alan; Béziers, Paul; Perrin, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    A simple way to quickly optimize microsatellites in nonmodel organisms is to reuse loci available in closely related taxa; however, this approach can be limited by the stochastic and low cross-amplification success experienced in some groups (e.g. amphibians). An efficient alternative is to develop loci from transcriptome sequences. Transcriptomic microsatellites have been found to vary in their levels of cross-species amplification and variability, but this has to date never been tested in amphibians. Here, we compare the patterns of cross-amplification and levels of polymorphism of 18 published anonymous microsatellites isolated from genomic DNA vs. 17 loci derived from a transcriptome, across nine species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea and Hyla cinerea group). We established a clear negative relationship between divergence time and amplification success, which was much steeper for anonymous than transcriptomic markers, with half-lives (time at which 50% of the markers still amplify) of 1.1 and 37 My, respectively. Transcriptomic markers are significantly less polymorphic than anonymous loci, but remain variable across diverged taxa. We conclude that the exploitation of amphibian transcriptomes for developing microsatellites seems an optimal approach for multispecies surveys (e.g. analyses of hybrid zones, comparative linkage mapping), whereas anonymous microsatellites may be more informative for fine-scale analyses of intraspecific variation. Moreover, our results confirm the pattern that microsatellite cross-amplification is greatly variable among amphibians and should be assessed independently within target lineages. Finally, we provide a bank of microsatellites for Palaearctic tree frogs (so far only available for H. arborea), which will be useful for conservation and evolutionary studies in this radiation. PMID:24345298

  6. Carbon storage in soils of Southeastern Nigeria under different management practices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Changes in agricultural practices-notably changes in crop varieties, application of fertilizer and manure, rotation and tillage practices-influence how much and at what rate carbon is stored in, or released from, soils. Quantification of the impacts of land use on carbon stocks in sub-Saharan Africa is challenging because of the spatial heterogeneity of soil, climate, management conditions, and due to the lack of data on soil carbon pools of most common agroecosystems. This paper provides data on soil carbon stocks that were collected at 10 sites in southeastern Nigeria to characterize the impact of soil management practices. Results The highest carbon stocks, 7906-9510 gC m-2, were found at the sites representing natural forest, artificial forest and artificial grassland ecosystems. Continuously cropped and conventionally tilled soils had about 70% lower carbon stock (1978-2822 gC m-2). Thus, the soil carbon stock in a 45-year old Gmelina forest was 8987 gC m-2, whereas the parts of this forest, that were cleared and continuously cultivated for 15 years, had 75% lower carbon stock (1978 gC m-2). The carbon stock of continuously cropped and conventionally tilled soils was also 25% lower than the carbon stock of the soil cultivated by use of conservation tillage. Conclusion Introducing conservation tillage practices may reduce the loss of soil carbon stocks associated with land conversion. However, the positive effect of conservation tillage is not comparable to the negative effect of land conversion, and may not result in significant accumulation of carbon in southeastern Nigeria soils. PMID:20868522

  7. Multifunctional properties of polysaccharides from Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and Mimosa diplotricha.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vikas; Das, Manuj K; Gogoi, Satyabrat; Kumar, Vineet

    2014-02-15

    Three water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated and purified from the leaves of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (DSLP), bark of Tectona grandis L. f (TGBP) and seeds of Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha Sauvalle (MDSP). Antioxidant and moisture preserving activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated using in vitro methods. The antioxidant activities studied include superoxide (O2(*-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(*+)), hydroxyl (OH(-)), nitric oxide (NO*), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)) radical scavenging activities, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing ability, ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating and lipid peroxidation activities. The study revealed higher activity of TGBP in all antioxidant assays than DSLP and MDSP. Further, the three polysaccharides showed effective moisture retention properties in comparison with hyaluronic acid and glycerol. PMID:24507290

  8. A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

  9. Antioxidant effects of the sarsaparilla via scavenging of reactive oxygen species and induction of antioxidant enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Tae-mi; Kim, Jeong Hee; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight causes distinct changes in collagenous skin tissues as a result of the breakdown of collagen, a major component of the extracellular matrix. UV irradiation downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-elimination pathways, thereby promoting the production of ROS, which are implicated in skin aging. Smilax glabra Roxb (sarsaparilla) has been used in folk medicine because of its many effects. However, no study on the protective effects of sarsaparilla root (SR) on human dermal fibroblasts has been reported previously. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SR against oxidative stress in dermal fibroblasts. SR significantly inhibited oxidative damage and skin-aging factor via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Also, SR decreased Ca(2+) and ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential, dysfunction, and increased glutathione, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and heme oxygenase-1. These results demonstrate that SR can protect dermal fibroblasts against UVB-induced skin aging via antioxidant effects. PMID:25022355

  10. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  11. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Methyl Angolensate and Luteolin-7-O-glucoside Isolated from Callus Cultures of Soymida febrifuga

    PubMed Central

    Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Mohammed, Arifullah; Dampuri, Gayathri; Ghanta, Rama Gopal; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2007-01-01

    Soymida febrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. is an indigenous lofty deciduous medicinal tree, monotypic genus endemic to India. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Soymida febrifuga root callus were tested for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity. Among them, ethyl acetate extract was found to be most effective, which on subjection to silica gel column chromatography led to the separation and isolation of methyl angolensate and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Structures were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Liquid Chromatographic Mass Spectroscopic methods. Further studies indicated that methyl angolensate and luteolin-7-O-glucoside had an anti-bacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium, respectively. In addition to that methyl angolensate had an anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger while luteolin-7-O-glucoside inhibited Alternaria alternata. PMID:23675053

  12. Reduction of plasma cholesterol by Curcuma comosa extract in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Piyachaturawat, P; Charoenpiboonsin, J; Toskulkao, C; Suksamrarn, A

    1999-08-01

    The influence of the extract of Curcuma comosa Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) on lipid metabolism was investigated in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters. Intragastric administration of the ethyl acetate extract of C. comosa rhizome (0-500 mg/kg per day) to hypercholesterolaemic animals for 7 days decreased both plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of plasma cholesterol levels was accompanied by a significant increase in the hepatic cholesterol content while the triglyceride content was not significantly changed. The increase of the hepatic cholesterol content was brought about by an expansion of the free cholesterol pool which specifically augments biliary cholesterol excretion. The C. comosa extract also increased plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and decreased plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. These results suggest that the C. comosa extract exerts a hypolipidaemic action by acceleration of lipid mobilization from extrahepatic tissue to the liver which subsequently increases excretion of cholesterol via the bile for excretion. PMID:10433478

  13. Molecular authentication of Panax species.

    PubMed

    Ngan, F; Shaw, P; But, P; Wang, J

    1999-03-01

    Using conserved plant sequences as primers, the DNA sequences in the ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region have been amplified and determined for six Panax species, P. ginseng C. A. Mey. (Oriental ginseng), P. quinquefolius L. (American ginseng), P. notoginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen (Sanchi), P. japonicus C. A. Mey. (Japanese ginseng), P. trifolius L. and P. major Ting, as well as two common adulterants of ginseng, Mirabilis jalapa L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. An authentication procedure based upon the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the region is able to differentiate between P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius, and to discriminate the ginsengs from the two common poisonous adulterants. Broader application of this approach to authenticate other morphologically similar Chinese medicinal materials is rationalised. PMID:10192964

  14. Dillapiol: a pyrethrum synergist for control of the Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Liu, S Q; Scott, I M; Pelletier, Y; Kramp, K; Durst, T; Sims, S R; Arnason, J T

    2014-04-01

    Dillapiol, the main constituent in dill Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Apiaceae) oil and wild pepper, Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae), is an effective cytochrome P450 inhibitor similar to piperonylbutoxide (PBO). Laboratory and field trials with pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) vis. extracts combined with dillapiol (1:5 and 1:16 ratio) were effective against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In the laboratory, pyrethrum efficacy was increased 2.2-fold with the SS strain and 9.1-fold with the RS strains by using pyrethrum + dillapiol. Two field trials with the pyrethrum + dillapiol formulation demonstrated efficacy > or = 10 times than that of pyrethrum alone. The residual activity (half-life) of the combination exposed to direct sunlight was 3 h but it increased to 10.7 h by adding 2% of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate. PMID:24772563

  15. Antioxidant Activity in the Extracts of Two Edible Aroids

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, P.; Misra, T. K.; Singh, I. D.

    2010-01-01

    Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC50 values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC50 values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198

  16. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  17. A new genus of Grapholitini from Africa related to Thaumatotibia (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Alicia E.; Brown, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Thaumatovalva gen. n. is described and illustrated from the Afrotropical region. As currently defined the genus includes four species: T. deprinsorum sp. n. from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. albolineana sp. n. (type species) from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. spinai (Razowski & Trematerra), comb. n., from Ethiopia and Nigeria; and T. limbata (Diakonoff), comb. n., from the Seychelles and Kenya. Thaumatovalva limbata has been reared from the fruit of Cordia somaliensis Baker and C. monoica Roxb. (Boraginaceae) in Kenya. Although structures of the male and female genitalia are extremely similar among three of the four species, male secondary scales on the under surface of the hindwing easily distinguish them. PMID:25197220

  18. Detection of sugarcane bacilliform virus in sugarcane germplasm.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, R; Alexander, K C; Garg, I D

    1996-02-01

    Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV), a badnavirus was found in sugarcane genotypes of Saccharum officinarum L., S. barberi Jesw., S. sinense Roxb., S. robustum Brand and Jesw., and Saccharum hybrids. In most of the suspected genotypes the virus was found associated with clear foliar symptoms. However, certain symptom-free clones carried the virus too. The virus was detected by immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in suspected clones. The virions measured about 108-118 x 20-21 nm in size. The virus was serologically closely related to another badnavirus, banana streak virus (BSV). Virus titer was low in most of the genotypes. However, a close correlation between symptoms expression and virus titer existed in some genotypes. PMID:8886091

  19. Isolation and release characteristics of starch from the rhizome of Indian Palo.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to isolate and evaluate the morphological, physicochemical and drug release properties of starch from the rhizome of Indian Palo (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.). Morphological study revealed that the shape of the isolated starch varied from oval to elliptical. Isolated starch showed high water-holding capacity. Mineral content and Ash value were found to be very low. Amylose content was found to be 12.12 ± 0.01%. FTIR data confirmed polysaccharide nature of the starch. Swelling and solubility was found to be increase with an increase in the temperature. Initially, paste clarity was high, and gradually it decreased with the increase of storage time. TGA showed that the starch is thermally stable up to 250 °C. In-vitro release study revealed that the starch retarded the release of drug in the acidic pH of the stomach; therefore, it can be used as an excipient in a sustained-release formulation. PMID:25150596

  20. Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Coates, Brad S.; Datinon, Benjamin; Djouaka, Rousseau; Sun, Weilin; Tamò, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir), and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.). Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P?0.001). The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries) on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation ?0.68%) or F-statistics (FSTLoc?=??0.01; P?=?0.62). These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (?STLoc?=?0.05; P?=?0.92). In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost?=?0.04; P?=?0.01), which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (?STHost?=?0.06; P?=?0.27). Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM) for M. vitrata in West Africa. PMID:24647356

  1. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    PubMed

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Coates, Brad S; Datinon, Benjamin; Djouaka, Rousseau; Sun, Weilin; Tamò, Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2014-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. var. javanica (Benth.) Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir), and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.). Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P?0.001). The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries) on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68%) or F-statistics (FSTLoc?=?-0.01; P?=?0.62). These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (?STLoc?=?0.05; P?=?0.92). In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost?=?0.04; P?=?0.01), which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (?STHost?=?0.06; P?=?0.27). Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM) for M. vitrata in West Africa. PMID:24647356

  2. Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

  3. Fog reduces transpiration in tree species of the Canarian relict heath-laurel cloud forest (Garajonay National Park, Spain).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos M; Aschan, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The ecophysiologic role of fog in the evergreen heath-laurel 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands has not been unequivocally demonstrated, although it is generally assumed that fog water is important for the survival and the distribution of this relict paleoecosystem of the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. To determine the role of fog in this ecosystem, we combined direct transpiration measurements of heath-laurel tree species, obtained with Granier's heat dissipation probes, with micrometeorological and artificial fog collection measurements carried out in a 43.7-ha watershed located in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain) over a 10-month period. Median ambient temperature spanned from 7 to 15 degrees C under foggy conditions whereas higher values, ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C, were registered during fog-free periods. Additionally, during the periods when fog water was collected, global solar radiation values were linearly related (r2=0.831) to those under fog-free conditions, such that there was a 75+/-1% reduction in median radiation in response to fog. Fog events greatly reduced median diurnal tree transpiration, with rates about 30 times lower than that during fog-free conditions and approximating the nighttime rates in both species studied (the needle-like leaf Erica arborea L. and the broadleaf Myrica faya Ait.). This large decrease in transpiration in response to fog was independent of the time of the day, tree size and species and micrometeorological status, both when expressed on a median basis and in cumulative terms for the entire 10-month measuring period. We conclude that, in contrast to the turbulent deposition of fog water droplets on the heath-laurel species, which may be regarded as a localized hydrological phenomenon that is important for high-altitude wind-exposed E. arborea trees, the cooler, wetter and shaded microenvironment provided by the cloud immersion belt represents a large-scale effect that is crucial for reducing the transpirational water loss of trees that have profligate water use, such as those of the 'laurisilva'. PMID:19203969

  4. Quantifying the success of improved forest management from dendrochronology: examples from North Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Miro; De Ridder, Maaike; Frankl, Amaury; Guyassa, Etefa; Beeckman, Hans; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The increasing environmental and human pressure on the vulnerable environment of the North Ethiopian highlands requires sustainable management to avoid further land degradation. High altitude forests play a key role in this environmental balance and are very important for local livelihoods. They function as a hygric buffer by capturing and storing rainfall, which reduces soil erosion and protects against flooding, landslides and rock fall. The hygric buffer effect of mountain forests also provides water for downstream sources and for agriculture in the surrounding lowlands. Improved understanding of the growing patterns, ring formation and forest structure of this afro-alpine high altitude Erica arborea L. forests is essential to improve sustainable forest management practices. This paper studies two mountain forests in the North Ethiopian Highlands under contrasting management conditions; Lib Amba of the Abune Yosef Mt. range (12°04'N, 39°22'E, 3993 m a.s.l.) which is completely protected since five years and Mt. Ferrah Amba (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3939 m a.s.l.) which is still strongly influenced by anthropo-zoogenic impacts. Dendrochronological results from cambial marked stem discs show complex but annual growth ring formations that reflect these differences in anthropo-zoogenic pressure; Tree-ring width is significantly wider in Mt. Lib Amba. Improved insight in the growing pattern of Erica arborea L. forests is also given by monitoring of tree growth and seedling recruitment in experimental plots since 2012 and by studying the relation between tree growth and the geomorphology and soil thickness. Seedling recruitment and vegetation indices indicate that tree growth is significantly better in the protected forest of Lib Amba. One of the key elements for sustainable land management is the creation of forests at critical locations. Insight in the response of tree growth to different types of land management and different morphological conditions can help to identify these critical locations. But most importantly, dendrochronological results have proven to be a valuable tool for objective validation of the success of land management strategies on a short term.

  5. Herbivory in a Mediterranean forest: browsing impact and plant compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, Stefano; Tinelli, Aleandro

    2005-11-01

    The compensatory response of plants to defoliation is likely to have important effects on plant-ungulate equilibria in forested ecosystems. We investigated the responses of six species of Mediterranean bushes to defoliation by wild ungulates, comparing an index of browsing impact with the productivity of plants in both open and exclusion plots. The data revealed a great diversity of plant responses to herbivory: Rubus ulmifolius was able to over-compensate and replace the lost tissues. Phillyrea latifolia exhibited a similar, albeit less evident, pattern, while Cistus salvifolius was severely damaged by browsing. Other species, such as Quercus ilex, Juncus acutus and Erica arborea, were not attacked to a large extent and suffered little or no harm. The results strongly suggest that Mediterranean ecosystems may tolerate large stocking rates of ungulates. However, the reduction of plant biomass due to browsing was very different in the six studied species, suggesting that when herbivory becomes severe the structure of the ecosystem will change with the more tolerant plants becoming more abundant. We can apply these results to improve management and conservation of relict coastal forests in the Mediterranean basin which are usually of small size and where decision-makers have to compromise between the conservation of plants and that of large mammals.

  6. Maintenance of ancestral sex chromosomes in Palearctic tree frogs: direct evidence from Hyla orientalis.

    PubMed

    Stöck, M; Savary, R; Zaborowska, A; Górecki, G; Brelsford, A; Rozenblut-Ko?cisty, B; Ogielska, M; Perrin, N

    2013-01-01

    Contrasting with the situation found in birds and mammals, sex chromosomes are generally homomorphic in poikilothermic vertebrates. This homomorphy was recently shown to result from occasional X-Y recombinations (not from turnovers) in several European species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia and H. molleri). Because of recombination, however, alleles at sex-linked loci were rarely diagnostic at the population level; support for sex linkage had to rely on multilocus associations, combined with occasional sex differences in allelic frequencies. Here, we use direct evidence, obtained from anatomical and histological analyses of offspring with known pedigrees, to show that the Eastern tree frog (H. orientalis) shares the same pair of sex chromosomes, with identical patterns of male heterogamety and complete absence of X-Y recombination in males. Conservation of an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes, regularly rejuvenated via occasional X-Y recombination, seems thus a widespread pattern among Hyla species. Sibship analyses also identified discrepancies between genotypic and phenotypic sex among offspring, associated with abnormal gonadal development, suggesting a role for sexually antagonistic genes on the sex chromosomes. PMID:23735903

  7. Ecological significance of wood anatomy in two lianas from arid southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Masrahi, Yahya S

    2014-09-01

    The hot and arid lowlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia are home to two common lianas, Cocculus pendulus and Leptadenia arborea. This paper attempts to relate the adaptation of these two climbing woody perennials to such a harsh environment to the anatomy and hydraulic characteristics of their wood. The stems of these lianas have wood with wide xylem vessels and high hydraulic conductivity which should enhance water flow to the upper canopy despite their severe twisting. Hydraulic conductivity is further helped by the simple perforation plates of xylem vessels. The circular thickening of xylem walls gives them strength and reduces the risk of their collapse and the ensuing embolism in the advent of high tension created by severe water deficit and high evapo-transpiration demand. Wide vessels, on the other hand, are more susceptible to embolism. This problem may be overcome by reducing the solute potential of xylem sap by hydrolysis of starch grains which were found to be abundant in the vicinity of the vessels. This should help absorb water by the deep roots from the capillary fringes of the typically shallow water table in this particular habitat. Furthermore, the abundance of ray parenchyma cells between xylem groups of both lianas provides great flexibility with minimum damage to water conduits in the stem during climbing and twisted growth. It was concluded that these wood features in both lianas are crucial for survival under the harsh conditions of arid Tihama plains of southwestern Saudi Arabia. PMID:25183944

  8. Ecological significance of wood anatomy in two lianas from arid southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Masrahi, Yahya S.

    2013-01-01

    The hot and arid lowlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia are home to two common lianas, Cocculus pendulus and Leptadenia arborea. This paper attempts to relate the adaptation of these two climbing woody perennials to such a harsh environment to the anatomy and hydraulic characteristics of their wood. The stems of these lianas have wood with wide xylem vessels and high hydraulic conductivity which should enhance water flow to the upper canopy despite their severe twisting. Hydraulic conductivity is further helped by the simple perforation plates of xylem vessels. The circular thickening of xylem walls gives them strength and reduces the risk of their collapse and the ensuing embolism in the advent of high tension created by severe water deficit and high evapo-transpiration demand. Wide vessels, on the other hand, are more susceptible to embolism. This problem may be overcome by reducing the solute potential of xylem sap by hydrolysis of starch grains which were found to be abundant in the vicinity of the vessels. This should help absorb water by the deep roots from the capillary fringes of the typically shallow water table in this particular habitat. Furthermore, the abundance of ray parenchyma cells between xylem groups of both lianas provides great flexibility with minimum damage to water conduits in the stem during climbing and twisted growth. It was concluded that these wood features in both lianas are crucial for survival under the harsh conditions of arid Tihama plains of southwestern Saudi Arabia. PMID:25183944

  9. Pollen record from Ka'au Crater, Oahu, Hawaii: Evidence for a dry glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, S.C.; Juvik, J.O. (Univ. of Minnesota, St.Paul (United States) Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Fossil pollen from a 3.5 m-long core from Ka'au Crater, Hawaii (elev. 460 m), yields a ca. 23,000-year record of regional vegetation history. Results indicate a full-glacial period drier and possibly cooler than present, a warmer and wetter early Holocene, and a somewhat drier late Holocene; this sequence agrees with earlier work by Selling (1948) on other islands. The oldest zone is donated by pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, Acacia koa, and Dodonaea viscosa; post-glacial pollen assemblages feature high percentages of Myrsine and Coprosma, followed by increases in Lycopodium cernuum Ilex anomala. Freycinetia arborea and Pritchardia. After about 8000 years ago, Chenopodium, Acacia, and Dodonaea increase, suggesting a return to drier conditions. Abundant pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, a plant of dry regions, during the last glacial maximum implies that neither the trade winds nor cyclonic storms were delivering as much moisture to the regional vegetation as they presently do. This suggests that the ocean surface temperature during the last glacial maximum may have been cooler than present, a finding contradictory to the reconstructions of the CLIMAP (1981) group, which show temperatures near Hawaii equal to or even warmer than present.

  10. Plant Species Monitoring in the Canary Islands Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.

    2012-07-01

    The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.

  11. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

  12. Serovar Diversity of Pathogenic Leptospira Circulating in the French West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Bourhy, Pascale; Herrmann Storck, Cécile; Theodose, Rafaelle; Olive, Claude; Nicolas, Muriel; Hochedez, Patrick; Lamaury, Isabelle; Zinini, Farida; Brémont, Sylvie; Landier, Annie; Cassadou, Sylvie; Rosine, Jacques; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical bacterial diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, very little is known about the circulating etiological agents of leptospirosis in this region. In this study, we describe the serological and molecular features of leptospires isolated from 104 leptospirosis patients in Guadeloupe (n?=?85) and Martinique (n?=?19) and six rats captured in Guadeloupe, between 2004 and 2012. Methods and Findings Strains were studied by serogrouping, PFGE, MLVA, and sequencing 16SrRNA and secY. DNA extracts from blood samples collected from 36 patients in Martinique were also used for molecular typing of leptospires via PCR. Phylogenetic analyses revealed thirteen different genotypes clustered into five main clades that corresponded to the species: L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii, L. noguchi, and L. santarosai. We also identified L. kmetyi in at least two patients with acute leptospirosis. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that this species has been identified in humans. The most prevalent genotypes were associated with L. interrogans serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Copenhageni, L. kirschneri serovar Bogvere, and L. borgpetersenii serovar Arborea. We were unable to identify nine strains at the serovar level and comparison of genotyping results to the MLST database revealed new secY alleles. Conclusions The overall serovar distribution in the French West Indies was unique compared to the neighboring islands. Typing of leptospiral isolates also suggested the existence of previously undescribed serovars. PMID:23516654

  13. Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species

    PubMed Central

    Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Fernandez, Maria P.; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

    2014-01-01

    Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere. PMID:24864264

  14. Synopsis of Nekemias Raf., a segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae) disjunct between eastern/southeastern Asia and eastern North America, with ten new combinations

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jun; Boggan, John; Nie, Ze-Long

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Nekemias (Vitaceae) was first recognized by Rafinesque in 1838. It has been treated as a synonym of Ampelopsis Michx. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that Ampelopsis as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the genera of Vitaceae, we herein segregate the Ampelopsis sect. Leeaceifoliae lineage from Ampelopsis and recognize these taxa in Nekemias Raf., which has a disjunct distribution in eastern to southeastern Asia and eastern North America. Nomenclatural changes are made for nine species and one variety: Nekemias arborea (L.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias cantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias celebica (Suess.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias chaffanjonii (H. Lév. & Van.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias gongshanensis (C.L. Li) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias hypoglauca (Hance) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla (Diels & Gilg) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla var. jiangxiensis (W.T. Wang) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, and Nekemias rubifolia (Wall.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie. A taxonomic key is provided for the genus to facilitate identification. PMID:25383008

  15. A New Name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian Coral Formerly Known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A Hawaiian species of antipatharian coral previously identified as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766, is described as Antipathes griggi Opresko, n. sp. The species forms tall, bushy colonies with elongate, upright terminal branches, often arranged uniserially. Spines are conical, mostly 0.20 to 0.26 mm tall, apically bifurcated, multilobed to jagged in appearance, and covered over most of their surface with small roundish to elongate papillae. Minute secondary spines may occur on some of the thicker branches. Polyps are 1 to 1.6 mm in transverse diameter. The species resembles A. fruticosa Gray in branching pattern, size of spines, and presence of secondary spines but differs in morphology and density of the spines (thicker, more crowded primary spines and fewer secondary spines in A. griggi). Other related species differ from A. griggi in having more widely spreading and irregularly arranged branches, no secondary spines, and either smaller spines with fewer apical lobes (A. curvata van Pesch, A. arborea Dana, and A. galapagensis Deichmann) or larger spines with the apical lobes arranged in a somewhat coronate pattern [A. spinulosa (Schultze) and A. lentipinna Brook].

  16. Seasonal patterns of terpene content and emission from seven Mediterranean woody species in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Llusià, J; Peñuelas, J

    2000-01-01

    The seasonal pattern of terpene content and emission by seven Mediterranean woody species was studied under field conditions. Emission rates were normalized at 30°C and 1000 ?mol·m·s PFD (photosynthetic photon flux density). Bupleurum fruticosum, Pinus halepensis, and Cistus albidus stored large amounts of terpenes (0.01-1.77% [dry matter]) with maximum values in autumn and minimum values in spring. They emitted large amounts of terpenes (2-40 ?g·g DM·h), but with no clear seasonal trend except for Cistus albidus, which had maximum values in spring and minimum values in autumn. The nonstoring species Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, Quercus coccifera and Quercus ilex also emitted large amounts of terpenes (0-40 ?g·g DM·h) and also tended to present maximum emission rates in spring, although this trend was significant only for A. unedo. At the seasonal scale, emission rates did not follow changes in photosynthetic rates; instead, they mostly followed changes in temperature. From autumn to spring, the least volatile monoterpenes such as limonene were emitted at highest rates, whereas the most volatile monoterpenes such as ?-pinene and ?-pinene were the most emitted in summer. The monoterpene emission rates represented a greater percentage of the photosynthetic carbon fixation in summer (from 0.51% in Arbutus unedo to 5.64% in Quercus coccifera) than in the rest of the seasons. All these seasonality trends must be considered when inventorying and modeling annual emission rates in Mediterranean ecosystems. PMID:10636836

  17. Facilitated establishment of Quercus ilex in shrub-dominated communities within a Mediterranean ecosystem: do mycorrhizal partners matter?

    PubMed

    Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Gardes, Monique

    2009-04-01

    Positive plant-plant interaction is a widespread phenomenon, especially in harsh environments, which can contribute to secondary successions. Here, we investigated whether Arbutus unedo positively influences Quercus ilex establishment in shrub communities by abiotic and/or biotic interactions in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem, where we previously showed that A. unedo and Q. ilex share numerous species of mycorrhizal fungi. In a first field experiment, patterns of Q. ilex survivorship were documented. During the summer following germination, a majority of seedlings survived in A. unedo chaparral (AU), whereas most of them died in previous succession stages dominated by Erica arborea (EA). These results showed that survival of the Q. ilex seedling is succession stage dependent, probably due to the differential effects of the summer drought. In a second experiment, Q. ilex seedlings were used as bait plants to investigate the mycorrhizal inoculum in EA and AU. Morphotyping and molecular typing revealed 2.5 times higher colonization in AU than in EA, with more diverse fungi. Our results demonstrate that A. unedo facilitates mycorrhization of Q. ilex by hosting compatible ectomycorrhizal symbionts and positively influences seedling survival by buffering abiotic conditions. A comprehensive understanding of facilitation should thus include investigations of the soil biological patterns. PMID:19175678

  18. Arbutin content and antioxidant activity of some Ericaceae species.

    PubMed

    Pavlovi?, R D; Lakusi?, B; Doslov-Kokorus, Z; Kovacevi?, N

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative analyses and investigation of antioxidant activity of herb and dry ethanolic extracts of five species from Ericaceae family (Arbutus unedo L., Bruckentalia spiculifolia Rchb., Calluna vulgaris Salisb., Erica arborea L. and Erica carnea L.) were performed. Total polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically and arbutin content was measured both spectrophotometrically and by HPLC coupled with DAD detection. Antioxidative properites of the ethanolic extracts were tested by means of FRAP (total antioxidant capacity), lipid peroxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A significant amount of arbutin was detected only in Arbutus unedo. All samples investigated showed excellent antioxidant activity. The best inhibition of lipid peroxidation has been shown by Bruckentalia spiculifolia herb extract (62.5 microg/ml; more than 95%), which contained the highest amount of flavonoids (11.79%). The highest scavenging activity was obtained with leave extract of Arbutus unedo (IC50 = 7.14 microg/ml). The leaves of A. unedo contained a small amount of flavonoids but high content of non-tannins polyphenols. PMID:19947168

  19. Arsenic speciation in terrestrial birds from Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada: the unexpected finding of arsenobetaine.

    PubMed

    Koch, Iris; Mace, Jessica V; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2005-06-01

    The surrounding area of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, is known for naturally and anthropogenically elevated concentrations of arsenic. Five bird species (gray jay [Perisoreus canadensis], American tree sparrow [Spizella arborea], dark-eyed junco [Junco hyemalis], yellow-rumped warbler [Dendroica coronata], and spruce grouse [Dendragapus canadensis]) were collected from this area. Their tissues were analyzed for total arsenic and for arsenic species, allowing us to report, to our knowledge for the first time, the arsenic characterization in terrestrial birds. Total arsenic concentrations were determined in the terrestrial birds by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, whereas arsenic speciation analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Total arsenic concentrations were substantially higher in the terrestrial bird species studied from Yellowknife compared with those reported previously in the literature. The primary arsenic species detected in two of the bird species studied was arsenobetaine. Normally, arsenobetaine is not formed or retained by terrestrial animals. Thus, the birds in the present study were thought to be highly adapted compared with other terrestrial animals, because they were able to form and/or retain this relatively nontoxic arsenic compound. This adaptation is thought to be a consequence of the elevated concentrations of arsenic in the Yellowknife area. PMID:16117124

  20. A phylogenetic analysis of the emberizid sparrows based on three mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Carson, Rebecca J; Spicer, Greg S

    2003-10-01

    Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have examined the taxonomic relationships among a number of typical emberizid sparrow genera. To help clarify these relationships, we sequenced a 1673 base pair fragment for the complete sequence of three mitochondrial genes: adenosine triphosphatase (Atp8 and Atp6) and cytochrome oxidase subunit III (COIII) for 38 sparrow species, along with Passerina amoena (Cardinalidae) and Piranga ludoviciana (Thraupidae) which were selected as the outgroups. Our analysis confirms the monophyly of traditional genera such as Junco, Melospiza, and Zonotrichia. Although Calcarius and Plectrophenax are often thought to be putative emberizids, all our analyses placed these genera basal to all other sparrows examined. As observed with Calcarius, Spizella did not form a monophyletic group, with S. arborea being the sister-taxon to Passerella iliaca. Our analyses also suggest that Aimophila ruficeps is probably more closely related to the "brown towhees" (Pipilo aberti, P. crissalis, and P. fuscus) than its putative congeners. The genus Ammodramus was also not monophyletic, since it appears that Passerculus sandwichensis is more closely related to A. henslowii and A. leconteii then either one is related to its congener A. savannarum. Finally, our analyses exhibited other unsuspected associations, such as the sister-taxon relationships between Amphispiza bilineata and the Chondestes grammacus/Calamospiza melanocorys clade, and Amphispiza belli and Pooecetes gramineus. PMID:12967606

  1. A comprehensive multilocus assessment of sparrow (Aves: Passerellidae) relationships.

    PubMed

    Klicka, John; Keith Barker, F; Burns, Kevin J; Lanyon, Scott M; Lovette, Irby J; Chaves, Jaime A; Bryson, Robert W

    2014-08-01

    The New World sparrows (Emberizidae) are among the best known of songbird groups and have long-been recognized as one of the prominent components of the New World nine-primaried oscine assemblage. Despite receiving much attention from taxonomists over the years, and only recently using molecular methods, was a "core" sparrow clade established allowing the reconstruction of a phylogenetic hypothesis that includes the full sampling of sparrow species diversity. In this paper, we use mitochondrial DNA gene sequences from all 129 putative species of sparrow and four additional (nuclear) loci for a subset of these taxa to resolve both generic and species level relationships. Hypotheses derived from our mitochondrial (2184 base pairs) and nuclear (5705 base pairs) DNA data sets were generally in agreement with respect to clade constituency but differed somewhat with respect to among-clade relationships. Sparrow diversity is defined predominantly by eight well-supported clades that indicate a lack of monophyly for at least three currently recognized genera. Ammodramus is polyphyletic and requires the naming of two additional genera. Spizella is also polyphyletic with Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea) as a taxonomic "outlier". Pselliophorus is embedded within a larger Atlapetes assemblage and should be merged with that group. This new hypothesis of sparrow relationships will form the basis for future comparative analyses of variation within songbirds. PMID:24792084

  2. [Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

    2013-03-01

    White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

  3. Population Genetic Structure of a Sandstone Specialist and a Generalist Heath Species at Two Levels of Sandstone Patchiness across the Strait of Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    Gil-López, Manuel Jesús; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Ojeda, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Many habitat specialist species are originally composed of small, discontinuous populations because their habitats are naturally fragmented or patchy. They may have suffered the long-term effects of natural patchiness. Mediterranean heathlands, a representative habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar region, are associated with nutrient-poor, acidic sandstone soils. Sandstone soil patches in the African side of the Strait (Tangier) are, in general, smaller and more scattered than in the European side (Algeciras). In this study, we analyze the effect of this sandstone patchiness on the population genetic diversity and structure of two Erica species from these Mediterranean heathlands that differ in their edaphic specificity, E. australis, sandstone specialist, and E. arborea, generalist. Average levels of within-population genetic diversity and gene flow between populations were significantly lower in Tangier (high sandstone patchiness) than in Algeciras (low patchiness) for the sandstone specialist, whereas no differences between both sides of the Strait were detected in the edaphic generalist. Since most endemic species in Mediterranean heathlands of the Strait of Gibraltar are sandstone specialists, these results highlight an increased vulnerability to loss of genetic diversity and local extinction of the heathland endemic flora in the Tangier side of the Strait of Gibraltar. PMID:24878545

  4. Local variation in the distribution of benthic megafauna species associated with cold-water coral reefs on the Norwegian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, Autun; Orejas, Covadonga; Gori, Andrea; Tong, Ruiju; Unnithan, Vikram; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2013-02-01

    The spatial variability in the mix of species making up Cold-water coral reef communities is not well known. In this study abundances of a selection of megafauna (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata, Paragorgia arborea, Primnoa resedaeformis, Mycale lingua, Geodia baretti, Acesta excavata and fish) were quantified throughout 9 manned submersible video transects from 3 reef complexes (Røst Reef, Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef) on the Norwegian margin. Substrate type (coral structure, rubble, exposed hardground or soft sediment) was also recorded. Variations in the densities of these fauna (with respect to both reef complex and substrate type) were investigated, with spatial covariance between species assessed. For the majority of fauna investigated, densities varied by both reef and substrate. Spatial covariance indicated that some species may be utilising similar habitat niches, but that minor environmental differences may favour colonisation by one or other at a particular reef. Fish densities were generally higher in regions with biogenic substrate (coral structure and coral rubble substrates) than in areas of soft or hardground substrate. Further, fish were more abundant at the northerly Sotbakken Reef at time of study than elsewhere. Community structure varied by reef, and therefore management plans aimed at maintaining the biodiversity of reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin should take this lack of homogeneity into account.

  5. Diversity of Frankia Strains in Root Nodules of Plants from the Families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, Michael L.; Carú, Margarita; Benson, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Partial 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) were PCR amplified and sequenced from Frankia strains living in root nodules of plants belonging to the families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae, including Colletia hystrix, Elaeagnus angustifolia, an unidentified Elaeagnus sp., Talguenea quinquenervia, and Trevoa trinervis. Nearly full-length 16S rDNAs were sequenced from strains of Frankia living in nodules of Ceanothus americanus, C. hystrix, Coriaria arborea, and Trevoa trinervis. Partial sequences also were obtained from Frankia strains isolated and cultured from the nodules of C. hystrix, Discaria serratifolia, D. trinervis, Retanilla ephedra, T. quinquenervia, and T. trinervis (Rhamnaceae). Comparison of these sequences and other published sequences of Frankia 16S rDNA reveals that the microsymbionts and isolated strains from the two plant families form a distinct phylogenetic clade, except for those from C. americanus. All sequences in the clade have a common 2-base deletion compared with other Frankia strains. Sequences from C. americanus nodules lack the deletion and cluster with Frankia strains infecting plants of the family Rosaceae. Published plant phylogenies (based on chloroplast rbcL sequences) group the members of the families Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae together in the same clade. Thus, with the exception of C. americanus, actinorhizal plants of these families and their Frankia microsymbionts share a common symbiotic origin. PMID:9726914

  6. Absence of cospeciation between the uncultured Frankia microsymbionts and the disjunct actinorhizal Coriaria species.

    PubMed

    Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Fernandez, Maria P; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

    2014-01-01

    Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere. PMID:24864264

  7. [Mydriasis caused by plant contact].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H; Wilhelm, B; Schiefer, U

    1991-01-01

    Uni- or bilateral dilatation of pupils that are not reactive to light and lack miosis in response to 1% pilocarpine may be caused by contact with plants containing alkaloids such as scopolamine and atropine. Other causes of a non-light-reactive dilated pupil, such as Adie's tonic pupil, third nerve palsy and lesion of the mesencephalic pretectal region, must be excluded before testing the iris sphincter reaction to 1% pilocarpine. Among the naturally growing flowers in Germany, deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), jimson weed (thornapple, Datura stramonium) and black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) contain enough alkaloids to cause mydriasis by direct contact. However, in most cases an accidental mydriasis by plants in Germany is caused by Datura arborea taxa, e.g. Datura suaveolens, D. candida, D. aurea and D. sanguinea. They contain up to 0.6% dry weight scopolamine. These plants can grow very large and are often planted in tubs. They have to be cut back each year before the winter. This is typically how the eye is contaminated by parts of the plants, which can cause dilatation of the pupil mimicing a neuroophthalmological disorder. PMID:1757054

  8. Total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential of extracts of medicinal plants of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saleem, A; Ahotupa, M; Pihlaja, K

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-seven plant organs, traditionally used as drugs, collected in Pakistan, were extracted with 70% acetone and analyzed for their total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential. Seven extracts showed more than 85% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro as compared with blank. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 233.6 microg/l +/- 28.3) was the strongest antioxidant in our test system. The IC50 results indicate that the extracts of Nymphaea lotus L. flowers, Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile beans, Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits, and Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, brown) were stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol, while Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruit coat), Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, black) and Ricinus communis L. leaves were weaker antioxidant extracts than alpha-tocopherol and BHT. Total phenolics concentration, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, showed close correlation with the antioxidant activity. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis with diode array detection at 280 nm, of the seven extracts indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol aglycones and their glycosides as main phenolics compounds. This information, based on quick screening methods, enables us to proceed towards more detailed chemical and pharmacological understanding of these plant materials. PMID:11837686

  9. A critical analysis of the environment impact assessment report of the 2000 MW lower subansiri hydroelectric project with special reference to the down stream ecology and people's livelihood.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Debojit; Dutta, Ranjit; Hazarika, Lakhi Prasad; Sarmah, Sarada Kanta

    2011-10-01

    The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) report of the 2000 MW Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Project prepared by the WAPCOS (Water and Power Consultancy Service, 2003) indicates that downstream survey was done only up to 7 km from the dam site without giving much importance to the actual scenario and avoiding some most crucial ecological aspects. In the report, insufficient records of terrestrial flora, phytoplanktons and fish diversity are given. No records of aquatic macrophytes, riparian flora, zooplanktons, avian fauna, floodplain crops, besides peoples' livelihood and diverse habitat provided by the river in its downstream are presented in the report. Especially the wetlands, associated and influenced by the unregulated Subansiri River did not find any place in the EIA report. Interestingly, no mention of the Ganges Dolphin--Platanista gangetica gangetica Roxb. could be found in the report, whereas the river provides a healthy habitat for a good number of this critically endangered fresh water dolphin. From our pre-impact study, it is clear that rich downstream ecology of the river with its present and existing environmental scenario will be adversely affected due to the construction and operation of the proposed project, and there will be distinct possibilities of elimination of other native species. In addition, people's livelihood will be affected largely through alteration of the flow regime of the river. In-depth study with comprehensive documentation of all biotic and abiotic parameters is obligatory before taking any decision about the operation of the 2000 MW Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Project. PMID:23505832

  10. Correlation between Chemical Composition of Curcuma domestica and Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Their Antioxidant Effect on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Saputri, Fadlina Chany; Qaisar, Muhammad Naeem; Buang, Fhataheya

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the curcuminoids of Curcuma domestica L. and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. and eight compounds which are prevalent constituents of their rhizome oils were investigated in an effort to correlate human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antioxidant activity with the effect of the herbs and their components. The antioxidant activity was examined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) assay with human LDL as the oxidation substrate. The methanol extracts and rhizome oils of C. xanthorrhiza and C. domestica showed strong inhibitory activity on copper-mediated oxidation of LDL. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from the methanol extracts of both plants, exhibited stronger activity than probucol (IC50 value 0.57??mol/L) as reference, with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.33??mol/L. Xanthorrhizol, the most abundant component (31.9%) of the oil of C. xanthorrhiza, showed relatively strong activity with an IC50 value of 1.93??mol/L. The major components of C. domestica, ar-turmerone (45.8%) and zerumbone (3.5%), exhibited IC50 values of 10.18 and 24.90??mol/L, respectively. The high levels of curcuminoids in the methanol extracts and xanthorrhizol, ar-turmerone and zerumbone in the oils, and in combination with the minor components were responsible for the high LDL antioxidant activity of the herbs. PMID:23243446

  11. Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (1–4) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19?±?1.10 and 15.82?±?1.11 ?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34 mg/g to 0.53 mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity. PMID:24125526

  12. Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kaou, Ali Mohamed; Mahiou-Leddet, Valérie; Hutter, Sébastien; Aïnouddine, Sidi; Hassani, Said; Yahaya, Ibrahim; Azas, Nadine; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2008-02-28

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted in Comores (Ngazidja) about plant species used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, including malaria. Antimalarial activity of 76 vegetal extracts obtained from 17 species traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in vitro using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain (W2). Antiproliferative activity was evaluated on human monocytic THP1 cells and the selectivity index of the plant extracts was calculated. The results showed that 10 plant extracts had a moderate activity (5Roxb. Ex Willd.) Voigt subsp. virosa (Euphorbiaceae) (IC(50)=2 microg/ml), for roots decoction of Flueggea virosa (IC(50)=3 microg/ml) and for chloromethylenic roots extract of Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake subsp. grandis (DC.) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae) (IC(50)=3 microg/ml). Three other extracts showed moderate antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)<5 microg/ml): Vernonia colorata (aerial part), Piper capense L.f. (Piperaceae), and Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne (Asclepiadaceae) chloromethylenic extracts (IC(50)=6 microg/ml; 7 microg/ml and 9 microg/ml, respectively). All the plants tested displayed a low cytotoxicity on THP1 cells. PMID:18093769

  13. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  14. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

  15. Antiinflammatory Activity of Gynura bicolor (??? Hóng Fèng Cài) Ether Extract Through Inhibits Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Liu, Kai-Li; Chen, Pei-Yin; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated effects of the Gynura bicolor (Roxb. and Willd.) DC. ether extract (GBEE) on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 production on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. A composition analysis of GBEE showed that the major compounds were b-carotene, chlorophyll, and quercetin, respectively. Furthermore, NO and PGE2 levels of 120 ?g/ml GBEE-treated cells were 70% and 9.8%, respectively, than those of cells treated with LPS alone. Immunoblots assays showed that the GBEE dose-dependently suppressed LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein levels. The GBEE significantly decreased cytosolic phosphorylated (p)-I?Ba and nuclear p65 protein expressions. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays indicated that the GBEE effectively inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation induced by LPS. These results support a role of the GBEE in suppressing activation of NF-?B to inhibit NO and PGE2 production in the LPS-induced inflammatory response by RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:24716155

  16. Antiinflammatory Activity of Gynura bicolor ( Hóng Fèng Cài) Ether Extract Through Inhibits Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Liu, Kai-Li; Chen, Pei-Yin; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated effects of the Gynura bicolor (Roxb. and Willd.) DC. ether extract (GBEE) on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 production on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. A composition analysis of GBEE showed that the major compounds were b-carotene, chlorophyll, and quercetin, respectively. Furthermore, NO and PGE2 levels of 120 ?g/ml GBEE-treated cells were 70% and 9.8%, respectively, than those of cells treated with LPS alone. Immunoblots assays showed that the GBEE dose-dependently suppressed LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein levels. The GBEE significantly decreased cytosolic phosphorylated (p)-I?Ba and nuclear p65 protein expressions. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays indicated that the GBEE effectively inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation induced by LPS. These results support a role of the GBEE in suppressing activation of NF-?B to inhibit NO and PGE2 production in the LPS-induced inflammatory response by RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:24716155

  17. Micropropagtion of Terminalia bellerica from nodal explants of mature tree and assessment of genetic fidelity using ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Dangi, Bhawna; Khurana-Kaul, Varsha; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita

    2014-10-01

    The present study reports an efficient in vitro micropropagation protocol for a medicinally important tree, Terminalia bellerica Roxb. from nodal segments of a 30 years old tree. Nodal segments taken from the mature tree in March-April and cultured on half strength MS medium gave the best shoot bud proliferation response. Combinations of serial transfer technique (ST) and incorporation of antioxidants (AO) [polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP (50 mg l(-1))?+?ascorbic acid (100 mg l(-1))?+?citric acid (10 mg l(-1))] in the culture medium aided to minimize browning and improve explant survival during shoot bud induction. Highest multiplication of shoots was achieved on medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA, 8.8 ?M) and ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 2.6 ?M) in addition to antioxidants. Shoot elongation was obtained on MS medium containing BA (4.4 ?M)?+?phloroglucinol (PG, 3.9 ?M). Elongated shoots were transferred to half strength MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 2.5 ?M) for root development. The acclimatization of plantlets was carried out under greenhouse conditions. The genetic fidelity of the regenerated plants was checked using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Comparison of the bands among the regenerants and mother plant confirmed true-to-type clonal plants. PMID:25320474

  18. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from protoplasts of six plant species related to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Jumin, H B; Nito, N

    1996-01-01

    Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Fortunella polyandra (Ridl.), Atalantia bilocularis (Pieree ex Guill.), Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.), Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Corr., Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wils. and Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 mg l(-1) BA and 0.6 M sorbitol. The highest plating efficiencies for all species were obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.001 mg l(-1) BA. F. polyandra produced higher percentages of globular somatic embryo development, while A. bilocularis consistently showed a lower percentage of globular somatic embryo development in all 5 concentrations of BA. MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.001 mg l(-1) BA was found to be a suitable medium for development of globular somatic embryos derived from protoplasts to form heart-shaped somatic embryos with cotyledon-like structures. The highest percentages of shoot formation for all 6 species were obtained using 0.1 mg l(-1) GA3. A complete protoplast-to-plant system was developed for F. polyandra, A. bilocularis and T. trifolia, which could facilitate the transfer of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes from these species into cultivated Citrus through protoplast fusion. PMID:24178352

  19. Nitric oxide alleviates arsenic-induced toxic effects in ridged Luffa seedlings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2013-10-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether exogenous addition of nitric oxide (NO) as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates arsenic (As) toxicity in Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. seedlings. Arsenic (5 and 50 ?M) declined growth of Luffa seedlings which was accompanied by significant accumulation of As. SNP (100 ?M) protected Luffa seedlings against As toxicity as it declined As accumulation significantly. The photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Fm/F0 and qP were decreased while NPQ was raised by As. However, the toxic effects of As on photosynthesis were significantly ameliorated by SNP. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As, however, these oxidative indices were diminished significantly in the presence of SNP. As treatment stimulated the activities of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST, and AsA content and AsA/DHA ratio were decreased. Upon SNP addition, along with further rise in SOD and CAT activity, APX and GST activity, and levels of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio were restored considerably. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, APX and GST activities and decreased AsA content, hence led to the oxidative stress. However, the addition of SNP protected seedlings against As stress by regulating As accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23917073

  20. Molecular, functional and ultrastructural characterisation of plastids from six species of the parasitic flowering plant genus Cuscuta.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, T A; Krause, K; Dörr, I; Krupinska, K

    2000-04-01

    Plastids of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., C. subinclusa D. et H., C. gronovii Willd. and C. campestris Yunck. possess thylakoids and contain both chlorophyll a and b in a ratio similar to that of stem tissue of the systematically closely related but 'normal' green Ipomoea tricolor. In contrast, plastids of C. odorata R. et P. and C. grandiflora H.B.K. do not contain any chlorophyll or possess thylakoids. Light-driven electron transport, as measured by oxygen evolution and indicated by analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence, was present in all chlorophyll-containing species. The photosystem II efficiency was low and ranged from 0.511 to 0.687. The plastid rbcL gene could not be detected in C. odorata, but was present in all other tested species. Neither rbcL transcripts nor the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) could be detected in C. odorata and C. grandiflora. Low amounts of the large subunit of Rubisco were detected immunologically in all other Cuscuta species. Apparently, the genus Cuscuta comprises species with different degrees of plastid functionality, ranging from intact chloroplasts, via plastids with impaired protein production and gene expression to plastids with reduced plastome gene content. PMID:10805440

  1. Effect of Standardized Boesenbergia pandurata Extract and Its Active Compound Panduratin A on Skin Hydration and Barrier Function in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seon Wook; Rhim, Dong-Bin; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    The skin plays a key role in protecting the body from the environment and from water loss. Cornified envelope (CE) and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) are considered as the primary regulators of skin hydration and barrier function. The CE prevents loss of water from the body and is formed by cross-linking of several proteins. Among these proteins, filaggrin is an important protein because NMF is produced by the degradation of filaggrin. Proteases, including matriptase and prostasin, stimulate the generation of filaggrin from profilaggrin and caspase-14 plays a role in the degradation of filaggrin. This study elucidated the effects of an ethanol extract of Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., known as fingerroot, and its active compound panduratin A on CE formation and filaggrin processing in HaCaT, human epidermal keratinocytes. B. pandurata extract (BPE) and panduratin A significantly stimulated not only CE formation but also the expression of CE proteins, such as loricrin, involucrin, and transglutaminase, which were associated with PPAR? expression. The mRNA and protein levels of filaggrin and filaggrin-related enzymes, such as matriptase, prostasin, and caspase-14 were also up-regulated by BPE and panduratin A treatment. These results suggest that BPE and panduratin A are potential nutraceuticals which can enhance skin hydration and barrier function based on their CE formation and filaggrin processing. PMID:25866745

  2. Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction and Quantification of Alpinetin in Amomum Seed using Validated HPLC and HPTLC Methods

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M.; Kamal, Y. T.; Khan, M. A.; Parveen, Rabea; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, S.

    2015-01-01

    Alpinetin is a flavonoidal constituent of seeds of Amomum subulatum Roxb., recently reported to possess vasorelaxant and antiHIV activities. Simple, accurate and precise HPLC and HPTLC methods were developed for the analysis of alpinetin in A. subulatum seed extracts and extraction technique was optimized to get maximum yield using conventional, ultrasonic and matrix solid phase dispersion extraction. HPLC was performed on a C18 column with methanol and water (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min whereas HPTLC on silica aluminum sheet (60F254) using toluene, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as solvent system. A sharp peak was obtained for alpinetin at a retention time (Rt) of 5.7 min by HPLC and retardation factor (Rf) of 0.48 by HPTLC. Both methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and the content of alpinetin was estimated in different extracts. Matrix solid phase dispersion technique was found most suitable for extracting alpinetin as compared to other techniques. Validation data are indicative of good precision and accuracy and proved the reliability of the methods.

  3. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

  4. The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples. PMID:24660477

  5. Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Chongwei; Bucheli, Peter; Wei, Dongzhi

    2006-06-01

    Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in flavonoid composition. Huyou peel (C. paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou) was found to be the best naringin (3.25%) and neohesperidin (2.76%) source; C. aurantium, a major ingredient of several citrus-related TCM, is also a suitable source of naringin and neohesperidin, and a good juice source for flavanone glycosides; the peel of Wenzhoumiju (C. unshiu) is one of the richest local species in hesperidin (up to 6.25%); Zaoju (C. subcompressa) has the highest content of nobiletin (0.59%), a polymethoxylated flavone. LC-ES-MS analysis of Zanthoxylum genus for flavonoids revealed for the first time the presence of significant amounts (0.74%) of hesperidin in the root of Liangmianzhen (Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC), a relative of Sichuan pepper, which is a spice widely used in China. PMID:16816988

  6. Monitoring seasonal variation of epicatechin and gallic acid in the bark of Saraca asoca using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method

    PubMed Central

    Ketkar, Pushkar M.; Nayak, Shraddha U.; Pai, Sandeep R.; Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Wilde (Fabaceae) is a high valued but vulnerable medicinal plant of Western Ghats region. This plant is mainly known for its use in various gynecological disorders. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation of the polyphenolic compounds viz., epicatechin and gallic acid in the bark of S. asoca by using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) method. Materials and Methods: The bark was collected in six different Ritu (season) viz. Varsha (monsoon), Sharad (autumn), hemant (early winter), Shishir (winter), Vasanta (spring), and Grishma (summer) mentioned in Ayurveda. Results: The RP-HPLC-DAD analysis indicated that levels of epicatechin and gallic acid in the bark of S. asoca vary seasonally. The highest concentration of epicatechin was observed in Shishir Ritu (3315.19 ± 165.76 mg/100g) and gallic acid during Hemant Ritu (211.90 ± 10.60 mg/100 g). Conclusions: In present study, the ability to synthesize and accumulate both the compounds in bark of S. asoca varied greatly throughout the seasons. It was also observed that the compound epicatechin was present abundantly as compared to gallic acid throughout the seasons. PMID:25878461

  7. Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

  8. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

  9. Response of Salvinia cucullata to high NH4(+) concentrations at laboratory scales.

    PubMed

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2012-05-01

    Growth, morphology, NH(4)(+) uptake and mineral allocation in Salvinia cucullata Roxb. ex Bory grown with different amounts of NH(4)(+) were investigated. Plants of uniform size were grown on full strength Smart and Barko medium with different NH(4)(+) concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 15 mM) and incubated in a greenhouse for four weeks. Salvinia cucullata grew well in the medium with 0.5-1 mM NH(4)(+) with a relative growth rate of 0.11-0.12 d(-1) without exhibiting NH(4)(+) toxicity symptoms. With an NH(4)(+) concentration above 5 mM, plant growth was suppressed and signs of NH(4)(+) toxicity were observed. NH(4)(+) toxicity symptoms were obvious in plants supplied with 10 mM and 15 mM NH(4)(+). These plants had low growth rates, short roots, low numbers of roots and showed chlorosis. Rotted roots and stems were also found in plants fed with 15 mM NH(4)(+). This species had a high uptake rate even though the NH(4)(+) concentrations increased, making it an ideal candidate for growth in eutrophic environments. The high NH(4)(+) concentration had a negative effect on K uptake resulting in low K concentration in the plant tissue, but the plants increased N content in plant tissue. Thus, harvested plants can be used as soil fertilizer or for animal feed. Furthermore, maintaining plant biomass can improve the efficiency of water treatment. PMID:22195762

  10. Origin and diversification of Hibiscus glaber, species endemic to the oceanic Bonin Islands, revealed by chloroplast DNA polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; Ohi-Toma, Tetsuo; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Kato, Hidetoshi

    2005-04-01

    Abstract Two woody Hibiscus species co-occur in the Bonin Islands of the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Hibiscus glaber Matsum. is endemic to the islands, and its putative ancestral species, Hibiscus tiliaceus L., is widely distributed in coastal areas of the tropics and subtropics. To infer isolating mechanisms that led to speciation of H. glaber and the processes that resulted in co-occurrence of the two closely related species on the Bonin Islands, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences. Materials collected from a wide area of the Pacific and Indian Oceans were used, and two closely related species, Hibiscus hamabo Siebold Zucc. and Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb., were also included in the analyses. The constructed tree suggested that H. glaber has been derived from H. tiliaceus, and that most of the modern Bonin populations of H. tiliaceus did not share most recent ancestry with H. glaber. Geographic isolation appears to be the most important mechanism in the speciation of H. glaber. The co-occurrence of the two species can be attributed to multiple migrations of different lineages into the islands. While a wide and overlapping geographical distribution of haplotypes was found in H. tiliaceus, localized geographical distribution of haplotypes was detected in H. glaber. It is hypothesized that a shift to inland habitats may have affected the mode of seed dispersal from ocean currents to gravity and hence resulted in geographical structuring of H. glaber haplotypes. PMID:15773936

  11. 2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone protects the impaired insulin secretion induced by glucotoxicity in pancreatic ?-cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying-Chun; Hao, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Lu-Xian; Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Nan; Hoptroff, Michael; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2014-02-19

    2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC), which is isolated and purified from the dried flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae), was investigated for its insulinotropic benefits against glucotoxicity using in vitro methods. When exposed to high glucose at the cytotoxicity level for 48 h, RIN-5F ?-cells experienced a significant viability loss and impaired insulin secretion function, whereas cotreating with DMC could protect ?-cells against glucotoxicity-induced decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner without affecting basal insulin secretion. It was demonstrated that DMC increased insulin secretion against glucotoxicity by simulating the effect of GLP-1 and enhancing the expression of GLP-1R, followed by activating the signal pathway of PDX-1, PRE-INS, and GLUT2-GCK. Another mechanism was that DMC avoided the pancreatic islet dysfunction resulting from cellular damage by suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by iNOS, and the expression of MCP-1. The results indicated the potential application of DMC in the intervention against glucotoxicity-induced hyperglycemia. PMID:24437980

  12. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo. PMID:11332848

  13. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 ?g/g and Cu 36.3 ?g/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

  14. Evaluation of the antipsychotic potential of aqueous fraction of Securinega virosa root bark extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Magaji, M G; Mohammed, M; Magaji, R A; Musa, A M; Abdu-Aguye, I; Hussaini, I M

    2014-03-01

    Securinega virosa (Roxb ex. Willd) Baill. is a plant which is commonly used in African traditional medicine in management of mental illness. Previous study showed that the crude methanolic root bark extract of the plant possesses antipsychotic activity. In this study, the antipsychotic potential of the residual aqueous fraction of the plant was evaluated using two experimental models, apomorphine induced stereotypic climbing behaviour and swim induced grooming, all in mice. The effect of the fraction on haloperidol-induced catalepsy was also evaluated. The fraction significantly reduced the mean climbing score at the highest dose tested (500 mg/kg). In the swim-induced grooming test, the fraction significantly and dose-dependently (125-500 mg/kg) decreased the mean number and mean duration of swim-induced grooming activity in mice. Similarly, the standard haloperidol (1 mg/kg) significantly (p?

  15. Assessment of local management practices on the population ecology of some medicinal plants in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Hassan; Elyemeni, Mohammad; Khan, Abdur Rehman; Sabir, Amjad

    2010-01-01

    A study on the assessment of local management practices on the population of three medicinal plants viz.: Persicaria amplexicaule. D. Don., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted during 2002–2004 in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan. The objective of the study was to know the impact of current management practices on the population size of targeted plants. The study showed that the involvement of locals in the gathering of targeted plants varied with the change in elevation. Among the targeted plants V. serpens was collected by large majorities of people (83.3%) at 2700 m followed by 72% at 2300 m and 37% at 1900 m. V. jatamansi was harvested by a small number of people (18.1%) at 1900 and 2300 m each, followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. While P. amplexicaule was harvested by a few collectors (9.1%) at 1900 m and 9.6% at 2300 m followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. The study concluded that these species have been extracted so heavily in the past that they are found now sparsely in some sites of the study area. Secondly, due to loss of its habitat by deforestation and encroachment of land for cultivation its population is on the decline towards extinction. Therefore, the current study recommends the conservation of the remaining populations of targeted plants through active participation of local communities. PMID:23961117

  16. Antifungal potential of triphala churna ingredients against Aspergillus species associated with them during storage.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Ajay K; Avasthi, Shubhi; Sharma, Anu; Bhadauria, Rekha

    2012-03-01

    The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredients of triphala churna, i.e. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Terminalia chebula (Retz.) (Harada), collected from the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i.e. very low to very high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96 +/- 7.59%) was observed to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95 +/- 7.59%) and powder (25.07 +/- 6.05%). Terminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active against the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective against the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were observed to be ineffective against the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relationship between antifungal potential of herbal drugs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage. PMID:24199459

  17. Scientific validation of the ethnomedicinal properties of the Ayurvedic drug Triphala: a review.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Meera, Sharake; Mathai, Benson; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Pawar, Vikas; Palatty, Princy Louis

    2012-12-01

    Triphala, a herbal formula composed of the three fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Haritaki, Family: Combretaceae), Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Bibhitaki, Family: Combretaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. or Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amalaki or the Indian gooseberry, Family: Euphorbiaceae) is considered to be a universal panacea in the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda. It has been described in the Ayurveda text as a "Rasayana' and to rejuvenat the debilitated organs. Ayurvedic physicians use Triphala for many ailments but most importantly to treat various gastrointestinal disorders. Scientific studies carried out in the past two decades have validated many of the ethnomedicinal claims and researches have shown Triphala to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antibacterial, antimutagenic, wound healing, anticariogenic, antistress, adaptogenic, hypoglycaemic, anticancer, chemoprotective, radioprotective and chemopreventive effects. Clinical studies have also shown that Triphala was found to have good laxative property, to improve appetite and reduce gastric hyperacidity. Studies have also shown that Triphala was effective in preventing dental caries and that this effect was equal to that of chlorhexidine. The current review addresses the validated pharmacological properties of Triphala and also emphasizes on aspects that need further investigation for its future clinic application. PMID:23239004

  18. Comparison of enteroprotective efficacy of triphala formulations (Indian Herbal Drug) on methotrexate-induced small intestinal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Nariya, Mukeshkumar; Shukla, Vinay; Jain, Sunita; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

    2009-08-01

    Triphala is categorized as a rejuvenator and antioxidant-rich Ayurvedic herbal formulation and has traditionally been used in various gastric problems including intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative enteroprotective effect of Triphala formulations against methotrexate-induced intestinal damage in rats. Triphala formulations were prepared by mixing equal (1:1:1) and unequal (1:2:4) proportions of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Intestinal damage was induced by administering methotrexate (MTX) in a dose of 12 mg/kg, orally for 4 days to albino rats. The intestinal damage response was assessed by gross and microscopical injury, measuring the intestinal permeability to phenol red and tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala equal and unequal formulations at the dose of 540 mg/kg significantly restored the depleted protein level in brush border membrane of intestine, phospholipid and glutathione content and decreased the myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase level in intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats. In addition, Triphala unequal formulation showed significant decrease in permeation clearance of phenol red with significant attenuation in the histopathological changes, level of disaccharidase in brush border membrane vesicles and lipid peroxidation content of intestinal mucosa. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that Triphala unequal formulation provides significantly more protection than Triphala equal formulation against methotrexate-induced damage in rat intestine. PMID:19170156

  19. Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction and Quantification of Alpinetin in Amomum Seed using Validated HPLC and HPTLC Methods.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Kamal, Y T; Khan, M A; Parveen, Rabea; Ansari, S H; Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    Alpinetin is a flavonoidal constituent of seeds of Amomum subulatum Roxb., recently reported to possess vasorelaxant and antiHIV activities. Simple, accurate and precise HPLC and HPTLC methods were developed for the analysis of alpinetin in A. subulatum seed extracts and extraction technique was optimized to get maximum yield using conventional, ultrasonic and matrix solid phase dispersion extraction. HPLC was performed on a C18 column with methanol and water (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min whereas HPTLC on silica aluminum sheet (60F254) using toluene, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as solvent system. A sharp peak was obtained for alpinetin at a retention time (Rt) of 5.7 min by HPLC and retardation factor (Rf) of 0.48 by HPTLC. Both methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and the content of alpinetin was estimated in different extracts. Matrix solid phase dispersion technique was found most suitable for extracting alpinetin as compared to other techniques. Validation data are indicative of good precision and accuracy and proved the reliability of the methods. PMID:25767318

  20. Flavonoid and stilbenoid production in callus cultures of Artocarpus lakoocha.

    PubMed

    Maneechai, Suthira; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

    2012-09-01

    Callus cultures of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb., established from seedling explants and maintained on woody plant medium containing 1mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1mg/l benzyladenine, were studied for their chemical constituents and biosynthetic potential of secondary metabolites. Four prenylflavones and prenylated stilbenes, along with nine known polyphenolic compounds, were isolated and elucidated for their structures through extensive analysis of their NMR and MS data. Among the 13 isolates, it appeared that seven of them are prenylated derivatives of 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavones, and four are prenylated derivatives of 2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene (oxyresveratrol), suggesting that the biosynthetic pathways of these two polyphenolic groups and their prenylating enzymes are highly expressed in A. lakoocha callus cultures. A study on the growth-product relationship of the callus cultures showed that the secondary metabolites were all formed simultaneously during the rapid growth phase of the culture cycle, with various prenylflavones, and a prenylated stilbene as major constituents. In assays for DPPH free radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibitory potential, the stilbenoids appeared to possess moderate effects, whereas the flavonoids showed only weak activity. PMID:22769436

  1. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  2. Medicinal uses of honey (Quranic medicine) and its bee flora from Dera Ismail Khan District, KPK, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Khan, Muhammad Aslam; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Kaleemullah

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out during 2005-2008 to identify existing plant species visited by workers of honeybees for nectar and pollen collection in Dera Ismail Khan (D.I.Khan) District, Pakistan. The honeybee species investigated in the area were, rock bee (Apis dorsata F.), little bee (A. florea F.) and European honeybee (A. mellifera L.). A detailed list of 86 plant species both wild and cultivated was prepared, out of which 12 species, Phulai (Acacia modesta Wall.), Sarsoon (Brassica campestris L.), Kaghzi nimboo (Citrus aurantifolia L.), Khatta (C. medica L.), Malta (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck.), Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.), Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.), Barseen (Trifolium alexandrianum L.), Shaftal (T. resupinatum L), Makai (Zea mays L.), Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.) and Jher beri (Z. numularia (Burm. f.) Wight & Arn.,) were found as major sources (table 1) for the production of surplus honey in a year at different localities in the District. Among the minor sources various plant species were included (table 2). These plants fill the flowering gaps between the major sources in various parts of the year and help in continuous supply of food to honey bees. PMID:23455201

  3. Biodiversity and importance of floating weeds of Dara Ismail, Khan District of KPK, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Khan, Mir Ajab; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is based on the results of taxonomic research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan District of KPK, Pakistan, during 2005 - 2007. The area was extensively surveyed in order to collect floating aquatic weeds. From the study area 11 floating aquatic weed species belonging to 9 genera and 9 families were collected and identified in the light of available literature. These plants include Bryophytes: 1 species, Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda; Pteridophytes: 2 species, Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Marselia quadrifolia L., and Spermatophytes: 8 species, Lemna aequinoctialis Welw., L. gibba L., Marselia quadrifoliata L. Nelumbo nucifera Gaerth., Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ketze. Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze:, Pistia stratiotes L. Potamogeton nodosus Poiret and Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. Floating weeds on one hand cause serious problems and on the other hand they are used for various purposes. Data inventory consists of botanical name, family, major group, habit and habitat, flowering period, availability, distribution in D.I.Khan, Pakistan and world, beneficial and harmful effects. Key to the floating aquatic species of the area was developed for easy and correct identification and differentiation. PMID:22754062

  4. Formulation, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro study of chitosan/HPMC blends-based herbal blended patches.

    PubMed

    Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Madaka, Fameera; Chusut, Tun; Saingam, Worawan; Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Boonme, Prapaporn

    2015-02-01

    The current work prepared chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blends and studied the possibility of chitosan/HPMC blended patches for Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The blended patches without/with crude Z. cassumunar oil were prepared by homogeneously mixing the 3.5% w/v of chitosan solution and 20% w/v of HPMC solution, and glycerine was used as plasticizer. Then, they were poured into Petri dish and produced the blended patches in hot air oven at 70?±?2°C. The blended patches were tested and evaluated by the physicochemical properties: moisture uptake, swelling ratio, erosion, porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, and photographed the surface and cross-section morphology under SEM technique. Herbal blended patches were studied by the in vitro release and skin permeation of active compound D. The blended patches could absorb the moisture and became hydrated patches that occurred during the swelling of blended patches. They were eroded and increased by the number of porous channels to pass through out for active compound D. In addition, the blended patches indicated the compatibility of the blended ingredients and homogeneous smooth and compact. The blended patches made from chitosan/HPMC blends provide a controlled release and skin permeation behavior of compound D. Thus, the blended patches could be suitably used for herbal medicine application. PMID:25233803

  5. Control of storage protein metabolism in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans: role of endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Chrispeels, M J; Boulter, D

    1975-06-01

    The autodigestive proteolytic activity of extracts of cotyledons of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) increased 4- to 5-fold during germination. A similar increase was found in the ability of these extracts to digest added casein or mung bean globulins. The increase occurred after a 2-day lag during the next 2 to 3 days of germination and coincided with the period of rapid storage protein breakdown. To understand which enzyme(s) may be responsible for this increase in proteolytic activity, the hydrolytic activity of cotyledon extracts toward a number of synthetic substrates and proteins was measured. Germination was accompanied by a marked decline in leucine aminopeptidase, while carboxypeptidase increased about 50%. There were no dramatic changes in either alpha-mannosidase or N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, enzymes which may be involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrate moieties of the reserve glycoproteins. The increase in general proteolytic activity was closely paralleled by a 10-fold increase in endopeptidase activity. This activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide. Studies with inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes showed that reagents which blocked sulfhydryl groups also inhibited the rise in general proteolytic activity. Our results suggest that the appearance of a sulfhydryl-type endopeptidase activity is a necessary prerequisite for the rapid metabolism of the reserve proteins which accompanies germination. PMID:16659204

  6. Dermal pharmacokinetics of Terpinen-4-ol following topical administration of Zingiber cassumunar (plai) oil.

    PubMed

    Chooluck, Kotchaphan; Singh, Rajendra P; Sathirakul, Korbtham; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol in rats following topical administration of plai oil derived from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Unbound terpinen-4-ol concentrations in dermal tissue were measured by microdialysis. The dermal pharmacokinetic study of terpinen-4-ol was performed under non-occlusive conditions. The oil was topically applied at a dose of 2, 4, and 8 mg/cm2 plai oil corresponding to the amount of 1.0, 1.9, and 3.8 mg/cm2 terpinen-4-ol, respectively. Following topical application of the oil, terpinen-4-ol rapidly distributed into the dermis and demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics with no changes in the dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curves across the investigated dosage range. The mean percentages of free terpinen-4-ol distributed in the dermis per amount of administered were 0.39 ± 0.06 %, 0.41 ± 0.08 %, and 0.30 ± 0.03 % for 2, 4, and 8 mg/cm2 doses, respectively. The dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol could provide information for its further formulation development and therapy schedules. PMID:23027380

  7. Encapsulation of plai oil/2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun nanofibers for topical application.

    PubMed

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Chuchote, Tudduo; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) nanofiber mats and to incorporate plai oil (Zingiber Cassumunar Roxb.). The plai oil with 10, 20 and 30%?wt to polymer were incorporated in the PVP/HP?CD solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and structure of the PVP and PVP/HP?CD nanofiber mats with and without the plai oil were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal behaviors of the nanofiber mats were characterized using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Terpinen-4-ol was used as a marker of the plai oil. The amount of plai oil remaining in the PVP/HP?CD nanofiber mats was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectoscopy (GC-MS). The SEM images revealed that all of the fibers were smooth. The average diameter of fibers was 212-450?nm, and decreased with the increasing of plai oil content. The release characteristics of plai oil from the fiber showed the fast release followed by a sustained release over the experimental time of 24?h. The release rate ranged was in the order of 10%?>?20%???30% plai oil within 24?h. Electrospun fibers with 20% plai oil loading provided the controlled release and also showed the highest plai oil content. Hence, this electrospun nanofiber has a potential for use as an alternative topical application. PMID:23651060

  8. Identification of astilbin metabolites produced by human intestinal bacteria using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Xu, Jun; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Jiang, Shu; Shang, Er-xin; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-07-01

    Astilbin, mainly isolated from a commonly used herbal medicine, Smilax glabra Roxb (SGR), exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities and biological effects. It is metabolized by intestinal bacteria after oral administration which leads to the variation of ethnopharmacological profile of this traditional medicine. However, little is known on the interactions of this active compound with intestinal bacteria, which would be very helpful in unravelling how SGR works. In this study, different pure bacteria from human feces were isolated and were used to investigate their conversion capability of astilbin. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) technique combined with Metabolynx(TM) software was used to analyze astilbin and its metabolites. The parent compound and two metabolites (quercetin and eriodictyol) were detected in the isolated bacterial samples compared with blank samples. Quercetin was present in Enterococcus sp. 8B, 8-2 and 9-2 samples. Eriodictyol was only identified in Enterococcus sp. 8B sample. The metabolic routes and metabolites of astilbin produced by the different intestinal bacteria are reported for the first time. This will be useful for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic study of astilbin in vivo and the role of different intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of natural compounds. PMID:24399635

  9. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  10. Identification of natural inhibitors against angiotensin I converting enzyme for cardiac safety using induced fit docking and MM-GBSA studies

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Balakrishnan; Parasuraman, Subramani; Raveendran, Ramasamy; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cleistanthins A and B are isolated compounds from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus Roxb (Euphorbiaceae). This plant is poisonous in nature which causes cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypotension, nonspecific ST-T changes and QTc prolongation. The biological activity predictions spectra of the compounds show the presence of antihypertensive, diuretic and antitumor activities. Objective: Objective of the present study was to determine the in silico molecular interaction of cleistanthins A and B with Angiotensin I- Converting Enzyme (ACE-I) using Induced Fit Docking (IFD) protocols. Materials and Methods: All the molecular modeling calculations like IFD docking, binding free energy calculation and ADME/Tox were carried out using Glide software (Schrödinger LLC 2009, USA) in CentOS EL-5 workstation. Results: The IFD complexes showed favorable docking score, glide energy, glide emodel, hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions between the active site residues of ACE-I and the compounds. Binding free energy was calculated for the IFD complexes using Prime MM-GBSA method. The conformational changes induced by the inhibitor at the active site of ACE-I were observed based on changes of the back bone C? atoms and side-chain chi (x) angles. The various physicochemical properties were calculated for these compounds. Both cleistanthins A and B showed better docking score, glide energy and glide emodel when compared to captopril inhibitor. Conclusion: These compounds have successively satisfied all the in silico parameters and seem to be potent inhibitors of ACE-I and potential candidates for hypertension. PMID:25298685

  11. Utilization of extrusion technology for the development of millet based complementary foods.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi Devi, N; Shobha, S; Alavi, Sajid; Kalpana, K; Soumya, M

    2014-10-01

    Millet based complementary foods were developed using sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), rice (Oryza Sativa), besan (Cicer arietinum; Bengal gram dhal flour), legume mix (Green gram and roasted Bengal gram; Phaseolus aureus Roxb and Cicer arietinum) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) with a lab scale twin screw extruder. The extrudates were subjected to acceptability studies initially and at the end of the storage period i.e. 3 months at laboratory level by panel of judges using a 5-point hedonic scale. Physico-chemical characteristics like bulk density, piece density and expansion ratio were measured and proximate principles were assessed. Soy and legume mix were found to have low bulk density as well as high expansion ratio. The developed extrudates were made into fine powder and sieved through a 60 mm mesh. Malted ragi flour at 15 % level was added to the powdered extrudates to develop the complementary mixes with low bulk density. Raw formulas without malt and with malt; extruded mixes without malt and with malt were studied for viscosity. The developed mixes were made into porridge and fed to the infants and the opinions about the acceptability of mixes were collected from the mothers. The complementary mixes with malted ragi showed reduced viscosity and formed good, smooth slurry and well accepted both by children and their mothers. Extruded soy and legume mixes with addition of 15 % malt were found to have satisfactory functional characteristics and nutritive value and can be explored for bulk preparation. PMID:25328236

  12. Inhibition of Apoplastic Calmodulin Impairs Calcium Homeostasis and Cell Wall Modeling during Cedrus deodara Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Lv, Xueqin; Li, Hong; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong; Jin, Biao; Chen, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most well-studied Ca2+ transducers in eukaryotic cells. It is known to regulate the activity of numerous proteins with diverse cellular functions; however, the functions of apoplastic CaM in plant cells are still poorly understood. By combining pharmacological analysis and microscopic techniques, we investigated the involvement of apoplastic CaM in pollen tube growth of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. It was found that the tip-focused calcium gradient was rapidly disturbed as one of the early events after application of pharmacological agents, while the cytoplasmic organization was not significantly affected. The deposition and distribution of acidic pectins and esterified pectins were also dramatically changed, further perturbing the normal modeling of the cell wall. Several protein candidates from different functional categories may be involved in the responses to inhibition of apoplastic CaM. These results revealed that apoplastic CaM functions to maintain the tip-focused calcium gradient and to modulate the distribution/transformation of pectins during pollen tube growth. PMID:23405148

  13. Inactivity of Oxidation Products of Indole-3-acetic Acid on Ethylene Production in Mung Bean Hypocotyls 1

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Oi-lim; John, William W.; Yang, S. F.

    1978-01-01

    The suggestion that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-stimulated ethylene production is associated with oxidative degradation of IAA and is mediated by 3-methyleneoxindole (MOI) has been tested in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyl segments. While IAA actively stimulated ethylene production, MOI and indole-3-aldehyde, the major products of IAA oxidation, were inactive. Tissues treated with a mixture of intermediates of IAA oxidation, obtained from a 1-hour incubation of IAA with peroxidase, failed to stimulate ethylene production. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid, which are known to interfere with the enzymic oxidation of IAA to MOI, had no effect on IAA-stimulated ethylene production. Other oxidation products of IAA, including oxindole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-carboxylic acid, (2-sulfoindole)-3-acetic acid, and dioxindole-3-acetic acid, were all inactive. 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid was as active as IAA in stimulating ethylene production but was decarboxylated at a much lower rate than IAA, suggesting that oxidative decarboxylation of auxins is not linked to ethylene production. These results demonstrate that IAA-stimulated ethylene production in mung bean hypocotyl tissue is not mediated by MOI or other associated oxidative products of IAA. PMID:16660239

  14. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments. PMID:24809291

  15. An alternative method to estimate zero flow temperature differences for Granier's thermal dissipation technique.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2007-08-01

    Calibration of the Granier thermal dissipation technique for measuring stem sap flow in trees requires determination of the temperature difference (DeltaT) between a heated and an unheated probe when sap flow is zero (DeltaT(max)). Classically, DeltaT(max) has been estimated from the maximum predawn DeltaT, assuming that sap flow is negligible at nighttime. However, because sap flow may continue during the night, the maximum predawn DeltaT value may underestimate the true DeltaT(max). No alternative method has yet been proposed to estimate DeltaT(max) when sap flow is non-zero at night. A sensitivity analysis is presented showing that errors in DeltaT(max) may amplify through sap flux density computations in Granier's approach, such that small amounts of undetected nighttime sap flow may lead to large diurnal sap flux density errors, hence the need for a correct estimate of DeltaT(max). By rearranging Granier's original formula, an optimization method to compute DeltaT(max) from simultaneous measurements of diurnal DeltaT and micrometeorological variables, without assuming that sap flow is negligible at night, is presented. Some illustrative examples are shown for sap flow measurements carried out on individuals of Erica arborea L., which has needle-like leaves, and Myrica faya Ait., a broadleaf species. We show that, although DeltaT(max) values obtained by the proposed method may be similar in some instances to the DeltaT(max) predicted at night, in general the values differ. The procedure presented has the potential of being applied not only to Granier's method, but to other heat-based sap flow systems that require a zero flow calibration, such as the Cermák et al. (1973) heat balance method and the T-max heat pulse system of Green et al. (2003). PMID:17472936

  16. Roles of seed and establishment limitation in determining patterns of afrotropical tree recruitment.

    PubMed

    Clark, Connie J; Poulsen, John R; Levey, Doug J

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the relative importance of the multiple processes that limit recruitment may hold the key to understanding tropical tree diversity. Here we couple theoretical models with a large-scale, multi-species seed-sowing experiment to assess the degree to which seed and establishment limitation shape patterns of tropical tree seedling recruitment in a central African forest. Of five randomly selected species (Pancovia laurentii, Staudtia kamerunensis, Manilkara mabokeensis, Myrianthus arboreas, and Entandophragma utile), seedling establishment and survival were low (means of 16% and 6% at 3 and 24 months, respectively), and seedling density increased with seed augmentation. Seedling recruitment was best explained by species identity and the interaction of site-by-species, suggesting recruitment probabilities vary among species and sites, and supporting the role of niche-based mechanisms. Although seed augmentation enhanced initial seedling density, environmental filtering and post-establishment mortality strongly limited seedling recruitment. The relative importance of seed and establishment limitation changed with seed and seedling density and through time. The arrival of seeds most strongly affected local recruitment when seeds were nearly absent from a site (? 1 seed m(2)), but was also important when seeds arrived in extremely high densities, overwhelming niche-based mortality factors. The strength of seed limitation and density-independent mortality decreased significantly over time, while density-dependent mortality showed the opposite trend. The varying strengths of seed and establishment limitation as a function of juvenile density and time emphasize the need to evaluate their roles through later stages of a tree's life cycle. PMID:23691023

  17. Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

    2010-11-01

    The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  18. Quantification and characterisation of cyclo-oxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitory anthocyanins in fruits of Amelanchier.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Devi P; Francis, Jayaraj A; Schutzki, Robert E; Chandra, Amitabh; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2005-01-01

    The levels of bioactive anthocyanins in the fruits of Amelanchier alnifolia, A. arborea and A. canadensis have been determined by HPLC. Cyanidin 3-galactoside (1) was present in the fresh fruit of the three species at concentrations of 155, 390 and 165 mg/100 g, respectively. Cyanidin 3-glucoside (2) was present only in A. alnifolia and A. canadensis at concentrations of 54 and 48 mg/100 g, respectively. The anthocyanins were confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR studies. At 100 ppm, anthocyanin mixtures from the three species inhibited cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 enzymes at 66 and 67%, 60 and 72%, and 51 and 76%, respectively. The positive controls used in the COX assays were aspirin, Celebrex and Vioxx at 180, 1.67 and 1.67 ppm, respectively, and showed 74 and 69%, 5 and 82% and 0 and 85% COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 and cyanidin (3) inhibited COX-1 enzyme 50.5, 45.62 and 96.36%, respectively, at 100 ppm, whereas COX-2 inhibition was the highest for 3 at 75%. In the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, anthocyanin mixtures at 10 ppm from the three species showed activities of 72, 73 and 68%, respectively, compared with 89, 87 and 98% for commercial anti-oxidants butylated hydoxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and tert-butylhydroxyquinone at 1.67, 2.2 and 1.67 ppm, respectively. At 10 ppm, compounds 1-3 inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70, 75 and 78%, respectively. PMID:15997850

  19. Assessment of very long-chain fatty acids as complementary or alternative natural fecal markers to n-alkanes for estimating diet composition of goats feeding on mixed diets.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L M M; Carvalho, S; Falco, V; Celaya, R; García, U; Santos, A S; Rodrigues, M A M; Osoro, K

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the use of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) as an alternative or a complement to n-alkane markers for estimation of diet composition of goats fed 7 different diets, composed of different proportions of herbaceous (Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens) and heathland woody species (Erica umbellata, Erica cinerea, Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea, and Ulex gallii), in a metabolism study. Diet composition was estimated from VLCFA (i.e., C(22) to C(34)) and alkane (i.e., C(25) to C(33)) concentrations in diet and feces, by least squares procedures. For all plant species VLCFA concentrations were greater than their alkane concentrations, especially for the herbaceous species and U. gallii. In general, fecal recovery of both markers was incomplete and increased in a curvilinear (P < 0.001) fashion with carbon-chain length. The plants comprising the diets had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on fecal recovery of VLCFA and alkanes. Diet composition estimates based on VLCFA alone were less accurate (P = 0.013) than those obtained using alkanes alone. Combination of VLCFA and alkane data resulted in the most accurate (P < 0.05) estimates, indicating an increase on the discriminatory power among plant species. Use of uncorrected fecal marker concentrations provided the poorest estimates of diet composition, and use of individual recovery data and mean fecal recovery data of the dietary treatment yielded the most accurate ones. Results obtained in this study show that VLCFA have potential to be used as diet composition markers along with alkanes. PMID:19395523

  20. Seasonal patterns of non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOC emission from seven Mediterranean woody species.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas, J; Llusià, J

    2001-10-01

    The seasonal pattern of non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOC emission by seven Mediterranean woody species (Bupleurum fruticosum, Cistus albidus, Pinus halepensis, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, Quercus coccifera, and Q. ilex) was studied under field conditions. Branch chamber samples were sorbed on carbotrap and analyzed by thermal desorption in combination with GC-MS. These non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOC emissions were large, almost of similar magnitude to those of terpenes. Overall, maximum values were recorded in spring and summer (up to 12 microg g(-1) DM h(-1) in Q. ilex) and minimum values in autumn and winter (up to 5 microg g(-1) DM h(-1) in Q. ilex). These C6-C10 VOC emissions represented 2.82% of the photosynthetic C fixation in summer and 0.22% in winter. Some compounds such as 2-ethoxyethyl acetate were emitted by most species, others such as 3-hexen-1-ol, phenol or decanal were significantly emitted only by few species. The greatest diversity of emitted non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOCs was observed in spring and in Q. ilex. Temperature seemed a strong driver of these seasonal changes but other species-specific and seasonal factors seem involved. These results indicate that C6-C10 non-terpenoid VOCs contribute a rather significant fraction of the total biogenic VOC flux from these Mediterranean species, especially in spring and summer, and therefore should be considered in VOC emission inventories and in model predictions of tropospheric chemistry. PMID:11592412

  1. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

  2. Increased sensitivity of the serotonergic system during the breeding season in free-living American tree sparrows.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Todd S; Moore, Ignacio T; Meddle, Simone L; Benowitz-Fredericks, Z Morgan; Wingfield, John C

    2005-02-10

    In order to understand the physiological role of serotonin in regulating aggressive behaviour it is important to understand how this neuromodulator acts within the context of a naturally fluctuating social and physical environment. To accomplish this, we examined the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine during the breeding season in free-living male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) in Northern Alaska. During this time period males are maximally aggressive towards territorial intruders. Male, territorial sparrows were injected with either vehicle or a 10 mg/kg dose of fluoxetine. One hour later, aggression was measured using a simulated territorial intrusion. Depending upon when birds were sampled, the aggression scores for vehicle and fluoxetine treatments were grouped according to the number of days after territorial behaviour was initiated. The three groups were: early, days 1-5; middle, days 6-10; and late, days 11-15. There was a significant overall difference between groups (F(5,36)=5.18, P<0.0015). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that the level of aggression did not differ between the three groups of saline injected birds. However, fluoxetine injected birds showed a time dependent decrease in aggression. When compared to control birds the middle and late fluoxetine groups had significantly less aggression. Furthermore, the late group of fluoxetine treated birds were significantly less aggressive than the early group of fluoxetine birds. This demonstrates that free-living male ATSPs show a rapid change in their behavioural response to fluoxetine across the first 2 weeks of the breeding season. The rapidity of the change in responsiveness suggests a dynamic sensitivity of the serotonergic system. PMID:15617778

  3. Are summit metabolism and thermogenic endurance correlated in winter-acclimatized passerine birds?

    PubMed

    Swanson, D L

    2001-08-01

    Small birds exhibiting marked winter improvement of cold tolerance also show elevated summit metabolic rates (maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) in winter relative to summer. However, relatively large increases in cold tolerance can occur with only minor increments of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and geographic variation in cold tolerance is not always positively correlated with variation in maximum cold-induced metabolic rate. Thus, it is uncertain whether maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance are phenotypically correlated in small birds and no previous study has directly examined this relationship. I measured maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and cold tolerance (i.e., thermogenic endurance) over three winters in black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus, American tree sparrows Spizella arborea, and dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis. For raw thermogenic endurance data, residuals of maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance from mass regressions were significantly and positively correlated in juncos and tree sparrows, and their correlation approached significance for chickadees. Log10 transformation of thermogenic endurance and mass data gave similar results. These data provide the first direct evidence for a phenotypic correlation between maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and thermogenic endurance in small birds, although much of the variance in thermogenic endurance is explained by factors other than maximum cold-induced metabolic rate and the degree of correlation differs among species. Nevertheless, these data suggest that physiological adjustments producing elevated thermogenic endurance also produce elevated maximum cold-induced metabolic rate in small birds. PMID:11585259

  4. Does forest fragmentation affect the same way all growth-forms?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Amezaga, Ibone; Onaindia, Miren

    2012-02-01

    Fragmentation of natural habitats is one of the main causes of the loss of biodiversity. However, all plants do not respond to habitat fragmentation in the same way due to differences in species traits. We studied the effect of patch size and isolation on the biodiversity of vegetation in the mixed-oak forests in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The aim was to evaluate whether all the growth-forms of vegetation are equally affected by forest fragmentation in order to improve the management strategies to restore this type of vegetation. This study has shown that the effect of the area and spatial isolation of the patches was not the same for the different growth-forms. Fragmentation had a mainly negative effect on the richness and diversity of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbaceous growth-forms. Moreover, the presence and/or cover of woodland herbaceous species (such as Lamiastrum galeobdolon and Helleborus viridis) and of woodland ferns (namely Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Asplenium trichomanes, Polystichum setiferum, Dryopteris affinis) were negatively affected by patch size, possibly due to the reduction of habitat quality. These species have been replaced by more generalist species (such as Cardamine pratensis, Cirsium sp., Pulmonaria longifolia or Rumex acetosella) in small patches. Patch isolation had a negative effect on the presence of forest specialist species (namely, L. galeobdolon, Frangula alnus, Hypericum androsaemum, A. adiantum-nigrum and Athyrium filix-femina) and favored colonization by more generalist species such as Cirsium sp., Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea or Ulex sp. Thus, in this region special attention should be paid to the conservation of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbs. In conservation policy focused on forest specialist species, the most valuable species in forest ecosystems, conservation of large forest areas should be promoted. PMID:21924813

  5. Amplification, contraction and genomic spread of a satellite DNA family (E180) in Medicago (Fabaceae) and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Marcela; Galián, José A.; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Satellite DNA is a genomic component present in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. The turnover of highly repetitive satellite DNA is an important element in genome organization and evolution in plants. Here we assess the presence and physical distribution of the repetitive DNA E180 family in Medicago and allied genera. Our goals were to gain insight into the karyotype evolution of Medicago using satellite DNA markers, and to evaluate the taxonomic and phylogenetic signal of a satellite DNA family in a genus hypothesized to have a complex evolutionary history. Methods Seventy accessions from Medicago, Trigonella, Melilotus and Trifolium were analysed by PCR to assess the presence of the repetitive E180 family, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping in somatic chromosomes. Key Results The E180 repeat unit was PCR-amplified in 37 of 40 taxa in Medicago, eight of 12 species of Trigonella, six of seven species of Melilotus and in two of 11 Trifolium species. Examination of the mitotic chromosomes revealed that only 13 Medicago and two Trigonella species showed FISH signals using the E180 probe. Stronger hybridization signals were observed in subtelomeric and interstitial loci than in the pericentromeric loci, suggesting this satellite family has a preferential genomic location. Not all 13 Medicago species that showed FISH localization of the E180 repeat were phylogenetically related. However, nine of these species belong to the phylogenetically derived clade including the M. sativa and M. arborea complexes. Conclusions The use of the E180 family as a phylogenetic marker in Medicago should be viewed with caution. Its amplification appears to have been produced through recurrent and independent evolutionary episodes in both annual and perennial Medicago species as well as in basal and derived clades. PMID:22186276

  6. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  7. Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renne, I.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Johnson, Randall L.A.; Bridges, W.C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Plants possessing generalized dispersal syndromes are likely to be more invasive than those relying on specialist dispersal agents. To address this issue on a local and regional scale, avian seed dispersal of the invasive alien Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was assessed in forests and spoil areas of South Carolina and along forest edges in Louisiana during the 1997-99 fruiting seasons. Tallow trees in these floristically distinct habitats had a few common and many casual visitors, and considerable species overlap among habitats was found. However, bird species differed in the importance of dispersing and dropping seeds among habitats. Important dispersal agents common to forests and spoil areas of South Carolina included Northern Flicker, American Robin and Redwinged Blackbird, whereas Red-bellied Woodpecker and European Starling were important in the former and latter habitat, respectively. In Louisiana, Red-bellied Woodpecker, American Robin, Northern Cardinal and Eastern Bluebird dispersed many seeds. Nearly all species foraging on seeds were winter residents. Estimated numbers of seeds dispersed and dropped were higher in spoil areas of South Carolina than in Louisiana because of higher numbers of individuals per visit, higher seed consumption and seed dropping rates, and longer foraging durations. Within South Carolina, more seeds were dispersed and dropped in spoil areas than in forests because of higher numbers of birds per visit. These findings show that among habitats, tallow tree attracts diverse but variable coteries of dispersal agents that are qualitatively similar in seed usage patterns. We suggest that its generalized dispersal syndrome contributes to effective seed dispersal by many bird species throughout its range. Effects of differential avian use among locales may include changes in local bird communities, and differing tallow tree demographics and invasion patterns.

  8. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

    2012-11-01

    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin in skin-whitening creams and medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Thongchai, Wisanu; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative analysis of arbutin. The arbutin was separated on an ODS Hypersil C(18) column with a mobile phase of water:methanol:0.1 M hydrochloric acid (89:10:1, v/v/v). The level of arbutin was measured by means of UV detection at 222 nm. The optimum conditions for arbutin quantitative analysis were investigated. The calibration curve was found to be linear up to 1,000 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin concentration, and the working calibration curve for arbutin determination over the range 0.5-30.0 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin (r(2)=0.9999) was established. The relative standard deviations for intraday and interday were found to be 0.98% and 1.15%, respectively. A detection limit (3sigma) and quantitation limit (10sigma) of 0.02 microg/ml(-1) and 0.2 microg/ml(-1), respectively, and a mean percentage recovery of the spiked arbutin of 99.88 +/- 1.12% were obtained. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of arbutin in commercial skin-whitening creams (Arbuwhite cream, Super Whitening cream, and Shiseido cream) with average contents of 7.60, 5.30, and 57.90 mg/g(-1), respectively. It was also applied to the determination of arbutin in medicinal plant extracts from Betula alnoides Buch. Ham., Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore, Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Var. latifolia, and Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem, levels of which were found to be 3.50, 1.50, 1.10, and 0.12 microg/g(-1), respectively (no article reported in the literature about arbutin analysis). The proposed HPLC method is rapid, simple, and selective for routine analysis. PMID:17342266

  10. A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators. PMID:24595752

  11. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muchtaridi; Diantini, Adjeng; Subarnas, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L.) leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L.) herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L.) bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb.) rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s) that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%), 0.1 (55.72%), 0.5 (60.75%), and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%), respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, ?-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  12. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber extracts against human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume belonging to the family of Araceae, is a perennial herb commonly known as elephant foot yam. Its tuber has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, abdominal tumors, piles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) namely petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MeF) on human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and 5,5’,6,6’ tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME were found to produce considerable cytotoxicity in human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were substantiated by DAPI, annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MeF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect were observed in PEF treated cells. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25657798

  13. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber extracts against human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ansil, P N; Wills, P J; Varun, R; Latha, M S

    2014-01-01

    Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume belonging to the family of Araceae, is a perennial herb commonly known as elephant foot yam. Its tuber has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, abdominal tumors, piles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) namely petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MeF) on human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and 5,5',6,6' tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME were found to produce considerable cytotoxicity in human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were substantiated by DAPI, annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MeF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect were observed in PEF treated cells. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25657798

  14. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

    2012-02-01

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. PMID:21792590

  15. Partial characterization of a protease inhibitor which inhibits the major endopeptidase present in the cotyledons of mung beans.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, B; Chrispeels, M J

    1976-07-01

    Germination of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Roxb.) is accompanied by an increase in the activity of the endopeptidase involved in storage protein metabolism. Enzyme activity in the cotyledons increases 25-fold during the first 5 days of germination. The cotyledons also contain inhibitory activity against the endopeptidase, and this inhibitory activity declines during germination, suggesting that inhibitors may play a role in regulating the activity of the endopeptidase.The inhibitory activity against the mung bean endopeptidase is due to the presence of two inhibitors which can be separated by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The two inhibitors have approximate molecular weights of 12,000 and smaller than 2,000 daltons. The large inhibitor coelutes with trypsin inhibitor on Sephadex G-100, but these two inhibitory activities can be separated by means of a trypsin affinity column.The inhibitory activity disappears slowly from crude extracts incubated at 6 C and more rapidly when the extracts are incubated at 25 C or 37 C. The disappearance of inhibitory activity is accompanied by a rise of the endopeptidase activity, but an examination of the kinetics of these two phenomena suggests that they are not causally related. Fractionation of the cellular organelles on sucrose gradients shows that the inhibitory activity is not associated with the protein bodies, but rather with the cytosol. Our results suggest that the endopeptidase inhibitor(s) does not regulate the increase in endopeptidase activity which accompanies germination or the metabolism of storage protein. We, therefore, postulate that the inhibitor(s) may function in protecting the cytoplasm from accidental rupturing of the protease-containing protein bodies. PMID:16659606

  16. Biophysical control of whole tree transpiration under an urban environment in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhandong; Tang, Jianwu; Caldwell, Peter; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2011-05-01

    SummaryUrban reforestation in China has led to increasing debate about the impact of urban trees and forests on water resources. Although transpiration is the largest water flux leaving terrestrial ecosystems, little is known regarding whole tree transpiration in urban environments. In this study, we quantified urban tree transpiration at various temporal scales and examined the biophysical control of the transpiration pattern under different water conditions to understand how trees survive in an urban environment. Concurrent with microclimate and soil moisture measurements, transpiration from C edrus deodara(Roxb)Loud ., Zelkova schneideriana Hend.-Mazz., Euonymus bungeanus Maxim., and Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et cheng was measured over a 2-year period using thermal dissipation probe (TDP) techniques. The average monthly transpiration rates reached 12.78 ± 0.73 (S.E.) mm, 1.79 ± 0.16 mm, 10.18 ± 0.55 mm and 19.28 ± 2.24 mm for C. deodara, Z.schneideriana, E. bungeanus and M. glyptostroboides, respectively. Transpiration rates from M. glyptostroboides reported here may need further study as this species showed much higher sap flows and greater transpiration fluctuation under different environmental conditions than other species. Because of deep soil moisture supply, summer dry spells did not reduce transpiration rates even when tree transpiration exceeded rainfall. While vapor pressure deficit ( VPD) was the dominant environmental factor on transpiration, trees controlled canopy conductance effectively to limit transpiration in times of water stress. Our results provide evidence that urban trees could adopt strong physiological control over transpiration under high evaporative demands to avoid dehydration and can make use of water in deeper soil layers to survive summer dry spells. Moreover, urban trees have the ability to make the best use of precipitation when it is limited, and are sensitive to soil and air dryness.

  17. An unusual anti-H lectin inhibited by milk from individuals with the Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S R; Vasantha, K; Robb, J S

    2005-01-01

    There are several lectins with anti-H specificity but few of them serve as useful reagents. An anti-H lectin, extracted from the seeds of the plant Momordica dioica Roxb. ex willd., was tested for its hemagglutination and inhibition properties, using standard serologic methods and panel RBCs, serum, saliva, milk, and oligosaccharides purified from milk. The extract displayed strongest agglutination with group O RBCs and was weakest with group A1B RBCs in a spectrum of O>A2>B>A2B>A1>A1B; the extract failed to react with the RBCs from 25 individuals with the Bombay (Oh) phenotype and was inhibited by H secretor saliva, hence it was characterized as anti-H. However, its inhibition by milk samples from five mothers with the Bombay phenotype called into question its specificity as anti-H. The lectin reacted as strongly with group O ii (adult) RBCs as with normal OI RBCs, ruling out its specificity as anti-HI. Hemagglutination inhibition was observed with 2'-fucosyllactose (Type 2 H) and lacto-N-fucopentose-I (Type 1 H), suggesting that the binding of the lectin had preference for H structures. However, inhibition by N-acetyllactosamine, lacto-Ntetraose, and lacto-N-neotetraose suggested that the lectin also recognized unsubstituted terminal beta-linked galactose units. The hemagglutinin property in the present lectin showed an unusual anti-H specificity. The lectin was inhibited by milk from Bombay phenotype individuals and certain milk oligosaccharides not specific for the H antigen. PMID:15783298

  18. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

  19. In vitro anti-aging activities of extracts from leaves of Ma Kiang (Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala).

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Chankhampan, Charinya; Kumguan, Kulthida; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-11-28

    Abstract Context: Cleistocalyx nervosum (DC.) Kosterm. var. paniala (Roxb.) J. Parn. & Chantaran. (Myrtaceae) or Ma Kiang contains high amounts of phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of its fruit and seed has been investigated. However, limited available information concerning the biological activities of its leaves has been reported. Objective: To investigate the in vitro anti-aging potential of young and old leaves of Ma Kiang. Materials and methods: Ma Kiang leaves were extracted using water, methanol, and chloroform as the solvents by cold (sonication) and hot (boiling) processes. The extracts were determined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extracts (at 0.001-10?mg/ml) were tested for antioxidative and tyrosinase inhibition activities using a colorimetric method. The cytotoxicity of extracts (at 0.0001-1?mg/ml) was determined with human skin fibroblasts. Also, the extracts at 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1?mg/ml which showed no toxicity were tested for MMP-2 inhibition. Results: The cold methanol extract of the old leaves showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents of 511.44?±?18.23??g GAE/mg and 262.96?±?2.98??g QE/mg, respectively. This extract also gave high free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and tyrosinase inhibition activities with SC50, IPC50, and IC50 values of 0.02?±?0.004, 0.23?±?0.13, and 0.02?±?0.006?mg/ml, respectively. The extract at 0.1?mg/ml exhibited the highest MMP-2 inhibition of 91.14?±?1.67%. Discussion and conclusion: The anti-aging potential of the cold methanol extract from old leaves of Ma Kiang can be further developed as an anti-aging agent. PMID:25431131

  20. Generation, annotation, analysis and database integration of 16,500 white spruce EST clusters

    PubMed Central

    Pavy, Nathalie; Paule, Charles; Parsons, Lee; Crow, John A; Morency, Marie-Josee; Cooke, Janice; Johnson, James E; Noumen, Etienne; Guillet-Claude, Carine; Butterfield, Yaron; Barber, Sarah; Yang, George; Liu, Jerry; Stott, Jeff; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Siddiqui, Asim; Holt, Robert; Marra, Marco; Seguin, Armand; Retzel, Ernest; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2005-01-01

    Background The sequencing and analysis of ESTs is for now the only practical approach for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in conifers because their very large genomes are unlikely to be sequenced in the near future. Our objective was to produce extensive collections of ESTs and cDNA clones to support manufacture of cDNA microarrays and gene discovery in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss). Results We produced 16 cDNA libraries from different tissues and a variety of treatments, and partially sequenced 50,000 cDNA clones. High quality 3' and 5' reads were assembled into 16,578 consensus sequences, 45% of which represented full length inserts. Consensus sequences derived from 5' and 3' reads of the same cDNA clone were linked to define 14,471 transcripts. A large proportion (84%) of the spruce sequences matched a pine sequence, but only 68% of the spruce transcripts had homologs in Arabidopsis or rice. Nearly all the sequences that matched the Populus trichocarpa genome (the only sequenced tree genome) also matched rice or Arabidopsis genomes. We used several sequence similarity search approaches for assignment of putative functions, including blast searches against general and specialized databases (transcription factors, cell wall related proteins), Gene Ontology term assignation and Hidden Markov Model searches against PFAM protein families and domains. In total, 70% of the spruce transcripts displayed matches to proteins of known or unknown function in the Uniref100 database (blastx e-value < 1e-10). We identified multigenic families that appeared larger in spruce than in the Arabidopsis or rice genomes. Detailed analysis of translationally controlled tumour proteins and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase families confirmed a twofold size difference. Sequences and annotations were organized in a dedicated database, SpruceDB. Several search tools were developed to mine the data either based on their occurrence in the cDNA libraries or on functional annotations. Conclusion This report illustrates specific approaches for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in an organism that is very distantly related to any of the fully sequenced genomes. The ArboreaSet sequences and cDNA clones represent a valuable resource for investigations ranging from plant comparative genomics to applied conifer genetics. PMID:16236172

  1. Herbal preparation extract for skin after radiotherapy treatment. Part One--Preclinical tests.

    PubMed

    Skalska-Kami?ska, Agnieszka; Wo?niak, Anna; Paduch, Roman; Kocjan, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Naran R is a herbal composition made of Plantago lanceolate folium, Malvae arboreae flos, Calendulae flos, Chamomillae inflorescentia, Lamii albi flos to prepare compresses or to wash skin with inflammations. The extract of this preparation is mixed to be applied as an ointment on patients' skin after radiotherapy. Experiments performed in vitro are part of pre-clinical tests with Naran R ointment. This study examined the impact of the plant composition for ethanol-water extract on human skin fibroblasts (HSF) culture. Samples of extract, prepared from patented amounts of herbs, were in the range of 25-225 ?g/mL. Six methods were applied: standard spectrophotometric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red (NR) uptake assay, DPPH free radical scavenging test, labeling of cytoskeleton F-actin, staining of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) and trypan blue coloration. The extract concentration 75 ?g/mL was established as safe for application on human skin. In labeling of F-actin with rhodamine-phalloidin dye at this concentration the cytoskeleton was stable. The extract did not influence the membrane stability and had positive influence on the proliferation activity. It was confirmed in AgNOR test during incubation with extract, which led to formation of larger amount of smaller nucleolins. In DPPH scavenging activity test, the extract revealed over 8% higher free-radical scavenging activity in comparison to control. After trypan blue staining, the extract in concentration 125 ?g/mL significantly lowered the cell viability. When the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity of the extracts were analyzed, MTT and Neutral Red (NR) methods were used. The cells' viability was maintained on a constant level (80-110%) after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. During all time of NR test (72 h) and even when 225 ?g/mL of extract was applied, the viability of cells was in range 80-110% of control. Positive influence of the extract on investigated cells structure and proliferation, lack of toxicity and increasing anti-oxidant activity enable to consider this preparation as a natural remedy with potential application in skin therapy after radiation. PMID:25362806

  2. Nitrogen fixation in different biogeochemical niches along a 120 000-year chronosequence in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Menge, Duncan N L; Hedin, Lars O

    2009-08-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is the major nitrogen (N) input in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet we know little about the mechanisms and feedbacks that control this process in natural ecosystems. We here examine BNF in four taxonomically and ecologically different groups over the course of forest ecosystem development. At nine sites along the Franz Josef soil chronosequence (South Westland, New Zealand) that range in age from 7 to 120000 yr old, we quantified BNF from the symbiotic plant Coriaria arborea, cyanolichens (primarily Pseudocyphellaria spp.), bryophytes (many species), and heterotrophic bacteria in leaf litter. We specifically examined whether these groups could act as "nitrostats" at the ecosystem level, turning BNF on when N is scarce (early in primary succession) and off when N is plentiful (later in succession and retrogression). Coriaria was abundant and actively fixing (approximately 11 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) in the youngest and most N-poor site (7 yr old), consistent with nitrostat dynamics. Coriaria maintained high BNF rates independent of soil N availability, however, until it was excluded from the community after a single generation. We infer that Coriaria is an obligate N fixer and that the nitrostat feedback is mechanistically governed by species replacement at the community level, rather than down-regulation of BNF at the physiological scale. Biological nitrogen fixation inputs from lichens (means of 0-2 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)), bryophytes (0.7-10 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)), and litter (1-2 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) were driven primarily by changes in density, which peaked at intermediate-aged sites (and increased with soil N availability) for both lichens and bryophytes, and grew monotonically with soil age (but did not change with soil N) for litter. This non-nitrostatic link between soil N availability and lichen/bryophyte BNF likely stems from increased tree biomass in more fertile sites, which increases epiphytic moisture conditions and habitable surface area. This apparent positive feedback could produce N-rich conditions. PMID:19739381

  3. Type of litter determines the formation and properties of charred material during wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Bruno; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Salgado, Josefa; García-Oliva, Felipe; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances all over the World, affecting both the amount and composition of forest floor and mineral soils. In comparison with unburnt areas, wildfire-affected forest floor usually shows lower contents of labile C compounds and higher concentrations of recalcitrant aromatic forms. These changes in composition can have important impact on biogeochemical cycles and therefore ecosystem functions. Although burning of different types of litter can lead to different amount and types of pyrogenic compounds, this aspect has not been evaluated yet. The effect of wildfire on SOM composition and stability were evaluated in five major types of non-wood litter in Mediterranean ecosystems: Pinus nigra, E. arborea, P. pinaster, U. europaeus and Eucalyptus globulus. In each of these ecosystems, forest floor samples from different soil burn severities were sampled. Soil burnt severities were based on visual signs of changes in forest floor and deposition of ash. Pyrogenic carbon quality were analysed using elementary analysis, solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (FTIR) and thermal analysis (simultaneous DSC-TG). The study showed that the different types of litter influenced the formation and characteristics of charred material. They differed in the temperature at which they start to be formed, the amounts of charred compounds and in their chemical composition. The resulting charred materials from the different litter, showed an important variability in the degree of carbonitation/aromatization. Unlike the biochar obtained through pyrolysis of woody sources, which contains exclusively aromatic structures, in the charred material produced in some litter, lignin, cellulose and even cellulose persist even in the high soil burnt severity. Coinciding with increases in aromatic contents, important decreases in atomic H/C and O/C ratios were recorded. However, the values found in some litters, were higher than 0.5, suggesting that low degree of carbonization/aromatization. Although burning also led to compounds of higher thermal recalcitrance (increases in T50 values), values recorded in some litters were lower than those measured in highly polycondensed aromatic compounds. The differences found among the different forest floor cannot be only attributable to the initial SOM composition of the litter. Other aspects, such as the different thermal sensitivity, flammability and different conditions during wildfire (temperatures, combustion duration, oxygen concentrations) could also have contributed.

  4. Fire and drought affect plant communities and the greenhouse gas balance in a Mediterranean shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, José M.; Parra, Antonio; Dannenmann, Michael; Ramírez, David A.; Diaz-Pines, Eugenio; Tejedor, Javier; Kitzler, Barbara; Karhu, Kristina; Resco, Victor; Povoas, Luciano

    2010-05-01

    Predicted changes in the seasonality and amount of rainfall under a changing climate have the potential to dramatically alter ecosystem function and species composition. Moreover, in fire-prone ecosystems, the joint effects of fire and increasing aridity may create irreversible changes to the services these ecosystems provide. To understand the effects of increasing drought and fire in a Mediterranean shrubland, we implemented an automated rainfall manipulation system, with rain-out shelters which automatically fold and unfold when conditions are rainy and dry, respectively. In January 2009, we implemented five different treatments, where annual precipitation was reduced by diminishing summer rainfall from the long-term historical average, up to a 40% reduction, following IPCC scenarios. In September 2009, we uninstalled all the shelters to burn the different plots, and reinstalled the shelters immediately afterwards. In this talk, we will present the preliminary results of an integrated experiment which aims at understanding the concomitant effects of fire and different drought intensities on the species composition and greenhouse gas balance (CO2, N2O and CH4) of a Mediterranean shrubland. We observed that plant growth was more severely affected by drought in the more shallow-rooted, malacophyllous shrub (from 116 to -7.2 mg/g/d in Cistus ladanifer), than in a deeper-rooted heather (from 5.5 to 66.9 mg/g/day in Erica arborea). This growth response was mediated by species-specific differences in hydraulics, leaf morphology and photosynthetic gas exchange of each species. Analyses of changes in species composition after fire are currently undergoing. The precipitation reduction treatments exerted drought stress on CH4 oxidizing microorganisms and thus reduced the CH4 sink strength of the ecosystem during the pre-fire period. Furthermore, the net CH4 uptake at the soil-atmosphere interface was reduced by the fire for a period of at least one month. Pedosphere-atmosphere N2O fluxes were mostly close to zero from May 2009 until one month after fire and affected neither by the precipitation manipulation nor by the fire.

  5. The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities. Thereby, depending on the level of habitat quality that is aimed at, different measures may provide the most efficient solution. Lower levels of conservation can be achieved with low-cost adapted CPAs, such as an increased cutting height, reduced sowing density and grubbing instead of ploughing. Higher levels of conservation require e.g. grassland-like managed buffer strips around ponds in sensible areas, which incur much higher on-farm conservation costs. PMID:23164542

  6. Long days and thyroxine program american tree sparrows for seasonality: evidence for temporal flexibility of the breeding season of euthyroid females.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1999-01-01

    To explore the role of the thyroid in the control of seasonality, photosensitive female American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) were thyroidectomized (THX), moved to long days, and given daily injections of thyroxine (T4) for 3 weeks; THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received daily injections of alkaline vehicle. Birds were retained on long days 4 additional weeks and then moved to constant light and given T4 in drinking water for 5 weeks in order to test for photorefractoriness. Endpoints were ovarian mass, molt score, and hypothalamic cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content; data were collected as independent measures at intervals of 1 to 5 weeks. THX females given T4 replacement therapy (THXT4 females) exhibited all components of seasonality (i.e., photoperiodic ovarian growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt), as did THI females. THX females not given replacement T4 were aseasonal: They showed only minor thyroid-independent photoperiodic ovarian growth; they remained photosensitive, despite chronic photostimulation; and they did not initiate postnuptial molt. Collectively, these observations support, and extend to female tree sparrows, our model of seasonality in male tree sparrows, wherein control circuits are programmed for gonadal growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt by interactive effects of long days and thyroid hormone during the first 3 weeks of photostimulation. The unexpected finding that constant light and/or exogenous T4 extended the simulated breeding seasons of some THI females prompted us to investigate the nature and expression of photorefractoriness. Our approach was to evaluate the same endpoints as before in chronically photostimulated THI females either retained on long days, with or without T4 in drinking water, or moved to constant light, with or without T4. The results showed that exposure to constant light (not T4) near the end of a simulated breeding season can-though usually it does not-temporarily extend the breeding season and prevent the onset of postnuptial molt. It remains unclear whether these perturbations caused by constant light reflect a transitional relative photorefractoriness or merely a delay in the onset of absolute photorefractoriness. In either case, the thyroid- and daylength-dependent programs controlling seasonality in female American tree sparrows have a heretofore undemonstrated potential for limited temporal flexibility. PMID:9882552

  7. Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration <1000 ppm, play a structural role in the organisms and use proteins as a carrier to their target site. Their toxicity depends on their concentration, speciation and reactions with other elements. In volcanic environments, significant amounts of trace elements discharged from gas emissions, contribute to produce air particulate. Nisyros Island is a stratovolcano located at the South Aegean active Volcanic Arc. Intense hydrothermal activity characterise the Lakki caldera. In particular, the fumaroles located in the craters of Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos Dome and the area comprising Phlegeton, Polyvotes Micros and Polyvotes Megalos discharge hydrothermal fluids rich in H2O (91- 99%), SO2 and H2S. Their temperatures are almost 100o C and H2S is highly abundant accounting for 8-26 % of the released dry gas phase. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field trip on Nisyros island, 39 samples of top soils and 31 of endemic plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in particular for Tl, Rb, Zn, Mn, As, Pb, Se, Bi, Al. The highest concentrations were found both in soils and plants close to the most active fumarolic areas of Stefanos, Kaminakia and Polyvotes and also close to the Geothermal Drill (exploration well). Moreover, both soils and plants showed a good correlation between Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, Bi-Pb, Ba-Sr, Bi-Tl, Ti-Al, Ni-Al, Tl-As, Te-Tl, Te-Se as well as REE's. From the comparison between Cistus sp. and Erica sp. we found a significant enrichment in the former respect to the latter, making Cistus sp. the most suitable plant for biomonitoring studies at Nisyros.

  8. Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists and students. Phenological studies by the Mat-Su Career and Technical High School students helped scientists working with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to determine the best time for an aerial survey of bald eagle nests in the Matanuska Susitna Valley in Alaska. GLOBE student phenological data have also been used as part of a doctoral student dissertation, included in presentations at professional meetings and peer- reviewed scientific papers. Pre- and post- engagement assessment data have indicated a significant increase in content knowledge and science skills of pre-college students who have engaged in phenology investigations. Phenological investigations meet educational standards, help students understand the Earth as a system, do not require expensive equipment, and enable students across the globe to learn science by doing science.

  9. Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District).

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Grace N; Kaibui, Isaac M; Njenga, Peter K; Odhiambo, Peter O

    2010-01-01

    Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes. PMID:20712897

  10. Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50)?=37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90)?=166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50)?=26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90)?=127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90)?=324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

  11. Development and validation of a HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of phytolaccagenin in rat plasma and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fenghuan; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Fueth, Matthias; Swarts, Steven; Okunieff, Paul; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2015-03-25

    Radix Phytolaccae (the dried root of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. or Phytolacca americana L.) is widely used in East Asian countries for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. The active component of Radix Phtolaccae is Phytolcaccagenin a triterpenoid saponin. Phytolcaccagenin has anti-inflammatory activities that exceed those of Esculentoside A and its derivatives regarding suppression of LPS-induced inflammation, and has a lower toxicity profile with less hemolysis. To date, no information is available about analytical method and pharmacokinetic studies of phytolaccagenin. To explore PK profile of this compound, a HPLC-MS/MS assay of phytolaccagenin in rat plasma was developed and validated. The method was fully validated according to FDA Guidance for industry. The detection was performed by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode via electrospray ionization. The monitored transitions were m/z 533.2>515.3 for Phytolcaccagenin, and 491.2>473.2 for I.S. The analysis was performed on a Symmetry C18 column (4.6mm×50mm, 3.5?m) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid water at a flow rate of 1ml/min with a 1:1 splitter ratio. The method was validated with a LLOQ of 20ng/ml and an ULOQ of 1000ng/ml. The response versus concentration data were fitted with 1/x weighting and the correlation coefficient (r) were greater than 0.999. The average matrix effect and the average extraction recovery were acceptable. This validation in rat plasma demonstrated that phytolaccagenin was stable for 30 days when stored below -20°C, for 6h at room temperature (RT, 22°C), for 12h at RT for prepared control samples in auto-sampler vials, and during three successive freeze/thaw cycles results at -20°C. The validated method has been successfully applied to an intravenous bolus pharmacokinetic study of phytolaccagenin in male Sprague-Dawley rats (10mg/kg, i.v.). Blood samples taken from 0 to 24h after injection were collected, and data analyzed with WinNonlin. The half-life and clearance were 1.4±0.9h and 2.1±1.1L/h/kg, respectively. PMID:25575173

  12. Histochemical and biochemical observations on storage protein metabolism and protein body autolysis in cotyledons of germinating mung beans.

    PubMed

    Harris, N; Chrispeels, M J

    1975-08-01

    Storage protein hydrolysis in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) was examined by histochemical techniques, and the autolytic capacity of isolated protein bodies was studied with biochemical methods. The localization of endopeptidase activity within the cotyledons was studied using an India ink-gelatin film technique. After 24 hours of imbibition, a low level of endopeptidase activity was found throughout the storage tissues of the cotyledons. A marked increase in activity was noted in cells farthest from the vascular bundles 48 to 60 hours after the start of imbibition. The decrease in storage protein followed the same spatial distribution starting in the cells farthest from the bundles. The cotyledons contain a population of cells in various stages of endopeptidase activity enhancement and storage protein degradation. A wave of endopeptidase activity moves progressively through the cotyledons towards the vascular bundles leaving behind areas devoid of stored reserves and low in endopeptidase activity. Observations on the morphology of protein bodies during germination indicate that the membrane surrounding them remains intact, while the reserves disappear. This result suggests that the protein bodies may be undergoing autolysis. To determine whether this may indeed be the case, protein bodies were isolated from the meal of mung bean seeds using an aqueous medium containing 80% glycerol. The protein body preparations and the cytoplasm were assayed for the presence of a number of enzymes which may be involved in the breakdown of the storage proteins. The protein bodies contained all, or nearly all, of the carboxypeptidase, alpha-mannosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, and caseolytic activity. The cytoplasm contained all, or most, of the leucine aminopeptidase and the trypsin-like activity (benzoyl arginine-p-nitroanalide as substrate). Incubation of the isolated protein bodies resulted in the release of amino acids. An analysis of the products of hydrolysis indicated that very little, if any, storage protein was being hydrolyzed during the incubation. Hydrolysis of the storage proteins present in the protein bodies was greatly accelerated by the addition of extracts from the cotyledons of 4-day-old seedlings. The results suggest that new enzymic activities not present in the protein bodies isolated from dry seeds must either be activated or synthesized and possibly added to the protein bodies before storage protein breakdown can begin. PMID:16659290

  13. Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes. PMID:20712897

  14. Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-11-01

    The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum" level of the Gran Dolina cave (Atapuerca) that has yielded H. antecessor remains at ca 960 ky. When compared with Orce localities of similar age (i.e. Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3) that have yielded strong evidence of hominin presence (mainly lithic industries), it appears that they have a fairly similar environmental pattern, having in common a good representation of woodland and water-edge areas, even though dry environments are more developed in Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3 than in Sima del Elefante and Gran Dolina. H. antecessor may have thus lived under a warm-humid climate in a patchy landscape mainly composed of humid meadows and riparian woodlands. Such a landscape may have provided favourable conditions for a high diversity of large mammals, as well as for hiding and escaping from large carnivores.

  15. The long-term effects on aggregate stability (AS) from a forest fire of varying intensity in a Mediterranean environment (1994-2012).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Antonio; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires can affect many soil properties and this fact is deeply connected with fire severity, intensity, soil type and many others factors. Aggregate stability (AS) indicates the soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. AS is one of the factors that strongly affect on soil erodibility and infiltration. This property can be used as an indicator of the state of the soil structure and physical stability. The aim of this study is to analyze the soil AS of a determined area that suffered a wildfire in 1994 and compare them with a control area with the same characteristics. The study area is located in the Cadiretes Massif, in the northernmost zone of the Catalan Coastal Ranges, northeast Spain, at an altitude of around 190 - 250 m.a.m.s.l. The Cadiretes Massif is predominantly granite, although soils developed over Paleozoic metamorphic rocks such as schist and slates can also be found. In some areas metamorphic features underlie this relief. The massif is covered by dense Mediterranean vegetation, e.g. Quercus suber, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, and in some places Pinus pinaster plantations are found. This area receives about 700 - 800 mm of annual rainfall, with a fairly marked seasonal variability. The maximum is registered in autumn. Summer temperatures often surpass 25°C, while in winter temperatures are generally mild. The predominant soil type in Cadiretes is classified as a Lithic Xerept, with a 15 cm deep sandy-loam A horizon. In the control forest area, this horizon is protected by a 3 cm deep O horizon of moder humus. Three areas with different burnt intensity were identified in 1994 and they are the same plots that were chosen to sample in 2012. The 4 plots (Low intensity, Medium Intensity, High Intensity and Control) had the same orientation (S) and slope (5%). The TDI (Ten Drop Impact) test, that simulates rainfall impact on aggregates, was used to measure AS in the laboratory. Twenty samples were collected per plot. Ten aggregates for each plot, of 4 - 4.8 mm were selected and subjected to the impact of 10 drops from a burette fixed at a height of 1 m. the aggregates were placed on a 2.8 mm sieve to allow the disaggregated sample to flow away. The drops of distilled water weighed 0.1 ± 0.001 g and had a diameter of 5.8 mm. The statistical comparison between the four treatments (high, medium and low intensity and control area) in 2012 samples shows that the disintegration percentage is higher in the high intensity area (13.5%). Medium and low intensity areas showed less percentage of aggregate disintegration: 10.4 and 11.1 respectively but still higher than the control area's one (5.45%). This analysis has demonstrated that after 18 years there are still significant AS differences between the three areas with different burnt intensity and the control area. Keywords: forest fire, aggregate stability, TDI test, Mediterranean area

  16. Evidence for a proximate influence of winter temperature on metabolism in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D L; Olmstead, K L

    1999-01-01

    The roles of ultimate and proximate factors in regulating basal and summit metabolic rates of passerine birds during winter have received little study, and the extent to which winter temperatures affect these variables is unknown. To address this question, we measured basal and summit (maximum cold-induced) metabolic rates in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), and American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) during winters from 1991/1992 to 1997 in southeastern South Dakota. Both temperature and these metabolic rates varied within and among winters. Least-squares regression revealed significant negative relationships for normalized basal and summit metabolism against mean winter temperature for all species pooled (R2=0.62 to 0.69, P

  17. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish priorities for future research directions in chemical management of submersed plants. The priorities we identified include: (A) improving methods for evaluating non-target impacts of herbicides with an emphasis on threatened and endangered species, or species of special concern; (B) improving herbicide performance in flowing-water environments, including irrigation canals; (C) screening and developing new herbicides to supplement fluridone for large-scale or whole-lake management approaches; (D) screening and developing new organic algaecides to supplement the use of copper-based compounds; (E) developing risk assessment tools to educate the public on the risks of invasive species and chemical management options; (F) increasing cooperative research with ecologists and fisheries scientists to evaluate the long-term impacts of invasive species introductions and herbicide programs on native plant assemblages, water quality, and fish populations; and (G) improving the integration of chemical control technology with other aquatic plant management disciplines. While circumstances may dictate setting new priorities or dropping current ones, the list we have generated represents our vision of the needs that will require the greatest focus over the next several years.