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Sample records for gmelina arborea roxb

  1. Nonvolatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea

    SciTech Connect

    Ukkonen, K.

    1982-02-01

    In pulping it is important to know how lipophilic extractives will behave and so avoid pitch problems. Experiments on Gmelina wood delivered from Brazil in 1978 are described, using dichloromethane extractives to give sufficient information about the lipophilic extractives. The behavior of Gmelina extracts in kraft pulping was compared to that of birch extracts and was found to be similar. (Refs. 10).

  2. Blade Motion and Nutrient Flux to the Kelp, Eisenia arborea

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    Blade Motion and Nutrient Flux to the Kelp, Eisenia arborea MARK DENNY* AND LORETTA ROBERSON- plore the effect of oscillatory pitching on the flux to a flat plate and to two morphologies of the kelp-averaged flux to both kelp mor- phologies, but not to the plate. In fast flow (equivalent to 20 cm s 1 in water

  3. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc. PMID:22654406

  4. Nine microsatellite loci developed from the octocoral, Paragorgia arborea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coykendall, Dolly K.; Morrison, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    Paragorgia arborea, or bubblegum coral, occurs in continental slope habitats worldwide, which are increasingly threatened by human activities such as energy development and fisheries practices. From 101 putative loci screened, nine microsatellite markers were developed from samples taken from Baltimore canyon in the western North Atlantic Ocean. The number of alleles ranged from two to thirteen per locus and each displayed equilibrium. These nuclear resources will help further research on population connectivity in threatened coral species where mitochondrial markers are known to lack fine-scale genetic diversity.

  5. Phytochemical observation on leaf of lagerstromia parviflora (roxb).

    PubMed

    Mazumber, Avijit; Basu, S P; Saha, B P; Mazumder, R

    2002-10-01

    Phytochemical studies of leaf of the plant Lagerstroemia Parviflora Roxb (Lythraceae) reveals the presence of phytosterols, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and absence of saponin, flavanoid and triterpenoids have been reported in this plant for the first time. PMID:22557082

  6. Resistance of Wood Wool Cement Board to the Attack of Philippine Termites

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Carlos M.; Eusebio, Dwight A.; San Pablo, Marciana R.; Villena, Edgar M.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of yemane (Gmelina arborea Roxb.)-based wood wool cement board (WWCB) against Philippine termites was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Tests were conducted following the FPRDI standard procedures in determining the resistance of WWCB against subterranean and drywood termites. Results of the laboratory tests showed that WWCB was resistant to both Microcerotermes losbañosensis Oshima and Cryptotermes dudleyi Banks. Under field conditions, WWCB was highly resistant to subterranean termites. There was no remarkable termite damage except for the normal nibbling or initial termite feeding on the board during the 8-year exposure period. PMID:26467946

  7. Ethnomedicinal review of Usnakantaka (Echinops echinatus Roxb.)

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Kushwaha, Ashwini Kumar; Seth, Ankit

    2015-01-01

    Echinops echinatus Roxb. (E. echinatus), commonly known as “Usnakantaka,” is a xerophytic herbaceous plant traditionally used as a stimulant to treat use the term Sexual debility in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The roots, leaves, fruit, and bark are extensively used in folk medicine as well as in Ayurveda. Also, the plant shows a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antifungal, analgesic, diuretic, reproductive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antipyretic, and antibacterial properties. Among the several active constituents, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, echinaticin, 5,7-dihydroxy-8,4’-dimethoxy-flavanone-5-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O - ?-D-arabinopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside are the most important in terms of reported pharmacological activities. The current review focuses on the updated information from various scientific studies and reports available in the context of the phytoconstituents and pharmacology of this plant. This review also provides adequate information about the use of this plant in an Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. PMID:26392713

  8. Effect of Arsenic on Growth, Arsenic Uptake, Distribution of Nutrient Elements and Thiols in Seedlings of Wrightia arborea (Dennst.) Mabb.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of arsenic on seedlings of Wrightia arborea and Holoptelea integrifolia. Results revealed that W. arborea could tolerate much higher arsenic concentration than H. integrifolia. Therefore, further investigations were focused on W. arborea using higher arsenic concentrations (0.2-2.0 mM). Seedlings of W. arborea accumulated about 312-2147 and 1048-5688 mg/kg dry weight of arsenic in shoots and roots, respectively, following treatments with 0.2-1.5 mM of arsenic without exhibiting arsenic toxicity signs. However, arsenic at 2.0 mM caused decline in growth. Macronutrients content such as Ca, S (except at 2.0 mM), and K (only in root) increased while Mg, P, and K (shoot) decreased by arsenic treatments. However, the content of micronutrients was enhanced under arsenic treatments. Non-protein thiols (NP-SH) showed positive correlations with arsenic doses up to 0.2-1.5 mM but at 2.0 mM there was a decline in NP-SH thus suggesting important role of NP-SH in imparting arsenic tolerance. This study demonstrated that W. arborea that could tolerate arsenic concentrations up to 0.2-1.5 mM may be useful in arsenic phytoremediation programs. PMID:25237723

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF Lagerstroemia parviflora Roxb.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, A; Singn, S K; Mazumder, R; Basu, S P; Saha, B P

    2002-01-01

    The benzene extract of the leaves of Lagerstroemia paviflora Roxb was tested for its Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against Gram Positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lactobacillus arabinosus and gram negative strains E.Coli, Shigella dysenteriae, shigella sonnei, shigella boydii, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae. Further the zones of inhibition Produced by the crude extract against four selected bacterial strains were measured and compared with those produced by the standard antibiotic Ciprofloxacin against the same bacterial strains. PMID:22557054

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation in the widespread antitropical deep-sea coral Paragorgia arborea.

    PubMed

    Herrera, S; Shank, T M; Sánchez, J A

    2012-12-01

    Numerous deep-sea species have apparent widespread and discontinuous distributions. Many of these are important foundation species, structuring hard-bottom benthic ecosystems. Theoretically, differences in the genetic composition of their populations vary geographically and with depth. Previous studies have examined the genetic diversity of some of these taxa in a regional context, suggesting that genetic differentiation does not occur at scales of discrete features such as seamounts or canyons, but at larger scales (e.g. ocean basins). However, to date, few studies have evaluated such diversity throughout the known distribution of a putative deep-sea species. We utilized sequences from seven mitochondrial gene regions and nuclear genetic variants of the deep-sea coral Paragorgia arborea in a phylogeographic context to examine the global patterns of genetic variation and their possible correlation with the spatial variables of geographic position and depth. We also examined the compatibility of this morphospecies with the genealogical-phylospecies concept by examining specimens collected worldwide. We show that the morphospecies P. arborea can be defined as a genealogical-phylospecies, in contrast to the hypothesis that P. arborea represents a cryptic species complex. Genetic variation is correlated with geographic location at the basin-scale level, but not with depth. Additionally, we present a phylogeographic hypothesis in which P. arborea originates from the North Pacific, followed by colonization of the Southern Hemisphere prior to migration to the North Atlantic. This hypothesis is consistent with the latest ocean circulation model for the Miocene. PMID:23094936

  11. Micropropagation of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. through tissue culture technique.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jyoti; Khan, Shagufta; Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Multiple shoots of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Sissoo) were incited from seeds through indirect somatic embryogenesis method. Seeds were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog's medium without any growth hormone. Than cotyledonary leaves were struck and used for callus induction on MS medium amplified with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (0.5 to 4 mg mL(-1)). After 3 to 4 weeks the embryogenic callus clumps was transferred to medium supplemented with cytokinin (BAP 1 to 5 mg L(-1), kinetin 1-5.0 mg L(-1)) for embryo maturation and germination. The high-frequency shoot proliferation (82%) and maximum number of shoots per explants were recorded in MS medium containing NAA (0.5)+BAP (0.5). The findings of recent investigations have shown that, it is possible to induce indirect somatic embryogenesis in Dalbergia sissoo and plant regeneration from callus cultures derived from cotyledonary leaves as explants. PMID:25911856

  12. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Free Radical Scavenging, and Antimicrobial Activity of Quercus incana Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Rizwana; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal; Naz, Sadia; Khan, Sara; Khan, Afsar; Rauf, Abdur; Bahadar, Haji; Uddin, Reaz

    2015-01-01

    Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, and antimicrobial activity of Q. incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Q. incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Q. incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55) and A. flavus (28 mm ± 0.45). Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21 ?g/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 ?g/mL) was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Q. incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. PMID:26635607

  13. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Adkar, Prafulla; Dongare, Amita; Ambavade, Shirishkumar; Bhaskar, V. H.

    2014-01-01

    Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100?g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32?mg and 102.85?mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8?mg Iron, and 121 and 325?mg phosphorus in 100?g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85?Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total protein content of the water chestnut kernel, Trapa bispinosa are reported. In this paper, the recent reports on nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects of Trapa bispinosa Roxb, as a medicinal and nutritional food, are reviewed. PMID:24669216

  14. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC??)?=?22.44 ?g/mL; LC?? 40.65 ?g/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC???=?25.77 ?g/mL; LC?? 45.98 ?g/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC???=?27.83 ?g/mL; LC?? 48.92 ?g/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. PMID:25666372

  15. Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda).

    PubMed

    Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Ji?í; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr

    2015-02-01

    European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridization were detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felix arabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show that introgression played an important role in the evolutionary history of the short-call tree frogs and occurred even between taxa supported as distinct species. PMID:25482363

  16. Drought impact on water use efficiency and intra-annual density fluctuations in Erica arborea on Elba (Italy).

    PubMed

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; DE Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Saurer, Matthias; Aronne, Giovanna; Linke, Petra; Cherubini, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Erica arborea (L) is a widespread Mediterranean species, able to cope with water stress and colonize semiarid environments. The eco-physiological plasticity of this species was evaluated by studying plants growing at two sites with different soil moistures on the island of Elba (Italy), through dendrochronological, wood-anatomical analyses and stable isotopes measurements. Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) were abundant in tree rings, and were identified as the key parameter to understand site-specific plant responses to water stress. Our findings showed that the formation of IADFs is mainly related to the high temperature, precipitation patterns and probably to soil water availability, which differs at the selected study sites. The recorded increase in the (13) C-derived intrinsic water use efficiency at the IADFs level was linked to reduced water loss rather than to increasing C assimilation. The variation in vessel size and the different absolute values of ?(18) O among trees growing at the two study sites underlined possible differences in stomatal control of water loss and possible differences in sources of water uptake. This approach not only helped monitor seasonal environmental differences through tree-ring width, but also added valuable information on E.?arborea responses to drought and their ecological implications for Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. PMID:23848555

  17. Scaling Erica arborea transpiration from trees up to the stand using auxiliary micrometeorological information in a wax myrtle-tree heath cloud forest (La Gomera, Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2013-09-01

    We investigate evapotranspiration, sap flow and top soil water content variations in a wax myrtle-tree heath ('fayal-brezal' in Spanish) cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands) over a 1-year period. We provide transpiration estimates for one of the representative species, the shrubby needle-like Erica arborea L., present in this relict subtropical forest. An ad hoc tree up to the stand scaling method that combines the sap flow and auxiliary reference evapotranspiration data is illustrated, showing to be useful when sap flow in a limited number of trees has been monitored. Individual daily-based scaling curves of the Gompertz type were necessary to explain the observed sap flow variability in E. arborea during the 1-year period investigated (r(2)???0.953 with mode of r(2)?=?0.9999). The mean daily sap flow of an E. arborea individual amounted to 8.37?±?5.65 kg day(-1) tree(-1), with a maximum of 20.48 kg day(-1) tree(-1), yielding an annual total of 3052.89 kg tree(-1). A comparison of the computed daily transpiration with the continuous micrometeorological time series monitored in the studied plot suggested that solar radiation was the main driving force of transpiration in E. arborea (cross correlation index?=?0.94). Fog may also affect tree transpiration via its reduction of radiation and temperature, such that during foggy periods the mean daily water loss estimate of E. arborea was 5.35?±?4.30 kg day(-1) tree(-1), which sharply contrasted with the 2.4-fold average transpiration values obtained for fog-free days, i.e., 12.81?±?4.33 kg day(-1) tree(-1). The annual water balance rendered a 288 mm year(-1) water input to the forest and evidenced the need for accurately quantifying the contribution of fog water dripping from the canopy. PMID:24072518

  18. A new steroidal glycoside from Corypha taliera Roxb., a globally endangered species.

    PubMed

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Khondker, Moniruzzaman; Nahar, Nilufar

    2016-02-01

    The reversed-phased HPLC analysis of the methanol extract of the pericarp of C. taliera Roxb. (Talipalm), a rare species of Arecaceae family, afforded a new steroidal glycoside, ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranoside (1). The structure of the compound was elucidated unequivocally by UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic studies. PMID:26196451

  19. Isolation and identification of new phytoconstituents from the fruit extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopal; Chauhan, Baby; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) (large cardamom), cultivated in the northern Himalayas, are used to treat stomach disorders, pulmonary diseases and liver complaints. Phytochemical investigation of the fruits led to the isolation of four new chemical compounds characterised as geranil-3(10)-en-9-olyl octadec-9-enoate, geranil-3(10)-en-9-carboxyl-?-D-arabinopyranoside, geranilan-9-carboxy-?-L-arabinopyranoside and stigmast-5-en-3?-ol-3?-D-arabinopyranosyl-2'-(3?-methoxy) benzoate-3'-octadec-9?,12?,15?-trienoate, along with the known compounds oleodilinolein and glyceryl trilinoleniate on the basis of spectral data analysis. PMID:24274834

  20. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)--a promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Aradhya, S M; Singh, L

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view. PMID:21857121

  1. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  2. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

    2013-01-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  3. Effect of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard against experimentally-induced gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, S S; Santani, D D

    2004-10-01

    Effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of the stem bark of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, have been studied on ethanol, ethanol-indomethacin and pylorus ligated gastric ulcers in experimental animals. Oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract (extract A3) inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol in a dose dependent manner. The protective effect of extract A3 against ethanol induced gastric lesions was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)). Further, extract A3 inhibited increase in vascular permeability due to ethanol administration. Extent of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in animals treated with extract. Extract A3 also inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by pylorus ligation, when administered both orally and intraperitoneally. Moreover, pretreatment with extract A3 increased mucus production and glycoprotein content, which was evident from the rise in mucin activity and TC: PR ratio. PMID:15551386

  4. Efficient control of air pollution through plants, a cost-effective alternative: studies on Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, C S; Bamniya, B R; Kapoor, K

    2013-09-01

    Plants can be used as both passive biomonitors and biomitigators in urban and industrial environments to indicate the environmental quality and to ameliorate pollution level in a locality. Many studies reveal that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of air pollution on comparative basis with reference to changes in photosynthetic pigments, plant height, leaves, as well as, biochemical parameters of plants of different sites around Udaipur city receiving varying levels of pollution load. The investigated tree species Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Family: Fabaceae) exhibited a reduction in various physiological and biochemical growth parameters that correspond with air pollution levels at different sites. The tree species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, leaf area, and chlorophyll and total carbohydrate and total protein concentration in the leaves. Our studies suggest that D. sissoo Roxb. can successfully be grown in an area for monitoring air pollution, where it is mild and droughts are common. It will prove as an ideal tree species to control pollution effectively beside acting as a shade tree and being a source of food for birds and animals. By plantation of D. sissoo Roxb., mitigative measure at the polluted sites to control generation of particulate matter and the air quality required can be ensured. Our results also confirm that industrial and vehicular air pollution level in Udaipur city is shifting beyond limits. PMID:23423551

  5. Incomplete sequence homogenization in 45S rDNA multigene families: intermixed IGS heterogeneity within the single NOR locus of the polyploid species Medicago arborea (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Galián, José A.; Rosato, Marcela; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Ribosomal sequences have become the classical example of the genomic homogenization of nuclear multigene families. Despite theoretical advantages and modelling predictions that support concerted evolution of the 45S rDNA, several reports have found intragenomic polymorphisms. However, the origins and causes of these rDNA polymorphisms are difficult to assess because seed plants show a wide range of 45S rDNA loci number variation, especially in polyploids. Medicago arborea is a tetraploid species that has a single 45S rDNA locus. This feature makes this species a suitable case study to assess the fate of ribosomal IGS homogenization in polyploid species showing nucleolus organizer region (NOR) reduction. Methods The intergenic spacer (IGS) region was amplified by long PCR and the fragments were cloned and sequenced by a primer-walking strategy. The physical mapping of the whole and partial IGS variants was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fibre-FISH methods on mitotic chromosomes and extended DNA fibres, respectively. Key Results Two IGS fragments of 4·8 and 3·5 kb were obtained showing structural features of functional sequences. The shorter variant appears to be a truncated copy of the 4·8 kb fragment that lacks the duplication of the transcription initiation site region and the entire D region. The physical localization of the two IGS variants on metaphase chromosomes and extended DNA fibres using FISH corroborated their joint presence within the same locus. In addition, no spatial structure of the two variants was detected within the NOR. Conclusions The results suggest that full sequence homogenization is not operating within the NOR locus of M. arborea. The structure of the NOR locus reported here departs from the models of IGS heterogeneity present in plants and caution against assuming the widespread belief that intragenomic ribosomal heterogeneity is mainly due to sequence variation between paralogous loci. PMID:24925322

  6. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant. PMID:26030998

  7. Essential Oil of Amomum maximum Roxb. and Its Bioactivities against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning

    2015-12-01

    Amomum maximum Roxb. is a perennial herb distributed in South China and Southeast Asia. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical constituents and assess insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil from Amomum maximum fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be ?-pinene (23.39%), ?-caryophyllene (16.43%), ?-pinene (7.55%), sylvestrene (6.61%) and ç-cadinene (4.19%). It was found that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 29.57 ?g/adult and LC50 = 23.09 mg/L air, respectively) and showed contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila (LD50 = 67.46 ?g/cm(2)). Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. After 2 h treatment, the essential oil possessed 100% repellency at 78.63 nL/cm(2) against T. castaneum and 84% repellency at 63.17 nL/cm(2) against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. PMID:26582152

  8. Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf and root bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Karunesh; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Tarun; Kumar, Ajay; Prakash, Om

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pharmacognostic characters of an important medicinal plant, Holoptelea integrifolia (H. integrifolia) Roxb. Methods The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, macroscopic and fluorescence analysis. Results The characteristic microscopic features of leaves were observed as trichomes, multicellular trichomes, xylem cells, phloem cells, collenchyma, vascular bundles, spongy parenchyma and palisade cells. The characteristic microscopic features of root bark included cork cambium, primary cortex, phloem fibers, medullary rays, endodermis, pericycle and lignified fibers in the transverse section and longitudinal section. The characteristic microscopy of root bark powder showed the presence of cortex cells, sieve tubes, calcium oxalate crystals and lignified fibers. Macroscopic study showed that leaf shape-oval, apex-acute, base-cordate and leaf margin was entire with glabrous surface, bitter taste and characteristic odour. The morphological features of root bark showed deep fissured, rough and firm surface with rhitydome and the periderm parallel to cambium. Conclusions Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of H. integrifolia. PMID:23569892

  9. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    PubMed Central

    Sreejith, M; Kannappan, N; Santhiagu, A; Mathew, Ajith P

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P<0.05) when compared with paralytic (7.33±0.206) and death time (18.60±0.229) of standard piperazine citrate at 100 mg/mL concentration. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents. PMID:24093785

  10. Validated HPTLC Method for Quantification of Luteolin and Apigenin in Premna mucronata Roxb., Verbenaceae

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nayan G.; Patel, Kalpana G.; Patel, Kirti V.; Gandhi, Tejal R.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed for quantitative estimation of luteolin and apigenin in Premna mucronata Roxb., family Verbenaceae. Separation was performed on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates using toluene?:?ethyl acetate?:?formic acid (6?:?4?:?0.3) as mobile phase for elution of markers from extract. The determination was carried out in fluorescence mode using densitometric absorbance-reflection mode at 366?nm for both luteolin and apigenin. The methanolic extract of Premna mucronata was found to contain 10.2?mg/g % luteolin and 0.165?mg/g % of apigenin. The method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD and LOQ, accuracy, precision, and specificity. The calibration curve was found to be linear between 200 and 1000?ng/band for luteolin and 50 and 250?ng/band for apigenin. For luteolin and apigenin, the limit of detection was found to be 42.6?ng/band and 7.97?ng/band while the limit of quantitation was found to be 129.08?ng/band and 24.155?ng/band, respectively. This developed validated method is capable of quantifying and resolving luteolin and apigenin and can be applicable for routine analysis of extract and plant as a whole. PMID:26421008

  11. Growth and mitochondrial respiration of mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) germinated at low pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Gerth, W. A.; Scheld, H. W.; Strain, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) seedlings were grown hypobarically to assess the effects of low pressure (21-24 kilopascals) on growth and mitochondrial respiration. Control seedlings grown at ambient pressure (101 kilopascals) were provided amounts of O2 equivalent to those provided experimental seedlings at reduced pressure to factor out responses to O2 concentration and to total pressure. Respiration was assayed using washed mitochondria, and was found to respond only to O2 concentration. Regardless of total pressure, seedlings grown at 2 millimoles O2 per liter had higher state 3 respiration rates and decreased percentages of alternative respiration compared to ambient (8.4 millimoles O2 per liter) controls. In contrast, seedling growth responded to total pressure but not to O2 concentration. Seedlings were significantly larger when grown under low pressure. While low O2 (2 millimoles O2 per liter) diminished growth at ambient pressure, growth at low pressure in the same oxygen concentration was enhanced. Respiratory development and growth of mungbean seedlings under low pressure is unimpaired whether oxygen or air is used as the chamber gas, and further, low pressure can improve growth under conditions of poor aeration.

  12. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity studies on the stems and roots of Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen-xia; Zhang, Jian-hua; Zhang, Yi; Meng, Da-li; Yan, Dan

    2015-08-01

    Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Its stems and roots have been used for the treatment of rheumatism and fever while the leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent to relieve pain. In order to support its traditional Chinese medicinal uses, five animal models were designed and the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the 70% EtOH-H2O extracts of J. lanceolarium (EJL) were investigated. Meanwhile, biochemical parameters such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in blood serum of rats exposed to acute (carrageenan) inflammation model were evaluated. At doses of 400 mg/kg, EJL exhibited higher anti-inflammation effect than that of indomethacin and better analgesic activity than that of aspirin (P<0.001). Furthermore, eleven isolated compounds including six lignanoids (1, 2, 6, 7, 8, and 11) and five iridoids (3, 4, 5, 9, and 10) were isolated from the active extracts and showed significant anti-inflammatory activities with the IC50 values of 1.76-5.22 mg/mL, respectively, when testing their inhibitory effects on phospholipase A2 in vitro. The results demonstrated that the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be attributed to inhibit the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids, production on both COX-2 and 5-LOX, and then finally inhibit the release of prostaglandins (PGs), which suggested that EJL had a non-selective inhibitory effect on the release or actions of these mediators, and might be a dual LOX-COX inhibitor for the treatment of inflammation from the natural resource. The studies on the animals and the inflammatory mediators, along with the bioactive compounds presumed that the existences of iridoids and lignanoids could be response for their bioactivities of the whole plants. PMID:26055344

  14. Screening of selected biological activities of artocarpus lakoocha roxb (moraceae) fruit pericarp.

    PubMed

    Shailendra Kumar, M B; Rakesh Kumar, M C; Bharath, A C; Vinod Kumar, H R; Prashith Kekuda, T R; Nandini, K C; Rakshitha, M N; Raghavendra, H L

    2010-09-01

    Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb (Moraceae) is cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Khasi Hills and Western Ghats. Objectives of the present study were to determine antibacterial, antioxidant, anthelmintic and insecticidal efficacy of methanol extract of A. lakoocha fruit pericarp. Antibacterial activity was tested against by Agar well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging ability was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined using adult Indian earthworm. Insecticidal activity was tested against second and third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The extract has shown dose dependent antibacterial, antioxidant, anthelmintic and insecticidal activity. Among bacteria, S. aureus has shown more susceptibility than K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The extract exhibited marked antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH free radical. The IC50 value for extract was found to be 49.42?g/ml. The extract exhibited marked anthelmintic activity by causing paralysis and death of worms and the effect was found to be dose dependent. The extract concentration 100mg/ml has shown marked anthelmintic effect than standard drug. In insecticidal study, the 2(nd) instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than 3(rd) instar larvae. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins and alkaloids. The presence of these phytoconstituents might be responsible for the biological activities of extract tested. The extract could be used to treat free radical damage, bacterial and helmintic infections and to control insect vectors. Further studies on isolation of constituents and their bio-efficacies in vitro and in vivo are under investigation. PMID:24825993

  15. CNS Depressant and Antinociceptive Effects of Different Fractions of Pandanus Foetidus Roxb. Leaf Extract in Mice

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Md Mominur; UDDIN, Muhammad Erfan; ISLAM, Abu Mohammed Taufiqual; CHOWDHURY, Md Ashraf Uddin; RAHMAN, Md Atiar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various parts of Pandanus foetidus Roxb. are used as traditional medicines. However, scientific reports concerning the effect of this plant on central nervous system (CNS) depression and analgesia are unavailable. This study investigated the CNS depressant and antinociceptive effects of Pandanus foetidus leaf extracts in a rodent model. Methods: The sedative and anxiolytic activities of Pandanus foetidus extract (500 g) were tested using behavioural models of Swiss albino mice, and the analgesic activity was assessed by formalin-induced pain and tail immersion tests at 200 mg/kg body weight of the mice. The data were analysed by a one-way ANOVA, a repeated measure of ANOVA and a non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) using the SPSS software. Acute toxicity was tested using an established method. Results: Compared with the aqueous fraction, the methanol, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of the extract exhibited a more significant (P < 0.001) reduction of locomotor activity in the mice in the open field, hole-cross, and elevated plus maze (EPM). The methanol fraction maximized the duration of sleeping time caused by the thiopental sodium induction. The extract produced a significant step-down in pain, as shown by the paw licking time in the early and late phases of the formalin test. In the tail immersion test, the chloroform fraction maximally reduced the heat-induced analgesia. The extract was found to be non toxic. Conclusion: The methanol, petroleum ether, and chloroform fractions of P. foetidus have strong CNS depressant and antinociceptive effects and thus merit further pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26715894

  16. Gastroprotective Potential of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Stem Bark against Diclofenac-Induced Gastric Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Israr; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark possesses anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antioxidant properties. This plant is used traditionally in the Indian system of medicine to treat emesis, ulcers, leucoderma, dysentery, stomach complaints, and skin disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcer effects of D. sissoo stem bark methanol extract (DSME) against the diclofenac sodium-induced ulceration in rat. Methods The DSME (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats once a day for 10 days in diclofenac-treated rats. The gastroprotective effects of DSME were determined by assessing gastric-secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free acidity, and total acidity. Biochemical studies of gastric mucosa were conducted to estimate the levels of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SHs), lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs)], reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), levels of scavenging antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Moreover, adherent mucus content and histological studies were performed on stomach tissues. Results Administration of DSME significantly decreased the ulcer index, TBARSs, H2O2, and MPO activity in gastric mucosa of the ulcerated rats. Activities of enzymic antioxidants, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, GST and GSH, and NP-SH contents were significantly increased with DSME administration in the gastric mucosa of diclofenac-treated rats. Volume of gastric juice, total and free acidity were decreased, whereas pH of the gastric juice was increased with the administration of DSME + diclofenac. Our results show that DSME administration is involved in the prevention of ulcer through scavenging of free radicals. Results of histopathological studies supported the gastroprotective activities of DSME. Conclusion The results of this study showed that DSME exhibit potential gastroprotective activity probably due to its antioxidant and cytoprotection ability. PMID:24298443

  17. Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

  18. Identification and validation of a new male sex-specific ISSR marker in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Sinchan; Saha, Soumen; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR) amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp) was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism. PMID:25538949

  19. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid analysis of Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Maheshu, Vellingiri; Priyadarsini, Deivamarudhachalam Teepica; Sasikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam

    2014-10-01

    Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. is a traditional food consumed as vegetable or pickle in arid regions of India and eaten during famines. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat diabetes, inflammation and etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties (DPPH, TEAC, TAA, FRAP, OH? and NO? radical scavenging activities) of the different extracts from aerial parts. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids of the extracts were also determined. The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models used. Methanol and water extracts had good total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity was correlated well with the amount of total phenolics present in the extracts. The extracts and its components may be used as an additive in food preparations and nutraceuticals. PMID:25328180

  20. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Sinchan; Saha, Soumen; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR) amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550?bp) was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism. PMID:25538949

  1. A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat and its bearing on palaeoclimatic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Anumeha; Guleria, J. S.; Mehrotra, R. C.

    2012-02-01

    A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea macroptera Dyer, which is a prominent member of the tropical evergreen forests of the Malayan Peninsula. The present finding, along with the other megafossil records described from the same area, indicates a typical tropical vegetation with a warm and humid climate at the time of deposition in contrast to the present day xeric vegetation in the area. As the family Dipterocarpaceae no longer exists in western India, it is essential to discuss the time of its extinction and possible causes, which may include drastic changes in the climate of the region. The present finding also supports the theory of a Malaysian origin for the family in contrast to the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin.

  2. Mycorrhiza (2006) 16: 125132 DOI 10.1007/s00572-005-0024-7

    E-print Network

    Thioulouse, Jean

    2006-01-01

    ) is a fast growing tree, native from India and considered as a potentially invasive woody plant in West Displacement of an herbaceous plant species community by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Gmelina arborea communities and (3) the influence on the struc- ture of herbaceous plant species communities in micro- cosms

  3. A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

    2014-06-01

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd. PMID:24873909

  4. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  5. Modifications of chemical functional groups of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb and its effect towards biosorption of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zamri; Ismail, Siti Salwa

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of non-living biomass as an alternative biosorbent for heavy metal removal has gain a tremendous consideration through the years. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb or pandan leaves, which is widely used as food additives in the South East Asia region, has been selected for its viability in the said effort due to the presence of chemical functional groups on its cellular network that enables the sorption to occur. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms participated during the heavy metal removal process, the biosorbent undergone a series of modification techniques to alter the chemical functional groups present on its constituent. From the outcome of the chemically-modified biosorbent being subjected to the contact with metal cations, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups present on the biosorbent are believed to be responsible for the metal uptake to occur through complexation mechanism. Modifying amine groups causes 14% reduction of Cu(II) uptake, whereas removing protein element increases the uptake to 26% as compared to the unmodified biosorbent. Also, scanning electron micrographs further suggested that the adsorption mechanism could perform in parallel, as attributed to the evidence of porous structure throughout the biosorbent fibrous nature.

  6. Anticancer potential and mechanism of action of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) supercritical CO? extract in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne V; Escalon, Enrique; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is among the less-investigated species of Curcuma for anticancer properties. We have investigated the anticancer potential and the mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) in the U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line. CA demonstrated higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin, and turmeric force with IC50, IC75, and IC90 values of 4.92 ?g/mL, 12.87 ?g/mL, and 21.30 ?g/mL, respectively. Inhibitory concentration values of CA for normal embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell line (mHypoE-N1) is significantly higher than glioblastoma cell line, indicating the specificity of CA against brain tumor cells. CompuSyn analysis indicates that CA acts synergistically with temozolomide and etoposide for the cytotoxicity with combination index values of <1. CA treatment also induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and downregulates genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, oncogenesis, and drug resistance in glioblastoma cells. PMID:25542408

  7. Immunomodulating Activity of Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Extracts: Activation of Rat Dendritic Cells and Improvement of the TH1 Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Lee, Shau-Yu; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides play a key role in enhancing immune function and facilitating cellular communication. Here, we purified Nymphaea rubra Roxb. polysaccharides (NR-PS) by treating them with pullulanase. They were then cultured with immature dendritic cells (DCs) derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). After treatment with bioactive NR-PS with a degree of polymerization (DP) value of 359.8, we found that the DCs underwent morphological changes indicative of activation. CD80/86 (87.16% ± 8.49%) and MHC class II (52.01% ± 10.11%) expression levels were significantly up-regulated by this treatment compared to the controls (65.45% ± 0.97% and 34.87% ± 1.96%). In parallel, endocytosis was also reduced (167.94% ± 60.59%) after treatment with 25 ?g/mL of NR-PS as measured by the medium fluorescence intensity compared to the control (261.67% ± 47.26%). Furthermore, the DCs after treatment with 25 ?g/mL NR-PS showed increased IL-12 (102.09 ± 10.16 to 258.78 ± 25.26 pg/mL) and IFN-? (11.76 ± 0.11 to 15.51 ± 1.66 pg/mL) secretion together with reduced IL-10 secretion (30.75 ± 3.35 to 15.37 ± 2.35 pg/mL), which indicates a TH1 immune response. In conclusion, NR-PS exhibits stimulatory effects on rat DCs and promotes the secretion of TH1 cytokines. Taken together, our studies are the first to show that NR-PS is an immunomodulator affecting the maturation and functioning of DCs. PMID:23109818

  8. In vitro propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Govind Kumar; Singh, Major; Rai, Neha Prakash; Bhardwaj, D R; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2012-07-01

    An efficient protocol for rapid in vitro clonal propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) genotype RSR/DR15 (female) and DR/NKB-28 (male) was developed through enhanced axillary shoot proliferation from nodal segments. Maximum shoot proliferation of 6.2 shoots per explant with 100 % shoot regeneration frequency was obtained from the female genotype on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium supplemented with 0.9??M N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate (CH). While from the male genotype the optimum shoot regeneration frequency (86.6 %) and 6.4 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.2??M BA. CH induced vigorous shoots, promoted callus formation, and proved inhibitory for shoot differentiation and shoot length, especially in explants from male genotype. Rooting was optimum on half-strength MS medium (male 92.8 %, female 74.6 %) containing 4.9??M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing a mixture of cocopit and perlite (1:1 ratio) and then to soil after 2-3 weeks. 84 % female and 81 % male regenerated plantlets survived and grew vigorously in the field. Genetic stability of the regenerated plants was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The amplification products were monomorphic in the in vitro propagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic integrity of in vitro propagated plants. This micropropagation procedure could be useful for raising genetically uniform planting material of known sex for commercial cultivation or build-up of plant material of a specific sex-type. PMID:23814442

  9. Comparative anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf powder and decoction of Chirabilva [Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvad, Sushama B.; Nishteswar, K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ethno-medical claims indicate that leaf of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch is being used in pain, inflammatory conditions by the Koya tribes. Aim: To evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of leaves of H. integrifolia in powder and decoction forms. Materials and Methods: The leaves of H. integrifolia were made into powder and decoction form using guidelines mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. The anti-inflammatory activity of test drug was evaluated against carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema and analgesic activity with formalin induced paw licking and tail flick response using Wistar albino rats. Results: Administration of leaf powder showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema at 1 h (21.62%) compared to the control group. Administration of decoction of leaves showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema at 1 h (18.12%) and 3 h (9.78%). Administration of leaf powder decreased the paw edema at 24 h (37.65%) and 48 h (66.30%) while treatment with leaf decoction showed apparent decrease in paw edema at 24 h (13.68%) and 48 h (52.42%) but failed to reach at significant level of formalin induced paw edema in rats. The test drugs did not produce any effect on radiant heat induced pain in rats and formalin induced paw licking response. Conclusion: Leaf decoction of H. integrifolia has better anti-inflammatory activity than leaf powder while they have not shown significant analgesic effects in both the experimental models.

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) stem bark aqueous extracts against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rise of antibiotic resistance among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have caused concerns for the treatment of MRSA infections. Hence, search for an alternative therapy for these infections is inevitable. Folk Indian medicine refers to the use of leaf and stem bark powder of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) in treatment of skin infections, but no scientific report establishes its antibacterial activity. Methods Direct aqueous extracts and sequential aqueous extracts of the stem bark of T. alternifolia (using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as other solvents) were prepared by soxhlet extraction. The antibiotic sensitivity profiles of the clinical isolates were determined against 18 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The methicillin resistance among S. aureus (MRSA) was confirmed by PCR amplification of mecA gene. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extracts. The micro-dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against the test organism. To further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the extract, cell cytotoxicity was checked on Vero cells by MTT assay. Chemical profiling of the extract was done by HPTLC method. Results The aqueous extracts of T. alternifolia stem bark exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, particularly against clinical isolates of MRSA and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extract against the isolates ranged from 600–800 ?g/ml. The extract did not exhibit cytotoxic activity against Vero cells even at the concentration of 4 mg/ml. The chemical profiling revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and steroids. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts did not exhibit antibacterial activity. Conclusion Our results offer a scientific basis for the traditional use of T. alternifolia in the treatment of skin infections, showing that the plant extract has an enormous potential as a prospective alternative therapy against MRSA skin infections. The present study lays the basis for future studies, to validate the possible use of T. alternifolia as a candidate in the treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:24066905

  11. Germacrane sesquiterpenes isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. inhibit UVB-induced upregulation of MMP-1, -2, and -3 expression in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hae; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Jung, Ye-Jin; Shrestha, Sabina; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Chang-Ho; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Jiyoung; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-10-01

    Four sesquiterpenes were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.: furanodiene (1), germacrone (2), furanodienone (3), and 13-hydroxygermacrone (4). Importantly, this was the first time compounds 1 and 4 were isolated from this plant. The chemical structures of these compounds were determined using 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and electron ionization mass spectrometry analyses. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 2 and 4 inhibited UVB-induced upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3 in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this upregulation occurred in a dose-dependent manner over the range of 1-10 ?M for each compound. PMID:25471012

  12. NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines mediated protective effect of Indigofera caerulea Roxb. on CCl4 induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ponmari, Guruvaiah; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan; Lakshmi, P T V; Guruvayoorappan, C

    2014-12-01

    Indigofera caerulea Roxb. is a well known shrub among native medical practitioners in folk medicine used for the treatment of jaundice, epilepsy, night blindness and snake bites. It is also reported to have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However its actual efficacy and hepatoprotective mechanism in particular is uncertain. Thus the present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of the methanolic extract of I. caerulea Roxb. leaves (MIL) and elucidation of its mode of action against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury in rats. HPLC analysis of MIL when carried out showed peaks close to standard ferulic acid and quercetin. Intragastric administration of MIL up to 2000 mg/kg bw, didn't show any toxicity and mortality in acute toxicity studies. During "in-vivo" study, hepatic injury was established by intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 3 ml/kg bw (30% CCl4 in olive oil; v/v) twice a week for 4 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. Further, hepatoprotective activity of MIL assessed using two different doses (100 and 200mg/kg bw) showed that intra-gastric administration of MIL (200mg/kg bw) significantly attenuates liver injury. Investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that MIL treatment was capable of reducing inflammation by an antioxidant defense mechanism that blocks the activation of NF-?B as well as inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? and IL-1?. The results suggest that MIL has a significant hepatoprotective activity which might be due to the presence of phytochemicals namely analogues of ferulic acid and other phytochemicals which together may suppress the inflammatory signaling pathways and promote hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 intoxicated liver damage. PMID:25445959

  13. ET-49ANTICANCER POTENTIAL AND MECHANISM OF ACTION OF MANGO GINGER (CURCUMA AMADA ROXB.) SUPERCRTICAL EXTRACTS IN HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA CELL LINES

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique; Khatib, Ziad; Melnick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumors are the most common form of solid tumors in children accounting for about 20-25% of all pediatric cancers. Chemotherapy options for brain tumor treatment are very much limited because of the blood brain barrier and emergence of drug resistance in brain tumor cells. The genus Curcuma contains several herbs like mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), turmeric (C. longa L.) and Javanese turmeric (C. xanthorrhiza Roxb.) that are suggested to have anticancer properties. Previous studies have indicated that curcumin, the major active ingredient in turmeric is cytotoxic to brain tumor cells. In this investigation, we show that the supercritical extract of mango ginger (CA) is superior in terms of cytotoxic effects than turmeric extract (CL), Javanese turmeric extract (CX), curcumin and turmeric forceTM (a nutraceutical containing supercritical and hydroethanolic extract of turmeric) against human glioblastoma cell lines (U-87MG and U-188MG). The cytotoxicity profile of CA is significantly better than temozolomide and etoposide as it has induced >90% death of tumor cells. The combination index values calculated according to Chou and Talalay's equations indicated that CA is synergistic (<1) for cytotoxic effects with temozolomide, etoposide and irinotecan in glioma cell lines. Gene expression analysis to explore the mechanism of action indicated that CA downregulates the expression of genes associated with inflammation (NF-kB, COX-2 and STAT3), apoptosis (p21, p53, Bcl-2/Bax ratio), telomerase (hTERT), drug resistance (MRP, DRP, LRP) and oncogenes (N-myc, V-Jun) in the RT-PCR assay. These positive results suggest the need for further evaluation of CA in nude mice xenograft studies and human clinical trials.

  14. Influence of forage harvesting regimes on dynamics of biological dinitrogen fixation of a tropical woody legume.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Pekka; Cruz, Pablo; Domenach, Anne Marie; Vaillant, Victor; Sierra, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Effects of three forage harvesting regimes-total removal of foliage and branches once (T-12) or twice a year (T-6) and 50% removal every 2 months (P-2)-on growth and biological dinitrogen fixation of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp were studied under subhumid tropical conditions in Guadeloupe, French Antilles. Gliricidia sepium was grown in association with the perennial C(4) grass Dichantium aristatum (Poir) C.E. Hubbard in a two-storied fodder production system. The medium-term effects of pruning on N(2) fixation were assessed by the (15)N natural abundance method. Gmelina arborea Roxb. was used as the non-fixing reference. The trees in the T-12 regime followed the natural phenological cycle, and flowering and podfilling at the beginning of the dry season reduced both foliage and nodule biomass. The T-6 regime impeded flowering, and only a few flowers, on older branches, were produced in the P-2 regime. In trees in the T-12, T-6, and P-2 regimes, fixed N comprised 54-87, 54-92, and 60-87%, respectively, of the total N in aboveground biomass, depending on sampling date. Total annual accumulation of N in harvestable aboveground biomass was highest in trees in the T-6 regime at 313 kg ha(-1), of which 204 kg ha(-1) of N was fixed from the atmosphere. In all treatments, about 70% of the N exported per year from the plot in the fodder harvest came from N(2) fixation. Thus, N(2) fixation makes an important contribution to the N economy of the G. sepium-D. aristatum forage production system, and greatly reduces the need for fertilizer application. PMID:12651525

  15. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), ?-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and ?-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

  16. Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRX?39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

  17. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Za; Bachar, Sc; Qais, N

    2012-10-01

    Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders. PMID:23493235

  18. The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective. PMID:25558167

  19. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-ulcerogenic study of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B.K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disorders like hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently now days because of a faulty lifestyle. Starches (Satwa) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely, Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used in folklore practice, as Tugaksheeree, for the treatment of the above-mentioned complaints. Aim: To assess the acute toxicity potential of the C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea along with their assessment for adaptogenic activity, by noting their effect on forced swimming-induced hypothermia and gastric ulceration in rats. Materials and Methods: For acute toxicity study, the effect of test drugs C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea rhizome starch were studied after a single administration of up to three dose levels, with 4400 mg/kg as the maximum dose. The animals were observed for 72 hours periodically and mortality was recorded up to seven days. The adaptogenic and anti-ulcer activities were assessed by determining and comparing the changes in rectal temperature, ponderal changes, ulcer index and histopathological parameters in the test drug group with that of stress control group. Results: Both the drugs did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality even up to the maximum dose level of 4400 mg/kg. Both the test drugs significantly reversed the stress-induced gastric ulceration in comparison to stress-control rats. Starch from rhizome of C. angustifolia reversed forced swimming-induced hypothermia apparently, but not to a significant extent. However, the reversal of hypothermia found statistically significant in the rhizome starch of the M. arundinacea treated group. Conclusion: M. arundinacea had better anti-stress activity in comparision to C. angustifolia. PMID:26195908

  20. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, ZA; Bachar, SC; Qais, N

    2012-01-01

    Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders. PMID:23493235

  1. Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

  2. Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.

    PubMed

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in non-model species of Zingiberaceae. PMID:24940878

  3. The Transport of Gmelina Logs on the Rio Dulce

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martines, R.; Perlack, B.; Ranney, J.

    1997-02-01

    The Rio Dulce National Park is one of Guatemala's major environmental assets. The park contains the remaining remnants of an eastern Guatemalan tropical rainforest which has good but fast deteriorating value for the development of the ecotourism industry. The governmenial objective for the region as stated in the Master Plan for the park is ecotourism development and protection of biodiversity. The decisions to be made concerning the long-term, sustainable use of the natural resources of the Rio Dulce region appear to be directed by existing environmental laws and the Rio Dulce Master Plan. However, the wording of these instruments is ambiguous and lacks specific definitions and criteria for making necessary determinations. This, in combination with lack of enforcement in the region, has led to extensive disparity in interpretation of the laws and uncontrolled, conflicting actions by individuals and organizations.

  4. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. PMID:25462462

  5. Micropropagation of Vanda teres (Roxb.) Lindle.

    PubMed

    Alam, M Firoz; Sinha, Pinaki; Hakim, M Lokman

    2010-01-01

    For high frequency clonal propagation of Vanda teres, nodal segments are cultured on VW medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 2 mg/L Kinetin, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 2 g/L peptone, 1 g/L activated charcoal and 2.2 g/L gelrite. The cultures are incubated at 24 +/- 2 degrees C under fluorescent light 50 micromol/m(2)/s for a 16 h photoperiod per day. The PLBs (protocorm like bodies) are induced within 12 weeks of culture and are subcultured to proliferate on the fresh nutrient culture medium for 8 weeks. The clumps of the PLBs are dissected and cultured on VW medium containing 2% sucrose, 15% coconut water (CW), 2 g/L peptone, 150 mg/L L-glutamine and 1 g/L activated charcoal. The PLB sections elongate to form shoots, and new PLBs are induced from the base within 8 weeks of culture. For plantlets formation, the shoots are cultured on VW medium amended with 2% sucrose, 15% CW, 2 g/L peptone, 1 g/L activated charcoal, 50 g/L banana pulp and 1 mg/L Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The regenerated plants are acclimatized and cultivated in the nursery, where they bloom within 3 years. PMID:20099087

  6. where mongooses do not occur (Swedberg, 1967). The West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea

    E-print Network

    Hedges, Blair

    is absent. Funding was provided by the Caribbean Islands National Wildlife Refuges, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Ser- vice, via the Louisiana Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Louisiana State University Agricul- tural Center, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Louisiana Department of Wildlife

  7. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  8. Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2011-05-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423

  9. Use of the Harmonic Direction Finder to study the terrestrial habitats of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea)

    E-print Network

    Perrin, Nicolas

    focused on breeding aggregations in wetlands (Duellman and Trueb, 1986; Alford and Richards, 1999 a potentially end- less life. Moreover, these devices are relatively lightweight making them potentially

  10. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the traditional herb used for treating erectile dysfunction, Butea superba Roxb.

    PubMed

    Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sutjit, Wandee; Pulcharoen, Kade; Chulasiri, Malyn

    2010-01-01

    Butea superba is a traditional tuberous Thai plant enriched with flavonoids that is used for treating erectile dysfunction. We investigated the mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials of a B. superba extract by using the pre-incubation method of the Ames test. Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100 were applied as the tester strains in the presence and absence of an S9 mixture. Prior to the mutagenic and antimutagenic tests, the survival of the tester strains was measured by treating with the B. superba extract. The results show that the B. superba extract exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic effects. Data from the Ames test revealed that the B. superba extract to be non-mutagenic in the presence and absence of the S9 mixture. In contrast, the B. superba extract showed antimutagenic potential towards either or both of the tested mutagens: 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-acrylamide (AF-2) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) in the respective presence and absence of the S9 mixture, respectively. The plant antimutagenic activity was confirmed by a rec assay. A further study by micronucleus test demonstrated that the B. superba extract at the maximum loading volume could induce acute micronucleus formation in the tested animals. The in vitro mutagenic and antimutagenic assays confirmed the safe consumption of B. superba products at low dose (not more than 781.25 microg/ml of the plant extract), but the in vivo genotoxic assay demonstrated the unsafe consumption at a high dose (300 mg/kg of the BW plant extract or 16 g/kg of the BW plant powder). PMID:20460693

  11. Clot Lysis and Antimitotic Study of Ficus glomerata Roxb Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shivasharanappa, Kirankumar; Londonkar, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the thrombolytic and antimitotic potentiality of various extracts of fruits of Ficus glomerata, a traditional medicinal plant, using an in vitro assay method. Three crude extracts such as petroleum ether (FGPE), chloroform (FGCE), and methanol (FGME) were used for the study, with a standard (streptokinase) and negative control (sterile distilled water) to validate the method. The thrombolytic nature of the plant was found significant with methanol extract and chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have recorded mild activity, when compared with the negative control (sterile distilled water). The extracts have shown mild clot lysis, that is, 2.16%, 23.06%, 27.60%, and 47.74% of sterile distilled water, FGPE, FGCE, and FGME, respectively, while the standard (streptokinase) has shown 74.22% clot lysis. FGME inhibited the root growth in number as well as length effectively, followed by FGPE, while FGCE exhibited moderate antimitotic activity and it was supported by mitotic index. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that among all the extracts of plant the methanolic extract has shown highest thrombolytic and antimitotic activity. PMID:25006495

  12. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explant of Dwarf Hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson)

    PubMed Central

    Karata?, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Ç?nar, Ay?egül; Dogan, Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10–1.60?mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10?mg/L IBA and 500?mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10?mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10?mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10?mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20–1.00?mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6–9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

  13. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ?-amyrin, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

  14. Major constituents and anthelmintic activity of volatile oils from leaves and flowers of Cymbopogon martini Roxb.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, S A; Girme, A S; Bhalke, R D

    2007-11-01

    The major volatile constituents of leaves and flowers of Cymbopogon martini from the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation were identified by GC/MS. Five constituents were identified from the volatile oil of leaves and flowers, which constituted about 82.49 and 75.63% of the total amount, respectively. A monoterpene, piperitone (6.00%), was identified in the flowers of C. martini; in addition, flowers were found to contain more olefinic terpenes, namely geraniol (69.63%), compared with leaves (53.41%). Leaves contain bicyclic monoterpene, nerol (24.76%) and alpha-pinene (4.32%). Anthelmintic activity of these oils was evaluated on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and results showed that the volatile oil of C. martini flower required less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms. PMID:17987504

  15. In vitro Antioxidant Potential in Sequential Extracts of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    Reenu, J.; Azeez, Shamina; Bhageerathy, Chempakam

    2015-01-01

    Present study deals with antioxidant potential of sequential extracts of fresh and dried rhizomes of Curcuma caesia, using solvents viz., hexane, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water, which was analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species assay. Total phenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. C. caesia showed significant antioxidant activity in chloroform, benzene and ethyl acetate extracts. The chloroform extract was highly effective as free radical scavengers, electron-donating agents and reducing molybdate ions except for reducing lipid peroxidation. The highest total phenol content was also exhibited by chloroform and benzene extracts. Antioxidant potential expressed by C. caesia in the sequential extracts could be effectively utilized for identification of the bioactive compounds for future phytopharmacological applications. PMID:25767317

  16. Palmarosa [Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.] as a putative crop for phytoremediation, in tannery sludge polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Janhvi; Chand, Sukhmal; Pandey, Shipra; Rajkumari; Patra, D D

    2015-12-01

    A field experiment using tannery sludge as a soil amendment material and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) as a potential phytostabilizer was conducted to investigate their synergistic effect in relation to the improvement in soil quality/property. Three consecutive harvests of two cultivars of palmarosa-PRC-1 and Trishna, were examined to find out the influence of different tannery sludge doses on their herb, dry matter, essential oil yield and heavy metal accumulation. Soil fertility parameters (N, P, K, Organic carbon) were markedly affected by different doses of sludge. Enhanced soil nitrogen was positively correlated with herb yield (0.719*) and plant height (0.797*). The highest dose of tannery sludge (100tha(-1)) exhibited best performance than other treatments with respect to herb, dry matter and oil yield in all three harvests. Trishna was found to be superior to PRC-1 in relation to same studied traits. Quality of oil varied, but was insignificant statistically. Uptake of heavy metals followed same order (Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd) in roots and shoots. Translocation factor <1 for all trace elements and Bioconcentration factor >1 was observed in case of all heavy metals. Overall, tannery sludge enhanced the productivity of crop and metal accumulation occurred in roots with a meager translocation to shoots, hence it can be used as a phytostabiliser. The major advantage of taking palmarosa in metal polluted soil is that unlike food and agricultural crops, the product (essential oil) is extracted by hydro-distillation and there is no chance of oil contamination, thus is commercially acceptable. PMID:26298512

  17. Development of indirect competitive ELISA for quantification of mitragynine in Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth.).

    PubMed

    Limsuwanchote, Supattra; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Keawpradub, Niwat; Putalun, Waraporn; Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) against mitragynine (MG), an analgesic alkaloid from Kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa), was produced. MG was coupled to carrier proteins employing either 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS), a zero-length cross linker or a 5-carbon length glutaraldehyde cross linker. To confirm the immunogenicity, the hapten numbers were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Preparation of the MAb was accomplished by the electrofusion method. Hybridoma 1A6 that was constructed from the fusion between splenocytes of EDC/NHS conjugate immunized mice and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells was selected, cloned twice and expanded. The cross-reactivities (CRs) of this MAb 1A6 with a series of indole alkaloids were 30.54%, 24.83% and 8.63% for speciogynine, paynantheine and mitraciliatine, respectively. Using this MAb, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed with a measurement range of 32.92-250 ?g/mL. Quantitative analysis of the MG contents in plant samples by icELISA correlated well with the standard high performance liquid chromatography method (R(2)=0.994). The MAb against mitragynine provided a tool for detection of MG in Kratom preparations. PMID:25216455

  18. In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monali P.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. Results Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were controlled by higher amounts/levels of leaf extracts. Phytochemicals of all plants were qualitatively estimated. Conclusions A majority of timber-yielding plants studied had in vitro control capacity against MDR uropathogenic bacteria. PMID:24524024

  19. Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. Methods The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 ?g/disc. Kanamycin (30 ?g/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Results The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 ?g/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 ?g/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p?

  20. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  1. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals

  2. Effects of Post-coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Musa, Isa Fakai

    2012-01-01

    Background The abortifacient claim of Senna alata (S. alata) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Methods Twenty four Pregnant rats (143.99±1.21 g) allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/ body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Conclusion Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract. PMID:23926548

  3. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora) is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Methods The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90%) followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60%) and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD) and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. Results The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P < 0.001). The inhibition of caseinolytic activity of the proteases increased with increasing ratio of seed extract. The residual activity of trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein extract for 60 min. The inhibitory activity was evident in gelatin SDS-PAGE where a major band (~17-19 kD) of protease inhibitor (PI) was detected in dialyzed and SEC elute. The conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus was moderately inhibited (30%) by the dialyzed seed extract. Conclusions Cassia tora seed extract has strong protease inhibitory activity against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. The inhibitor in Cassia tora may attenuate microbial proteases and also might be used as phytoprotecting agent. PMID:21749682

  4. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the ethanol extract of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry buds.

    PubMed

    Dung, Nguyen Thi; Kim, Jung Min; Kang, Sun Chul

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the essential oil isolated from the buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 55 compounds representing 93.71% of the oil were identified. The oil significantly inhibited the growth of food spoilage (FS), food-borne (FB), skin pathogens (SP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oil against the tested microorganisms were found in the range of 1-20muL/mL. Whereas the ethanol extract exhibited potential antibacterial activity against the entire tested Gram positive bacteria and one food spoilage Gram negative bacterium P. aeruginosa. The MIC and MBC values of ethanol extract against the tested bacteria were found in the range of 0.25-32mg/mL. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies demonstrated potential detrimental effect of the essential oil on the morphology of MRSA-P249 and VRE-B2332 at the used MIC values, along with the potential effect on cell viabilities of the tested bacteria. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity and the scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals of the essential oil and the ethanol extract were also evaluated. PMID:18838098

  5. Profiling of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant and anticancer activities in pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) extracts from different locations of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytochemicals and antioxidants from plant sources are of increasing interest to consumers because of their roles in the maintenance of human health. Most of the secondary metabolites of herbs are used in a number of pharmaceutical products. Methods Secondary metabolites composition and content of five flavonoids and three phenolic acids were evaluated and determined in Pandanus amaryllifolius extracts from three different locations of Malaysia by RP-HPLC; Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay; The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) Assay was employed to screen anticancer activity of extracts against MCF-7 cancer cell line. Results Highest value of total flavonoids (TF) and total phenolics (TP) was observed in pandan extract from Bachok locattion (1.87 mg/g DW and 6.72 mg/g DW) followed by Klang (1.32 mg/g DW; 5.07 mg/g DW) and Pontian (1.12 mg/g DW; 4.88 mg/g DW). Rutin just detected from Bachok location with value of 0.082 mg/g DW. High content of epicatechin (0.035 mg/g DW) and naringin (0.325 mg/g DW) were observed from Bachok location while, highest content of catechin (0.613 mg/g DW) and kaempferol (0.278 mg/g DW) was observed in pandan extract from Klang location. The extract of pandan from Bachok exhibited highest value of gallic acid (0.423 mg/g DW) and cinnamic acid (0.084 mg/g DW). Ferrulic acid just detected from pandan extract of Bachok location with concentration of 0.281mg/g DW. Between studied locations Bachok exhibited highest value of DPPH (64.27%) and FRAP (517.2 ?m of Fe (II)/g) activity followed by Klang (52.16%; 448.6 ?m of Fe (II)/g) and Pontian (50.10%; 314.8 ?m of Fe (II)/g). The preliminary screening showed pandan extracts from 3 locations possessed anticancer promoting activity against MCF-7 cell line, with 78.3%, 70.5% and 67.4% inhibition rate, respectively. Maximum MCF-7cell line inhibition was observed in pandan extract from Bachok location. Conclusions The samples collected from the North (Bachok) exhibited the highest TP, TF antioxidant and anticancer activity while those from the Southern portion (Pontian) appeared to have the lowest content of TP, TF and antioxidant activity. PMID:24289290

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian Folk Remedy, through Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Durbadal; Mukherjee, Hemanta; Mondal, Supriya; Jena, Aditya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Mondal, Keshab C.; Malhotra, Bharti; Samanta, Amalesh; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB) for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA), using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-12). Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-?B), and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-B?) by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-?Bp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway. PMID:25153081

  7. Microwave extraction and rapid isolation of arjunic acid from Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) stem bark and quantification of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid using HPLC-PDA technique.

    PubMed

    Verma, Subash Chandra; Jain, Chhoten Lal; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Devalla, Ramesh Babu

    2012-07-01

    Arjunic acid and arjunolic acid are main bioactive components of Terminalia arjuna stem bark and reported for various biological activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of arjunic and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna was investigated with developed and validated HPLC-PDA method, which resulted in the isolation of a novel anticancer molecule i.e. arjunic acid. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power, microwave extraction time, on the extraction efficiencies of arjunic, and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions identified were 5.0 g quantity of stem bark powder, 20 mL of ethyl acetate, preleaching time 10 min, microwave power 600 W, temperature 65°C, and microwave irradiation time 5 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than reported methods. The HPLC-PDA analysis method was developed and validated to have good linearity, precision, sensitivity, and accuracy. MAE-HPLC-PDA is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method for isolation and determination of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid in the stem bark of T. arjuna. PMID:22761141

  8. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 106) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 106) and C. arborea (45 × 106), respectively. The increase in height (60–70?cm), number of leaves (600–650), and yield of chili (120–150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE M. S. Edwards G. Herna ndez-Carmona

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Matthew

    RESEARCH ARTICLE M. S. Edwards Æ G. Herna´ ndez-Carmona Delayed recovery of giant kelp near its limit of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Agardh), along the Pacific coast of North America and the subsurface stipitate kelp, Eisenia arborea (Areschoug), near M. pyrifera's then southern limit at Punta San

  10. The amphibians and reptiles in three urban protected areas... A STUDY ON THE AMPHIBIANS (AMPHIBIA) AND

    E-print Network

    Mollov, Ivelin Aldinov

    The amphibians and reptiles in three urban protected areas... 79 #12; #12; #12;#12; #12;#12; #12; !" #$ %&#' %( )&'( * A STUDY ON THE AMPHIBIANS (AMPHIBIA) AND REPTILES (REPTILIA the species composition and distribution of 2 amphibian (Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea) and 7 reptile species

  11. Ecology, 90(8), 2009, pp. 21902201 2009 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-print Network

    plant Coriaria arborea, cyanolichens (primarily Pseudocyphellaria spp.), bryophytes (many species ), bryophytes (0.7­10 kg NÁhaÀ1 ÁyrÀ1 ), and litter (1­2 kg NÁhaÀ1 ÁyrÀ1 ) were driven primarily by changes and bryophytes, and grew monotonically with soil age (but did not change with soil N) for litter. This non

  12. Relationships of the Woody Medicago Species (Section Dendrotelis) Assessed by Molecular Cytogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Marcela; Castro, Mercedes; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The organization of rDNA genes in the woody medic species from the agronomically important Medicago section Dendrotelis was analysed to gain insight into their taxonomic relationships, to assess the levels of infraspecific variation concerning ribosomal loci in a restricted and fragmented insular species (M. citrina) and to assess the nature of its polyploidy. Methods Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA genes in the three species of section Dendrotelis (M. arborea, M. citrina, M. strasseri) and the related M. marina from section Medicago. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to assess the genomic relationships of the polyploid M. citrina with the putatively related species from section Dendrotelis. Key Results The diploid (2n = 16) M. marina has a single 45S and two 5S rDNA loci, a pattern usually detected in previous studies of Medicago diploid species. However, polyploid species from section Dendrotelis depart from expectations. The tetraploid species (2n = 32) M. arborea and M. strasseri have one 45S rDNA locus and two 5S rDNA loci, whereas in the hexaploid (2n = 48) M. citrina four 45S rDNA and five 5S rDNA loci have been detected. No single chromosome of M. citrina was uniformly labelled after using genomic probes from M. arborea and M. strasseri. Instead, cross-hybridization signals in M. citrina were restricted to terminal chromosome arms and NOR regions. Conclusions FISH results support the close taxonomic interrelationship between M. arborea and M. strasseri. In these tetraploid species, NOR loci have experienced a diploidization event through physical loss of sequences, a cytogenetic feature so far not reported in other species of the genus. The high number of rDNA loci and GISH results support the specific status for the hexaploid M. citrina, and it is suggested that this species is not an autopolyploid derivative of M. arborea or M. strasseri. Further, molecular cytogenetic data do not suggest the hypothesis that M. arborea and M. strasseri were involved in the origin of M. citrina. FISH mapping can be used as an efficient tool to determine the genomic contribution of M. citrina in somatic hybrids with other medic species. PMID:18413655

  13. The effects of natural and induced short-term floods on four sugarcane accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated at the USDA/ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, FL to evaluate the potential for flood tolerance in several accessions from Saccharum barberi (Jeswiet) and S. sinense (Roxb. Amend. Jeswiet) sugarcane genera. The experimental design included 4 accessions, Kewal...

  14. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

  15. Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

  16. Exserohilum Leaf Spot on Tigergrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tigergrass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze ) is a popular ornamental grass grown throughout landscapes in South Florida. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was observed on tigergrass in the landscape and a commercial nursery in Homestead, FL. The causal agent of the leaf spot was isolated, cha...

  17. Constituents from Terminalia species increase PPAR-Alpha and PPAR-Gamma levels and stimulate glucose uptake without enhancing adipocyte differentiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruits of Terminalia bellerica Roxb.(Combretaceae) and T. chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are important components of triphala, a popular Ayurvedic formulation, for treating diabetes in Indian traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the constituents of T. belleric...

  18. A bactericidal protein in Bombina variegata pachypus skin venom.

    PubMed

    Mastromei, G; Barberio, C; Pistolesi, S; Delfino, G

    1991-01-01

    The skin venom of the yellow bellied toad Bombina variegata pachypus has an antimicrobial activity which seems to be correlated to the presence of a 6700 mol. wt polypeptide. This polypeptide was purified by electroelution from SDS-urea-polyacrylamide gels and characterized for its antimicrobial activity. A bactericidal action was detected at concentrations with little or no cytolytic effect. The determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration showed that there was activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and also against yeasts. The skin secretions of three other anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea and Discoglossus pictus) were examined for the presence of antimicrobial activities. Only the Hyla arborea secretion exhibited antimicrobial properties. A small amount of a 6700 mol. wt polypeptide was detected among the Hyla secreted products. PMID:2048146

  19. In vivo antitussive potentiality of Lagerstroemia parviflora flower extract using a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide in mice.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Avijit; Bhattacharya, S; Mazumder, Rupa

    2007-03-01

    The methanol extract of the flowers of Lagerstroemia parviflora Roxb (Family: Lythraceae) was investigated for its effect on a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. It exhibited significant antitussive activity when compared with the control in a dose-dependent manner. The extract (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1)) showed maximum inhibition of cough reflex at 90 min after drug administration and the antitussive activity was comparable to that of codeine phosphate, a standard antitussive agent. PMID:17365711

  20. Evaluation of antitussive activity of Lagerstroemia parviflora leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Avijit; Saha, B P; Basu, S P; Mazumder, Rupa; Boominathan, R; Devi, B Parimala; Mandal, S C

    2004-09-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Lagerstroemia parviflora Roxb was investigated for its effect on a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. It exhibited significant antitussive activity when compared with the control in a dose-dependent manner. The L. parviflora extract (100, 200, 300 mg/kg) showed maximum inhibition of cough reflex at 90 min after drug administration and the antitussive activity was comparable to that of codeine phosphate, a standard antitussive agent. PMID:15478190

  1. A new species of Leptadenia (Apocynaceae) and two other new records from southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Masrahi, Yahya S.

    2015-01-01

    Leptadenia jazanica Y. Masrahi from the province of Jazan, southwestern Saudi Arabia is described as a new species and illustrated. The species differs from the other known nearest species of the genus, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, by decumbent to scrambling habit of stems and persistent leaves. In the same province also two new records belonging to the genera Canavalia (Fabaceae) and Craterostigma (Scrophulariaceae) were collected; they were identified as Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. and Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. PMID:26288569

  2. Studies on the antibacterial potential of Cryptostegia grandiflora R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) extract.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, P K; Gunasekhran, R; Subburaju, T; Dhanbal, S P; Duraiswamy, B; Vijayan, P; Suresh, B

    1999-02-01

    Different extracts of Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb) Rbr. leaves were investigated for their antibacterial potential against Pseudomonus cepacia NCIM-2106, Bacillus megatorium NCIM-2087, Staphylococcus aureus NCIM-2492, Escherichia coli NCIM-2345, Bacillus subtilis NCIM-2349 and Bacillus coagulans NCIM 2323. Almost all the extracts produced significant antibacterial activity against all the microorganisms being tested and the effect so produced was comparable to the standard antibiotic, tetracycline hydrochloride. The petroleum ether (60 degrees-80 degrees C) extract showed maximum efficacy. PMID:10189956

  3. Gamma sensitivity of forest plants of Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Akshatha; Chandrashekar, K R

    2014-06-01

    Seeds of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam., Garcinia xanthochymus Hook., Saraca asoca Roxb., Rourea minor Gaertn., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz., Aporusa lindleyana (Wt.) bail., Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. and Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. were collected from different regions of Western Ghats and exposed to different doses of gamma radiation using Co-60 source. The effect of irradiation was examined on germination, growth and vigor parameters. Decrease in the germination and growth attributes with increased dose was observed in A. hirsutus, G. xanthochymus and S. asoca and thus indicating sensitivity of these plants to radiation. In contrast, enhancement in the germination (percentage), vigor and generation of leaves was observed for P. marsupium, T. chebula, H. integrifolia and O. indicum. These plants were classified as radiation tolerant because of the ability of their seedlings to successfully establish under radiation stress. R. minor and A. lindleyana were able to maintain viability up to 100 Gy dose, however, any further increase in the dose found to have negative effect. PMID:24631785

  4. Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

  5. Dormancy as exaptation to protect mimetic seeds against deterioration before dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Novembre, Ana D. L. C.; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; Marcos Filho, Júlio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Mimetic seeds simulate the appearance of fleshy fruits and arilled seeds without producing nutritive tissues as a reward for seed dispersers. In this strategy of seed dispersal, seeds may remain attached to the mother plant for long periods after maturity, increasing their availability to naïve seed dispersers. The hypothesis that seed coat impermeability in many tropical Fabaceae with mimetic seeds serves as an exaptation to protect the seeds from deterioration and rotting while awaiting dispersal was investigated. Methods Seed coat impermeability was evaluated in five mimetic-seeded species of tropical Fabaceae in south-eastern Brazil (Abarema langsdorffii, Abrus precatorius, Adenanthera pavonina, Erythrina velutina and Ormosia arborea) and in Erythrina speciosa, a ‘basal’ species in its genus, which has monochromatic brown seeds and no mimetic displays. Seed hardness was evaluated as a defence against accelerated ageing (humid chamber at 41 °C for 144 h). Seed development and physiological potential of O. arborea was evaluated and the effect of holding mature seeds in pods on the mother plant in the field for a period of 1 year under humid tropical conditions was compared with seeds stored under controlled conditions (15 °C and 40 % relative air humidity). Key Results All five mimetic-seeded species, and E. speciosa, showed strong coat impermeability, which protected the seeds against deterioration in accelerated ageing. Most O. arborea seeds only became dormant 2 months after pod dehiscence. Germination of seeds after 1 year on the plant in a humid tropical climate was 56 %, compared with 80 % for seeds stored in controlled conditions (15 °C, 45 % relative humidity). Seedling shoot length after 1 year did not differ between seed sources. Conclusions Dormancy acts in mimetic-seeded species as an exaptation to reduce seed deterioration, allowing an increase in their effective dispersal period and mitigating the losses incurred by low removal rates by naïve avian frugivores. PMID:20354070

  6. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Distribution of Deep-Water Gorgonian Corals in Relation to Seabed Topography on the Norwegian Margin

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ruiju; Purser, Autun; Unnithan, Vikram; Guinan, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between deep-water coral distribution and seabed topography is important for understanding the terrain habitat selection of these species and for the development of predictive habitat models. In this study, the distribution of the deep-water gorgonians, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, in relation to terrain variables at multiple scales of 30 m, 90 m and 170 m were investigated at Røst Reef, Traena Reef and Sotbakken Reef on the Norwegian margin, with Ecological Niche Factor Analysis applied. To date, there have been few published studies investigating this aspect of gorgonian distribution. A similar correlation between the distribution of P. arborea and P. resedaeformis and each particular terrain variable was found at each study site, but the strength of the correlation between each variable and distribution differed by reef. The terrain variables of bathymetric position index (BPI) and curvature at analysis scales of 90 m or 170 m were most strongly linked to the distribution of both species at the three geographically distinct study sites. Both gorgonian species tended to inhabit local topographic highs across all three sites, particularly at Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef, with both species observed almost exclusively on such topographic highs. The tendency for observed P. arborea to inhabit ridge crests at Røst Reef was much greater than was indicated for P. resedaeformis. This investigation identifies the terrain variables which most closely correlate with distribution of these two gorgonian species, and analyzes their terrain habitat selection; further development of predictive habitat models may be considered essential for effective management of these species. PMID:22912887

  7. Transpiration in a sub-tropical ridge-top cloud forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Santos, G.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryLaurel forests in the Canary Islands (Spain) survive where humid conditions are guaranteed throughout the year. On peaks and ridges, laurel forest gives way to mixed evergreen tree-heath/beech forest of low stature ("fayal-brezal") that has to cope with rapidly changing light, temperature and humidity conditions due to the occurrence of intermittent sunny and foggy periods during the mostly rainless summer. These conditions are poorly understood and there is a lack of information on the interrelations between tree physiological behavior and ambient climatic and soil water conditions in fayal-brezal. In this study sap velocities were measured for 2 years in two dominant tree species (Myrica faya and Erica arborea) in a ridge-top forest in the National Park of Garajonay on the island of La Gomera. The resulted average daily stand transpiration was 1.2 ± 0.12 mm (416 mm year-1). However, the narrow-leaved E. arborea exhibited higher sap velocities than the broad-leaved M. faya. Also, sap velocity increased with stem diameter in E. arborea but not in M. faya. Nocturnal flow activity was observed throughout the year and reflected ambient conditions on some occasions, and stem water storage recovery on others. Strong stomatal control in response to increases in vapor pressure deficit was seen in both species. Fog reduced sap velocity from 10% up to 90% but no consistent pattern was found. Soil water uptake during the dry summer (246 mm) was much larger than atmospheric water inputs (41 mm, rain and fog). The low moisture levels in the top 0.3 m of the soil had limited influence on transpiration rates indicating that vegetation must have had access to moisture in deeper layers.

  8. Early Life History of Deep-Water Gorgonian Corals May Limit Their Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Lacharité, Myriam; Metaxas, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water gorgonian corals are long-lived organisms found worldwide off continental margins and seamounts, usually occurring at depths of ?200–1,000 m. Most corals undergo sexual reproduction by releasing a planktonic larval stage that disperses; however, recruitment rates and the environmental and biological factors influencing recruitment in deep-sea species are poorly known. Here, we present results from a 4-year field experiment conducted in the Gulf of Maine (northwest Atlantic) at depths >650 m that document recruitment for 2 species of deep-water gorgonian corals, Primnoa resedaeformis and Paragorgia arborea. The abundance of P. resedaeformis recruits was high, and influenced by the structural complexity of the recipient habitat, but very few recruits of P. arborea were found. We suggest that divergent reproductive modes (P. resedaeformis as a broadcast spawner and P. arborea as a brooder) may explain this pattern. Despite the high recruitment of P. resedaeformis, severe mortality early on in the benthic stage of this species may limit the abundance of adult colonies. Most recruits of this species (?80%) were at the primary polyp stage, and less than 1% of recruits were at stage of 4 polyps or more. We propose that biological disturbance, possibly by the presence of suspension-feeding brittle stars, and limited food supply in the deep sea may cause this mortality. Our findings reinforce the vulnerability of these corals to anthropogenic disturbances, such as trawling with mobile gear, and the importance of incorporating knowledge on processes during the early life history stages in conservation decisions. PMID:23762358

  9. Early life history of deep-water gorgonian corals may limit their abundance.

    PubMed

    Lacharité, Myriam; Metaxas, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water gorgonian corals are long-lived organisms found worldwide off continental margins and seamounts, usually occurring at depths of ?200-1,000 m. Most corals undergo sexual reproduction by releasing a planktonic larval stage that disperses; however, recruitment rates and the environmental and biological factors influencing recruitment in deep-sea species are poorly known. Here, we present results from a 4-year field experiment conducted in the Gulf of Maine (northwest Atlantic) at depths >650 m that document recruitment for 2 species of deep-water gorgonian corals, Primnoa resedaeformis and Paragorgia arborea. The abundance of P. resedaeformis recruits was high, and influenced by the structural complexity of the recipient habitat, but very few recruits of P. arborea were found. We suggest that divergent reproductive modes (P. resedaeformis as a broadcast spawner and P. arborea as a brooder) may explain this pattern. Despite the high recruitment of P. resedaeformis, severe mortality early on in the benthic stage of this species may limit the abundance of adult colonies. Most recruits of this species (?80%) were at the primary polyp stage, and less than 1% of recruits were at stage of 4 polyps or more. We propose that biological disturbance, possibly by the presence of suspension-feeding brittle stars, and limited food supply in the deep sea may cause this mortality. Our findings reinforce the vulnerability of these corals to anthropogenic disturbances, such as trawling with mobile gear, and the importance of incorporating knowledge on processes during the early life history stages in conservation decisions. PMID:23762358

  10. Description and biology of two new species of Neotropical Liriomyza Mik (Diptera, Agromyzidae), mining leaves of Bocconia (Papaveraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Stéphanie; Nishida, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Liriomyza mystica Boucher & Nishida, sp. n., and Liriomyza prompta Boucher & Nishida, sp. n. are described from Costa Rica. Both species were reared from leaves of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae). The latter species was also reared from B. arborea S. Watson. Larvae of L. mystica mine primary veins of large, relatively old, mature leaves, and L. prompta mine blades of small to large, mature leaves. These represent the first record of agromyzids feeding on Bocconia. Biological information is also given and illustrated. PMID:24478590

  11. Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures. PMID:24933904

  12. Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

    2015-04-01

    In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on ?-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed. PMID:25406544

  13. Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. H.; Cho, S.; Paik, H. D.; Choi, C. W.; Nam, K. T.; Hwang, S. G.; Kim, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 ?g/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 ?g/mL and 183 ?g/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Flavonoid content of methanol extracts in S. grandiflora L. T was 22.5 ?g/mL and the highest among plant extracts tested. These results indicated that C. aurantifolia Swingle, S. grandiflora L., P. sarmentosum Roxb, and C. domestica Valeton have antibacterial and antioxidant activities and can be used as alternative antibiotics or potential feed additives for the control of animal pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25178298

  14. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    Beans, NFA Red kidney beans, dry, cooked, fat not added in cooking 457;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Kidney beans;Mean of 8 studies 720.1 Beans, NFA Soybeans, cooked, fat not added in cooking 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Mean of 2 studies 473;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Soya beans;Soya beans, canned (Canada) 720.1 Beans, NFA Mung beans, fat not added in cooking 468;LEGUMES AND NUTS;;Mung beans;Mung bean (Phaseolus areus Roxb.

  15. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Croton oblongifolius and its Antibacterial Activity against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Tadtong, Sarin; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of C. oblongifolius Roxb. stem bark was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis by GC-MS identified 29 compounds. Terpinen-4-ol (17.8%) was a major component, together with ?-guaiene (7.9%), E-caryophyllene (7.0%), myrcene (6.7%), (+)-cyclosativene (5.1%), sabinene (4.8%), aciphyllene (4.7%), pogostol (4.6%), gamma-terpinene (3.4%), ?-muurolol (3.2%) and germecrene D (3.2%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919 with an MIC of 0.125%, v/v. PMID:26434141

  16. Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Joana; Sarmento, Pedro; Carretero, Miguel A.; White, Piran C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis) occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest) at three different scales: local (pond), intermediate (400 metres radius buffer) and broad (1000 metres radius buffer). Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc), we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on the presence of Salamandra salamandra, while no effect on any of the other species was detected. In conclusion, eucalypts had limited effects on the amphibian community at the intermediate and broad scales, but predatory fish had a major impact when considering all the scales combined. The over-riding importance of introduced fish as a negative impact suggests that forest managers should prevent new fish introductions and eradicate fish from already-occupied ponds whenever possible. PMID:26061096

  17. Exotic Fish in Exotic Plantations: A Multi-Scale Approach to Understand Amphibian Occurrence in the Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Joana; Sarmento, Pedro; Carretero, Miguel A; White, Piran C L

    2015-01-01

    Globally, amphibian populations are threatened by a diverse range of factors including habitat destruction and alteration. Forestry practices have been linked with low diversity and abundance of amphibians. The effect of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on amphibian communities has been studied in a number of biodiversity hotspots, but little is known of its impact in the Mediterranean region. Here, we identify the environmental factors influencing the presence of six species of amphibians (the Caudata Pleurodeles waltl, Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus and the anurans Pelobates cultripes and Hyla arborea/meridionalis) occupying 88 ponds. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean landscape dominated by eucalypt plantations alternated with traditional use (agricultural, montados and native forest) at three different scales: local (pond), intermediate (400 metres radius buffer) and broad (1000 metres radius buffer). Using the Akaike Information Criterion for small samples (AICc), we selected the top-ranked models for estimating the probability of occurrence of each species at each spatial scale separately and across all three spatial scales, using a combination of covariates from the different magnitudes. Models with a combination of covariates at the different spatial scales had a stronger support than those at individual scales. The presence of predatory fish in a pond had a strong effect on Caudata presence. Permanent ponds were selected by Hyla arborea/meridionalis over temporary ponds. Species occurrence was not increased by a higher density of streams, but the density of ponds impacted negatively on Lissotriton boscai. The proximity of ponds occupied by their conspecifics had a positive effect on the occurrence of Lissotriton boscai and Pleurodeles waltl. Eucalypt plantations had a negative effect on the occurrence of the newt Lissotriton boscai and anurans Hyla arborea/meridionalis, but had a positive effect on the presence of Salamandra salamandra, while no effect on any of the other species was detected. In conclusion, eucalypts had limited effects on the amphibian community at the intermediate and broad scales, but predatory fish had a major impact when considering all the scales combined. The over-riding importance of introduced fish as a negative impact suggests that forest managers should prevent new fish introductions and eradicate fish from already-occupied ponds whenever possible. PMID:26061096

  18. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

  19. Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

  20. Evaluation of aromatic plants and compounds used to fight multidrug resistant infections.

    PubMed

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100? ? g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  1. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100??g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  2. Potential pharmacological applications of polyphenolic derivatives from marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-11-01

    Recently, the isolation and characterization of the biologically active components from seaweeds have gained much attention from various research groups across the world. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins are one among them. Among marine algae, brown algal species such as Ecklonia cava, Eisenia arborea, Ecklonia stolinifera and Eisenia bicyclis have been studied for their potential biological activities. Majority of the investigations on phlorotannins derived from brown algae have exhibited their potentiality as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitumor, antihypertensive, anti-allergic, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition and in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibition activity. In this review, we have made an attempt to discuss the potential biological activities of phlorotannins from marine brown algae and their possible candidature in the pharmaceutical applications. PMID:22004951

  3. Non-Invasive Measurement of Frog Skin Reflectivity in High Spatial Resolution Using a Dual Hyperspectral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, Frank; Walter, Achim; Greven, Hartmut; Rascher, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Background Most spectral data for the amphibian integument are limited to the visible spectrum of light and have been collected using point measurements with low spatial resolution. In the present study a dual camera setup consisting of two push broom hyperspectral imaging systems was employed, which produces reflectance images between 400 and 2500 nm with high spectral and spatial resolution and a high dynamic range. Methodology/Principal Findings We briefly introduce the system and document the high efficiency of this technique analyzing exemplarily the spectral reflectivity of the integument of three arboreal anuran species (Litoria caerulea, Agalychnis callidryas and Hyla arborea), all of which appear green to the human eye. The imaging setup generates a high number of spectral bands within seconds and allows non-invasive characterization of spectral characteristics with relatively high working distance. Despite the comparatively uniform coloration, spectral reflectivity between 700 and 1100 nm differed markedly among the species. In contrast to H. arborea, L. caerulea and A. callidryas showed reflection in this range. For all three species, reflectivity above 1100 nm is primarily defined by water absorption. Furthermore, the high resolution allowed examining even small structures such as fingers and toes, which in A. callidryas showed an increased reflectivity in the near infrared part of the spectrum. Conclusion/Significance Hyperspectral imaging was found to be a very useful alternative technique combining the spectral resolution of spectrometric measurements with a higher spatial resolution. In addition, we used Digital Infrared/Red-Edge Photography as new simple method to roughly determine the near infrared reflectivity of frog specimens in field, where hyperspectral imaging is typically difficult. PMID:24058464

  4. Long Recording Sequences: How to Track the Intra-Individual Variability of Acoustic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lengagne, Thierry; Gomez, Doris; Josserand, Rémy; Voituron, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed acoustic technologies - like automatic recording units - allow the recording of long sequences in natural environments. These devices are used for biodiversity survey but they could also help researchers to estimate global signal variability at various (individual, population, species) scales. While sexually-selected signals are expected to show a low intra-individual variability at relatively short time scale, this variability has never been estimated so far. Yet, measuring signal variability in controlled conditions should prove useful to understand sexual selection processes and should help design acoustic sampling schedules and to analyse long call recordings. We here use the overall call production of 36 male treefrogs (Hyla arborea) during one night to evaluate within-individual variability in call dominant frequency and to test the efficiency of different sampling methods at capturing such variability. Our results confirm that using low number of calls underestimates call dominant frequency variation of about 35% in the tree frog and suggest that the assessment of this variability is better by using 2 or 3 short and well-distributed records than by using samples made of consecutive calls. Hence, 3 well-distributed 2-minutes records (beginning, middle and end of the calling period) are sufficient to capture on average all the nightly variability, whereas a sample of 10 000 consecutive calls captures only 86% of it. From a biological point of view, the call dominant frequency variability observed in H. arborea (116Hz on average but up to 470 Hz of variability during the course of the night for one male) challenge about its reliability in mate quality assessment. Automatic acoustic recording units will provide long call sequences in the near future and it will be then possible to confirm such results on large samples recorded in more complex field conditions. PMID:25970183

  5. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  6. Food and petroleum resources from the Chinese tallow tree. Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scheld, H.W.; Cameron, G.N.; Lester, L.J.; Mason, S.I.

    1983-12-15

    The general data base on the biology of the Chinese tallow tree (sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was expanded and specific data regarding its genetics and ecology were developed. A morphmetric study and a genetic characterization of the tree was made via isozyme electrophoresis as a basis for a crop-improvement program. Both flowers and seeds were analyzed electrophoretically. Observations were begun of the environmental effects of tallow forest and assessment of possible monoculture effects aimed at predicting impact upon the human environment and predicting potential pest and disease problems associated with large-scale cultivation of the tree. Average temperature was slightly higher in a prairie near the tallow forest, but probably was not different enough to adversely effect prairie organisms.

  7. A new genus of Grapholitini from Africa related to Thaumatotibia (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Alicia E.; Brown, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Thaumatovalva gen. n. is described and illustrated from the Afrotropical region. As currently defined the genus includes four species: T. deprinsorum sp. n. from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. albolineana sp. n. (type species) from the Democratic Republic of Congo; T. spinai (Razowski & Trematerra), comb. n., from Ethiopia and Nigeria; and T. limbata (Diakonoff), comb. n., from the Seychelles and Kenya. Thaumatovalva limbata has been reared from the fruit of Cordia somaliensis Baker and C. monoica Roxb. (Boraginaceae) in Kenya. Although structures of the male and female genitalia are extremely similar among three of the four species, male secondary scales on the under surface of the hindwing easily distinguish them. PMID:25197220

  8. Antioxidant activity in the extracts of two edible aroids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, P; Misra, T K; Singh, I D

    2010-01-01

    Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC(50) values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC(50) values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198

  9. Bio efficacy of some piperaceae plant extracts against Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Kraikrathok, C; Ngamsaengi, S; Bullangpoti, V; Pluempanupat, W; Koul, O

    2013-01-01

    The extracts of Piper sarmentosum Roxb., Piper retrofractum Vahl, Piper interruptum Opiz and Piper nigrum plants belonging to the family Piperaceae were evaluated for their efficacy against diamondback moth, Plutello xylostella L. third instars under laboratory conditions. Comparative toxicity of various extracts prepared in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol following sequential extraction procedure were applied topically to the larvae. The hexane extract of Piper retrofractum was most active (LD = 237 ppm). The toxicity was dose dependant and correlated to duration of exposure. The hexane extract of P. nigrum was least active with an LD50 of 18,435 ppm. The mode of action of these extracts and effect on other developmental parameters is in progress. PMID:25145250

  10. Alkaloids from Pandanus amaryllifolius: Isolation and Their Plausible Biosynthetic Formation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Chi; Yu, Meng-Lun; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Beerhues, Ludger; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chen, Lei-Chin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Hui-Fen; Chung, Yu-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2015-10-23

    Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. (Pandanaceae) is used as a flavor and in folk medicine in Southeast Asia. The ethanolic crude extract of the aerial parts of P. amaryllifolius exhibited antioxidant, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory activities in previous studies. In the current investigation, the purification of the ethanolic extract yielded nine new compounds, including N-acetylnorpandamarilactonines A (1) and B (2); pandalizines A (3) and B (4); pandanmenyamine (5); pandamarilactones 2 (6) and 3 (7), and 5(E)-pandamarilactonine-32 (8); and pandalactonine (9). The isolated alkaloids, with either a ?-alkylidene-?,?-unsaturated-?-lactone or ?-alkylidene-?,?-unsaturated-?-lactam system, can be classified into five skeletons including norpandamarilactonine, indolizinone, pandanamine, pandamarilactone, and pandamarilactonine. A plausible biosynthetic route toward 1-5, 7, and 9 is proposed. PMID:26461164

  11. Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

  12. In the elephant's seed shadow: the prospects of domestic bovids as replacement dispersers of three tropical Asian trees.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Nitin; Lee, Chia-lo; Sukumar, Raman

    2015-08-01

    As populations of the world's largest animal species decline, it is unclear how ecosystems will react to their local extirpation. Due to the unique ecological characteristics of megaherbivores such as elephants, seed dispersal is one ecosystem process that may be affected as populations of large animals are decimated. In typically disturbed South Asian ecosystems, domestic bovids (cattle, Bosprimigenius, and buffalo, Bubalus bubalis) may often be the species most available to replace Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) as endozoochorous dispersers of large-fruited mammal-dispersed species. We use feeding trials, germination trials, and movement data from the tropical moist forests of Buxa Tiger Reserve (India) to examine whether domestic bovids are viable replacements for elephants in the dispersal of three large- fruited species: Dillenia indica, Artocarpus chaplasha, and Careya arborea. We find that (1) once consumed, seeds are between 2.5 (C. arborea) and 26.5 (D. indica) times more likely to pass undigested into elephant dung than domestic bovid dung; and (2) seeds from elephant dung germinated as well as or better than seeds taken from bovid dung for all plant species, with D. indica seeds from elephant dung 1.5 times more likely to germinate. Furthermore, since wild elephants have less constrained movements than even free-roaming domestic bovids, we calculate that maximum dispersal by elephants is between 9.5 and 11.2 times farther than that of domestic bovids, with about 20% of elephant-dispersed seeds being moved farther than the maximum distance seeds are moved by bovids. Our findings suggest that, while bovids are able to disperse substantial numbers of seeds over moderate distances for two of the three study species, domestic bovids will be unable to routinely emulate the reliable, long-distance dispersal of seeds executed by elephants in this tropical moist forest. Thus while domestic bovids can attenuate the effects of losing elephants as dispersers, they may not be able to prevent the decline of various mammal-dispersed fruiting species in the face of overhunting, habitat fragmentation, and climate change. PMID:26405735

  13. Fog reduces transpiration in tree species of the Canarian relict heath-laurel cloud forest (Garajonay National Park, Spain).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos M; Aschan, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The ecophysiologic role of fog in the evergreen heath-laurel 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands has not been unequivocally demonstrated, although it is generally assumed that fog water is important for the survival and the distribution of this relict paleoecosystem of the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. To determine the role of fog in this ecosystem, we combined direct transpiration measurements of heath-laurel tree species, obtained with Granier's heat dissipation probes, with micrometeorological and artificial fog collection measurements carried out in a 43.7-ha watershed located in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain) over a 10-month period. Median ambient temperature spanned from 7 to 15 degrees C under foggy conditions whereas higher values, ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C, were registered during fog-free periods. Additionally, during the periods when fog water was collected, global solar radiation values were linearly related (r2=0.831) to those under fog-free conditions, such that there was a 75+/-1% reduction in median radiation in response to fog. Fog events greatly reduced median diurnal tree transpiration, with rates about 30 times lower than that during fog-free conditions and approximating the nighttime rates in both species studied (the needle-like leaf Erica arborea L. and the broadleaf Myrica faya Ait.). This large decrease in transpiration in response to fog was independent of the time of the day, tree size and species and micrometeorological status, both when expressed on a median basis and in cumulative terms for the entire 10-month measuring period. We conclude that, in contrast to the turbulent deposition of fog water droplets on the heath-laurel species, which may be regarded as a localized hydrological phenomenon that is important for high-altitude wind-exposed E. arborea trees, the cooler, wetter and shaded microenvironment provided by the cloud immersion belt represents a large-scale effect that is crucial for reducing the transpirational water loss of trees that have profligate water use, such as those of the 'laurisilva'. PMID:19203969

  14. Quantifying the success of improved forest management from dendrochronology: examples from North Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Miro; De Ridder, Maaike; Frankl, Amaury; Guyassa, Etefa; Beeckman, Hans; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The increasing environmental and human pressure on the vulnerable environment of the North Ethiopian highlands requires sustainable management to avoid further land degradation. High altitude forests play a key role in this environmental balance and are very important for local livelihoods. They function as a hygric buffer by capturing and storing rainfall, which reduces soil erosion and protects against flooding, landslides and rock fall. The hygric buffer effect of mountain forests also provides water for downstream sources and for agriculture in the surrounding lowlands. Improved understanding of the growing patterns, ring formation and forest structure of this afro-alpine high altitude Erica arborea L. forests is essential to improve sustainable forest management practices. This paper studies two mountain forests in the North Ethiopian Highlands under contrasting management conditions; Lib Amba of the Abune Yosef Mt. range (12°04'N, 39°22'E, 3993 m a.s.l.) which is completely protected since five years and Mt. Ferrah Amba (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3939 m a.s.l.) which is still strongly influenced by anthropo-zoogenic impacts. Dendrochronological results from cambial marked stem discs show complex but annual growth ring formations that reflect these differences in anthropo-zoogenic pressure; Tree-ring width is significantly wider in Mt. Lib Amba. Improved insight in the growing pattern of Erica arborea L. forests is also given by monitoring of tree growth and seedling recruitment in experimental plots since 2012 and by studying the relation between tree growth and the geomorphology and soil thickness. Seedling recruitment and vegetation indices indicate that tree growth is significantly better in the protected forest of Lib Amba. One of the key elements for sustainable land management is the creation of forests at critical locations. Insight in the response of tree growth to different types of land management and different morphological conditions can help to identify these critical locations. But most importantly, dendrochronological results have proven to be a valuable tool for objective validation of the success of land management strategies on a short term.

  15. Synopsis of Nekemias Raf., a segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx. (Vitaceae) disjunct between eastern/southeastern Asia and eastern North America, with ten new combinations

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jun; Boggan, John; Nie, Ze-Long

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Nekemias (Vitaceae) was first recognized by Rafinesque in 1838. It has been treated as a synonym of Ampelopsis Michx. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that Ampelopsis as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the genera of Vitaceae, we herein segregate the Ampelopsis sect. Leeaceifoliae lineage from Ampelopsis and recognize these taxa in Nekemias Raf., which has a disjunct distribution in eastern to southeastern Asia and eastern North America. Nomenclatural changes are made for nine species and one variety: Nekemias arborea (L.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias cantoniensis (Hook. & Arn.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias celebica (Suess.) J. Wen & Boggan, Nekemias chaffanjonii (H. Lév. & Van.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias gongshanensis (C.L. Li) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias hypoglauca (Hance) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla (Diels & Gilg) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, Nekemias megalophylla var. jiangxiensis (W.T. Wang) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie, and Nekemias rubifolia (Wall.) J. Wen & Z.L. Nie. A taxonomic key is provided for the genus to facilitate identification. PMID:25383008

  16. Kelp canopy facilitates understory algal assemblage via competitive release during early stages of secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Benes, Kylla M; Carpenter, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Kelps are conspicuous foundation species in marine ecosystems that alter the composition of understory algal assemblages. While this may be due to changes in the competitive interactions between algal species, how kelp canopies mediate propagule supply and establishment success of understory algae is not well known. In Southern California, USA, Eisenia arborea forms dense kelp canopies in shallow subtidal environments and is associated with an understory dominated by red algal species. In canopy-free areas, however, the algal assemblage is comprised of mostly brown algal species. We used a combination of mensurative and manipulative experiments to test whether Eisenia facilitates the understory assemblage by reducing competition between these different types of algae by changes in biotic interactions and/or recruitment. Our results show Eisenia facilitates a red algal assemblage via inhibition of brown algal settlement into the canopy zone, allowing recruitment to occur by vegetative means rather than establishment of new individuals. In the canopy-free zone, however, high settlement and recruitment rates suggest competitive interactions shape the community there. These results demonstrate that foundation species alter the distribution and abundance of associated organisms by affecting not only interspecific interactions but also propagule supply and recruitment limitation. PMID:26236909

  17. Stable C and N isotopic composition of cold-water corals from the Newfoundland and Labrador continental slope: Examination of trophic, depth and spatial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Jamieson, Robyn E.; Edinger, Evan N.; Wareham, Vonda E.

    2008-10-01

    With the aim of understanding of the trophic ecology of cold-water corals, this paper explores the tissue ?13C and ?15N values of 11 'coral' species (8 alcyonacean, 1 antipatharian, 1 pennatulacean, 1 scleractinian) collected along the Newfoundland and Labrador continental slope. Isotopic results delimit species along continua of trophic level and food lability. With an isotopic signature similar to macrozooplankton, Paragorgia arborea occupies the lowest trophic level and most likely feeds on fresh phytodetritus. Primnoa resedaeformis occupies a slightly higher trophic level, likely supplementing its diet with microzooplankton. Bathypathes arctica, Pennatulacea and other alcyonaceans ( Acanella arbuscula, Acanthogorgia armata, Anthomastus grandiflorus, Duva florida, Keratoisis ornata, Paramuricea sp.) had higher ?13C and ?15N values, suggesting these species feed at higher trophic levels and on a greater proportion of more degraded POM. Flabellum alabastrum had an isotopic signature similar to that of snow crab, indicating a primarily carnivorous diet. Isotopic composition did not vary significantly over a depth gradient of 50-1400 m. Coral ?13C increased slightly (<1‰) from the Hudson Strait to the southern Grand Banks, but ?15N did not. By modulating the availability and quality of suspended foods, substrate likely exerts a primary influence on the feeding habits of cold-water corals.

  18. Plant Species Monitoring in the Canary Islands Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.

    2012-07-01

    The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.

  19. Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species

    PubMed Central

    Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Fernandez, Maria P.; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

    2014-01-01

    Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere. PMID:24864264

  20. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  1. A New Name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian Coral Formerly Known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M

    2009-04-01

    A Hawaiian species of antipatharian coral previously identified as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766, is described as Antipathes griggi Opresko, n. sp. The species forms tall, bushy colonies with elongate, upright terminal branches, often arranged uniserially. Spines are conical, mostly 0.20 to 0.26 mm tall, apically bifurcated, multilobed to jagged in appearance, and covered over most of their surface with small roundish to elongate papillae. Minute secondary spines may occur on some of the thicker branches. Polyps are 1 to 1.6 mm in transverse diameter. The species resembles A. fruticosa Gray in branching pattern, size of spines, and presence of secondary spines but differs in morphology and density of the spines (thicker, more crowded primary spines and fewer secondary spines in A. griggi). Other related species differ from A. griggi in having more widely spreading and irregularly arranged branches, no secondary spines, and either smaller spines with fewer apical lobes (A. curvata van Pesch, A. arborea Dana, and A. galapagensis Deichmann) or larger spines with the apical lobes arranged in a somewhat coronate pattern [A. spinulosa (Schultze) and A. lentipinna Brook].

  2. Pollen record from Ka'au Crater, Oahu, Hawaii: Evidence for a dry glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, S.C.; Juvik, J.O. Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo )

    1993-06-01

    Fossil pollen from a 3.5 m-long core from Ka'au Crater, Hawaii (elev. 460 m), yields a ca. 23,000-year record of regional vegetation history. Results indicate a full-glacial period drier and possibly cooler than present, a warmer and wetter early Holocene, and a somewhat drier late Holocene; this sequence agrees with earlier work by Selling (1948) on other islands. The oldest zone is donated by pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, Acacia koa, and Dodonaea viscosa; post-glacial pollen assemblages feature high percentages of Myrsine and Coprosma, followed by increases in Lycopodium cernuum Ilex anomala. Freycinetia arborea and Pritchardia. After about 8000 years ago, Chenopodium, Acacia, and Dodonaea increase, suggesting a return to drier conditions. Abundant pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, a plant of dry regions, during the last glacial maximum implies that neither the trade winds nor cyclonic storms were delivering as much moisture to the regional vegetation as they presently do. This suggests that the ocean surface temperature during the last glacial maximum may have been cooler than present, a finding contradictory to the reconstructions of the CLIMAP (1981) group, which show temperatures near Hawaii equal to or even warmer than present.

  3. Local variation in the distribution of benthic megafauna species associated with cold-water coral reefs on the Norwegian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, Autun; Orejas, Covadonga; Gori, Andrea; Tong, Ruiju; Unnithan, Vikram; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2013-02-01

    The spatial variability in the mix of species making up Cold-water coral reef communities is not well known. In this study abundances of a selection of megafauna (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata, Paragorgia arborea, Primnoa resedaeformis, Mycale lingua, Geodia baretti, Acesta excavata and fish) were quantified throughout 9 manned submersible video transects from 3 reef complexes (Røst Reef, Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef) on the Norwegian margin. Substrate type (coral structure, rubble, exposed hardground or soft sediment) was also recorded. Variations in the densities of these fauna (with respect to both reef complex and substrate type) were investigated, with spatial covariance between species assessed. For the majority of fauna investigated, densities varied by both reef and substrate. Spatial covariance indicated that some species may be utilising similar habitat niches, but that minor environmental differences may favour colonisation by one or other at a particular reef. Fish densities were generally higher in regions with biogenic substrate (coral structure and coral rubble substrates) than in areas of soft or hardground substrate. Further, fish were more abundant at the northerly Sotbakken Reef at time of study than elsewhere. Community structure varied by reef, and therefore management plans aimed at maintaining the biodiversity of reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin should take this lack of homogeneity into account.

  4. Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, José Galberto M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Brito, Samara A.; Pereira, Carla Karine B.; Souza, Erlânio O.; Rodrigues, Fabíola Fernandes G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods: Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Ceará state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor compounds. The larvicidal activity, based on the percentage of larval mortality, was evaluated after 24 h exposure to the treatments. Results: All species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compound and literature data. The extract from Vanillosmopsis arborea was the most active with an LC50 of 3.9 ?g/ml. Best results were shown by Lantana montevidensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 8?g/ml] and Escherichia coli (MIC 32 ?g/ml), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium against E. coli (MIC, 256 ?g/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 64 ?g/ml) and Croton zenhtneri against S. aureus (MIC 64 ?g/ml). Conclusion: Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes was present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays. PMID:21120038

  5. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

  6. Clinical assessment of dietary interventions and lifestyle modifications in Madhumeha (type- 2 Diabetes Mellitus)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Archana; Agarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Byadgi, Parameswarappa S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: India leads the world with maximum number of diabetes patients being termed as the “diabetes capital of the world.” Certain risk factors including unsatisfactory diet, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle are potentially reversible. Acharayas have widely described the role of diet and activities to control Madhumeha (type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]) along with medications. Habitual consumption of roasted or dry Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) flour, Mudga (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents the manifestation of Prameha. Aim: To assess the clinical effects of dietary interventions and life style modifications in Madhumeha patients. Materials and Methods: Present study was carried out on 56 patients of Madhumeha from S.S. Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Dietary interventions and life style modifications schedule was prepared based on Ayurvedic principles and patients were advised to follow this regimen. Three consecutive follow-ups were done for 3 months at the interval of one month each. Results: Significant improvement was observed in clinical signs and symptoms along with plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Madhumeha patients after these interventions (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Dietary interventions and life style modifications are two important tools by which adequate glycemic control can be obtained, especially in newly diagnosed T2DM patients and in patients who are on antidiabetic medication, but not properly controlled. PMID:26195901

  7. Formulation, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro study of chitosan/HPMC blends-based herbal blended patches.

    PubMed

    Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Madaka, Fameera; Chusut, Tun; Saingam, Worawan; Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Boonme, Prapaporn

    2015-02-01

    The current work prepared chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blends and studied the possibility of chitosan/HPMC blended patches for Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The blended patches without/with crude Z. cassumunar oil were prepared by homogeneously mixing the 3.5% w/v of chitosan solution and 20% w/v of HPMC solution, and glycerine was used as plasticizer. Then, they were poured into Petri dish and produced the blended patches in hot air oven at 70?±?2°C. The blended patches were tested and evaluated by the physicochemical properties: moisture uptake, swelling ratio, erosion, porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, and photographed the surface and cross-section morphology under SEM technique. Herbal blended patches were studied by the in vitro release and skin permeation of active compound D. The blended patches could absorb the moisture and became hydrated patches that occurred during the swelling of blended patches. They were eroded and increased by the number of porous channels to pass through out for active compound D. In addition, the blended patches indicated the compatibility of the blended ingredients and homogeneous smooth and compact. The blended patches made from chitosan/HPMC blends provide a controlled release and skin permeation behavior of compound D. Thus, the blended patches could be suitably used for herbal medicine application. PMID:25233803

  8. Correlation between Chemical Composition of Curcuma domestica and Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Their Antioxidant Effect on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Saputri, Fadlina Chany; Qaisar, Muhammad Naeem; Buang, Fhataheya

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the curcuminoids of Curcuma domestica L. and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. and eight compounds which are prevalent constituents of their rhizome oils were investigated in an effort to correlate human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antioxidant activity with the effect of the herbs and their components. The antioxidant activity was examined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) assay with human LDL as the oxidation substrate. The methanol extracts and rhizome oils of C. xanthorrhiza and C. domestica showed strong inhibitory activity on copper-mediated oxidation of LDL. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from the methanol extracts of both plants, exhibited stronger activity than probucol (IC50 value 0.57??mol/L) as reference, with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.33??mol/L. Xanthorrhizol, the most abundant component (31.9%) of the oil of C. xanthorrhiza, showed relatively strong activity with an IC50 value of 1.93??mol/L. The major components of C. domestica, ar-turmerone (45.8%) and zerumbone (3.5%), exhibited IC50 values of 10.18 and 24.90??mol/L, respectively. The high levels of curcuminoids in the methanol extracts and xanthorrhizol, ar-turmerone and zerumbone in the oils, and in combination with the minor components were responsible for the high LDL antioxidant activity of the herbs. PMID:23243446

  9. Effect of Standardized Boesenbergia pandurata Extract and Its Active Compound Panduratin A on Skin Hydration and Barrier Function in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seon Wook; Rhim, Dong-Bin; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    The skin plays a key role in protecting the body from the environment and from water loss. Cornified envelope (CE) and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) are considered as the primary regulators of skin hydration and barrier function. The CE prevents loss of water from the body and is formed by cross-linking of several proteins. Among these proteins, filaggrin is an important protein because NMF is produced by the degradation of filaggrin. Proteases, including matriptase and prostasin, stimulate the generation of filaggrin from profilaggrin and caspase-14 plays a role in the degradation of filaggrin. This study elucidated the effects of an ethanol extract of Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb.) Schltr., known as fingerroot, and its active compound panduratin A on CE formation and filaggrin processing in HaCaT, human epidermal keratinocytes. B. pandurata extract (BPE) and panduratin A significantly stimulated not only CE formation but also the expression of CE proteins, such as loricrin, involucrin, and transglutaminase, which were associated with PPAR? expression. The mRNA and protein levels of filaggrin and filaggrin-related enzymes, such as matriptase, prostasin, and caspase-14 were also up-regulated by BPE and panduratin A treatment. These results suggest that BPE and panduratin A are potential nutraceuticals which can enhance skin hydration and barrier function based on their CE formation and filaggrin processing. PMID:25866745

  10. A Scientific Validation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Attributes of Trichosanthes dioica

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Sharad Kumar; Srivastava, Amrita Kumari; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Watal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to scientifically validate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) which has been traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. This plant commonly known as “Sespadula” in English has not been explored scientifically so far for its glycemic potential except by our research group. The study was conducted with variable doses on normal, mild, and severe diabetics models, and several biochemical parameters including blood glucose level (BGL) were assessed. Maximum fall in BGL of 23.8% in normal rats and of 31.3% in mild diabetic rats was observed during their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) with the dose of 1000?mg?kg?1. In severely diabetic animals after 4 weeks treatment with FBG, postprandial glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced by 28.7, 30.7, 57.2, and 18.5%, whereas high density lipoprotein, total protein, hemoglobin, and body weight were increased by 33.0, 36.7, 15.7 and 16.7%, respectively. Moreover, urine sugar was reduced from +4 to +1. Thus, the study scientifically validates the traditional use of T. diocia in diabetes management and could be developed as an effective oral agent for treating diabetes mellitus and complications associated with it. PMID:23984089

  11. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  12. Assessment of local management practices on the population ecology of some medicinal plants in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Hassan; Elyemeni, Mohammad; Khan, Abdur Rehman; Sabir, Amjad

    2010-01-01

    A study on the assessment of local management practices on the population of three medicinal plants viz.: Persicaria amplexicaule. D. Don., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted during 2002–2004 in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan. The objective of the study was to know the impact of current management practices on the population size of targeted plants. The study showed that the involvement of locals in the gathering of targeted plants varied with the change in elevation. Among the targeted plants V. serpens was collected by large majorities of people (83.3%) at 2700 m followed by 72% at 2300 m and 37% at 1900 m. V. jatamansi was harvested by a small number of people (18.1%) at 1900 and 2300 m each, followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. While P. amplexicaule was harvested by a few collectors (9.1%) at 1900 m and 9.6% at 2300 m followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. The study concluded that these species have been extracted so heavily in the past that they are found now sparsely in some sites of the study area. Secondly, due to loss of its habitat by deforestation and encroachment of land for cultivation its population is on the decline towards extinction. Therefore, the current study recommends the conservation of the remaining populations of targeted plants through active participation of local communities. PMID:23961117

  13. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu

    PubMed Central

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P. R. Rao; Ramesh, B.; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    “Triphalaguggulu” is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of “Triphalaguggulu” preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  14. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu.

    PubMed

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Ramesh, B; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N; Babu, K Suresh

    2015-05-01

    "Triphalaguggulu" is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of "Triphalaguggulu" preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  15. Antioxidant property and [Formula: see text]-glucosidase, [Formula: see text]-amylase and lipase inhibiting activities of Flacourtia inermis fruits: characterization of malic acid as an inhibitor of the enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alakolanga, A G A W; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Flacourtiaceae), is a moderate sized tree cultivated in Sri Lanka for its fruits known as Lovi. The current study was undertaken to study the biological activity of extracts of the fruits in an attempt to increase the value of the under exploited fruit crops. Fruits of F. inermis were found to be rich in phenolics and anthocyanins. Polyphenol content of the fruits was determined to be 1.28 g gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit and anthocyanin content was estimated as 108 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruits. The EtOAc extract showed moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 value of 66.2 ppm. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the fruits also exhibited inhibitory activities toward ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and lipase enzymes with IC50values ranging from 549 to 710 ppm, 1021 to 1949 ppm and 1290 to 2096 ppm, respectively. The active principle for the enzyme inhibition was isolated through activity-guided fractionation and was characterized as (S)-malic acid. The results of this study indicate that F. inermis fruits have the potential to be used in health foods and in nutritional supplements. PMID:26604419

  16. Chemical studies on the polysaccharides of Salicornia brachiata.

    PubMed

    Sanandiya, Naresh D; Siddhanta, A K

    2014-11-01

    A group of 12 polysaccharide extracts were prepared from the tips, stem and roots of an Indian halophyte Salicornia brachiata Roxb. obtained by sequential extractions with cold water (CW), hot water (HW), aqueous ammonium oxalate (OX) and aqueous sodium hydroxide (ALK) solutions. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that all the polysaccharide extract samples consisted primarily of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, glucose, whereas ribose and xylose were present only in some of the extracts. All the extracts exhibited low apparent viscosity (1.47-2.02 cP) and sulphate and contained no prominent toxic metal ions. Fucose was detected only in OX extract of the roots. These polysaccharides were found to be heterogeneous and highly branched (glycoside linkage analysis, size-exclusion chromatography, (13)C-NMR, FT-IR, circular dichroism and optical rotation data). Physico-chemical analyses of these polysaccharides including uronic acid, sulphate and protein contents were also carried out. This constitutes the first report on the profiling of Salicornia polysaccharides. PMID:25129748

  17. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo. PMID:11332848

  18. Dimethyl Cardamonin Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Effects via Interfering with the PI3K-PDK1-PKC? Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wan-Guo; He, Hao; Yao, Jing-Yun; Zhu, Yi-Xiang; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of herbal tea [flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae)] is associated with health beneficial effects against multiple diseases including diabetes, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease. Emerging evidences have reported that High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is considered as a key “late” proinflammatory factor by its unique secretion pattern in aforementioned diseases. Dimethyl cardamonin (2?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-methoxy-3?,5?-dimethylchalcone, DMC) is a major ingredient of C. operculatus flower buds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of DMC and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages. DMC notably suppressed the mRNA expressions of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and HMGB1, and also markedly decreased their productions in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Intriguingly, DMC could notably reduce LPS-stimulated HMGB1 secretion and its nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation. Furthermore, DMC dose-dependently inhibited the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), and protein kinase C alpha (PKC?). All these data demonstrated that DMC had anti-inflammatory effects through reducing both early (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) and late (HMGB1) cytokines expressions via interfering with the PI3K-PDK1-PKC? signaling pathway. PMID:26535080

  19. Specificity and effectivity in nodulation by Frankia on southern hemisphere actinorhiza.

    PubMed

    Sellstedt, A

    1995-01-15

    Nodulation ability was tested for Frankia strains HFPCcI3 and EL1, and Frankia sources A.t. and G.a. from Allocasaurina torulosa and Gymnostoma australianum, respectively, on A. torulosa Miq., Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq., G. australianum L. Johnson and Elaeagnus triflora Roxb. It was shown that A. torulosa and C. cunninghamiana formed nodules only with the Frankia sources obtained from their own host plant, while E. triflora formed nodules with three of the four Frankia sources tested. All nodules formed were effectively fixing nitrogen. Specific nitrogenase activity was highest in E. triflora inoculated with the Frankia strain isolated from nodules of the same species. Identification of Frankia sources in the nodules was performed by use of PCR amplification of DNA with a random primer. PCR amplification of DNA isolated from nodules of G. australianum and E. triflora inoculated with Frankia strain EL1 revealed, when compared with DNA amplified from free living Frankia strain EL1, that there was only one Frankia strain causing the observed nodules. PMID:7875571

  20. Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

  1. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 ?g/g and Cu 36.3 ?g/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  2. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Phenolic-Enriched Extracts of Smilax glabra

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chuan-li; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Min; Xu, Xiao-jie; Lu, Chuan-jian

    2014-01-01

    Smilax glabra Roxb. has been used for a long time as both food and folk medicine. In the present study, phenolic-enriched extract of S. glabra (PEESG) was extracted with 70% ethanol and purified by HP-20 column chromatography. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated by radical scavenging assay, reducing power determination, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells assays, respectively. PEESG exhibited obviously scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS radicals, as well as significant reducing power for ferric ion. Particularly, PEESG (12.5–50??g/mL) showed a significantly higher efficiency for scavenging ABTS than that of ascorbic acid and no significant difference with ascorbic acid for DPPH scavenging. PEESG also possessed a significant suppression effect on proinflammatory mediators production, such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the main ingredients of PEESG were identified using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-ESI-MS). Seventeen components, including 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid, neoastilbin, astilbin, neoisoastilbin, isoastilbin, engetin and isoengeletin were identified. These findings strongly suggest the potential of PEESG as a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25477999

  3. Dimethyl Cardamonin Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Effects via Interfering with the PI3K-PDK1-PKC? Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wan-Guo; He, Hao; Yao, Jing-Yun; Zhu, Yi-Xiang; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Consumption of herbal tea [flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae)] is associated with health beneficial effects against multiple diseases including diabetes, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease. Emerging evidences have reported that High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is considered as a key "late" proinflammatory factor by its unique secretion pattern in aforementioned diseases. Dimethyl cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone, DMC) is a major ingredient of C. operculatus flower buds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of DMC and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages. DMC notably suppressed the mRNA expressions of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and HMGB1, and also markedly decreased their productions in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Intriguingly, DMC could notably reduce LPS-stimulated HMGB1 secretion and its nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation. Furthermore, DMC dose-dependently inhibited the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), and protein kinase C alpha (PKC?). All these data demonstrated that DMC had anti-inflammatory effects through reducing both early (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) and late (HMGB1) cytokines expressions via interfering with the PI3K-PDK1-PKC? signaling pathway. PMID:26535080

  4. (E)-4-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol Enhances Melanogenesis through Increasing Upstream Stimulating Factor-1-Mediated Tyrosinase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Seung Hyun; Han, Ah-Reum; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Chang, Sung Eun; Kang, Duk-Hee; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential melanogenic effect of compounds from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Our data revealed that chloroform-soluble extract of Z. cassumunar enhanced melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Among the components of the chloroform extract, (E)-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol (DMPB) increased melanogenesis in both B16F10 cells and human primary melanocytes. In B16F10 cells, DMPB enhanced the activation of ERK and p38, and the level of tyrosinase. Although the level of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor was unchanged in DMPB-treated B16F10 cells, DMPB increased levels and nuclear localization of upstream stimulating factor-1 (USF1). Consistently, DMPB-mediated melanin synthesis was diminished in USF1-knockdown cells. Furthermore, DMPB induced hyperpigmentation in brown guinea pigs in vivo. Together, these data suggest that DMPB may promote melanin synthesis via USF1 dependent fashion and could be used as a clinical therapeutic agent against hypopigmentation-associated diseases. PMID:26535571

  5. Molecular characterization of an MYB transcription factor from a succulent halophyte involved in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pushp Sheel; Agarwal, Parinita; Gupta, Kapil; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses like drought, salinity and extreme temperature significantly affect crop productivity. Plants respond at molecular, cellular and physiological levels for management of stress tolerance. Functional and regulatory genes play a major role in controlling these abiotic stresses through an intricate network of transcriptional machinery. Transcription factors are potential tools for manipulating stress tolerance since they control a large number of downstream genes. In the present study, we have isolated SbMYB44 from a succulent halophyte, Salicornia brachiata Roxb. SbMYB44 with an open-reading frame of 810 bp encodes a protein of 269 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 30.31 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.29. The in silico analysis revealed that the SbMYB44 protein contains the conserved R2R3 imperfect repeats, two SANT domains and post-translational modification sites. The SbMYB44 transcript showed up-regulation in response to salinity, desiccation, high temperature, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The SbMYB44 recombinant protein showed binding to dehydration-responsive cis-elements (RD22 and MBS-1), suggesting its possible role in stress signalling. Overexpression of SbMYB44 enhanced the growth of yeast cells under both ionic and osmotic stresses. PMID:25986050

  6. IM-133N modulates cytokine secretion by RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, R Sandeep; Guruprasad, Kanive P; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kumar, L M Sharath; Babu, U Venkanna; Patki, S Pralhad

    2016-03-01

    An indigenous herbal extract IM-133N containing extracts of Prosopis glandulosa Torr and Symplocos racemosa Roxb were evaluated for potential immunomodulatory effects using RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The incubation of the cells for 24?h with IM-133N over a dose range 0-125?µg/ml did not cause cytotoxicity that exceeded 10%. The results indicated that non-cytotoxic doses of IM-133N effectively up-regulated iNOS, TNF?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and IFN? gene expression in both the RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The results also indicated IM-133N elicited dose-related increases in nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production by RAW264.7 or THP-1 cells. These results demonstrated that IM-133N could stimulate NO and induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by monocytes/macrophages. As clinical studies have shown IM-133N to be an effective immunomodulator without any adverse effects, the results of the present study provide further support for the potential use of this agent as an immunostimulant or as an immunotherapy adjuvant. PMID:25975427

  7. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  8. Control of Storage Protein Metabolism in the Cotyledons of Germinating Mung Beans: Role of Endopeptidase 12

    PubMed Central

    Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Boulter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The autodigestive proteolytic activity of extracts of cotyledons of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) increased 4- to 5-fold during germination. A similar increase was found in the ability of these extracts to digest added casein or mung bean globulins. The increase occurred after a 2-day lag during the next 2 to 3 days of germination and coincided with the period of rapid storage protein breakdown. To understand which enzyme(s) may be responsible for this increase in proteolytic activity, the hydrolytic activity of cotyledon extracts toward a number of synthetic substrates and proteins was measured. Germination was accompanied by a marked decline in leucine aminopeptidase, while carboxypeptidase increased about 50%. There were no dramatic changes in either ?-mannosidase or N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase, enzymes which may be involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrate moieties of the reserve glycoproteins. The increase in general proteolytic activity was closely paralleled by a 10-fold increase in endopeptidase activity. This activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide. Studies with inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes showed that reagents which blocked sulfhydryl groups also inhibited the rise in general proteolytic activity. Our results suggest that the appearance of a sulfhydryl-type endopeptidase activity is a necessary prerequisite for the rapid metabolism of the reserve proteins which accompanies germination. PMID:16659204

  9. Control of storage protein metabolism in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans: role of endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Chrispeels, M J; Boulter, D

    1975-06-01

    The autodigestive proteolytic activity of extracts of cotyledons of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) increased 4- to 5-fold during germination. A similar increase was found in the ability of these extracts to digest added casein or mung bean globulins. The increase occurred after a 2-day lag during the next 2 to 3 days of germination and coincided with the period of rapid storage protein breakdown. To understand which enzyme(s) may be responsible for this increase in proteolytic activity, the hydrolytic activity of cotyledon extracts toward a number of synthetic substrates and proteins was measured. Germination was accompanied by a marked decline in leucine aminopeptidase, while carboxypeptidase increased about 50%. There were no dramatic changes in either alpha-mannosidase or N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, enzymes which may be involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrate moieties of the reserve glycoproteins. The increase in general proteolytic activity was closely paralleled by a 10-fold increase in endopeptidase activity. This activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide. Studies with inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes showed that reagents which blocked sulfhydryl groups also inhibited the rise in general proteolytic activity. Our results suggest that the appearance of a sulfhydryl-type endopeptidase activity is a necessary prerequisite for the rapid metabolism of the reserve proteins which accompanies germination. PMID:16659204

  10. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-01

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae). PMID:17196776

  11. Cultural and management practices for the Chinese tallow tree as a biomass fuel source: Final report, 1978-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cowles, J.R.; Scheld, H.W.

    1987-12-01

    The growth and cultural conditions of the Chinese tallow tree, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb., were studied over a 6-year period. Plots from seeds or seedlings at designated densities and plots established in natural stands were studied. The maximum growth rate of the Chinese tallow tree in a marginal soil near the Texas gulf coast was 10 to 15 dry tons/hectare/year. The young trees were able to withstand long periods of flooding as well as extended dry periods. The tree species also is resistant to diseases and pathogens. The Chinese tallow tree is particularly adaptable to close spacing, direct seeding, coppicing, and short-rotation growth cycles. These factors all favor the economic usefulness of the tree as a bioenergy species. In addition, the tallow tree is economically valuable in honey production and as a chemical feedstock. Fertilization is important during the early phases of stand establishment but has diminished usefulness in subsequent years. The Chinese tallow tree appears to be an excellent bioenergy species in the southern coastal areas of the United States and especially in marginal soils. The Chinese tallow tree has the potential of producing 15 to 20 tons/hectare annually by coppicing on a 5- to 8-year rotation at close spacings. 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Molecular characterization of an MYB transcription factor from a succulent halophyte involved in stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pushp Sheel; Agarwal, Parinita; Gupta, Kapil; Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses like drought, salinity and extreme temperature significantly affect crop productivity. Plants respond at molecular, cellular and physiological levels for management of stress tolerance. Functional and regulatory genes play a major role in controlling these abiotic stresses through an intricate network of transcriptional machinery. Transcription factors are potential tools for manipulating stress tolerance since they control a large number of downstream genes. In the present study, we have isolated SbMYB44 from a succulent halophyte, Salicornia brachiata Roxb. SbMYB44 with an open-reading frame of 810 bp encodes a protein of 269 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 30.31 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.29. The in silico analysis revealed that the SbMYB44 protein contains the conserved R2R3 imperfect repeats, two SANT domains and post-translational modification sites. The SbMYB44 transcript showed up-regulation in response to salinity, desiccation, high temperature, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The SbMYB44 recombinant protein showed binding to dehydration-responsive cis-elements (RD22 and MBS-1), suggesting its possible role in stress signalling. Overexpression of SbMYB44 enhanced the growth of yeast cells under both ionic and osmotic stresses. PMID:25986050

  13. Monitoring seasonal variation of epicatechin and gallic acid in the bark of Saraca asoca using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method

    PubMed Central

    Ketkar, Pushkar M.; Nayak, Shraddha U.; Pai, Sandeep R.; Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Wilde (Fabaceae) is a high valued but vulnerable medicinal plant of Western Ghats region. This plant is mainly known for its use in various gynecological disorders. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation of the polyphenolic compounds viz., epicatechin and gallic acid in the bark of S. asoca by using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) method. Materials and Methods: The bark was collected in six different Ritu (season) viz. Varsha (monsoon), Sharad (autumn), hemant (early winter), Shishir (winter), Vasanta (spring), and Grishma (summer) mentioned in Ayurveda. Results: The RP-HPLC-DAD analysis indicated that levels of epicatechin and gallic acid in the bark of S. asoca vary seasonally. The highest concentration of epicatechin was observed in Shishir Ritu (3315.19 ± 165.76 mg/100g) and gallic acid during Hemant Ritu (211.90 ± 10.60 mg/100 g). Conclusions: In present study, the ability to synthesize and accumulate both the compounds in bark of S. asoca varied greatly throughout the seasons. It was also observed that the compound epicatechin was present abundantly as compared to gallic acid throughout the seasons. PMID:25878461

  14. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments. PMID:24809291

  15. Antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Phoenix sylvestris fruit pulp

    PubMed Central

    Shajib, Md. Shafiullah; Akter, Saleha; Ahmed, Tajnin; Imam, Mohammad Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Fruits of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. (Arecaceae) are used to treat back pain, toothache, headache, arthritis, nervous debility and as sedative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of P. sylvestris fruit pulp (MEPS). The antinociceptive activity of MEPS was evaluated by heat-induced (hot plate, tail immersion test) and chemical-induced pain models (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociception, glutamate-induced nociception and paw edema test). The effect of MEPS on central nervous system (CNS) was studied using hole cross test, open field test, sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time and elevated plus maze test. MEPS showed strong, significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all heat-induced and chemical-induced pain models at all experimental doses. Involvement of opioid receptor mediated analgesia was evident from the reversal of analgesic effect by naloxone. MEPS also showed reduced locomotor activity in both hole cross and open field tests. The increase in sleeping time in sodium thiopental-induced sleeping test and anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze test were also significant. So, it is evident that MEPS possesses strong central and peripheral antinociceptive activity as well as CNS depressant, sedative and anxiolytic activity. The results justify the ethnomedicinal use of P. sylvestris fruit in different painful conditions and CNS disorders. PMID:26483687

  16. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K S M; Banat, I M; Thahira, J; Thayumanavan, Tha; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS. PMID:11710344

  17. Nutritional quality of microwave-cooked and pressure-cooked legumes.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Naveeda; Prakash, Jamuna

    2004-09-01

    Eight whole legumes, namely Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), broad beans (Vicia faba), Cowpea (Vigna catjang), field beans (Dolichos lablab), green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb), horse gram (Dolichos biflorus), lentils (Lens esculenta) and French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), were cooked under pressure or in a microwave oven and were analysed for nutrient composition. Raw legumes served as control. The range of nutrients analysed in 100 g cooked samples were as follows: moisture, 62.8-69.7 g; protein, 14.7-24.3 g; fat, 0.9-5.9 g; ash, 1.7-4.6 g; iron, 3.3-8.6 mg; calcium, 50-209 mg; phosphorus, 249-429 mg; and thiamin, 0.14-0.32 mg. Cooking methods did not affect the nutrient composition of legumes. However, thiamine decreased in cooked samples. Cooking altered the dietary fibre content of some legumes. The mean in vitro protein digestibility of pressure-cooked and microwaved samples was 79.8% and 74.7%, respectively. The in vitro starch and protein digestibility of pressure-cooked samples were higher. PMID:15762308

  18. Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Extraction and Quantification of Alpinetin in Amomum Seed using Validated HPLC and HPTLC Methods

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M.; Kamal, Y. T.; Khan, M. A.; Parveen, Rabea; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, S.

    2015-01-01

    Alpinetin is a flavonoidal constituent of seeds of Amomum subulatum Roxb., recently reported to possess vasorelaxant and antiHIV activities. Simple, accurate and precise HPLC and HPTLC methods were developed for the analysis of alpinetin in A. subulatum seed extracts and extraction technique was optimized to get maximum yield using conventional, ultrasonic and matrix solid phase dispersion extraction. HPLC was performed on a C18 column with methanol and water (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min whereas HPTLC on silica aluminum sheet (60F254) using toluene, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as solvent system. A sharp peak was obtained for alpinetin at a retention time (Rt) of 5.7 min by HPLC and retardation factor (Rf) of 0.48 by HPTLC. Both methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and the content of alpinetin was estimated in different extracts. Matrix solid phase dispersion technique was found most suitable for extracting alpinetin as compared to other techniques. Validation data are indicative of good precision and accuracy and proved the reliability of the methods. PMID:25767318

  19. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and various extracts of fruits of greater cardamom.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, S

    2010-09-01

    Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Bari ilaichi" is a well known plant used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders like gastric ulcer. Therefore antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and roots, essential oil and isolated vasicine from A. vasica were tested against various microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity was done by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition observed was compared with that of standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against microorganisms used in the study. The results of this study reveal that methanol extract of fruits of A. subulatum shows remarkable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli whereas in case of other microorganisms used it was found inferior to the standard drug used. Methanol extract of rind showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the essential oil isolated was effective against majority of microorganisms used viz. Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:21695005

  20. Identification of seven Zingiberaceous species based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics of seeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The fruits and seeds of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt. & Smith, Amomum kravanh Pierre ex Gagnep., Amomum subulatum Roxb., Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire, and Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton from Alpinia, Amomum, and Elettaria genera in the Zingiberaceae family are difficult to distinguish between each other. This study aims to identify the seeds of these seven species from Zingiberaceae family based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics. Methods We compared the morphological structures of seed coats by observing the microscopic characteristics of seeds in transverse sections. We described the macroscopic characteristics of seeds in detail. Results The seeds of these three genera could not be identified to the species level based on their macroscopic features. However, based on the anatomical features of the seed coat observed in transverse sections, a dichotomous key for these seven species was feasible. Conclusion Seven species in the Zingiberaceae family could be identified based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics of transverse section of seed. PMID:24607026

  1. Antischistosomal Activity of Two Active Constituents Isolated from the Leaves of Egyptian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sanaa A; El-Regal, Nagy S; Saeed, Samar M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of two active constituents isolated from the leaves of Egyptian medicinal plants. D-mannitol a naturally occurring sugar isolated from the leaves Ixora undulata Roxb., and the pectin a linear chain homogalacturonan (HG) polysaccharide isolated from the leaves of Linum grandiflorum Desf. (scarlet flax). Both are evaluated for their therapeutic effect against schistosomiasis with biochemical and histochemical evaluations and compared with praziquantel, a reference drug. Biochemical studies of hepatic glucose, the glycogen content, and total serum protein were carried out, and histochemical evaluations through serum protein fractions separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with different molecular weights (260–10 kDa) were made in all groups, in addition to liver and body weight. D-mannitol and pectin show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions through enhancing most protein fractions in the serum of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Also, the glucose and glycogen content in injured liver tissues improved, in addition liver and body weight in the infected groups. Thus they may be of therapeutic potential in the treatment hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity. PMID:26124666

  2. A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mradu; Shaw, B. P.; Mukherjee, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic–analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O–H structure at 2940 cm?1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid). PMID:20814525

  3. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents. PMID:25379467

  4. Seasonal variations of gas exchange and water relations in deciduous and evergreen trees in monsoonal dry forests of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Sasrisang, Amornrat; Kaewpakasit, Kanokwan; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Gamo, Minoru; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi

    2010-08-01

    This study compared leaf gas exchange, leaf hydraulic conductance, twig hydraulic conductivity and leaf osmotic potential at full turgor between two drought-deciduous trees, Vitex peduncularis Wall. and Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., and two evergreen trees, Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, at the uppermost canopies in tropical dry forests in Thailand. The aims were to examine (i) whether leaf and twig hydraulic properties differ in relation to leaf phenology and (ii) whether xylem cavitation is a determinant of leaf shedding during the dry season. The variations in almost all hydraulic traits were more dependent on species than on leaf phenology. Evergreen Hopea exhibited the lowest leaf-area-specific twig hydraulic conductivity (leaf-area-specific K(twig)), lamina hydraulic conductance (K(lamina)) and leaf osmotic potential at full turgor (?(o)) among species, whereas evergreen Syzygium exhibited the highest leaf-area-specific K(twig), K(lamina) and ?(o). Deciduous Xylia had the highest sapwood-area-specific K(twig), along with the lowest Huber value (sapwood area/leaf area). More negative osmotic ?(o) and leaf osmotic adjustment during the dry season were found in deciduous Vitex and evergreen Hopea, accompanied by low sapwood-area-specific K(twig). Regarding seasonal changes in hydraulics, no remarkable decrease in K(lamina) and K(twig) was found during the dry season in any species. Results suggest that leaf shedding during the dry season is not always associated with extensive xylem cavitation. PMID:20581012

  5. Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and ?-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were ?-copaene (28.3%), ?-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil. PMID:24712088

  6. Micropropagtion of Terminalia bellerica from nodal explants of mature tree and assessment of genetic fidelity using ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Dangi, Bhawna; Khurana-Kaul, Varsha; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita

    2014-10-01

    The present study reports an efficient in vitro micropropagation protocol for a medicinally important tree, Terminalia bellerica Roxb. from nodal segments of a 30 years old tree. Nodal segments taken from the mature tree in March-April and cultured on half strength MS medium gave the best shoot bud proliferation response. Combinations of serial transfer technique (ST) and incorporation of antioxidants (AO) [polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP (50 mg l(-1))?+?ascorbic acid (100 mg l(-1))?+?citric acid (10 mg l(-1))] in the culture medium aided to minimize browning and improve explant survival during shoot bud induction. Highest multiplication of shoots was achieved on medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA, 8.8 ?M) and ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 2.6 ?M) in addition to antioxidants. Shoot elongation was obtained on MS medium containing BA (4.4 ?M)?+?phloroglucinol (PG, 3.9 ?M). Elongated shoots were transferred to half strength MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 2.5 ?M) for root development. The acclimatization of plantlets was carried out under greenhouse conditions. The genetic fidelity of the regenerated plants was checked using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Comparison of the bands among the regenerants and mother plant confirmed true-to-type clonal plants. PMID:25320474

  7. The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.

    PubMed

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples. PMID:24660477

  8. An alternative method to estimate zero flow temperature differences for Granier's thermal dissipation technique.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

    2007-08-01

    Calibration of the Granier thermal dissipation technique for measuring stem sap flow in trees requires determination of the temperature difference (DeltaT) between a heated and an unheated probe when sap flow is zero (DeltaT(max)). Classically, DeltaT(max) has been estimated from the maximum predawn DeltaT, assuming that sap flow is negligible at nighttime. However, because sap flow may continue during the night, the maximum predawn DeltaT value may underestimate the true DeltaT(max). No alternative method has yet been proposed to estimate DeltaT(max) when sap flow is non-zero at night. A sensitivity analysis is presented showing that errors in DeltaT(max) may amplify through sap flux density computations in Granier's approach, such that small amounts of undetected nighttime sap flow may lead to large diurnal sap flux density errors, hence the need for a correct estimate of DeltaT(max). By rearranging Granier's original formula, an optimization method to compute DeltaT(max) from simultaneous measurements of diurnal DeltaT and micrometeorological variables, without assuming that sap flow is negligible at night, is presented. Some illustrative examples are shown for sap flow measurements carried out on individuals of Erica arborea L., which has needle-like leaves, and Myrica faya Ait., a broadleaf species. We show that, although DeltaT(max) values obtained by the proposed method may be similar in some instances to the DeltaT(max) predicted at night, in general the values differ. The procedure presented has the potential of being applied not only to Granier's method, but to other heat-based sap flow systems that require a zero flow calibration, such as the Cermák et al. (1973) heat balance method and the T-max heat pulse system of Green et al. (2003). PMID:17472936

  9. Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

    In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, ?-pinene and ?-pinene for rosemary and ?-pinene, linalool and ?-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 ?g Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 ?mol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

  10. Phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water loss and lipids of the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Michael J; Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B

    2003-10-01

    When vertebrates invaded land during the Carboniferous period, they were exposed not only to new ecological opportunities but also to a desiccating environment. To maintain cellular water homeostasis, natural selection modified the integument of pioneering terrestrial animals, enabling them to reduce water loss through the skin. In desert environments, where ambient temperatures (T(a)) can reach 50 degrees C, relative humidities are low and drinking water is scarce, integumentary modifications that reduce cutaneous water loss (CWL) could be fundamental to survival. Previous research has shown that hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) from the Arabian desert reduced CWL when acclimated to 35 degrees C compared with individuals at 15 degrees C, but skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea), from The Netherlands, and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni), also from the Arabian desert, did not. Here, we test the idea that hoopoe larks acclimated to 35 degrees C would alter the lipid composition of their stratum corneum (SC), resulting in a decrease in CWL, but that skylarks, woodlarks and Dunn's larks would not. Specifically, we hypothesized that hoopoe larks, acclimated to 35 degrees C, would increase the proportions of polar ceramide content and decrease the proportions of free fatty acids in their SC compared with individuals acclimated to 15 degrees C. Results showed that hoopoe larks at 35 degrees C had lower CWL and higher proportions of total ceramides but lower proportions of free fatty acids and sterols in their SC. We demonstrate that adjustments in ratios of lipid classes in the SC are associated with changes in CWL in hoopoe larks. PMID:12966049

  11. Can Treeline Shift in Tropical Africa be Used As Proxy to Study Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, M.; Frankl, A.; De Ridder, M.; Guyassa, E.; Beeckman, H.; Nyssen, J.

    2014-12-01

    The important ecosystem services of the vulnerable high altitude forests of the tropical African highlands are under increasing environmental and human pressure. The afro-alpine treeline forms an apparent and temperature-responsive vegetation boundary and is therefore potentially valuable as a proxy of climate change in the tropics. However, a review of the current literature about treeline dynamics in tropical Africa indicates that climate change did not cause rising treelines, due to high human pressure and growing human population densities. On average the treeline is depressed below its climatic limit by 400 ± 300 meter, but regional differences are high and there are still many uncertainties. A multidisciplinary study of treeline dynamics is conducted in the north Ethiopian highlands. The Erica arborea L. treeline is studied over a century, using satellite imagery, aerial photographs, repeat photography and dendroclimatology. Repeat photography is proven a unique tool for the identification of treeline dynamics on the long-term. Results in the Simen Mts. indicate a treeline rise of more than 100 meters since the early 20th century. In contrast, historical satellite and aerial imagery indicate that there has been strong deforestation since the last 30 years and a significant (p<0.05) but small rise of the treeline elevation of 11 ± 4 vertical meters in Lib Amba Mt. Dendroclimatological results indicate a weak but significant (p<0.05) correlation between tree ring width and interannual precipitation patterns. However, since treelines in the African tropical mountains are strongly disturbed by human and livestock pressure, they cannot directly be used as a proxy for climate change.

  12. Natural abundances of 15N and 13C in leaves of some N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing trees and shrubs in Syria.

    PubMed

    Kurdali, F; Al-Shamma'a, M

    2009-09-01

    A survey study was conducted on man-made plantations located at two different areas in the arid region of Syria to determine the variations in natural abundances of the (15)N and (13)C isotopes in leaves of several woody legume and non-legume species, and to better understand the consequence of such variations on nitrogen fixation and carbon assimilation. In the first study area (non-saline soil), the delta(15)N values in four legume species (Acacia cyanophylla,-1.73 per thousand Acacia farnesiana,-0.55 per thousand Prosopis juliflora,-1.64 per thousand; and Medicago arborea,+1.6 \\textperthousand) and one actinorhizal plant (Elaeagnus angustifolia,-0.46 to-2.1 per thousand) were found to be close to that of the atmospheric value pointing to a major contribution of N(2) fixing in these species; whereas, delta(15)N values of the non-fixing plant species were highly positive. delta(13)C per thousand; in leaves of the C3 plants were found to be affected by plant species, ranging from a minimum of-28.67 per thousand; to a maximum of-23 per thousand. However, they were relatively similar within each plant species although they were grown at different sites. In the second study area (salt affected soil), a higher carbon discrimination value (Delta(13)C per thousand) was exhibited by P. juliflora, indicating that the latter is a salt tolerant species; however, its delta(15)N was highly positive (+7.03 per thousand) suggesting a negligible contribution of the fixed N(2). Hence, it was concluded that the enhancement of N(2) fixation might be achieved by selection of salt-tolerant Rhizobium strains. PMID:20183233

  13. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  14. Roles of seed and establishment limitation in determining patterns of afrotropical tree recruitment.

    PubMed

    Clark, Connie J; Poulsen, John R; Levey, Doug J

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the relative importance of the multiple processes that limit recruitment may hold the key to understanding tropical tree diversity. Here we couple theoretical models with a large-scale, multi-species seed-sowing experiment to assess the degree to which seed and establishment limitation shape patterns of tropical tree seedling recruitment in a central African forest. Of five randomly selected species (Pancovia laurentii, Staudtia kamerunensis, Manilkara mabokeensis, Myrianthus arboreas, and Entandophragma utile), seedling establishment and survival were low (means of 16% and 6% at 3 and 24 months, respectively), and seedling density increased with seed augmentation. Seedling recruitment was best explained by species identity and the interaction of site-by-species, suggesting recruitment probabilities vary among species and sites, and supporting the role of niche-based mechanisms. Although seed augmentation enhanced initial seedling density, environmental filtering and post-establishment mortality strongly limited seedling recruitment. The relative importance of seed and establishment limitation changed with seed and seedling density and through time. The arrival of seeds most strongly affected local recruitment when seeds were nearly absent from a site (? 1 seed m(2)), but was also important when seeds arrived in extremely high densities, overwhelming niche-based mortality factors. The strength of seed limitation and density-independent mortality decreased significantly over time, while density-dependent mortality showed the opposite trend. The varying strengths of seed and establishment limitation as a function of juvenile density and time emphasize the need to evaluate their roles through later stages of a tree's life cycle. PMID:23691023

  15. Roles of Seed and Establishment Limitation in Determining Patterns of Afrotropical Tree Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Connie J.; Poulsen, John R.; Levey, Doug J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the relative importance of the multiple processes that limit recruitment may hold the key to understanding tropical tree diversity. Here we couple theoretical models with a large-scale, multi-species seed-sowing experiment to assess the degree to which seed and establishment limitation shape patterns of tropical tree seedling recruitment in a central African forest. Of five randomly selected species (Pancovia laurentii, Staudtia kamerunensis, Manilkara mabokeensis, Myrianthus arboreas, and Entandophragma utile), seedling establishment and survival were low (means of 16% and 6% at 3 and 24 months, respectively), and seedling density increased with seed augmentation. Seedling recruitment was best explained by species identity and the interaction of site-by-species, suggesting recruitment probabilities vary among species and sites, and supporting the role of niche-based mechanisms. Although seed augmentation enhanced initial seedling density, environmental filtering and post-establishment mortality strongly limited seedling recruitment. The relative importance of seed and establishment limitation changed with seed and seedling density and through time. The arrival of seeds most strongly affected local recruitment when seeds were nearly absent from a site (? 1 seed m2), but was also important when seeds arrived in extremely high densities, overwhelming niche-based mortality factors. The strength of seed limitation and density-independent mortality decreased significantly over time, while density-dependent mortality showed the opposite trend. The varying strengths of seed and establishment limitation as a function of juvenile density and time emphasize the need to evaluate their roles through later stages of a tree’s life cycle. PMID:23691023

  16. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

  17. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

    2012-02-01

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. PMID:21792590

  18. A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators. PMID:24595752

  19. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. PMID:18341576

  20. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of essential oils of Plectranthus cylindraceus and Meriandra benghalensis from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Wursterb, Martina; Denkert, Annika; Arnold, Norbert; Fadail, Iman; Al-Didamony, Gamal; Lindequist, Ulrike; Wessjohann, Ludger; Setzer, William N

    2012-08-01

    The chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaves of Plectranthus cylindraceus Hoechst. ex. Benth. (EOPC) and Meriandra benghalensis (Roxb.) Benth. (EOMB) were investigated. Sixteen compounds were identified in P. cylindraceus oil representing 94.5% of the oil content with thymol (68.5%), terpinolene (5.3%), beta-selinene (4.7%), beta-caryophyllene (4.0%), delta-cadinol (2.1%), and arcurcumene (1.7%) as the major compounds. In M. benghalensis oil, 12 compounds were identified, which made up 82.0% of the total oil. The most abundant constituents were camphor (43.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.7%), alpha-eudesmol (5.8%), caryophyllene oxide (5.8%), camphene (5.3%) and bomeol (3.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated against five microorganisms with the disc diffusion test, the broth micro-dilution method and a semiquantitative bioautographic test. The most sensitive microorganisms for P. cylindraceus oil were S. aureus, B. subtilis, and C. albicans with inhibition zones of 38, 42, and 43 mm and MIC values of 0.39, 0.18, and, 0.18 microL/mL, respectively. M. benghalensis oil showed weak to moderate activity against the tested microorganisms. 2,2-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed to study the potential antioxidant activities of both oils. The antioxidant activity of P. cylindraceus oil (IC50 34.5 microg/mL) appeared to be higher than that of M. benghalensis oil (IC50 935 microg/mL). At a concentration of 100 microg/mL, EOMB showed a stronger cytotoxic activity, with growth inhibition of 71% against HT29 tumor cells, than EOPC (18%). PMID:22978239

  1. Verminoside mediates life span extension and alleviates stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pant, A; Asthana, J; Yadav, A K; Rathor, L; Srivastava, S; Gupta, M M; Pandey, R

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of bioactive molecules modulating aging in living organism promotes development of natural therapeutics for curing age-related afflictions. The progression in age-related disorders can be attributed to increment in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress level. To this end, we isolated an iridoid verminoside (VMS) from Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. and evaluated its effect on Caenorhabditis elegans. The present study delineates VMS-mediated alteration of intracellular ROS, oxidative stress, and life span in C. elegans. The different tested doses of VMS (5 ?M, 25 ?M, and 50 ?M) were able to enhance ROS scavenging and extend mean life span in C. elegans. The maximal life span extension was observed in 25 ?M VMS, that is, 20.79% (P < 0.0001) followed by 9.84% (P < 0.0001) in 5 ?M VMS and 8.54% (P < 0.0001) in 50 ?M VMS. VMS was able to alleviate juglone-induced oxidative stress and enhanced thermotolerance in worms. The stress-modulating and ROS-scavenging potential of VMS was validated by increment in mean survival by 29.54% (P < 0.0001) in VMS-treated oxidative stress hypersensitive mev-1 mutant strain. Furthermore, VMS modulates expression of DAF-16 (a FoxO transcription factor) promoting stress resistance and longevity. Altogether, our results suggest that VMS attenuates intracellular ROS and stress (oxidative and thermal) level promoting longevity. The longevity and stress modulation can be attributed to VMS-mediated alterations in daf-16 expression which regulates insulin signaling pathway. This study opens doors for development of phytomolecule-based therapeutics for prolonging life span and managing age-related severe disorders. PMID:26189547

  2. Partial Characterization of a Protease Inhibitor Which Inhibits the Major Endopeptidase Present in the Cotyledons of Mung Beans 1

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Bruno; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1976-01-01

    Germination of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Roxb.) is accompanied by an increase in the activity of the endopeptidase involved in storage protein metabolism. Enzyme activity in the cotyledons increases 25-fold during the first 5 days of germination. The cotyledons also contain inhibitory activity against the endopeptidase, and this inhibitory activity declines during germination, suggesting that inhibitors may play a role in regulating the activity of the endopeptidase. The inhibitory activity against the mung bean endopeptidase is due to the presence of two inhibitors which can be separated by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The two inhibitors have approximate molecular weights of 12,000 and smaller than 2,000 daltons. The large inhibitor coelutes with trypsin inhibitor on Sephadex G-100, but these two inhibitory activities can be separated by means of a trypsin affinity column. The inhibitory activity disappears slowly from crude extracts incubated at 6 C and more rapidly when the extracts are incubated at 25 C or 37 C. The disappearance of inhibitory activity is accompanied by a rise of the endopeptidase activity, but an examination of the kinetics of these two phenomena suggests that they are not causally related. Fractionation of the cellular organelles on sucrose gradients shows that the inhibitory activity is not associated with the protein bodies, but rather with the cytosol. Our results suggest that the endopeptidase inhibitor(s) does not regulate the increase in endopeptidase activity which accompanies germination or the metabolism of storage protein. We, therefore, postulate that the inhibitor(s) may function in protecting the cytoplasm from accidental rupturing of the protease-containing protein bodies. PMID:16659606

  3. Partial characterization of a protease inhibitor which inhibits the major endopeptidase present in the cotyledons of mung beans.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, B; Chrispeels, M J

    1976-07-01

    Germination of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Roxb.) is accompanied by an increase in the activity of the endopeptidase involved in storage protein metabolism. Enzyme activity in the cotyledons increases 25-fold during the first 5 days of germination. The cotyledons also contain inhibitory activity against the endopeptidase, and this inhibitory activity declines during germination, suggesting that inhibitors may play a role in regulating the activity of the endopeptidase.The inhibitory activity against the mung bean endopeptidase is due to the presence of two inhibitors which can be separated by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The two inhibitors have approximate molecular weights of 12,000 and smaller than 2,000 daltons. The large inhibitor coelutes with trypsin inhibitor on Sephadex G-100, but these two inhibitory activities can be separated by means of a trypsin affinity column.The inhibitory activity disappears slowly from crude extracts incubated at 6 C and more rapidly when the extracts are incubated at 25 C or 37 C. The disappearance of inhibitory activity is accompanied by a rise of the endopeptidase activity, but an examination of the kinetics of these two phenomena suggests that they are not causally related. Fractionation of the cellular organelles on sucrose gradients shows that the inhibitory activity is not associated with the protein bodies, but rather with the cytosol. Our results suggest that the endopeptidase inhibitor(s) does not regulate the increase in endopeptidase activity which accompanies germination or the metabolism of storage protein. We, therefore, postulate that the inhibitor(s) may function in protecting the cytoplasm from accidental rupturing of the protease-containing protein bodies. PMID:16659606

  4. Isolation of bergenin from the root bark of Securinega virosa and evaluation of its potential sleep promoting effect

    PubMed Central

    Magaji, Mohammed Garba; Musa, Aliyu Muhammad; Abdullahi, Musa Ismail; Ya’u, Jamilu; Hussaini, Isa Marte

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Securinega virosa Roxb (Ex Willd) Baill (Euphorbaiceae) root bark has been reportedly used in African traditional medicine in the management of mental illnesses. Previously, the sleep-inducing potential of the crude methanol root bark of Securinega virosa extract and its butanol fraction have been reported. The study aimed to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituent that may be responsible for the sleep inducing property of the root of the plant. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical investigation of the S. virosa root bark was carried out leading to the isolation of a compound from the butanol-soluble fraction of the methanol extract. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including IR, 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound was investigated for sleep-inducing potential using diazepam-induced sleeping time test and beam walking assay in mice. Results: This is the first report on the isolation of bergenin from the root of the plant. It significantly decreased the mean onset of sleep [F (2, 15) =7.167; p< 0.01] at the dose of 10 mg/kg, without significantly affecting the total sleep duration [F (2, 15) = 0.090, p=0.914]. Conversely, it did not significantly affect the number of foot slips at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg tested. Conclusion: Bergenin isolated from the root bark of S. virosa possesses sleep-inducing property and could be partly responsible for the sedative potential of the root of S. virosa.

  5. Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renne, I.J.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Johnson, Randall L.A.; Bridges, W.C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Plants possessing generalized dispersal syndromes are likely to be more invasive than those relying on specialist dispersal agents. To address this issue on a local and regional scale, avian seed dispersal of the invasive alien Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was assessed in forests and spoil areas of South Carolina and along forest edges in Louisiana during the 1997-99 fruiting seasons. Tallow trees in these floristically distinct habitats had a few common and many casual visitors, and considerable species overlap among habitats was found. However, bird species differed in the importance of dispersing and dropping seeds among habitats. Important dispersal agents common to forests and spoil areas of South Carolina included Northern Flicker, American Robin and Redwinged Blackbird, whereas Red-bellied Woodpecker and European Starling were important in the former and latter habitat, respectively. In Louisiana, Red-bellied Woodpecker, American Robin, Northern Cardinal and Eastern Bluebird dispersed many seeds. Nearly all species foraging on seeds were winter residents. Estimated numbers of seeds dispersed and dropped were higher in spoil areas of South Carolina than in Louisiana because of higher numbers of individuals per visit, higher seed consumption and seed dropping rates, and longer foraging durations. Within South Carolina, more seeds were dispersed and dropped in spoil areas than in forests because of higher numbers of birds per visit. These findings show that among habitats, tallow tree attracts diverse but variable coteries of dispersal agents that are qualitatively similar in seed usage patterns. We suggest that its generalized dispersal syndrome contributes to effective seed dispersal by many bird species throughout its range. Effects of differential avian use among locales may include changes in local bird communities, and differing tallow tree demographics and invasion patterns.

  6. Ribosomal DNA variations in Erianthus, a wild sugarcane relative (Andropogoneae-Saccharinae).

    PubMed

    Besse, P; McIntyre, C L; Berding, N

    1996-05-01

    Variation at the 18S+26S and 5S ribosomal DNA loci was assessed on 62 Erianthus Michx. clones, representing 11 species, and 15 clones from two Saccharum L. species used as a reference. Genus-specific markers for Erianthus Michx. sect. Ripidium Henrard (Old World species) were identified. Ribosomal DNA units in Erianthus sect. Ripidium exhibited an additional BamHI site compared to Saccharum, and 5S units showed length and restriction-site differences between Erianthus and Saccharum. These markers will be useful to follow introgression in Saccharum x Erianthus hybrids. Six ribosomal units (for 18+26S genes) were revealed in Erianthus sect. Ripidium, differing by restriction-site positions and/or length. These results provided new information on species relationships and evolution within the genus Erianthus. The Indonesian and Indian forms of E. arundinaceus (Retz.) Jeswiet gave different restriction patterns, which were similar to those of E. bengalense (Retz.) R. C. Bharadwaja and E. procerus (Roxb.) Raizade, respectively. The two 2n=20 species, E. ele-phantinus Hook.f. and E. ravennae (L.) P. Beauv., could also be differentiated at this locus. Two of the New World Erianthus species studied, E. rufipilus (Steud.) Griseb. and E. longisetosus Andersson, appeared more like Erianthus sect. Ripidium, whereas E. trinii Hack, and E. brevibardis Michx. showed patterns consistent with Miscanthus sinensis Andersson and S. spontaneum L., respectively. Finally, the comparison of rDNA restriction maps among Erianthus sect. Ripidium, Saccharum, sorghum and maize, led to unexpected conclusions concerning the relationships between the different genera and the position of Erianthus in the "Saccharum complex". PMID:24166398

  7. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2011-03-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419

  8. Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-06-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adulticidal activity and adult emergence inhibition (EI) of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus L. Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. tested against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). All plant extracts showed moderate adulticidal activity and EI effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in ethyl acetate extract of A.lineata, chloroform extract of A. paniculata, acetone extract of C. hirsutus, and methanol extract of T. erecta (LD(50)?= 126.92, 95.82, 109.40, and 89.83 ppm; LD(90)?= 542.95, 720.82, 459.03, and 607.85 ppm); and effective EI was found in leaf acetone extract of the A. marmelos, ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extracts of C. hirsutus, and T. erecta, (EI(50)?= 128.14, 79.39, 143.97, and 92.82 ppm; EI(90)?= 713.53, 293.70, 682.72, and 582.59 ppm), respectively, against A. subpictus. These results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of C. hirsutus and T. erecta have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity and EI of plant extracts against malaria vector. PMID:21136078

  9. Contrasting seasonal leaf habits of canopy trees between tropical dry-deciduous and evergreen forests in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Ladpala, Phanumard; Staporn, Duriya; Panuthai, Samreong; Gamo, Minoru; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2006-05-01

    We compared differences in leaf properties, leaf gas exchange and photochemical properties between drought-deciduous and evergreen trees in tropical dry forests, where soil nutrients differed but rainfall was similar. Three canopy trees (Shorea siamensis Miq., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob. and Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer) in a drought-deciduous forest and a canopy tree (Hopea ferrea Lanessan) in an evergreen forest were selected. Soil nutrient availability is lower in the evergreen forest than in the deciduous forest. Compared with the evergreen tree, the deciduous trees had shorter leaf life spans, lower leaf masses per area, higher leaf mass-based nitrogen (N) contents, higher leaf mass-based photosynthetic rates (mass-based P(n)), higher leaf N-based P(n), higher daily maximum stomatal conductance (g(s)) and wider conduits in wood xylem. Mass-based P(n) decreased from the wet to the dry season for all species. Following onset of the dry season, daily maximum g(s) and sensitivity of g(s) to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees, whereas both properties decreased in the evergreen tree during the dry season. Photochemical capacity and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II (PSII) also remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees even after the onset of the dry season. In contrast, photochemical capacity decreased and NPQ increased in the evergreen tree during the dry season, indicating that the leaves coped with prolonged drought by down-regulating PSII. Thus, the drought-avoidant deciduous species were characterized by high N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, high water use and photoinhibition avoidance, whereas the drought-tolerant evergreen was characterized by low N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, conservative water use and photoinhibition tolerance. PMID:16452078

  10. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

    2012-11-01

    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  11. A Time Series Study of Lophelia pertusa and Reef Megafauna Responses to Drill Cuttings Exposure on the Norwegian Margin

    PubMed Central

    Purser, Autun

    2015-01-01

    As hotspots of local biodiversity in the deep sea, preservation of cold-water coral reef communities is of great importance. In European waters the most extensive reefs are found at depths of 300 – 500 m on the continental margin. In Norwegian waters many of these reefs are located in areas of interest for oil and gas exploration and production. In this study drilling was carried out in the Morvin drill field in proximity to a number of small Lophelia pertusa coral reefs (closest reefs 100 m upstream and 350 m downstream of point of waste drill material release). In a novel monitoring study, ROV video surveys of 9 reefs were conducted prior, during, immediately after and >1 year after drilling operations. Behavior of coral polyps inhabiting reefs exposed to differing concentrations of drill cuttings and drilling fluids (waste drilling material) were compared. Levels of expected exposure to these waste materials were determined for each reef by modelling drill cutting transport following release, using accurate in-situ hydrodynamic data collected during the drilling period and drill cutting discharge data as parameters of a dispersal model. The presence / absence of associate reef species (Acesta excavata, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis) were also determined from each survey video. There were no significant differences in Lophelia pertusa polyp behavior in corals modelled to have been exposed to pulses of >25 ppm drill cutting material and those modelled to be exposed to negligible concentrations of material. From the video data collected, there were no observed degradations of reef structure over time, nor reductions of associate fauna abundance, regardless of modelled exposure concentration at any of the surveyed reefs. This study focused exclusively on adult fauna, and did not assess the potential hazard posed by waste drilling material to coral or other larvae. Video data was collected by various ROV’s, using different camera and lighting setups throughout the survey campaign, making comparison of observations prior, during and post drilling problematic. A standardization of video monitoring in future monitoring campaigns is recommended. PMID:26218658

  12. The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities. Thereby, depending on the level of habitat quality that is aimed at, different measures may provide the most efficient solution. Lower levels of conservation can be achieved with low-cost adapted CPAs, such as an increased cutting height, reduced sowing density and grubbing instead of ploughing. Higher levels of conservation require e.g. grassland-like managed buffer strips around ponds in sensible areas, which incur much higher on-farm conservation costs. PMID:23164542

  13. Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration <1000 ppm, play a structural role in the organisms and use proteins as a carrier to their target site. Their toxicity depends on their concentration, speciation and reactions with other elements. In volcanic environments, significant amounts of trace elements discharged from gas emissions, contribute to produce air particulate. Nisyros Island is a stratovolcano located at the South Aegean active Volcanic Arc. Intense hydrothermal activity characterise the Lakki caldera. In particular, the fumaroles located in the craters of Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos Dome and the area comprising Phlegeton, Polyvotes Micros and Polyvotes Megalos discharge hydrothermal fluids rich in H2O (91- 99%), SO2 and H2S. Their temperatures are almost 100o C and H2S is highly abundant accounting for 8-26 % of the released dry gas phase. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field trip on Nisyros island, 39 samples of top soils and 31 of endemic plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in particular for Tl, Rb, Zn, Mn, As, Pb, Se, Bi, Al. The highest concentrations were found both in soils and plants close to the most active fumarolic areas of Stefanos, Kaminakia and Polyvotes and also close to the Geothermal Drill (exploration well). Moreover, both soils and plants showed a good correlation between Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, Bi-Pb, Ba-Sr, Bi-Tl, Ti-Al, Ni-Al, Tl-As, Te-Tl, Te-Se as well as REE's. From the comparison between Cistus sp. and Erica sp. we found a significant enrichment in the former respect to the latter, making Cistus sp. the most suitable plant for biomonitoring studies at Nisyros.

  14. Type of litter determines the formation and properties of charred material during wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Bruno; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Salgado, Josefa; García-Oliva, Felipe; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances all over the World, affecting both the amount and composition of forest floor and mineral soils. In comparison with unburnt areas, wildfire-affected forest floor usually shows lower contents of labile C compounds and higher concentrations of recalcitrant aromatic forms. These changes in composition can have important impact on biogeochemical cycles and therefore ecosystem functions. Although burning of different types of litter can lead to different amount and types of pyrogenic compounds, this aspect has not been evaluated yet. The effect of wildfire on SOM composition and stability were evaluated in five major types of non-wood litter in Mediterranean ecosystems: Pinus nigra, E. arborea, P. pinaster, U. europaeus and Eucalyptus globulus. In each of these ecosystems, forest floor samples from different soil burn severities were sampled. Soil burnt severities were based on visual signs of changes in forest floor and deposition of ash. Pyrogenic carbon quality were analysed using elementary analysis, solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (FTIR) and thermal analysis (simultaneous DSC-TG). The study showed that the different types of litter influenced the formation and characteristics of charred material. They differed in the temperature at which they start to be formed, the amounts of charred compounds and in their chemical composition. The resulting charred materials from the different litter, showed an important variability in the degree of carbonitation/aromatization. Unlike the biochar obtained through pyrolysis of woody sources, which contains exclusively aromatic structures, in the charred material produced in some litter, lignin, cellulose and even cellulose persist even in the high soil burnt severity. Coinciding with increases in aromatic contents, important decreases in atomic H/C and O/C ratios were recorded. However, the values found in some litters, were higher than 0.5, suggesting that low degree of carbonization/aromatization. Although burning also led to compounds of higher thermal recalcitrance (increases in T50 values), values recorded in some litters were lower than those measured in highly polycondensed aromatic compounds. The differences found among the different forest floor cannot be only attributable to the initial SOM composition of the litter. Other aspects, such as the different thermal sensitivity, flammability and different conditions during wildfire (temperatures, combustion duration, oxygen concentrations) could also have contributed.

  15. A Time Series Study of Lophelia pertusa and Reef Megafauna Responses to Drill Cuttings Exposure on the Norwegian Margin.

    PubMed

    Purser, Autun

    2015-01-01

    As hotspots of local biodiversity in the deep sea, preservation of cold-water coral reef communities is of great importance. In European waters the most extensive reefs are found at depths of 300 - 500 m on the continental margin. In Norwegian waters many of these reefs are located in areas of interest for oil and gas exploration and production. In this study drilling was carried out in the Morvin drill field in proximity to a number of small Lophelia pertusa coral reefs (closest reefs 100 m upstream and 350 m downstream of point of waste drill material release). In a novel monitoring study, ROV video surveys of 9 reefs were conducted prior, during, immediately after and >1 year after drilling operations. Behavior of coral polyps inhabiting reefs exposed to differing concentrations of drill cuttings and drilling fluids (waste drilling material) were compared. Levels of expected exposure to these waste materials were determined for each reef by modelling drill cutting transport following release, using accurate in-situ hydrodynamic data collected during the drilling period and drill cutting discharge data as parameters of a dispersal model. The presence / absence of associate reef species (Acesta excavata, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis) were also determined from each survey video. There were no significant differences in Lophelia pertusa polyp behavior in corals modelled to have been exposed to pulses of >25 ppm drill cutting material and those modelled to be exposed to negligible concentrations of material. From the video data collected, there were no observed degradations of reef structure over time, nor reductions of associate fauna abundance, regardless of modelled exposure concentration at any of the surveyed reefs. This study focused exclusively on adult fauna, and did not assess the potential hazard posed by waste drilling material to coral or other larvae. Video data was collected by various ROV's, using different camera and lighting setups throughout the survey campaign, making comparison of observations prior, during and post drilling problematic. A standardization of video monitoring in future monitoring campaigns is recommended. PMID:26218658

  16. Generation, annotation, analysis and database integration of 16,500 white spruce EST clusters

    PubMed Central

    Pavy, Nathalie; Paule, Charles; Parsons, Lee; Crow, John A; Morency, Marie-Josee; Cooke, Janice; Johnson, James E; Noumen, Etienne; Guillet-Claude, Carine; Butterfield, Yaron; Barber, Sarah; Yang, George; Liu, Jerry; Stott, Jeff; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Siddiqui, Asim; Holt, Robert; Marra, Marco; Seguin, Armand; Retzel, Ernest; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2005-01-01

    Background The sequencing and analysis of ESTs is for now the only practical approach for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in conifers because their very large genomes are unlikely to be sequenced in the near future. Our objective was to produce extensive collections of ESTs and cDNA clones to support manufacture of cDNA microarrays and gene discovery in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss). Results We produced 16 cDNA libraries from different tissues and a variety of treatments, and partially sequenced 50,000 cDNA clones. High quality 3' and 5' reads were assembled into 16,578 consensus sequences, 45% of which represented full length inserts. Consensus sequences derived from 5' and 3' reads of the same cDNA clone were linked to define 14,471 transcripts. A large proportion (84%) of the spruce sequences matched a pine sequence, but only 68% of the spruce transcripts had homologs in Arabidopsis or rice. Nearly all the sequences that matched the Populus trichocarpa genome (the only sequenced tree genome) also matched rice or Arabidopsis genomes. We used several sequence similarity search approaches for assignment of putative functions, including blast searches against general and specialized databases (transcription factors, cell wall related proteins), Gene Ontology term assignation and Hidden Markov Model searches against PFAM protein families and domains. In total, 70% of the spruce transcripts displayed matches to proteins of known or unknown function in the Uniref100 database (blastx e-value < 1e-10). We identified multigenic families that appeared larger in spruce than in the Arabidopsis or rice genomes. Detailed analysis of translationally controlled tumour proteins and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase families confirmed a twofold size difference. Sequences and annotations were organized in a dedicated database, SpruceDB. Several search tools were developed to mine the data either based on their occurrence in the cDNA libraries or on functional annotations. Conclusion This report illustrates specific approaches for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in an organism that is very distantly related to any of the fully sequenced genomes. The ArboreaSet sequences and cDNA clones represent a valuable resource for investigations ranging from plant comparative genomics to applied conifer genetics. PMID:16236172

  17. Fire and drought affect plant communities and the greenhouse gas balance in a Mediterranean shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, José M.; Parra, Antonio; Dannenmann, Michael; Ramírez, David A.; Diaz-Pines, Eugenio; Tejedor, Javier; Kitzler, Barbara; Karhu, Kristina; Resco, Victor; Povoas, Luciano

    2010-05-01

    Predicted changes in the seasonality and amount of rainfall under a changing climate have the potential to dramatically alter ecosystem function and species composition. Moreover, in fire-prone ecosystems, the joint effects of fire and increasing aridity may create irreversible changes to the services these ecosystems provide. To understand the effects of increasing drought and fire in a Mediterranean shrubland, we implemented an automated rainfall manipulation system, with rain-out shelters which automatically fold and unfold when conditions are rainy and dry, respectively. In January 2009, we implemented five different treatments, where annual precipitation was reduced by diminishing summer rainfall from the long-term historical average, up to a 40% reduction, following IPCC scenarios. In September 2009, we uninstalled all the shelters to burn the different plots, and reinstalled the shelters immediately afterwards. In this talk, we will present the preliminary results of an integrated experiment which aims at understanding the concomitant effects of fire and different drought intensities on the species composition and greenhouse gas balance (CO2, N2O and CH4) of a Mediterranean shrubland. We observed that plant growth was more severely affected by drought in the more shallow-rooted, malacophyllous shrub (from 116 to -7.2 mg/g/d in Cistus ladanifer), than in a deeper-rooted heather (from 5.5 to 66.9 mg/g/day in Erica arborea). This growth response was mediated by species-specific differences in hydraulics, leaf morphology and photosynthetic gas exchange of each species. Analyses of changes in species composition after fire are currently undergoing. The precipitation reduction treatments exerted drought stress on CH4 oxidizing microorganisms and thus reduced the CH4 sink strength of the ecosystem during the pre-fire period. Furthermore, the net CH4 uptake at the soil-atmosphere interface was reduced by the fire for a period of at least one month. Pedosphere-atmosphere N2O fluxes were mostly close to zero from May 2009 until one month after fire and affected neither by the precipitation manipulation nor by the fire.

  18. Development and validation of a HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of phytolaccagenin in rat plasma and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fenghuan; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Fueth, Matthias; Swarts, Steven; Okunieff, Paul; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2015-03-25

    Radix Phytolaccae (the dried root of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. or Phytolacca americana L.) is widely used in East Asian countries for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. The active component of Radix Phtolaccae is Phytolcaccagenin a triterpenoid saponin. Phytolcaccagenin has anti-inflammatory activities that exceed those of Esculentoside A and its derivatives regarding suppression of LPS-induced inflammation, and has a lower toxicity profile with less hemolysis. To date, no information is available about analytical method and pharmacokinetic studies of phytolaccagenin. To explore PK profile of this compound, a HPLC-MS/MS assay of phytolaccagenin in rat plasma was developed and validated. The method was fully validated according to FDA Guidance for industry. The detection was performed by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode via electrospray ionization. The monitored transitions were m/z 533.2>515.3 for Phytolcaccagenin, and 491.2>473.2 for I.S. The analysis was performed on a Symmetry C18 column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 3.5 ?m) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid water at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with a 1:1 splitter ratio. The method was validated with a LLOQ of 20 ng/ml and an ULOQ of 1000 ng/ml. The response versus concentration data were fitted with 1/x weighting and the correlation coefficient (r) were greater than 0.999. The average matrix effect and the average extraction recovery were acceptable. This validation in rat plasma demonstrated that phytolaccagenin was stable for 30 days when stored below -20°C, for 6h at room temperature (RT, 22°C), for 12 h at RT for prepared control samples in auto-sampler vials, and during three successive freeze/thaw cycles results at -20°C. The validated method has been successfully applied to an intravenous bolus pharmacokinetic study of phytolaccagenin in male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 mg/kg, i.v.). Blood samples taken from 0 to 24h after injection were collected, and data analyzed with WinNonlin. The half-life and clearance were 1.4±0.9 h and 2.1±1.1 L/h/kg, respectively. PMID:25575173

  19. [Tri-phal? (Three Myrobalans) as Described in the Second Part of the Bower Manuscript, the N?van?taka].

    PubMed

    Natsume, Yohko

    2015-01-01

    In India, since ancient times Tri-phal? (meaning "three fruits" in Sanskrit) has been considered to be a combination of the following fruits: -Har?tak? (Terminalia chebula, Retz.), ?malaka (Embelica officinalis Gaertn), and Vibh?taka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.). These plants are also listed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Har?tak? and ?malaka have also been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times in Japan under the Japanese names of (see text) (Kariroku) and (see text) (Annmaroku), respectively. Both have been carefully preserved as treasured drugs in the nationally important Shosoin treasure storehouse. This study attempts to clarify the description of Tri-phal? in the N?van?taka, which is the second part of the Bower Manuscript (Bower Ms.), and examines the reasons why these plants were combined. This paper begins with a summary description of Tri-phal? in the context of traditional Asian medicine, followed by the delineation of drug selection principles in Ayurveda. Tri-phal? formulas in the N?van?taka are then examined. The Carakasamhit? (CS) treats Tri-phal? as a purifier and tonic (ras?yana), describing it as a formula for rejuvenation and longevity. On the other hand, the Susrutasamhitd (SS) regards Tri-phal? as having the efficacy of balancing kapha (phlegm) and pitta (bile), and also as being a medicine to promote excretion and enhance digestive functions for better nutritional intake. It is described to have an effect of curing diseases by keeping the tridh?u (theree element) valance. Tri-phal? is thus used as an ingredient of laxatives for diseases that result from kapha imbalance and tonic. The A???ngah?dayasamhit? (AHS) considers Tri-phal? to have a particular superiority among cure-all medicines with the power to dispel illness. It controls kapha and overcomes blood diseases. Tri-phal? formulas found in the N?van?taka were prescribed for the treatment of abdominal tumors induced by v?yu (wind) disorder as well as for coughs caused by pitta and kapha disorder. Tri-phal? was also administered to facilitate nutrient absorption, regulate bowel function, and promote excretion. Tri-phal? thus restores the balance of tridh?u by facilitating water distribution in the body. For these reasons, the optimal combination of Tri-phal? was then established to adjust kapha for most efficient purification effects. PMID:26427099

  20. Histochemical and Biochemical Observations on Storage Protein Metabolism and Protein Body Autolysis in Cotyledons of Germinating Mung Beans 1

    PubMed Central

    Harris, N.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1975-01-01

    Storage protein hydrolysis in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) was examined by histochemical techniques, and the autolytic capacity of isolated protein bodies was studied with biochemical methods. The localization of endopeptidase activity within the cotyledons was studied using an India ink-gelatin film technique. After 24 hours of imbibition, a low level of endopeptidase activity was found throughout the storage tissues of the cotyledons. A marked increase in activity was noted in cells farthest from the vascular bundles 48 to 60 hours after the start of imbibition. The decrease in storage protein followed the same spatial distribution starting in the cells farthest from the bundles. The cotyledons contain a population of cells in various stages of endopeptidase activity enhancement and storage protein degradation. A wave of endopeptidase activity moves progressively through the cotyledons towards the vascular bundles leaving behind areas devoid of stored reserves and low in endopeptidase activity. Observations on the morphology of protein bodies during germination indicate that the membrane surrounding them remains intact, while the reserves disappear. This result suggests that the protein bodies may be undergoing autolysis. To determine whether this may indeed be the case, protein bodies were isolated from the meal of mung bean seeds using an aqueous medium containing 80% glycerol. The protein body preparations and the cytoplasm were assayed for the presence of a number of enzymes which may be involved in the breakdown of the storage proteins. The protein bodies contained all, or nearly all, of the carboxypeptidase, ?-mannosidase, N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase, and caseolytic activity. The cytoplasm contained all, or most, of the leucine aminopeptidase and the trypsin-like activity (benzoyl arginine-p-nitroanalide as substrate). Incubation of the isolated protein bodies resulted in the release of amino acids. An analysis of the products of hydrolysis indicated that very little, if any, storage protein was being hydrolyzed during the incubation. Hydrolysis of the storage proteins present in the protein bodies was greatly accelerated by the addition of extracts from the cotyledons of 4-day-old seedlings. The results suggest that new enzymic activities not present in the protein bodies isolated from dry seeds must either be activated or synthesized and possibly added to the protein bodies before storage protein breakdown can begin. Images PMID:16659290

  1. Histochemical and biochemical observations on storage protein metabolism and protein body autolysis in cotyledons of germinating mung beans.

    PubMed

    Harris, N; Chrispeels, M J

    1975-08-01

    Storage protein hydrolysis in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) was examined by histochemical techniques, and the autolytic capacity of isolated protein bodies was studied with biochemical methods. The localization of endopeptidase activity within the cotyledons was studied using an India ink-gelatin film technique. After 24 hours of imbibition, a low level of endopeptidase activity was found throughout the storage tissues of the cotyledons. A marked increase in activity was noted in cells farthest from the vascular bundles 48 to 60 hours after the start of imbibition. The decrease in storage protein followed the same spatial distribution starting in the cells farthest from the bundles. The cotyledons contain a population of cells in various stages of endopeptidase activity enhancement and storage protein degradation. A wave of endopeptidase activity moves progressively through the cotyledons towards the vascular bundles leaving behind areas devoid of stored reserves and low in endopeptidase activity. Observations on the morphology of protein bodies during germination indicate that the membrane surrounding them remains intact, while the reserves disappear. This result suggests that the protein bodies may be undergoing autolysis. To determine whether this may indeed be the case, protein bodies were isolated from the meal of mung bean seeds using an aqueous medium containing 80% glycerol. The protein body preparations and the cytoplasm were assayed for the presence of a number of enzymes which may be involved in the breakdown of the storage proteins. The protein bodies contained all, or nearly all, of the carboxypeptidase, alpha-mannosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, and caseolytic activity. The cytoplasm contained all, or most, of the leucine aminopeptidase and the trypsin-like activity (benzoyl arginine-p-nitroanalide as substrate). Incubation of the isolated protein bodies resulted in the release of amino acids. An analysis of the products of hydrolysis indicated that very little, if any, storage protein was being hydrolyzed during the incubation. Hydrolysis of the storage proteins present in the protein bodies was greatly accelerated by the addition of extracts from the cotyledons of 4-day-old seedlings. The results suggest that new enzymic activities not present in the protein bodies isolated from dry seeds must either be activated or synthesized and possibly added to the protein bodies before storage protein breakdown can begin. PMID:16659290

  2. Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists and students. Phenological studies by the Mat-Su Career and Technical High School students helped scientists working with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to determine the best time for an aerial survey of bald eagle nests in the Matanuska Susitna Valley in Alaska. GLOBE student phenological data have also been used as part of a doctoral student dissertation, included in presentations at professional meetings and peer- reviewed scientific papers. Pre- and post- engagement assessment data have indicated a significant increase in content knowledge and science skills of pre-college students who have engaged in phenology investigations. Phenological investigations meet educational standards, help students understand the Earth as a system, do not require expensive equipment, and enable students across the globe to learn science by doing science.

  3. Cloning and characterization of PR5 gene from Curcuma amada and Zingiber officinale in response to Ralstonia solanacearum infection.

    PubMed

    Prasath, D; El-Sharkawy, I; Sherif, S; Tiwary, K S; Jayasankar, S

    2011-10-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), is an important spice crop that is badly affected by Ralstonia solanacearum wilt. Ginger does not set seed and sexual recombination has never been reported. In spite of extensive search in its habitats, no resistance source to Ralstonia induced bacterial wilt, could be located in ginger. Curcuma amada Roxb. is a potential donor for bacterial wilt resistance to Z. officinale, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. Pathogenesis-related (PR)-5 proteins are a family of proteins that are induced by different phytopathogens in many plants and share significant sequence similarity with thaumatin. Two putative PR5 genes, CaPR5 and ZoPR5, were amplified from C. amada and ginger, which encode precursor proteins of 227 and 224 amino acid residues, respectively, and share high homology with a number of other PR5 genes. The secondary and three-dimensional structure comparison did not reveal any striking differences between these two proteins. The expression of Ca and ZoPR5s under R. solanacearum inoculation was analyzed at different time points using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results reveal that CaPR5 is readily induced by the bacterium in C. amada, while ZoPR5 induction was very weak and slow in ginger. These results suggest that the CaPR5 could play a role in the molecular defense response of C. amada to pathogen attack. This is the first report of the isolation of PR5 gene from the C. amada and Z. officinale. Promoter analysis indicates the presence of a silencing element binding factor in ZoPR5-promoter, but not in CaPR5. Prospective promoter elements, such as GT-1 box and TGTCA, implicated as being positive regulatory elements for expression of PR proteins, occur in the 5'-flanking sequences of the CaPR5. Transient GUS expression study confirms its action with a weaker GUS expression in ginger, indicating that the PR5 expression may be controlled in the promoter. PMID:21594675

  4. Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2014-01-01

    In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (?PSII?=?(Fm(')?-F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in photoprotection. Trees with different water uses and leaf lifespans appear to employ different photoprotective mechanisms to overcome the unfavorable dry-season drought. Our data may suggest that future changes in precipitation will strongly impinge on forest structure and functions. PMID:24336612

  5. Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-11-01

    The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum" level of the Gran Dolina cave (Atapuerca) that has yielded H. antecessor remains at ca 960 ky. When compared with Orce localities of similar age (i.e. Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3) that have yielded strong evidence of hominin presence (mainly lithic industries), it appears that they have a fairly similar environmental pattern, having in common a good representation of woodland and water-edge areas, even though dry environments are more developed in Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3 than in Sima del Elefante and Gran Dolina. H. antecessor may have thus lived under a warm-humid climate in a patchy landscape mainly composed of humid meadows and riparian woodlands. Such a landscape may have provided favourable conditions for a high diversity of large mammals, as well as for hiding and escaping from large carnivores.

  6. Tree-ring footprints of drought variability in last ˜300 years over Kumaun Himalaya, India and its relationship with crop productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ram R.; Misra, Krishna G.; Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Kotlia, Bahadur S.; Misra, Sandhya

    2015-06-01

    We reconstructed Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a metric of drought, using tree-ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) prepared from two ecologically homogeneous settings in the Kumaun Himalaya, India. The reconstruction employing first principal component of the two site chronologies in linear regression model helped in extending 7-month SPI of May (SPI7-May) back to 1720 CE. The calibration model capturing 60% of variance in the observed SPI series (1902-1967) is the strongest so far from the Indian region. On achieving such a robust tree-ring calibration we are of the opinion that SPI should provide a better option to develop long-term drought records for the data scarce Himalayan region. The SPI reconstruction revealed high year-to-year variability with 1816 (SPI -1.92) and 1737 (SPI +2.33) the driest and the wettest years respectively. The five year mean of reconstructed SPI revealed multiyear droughts in 1920-1924, 1782-1786, 1812-1816, 1744-1748, 1964-1968 and pluvial phases in 1911-1915, 1723-1727, 1788-1792, 1758-1762 and 1733-1737. The SPI7-May was found to be significantly correlated with wheat-barley productivity data of Almora in Kumaun, close to our tree ring sites (r = 0.60, two-tailed p < 0.0001). However, we observed that the wheat-barley productivity data, to some extent, were better correlated with 7-month SPI of April (SPI7-April) (r = 0.69, two-tailed p < 0.0001). The difference in relationship of wheat-barley productivity and SPI of above two periods is largely due to the prevailing crop phenology in the region. The wheat and barley crops sown in October-November are usually harvested in May when the Himalayan cedar trees are in active vegetation phase of seasonal growth in Almora region. We observed strong and significant correlation in SPI7-May and SPI7-April (r = 0.75, two-tailed p = 0.0001) underpinning that the tree-ring derived SPI7-May could also be taken as a proxy of wheat-barley production in Almora region. This observation also stands for the past as we noted that most of the droughts recorded in our reconstruction (SPI <1) were associated with rabi crop failures in the Kumaun Himalaya. The findings of this study establish that the SPI7-May developed from tree rings should serve as an important base line data to quantify the impact of droughts on forest as well as rabi crop productivity in hilly terrains of the Kumaun Himalaya in long-term perspective.