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1

Foliage biomass - sapwood (area and volume) relationships of Tectona grandis L.F. and Gmelina arborea Roxb.: silvicultural implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed foliage biomass to sapwood (area and volume) relationships for Tectona grandis L.F. and Gmelina arborea Roxb. growing in the Guanacaste province of Costa Rica. Strong linear relationships confirmed the applicability of Shinozaki's pipe model theory to both of these fast-growing, tropical species. The linear models include data from 80 (40 per species) dominant, codominant, and suppressed trees that

Ricardo Morataya; Glenn Galloway; Frank Berninger; Markku Kanninen

1999-01-01

2

Induction of Hairy Roots in Gmelina arborea Roxb. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t Seedling tissues of Gmelina arborea, a medicinally important tree species, were infected with wild type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATTCC 15834, which led to the induction of hairy roots in 32% of the explants. Transgenic nature of the hairy roots was confirmed by PCR using rolB specific primers, and subsequently by Southern analysis

Shrutika Dhakulkar; Sujata Bhargava; T. R. Ganapathi; V. A. Bapat

3

Change in pH regimes and adventitious root induction in semi-hardwood cuttings of Gmelina arborea Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in pH regimes (pH 5.5–8.5), IBA (0.5 mM) and their interactions significantly influenced adventitious root induction\\u000a and growth in semi-hardwood shoot cuttings collected from annually hedged Gmelina arborea Roxb. stockplants of 4 years of age and maintained in earthen pots. Acidic pH 5.5 administered for 4 h as 5.0 mM potassium\\u000a phosphate buffer significantly promoted rooting ability (%) and root number cutting?1 and

Pramod Kumar; Surendra Kumar Jharia; Shamim Akhtar Ansari

4

SMALLHOLDER TIMBER PRODUCTION AND MARKETING: THE CASE OF GMELINA ARBOREA IN CLAVERIA, NORTHERN MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the production and marketing system of Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) in smallholder farms was conducted in Claveria. Survey respondents included farmers, who planted and have undertaken their first harvest of Gmelina trees, and sawmill operators in the nearby coastal towns who are processing and marketing Gmelina logs.Average farm size in the study was 2.5 ha. The majority of

DAMASA B. MAGCALE-MACANDOG; KEN MENZ; PATRICK M. ROCAMORA; CANESIO D. PREDO

1999-01-01

5

“Changes in antioxidant activity in Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae) inoculated with Glomus fasciculatum under drought stress”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gmelina arborea Roxb. seedlings were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus fasciculatum in a drought stress experiment. Irrigation was withheld after 30 days of AM inoculation and drought period were started. Control plants (non-AM and AM plants) were irrigated. Gmelina inoculated with Glomus fasciculatum grown under drought stress showed a significant increase in various morphological parameters like shoot and root

Dudhane Mayura; Borde Mahesh; Jite Paramjit Kaur

2011-01-01

6

Harvesting and comparative thinning alternatives in Gmelina arborea plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting of Gmelina arborea presents some unique considerations due to the environments in which it is grown and to the growing characteristics of the species. On low, wet sites, soil compaction is an important consideration when planning for harvests. Gmelina root systems tend to be superficial and special care is needed when thinning to minimize root damage. Clear felling for

William E. Ladrach

2004-01-01

7

Sustainable site productivity and nutrient management in a short rotation plantation of Gmelina arborea in East Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) requires information on plant growth and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems. To obtain fundamental information for SFM in short-rotation plantations in tropical regions, a serial study was conducted on: (i) land use changes and effects on soil chemical properties in tropical forestland, (ii) site index and nutrient dynamics in Gmelina arborea Roxb. (yemane), (iii) stand age

Cahyono Agus; Oka Karyanto; Satoshi Kita; Kikuo Haibara; Hiroto Toda; Suryo Hardiwinoto; Haryono Supriyo; Mohamad Na'iem; Wahyu Wardana; Maurit S. Sipayung; Khomsatun; Suhartono Wijoyo

2004-01-01

8

Nonvolatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea  

SciTech Connect

In pulping it is important to know how lipophilic extractives will behave and so avoid pitch problems. Experiments on Gmelina wood delivered from Brazil in 1978 are described, using dichloromethane extractives to give sufficient information about the lipophilic extractives. The behavior of Gmelina extracts in kraft pulping was compared to that of birch extracts and was found to be similar. (Refs. 10).

Ukkonen, K.

1982-02-01

9

Biomass production and root distribution of Gmelina arborea under an agrisilviculture system in subhumid tropics of Central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of an agrisilviculture system comprising Gmelina arborea and soybean (Glycine max) was conducted in the subhumid region of Central India. Above- and below-ground biomass production and distribution of coarse and fine roots were studied in 4-year-old G. arborea, planted at a spacing of 2 × 2 m, 2 × 3 m, 2 × 4 m and 2 × 5 m.

S. L. Swamy; A. Mishra; S. Puri

2003-01-01

10

Assessment of Gmelina arborea sawdust–cement-bonded rainwater storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a mixture of a forest bye product and cement for the production of storage structure for harvested rainwater\\u000a was assessed. Three mix ratios of Cement: Gmelina arborea sawdust 3.0:1.0 (specimen A), 2.5:1.0 (specimen B) and 2.0:1.0 (specimen C) were considered. Engineering properties and dimensional\\u000a stability of the different mix-ratios were monitored from prototypes cylindrical pots and test

Olanike O. Aladenola; Ayodele E. Ajayi; Ayorinde A. Olufayo; Babatunde Ajayi

2008-01-01

11

Biomass production and C-sequestration of Gmelina arborea in plantation and agroforestry system in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree based land use systems make a valuable contribution to sequester carbon and improve productivity and nutrient cycling\\u000a within the systems. This study was conducted to determine biomass production, C-sequestration and nitrogen allocation in Gmelina arborea planted as sole and agrisilviculture system on abandoned agricultural land. At 5 years, total stand biomass in agrisilviculture\\u000a system was 14.1 Mg ha?1. Plantations had 35% higher

S. L. Swamy; Sunil Puri

2005-01-01

12

Degradation of the soil physicochemical properties resulting from continuous logging of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the changes in soil properties in sites subjected to continuous logging in exotics plantation sites of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis with the aim to evaluate the deterioration level of the soil productivity in respect to human disturbance. Thirty five sampling plots, each measuring 40 m x 25 m were used for soil sampling. Standard field and

O. O Awotoye?; O. Ekanade

2009-01-01

13

Elevated atmospheric CO? mitigated photoinhibition in a tropical tree species, Gmelina arborea.  

PubMed

Effects of elevated CO? on photosynthetic CO? assimilation, PSII photochemistry and photoinhibition were investigated in the leaves of a fast growing tropical tree species, Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae) during summer days of peak growth season under natural light. Elevated CO? had a significant effect on CO? assimilation rates and maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry. Chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics were measured to determine the influence of elevated CO? on PSII efficiency. During midday, elevated CO?-grown Gmelina showed significantly higher net photosynthesis (p<0.001) and greater F(V)/F(M) (p<0.001) than those grown under ambient CO?. The impact of elevated CO? on photosynthetic rates and Chl a fluorescence were more pronounced during midday depression where the impact of high irradiance decreased in plants grown under elevated CO? compared to ambient CO?-grown plants. Our results clearly demonstrate that decreased susceptibility to photoinhibition in elevated CO? grown plants was associated with increased accumulation of active PSII reaction centers and efficient photochemical quenching. We conclude that elevated CO? treatment resulted in easy diminution of midday photosynthetic depression. PMID:21441036

Rasineni, Girish Kumar; Guha, Anirban; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

2011-03-09

14

Responses of Gmelina arborea, a tropical deciduous tree species, to elevated atmospheric CO2: growth, biomass productivity and carbon sequestration efficacy.  

PubMed

The photosynthetic response of trees to rising CO(2) concentrations largely depends on source-sink relations, in addition to differences in responsiveness by species, genotype, and functional group. Previous studies on elevated CO(2) responses in trees have either doubled the gas concentration (>700 ?mol mol(-1)) or used single large addition of CO(2) (500-600 ?mol mol(-1)). In this study, Gmelina arborea, a fast growing tropical deciduous tree species, was selected to determine the photosynthetic efficiency, growth response and overall source-sink relations under near elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration (460 ?mol mol(-1)). Net photosynthetic rate of Gmelina was ~30% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with ambient CO(2)-grown plants. The elevated CO(2) concentration also had significant effect on photochemical and biochemical capacities evidenced by changes in F(V)/F(M), ABS/CSm, ET(0)/CSm and RuBPcase activity. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) conditions significantly increased absolute growth rate, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Gmelina which sequestered ~2100 g tree(-1) carbon after 120 days of treatment when compared to ambient CO(2)-grown plants. Our data indicate that young Gmelina could accumulate significant biomass and escape acclimatory down-regulation of photosynthesis due to high source-sink capacity even with an increase of 100 ?mo lmol(-1) CO(2). PMID:21889049

Rasineni, Girish K; Guha, Anirban; Reddy, Attipalli R

2011-07-26

15

Diarylheptanoids from Myrica arborea.  

PubMed

Investigations of the stem and root bark of Myrica arborea (Myricaceae) have yielded two novel diarylheptanoids, myricarborin and 11-O-beta-D-xylopyranosylmyricanol along with the known myricanol and 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylmyricanol. The structures of the novel compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. PMID:11014300

Tene, M; Wabo, H K; Kamnaing, P; Tsopmo, A; Tane, P; Ayafor, J F; Sterner, O

2000-08-01

16

Antioxidant activity of Erica arborea.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties of the methanol extract of leaves and flowers of Erica arborea and the ethyl acetate, butanol and water soluble fractions were investigated. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be the richest for phenolic and flavonoid content which showed the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:17570611

Ay, Mehmet; Bahadori, Fatemeh; Oztürk, Mehmet; Kolak, Ufuk; Topçu, Gülaçti

2007-05-24

17

Bioactive constituents of Leptadenia arborea.  

PubMed

The aerial part of Leptadenia arborea has been shown to contain pinoresinol (1), syringaresinol (2), leucanthemitol (3) and E-ferulaldehyde (4). These known compounds are being reported for the first time from this plant. Among them, syringaresinol has shown an inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase. The IC(50) (the concentration of 50% enzyme inhibition) value of this compound was 200 microg/ml. PMID:12628421

El-Hassan, A; El-Sayed, M; Hamed, A I; Rhee, I K; Ahmed, A A; Zeller, K P; Verpoorte, R

2003-02-01

18

Bioactive flavanoids from Glycosmis arborea  

PubMed Central

Background Glycosmis is a genus of evergreen glabrous shrub and distributed all over India. It possesses various medicinal properties and is used in indigenous medicine for cough, rheumatism, anemia, and jaundice. Glycosmis arborea is a rich source of alkaloids, terpenoids, coumarins, as well as flavonoids. Results The chemical investigation of methanol fraction of the leaves of G. arborea led to the isolation of one new flavone C-glycoside along with three known flavanoids, named as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[4-hydroxy-3-(methoxy methyl) phenyl]-6-C-?-d-glucopyranosyl flavone (4), 5,7,4?-trihydroxy-3?-methoxy flavone (1), 5,4?-dihydroxy-3?-methoxy-7-O-?-d-glucupyranosyl flavanone (2), and 5,4?-dihydroxy-3?-methoxy-7-O-(?-l-rhamnosyl-(1??6?)-?-d-glucopyranosyl) flavanone (3), respectively. The structures of all compounds were elucidated with the help of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Pure compounds and fractions were evaluated for pest antifeedant and antimicrobial activity. Conclusion Four compounds were isolated from the leaves of G. arborea. Among them, compound 4 showed significant antimicrobial activity.

2013-01-01

19

36. ECONOMIC PROSPECTS OF SMALL-SCALE TREE FARMS IN BONTOC, SOUTHERN LEYTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the economic returns of subsistence farmers from small- scale tree farms in Bontoc Municipality, Southern Leyte, and the reasons that influence attitudes of farmers towards tree domestication. Yemani (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla king.) are the most commonly planted timber species in Southern Leyte. They are frequently planted as intercrops in

Anatolio N. Polinar

20

Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview.  

PubMed

Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc. PMID:22654406

Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

2012-01-01

21

Secondary Metabolites from the Soft Coral Sinularia arborea  

PubMed Central

Two new 13-hydroxycembrane diterpenoids, arbolides A (1) and B (2), along with a known trihydroxysteroid, crassarosterol A (3), were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia arborea. The structures of new cembranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Steroid 3 was found to exhibit cytotoxicity toward K562 and MOLT-4 leukemia.

Chen, Kuan-Hua; Dai, Chang-Feng; Lu, Mei-Chin; Li, Jan-Jung; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Yu-Chia; Su, Yin-Di; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Sung, Ping-Jyun

2013-01-01

22

Antioxidant phenolic compounds from the leaves of Erica Arborea (Ericaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversed-phase HPLC analyses of the methanol extract of the leaves of Erica arborea afforded a novel phenylpropanoid glucoside, named ericarborin, together with five flavonoids, dihydromyricetin 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside and apigenin 7-O-?-D-(6-O-acetyl-glucopyranoside). While the structure of ericarborin was determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses, the structures of all known flavonoids were determined by direct comparison

Hossein Nazemiyeh; Fatemeh Bahadori; Abbas Delazar; Mehmet Ay; Gülaçti Topçu; Lutfun Nahar; Runner R. T. Majinda; Satyajit D. Sarker

2008-01-01

23

Incorporation of the invasive mallow Lavatera arborea into the food web of an active seabird island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of the invasive mallow Lavatera arborea in the terrestrial ecosystem of a flourishing seabird island in SE New Zealand using natural abundance stable isotope ratios\\u000a (13C\\/12C; 15N\\/14N, reported as ?13C and ?15N). Foliage samples of L. arborea came from transects encompassing three distinct environments (plateau, slope, storm-washed flat) across the island. Samples\\u000a of potential marine

David J. HawkeJohn; John Mc K. Clark

2010-01-01

24

Antioxidant phenolic compounds from the leaves of Erica Arborea (Ericaceae).  

PubMed

Reversed-phase HPLC analyses of the methanol extract of the leaves of Erica arborea afforded a novel phenylpropanoid glucoside, named ericarborin, together with five flavonoids, dihydromyricetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and apigenin 7-O-beta-D-(6-O-acetyl-glucopyranoside). While the structure of ericarborin was determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses, the structures of all known flavonoids were determined by direct comparison of their spectroscopic data with respective literature data. The antioxidant properties of these compounds were assessed by the DPPH assay. The chemotaxonomic significance of these phenolic compounds has been discussed. PMID:19023799

Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Bahadori, Fatemeh; Delazar, Abbas; Ay, Mehmet; Topçu, Gülacti; Nahar, Lutfun; Majinda, Runner R T; Sarker, Satyajit D

2008-01-01

25

A Methanol Extract of Brugmansia arborea Affects the Reinforcing and Motor Effects of Morphine and Cocaine in Mice  

PubMed Central

Previous reports have shown that several of the effects of morphine, including the development of tolerance and physical withdrawal symptoms, are reduced by extracts of Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerheim (Solanaceae) (B. arborea). In the present study we evaluate the action of the methanol extract of B. arborea (7.5–60?mg/kg) on the motor and reinforcing effects of morphine (20 and 40?mg/kg) and cocaine (25?mg/kg) using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. At the doses employed, B. arborea did not affect motor activity or induce any effect on CPP. The extract partially counteracted morphine-induced motor activity and completely blocked the CPP induced by 20?mg/kg morphine. On the other hand, B. arborea blocked cocaine-induced hyperactivity but did not block cocaine-induced CPP. Reinstatement of extinguished preference with a priming dose of morphine or cocaine was also inhibited by B. arborea. The complex mechanism of action of B. arborea, which affects the dopaminergic and the cholinergic systems, seems to provide a neurobiological substrate for the effects observed. Considered as a whole, these results point to B. arborea as a useful tool for the treatment of morphine or cocaine abuse.

Bracci, Antonio; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Aguilar, Maria; Minarro, Jose; Rodriguez-Arias, Marta

2013-01-01

26

Somatic hybrid plants between the forage legumes Medicago sativa L. and Medicago arborea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific somatic hybrid plants were obtained by symmetrical electrofusion of mesophyll protoplasts of Medicago sativa with callus protoplasts of Medicago arborea. Somatic hybrid calli were picked manually from semi-solid culture medium after they were identified by their dual color in fluorescent light. Twelve putative hybrid calli were selected and one of them regenerated plants. The morphogenesis of the somatic hybrid

E. Nenz; F. Pupilli; F. Damiani; S. Arcioni

1996-01-01

27

Chromosome elimination in trisomics of Coix aquatica Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Somatic chromosome elimination was identified and its patterns studied in a trisomic (2n=11) with marker genes in Coix aquatica Roxb. In a cross between a recessive trisomic with green base and white style (ccc ii ss) and a dominant disomic having purple base and purple style (CC II SS), all the F1 seedling progeny were purple based because of the

P. N. Rao

1976-01-01

28

[Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Erica arborea L.  

PubMed

AIM: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity, and acute toxicity of Moroccan Erica arborea leaves. METHODS: Antioxidant capacity was assessed by diphenyle-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdate (PPM) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests and anti-inflammatory capacity was evaluated by hind paw oedema model using carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat. The acute toxicity was evaluated using mice. RESULTS: Acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of E. arborea showed no sign of toxicity at dose of 5g/kg B.W. Our extracts have important antioxidant properties. The efficient concentration of the ethanolic extract (10.22?g/ml) required for decreasing initial DPPH concentration by 50% was comparable to that of standard solution butyl-hydroxy-toluene (BHT) (8.87?g/ml). The administration of ethanolic extract at doses of 200 and 400mg/kg B.W. was able to prevent plantar oedema and exhibited a significant inhibition against carrageenan-induced inflammation when compared to the control group (NaCl 0.9%) but comparable to those of diclofenac (reference drug). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the leaves of E. arborea may contain some bioactive compounds which are responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities observed here. Our finding may indicate the possibility of using the extracts of this plant to prevent the antioxidant and inflammatory processes. PMID:23647695

Amezouar, F; Badri, W; Hsaine, M; Bourhim, N; Fougrach, H

2013-05-01

29

Anti lipid peroxidation activity of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. extracts.  

PubMed

Attempt has been made to evaluate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. individually. In this study goat liver has been used as lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of the Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. has the ability to suppress the lipid peroxidation and it was also found that Piper trioicum Roxb. extract has more activity than Physalis minima L. extract. PMID:21715277

Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Saraswathi, Narasimha Raju; Nalini, Venkata Rama Rao; Srisudharson; Bodanapu, Venkat Ram Reddy; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, David

2011-07-01

30

Molecular Epidemiology of Leptospira borgpetersenii Serovar Arborea, Queensland, Australia, 1998-2005  

PubMed Central

Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea is an emerging cause of leptospirosis in Australia. It was not previously recognized as an endemic serovar before the 1990s, but at that point, human infections with the serovar increased significantly. Using fluorescent-amplified fragment-length polymorphism (FAFLP) molecular typing, human and rodent isolates were compared genetically. Typing revealed 11 unique profiles among the 23 isolates examined; however, there was no clonality revealed between the human and rodent isolates. There was clonality among rodent isolates from geographically related areas. This study highlights the utility of Leptospira culture combined with FAFLP for the examination of the epidemiology of this disease.

Slack, Andrew T.; Symonds, Meegan L.; Dohnt, Michael F.; Craig, Scott B.; Smythe, Lee D.

2010-01-01

31

Tutu toxicity: three case reports of Coriaria arborea ingestion, review of literature and recommendations for management.  

PubMed

We describe three cases of tutu berry (Coriaria arborea) ingestion resulting in tonic-clonic seizures in two individuals and mild symptoms in the third. Tutu poisoning in humans appears to be a rare occurrence; the last reported case in the medical literature being over 40 years ago. We review the literature on tutu poisoning and recommend extending the period of observation for poisoned individuals from 8 hours to 12 hours or longer. We also recommend that prophylactic benzodiazepine use should be considered in those with mild to moderate symptoms of poisoning. PMID:23474518

Belcher, Sally F; Morton, Tom R

2013-03-01

32

Antiulcer Activity of Hydroalchol Extract of Momordica dioica roxb. Fruit  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to evaluate antiulcer activity of hydroalcohol extract of Momordica dioica Roxb. fruit. Momordica dioica Roxb. fruit extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally, twice daily for 5 days for prevention from ethanol, cold-restraint stress and pylorus ligation-induced ulcers. Estimation of H+-K+ ATPase activity and gastric wall mucous were performed in ethanol-induced ulcer model, antioxidant enzyme activities was carried out in cold-restraint stress-induced ulcer model, and various gastric secretion parameters like volume of gastric juice, acid output, and pH value were estimated in pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model. A significant reduction in lesion index was observed in ulcer-induced animals pre treated with extract at different doses when compared with ulcerated rats in all models. A significant decrease occurred in the level of H+-K+ ATPase, volume of gastric juice, and acid output. Gastric wall mucus and pH were increased significantly. These showed dose-dependent action of extract. LPO and antioxidant enzyme levels of SOD were decreased, but CAT enzyme showed significant increase. Thus the results indicate that the Momordica dioica extract possess antiulcerogenic effect, that attributable to augmentation of gastric defense mechanisms.

Vijayakumar, M.; Eswaran, M. Bavani; Ojha, S. K.; Rao, CH. V.; Rawat, A. K. S.

2011-01-01

33

Investigation the antinociceptive, antipyretic and anti- inflammatory activities of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extracts in experimental animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reanmongkol, W., Subhadhirasakul, S., Khaisombat, N., Fuengnawakit, P., Jantasila, S. and Khamjun, A. Investigation the antinociceptive, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extracts in experimental animals

Wantana Reanmongkol; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Narinee Khaisombat; Parichat Fuengnawakit; Saranya Jantasila; Arunee Khamjun

2006-01-01

34

First determination of arthropod assemblages associated with Erica arborea L. and Erica scoparia L.  

PubMed

This study gathers the first data concerning the arthropod assemblages associated with Erica arborea L. and E. scoparia L. It demonstrates that it is necessary to sample at least ten Erica scoparia L. to give a representative image of its arthropod assemblage. This study reveals that neither plant size nor architecture nor floristic environment can explain the different patterns of colonisation of both species of Erica by the arthropod assemblages. If our attention is focused on the three main species collected on both species of Erica, it appears that the nearly exclusive presence of Sitona lineatus L. on E. arborea L. might be correlated with highly different concentrations in tannins between the two species of Erica. In contrast, the different patterns of colonisation and the number of individuals of Colaspidea oblonga Blanchard collected on both species of Erica might be linked to the life-history of this Chrysomelideae. Finally, the presence of Psallus crotchi Scott to the same extent on both Erica species can be connected to the destruction of its natural host-plant and to the similar concentrations of nitrogen, a limiting factor for sap-sucker's colonisation, in both Erica species. PMID:11291310

Anglade, J Y; Bigot, L

2001-03-01

35

Continuous basal sprouting from a lignotuber: Arbutus unedo L. and Erica arborea L., as woody Mediterranean examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two dominant species of the Corsican mattoral,Arbutus unedo L. andErica arborea L., can produce abundant sprouts from the lignotuber not only immediately after fire but also more or less continuously in the absence of major disturbance. The lignotuber appears to be more important during the early stages of development; the result is an increase in the number of sprouts

François Mesléard; Jacques Lepart

1989-01-01

36

Cytomorphological Studies on Stem of Luffa echinata Roxb  

PubMed Central

Luffa echinata Roxb., commonly known as Bindal in Hindi is used for its hypoglycemic activity in the indigenous system of medicine. No pharmacognostical study on stem is reported in the literature till date; therefore, it was decided to study macroscopical and cytomorphological characters in detail to bring out salient diagnostic features. The stem pieces available in the market are 1.5–17 cm long and 5–8 mm in diameter, showing yellowish-brown to brownish-black surface with longitudinal furrows, fracture is fibrous, and taste is bitter. Mature stem shows single-layered epidermis, seven layers of collenchyma below five ridges but one to two layers of parenchyma in rest of the region beneath the epidermis, continuous wide wavy layer of pericycle composed of three to eight layers of fiber. There are five conjoint bi-collateral open vascular bundles one below each ridge and additional four medullary vascular bundles in the pith each facing furrows.

Jayalakshmi, S; Patra, A; Wahi, AK

2010-01-01

37

Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Investigation of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. Stem  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation were carried out on the stem of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. The pharmacognostic analysis revealed total ash of 9.65%, water soluble ash of 48.0%, alcohol soluble extractive value of 13.0% and acid insoluble ash of 48.0%. The quantitative and qualitative analysis is very essential for identifying the compounds present in the medicinal plants. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, phenol, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, and alkaloid, while triterpenoid, anthraquinone and quinone were absent. The present paper deals with the standardization of its aerial part of plant on the basis of various pharmacognostic parameters. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this species.

Sampathkumar, Subramanian; Ramakrishnan, N

2011-01-01

38

Cytomorphological Studies on Stem of Luffa echinata Roxb.  

PubMed

Luffa echinata Roxb., commonly known as Bindal in Hindi is used for its hypoglycemic activity in the indigenous system of medicine. No pharmacognostical study on stem is reported in the literature till date; therefore, it was decided to study macroscopical and cytomorphological characters in detail to bring out salient diagnostic features. The stem pieces available in the market are 1.5-17 cm long and 5-8 mm in diameter, showing yellowish-brown to brownish-black surface with longitudinal furrows, fracture is fibrous, and taste is bitter. Mature stem shows single-layered epidermis, seven layers of collenchyma below five ridges but one to two layers of parenchyma in rest of the region beneath the epidermis, continuous wide wavy layer of pericycle composed of three to eight layers of fiber. There are five conjoint bi-collateral open vascular bundles one below each ridge and additional four medullary vascular bundles in the pith each facing furrows. PMID:21042480

Jayalakshmi, S; Patra, A; Wahi, Ak

2010-07-01

39

A Key Transcription Cofactor on the Nascent Sex Chromosomes of European Tree Frogs (Hyla arborea)  

PubMed Central

We show that MED15, a key component of the transcription complex Mediator, lies within the nonrecombining segment of nascent sex chromosomes in the male-heterogametic Hyla arborea. Both X and Y alleles are expressed during embryonic development and differ by three frame-preserving indels (eight amino acids in total) within their glutamine-rich central part. These changes have the potential to affect the conformation of the Mediator complex and to activate genes in a sex-specific way and might thus represent the first steps toward the acquisition of a male-specific function. Alternatively, they might result from an ancestral neutral polymorphism, with different alleles picked by chance on the X and Y chromosomes when MED15 was trapped in the nonrecombining segment.

Niculita-Hirzel, H.; Stock, M.; Perrin, N.

2008-01-01

40

Continuous basal sprouting from a lignotuber:Arbutus unedo L. andErica arborea L., as woody Mediterranean examples.  

PubMed

The two dominant species of the Corsican mattoral,Arbutus unedo L. andErica arborea L., can produce abundant sprouts from the lignotuber not only immediately after fire but also more or less continuously in the absence of major disturbance. The lignotuber appears to be more important during the early stages of development; the result is an increase in the number of sprouts during the 25 years following the establishment of the individuals. Later the lignotuber seems to lose the ability to ensure the development of new basal sprouts. A hypothesis is that the presence of a lignotuber is related to the growth form.Arbutus unedo andErica arborea show behaviour intermediate between acrotony and basitony, as the shoots show acrotony, and continuous sprouting is characteristic of basitonic species. The fact that sprouting from the lignotuber is not necessarily a result of fire suggests that the relation between fire and vegetation in the Mediterranean region should be reconsidered. PMID:23494355

Mesléard, F; Lepart, J

2013-03-13

41

Toxicological studies of two compounds isolated from Loranthus globosus Roxb.  

PubMed

The sub-acute toxicities of two compounds 3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (1) and 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (2) isolated from the plant Loranthus globosus Roxb were studied on long Evan's rats. The studies included the gross general observation such as changes in body weight, haematological profiles [total count of Red Blood Cells (RBC) and White Blood Cells (WBC), differential count of WBC, platelet count and Haemoglobin (Hb)%], biochemical parameters of blood [Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (SALP), urea and creatinine) and histopathology of the liver, kidney, heart and lung of both control and experimental groups of rats. The changes in haematological and biochemical parameters were statistically not significant after the administration of compounds 1 and 2 in a dose of 300 microg/rat/day for consecutive 14 days. No abnormality was found in the histopathology of the liver, kidney, heart and lung in the experimental groups of rats following same dose when compared with control group. This preliminary study suggests that the isolated compounds may be used safely for clinical trial. PMID:19093449

Islam, Robiul; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Rahman, B M; Salam, K A; Hossain, Aslam; Baki, Abdullahil; Sadik, Golam

2007-06-15

42

Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).  

PubMed

Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity. PMID:18814488

Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

2008-08-01

43

Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group).  

PubMed

We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). PMID:22652054

Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas

2012-05-29

44

Habitat fragmentation causes bottlenecks and inbreeding in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea).  

PubMed Central

A genetic study of the European tree frog, Hyla arborea, in Denmark was undertaken to examine the population structure on mainland Jutland and the island of Lolland after a period of reduction in suitable habitat and population sizes. The two regions have experienced the same rate of habitat loss but fragmentation has been more severe on Lolland. Genetic variation based on 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellites was analysed in 494 tree frogs sampled from two ponds in Jutland and 10 ponds on Lolland. A significant overall deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations could be attributed to three ponds, all on Lolland. This was most probably caused by an inbreeding effect reducing fitness, which was supported by the observed significant negative correlation between larva survival and mean F(IS) value and mean individual inbreeding coefficient. A significant reduction in genetic variation (bottleneck) was detected in most of the ponds on Lolland. Population-structure analysis suggested the existence of at least 11 genetically different populations, corresponding to most of the sampled population units. The results indicated that the populations were unique genetic units and could be used to illustrate the migration pattern between newly established ponds arisen either by natural colonization of tree frogs or by artificial introduction. A high degree of pond fidelity in the tree frogs was suggested. A severe fragmentation process reducing population size and fitness within some of the populations probably caused the significant reduction in genetic variation of tree frog populations on Lolland.

Andersen, Liselotte W; Fog, Kare; Damgaard, Christian

2004-01-01

45

Evaluation of the gastric antiulcerogenic effect of large cardamom (fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large cardamom (fruit of Amomum subulatum Roxb, N.O. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as ‘Heel kalan’ or ‘Bari Ilaichi’ is used in Unani system of medicine in gastrointestinal disorders. A crude methanolic extract and its different fractions, viz. essential oil, petroleum ether (60–80°), ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions, were studied in rats for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced by

M. A. Jafri; Kalim Javed; Surender Singh

2001-01-01

46

Antihyperglycemic effect of Diospyros melanoxylon (Roxb.) bark against Alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antihyperglycemic activity of Diospyros melanoxylon (Roxb.) bark was evaluated with scientific approach including biochemical parameters and histopathological studies of pancreas. The ethanolic extracts of the powdered bark was tested for its efficacy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extracts were also evaluated for acute oral toxicity studies and its effect on different biochemical parameters. An effect of extracts was compared

Jadhav J. K; M. S. India

47

Ultrastructural Studies on Root Nodules of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ultrastructural studies were conducted on Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb) Benth. root nodules collected from trees growing under natural conditions. Rhizobial infection on root surface of P. dulce started with curling of root hair. Both curled and straight root hairs were observed. Th e internal structure of a mature nodule showed an epidermis, cortex, vascular region and a bacteriod region. Vascular

Raiha QADRI; A. MAHMOOD; Mohammad ATHAR

48

Anatomical changes induced by increasing NaCl salinity in three fodder shrubs, Nitraria retusa , Atriplex halimus and Medicago arborea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitraria retusa and Atriplex halimus (xero-halophytes) plants were grown in the range 0–800 mM NaCl while Medicago arborea (glycophyte) in 0–300 mM NaCl. Plants were harvested after 120 days of salt-treatment. The present study was designed to\\u000a study the effect of salinity on root, stem and leaf anatomy, water relationship, and plant growth in greenhouse conditions.\\u000a Salinity induced anatomical changes in the roots,

Fayçal Boughalleb; Mounir Denden; Bechir Ben Tiba

2009-01-01

49

Antioxidant, antibacterial and antigiardial activities of Walsura robusta Roxb.  

PubMed

Walsura robusta Roxb. (Family: Meliaceae) is a well-known multi-purpose medicinal plant, and has been employed for a wide range of disease conditions without documented scientific data. In the current study, four pure isolated compounds, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), turpinionoside A (2), (+)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) and (-)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of W. robusta. Biological evaluation for free radical scavenging, antibacterial and antigiardial activities was performed. We investigated antioxidant effects of the crude extracts as well as the isolated compounds using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (OH), and superoxide anion (O(2)) scavenging assays. Three phenolic glucosides (1, 3 and 4) were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. They scavenged DPPH(*) with IC(50) values in the range of 51.5-86.6 microM. We also detected the superoxide dismutase-like activities in compounds 3 and 4 which are lignan glucosides, demonstrating potent superoxide scavenging activity with IC(50) values in the range of 0.8 and 0.7 microM, respectively. Other biological activities including antibacterial and antigiardial assays were carried out. Preliminary results demonstrated that most extracts, except the diethyl ether extract, exhibited inhibition zones against all Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and S. pyogenes. Aqueous extracts of this plant species could inhibit Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella sonnei. However, the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of W. robusta on all tested bacterial strains showed only weak activity, and their MBCs were greater than 25 mg mL(-1). For antigiardial activity, incubation with 2 x 10(5) trophozoites mL(-1) of the culture medium with the crude extracts at concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1000 microg mL(-1) demonstrated no activity (MIC > 1000 microg mL(-1)). PMID:20461627

Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P; Kanchanapoom, Tripetch; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn

2010-05-01

50

Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.  

PubMed

As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p < or = 0.05) mortality of both insect pests with a high residual contact activity against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p < or = 0.01) reduced, while progeny production and development of eggs within grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed. PMID:19817125

Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

2009-07-01

51

Isolation and characterization of antioxidant and antibacterial compound from mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chloroform extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome was subjected to antioxidant activity-guided purification by repeated silica gel column chromatography to obtain a pure antioxidant compound. The structure was deduced by analyzing UV, IR, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer spectroscopy (2D-HMQCT) NMR spectral data, and named it as “Amadannulen”, a novel compound.

R. S. Policegoudra; K. Abiraj; D. Channe Gowda; S. M. Aradhya

2007-01-01

52

Efficient Regeneration of Curcuma amada Roxb. Plantlets from Rhizome and Leaf Sheath Explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol is outlined for direct and indirect regeneration of a medicinally valuable Curcuma amada Roxb. using rhizome and leaf sheath explants. Multiple shoots were obtained from rhizome explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 4.44 µM BA and 1.08 µM a-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA). For indirect regeneration, semi-friable callus obtained from leaf sheath explants on MS medium with

S. Prakash; R. Elangomathavan; S. Seshadri; K. Kathiravan; S. Ignacimuthu

2004-01-01

53

Mitochondrial apoptosis contributes to the anti-cancer effect of Smilax glabra Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR), a member of the Smilacaceae family and a rhizome of the Liliaceae plant, has shown anti-inflammation and detoxification properties, and a few studies reported its anti-cancer effect. In this study, we showed that SGR inhibited growth of human breast cancer cell line MCF7, colon carcinoma cell line HT-29, and gastric cancer cell line BGC-823 in a

Yujing Gao; Yahui Su; Like Qu; Shuo Xu; Lin Meng; Shao-Qing Cai; Chengchao Shou

2011-01-01

54

A New BioActive Flavonol Glycoside from the Stems of Butea superba Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bio-active flavonol glycoside was isolated from the stems of Butea superba Roxb, and its structure was determined by spectral analysis and chemical degradations as 3,5,7,3?,4?-pentahydroxy-8-methoxy-flavonol-3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 2)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside. The compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity against plant pathogenic fungi Trich viride, Asprgillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, Penicillium expansum, Helmitnhosporium oryzae, Botxitis cinerea, Rhizopus oligosporus, R. chinensis, Kelbsiella pneumoniae, Fusearium

R. N. Yadava; K. I. S. Reddy

1998-01-01

55

Chemical and nutritional studies on Terminalia bellirica Roxb. Kernel and its oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia bellirica Roxb. is a valuable tree of Indian forests. The seeds are valued medicinally and also industrially, for tanning purposes.\\u000a The kernels, which are not currently used for edible purposes, have 40% oil and 35% protein. The oil extracted from the kernels\\u000a is sweet-smelling and has palmitic (35%), oleic (24%) and linoleic (31%) acids as major fatty acids. The

C. Rukmini; P. Udayasekhara Rao

1986-01-01

56

Physicochemical studies and optimization of gallic acid production from the seed coat of Terminalia belerica Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methanol extract from the seed coat of the Bahera fruit (Terminalia belerica Roxb.) was evaluated as an antioxidant, and was studied on different lipid samples using a Rancimat apparatus. Moreover,\\u000a spectrophotometric, chromatographic and thermogravimetric analysis of an aqueous extract revealed it to contain 24% tannin;\\u000a this extract was used successfully for microbial production of gallic acid by Aspergillus niger

Dipak B. Patil; Subrata K. Das; Pradeep K. Das Mohapatra; Ahindra Nag

57

Efficient in Vitro Regeneration and Micropropagation of Medicinal Plant Momordica tuberosa Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts have been made to establish protocol for in vitro propagation of Momordica tuberosa (Cogn) Roxb. using nodal segments and shoot apices obtained from field-grown mature plants. In vitro regeneration was achieved from nodal explants on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine at 2.22, 4.40, 6.62, and 8.90 ?M and kinetin at 2.32, 4.60, 6.92, and 9.30 ?M

Mahender Aileni; Srinivasa Reddy Kota; Venugopal Rao Kokkirala; Pavan Umate; Sadanandam Abbagani

2009-01-01

58

Cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) extract on heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases against isoproterenol (IP) induced myocardial necrosis (MN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85mg\\/kg, s.c.) recorded significant (p<0.05) increment in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes

Menaka C. Thounaojam; Ravirajsinh N. Jadeja; Ansarullah; Sanjay S. Karn; Jigar D. Shah; Dipak K. Patel; Sunita P. Salunke; Geeta S. Padate; Ranjitsinh V. Devkar; A. V. Ramachandran

2011-01-01

59

Scaling Erica arborea transpiration from trees up to the stand using auxiliary micrometeorological information in a wax myrtle-tree heath cloud forest (La Gomera, Canary Islands).  

PubMed

We investigate evapotranspiration, sap flow and top soil water content variations in a wax myrtle-tree heath ('fayal-brezal' in Spanish) cloud forest in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands) over a 1-year period. We provide transpiration estimates for one of the representative species, the shrubby needle-like Erica arborea L., present in this relict subtropical forest. An ad hoc tree up to the stand scaling method that combines the sap flow and auxiliary reference evapotranspiration data is illustrated, showing to be useful when sap flow in a limited number of trees has been monitored. Individual daily-based scaling curves of the Gompertz type were necessary to explain the observed sap flow variability in E. arborea during the 1-year period investigated (r(2)???0.953 with mode of r(2)?=?0.9999). The mean daily sap flow of an E. arborea individual amounted to 8.37?±?5.65 kg day(-1) tree(-1), with a maximum of 20.48 kg day(-1) tree(-1), yielding an annual total of 3052.89 kg tree(-1). A comparison of the computed daily transpiration with the continuous micrometeorological time series monitored in the studied plot suggested that solar radiation was the main driving force of transpiration in E. arborea (cross correlation index?=?0.94). Fog may also affect tree transpiration via its reduction of radiation and temperature, such that during foggy periods the mean daily water loss estimate of E. arborea was 5.35?±?4.30 kg day(-1) tree(-1), which sharply contrasted with the 2.4-fold average transpiration values obtained for fog-free days, i.e., 12.81?±?4.33 kg day(-1) tree(-1). The annual water balance rendered a 288 mm year(-1) water input to the forest and evidenced the need for accurately quantifying the contribution of fog water dripping from the canopy. PMID:24072518

Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

2013-09-26

60

Differences in the contents of total sugars, reducing sugars, starch and sucrose in embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli from Medicago arborea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total sugars, reducing sugars, starch and sucrose in embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli from explants (cotyledons, petioles, hypocotyls and leaves) obtained from Medicago arborea L. seedlings were evaluated. Total sugars were the major components in the calli and no significant differences between embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were observed. In contrast, important differences between the embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were observed

Ana Belen Martin; Yolanda Cuadrado; Hilario Guerra; Piedad Gallego; Oscar Hita; Luisa Martin; Ana Dorado; Nieves Villalobos

2000-01-01

61

Micropropagation of Terminalia bellirica Roxb.—A sericulture and medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A protocol for micropropagation of plants via axillary bud proliferation from nodal explants of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. seedlings has been established. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations\\u000a of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 4.4, 8.9, 13.3, 17.8, or 22.2 ?M) or kinetin (Kn; 4.6, 9.3. 14.0, 18.6, or 23.2 ?M). Within the range evaluated, the medium containing 13.3

M. Ramesh; Pavan Umate; K. Venugopal Rao; A. Sadanandam

2005-01-01

62

Studies on the chemical constituents and antioxidant activities of extracts from the roots of Smilax lanceaefolia Roxb.  

PubMed

A flavonol glycoside (1) and a steroidal saponin (2), along with beta-sitosterol and beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside, were isolated from the roots of Smilax lanceaefolia Roxb. Mineral contents were determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the total antioxidant activity was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. PMID:20234971

Laitonjam, Warjeet S; Kongbrailatpam, Brajeshwari D

2010-07-01

63

The role of nocturnal vision in mate choice: females prefer conspicuous males in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea)  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal frog species rely extensively on vocalization for reproduction. But recent studies provide evidence for an important, though long overlooked, role of visual communication. In many species, calling males exhibit a conspicuous pulsing vocal sac, a signal bearing visually important dynamic components. Here, we investigate female preference for male vocal sac coloration—a question hitherto unexplored—and male colour pattern in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Under nocturnal conditions, we conducted two-choice experiments involving video playbacks of calling males with identical calls and showing various naturally encountered colour signals, differing in their chromatic and brightness components. We adjusted video colours to match the frogs' visual perception, a crucial aspect not considered in previous experiments. Females prefer males with a colourful sac and a pronounced flank stripe. Both signals probably enhance male conspicuousness and facilitate detection and localization by females. This study provides the first experimental evidence of a preference for specific vocal sac spectral properties in a nocturnal anuran species. Vocal sac coloration is based on carotenoids and may convey information about male quality worthwhile for females to assess. The informative content of the flank stripe remains to be demonstrated.

Gomez, Doris; Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry; Plenet, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre; Lena, Jean-Paul; Thery, Marc

2009-01-01

64

Isolation and characterization of antioxidant and antibacterial compound from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome.  

PubMed

The chloroform extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome was subjected to antioxidant activity-guided purification by repeated silica gel column chromatography to obtain a pure antioxidant compound. The structure was deduced by analyzing UV, IR, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence transfer spectroscopy (2D-HMQCT) NMR spectral data, and named it as "Amadannulen", a novel compound. It exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity, super oxide radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and metal chelating activity. Amadannulen also showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. It also exhibited bactericidal activity against M. luteus, B. cereus and B. subtilis. PMID:17223394

Policegoudra, R S; Abiraj, K; Channe Gowda, D; Aradhya, S M

2007-01-16

65

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark  

PubMed Central

The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) were administered by p.o. route. The antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (P < 0.01). At the above doses, the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract of D. sissoo may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavanoids. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanolic extract was not toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight.

Asif, Mohammad; Kumar, Arun

2011-01-01

66

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) were administered by p.o. route. The antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (P < 0.01). At the above doses, the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract of D. sissoo may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavanoids. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanolic extract was not toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight. PMID:22470239

Asif, Mohammad; Kumar, Arun

2011-01-01

67

Phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies in mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.; Zingiberaceae).  

PubMed

Curcuma amada Roxb. is an important species known as mango ginger due to its characteristic raw-mango aroma. It has a long history of traditional uses ranging from folk medicine to several culinary preparations. The phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies of C. amada are reviewed. The rhizome is rich in essential oils, and more than 130 chemical constituents with biomedical significance have been isolated from it. Its antibacterial, insecticidal, antifungal and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The conservation of indigenous knowledge by proper documentation is suggested. The chemotaxonomy, allelopathy and genetic diversity of C. amada have not yet been explored, and many such studies are possible. This review was compiled to provide consolidated information covering different aspects of the plant, to provide a basis on which to plan future studies and to promote sustainable use of C. amada. PMID:17397131

Jatoi, Shakeel Ahmad; Kikuchi, Akira; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Watanabe, Kazuo N

2007-06-01

68

Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)--a promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities.  

PubMed

Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view. PMID:21857121

Policegoudra, R S; Aradhya, S M; Singh, L

2011-09-01

69

Changes in isoenzymes of soluble malate dehydrogenase during germination of mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) under salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus\\u000a Roxb.) cv. Pusa Baisakhi were surface sterilized and sown both in Petri dishes and sand culture containing aqueous solutions of\\u000a four different saltsviz. NaCl, KC1, Na2SO4 and K2SO4 each at 5 and 10 m ?-1 cm-1. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isoenzymes were studied in different plant parts of mung bean at suitable intervals during germination

I. S. Sheoean; O. P. Garg

1980-01-01

70

Development of ITS sequence-based markers to distinguish Berberis aristata DC. from B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stems of Berberis aristata DC. (Berberidaceae) are used in the South Asian traditional medicine as a key ingredient in formulations for eye care, skin\\u000a diseases, jaundice, rheumatism and also in diabetes. B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb. are traded as equivalents of B. aristata. Conventional macro-morphology and microscopic examination does not aid in critically distinguishing the three species.

Subramani Paranthaman Balasubramani; Gurinder Singh Goraya; Padma Venkatasubramanian

71

The role of cytokinins on in vitro shoot production in Salix tetrasperma Roxb.: a tree of ecological importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A valuable tropical tree, Salix tetrasperma Roxb. commonly known as Indian willow has been investigated for its in vitro regeneration potential using nodal explants\\u000a obtained from a 30-year-old elite tree. Agar-solidified Woody Plant Medium (WPM) containing different concentrations of Plant\\u000a Growth Regulators (PGRs) was used in the study. Shoot induction response was best on WPM supplemented with 6-benzyladenine\\u000a (5.0 ?M) where

Naseem Ahmad; Mohammad Anis

2011-01-01

72

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta  

PubMed Central

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other.

Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

73

Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from Frankia strains in root nodules of Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata.  

PubMed Central

To study the global diversity of plant-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing Frankia strains, a rapid method was used to isolate DNA from these actinomycetes in root nodules. The procedure used involved dissecting the symbiont from nodule lobes; ascorbic acid was used to maintain plant phenolic compounds in the reduced state. Genes for the small-subunit rRNA (16S ribosomal DNA) were amplified by the PCR, and the amplicons were cycle sequenced. Less than 1 mg (fresh weight) of nodule tissue and fewer than 10 vesicle clusters could serve as the starting material for template preparation. Partial sequences were obtained from symbionts residing in nodules from Ceanothus griseus, Coriaria arborea, Coriaria plumosa, Discaria toumatou, and Purshia tridentata. The sequences obtained from Ceonothus griseus and P. tridentata nodules were identical to the sequence previously reported for the endophyte of Dryas drummondii. The sequences from Frankia strains in Coriaria arborea and Coriaria plumosa nodules were identical to one another and indicate a separate lineage for these strains. The Frankia strains in Discaria toumatou nodules yielded a unique sequence that places them in a lineage close to bacteria that infect members of the Elaeagnaceae.

Benson, D R; Stephens, D W; Clawson, M L; Silvester, W B

1996-01-01

74

Influence of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi, Rhizobium meliloti strains and PGPR inoculation on the growth of Medicago arborea used as model legume for re-vegetation and biological reactivation in a semi-arid mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicago arborea can be used for re-vegetation purposes under semiarid conditions. These woody legumes have the ability to form an association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobial bacteria, which can be maximised by microorganisms producing certain stimulating metabolites acting as plant growth promoting rhizo- bacteria (PGPR). The effects of single and combined inoculations using microorganisms with different and in-

M. Valdenegro; J. M. Barea; R. Azcón

2001-01-01

75

Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf and root bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the pharmacognostic characters of an important medicinal plant, Holoptelea integrifolia (H. integrifolia) Roxb. Methods The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, macroscopic and fluorescence analysis. Results The characteristic microscopic features of leaves were observed as trichomes, multicellular trichomes, xylem cells, phloem cells, collenchyma, vascular bundles, spongy parenchyma and palisade cells. The characteristic microscopic features of root bark included cork cambium, primary cortex, phloem fibers, medullary rays, endodermis, pericycle and lignified fibers in the transverse section and longitudinal section. The characteristic microscopy of root bark powder showed the presence of cortex cells, sieve tubes, calcium oxalate crystals and lignified fibers. Macroscopic study showed that leaf shape-oval, apex-acute, base-cordate and leaf margin was entire with glabrous surface, bitter taste and characteristic odour. The morphological features of root bark showed deep fissured, rough and firm surface with rhitydome and the periderm parallel to cambium. Conclusions Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of H. integrifolia.

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Karunesh; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Tarun; Kumar, Ajay; Prakash, Om

2012-01-01

76

Mitochondrial apoptosis contributes to the anti-cancer effect of Smilax glabra Roxb.  

PubMed

Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR), a member of the Smilacaceae family and a rhizome of the Liliaceae plant, has shown anti-inflammation and detoxification properties, and a few studies reported its anti-cancer effect. In this study, we showed that SGR inhibited growth of human breast cancer cell line MCF7, colon carcinoma cell line HT-29, and gastric cancer cell line BGC-823 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SGR could inhibit tumor growth of HT-29 in Balb/c nude mice and murine hepatoma H22 cells in ICR mice. SGR elicited apoptotic cell death, as confirmed by DNA ladder formation, changes in nuclear morphology, and the increased FITC-Annexin-V/PI staining. Permeabilization of mitochondrial membrane (MMP), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevation of intracellular [Ca(2+)], relocation of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase-3 were found to be associated with the initiation of apoptosis by SGR treatment. Using microarray analysis, we found the changes in expression profiles of genes related to apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle control in the cells treated with SGR. Our results demonstrated the mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis by which SGR exerts the anti-cancer effect. PMID:21920417

Gao, Yujing; Su, Yahui; Qu, Like; Xu, Shuo; Meng, Lin; Cai, Shao-Qing; Shou, Chengchao

2011-09-03

77

Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.  

PubMed

We investigated the vascular responses and the blood pressure reducing effects of different fractions obtained from the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. (F. Loranthaceae). By means of solvent-solvent extraction, L. ferrugineus methanol extract (LFME) was successively fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ability of these LFME fractions to relax vascular smooth muscle against phenylephrine (PE)- and KCl-induced contractions in isolated rat aortic rings was determined. In another set of experiments, LFME fractions were tested for blood pressure lowering activity in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g, 14-18 weeks). The n-butanol fraction of LFME (NBF-LFME) produced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PE- and KCl-induced aortic ring contractions compared to other fractions. Moreover, NBF-LFME had a significantly higher relaxant effect against PE- than against high K+-induced contractions. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, NBF-LFME significantly lowered blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner and with a relatively longer duration of action compared to the other fractions. HPLC, UV and IR spectra suggested the presence of terpenoid constituents in both LFME and NBF-LFME. Accordingly, we conclude that NBF-LFME is the most potent fraction producing a concentration-dependent relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and a dose-dependent blood pressure lowering activity in vivo. The cardiovascular effects of NBF-LFME are most likely attributable to its terpenoid content. PMID:20084331

Ameer, O Z; Salman, I M; Siddiqui, M J A; Yam, M F; Sriramaneni, R N; Sadikun, A; Ismail, Z; Shah, A M; Asmawi, M Z

2010-01-15

78

Hepatoprotection through regulation of voltage dependent anion channel expression by Amomum subulatum Roxb seeds extract  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) plays an important role in triggering the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) that leads to mitochondrial damage and induce apoptic or necrotic cell death. In the present study, the methanolic extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb. seeds (MEAS) was used to examine its effect on VDAC. Aminotransferase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium-induced liver MPT, and VDAC expression were used to evaluate the hepato protective effect of MEAS. Results: Pretreatment of mice with MEAS (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly blocked the CCl4-induced increase in AST and ALT activities. Pretreatment with MEAS showed significant preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to CCl4 control demonstrating the mitochondrial protection. In addition, pretreatment with MEAS at various concentrations exerted a dose-dependent effect against sensitivity to mitochondrial swelling induced by calcium. In addition, MEAS (300 mg/kg) significantly increased the transcription and translation of VDAC. Conclusion: Our data suggest that MEAS significantly prevents the damage to liver mitochondria through regulation of VDAC expression.

Parmar, Mihir Y.; Shah, Purvi A.; Gao, Jing; Gandhi, Tejal R.

2011-01-01

79

Anti-spermatogenic activity of ethanol extract of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark.  

PubMed

The study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-spermatogenic efficacy of ethanol extract of stem bark of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. For the in vitro study, semen samples were obtained from 15 healthy fertile men aged 25-35 years. Sperm motility was examined by the Sander-Cramer method. A dose-dependent and time-dependent effect of ethanol extract on sperm motility and sperm viability were observed. Various concentrations affected the motility of sperm. Ethanol extract at a concentration of 20 mg/mL caused complete immobilization within 3 minutes. Sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling was significantly reduced at this concentration. The in vivo studies were carried out on Swiss male albino mice. Ethanol extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in a significant decrease (p<0.001) in weight of the testis and epididymis. A significant decrease (p<0.01) in sperm motility and sperm count in the epididymis were observed. Histological changes in the epididymis and testis were also investigated. PMID:21704954

Vasudeva, Neeru; Vats, Manisha

2011-06-01

80

Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Effects of Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. in Rats: Involvement of Enzyme Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. (BF) is traditionally used to manage male sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED). Methanol extract of BF (bark) inhibited Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK-II) enzyme activity in vitro with an IC50 of 20.29 ± 1.83??g/mL. The relaxant effect of methanol extract of BF (MEBF) was studied on phenylephrine precontracted corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) isolated from young rats. The effect of MEBF treatment on sexual behaviour of both young (5 month) and aged (24 month) rats was also studied in addition to the influence on smooth muscle, collagen (collagen-I and -III) level in penis, and sperm characteristics of young and aged rats. MEBF relaxed CCSM up to 21.77 ± 2.57% and increased sexual behavior of young and aged rats. This increase in sexual function could be attributed to ROCK-II inhibition and increase in ratio of smooth muscle to collagen level in rat penile tissue. Increased sperm production and decreased defective sperms in young and aged rats corroborate the usefulness of Butea frondosa in male infertility in addition to ED.

Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Jamwal, Rohitash; Dethe, Shekhar

2013-01-01

81

Biotransformation of geranyl acetate to geraniol during palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, Roxb. wats. var. motia) inflorescence development.  

PubMed

Only immature palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, Roxb. wats. var. motia) inflorescence with unopened spikelets accumulated essential oil substantially. Geraniol and geranyl acetate together constituted about 90% of the palmarosa oil. The proportion of geranyl acetate in the oil decreased significantly with a corresponding increase of geraniol, during inflorescence development. An esterase enzyme activity, involved in the transformation of geranyl acetate to geraniol, was detected from the immature inflorescence using a gas chromatographic procedure. The enzyme, termed as geranyl acetate cleaving esterase (GAE), was found to be active in the alkaline pH range with the optimum at pH 8.5. The catalysis of geranyl acetate was linear up to 6 h, and after 24 h of incubation, 75% of the geranyl acetate incubated was hydrolyzed. The GAE enzymic preparation, when stored at 4 degrees C for a week, was quite stable with only 40% loss of activity. The physiological role of GAE in the production of geraniol during palmarosa inflorescence development has been discussed. PMID:11397433

Dubey, V S; Luthra, R

2001-07-01

82

Pharmacological evaluation of fruits of Terminalia belerica Roxb. for antiulcer activity.  

PubMed

The antiulcer activity of 70% methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Combretaceae) was evaluated using ethanol induced, aspirin induced, cold stress restraint and pylorus ligated ulcer in rats. The methanolic extract (100, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the peptic ulcer induced by ethanol. Methanolic extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed, promising antiulcer activity hence, this dose was selected for further evaluation of antiulcer studies. The methanolic extract (500 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index, protein and pepsin content and increase in mucus content in pylorus ligated rats as compared to control. Treatment with Terminalia belerica methanolic extract further provided significant antiulcer protection against aspirin induced ulcers but not in cold stress restraint model. These results suggested that the 70% methanolic extract of Terminalia belerica increased resistance to necrotizing agents, providing a direct protective effect on the gastric mucosa and exhibited antiulcer effect. PMID:22713279

Jawanjal, Hitesh; Rajput, Mithun S; Agrawal, Purti; Dange, Vikramsingh

2012-06-18

83

Comparison of conventional and non conventional methods of extraction of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.  

PubMed

The renewed interest in plant-derived drugs has led to an increased need for efficient extraction methods. The present investigation was an attempt to evaluate and compare the conventional methods of extraction with non conventional methods of extraction, such as ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methods. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. has been reported to contain bioactive phytochemicals, e.g., pterostilbene (3',5'-dimethoxy-4-stilbenol). The results showed that among the conventional extraction methods, percolation gave the highest yield. The non conventional methods were optimized. The extraction yield was the highest in case of MAE. The phytochemical screening of the extracts indicated similar groups of compounds in all the extracts. The thin layer chromatography showed the presence of pterostilbene in the extracts obtained by using percolation, MAE and UAE. In these extracts the quantification of pterostilbene was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography and the method was validated. The MAE method extracted significantly higher amount of pterostilbene. PMID:22594262

Devgun, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid H

84

Accumulation of bioactive compounds during growth and development of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizomes.  

PubMed

Accumulation of bioactive compounds and storage components during developmental stages of mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome was investigated from 60 to 240 days, as a function of physiological maturity. Four distinct developmental phases were defined, namely, vegetative phase (up to 60 days from planting), initiation and development phase (60-150 days), maturation phase (150-180 days), and senescence phase (180 days). Difurocumenonol, a bioactive terpenoid compound and phenolics were identified as biomarkers, to determine the optimum physiological maturity to harvest mango ginger rhizome. Accumulation of phenolics was observed in newly initiated rhizomes (after 60 days from planting). The phenolic content was high in mango ginger pulp compared to its juice. Newly initiated rhizome contained no difurocumenonol, and it was observed after 120 days after planting. Peak accumulation of phenolics, difurocumenonol, and total protein were noticed in 180 day old rhizome. Accordingly, the abundance of these components on 180 days was set as an optimum maturity standard for harvest of mango ginger rhizome, compared with a conventional harvest period that ranges from 200 to 240 days. PMID:17715894

Policegoudra, Rudragouda S; Kumar, Muthappa H Swaroop; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna S

2007-08-23

85

A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.  

PubMed

Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

2010-10-01

86

Two New Members of the Callerya Group (Fabaceae) Based on Phylogenetic Analysis of rbcL Sequences: Endosamara racemosa (Roxb.) Geesink and Callerya vasta (Kosterm.) Schot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new members of Callerya group in Fabaceae, Endosamara racemosa (Roxb.) Geesink and Callerya vasta (Kosterm.) Schot, are identified based on phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast rbcL sequences. These taxa joined with other previously identified taxa in the Callerya group: Afgekia, Callerya, and Wisteria. These genera are resolved as a basal subclade in the Inverted Repeat Lacking Clade (IRLC), which is

Jer-Ming Hu; Shih-Pai Chang

2003-01-01

87

Multiple shoot regeneration and alkaloid cerpegin accumulation in callus culture of Ceropegia juncea Roxb.  

PubMed

This is the first report of in vitro propagation and alkaloid accumulation in callus cultures of Ceropegia juncea Roxb. a source of "Soma" drug in Ayurvedic medicine. Multiple shoots and callus induction was optimized by studying the influence of auxins [IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid), NAA (2-Naphthalene acetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.)] and cytokinins [BA (6-benzyladenine) and Kin (Kinetin)] alone and in combinations. The best response for multiple shoot induction was obtained in nodal explants on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 ?M Kin (8.5 ± 3 shoots per explants). The shoots were rooted on half strength MS (Murashige and Skoog's) medium fortified with either IAA or NAA (0.5-2.0 ?M). The plantlets were transferred directly to the field with 100 % success rate. Supplementation of MS medium with auxins and cytokinins enhanced the growth of callus but inhibited the shoot regeneration in nodal explants. Best callus induction and proliferation observed on MS + 1 ?M 2,4-D+5 ?M BA. However the maximum cerpegin content (470 ?g/g dry weight) was recorded in dried callus derived on MS+10 ?M IAA+5 ?M BA. Quantitative TLC (Thin layer chromatography) studies of the callus revealed a phytochemical profile similar to that of naturally grown plants. The calli were maintained by subculturing at 4 weeks interval on fresh parent medium over a period of 34 months. The optimized in vitro propagation and callus culture protocol offers the possibilities of using organ/callus culture technique for vegetative propagation and production of cerpegin alkaloid. PMID:23572914

Nikam, T D; Savant, R S

2009-05-14

88

Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of Smilax glabra Roxb. extract on hepatoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR) is the root of a traditional Chinese herb, referred to as tu fu ling in Chinese medicine. It is an inexpensive traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for the treatment of liver diseases, and a few studies have indicated that SGR has anti-hepatocarcinogenic and anti-cancer growth activities. In the current study, raw SGR plant was extracted with Accelerate Solvent Extractor, and the molecular mechanism by which S. glabra Roxb. extract (SGRE) has an anti-proliferative effect on the human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, was determined. We showed that SGRE inhibited HepG2 and Hep3B cell growth by causing cell-cycle arrest at either S phase or S/G2 transition and induced apoptosis, as evidenced by a DNA fragmentation assay. SGRE-induced apoptosis by alternation of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The SGRE-mediated mitochondria-caspase dependent apoptotic pathway also involved activation of p38, JNK, and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Isometric compounds of astilbin (flavonoids) and smilagenin (saponin) have been identified as the main chemical constituents in SGRE by HPLC-MS/MS. These results have identified, for the first time, the biological activity of SGRE in HepG2 and Hep3B cells and should lead to further development of SGR for liver disease therapy. PMID:17996228

Sa, Fei; Gao, Jian-Li; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Yi-Tao

2007-09-12

89

Thyroid hormone-dependent seasonality in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea ): effects of GC1, a thyroid receptor ß-selective agonist, and of iopanoic acid, a deiodinase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the role of TH in the control of seasonality [i.e., photoperiodic testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial (prebasic) molt] in American tree sparrows ( Spizella arborea), we performed experiments in which THX males were simultaneously photostimulated and given TH replacement therapy. In the first experiment, equimolar concentrations (1X=1.3 nmol) of T4, T3, or GC-1, an iodine-free TR? agonist, were administered

M. K. Mishra; F. E. Wilson; T. S. Scanlan; G. Chiellini

2004-01-01

90

A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat and its bearing on palaeoclimatic interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea macroptera Dyer, which is a prominent member of the tropical evergreen forests of the Malayan Peninsula. The present finding, along with the other megafossil records described from the same area, indicates a typical tropical vegetation with a warm and humid climate at the time of deposition in contrast to the present day xeric vegetation in the area. As the family Dipterocarpaceae no longer exists in western India, it is essential to discuss the time of its extinction and possible causes, which may include drastic changes in the climate of the region. The present finding also supports the theory of a Malaysian origin for the family in contrast to the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin.

Shukla, Anumeha; Guleria, J. S.; Mehrotra, R. C.

2012-02-01

91

Development of ITS sequence-based markers to distinguish Berberis aristata DC. from B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb.  

PubMed

The stems of Berberis aristata DC. (Berberidaceae) are used in the South Asian traditional medicine as a key ingredient in formulations for eye care, skin diseases, jaundice, rheumatism and also in diabetes. B. lycium Royle and B. asiatica Roxb. are traded as equivalents of B. aristata. Conventional macro-morphology and microscopic examination does not aid in critically distinguishing the three species. DNA markers were developed by amplifying and sequencing the complete internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2) from the genomic DNA, using universal primers. The markers developed are efficient and reliable in authenticating B. aristata, B. asiatica and B. lycium. These are useful as molecular pharmacognostic tool in quality control of raw drugs. PMID:22558531

Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Goraya, Gurinder Singh; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

2011-01-18

92

Within- and among-population impact of genetic erosion on adult fitness-related traits in the European tree frog Hyla arborea.  

PubMed

Assessing in wild populations how fitness is impacted by inbreeding and genetic drift is a major goal for conservation biology. An approach to measure the detrimental effects of inbreeding on fitness is to estimate correlations between molecular variation and phenotypic performances within and among populations. Our study investigated the effect of individual multilocus heterozygosity on body size, body condition and reproductive investment of males (that is, chorus attendance) and females (that is, clutch mass and egg size) in both small fragmented and large non-fragmented populations of European tree frog (Hyla arborea). Because adult size and/or condition and reproductive investment are usually related, genetic erosion may have detrimental effects directly on reproductive investment, and also on individual body size and condition that in turn may affect reproductive investment. We confirmed that the reproductive investment was highly size-dependent for both sexes. Larger females invested more in offspring production, and larger males attended the chorus in the pond more often. Our results did not provide evidence for a decline in body size, condition and reproductive effort with decreased multilocus heterozygosity both within and among populations. We showed that the lack of heterozygosity-fitness correlations within populations probably resulted from low inbreeding levels (inferior to ca. 20% full-sib mating rate), even in the small fragmented populations. The detrimental effects of fixation load were either low in adults or hidden by environmental variation among populations. These findings will be useful to design specific management actions to improve population persistence. PMID:23250010

Luquet, E; Léna, J-P; David, P; Prunier, J; Joly, P; Lengagne, T; Perrin, N; Plénet, S

2012-12-19

93

Isotopic carbon discrimination and leaf nitrogen content of Erica arborea L. along a CO(2) concentration gradient in a CO(2) spring in Italy.  

PubMed

We studied a Mediterranean species (Erica arborea L.) growing in a CO(2) spring in Italy that was naturally exposed for generations to a gradient of atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The CO(2) concentration gradient to which different individual plants were exposed was determined by an indirect method based on radioisotope analysis. The stable carbon isotope ratio of sampled leaves was determined by mass spectrometry, and isotopic discrimination was then calculated. Leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area, total soil nitrogen, soil organic matter content and soil pH were also measured. In one group of plants, grown on a homogeneous soil and exposed to moderate CO(2) enrichment, isotopic discrimination was significantly reduced in response to increasing CO(2) concentrations, whereas the intercellular CO(2) concentration and leaf nitrogen content were almost unaffected. In a second group of plants, grown along a gradient of CO(2) concentration and soil nitrogen content, leaf nitrogen content was reduced when nitrogen availability was limiting. However, when soil nitrogen was available in excess, even very high CO(2) concentrations did not result in increased discrimination or reduced leaf nitrogen content in the long term. The results are discussed with respect to current theories about the long-term CO(2) response of plants based on several years of experimentation with elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations under controlled conditions. PMID:14965956

Bettarini, I; Calderoni, G; Miglietta, F; Raschi, A; Ehleringer, J

1995-05-01

94

Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory activity of a novel molecule isolated and characterized from mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome is used in the manufacture of pickles and other food preparations due to its unique raw mango flavour. The\\u000a chloroform extract of mango ginger rhizome was subjected to antibacterial activity-guided purification by repeated silica\\u000a gel column chromatography to obtain a pure compound. The structure of the isolated compound was deduced by analysing UV, IR,

R. S. Policegoudra; K. Rehna; L. Jaganmohan Rao; S. M. Aradhya

2010-01-01

95

Arsenic-induced root growth inhibition in mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is due to oxidative stress resulting from enhanced lipid peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) toxicity and its biochemical effects have been mostly evaluated in ferns and a few higher plants. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the effect of As (10.0 and 50.0 ?M) on seedling growth, root anatomy, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde\\u000a and conjugated dienes), electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, root oxidizability and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). Arsenic

Harminder Pal Singh; Daizy R. Batish; Ravinder Kumar Kohli; Komal Arora

2007-01-01

96

Influence of Leaf, Fruit and Seed Powders and Extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) on the in vitro Vegetative Growth of Seven Postharvest Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barrera-Necha, L.L., Bautista-Baños, S., Jiménez-Estrada, M., and Reyes-Chilpa, R. 2002. Influence of leaf, fruit and seed powders and extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) on the in vitro vegetative growth of seven postharvest fungi. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 20:66- 71. Powders of Pithecellobium dulce leaves, fruit and seeds sequentially extracted with hexane-dicloromethane, acetone, and methanol-water were evaluated on mycelial

Laura Leticia Barrera-Necha; Silvia Bautista-Baños; Manuel Jiménez-Estrada; Ricardo Reyes

2002-01-01

97

Flow and flexibility. I. Effects Of size, shape and stiffness in determining wave forces on the stipitate kelps eisenia arborea and pterygophora californica  

PubMed

Wave action on exposed rocky coasts can be severe, generating large hydrodynamic forces that have been proposed to constrain the size of intertidal animals and plants. In contrast, flows subtidally are more benign, and organisms, particularly seaweeds, may grow quite large. The large dimensions of these flexible macroalgae allow them to move during much or most of a passing wave cycle, reducing relative water velocities and modifying the forces the plants must endure. The consequences of such wave-induced motion are explored for the stipitate understory kelps Eisenia arborea and Pterygophora californica using a numerical model that approximates these seaweeds as vertically oriented cantilever beams subjected to lateral hydrodynamic forces acting at their stipe tips. Bending moments and peak stresses induced in the stipes of these species during the passage of waves are calculated as functions of plant size and shape and of water depth and sea state. Model predictions for a subset of conditions are validated against real-time measurements of bending moments acting on a Pterygophora individual in the field. The results suggest that the allometric patterns of growth exhibited by Eisenia and Pterygophora can greatly reduce the stresses generated in the stipes of these plants relative to isometric growth. Low stipe stiffness acts as a general, particularly effective, stress-lowering mechanism. The dynamic swaying associated with this low stiffness can also modulate the magnitudes of peak stresses induced in the stipes of these kelps. In particular, in shallow water under large waves, dynamic loading can substantially increase induced stress, suggesting that plant motion is an important factor affecting the loading regime encountered by these organisms. PMID:9364022

Gaylord; Denny

1997-12-01

98

Protective effect of Terminalia belerica Roxb. and gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats.  

PubMed

Terminalia belerica Roxb. is one of the oldest medicinal herb of India, is an ingredient of Indian Ayurvedic drug 'triphala' used for the treatment of digestion and liver disorders. Present study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Terminalia belerica fruit extract and its active principle, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) at different doses against carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Toxicant caused significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase. Hepatic lipid peroxidation level increased significantly whereas significant depletion was observed in reduced glutathione level after carbon tetrachloride administration. A minimum elevation was found in protein content on the contrary a significant fall was observed in glycogen content of liver and kidney after toxicant exposure. Activities of adenosine triphosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase inhibited significantly in both the organs after toxicity. Treatment with TB extract (200, 400 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and gallic acid (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) showed dose-dependent recovery in all these biochemical parameters but the effect was more pronounced with gallic acid. Thus it may be concluded that 200mg/kg dose of gallic acid was found to be most effective against carbon tetrachloride induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:17049775

Jadon, Anjana; Bhadauria, Monika; Shukla, Sangeeta

2006-08-12

99

Therapeutic effect of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Wilde on lysosomal enzymes and collagen metabolism in adjuvant induced arthritis.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, progressive and systemic inflammatory disorder mainly affecting the synovial joints. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-arthritic effect of the methanol extract of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Wilde., (Fabaceae) on adjuvant induced arthritis by assessing paw swelling, body weight, the levels of lysosomal enzymes, protein bound carbohydrates, serum cytokines, urinary collagen and histopathology of joints. It was found that S. asoca methanol extract at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced the paw thickness and elevated the mean body weight of arthritic rats. The treatment of S. asoca showed a significant reduction in the levels of both plasma and liver lysosomal enzymes. The protein bound carbohydrates and urinary collagen contents were also decreased at a significant level by the treatment of S. asoca methanol extract. The histopathological study of the joints showed the anti-arthritic property of S. asoca which nearly normalized the histological architecture of the joints. Further, we established the anti-arthritic activity of S. asoca methanol extract by measuring the levels of cytokines in both arthritic and treated rats. The treatment of S. asoca reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, S. asoca methanol extract was capable of ameliorating the conditions of arthritis in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. PMID:21947518

Saravanan, Subramanian; Babu, Narasimhan Prakash; Pandikumar, Perumal; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2011-09-23

100

Micropropagation of a Thai medicinal plant for women's health, Curcuma comosa Roxb., via shoot and microrhizome inductions.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of explant types, plant growth regulators, and sucrose concentrations on shoot and microrhizome inductions of Curcuma comosa Roxb., an important Thai medicinal plant for women's health. Explant types significantly affected shoot induction of the plant. The maximum shoot multiplication rate of 11.82 ± 1.03 shoots/responding explant was obtained when culturing terminal bud explants on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 18.16 ?M thidiazuron for 8 weeks. Subsequently, they were transferred to a semi-solid MS medium without plant growth regulators for 4 weeks. The regenerated shoots produced roots spontaneously. Rooted plantlets were successfully transferred to the soil. Microrhizome induction was significantly influenced by sucrose concentrations, but not by 6-benzyladenine (BA). Liquid MS medium with a combination of 17.76 ?M BA and 50 g L(-1) sucrose was optimal for microrhizome induction of C. comosa. After 12 weeks of culture, the microrhizome induction rate was 3.36 ± 0.44 microrhizomes/responding explant. Starch accumulation in microrhizomes increased with higher sugar concentration and with longer duration of culture. The microrhizomes were allowed to germinate under greenhouse conditions and further developed into normal plants. The protocols established will be used for the production of uniform plantlets suitable for field plantation for the herbal industry. PMID:21850476

Lo-apirukkul, Sureerat; Jenjittikul, Thaya; Saralamp, Promchit; Prathanturarug, Sompop

2011-08-18

101

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of an aqueous extract from flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry.  

PubMed

A screening of 5 plants used for making drinks in Vietnam revealed a Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry flower bud extract to have the highest inhibitory activity against the alpha-glucosidase enzyme. The anti-hyperglycemic effects of an aqueous extract from flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (CO), a commonly used material for drink preparation in Vietnam, were therefore investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the CO extract inhibited the rat-intestinal maltase and sucrase activities, with IC50 values of 0.70 and 0.47 mg/ml, respectively. These values are lower than those for a guava leaf extract (GE; IC50 0.97 and 1.28 mg/ml, respectively). Postprandial blood glucose testing of normal mice and STZ-induced diabetic rats by maltose loading (2 g/kg body weight (bw)) showed that the blood glucose reduction with CO (500 mg/kg bw) was slightly less than that with acarbose (25 mg/kg bw) but was more potent than that with GE (500 mg/kg bw). In an 8-week experiment, the blood glucose level of STZ diabetic rats treated with 500 mg of CO/kg bw/day was markedly decreased in comparison with that of non-treated diabetic rats. Consequently, CO is considered to be a promising material for preventing and treating diabetes. PMID:17213665

Mai, Truong Tuyet; Chuyen, Nguyen Van

2007-01-07

102

Luffa echinata Roxb. induces human colon cancer cell (HT-29) death by triggering the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.  

PubMed

The antiproliferative properties and cell death mechanism induced by the extract of the fruits of Luffa echinata Roxb. (LER) were investigated. The methanolic extract of LER inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29) in both dose-dependent and time-dependent manners and caused a significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells. In addition, obvious shrinkage and destruction of the monolayer were observed in LER-treated cells, but not in untreated cells. Analysis of the cell cycle after treatment of HT-29 cells with various concentrations indicated that LER extracts inhibited the cellular proliferation of HT-29 cells via G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle. The Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level determination revealed that LER extracts induced apoptotic cell death via ROS generation. In addition, LER treatment led to a rapid drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as a decrease in fluorescence. The transcripts of several apoptosis-related genes were investigated by RT-PCR analysis. The caspase-3 transcripts of HT-29 cells significantly accumulated and the level of Bcl-XL mRNA was decreased after treatment with LER extract. Furthermore, the ratio of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis genes (Bax and Bcl-2) was sharply increased from 1.6 to 54.1. These experiments suggest that LER has anticancer properties via inducing the apoptosis in colon cancer cells, which provided the impetus for further studies on the therapeutic potential of LER against human colon carcinoma. PMID:22592084

Shang, Li-Hua; Li, Chun-Mei; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Che, De-Hai; Cao, Jing-Yan; Yu, Yan

2012-05-16

103

Dietary kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) flesh inhibits triacylglycerol absorption and lowers the risk for development of fatty liver in rats.  

PubMed

Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) is a cucurbitaceous vegetable native to India and Bangladesh. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.), a species related to kakrol, has been shown to have pharmacological properties including antidiabetic and antisteatotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary kakrol on lipid metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN-76 formula diets containing 3% freeze-dried powders of whole kakrol or bitter gourd for two weeks. Results showed significantly lowered liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats fed on both diets. Fecal lipid excretion increased in rats fed the kakrol diet, and lymphatic transport of triacylglycerol and phospholipids decreased in rats fed the kakrol diet after permanent lymph cannulation. Furthermore, n-butanol extract from kakrol caused a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. These results indicate that the mechanisms of action on lipid metabolism in kakrol and bitter gourd are different and that dietary kakrol reduces liver lipids by inhibiting lipid absorption. PMID:21791551

Sato, Masao; Ueda, Takatoshi; Nagata, Kazuko; Shiratake, Sawako; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Kawakami, Mitsuo; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi; Shirouchi, Bungo; Imaizumi, Katsumi

2011-07-26

104

Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory activity of a novel molecule isolated and characterized from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome.  

PubMed

Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome is used in the manufacture of pickles and other food preparations due to its unique raw mango flavour. The chloroform extract of mango ginger rhizome was subjected to antibacterial activity-guided purification by repeated silica gel column chromatography to obtain a pure compound. The structure of the isolated compound was deduced by analysing UV, IR, LC-MS and 2D-HMQCT NMR spectral data, and named it as amadaldehyde, a novel compound. It exhibited a wide range of antibacterial activity with potential bactericidal activity against several bacteria. The purified compound also exhibited antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory activities. PMID:20689179

Policegoudra, R S; Rehna, K; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Aradhya, S M

2010-06-01

105

Plant regeneration from encapsulated nodal segments of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., a timber-yielding leguminous tree species.  

PubMed

One of the alternative methods adopted in recent years is to use biotechnological approaches for improving the tree species. The synthetic seeds offer several advantages, e.g., easy handling, storability, reduced size of propagules, and transportability. Germplasm can be effectively stored in the form of synthetic seeds. A protocol has been developed for plant regeneration from encapsulated nodal segments of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Nodal segments collected from basal sprouts of mature trees were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. Inability of nodal segments entrapped in calcium alginate beads to form root was a major problem. To avoid this problem, an appropriate root induction treatment was given to nodal segments for 10 days, prior to encapsulation to allow formation of root primordia. For synthetic seeds production and subsequent conversion into plantlet, nodal segments with root primordia were encapsulated using sodium alginate and calcium chloride as gelling matrix. The best gel complexation was achieved using 3% sodium alginate and 75 mmol/L CaCl2 2H2O. Maximum percentage response (85%) for conversion of encapsulated nodal segments into plantlets was achieved on 1/2-MS medium without plant growth regulators, after 25 days of culture. The frequency of conversion of encapsulated nodal segments into plantlets affected by the concentration of sodium alginate, and the presence or absence of 1/2-MS nutrients in calcium alginate beads. Plantlets with well developed roots and shoots were transferred to pots containing autoclaved mixture of peat moss and soil (1:1). Plants were also established in pots. The conversion of encapsulated nodal segments into plantlets also occurred when calcium alginate beads having entrapped nodal segments were directly sown in autoclaved peat moss moistened with 1/2-MS0 medium. Out of 60 encapsulated nodal segments, in each experiments, stored at 4 degrees C for 30 days, 44 plants developed under in vitro conditions, and 27 on peat moss moistened with 1/2-MS0. PMID:15022839

Chand, Suresh; Singh, Ajay Kumar

2004-02-01

106

In vitro propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD analysis.  

PubMed

An efficient protocol for rapid in vitro clonal propagation of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) genotype RSR/DR15 (female) and DR/NKB-28 (male) was developed through enhanced axillary shoot proliferation from nodal segments. Maximum shoot proliferation of 6.2 shoots per explant with 100 % shoot regeneration frequency was obtained from the female genotype on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium supplemented with 0.9??M N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate (CH). While from the male genotype the optimum shoot regeneration frequency (86.6 %) and 6.4 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.2??M BA. CH induced vigorous shoots, promoted callus formation, and proved inhibitory for shoot differentiation and shoot length, especially in explants from male genotype. Rooting was optimum on half-strength MS medium (male 92.8 %, female 74.6 %) containing 4.9??M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing a mixture of cocopit and perlite (1:1 ratio) and then to soil after 2-3 weeks. 84 % female and 81 % male regenerated plantlets survived and grew vigorously in the field. Genetic stability of the regenerated plants was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The amplification products were monomorphic in the in vitro propagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic integrity of in vitro propagated plants. This micropropagation procedure could be useful for raising genetically uniform planting material of known sex for commercial cultivation or build-up of plant material of a specific sex-type. PMID:23814442

Rai, Govind Kumar; Singh, Major; Rai, Neha Prakash; Bhardwaj, D R; Kumar, Sanjeev

2012-07-01

107

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from cotyledon explants of a timber-yielding leguminous tree, Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.  

PubMed

Efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis was achieved from callus cultures derived from semi-mature cotyledon explants of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., a timber-yielding leguminous tree. Somatic embryos developed over the surface of embryogenic callus and occasionally, directly from cotyledon explants without intervening callus phase. Callus cultures were initiated from cotyledon pieces of D. sissoo on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with 4.52, 9.04, 13.57, and 18.09 mumol/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.46 mumol/L Kinetin. Maximum percentage response for callus formation was 89% on MS medium supplemented with 9.04 mumol/L 2,4-D' and 0.46 mumol/L Kn. Somatic embryogenesis was achieved after transfer of embryogenic callus clumps to 1/2-MS medium without plant growth regulators (1/2-MSO). Average numbers of somatic embryos per callus clump was 26.5 on 1/2-MSO medium after 15 weeks of culture. Addition of 0.68 mmol/L L-glutamine to 1/2-MSO medium enhanced somatic embryogenesis frequency from 55% to 66% and the number of somatic embryos per callus clump from 26.5 to 31.1. Histological studies were carried out to observe various developmental stages of somatic embryos. About 50% of somatic embryos converted into plantlets on 1/2-MSO medium containing 2% sucrose, after 20 days of culture. Transfer of somatic embryos to 1/29-MSO medium containing 10% sucrose for 15 days prior to transfer on 1/2-MS medium with 2% sucrose enhanced the conversion of somatic embryos into plantlets from 50 to 75%. The plantlets with shoots and roots were transferred to 1/2 and 1/4-liquid MS medium, each for 10 days, and then to plastic pots containing autoclaved peat moss and compost mixture (1:1). 70% of the plantiets survived after 10 weeks of transfer to pots. 120 regenerated plantlets out of 150 were successfully acclimatised. After successful acclimatisation, plants were transferred to earthen pots. PMID:12756922

Singh, Ajay Kumar; Chand, Suresh

2003-04-01

108

Protective effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction from rhizomes of Smilax glabra Roxb. on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Hepatoprotective agents could prevent tissue damage and reduce morbidity and mortality rates; such agents may include folkloric or alternative treatments. The present study evaluated the protective effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction from rhizomes of Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGF) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl?)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats were orally treated with SGF daily and received CCl? intraperitoneally twice a week for 4 weeks. Our results showed that SGF at doses of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated activities of serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and the level of hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances compared to the CCl?-treated group. Moreover, SGF treatment was also found to significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione compared with CCl?-induced intoxicated liver. Histopathologic examination revealed that CCl?-induced hepatic damage was markedly reversed by SGF. The results suggest that SGF has hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties in CCl?-induced liver injury in rats. PMID:23681353

Xia, Daozong; Fan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Peihua; Fu, Yan; Ju, Mengting; Zhang, Xiaosa

2013-05-17

109

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders.

Mahmud, ZA; Bachar, SC; Qais, N

2012-01-01

110

Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin

2013-04-18

111

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats.  

PubMed

Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days for 7 days. After 7 days of pretreatment of test extracts, the biochemical markers such as Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were estimated followed by the measurement of liver cytosolic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test. The extract both at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin compared to the CCl4-treated animals. The extracts also showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidase. The effects of the extracts on these parameters were comparable with those of the standard, silymarin. The findings of the study indicate that the leaf extract of P. esculenta showed a potential hepatoprotective activity and the protective action might have manifested by restoring the hepatic SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels. The results justify the traditional use of this plant in liver disorders. PMID:23493235

Mahmud, Za; Bachar, Sc; Qais, N

2012-10-01

112

Studies on the constituents of Luffa acutangula Roxb. I. Structures of acutosides A--G, oleanane-type triterpene saponins isolated from the herb.  

PubMed

From the herb of Luffa acutangula ROXB. (Cucurbitaceae), seven oleanane-type triterpene saponins, acutosides A--G, were isolated and their structures were determined. Acutoside A is oleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1----2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Acutosides B, D, E, F and G have a common prosapogenin structure, acutoside A, and only differ in the structures of the ester-linked sugar moieties. Acutoside B is a 28-O-[O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2) -alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] ester, D is a 28-O-[O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----3)-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-O- alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] ester, E is a 28-O-[O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1----3)-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-( 1----4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] ester, F is a 28-O-[O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----3)-[O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)-O -alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] ester, and G is a 28-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----3)-[O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1- ---3)-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1----4)]-O-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] ester. Acutoside C is a machaelinic acid (=21 beta-hydroxyoleanolic acid) saponin having the same sugar moiety as that of acutoside B. PMID:1863290

Nagao, T; Tanaka, R; Iwase, Y; Hanazono, H; Okabe, H

1991-03-01

113

Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 ?M Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 ?M activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:23573054

Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

2012-04-03

114

The Transport of Gmelina Logs on the Rio Dulce  

SciTech Connect

The Rio Dulce National Park is one of Guatemala's major environmental assets. The park contains the remaining remnants of an eastern Guatemalan tropical rainforest which has good but fast deteriorating value for the development of the ecotourism industry. The governmenial objective for the region as stated in the Master Plan for the park is ecotourism development and protection of biodiversity. The decisions to be made concerning the long-term, sustainable use of the natural resources of the Rio Dulce region appear to be directed by existing environmental laws and the Rio Dulce Master Plan. However, the wording of these instruments is ambiguous and lacks specific definitions and criteria for making necessary determinations. This, in combination with lack of enforcement in the region, has led to extensive disparity in interpretation of the laws and uncontrolled, conflicting actions by individuals and organizations.

Ensminger, J.T.; Martines, R.; Perlack, B.; Ranney, J.

1997-02-01

115

Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE. PMID:24035955

Devgan, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid Husain

2013-09-01

116

Micropropagation of Vanda teres (Roxb.) Lindle.  

PubMed

For high frequency clonal propagation of Vanda teres, nodal segments are cultured on VW medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 2 mg/L Kinetin, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 2 g/L peptone, 1 g/L activated charcoal and 2.2 g/L gelrite. The cultures are incubated at 24 +/- 2 degrees C under fluorescent light 50 micromol/m(2)/s for a 16 h photoperiod per day. The PLBs (protocorm like bodies) are induced within 12 weeks of culture and are subcultured to proliferate on the fresh nutrient culture medium for 8 weeks. The clumps of the PLBs are dissected and cultured on VW medium containing 2% sucrose, 15% coconut water (CW), 2 g/L peptone, 150 mg/L L-glutamine and 1 g/L activated charcoal. The PLB sections elongate to form shoots, and new PLBs are induced from the base within 8 weeks of culture. For plantlets formation, the shoots are cultured on VW medium amended with 2% sucrose, 15% CW, 2 g/L peptone, 1 g/L activated charcoal, 50 g/L banana pulp and 1 mg/L Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The regenerated plants are acclimatized and cultivated in the nursery, where they bloom within 3 years. PMID:20099087

Alam, M Firoz; Sinha, Pinaki; Hakim, M Lokman

2010-01-01

117

Germination and initial growth of tree seedlings on deforested and natural forest soil at Dulhazara, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The destruction of natural forest is increasing due to urbanization, industrialization, settlement and for the agricultural expansion over last few decades, and studies for their recovery need to be undertaken. With this aim, this comparative study was designed to see the effects of deforested soil on germination and growth performance of five different tree species. In the experiment, five species namely Gmelina arborea, Swietenia mahagoni, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Acacia auriculiformis and Syzygium grande were germinated for six weeks on seedbeds and raised in pots (25cm diameter, 30cm height), that were filled with two soil and type of land use: deforested and adjacent natural forest of Dulhazara Safari Park. Growth performance of seedling was observed up to 15 months based on height, collar diameter and biomass production at the end. Our results showed that the germination rate was almost similar in both type of land uses. Height growth of D. turbinatus, G. arborea and S. mahagoni seedlings was almost similar and A. auriculi formis and S. grande lower in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil, while collar diameter ofA. auriculi formis, G. arborea, S. grande and S. mahagoni lower and D. turbinatus similar in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. After uprooting at 19 months, S. mahagoni seedlings were showed significantly (p< or =0.05) higher oven dry biomass, D. turbinatus and A. auriculiformis higher, while G. arborea showed significantly (p< or =0.05) lower and S. grande almost similar oven dry biomass in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. Oven dry biomass of D. turbinatus seedlings at 19 month age in deforested soil was 21.96g (n=5) and in natural forest soil 18.86g (n=5). However, differences in germination rate and growth performance for different tree species indicated that soil are not too much deteriorated through deforestation at Dulhazara and without any failure such deforested lands would be possible to bring under forest through plantation. PMID:23342503

Hossain, M Mohitul

2012-12-01

118

Comparative leaf anatomy of Alpinia Roxb. species (Zingiberaceae) from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf anatomy of 20 Alpinia species from China was investigated. Results show that there is interspecific variation in the structure of the leaf midrib and petiole which can be used for species identification. Adaxial hypodermis is present in the lamina in all species of subgenus Catimbium and absent from all species of subgeneraDieramalpinia and Probolocalyx and Alpinia, excepting A.

KHATIJAH HAJI HUSSIN; CHUA TSE SENG; HALIJAH IBRAHIM; WU QI GEN; LIAO JING PING; LIU NIAN

2000-01-01

119

Constituents of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. leaves with osteogenic activity.  

PubMed

One new isoflavone glucoside, caviunin 7-O-[?-d-apiofuranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranoside] (10) and a new itaconic derivative, (E)-4-methoxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxobutanoic acid (15) along with series of isoflavones and flavonols with their glucosides (1-9 and 11-14) and a lignan glucoside (16) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo leaves. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of IR, UV, (1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and MS data. All compounds (1-16) were assessed for osteogenic activity in primary calvarial osteoblast cultures. Compounds 1-4 and 10 increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization thus resulting in significant osteogenic activity. PMID:22212722

Dixit, Preety; Chillara, Raju; Khedgikar, Vikram; Gautam, Jyoti; Kushwaha, Priyanka; Kumar, Avinash; Singh, Divya; Trivedi, Ritu; Maurya, Rakesh

2011-12-13

120

Essential Oils of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. from Northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiberaceae, were isolated from its rhizomes and leaves by hydrodistillation. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC\\/MS revealed that the rhizome oil contained terpinen-4-ol (50.5%), (E)-l-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-diene (19.1%), (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene (6.0%) and ?-sesquiphellandrene(5.9%)as major constituents out of 21 compounds identified. In the leaf oil 39 components were identified, and the main compounds were found to

Ajit K. Bordoloi; Jaroslava Sperkova; Piet A. Leclercq

1999-01-01

121

Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

2009-10-01

122

Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.  

PubMed

Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423

Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

2011-05-01

123

I. EFFECTS OF SIZE, SHAPE AND STIFFNESS IN DETERMINING WAVE FORCES ON THE STIPITATE KELPS EISENIA ARBOREA AND PTERYGOPHORA CALIFORNICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave action on exposed rocky coasts can be severe, generating large hydrodynamic forces that have been proposed to constrain the size of intertidal animals and plants. In contrast, flows subtidally are more benign, and organisms, particularly seaweeds, may grow quite large. The large dimensions of these flexible macroalgae allow them to move during much or most of a passing wave

BRIAN GAYLORD; MARK W. DENNY

1997-01-01

124

Incorporation of strontium into the calcium carbonate crystals of the endolymphatic sac in the tree frog (Hyla arborea japonica).  

PubMed

Tree frogs were loaded with strontium chloride (SrCl2). The incorporation of strontium metal into the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals located both in the inner ear and in the endolymphatic sac was studied by x-ray microanalysis (XMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the inner ear, strontium was not recognized except for traces in a few crystals. When observed by SEM, these crystals had a faceted body and two pointed ends with rather smooth surfaces. However, in the endolymphatic sac, which greatly expands into the spinal canal, strontium was clearly present at every surface of all crystals. Careful examinations by point and line XMA revealed that strontium x-ray counts were highest at the pointed ends and decreased sharply and then gradually toward the equator of the crystals. SEM observations revealed that the crystals in the endolymphatic sac always had rough and irregular surfaces regardless of their shapes and sizes. Calcium was always found in crystals of both organs. Except for calcium and strontium, other elements including sodium and heavier elements were negligible in XMA. These findings suggest that strontium is incorporated into the crystals only in the endolymphatic sac, and the rough-surfaced covering of these crystals reflects newly deposited strontium salt. It seems to indicate that these crystals grow predominantly by accretion. PMID:3619090

Kawamata, S

1987-06-01

125

Antiviral and anti-proliferative glycoproteins from the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb (Liliaceae).  

PubMed

The glycoproteins possessing antiviral and anti-proliferative activities were isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Smilax glabra (known as tufuling), by extraction with 0.2 M NaCl, ammonium sulfate precipitation, fetuin-agarose affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular mass of the fetuin-binding glycoprotein (designated SGPF2) was estimated to be about 58 kDa, with a major protein subunit of 26 kDa. The non-fetuin binding glycoproteins (in the unadsorbed fraction) were further separated into 5 different subfractions (SGPF1a-SGPF1e) with anion-exchange chromatography, all of which also contained the major band at 26 kDa. All the isolated proteins of 26 kDa had similar N-terminal amino acid sequences, implying that they were probably the isoforms originated putatively from a multigene family with different binding affinity and ionic strength. The glycoprotein SGPF2 exhibited antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with a median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 62.5 microg/ml and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) had an IC(50) of 31.3 microg/ml. The glycoprotein potencies for antiviral activity appeared to depend on the molecules' binding affinity for fetuin, that is, the fetuin-binding protein was more potent than the non-fetuin binding proteins. Further examination revealed that these glycoproteins also had the ability to suppress the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The possible mechanism of anti-proliferative action as analyzed by DNA flow cytometry indicated that they could induce apoptosis mediated via sub-G(1) phase of the MCF-7 cell cycle. For example, there was an increase by 75.8% of the control level of apoptosis after incubation with SGPF1a. PMID:18306461

Ooi, Linda S M; Wong, Elaine Y L; Chiu, Lawrence C M; Sun, Samuel S M; Ooi, Vincent E C

2008-01-01

126

Micropropagation of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) and determination of puerarin content in different tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pueraria tuberosa, a medicinally important leguminous plant, yielding various isoflavanones including puerarin, is threatened, thus requiring\\u000a conservation. In this study, fresh shoot sprouts of P. tuberosa, produced by tubers, were used as explants for in vitro micropropagation. Surface-sterilized nodal shoots were incubated\\u000a on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8.88 ?M benzyladenine (BA), 50 mg l?1 ascorbic acid, and 25 mg l?1 of each

M. S. Rathore; N. S. Shekhawat

2009-01-01

127

Evaluation of biological activities of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and its chemical constituents.  

PubMed

Phytochemicals investigation on rhizomes of Alpinia mutica has afforded five compounds namely 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), flavokawin B (2), pinostrobin (3) and pinocembrin (4) together with ?-sitosterol (5). All crude extracts of the plant demonstrated strong cytotoxicity against CEMss (human T4 lymphoblastoid) cancer cells with IC50 values less than 19 ?g/mL, while flavokawin B (2) was the most cytotoxic isolate with IC50 value 1.86±0.37 ?g/mL. Most of the crude extracts and isolated compounds showed weak activity in antimicrobial and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity tests. PMID:23455212

Mustahil, Noorul Adawiyah; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Ali, Nor Azah; Lian, Gwendoline Ee-Cheng

2013-03-01

128

In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of flavonoids from Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb.) (Simaroubaceae) leaves.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Ailanthus excelsa, a plant used in Egyptian traditional medicine. Chromatographic separation of a methanol extract of A. excelsa leaves yielded four flavones, namely apigenin (1), apigenin 7-O-beta-glucoside (2), luteolin (3), and luteolin 7-O-beta-glucoside (4), and seven flavonols, namely kaempferol (5), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-arabinoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-beta-galactoside (7), quercetin (8), quercetin 3-O-alpha-arabinoside (9), quercetin 3-O-beta-galactoside (10), and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (11). The A. excelsa extract tested in different in vitro systems (DPPH and FRAP assays) showed significant antioxidant activity. The potential antiproliferative activity of the A. excelsa extract and isolated flavonoids against five human cancer cell lines such as ACHN, COR-L23, A375, C32, and A549 was investigated in vitro by the SRB assay in comparison with one normal cell line, 142BR. The extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against C32 cells with an IC50 value of 36.5 microg ml(-1). Interesting activity against COR-L23 was found with 10 (IC50 value of 3.2 microg ml(-1)). Compounds 1 and 3 inhibited cell growth in both amelanotic melanoma and malignant melanoma cells. PMID:20469635

Said, Ataa; Tundis, Rosa; Hawas, Usama W; El-Kousy, Salah M; Rashed, Khaled; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Huefner, Antje; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Menichinib, Francesco

129

Effects of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. methanolic extract on mouse immune response in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of Terminalia bellerica methanolic extract (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 ?g\\/ml) on the mouse immune system were investigated in vitro. Phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation were assayed. The results indicated the effect of the extract (500 ?g\\/ml) on the stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis, through the production of superoxide anions and acid phosphatase, with a

Aurasorn Saraphanchotiwitthaya; Pattana Sripalakit; Kornkanok Ingkaninan

130

Activity-guided isolation of antioxidant xanthones from Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karsten (Gentianaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activity-guided isolation and purification process was used to identify the DPPH (l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging components of Swertia chirayita. A dry, whole plant of S. chirayita was extracted with different solvents and tested for its DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The acetone?:?water (8?:?2) extract showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, which was column chromatographed to obtain decussatin, swertianin,

Pradeep Pratap Singh; Ambika; Shive Murat Singh Chauhan

2012-01-01

131

Activity-guided isolation of antioxidant xanthones from Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karsten (Gentianaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An activity-guided isolation and purification process was used to identify the DPPH (l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging components of Swertia chirayita. A dry, whole plant of S. chirayita was extracted with different solvents and tested for its DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The acetone?:?water (8?:?2) extract showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, which was column chromatographed to obtain decussatin, swertianin,

Pradeep Pratap Singh; Ambika; Shive Murat Singh Chauhan

2011-01-01

132

In vitro propagation of the bamboo ( Bambusa tulda Roxb.) through shoot proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient protocol has been developed for the in vitro propagation of Bambusa tulda through shoot proliferation. Shoots from 3-week-old aseptically grown seedlings were used to initiate cultures. Multiple shoots were obtained on liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (8×10-6M) and kinetin (4×10-6M). Continuous shoot proliferation at a rate of 4–5 fold every three weeks was achieved

Sanjay Saxena

1990-01-01

133

Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation for the antipyretic effect of the seeds of Saraca asoca Roxb.  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity. Methods Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature. Conclusions The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods.

Sasmal, S; Majumdar, S; Gupta, M; Mukherjee, A; Mukherjee, PK

2012-01-01

134

On the ethnomedical significance of the Arjun tree, Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arnot.  

PubMed

Terminalia arjuna is an important cardiotonic plant described in the Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medical science. It is also believed to have the ability to cure hepatic, urogenital, venereal and viral diseases. An attempt is made here to analyse the available drug recipes using this plant from Sanskrit literature in the light of modern scientific knowledge. The chemistry and pharmacology of T. arjuna are also discussed, and areas of future investigations are identified. PMID:3657247

Kumar, D S; Prabhakar, Y S

1987-07-01

135

Intergeneric somatic hybrids of rice [Oryza sativa L. (+) Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka].  

PubMed

Somatic hybrid plants were obtained following the electrofusion of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv 'Taipei 309', 2n = 2x = 24) cell suspension-derived protoplasts with non-dividing leaf protoplasts of Porteresia coarctata (2n = 4x = 48), a saline-tolerant wild species. Fusion-treated protoplasts were plated on the surface of cellulose nitrate filter membranes, overlaying Lolium multiflorum nurse cells. The nurse cells were embedded in KPR medium containing 0.5 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and semi-solidified with SeaPlaque agarose. Putative somatic hybrid cell colonies were selected on the basis of their growth, whereby faster growing colonies were transferred preferentially to MS-based medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) kinetin, 0.5 mg l(-1)?-naphthaleneacetic acid, 30 g l(-1) sucrose and 4.0 g l(-1) SeaKem agarose to induce shoot regeneration. One hundred and nineteen regenerated plants were micropropagated clonally on MS-based medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine, 50 g l(-1) sucrose and 4.0 g l(-1) SeaKem agarose, prior to DNA extraction of plant samples. Putative somatic hybrids were initially identified by RAPD analysis, and 8 plant lines were selected for further investigation by flow cytometric ploidy determination and cytology. Plants of one line had an allohexaploid chromosome complement (2n = 6x = 72) and, following examination of its vegetative clones by GISH, were confirmed as somatic hybrids containing full chromosome complements of both O. sativa and P. coarctata. PMID:22665191

Jelodar, N B; Blackhall, N W; Hartman, T P; Brar, D S; Khush, G; Davey, M R; Cocking, E C; Power, J B

1999-08-01

136

Potential anti-inflammatory effect of Leea macrophylla Roxb. leaves: A wild edible plant.  

PubMed

Leea macrophylla (Leeaceae) is a wild edible plant with ethomedicinal importance as anti-inflammatory agent. However, no systematic studies on its anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms have been reported. Present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of L. macrophylla leaves. Phytochemical investigation revealed presence of sterols, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid in extract. Methanol extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide stimulated production of inflammatory mediators viz. prostaglandin E2, tumor necrotic factor-?, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1? in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Additionally, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of this extract was evaluated by using carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma assays in experimental rats. Oral administration of extract (100 and 200mg/kg) exhibited dose dependant inhibition of carrageenan induced inflammation (p<0.05) and the reduction of the granuloma tissue formation (p<0.05-0.01). The extract (100 and 200mg/kg, orally) exhibited significant central and peripheral analgesic activity in hot-plate test (p<0.01) and acetic acid induced writhing test (p<0.05-0.01) respectively in experimental mice. Treatment with extract (100 and 200mg/kg, orally) significantly reduced the yeast provoked elevated body temperature (p<0.05-0.01) in experimental rats. These results confirmed the traditional anti-inflammatory indication of L. macrophylla leaves. PMID:23831308

Dewanjee, Saikat; Dua, Tarun K; Sahu, Ranabir

2013-07-02

137

Methyl jasmonate and yeast extract stimulate mitragynine production in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. shoot culture.  

PubMed

Mitragynine is a pharmacologically-active terpenoid indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa leaves. Treatment with methyl jasmonate (10 ?M) for 24 h and yeast extract (0.1 mg/ml) for 12 h were the optimum conditions of elicitation of mitragynine accumulation in a M. speciosa shoot culture. The former elicitor gave 0.11 mg mitragynine/g dry wt. Tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase mRNA levels were enhanced in accordance with mitragynine accumulation. PMID:22714271

Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Choo-Malee, Jutarat; Charoonratana, Tossaton; Keawpradub, Niwat

2012-06-20

138

Ameliorative effect of Luffa acutangula Roxb. on doxorubicin induced cardiac and nephrotoxicity in mice.  

PubMed

The present study reports protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Luffa acutangula (HAELA) on doxorubicin (DXR) induced cardio and nephrotoxicity in mice by studying various serum biomarkers, antioxidants in target organs and histoarchitecture alterations. Pretreatment with HAELA reversed significantly the elevated serum biomarkers, alanine amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine phosphokinase in heart and kidney in DXR treated mice. In addition, HAELA treatment inhibited elevated malondialdehyde formation and restored the depleted glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase in heart and kidney tissue. The altered histoarchitecture of heart and kidney tissue due to DXR treatment were also improved with HAELA. The protective activity observed with HAELA on DXR induced cardio and nephrotoxicity in mice was found to be related to its antioxidant property which finally results in membrane stabilization. PMID:23923608

Jadhav, Vishal B; Thakare, Vishnu N; Suralkar, Anupama A; Naik, Suresh R

2013-02-01

139

Nephroprotective activity of Momordica dioica Roxb. in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the ethanol extract of Momordica dioica fruit extract (200 mg kg) was studied for nephroprotective and curative activities. Chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared. In vitro antioxidant activity was made the basis for the selection of the ethanol extract for further studies. In DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the ethanolic extract has shown maximum

Avijeet Jain; A. K. Singhai

2010-01-01

140

Antioxidant, anti-TB activities, phenolic and amide contents of standardised extracts of Piper sarmentosum Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol and aqueous extracts of the different parts of Piper sarmentosum were analysed by HPLC for marker compounds to standardise these extracts. The standardised extracts were investigated for antioxidant activity (?-carotene linoleate model and DPPH model), anti-TB activity (microplate tetrazolium assay), and estimation of total phenolic and amide contents. The extracts of the different parts exhibited different antioxidant activity, phenolic

K. Hussain; Z. Ismail; A. Sadikun; P. Ibrahim

2009-01-01

141

El guamúchil Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth, un ejemplo de uso múltiple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry deciduous forest multipurpose trees result of particular interest because of their potential contribution to solve socioenvironmental problems. This is the case of guamúchil (Pithecellobium dulce), a multipurpose tree that is used as live fence in cultivated lands. This work was made in Xochitepec, Morelos, located in Cuernavaca's metropolitan area, especially in cultivated lands which have resisted the advance of

Rafael Monroy; Hortensia Colín

2004-01-01

142

Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb. on paracetamol induced toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum (E. monogynum) on paracetamol induced toxicity. Methods Methanolic extract of leaves of E. monogynum was given in doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for 7 d and toxicity was induced by paracetamol (2 mg/kg) on Day 8. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was used as reference standard. After 24 h of toxicity induction blood samples were collected from retro-orbital plexsus and analyzed for serum parameters like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminse, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Livers isolated were studied for histopathological changes. Results Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of E. monogynum leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. Prior administration of this extract restored the elevated levels serum markers as compared to toxic group which is also confirmed by the histopathological changes observed. Conclusions The present study showed that methanolic extract of leaves of E. monogynum possess hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.

Syed, Sabeena Hussain; Namdeo, Ajay Gajanan

2013-01-01

143

Intergeneric somatic hybrids of rice [Oryza sativa L. (+) Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic hybrid plants were obtained following the electrofusion of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv ’Taipei 309’, 2n = 2x = 24) cell suspension–derived protoplasts with non-dividing leaf protoplasts of Porteresia coarctata (2n = 4x = 48), a saline-tolerant wild species. Fusion-treated protoplasts were plated on the surface of cellulose nitrate\\u000a filter membranes, overlaying Lolium multiflorum nurse cells. The nurse cells

N. B. Jelodar; N. W. Blackhall; T. P. V. Hartman; D. S. Brar; G. Khush; M. R. Davey; E. C. Cocking; J. B. Power

1999-01-01

144

Hepatoprotective properties of Morinda pubescens J.E. Smith ( Morinda tinctoria Roxb.) fruit extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective properties of Morinda pubescens fruit extract against d-galactosamine (d-GalN)-induced liver injury in rats. The fruit extract of M. pubescens was administrated orally at 200 mg\\/kg of body weight daily once for 21 days and at 21st day, d-GalN (500 mg\\/kg of body weight) was injected intraperitoneally in rats, to induce liver damage. In d-GalN administrated rats, significant

G. Surendiran; N. Mathivanan

2011-01-01

145

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke used to smoke cheese produced by the combustion of rock rose (Cistus monspeliensis) and tree heather (Erica arborea) wood.  

PubMed

In this work, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their methyl derivatives concentrations have been determined in smoke from the rock rose and tree heather wood combustion. The combustion is done in two types of smokers, kiln and drum, commonly used in the Canary Islands (Spain) to smoke cheese. The low control of the operational conditions justify the great variability of the PAHs concentration in the emissions, with values between 251.8 and 2547 microg/m3N. In general, the lowest concentrations correspond to the tree heather wood combustion in the drum, while the highest concentrations are usually reached in the rock rose wood combustion in the kiln. However, the relative contributions of each PAH to the total concentration are independently similar to the type of smoker and wood used. In the combustion conditions, the equilibrium is not reached during the PAHs distribution process between the gas and aerosol phases. Therefore, while naphthalene and their 1- and 2-methyl derivatives remain in the gas phase, phenanthrene and PAHs with higher molecular weight remain mainly in the aerosol phase. In this phase, the PAHs concentration represents 39.9% of the total PAHs produced by burning rock rose wood and 29.1% of the total PAHs when tree heather wood is used. To establish the carcinogenic potential in both phases, the percentages of some PAHs were calculated. These values are significantly higher in the aerosol phase and, at the same time, higher when rock rose wood is used. PMID:15631526

Conde, Francisco J; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M; González, Venerando

2005-01-12

146

Phenolic-linked biochemical rationale for the anti-diabetic properties of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Flem.) Karst.  

PubMed

The crude extract of Swertia chirayita, an important medicinal plant of Nepal, is locally used for many diseases including type 2 diabetes. In this study, crude aqueous and 12% ethanol solution extracts of S.?chirayita collected from nine districts of Nepal were analyzed for anti-diabetic-linked anti-hyperglycemia potential using in vitro biochemical assays. There was moderate-to-high positive correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of both extracts and moderate-to-high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Although the anti-diabetic property of S.?chirayita is mainly attributed to the phytochemical swerchirin present in its hexane fraction, we propose that the crude extract of this plant used in local healing also has anti-hyperglycemia potential. The crude extracts indicated the presence of three main phytochemicals mainly mangiferin, swertiamarin, and amarogentin and their derivatives. Among the standard compounds (mangiferin, swertiamarin, and amarogentin), mangiferin showed ?-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical inhibitory activity indicating anti-hyperglycemia potential. PMID:22523004

Phoboo, Susanna; Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Barbosa, Ana Cristina Lopes; Sarkar, Dipayan; Bhowmik, Prasanta C; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Shetty, Kalidas

2012-04-23

147

Caffeine affects adventitious rooting and causes biochemical changes in the hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a purine alkaloid found naturally in over 100 plant species, has recently been viewed\\u000a as a safe chemical for management of pests including molluscs, slugs, snails, bacteria, and as a bird deterrent. It possesses\\u000a phytotoxicity against plant species, yet the mechanism of action is lacking. A study was conducted to determine the effect\\u000a of caffeine on the rooting

Daizy R. Batish; Harminder Pal Singh; Mansimran Kaur; Ravinder Kumar Kohli; Surender Singh Yadav

2008-01-01

148

Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

Govindarajan, M; Rajeswary, M; Sivakumar, R

2013-07-01

149

Antinociceptive activity of chronic administration of different extracts of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. and Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethanol (ETH) and water extracts of Terminalia bellerica and T. chebula fruits were evaluated for their analgesic activity using the tail immersion model in mice. The ethanolic extracts of both the plants exhibited analgesic response at 200,400 and 800mg/kg. The studies were further carried for 15 days to evaluate the effect of these extracts in chronic pain and maximum analgesic response was observed on 14th day in both the plants. Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of the fruits of Terminalia bellerica and T. chebula revealed the presence of saponins, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, tannins and proteins. The results indicate that fruits of T. bellerica and T. chebula could be considered as potential candidate for bioactivity-guided isolation of natural analgesic agents used in the management of chronic pain. PMID:21506501

Kaur, Sarabjit; Jaggi, R K

2010-09-01

150

Influence of Environmental Factors on Production of Berberine Content in Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC in Kumaun West Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberis asiatica samples collected from nine altitudes of Kumaun Himalaya, India were analyzed for berberine concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Correlation between berberine concentration, size class, and season were established. The root and stem bark samples from lower altitude, having larger size class, contained more berberine. Berberine concentration was the highest in summer and lowest in the rainy season. Low

Harish C. Andola; Kailash S. Gaira; Ranbeer S. Rawal; Mohan S. M. Rawat; Indra D. Bhatt

2011-01-01

151

Sucrose mobilization in relation to essential oil biogenesis during palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats. var. motia) inflorescence development.  

PubMed

Palmarosa inflorescence with partially opened spikelets is biogenetically active to incorporate [U-14C]sucrose into essential oil. The percent distribution of 14C-radioactivity incorporated into geranyl acetate was relatively higher as compared to that in geraniol, the major essential oil constituent of palmarosa. At the partially opened spikelet stage, more of the geraniol synthesized was acetylated to form geranyl acetate, suggesting that majority of the newly synthesized geraniol undergoes acetylation, thus producing more geranyl acetate. In vitro development of palmarosa inflorescence, fed with [U-14C]sucrose, resulted in a substantial reduction in percent label from geranyl acetate with a corresponding increase in free geraniol, thereby suggesting the role of an esterase in the production of geraniol from geranyl acetate. At time course measurement of 14CO2 incorporation into geraniol and geranyl acetate substantiated this observation. Soluble acid invertase was the major enzyme involved in the sucrose breakdown throughout the inflorescence development. The activities of cell wall bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase and sucrose synthase were relatively lower as compared to the soluble acid invertase. Sucrose to reducing sugars ratio decreased till fully opened spikelets stage, concomitant with increased acid invertase activity and higher metabolic activity. The phenomenon of essential oil biosynthesis has been discussed in relation to changes in these physiological parameters. PMID:12799494

Dubey, Vinod Shanker; Bhalla, Ritu; Luthra, Rajesh

2003-06-01

152

Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

2013-01-01

153

Proteome profiling of seed storage proteins reveals the nutritional potential of Salicornia brachiata Roxb., an extreme halophyte.  

PubMed

Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte that grows in salty marshes and is considered to be a potential alternative crop for seawater agriculture. Salicornia seeds are rich in protein, and its tender shoots are eaten as salad greens. Seed storage proteins were fractionated by sequential extraction using different solvents, including distilled water for albumins, NaCl (1.0 M) for globulins, NaOH (0.1 N) for glutelins, and ethanol (70% v/v) for prolamins. Globulins accounted for 54.75% of the total seed storage proteins followed by albumins (34.30%) and glutelins (8.70%). The fractionated proteins were characterized using 2D-diagonal SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The globulin fraction, composed of seven intermolecular disulfide-linked polypeptide pairs of molecular mass 63.5, 62.5, 54.7, 53.0, 43.2, 38.5, and 35.1 kDa, encompassed a basic and an acidic subunit. Two-dimensional gels revealed approximately 32 spots, with isoelectric points and molecular masses ranging from 4.93 to 11.6 and from ?5.2 to ?109.4 kDa, respectively. Protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS peptide mass fingerprint analysis and further classified. Homology analysis demonstrated that 19% of the proteins were involved in metabolism, 16% were involved in signaling, and 15% were regulatory proteins. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis confirmed the presence of inter- and intramolecular disulfide linkages in the globulin fraction. Sulfur-rich proteins are of high nutritional value, and disulfides make S. brachiata a potential source of dietary supplementation. PMID:22494338

Jha, Bhavanath; Singh, Nater Pal; Mishra, Avinash

2012-04-17

154

Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of the Aqueous Fruit Extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb (L.) in Normal and Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica (TD) at a dose of 50 ml\\/kg b.w in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Material-Methods: The aqueous fruit extracts of TD (50 ml\\/kg) were administered orally for 15 days, to normal and diabetic rats. The

SHARMILA BANU; KUMAR G

155

Influence of biofertilizers and nitrogen source level on the growth and yield of Echinochloa frumentacea (Roxb.) Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, the effect of biofertilizers (Azotobacter and Azospirillum) and synthetic fertilizers (urea) were studied separately and in different combinations to establish morphological, biochemical, yield and biomass effects of Echinochloa frumentacea. Both bacterial inoculants at all levels and combination of chemical nitrogen show an increase in growth, yield and biochemical components when compared to the control (with out

B. R. Chandrasekar; G. Ambrose; N. Jayabalan

156

Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals

Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

2012-04-01

157

?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? LACK OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA COMOSA EXTRACT ON MICRONUCLEUS FORMATION OF MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS ?????? ??????? , ?????? ??????????? , ????? ????? , ????? ?????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

????????: ???????????? (Curcuma comosa Roxb.) ????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) ??????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? 250, 500 ???? 1000 ??.\\/ ??.??.??? ????????????????? ???????????????????? 24 ??? 48 ???????????????????? ??? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????PCE ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (p<0.05)???????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? Abstract: Curcuma comosa Roxb.commonly known as Waan chak mod look, is widely used as in indigenous medicine

Lakana Himakoun; Punya Temcharoen

158

A superoxide dismutase purified from the rhizome of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. as inhibitor of nitric oxide production in the macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cell line.  

PubMed

Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is a metalloenzyme or antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the disproportionation of the harmful superoxide anionic radical to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. Due to its antioxidative effects, SOD has long been applied in medicinal treatment, cosmetic, and other chemical industries. Fifteen Zingiberaceae plants were tested for SOD activity in their rhizome extracts. The crude homogenate and ammonium sulfate cut fraction of Curcuma aeruginosa were found to contain a significant level of SOD activity. The SOD enzyme was enriched 16.7-fold by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl cellulose ion exchange, and Superdex 75 gel filtration column chromatography. An overall SOD yield of 2.51 % with a specific activity of 812.20 U/mg was obtained. The enriched SOD had an apparent MW of 31.5 kDa, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and a pH and temperature optima of 4.0 and 50 °C. With nitroblue tetrazolium and riboflavin as substrates, the K(m) values were 57.31 ± 0.012 and 1.51 ± 0.014 M, respectively, with corresponding V(max) values of 333.7 ± 0.034 and 254.1 ± 0.022 ?mol min(-1) mg protein(-1). This SOD likely belongs to the Fe- or Mn-SOD category due to the fact that it was insensitive to potassium cyanide or hydrogen peroxide inhibition, but was potentially weakly stimulated by hydrogen peroxide, and stimulated by Mn(2+)and Fe(2+) ions. Moreover, this purified SOD also exhibited inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in cultured mouse macrophage cell RAW 264.7 in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) = 14.36 ± 0.15 ?g protein/ml). PMID:22391698

Moon-ai, Wanwisa; Niyomploy, Ploypat; Boonsombat, Ruethairat; Sangvanich, Polkit; Karnchanatat, Aphichart

2012-03-07

159

Effect of leaf extract of Aegle marmelose (L.) Correa ex Roxb. on histological and ultrastructural changes in tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Light and electron microscopic examination of tissues of rats rendered diabetic with a smaller dose of 45 mg/kg of body weight of streptozotocin were carried out in the present study. The dose of the drug given altered the function of pancreatic beta-cells and the acinar cells. The changes in the acinar cells were coarsening of endoplasmic reticulation (ER) and alterations in their secretory function. The changes in the liver were (1) dialation of veins, (2) loss of usual concentric arrangement of hepatocytes, (3) liver fibrosis and (4) decrease in glycogen content. The kidney tubules were thickened and the glomerulus was expanded. The leaf extract of Aegle marmelose reversed the altered parameters to near normal. The treatment of leaf extract on diabetic pancreas showed improved functional state of pancreatic beta-cells. The results indicate the potential hypoglycemic nature of the leaf extract, helping in regeneration of damaged pancreas. PMID:8698423

Das, A V; Padayatti, P S; Paulose, C S

1996-04-01

160

Direct and indirect method of plant regeneration from root explants of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.--a threatened medicinal plant of Western Ghats.  

PubMed

An in vitro regeneration protocol has been standardized via direct and indirect methods from excised root explants of C. bonduc, a threatened woody legume used for the treatment of contagious diseases, inflammation, leprosy, antiperiodic, febrifuge, anthelmenthic, urinary disorders, leucorrhoea, piles and to heal wounds. MS medium supplemented with 17.75 micromol BAP and 2.46 micromol IBA, induced a mean of 3.40 +/- 1.07 shoots directly from the surface of excised root explant. Subsequently, the shoots rooted readily on MS half strength medium with out growth regulators. In indirect organogenesis, callogenic frequency was optimized (96.66%) at the concentration of 9.04 micromol 2, 4-D and 0.88 micromol BAP. An average, 15.30 +/- 5.25 shoots were differentiated from the root callus at the concentration of 17.57 micromol BAP and 2.85 micromol IAA. Shoots regenerated through callus were rooted well on MS half strength medium with growth regulators at 2.95 micromol IBA. Rooted plantlets were transferred to the pots containing sterilized soil and were successfully hardened at greenhouse condition for three weeks then exposed to the natural environment. Survival rate was more (95%) in plantlets derived through direct organogenesis than (60%) the plantlets regenerated through root calli. PMID:23986976

Kumar, S R Santosh; Krishna, V; Venkatesh; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, K Girish; Gnanesh, A U

2012-12-01

161

IAA synergism and vitamin B1 antagonism with calcium for induction and growth of adventitious roots in branch cuttings of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.  

PubMed

IAA induced adventitious roots in branch cuttings of D. sissoo, whereas vit. B1 promoted growth of these roots. A strong IAA synergism and vit. B1 antagonism with calcium was observed in induction and growth of adventitious roots. Treatments with IAA (571 microM) and calcium (134 microM) proved to be an ideal combination, exhibiting 87% rooting and 0.87 R/S ratio in branch cuttings, coupled with an increase of root length, root number, root fresh weight and root dry weight as compared to control. PMID:7959917

Ansari, S A; Kumar, P

1994-06-01

162

Alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking effect of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. and Hook f. leaf extract on guinea pig isolated smooth muscle preparations.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract of C. collinus leaves inhibited norepinephrine induced contraction in guinea pig vas deferens and aortic strip in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of acetylcholine induced contraction in ileum was dose independent. C. collinus extract per se had no effect on isolated guinea pig vas deferens and aortic strip, but inhibited norepinephrine induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner probably by its antagonist action on alpha-adrenergic receptor. It had inconsistent effect on guinea pig ileum in vitro preparation. PMID:21615057

Kumar, M Ravindra; Ramaswamy, S; Jayanthi, M; Raveendran, R

2011-05-01

163

Effects of Post-coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The abortifacient claim of Senna alata (S. alata) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Methods Twenty four Pregnant rats (143.99±1.21 g) allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/ body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Conclusion Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract.

Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Musa, Isa Fakai

2012-01-01

164

A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract  

PubMed Central

Background Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora) is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. Methods The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90%) followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60%) and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD) and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. Results The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P < 0.001). The inhibition of caseinolytic activity of the proteases increased with increasing ratio of seed extract. The residual activity of trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein extract for 60 min. The inhibitory activity was evident in gelatin SDS-PAGE where a major band (~17-19 kD) of protease inhibitor (PI) was detected in dialyzed and SEC elute. The conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus was moderately inhibited (30%) by the dialyzed seed extract. Conclusions Cassia tora seed extract has strong protease inhibitory activity against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. The inhibitor in Cassia tora may attenuate microbial proteases and also might be used as phytoprotecting agent.

2011-01-01

165

Taxol, an anticancer drug produced by an endophytic fungus Bartalinia robillardoides Tassi, isolated from a medicinal plant, Aegle marmelos Correa ex Roxb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxol is an important anticancer drug widely used in the clinic. An endophytic fungus Bartalinia robillardoides (strain AMB-9) was isolated from Aegle marmelos, a medicinal plant and screened for taxol production. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of the fungal culture\\u000a and the characteristics of the spores. This fungus was grown in MID liquid medium and analyzed chromatographically

V. Gangadevi; J. Muthumary

2008-01-01

166

Evaluation of nematicidal properties of saponins from Medicago spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematicidal activity of saponins from Medicago arborea (tops), M. arabica (tops and roots) and M. sativa (tops and roots) against the plant-parasitic nematode Xiphinema index was investigated. Nematicidal activity of related prosapogenins and sapogenins on X. index is also described. Saponins from Medicago spp. at different concentrations were all nematicidal, those from M. arborea tops being the less effective.

Maria Pia Argentieri; Trifone D’Addabbo; Aldo Tava; Augusta Agostinelli; Marian Jurzysta; Pinarosa Avato

2008-01-01

167

Studies on Nutritional Values of Some Wild Edible Plants from Iran and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The most important nutrients present in plants are: carbohydrates, such as the starch and free sugars, oils, proteins, minerals, ascorbic acid, and the antioxidant phenols. The Plants Alocacia indica Sch.,Asparagus officinalis DC., Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Eulophia ochreata Lindl., Momordica dioicia Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. are widely wild in man y regions

Ali Aberoumand; S. S. Deokule

2009-01-01

168

A descriptor list for morphological characterisation of Noni ( morinda citrifolia L)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The descriptor list presented here is intended for assessing genetic diversity based on morphological variation and for cultivar identification in noni, Morinda citrifolia (L.): Rubiaceae (syns. M. bracteata Roxb., M. citrifolia var. bracteata (Roxb.) Hook f.; M. indica L.). This work examined the three botanical varieties viz. M. citrifolia var. citrifolia; M. citrifolia var. bracteata; and M. citrifolia var.

J. Waki; T. Okpul; M. K. Komolong

2007-01-01

169

PERFORMANCE OF SIX NATIVE TREE SPECIES, PLANTED TO RESTORE DEGRADED FORESTLAND IN NORTHERN THAILAND AND THEIR RESPONSE TO FERTILISER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of six native forest tree species, planted to restore forest in a degraded watershed in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Thailand and their responses to four fertiliser treatments are reported. The species were chosen for their potential to i) shade out competing weeds rapidly and ii) enhance tree species richness by attracting seed-dispersing wildlife. All species planted, except Gmelina

Stephen Elliott; Puttipong Navakitbumrung; Sudarat Zangkum; Cherdsak Kuarak; Janice Kerby; David Blakesley; Vilaiwan Anusarnsunthorn

170

Glyceride studies. Part IV. The component glycerides of ten seed oils containing linoleic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The component glycerides of ten seed oils (safflower, tobacco, sunflower,Argemone mexicana, maize, cotton, groundnut,Macadamia ternifolia, Gmelina asiatica, andMadhuca latifolia) have been estimated by chromatographic procedures. The results agree with those obtained by lipolysis or calculated directly\\u000a from the component acids on the basis of the theory of positional distribution.

F. D. Gunstone; M. Ilyas Qureshi

1965-01-01

171

Microwave extraction and rapid isolation of arjunic acid from Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) stem bark and quantification of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid using HPLC-PDA technique.  

PubMed

Arjunic acid and arjunolic acid are main bioactive components of Terminalia arjuna stem bark and reported for various biological activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of arjunic and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna was investigated with developed and validated HPLC-PDA method, which resulted in the isolation of a novel anticancer molecule i.e. arjunic acid. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power, microwave extraction time, on the extraction efficiencies of arjunic, and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions identified were 5.0 g quantity of stem bark powder, 20 mL of ethyl acetate, preleaching time 10 min, microwave power 600 W, temperature 65°C, and microwave irradiation time 5 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than reported methods. The HPLC-PDA analysis method was developed and validated to have good linearity, precision, sensitivity, and accuracy. MAE-HPLC-PDA is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method for isolation and determination of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid in the stem bark of T. arjuna. PMID:22761141

Verma, Subash Chandra; Jain, Chhoten Lal; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Devalla, Ramesh Babu

2012-07-01

172

Heat-stress induced inhibition in growth and chlorosis in mungbean ( Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is partly mitigated by ascorbic acid application and is related to reduction in oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising temperatures (>35°C) are proving detrimental to summer-sown mungbean genotypes that experience inhibition of vegetative\\u000a and reproductive growth. In the present study, the mungbean plants growing hydroponically at varying temperatures of 30\\/20°C\\u000a (control), 35\\/25, 40\\/30, and 45\\/35°C (as day\\/night 12 h\\/12 h) with (50 ?M) or without ascorbic acid (ASC) were investigated\\u000a for effects on growth, membrane damage, chlorophyll loss, leaf water

Ramanpreet Kaur; Navneet Kaur; Kalpna Bhandhari; Neeru Kaushal; Kriti Gupta; T. S. Bains; Harsh Nayyar

173

Evergreen Mediterranean hardwoods as particleboard raw material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood and biomass (branches and foliage) of five Mediterranean evergreen hardwood species (Quercus coccifera, Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo, Phillyrea latifolia, Erica arborea) growing in Greece were investigated as particleboard raw material. The average diameter of the stems varied between the species from 4.1cm (Erica arborea) to 7.5cm (Quercus ilex) and the bark to wood ratio of the stems varied between

John A. Barboutis; John L. Philippou

2007-01-01

174

Biocidal activity of selected plant powders against Tribolium castaneum Herbst in stored groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 scoop at the concentration of 5g powder\\/500g seeds was 2.00 for D. arborea and 3.00 for V. grandifolia and were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) than the control (6.67). Phostoxin gave complete control (0.00). Five grammes (5g)\\/500g of D. arborea and V. grandifolia were as efficacious as phostoxin in protecting groundnut seeds against damage by T. castaneum. No adults

Timothy T. Epidi; O. Odili

175

Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root associates of a Mediterranean ectomycorrhizal plant (Quercus ilex).  

PubMed

Mycorrhiza samples of neighbouring Quercus ilex and Erica arborea plants collected in a postcutting habitat were processed to see whether plants differing in mycorrhizal status harbour the same root endophytes. Three experiments were performed in parallel: (i) isolation, identification and molecular characterization of fungi from surface-sterilized roots of both plant species; (ii) re-inoculation of fungal isolates on axenic E. arborea and Q. ilex seedlings; (iii) direct inoculation of field-collected Q. ilex ectomycorrhizas onto E. arborea seedlings. About 70 and 150 fungal isolates were obtained from roots of Q. ilex and E. arborea, respectively. Among them, Oidiodendron species and five cultural morphotypes of sterile isolates formed typical ericoid mycorrhizas on E. arborea in vitro. Fungi with such mycorrhizal ability were derived from both host plants. Isolates belonging to one of these morphotypes (sd9) also exhibited an unusual pattern of colonization, with an additional extracellular hyphal net. Ericoid mycorrhizas were also readily obtained by direct inoculation of E. arborea seedlings with Q. ilex ectomycorrhizal tips. Polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the shared sterile morphotypes demonstrate, in the case of sd9, the occurrence of the same genet on the two host plants. These results indicate that ericoid mycorrhizal fungi associate with ectomycorrhizal roots, and the ecological significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:11050558

Bergero, R; Perotto, S; Girlanda, M; Vidano, G; Luppi, A M

2000-10-01

176

Spatial and temporal variations in leaf area index, specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen of two co-occurring savanna tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Foliage growth, mass- and area-based leaf nitro- gen concentrations (Nm and Na) and specific leaf area (SLA) were surveyed during a complete vegetation cycle for two co- occurring savanna tree species: Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G. Don) Benth. and Cussonia arborea A. Rich. The study was conducted in the natural reserve of Lamto, Ivory Coast, on isolated and clumped

GUILLAUME SIMIONI; JACQUES GIGNOUX; XAVIER LE ROUX; RAPHAËLLE APPÉ; DANIELE BENEST

177

Growth and biochemical composition of juvenile green abalone Haliotis fulgens fed rehydrated macroalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under controlled laboratory conditions, juvenile green abalone Haliotis fulgens were fed rehydrated natural feeds to determine the effects on growth, survival, feed efficiency and biochemical composition of the digestive gland and muscle. Five macroalgae, Ulva sp. (Chlorophyta), Eisenia arborea, Macrocystis pyrifera, Egregia menziesii (Phaeophyta) and Porphyra perforata (Rhodophyta) were tested. The macroalgae promoted growth, although, depending on the species, there

C. J. PÉREZ-ESTRADA; R. CIVERA-CERECEDO; A. HERNÁNDEZ-LLAMAS; E. SERVIERE-ZARAGOZA

2010-01-01

178

THE TECHNIQUE OF NONINVASIVE DISTANT SEXING FOR FOUR MONOMORPHIC DENDROCYGNA WHISTLING DUCK SPECIES BY THEIR LOUD WHISTLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present an acoustic approach for reliable sexing in four whistling duck species from the genus Dendrocygna and compare it with molecular and cloacal inspection techniques. In the four examined species, the White-faced Whistling Duck D. viduata, Fulvous Whistling Duck D. bicolor, Cuban Whistling Duck D. arborea and Red-billed Whistling Duck D. autumnalis, sexes are indistinguishable by appearance. However

ILYA VOLODIN; MARTIN KAISER; VERA MATROSOVA; ELENA VOLODINA; ANNA KLENOVA; OLGA FILATOVA; MARINA KHOLODOVA

2009-01-01

179

(Precautions in the use of medicinal plants)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our country, almost medicinal plants are not scientifically validated and their safety and effectiveness are frequently unknown; therefore, like any other medicines, they should be used with caution because toxic plants consumption may carry intoxication and even death. Lippia turbinata Gris., Aristolochia triangularis Cham., Ruta graveolens L., Huperzia saururs (Lam.) Trevis, Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh., among others may be

Mariela A. MARINOFF; José L. MARTÍNEZ; María A. URBINA

2009-01-01

180

Structure, Long-Term Dynamics, and Demography of the Tree Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we study the population and community dynamics of the major tree species of the most common savanna type in Lamto, the Andropogoneae shrub savanna (see Sect. 5.2). The most frequent tree species are: Borassus aethiopum, Bridelia ferruginea, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Cussonia arborea and Piliostigma thonningii. Of these, only the palm tree Borassus can be considered as a true

Jacques Gignoux; Sébastien Barot; Jean-Claude Menaut; Roger Vuattoux

181

Adaptive leaf structures in a Myrica-Erica stand on Tenerife (Canary Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on a phytosociological table and a matrix of species and morphological characters. The relevés were taken along a transect in a Myrica faya-Erica arborea formation on Tenerife (Canary Islands). The analysis of the phytosociological table reveals a vegetational succession and a corresponding ecological gradient. The study of correlations between morphological and ecological data leads to the

D. Lausi; P. L. Nimis; M. Tretiach

1988-01-01

182

A study of the mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Three somatic hybrid plants produced by protoplast fusion between Medicago sativa and each of the three species M. coerulea, M. falcata and M. arborea have been analysed for the composition of their mitochondrial DNA. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial genes in somatic hybrids and their parental lines showed various degrees of rearrangement. The M. sativa + M. coerulea

A. Busti; F. Pupilli; F. De Marchis; S. Arcioni

183

Heathland and acid grassland creation on arable soils at Minsmere: identification of potential problems and a test of cropping to impoverish soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RSPB is attempting to establish heathland and acid grassland on 158 ha of arable land at Minsmere, ultimately to benefit two species of rare breeding birds, the stone curlew Burhinus oedicnemus and the woodlark Lullula arborea. An initial study of the arable soils was carried out to assess their suitability for the establishment of Calluna heathland and acid grassland.

R. H. Marrs; C. S. R. Snow; K. M. Owen; C. E. Evans

1998-01-01

184

Feeding preferences and the relationships between food choice and assimilation efficiency in the herbivorous marine snail Lithopoma undosum (Turbinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preference rankings for 13 macrophytes were established for the subtidal herbivorous snail Lithopoma undosum using two-choice laboratory experiments and consumption rates. L. undosum did not discriminate among three kelp foods (Egregia menziesii, Eisenia arborea and Macrocystis pyrifera) but ate kelp preferentially and more rapidly over all but Ulva spp. among tested macrophytes. Secondary preferences were established for the red alga

T. Erin Cox; Steven N. Murray

2006-01-01

185

Impact of Ammonium Nitrate on Growth and Survival of Six European Amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted static experiments to assess the effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on embryos and larvae of six European amphibians: sharp-ribbed salamander ( Pleurodeles waltl), Iberian painted frog ( Discoglossus galganoi), western spadefoot toad ( Pelobates cultripes), common toad ( Bufo bufo), natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita), and common tree frog ( Hyla arborea). Embryos were exposed to different and

Manuel E. Ortiz; Adolfo Marco; Nelia Saiz; Miguel Lizana

2004-01-01

186

Stem and root anatomical correlations with life form diversity, ecology, and systematics in Moringa (Moringaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four life forms (habits) are identified in the 13 species of Moringa (bottle trees, sarcorhizal trees, slender trees, and tuberous shrubs) which are examined for wood anatomical correlations with habit, ecology, and systematics. Wood anatomy is similar within habit classes except for the sarcorhizal trees. The four bottle tree species and M. arborea (one of the sarcorhizal trees) are characterized

M. E. OLSON; S. CARLQUIST

2001-01-01

187

Effects of the 'El Niño' event on the recruitment of benthic inver- tebrates in Bahía Tortugas, Baja California Sur  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the effects of El Niño (1997-98) on the recruitment of benthic invertebrates (abalone, spiny lobster, and kelp beds) was carried out in two reefs at Bahía Tortugas on the central Pacific coast of Baja California. Density changes of juvenile abalone (Haliotis fulgens and H. corrugata), kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera and Eisenia arborea), and puerulus settlement of spiny lobster

Sergio A. Guzmán; Jorge Belmar Pérez; Jorge Carrillo Laguna; Herrera Fragoso

2003-01-01

188

Temporal and Spatial Scales of Kelp Demography: The Role of Oceanographic Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper integrates long-term descriptive and experimental studies of the effects of ocean climate on inter- and intraspecific competition, as expressed by recruitment, density, survivorship, growth, and reproduction of the most conspicuous kelp species in the Point Loma kelp forest community off San Diego, California, USA. The species included Macrocystis pyrifera,with a floating canopy; Pterygophora californicaand Eisenia arborea, which rely

Paul K. Dayton; Mia J. Tegner; Peter B. Edwards; Kristin L. Riser

1999-01-01

189

Spatial and temporal variations in leaf area index, specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen of two co-occurring savanna tree species.  

PubMed

Foliage growth, mass- and area-based leaf nitrogen concentrations (Nm and N a) and specific leaf area (SLA) were surveyed during a complete vegetation cycle for two co-occurring savanna tree species: Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G. Don) Benth. and Cussonia arborea A. Rich. The study was conducted in the natural reserve of Lamto, Ivory Coast, on isolated and clumped trees. Leaf flush occurred before the beginning of the rainy season. Maximum leaf area index (LAI), computed on a projected canopy basis for individual trees, was similar (mean of about 4) for both species. Seasonal courses of the ratio of actual to maximum LAI were similar for individuals of the same species, but differed between species. For C. febrifuga, clumped trees reached their maximum LAI before isolated trees. The LAI of C. arborea trees did not differ between clumped and isolated individuals, but maximum LAI was reached about 2 months later than for C. febrifuga. Leaf fall was associated with decreasing soil water content for C. arborea. For C. febrifuga, leaf fall started before the end of the rainy period and was independent of changes in soil water content. These features lead to a partial niche separation in time for light resource acquisition between the two species. Although Nm, N a and SLA decreased with time, SLA and N a decreased later in the vegetation cycle for C. arborea than for C. febrifuga. For both species, N a decreased and SLA increased with decreasing leaf irradiance within the canopy, although effects of light on leaf characteristics did not differ between isolated and clumped trees. Given relationships between N a and photosynthetic capacities previously reported for these species, our results show that C. arborea exhibits higher photosynthetic capacity than C. febrifuga during most of the vegetation cycle and at all irradiances. PMID:14676036

Simioni, Guillaume; Gignoux, Jacques; Le Roux, Xavier; Appé, Raphaëlle; Benest, Daniele

2004-02-01

190

Pharmacognostic parameters for evaluation of the rhizomes of Curcuma caesia  

PubMed Central

In ethno medicinal practices, the traditional healers use the genus Curcuma for the treatment of various ailments but Curcuma caesia Roxb. is a very less known and almost untouched drug. The present work attempts to establish the necessary pharmocognostic standards for evaluating the plant material of C. caesia Roxb. Various parameters, such as morphology, microscopy, physicochemical constants, and phytochemical profiles of the entire parts of the plant were studied and the salient diagnostic features are documented. Major chemical constituents, extractive values, physicochemical constants, and other features are also been recorded.

Paliwal, Pritesh; Pancholi, S. S; Patel, Rakesh K.

2011-01-01

191

Effect of Herbal Molluscicides and Their Combinations on the Reproduction of the Snail Lymnaea acuminata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sublethal treatment (20 and 60% of LC 50\\/24 h) of the plant-derived molluscicides Annona squamosa Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn. and their combinations with other herbal molluscicides, such as Cedrus deodara Roxb, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, bulb powder of Allium sativum Linn. and Polianthes tuberosa Linn., and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Rosc., and acetogenins extracted from the seeds

Amrita Singh; D. K. Singh

2004-01-01

192

Fungicidal properties of some plants against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of leaves of different plants was tested against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. The fungus was isolated from seedlings of Amaranthus tricolor cv. Amarchitra displaying damping?off symptoms. Out of fifty plants tried, extract obtained from seven plants, namely, Adenocalymna alliaceum L., Allium sativa L., Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, Carum capticum Benth, Citrus medica L., Lantana indica Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lamk,

Rita Shekhar; A. K. Dwivedi; S. C. Sharma

1996-01-01

193

Hepatoprotective activity of two plants belonging to the Apiaceae and the Euphorbiaceae family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different extracts of Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) and Croton oblongifolius Roxb. (Euphorbiaceae) were tested for their hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters like serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin. The methanolic extracts showed the most significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard

Bahar Ahmed; Tanveer Alam; Manoj Varshney; Shah Alam Khan

2002-01-01

194

Phytochemical Investigation and Pharmocological Studies of the Flowers of Pithecellobium Dulce  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects from the fresh flowers of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth, belonging to the family of Leguminosae subfamily Mimosoideae, a glycoside quercitin has been isolated. The ethyl acetate soluble of P. dulce containing the above glycoside was studied both in silico and in vitro for the anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. The concatenation of the in silico and in

P. G. R. Chandran; S. Balaji

2008-01-01

195

Synthesis of SiC ceramics from processed cellulosic bio-precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of SiC ceramic from processed cellulosic bio-precursor was investigated. Bamboo (Bambusa tulda Roxb.) plants abundantly available in the Jorhat district of Assam, India, were selected for extraction of fibers following Kraft pulping method and bleached bamboo pulp fibers were suitably cast in the form of rectangular boards. Coir fibers available in the Alleppy district of Kerala, India, were initially

Anwesha Maity; Dipul Kalita; Tarun Kumar Kayal; Tridip Goswami; Omprakash Chakrabarti; Himadri Sekhar Maiti; Paruchuri Gangadhar Rao

2010-01-01

196

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: About 32 extracts from eight selected medicinal plants, n amely Pereskia bleo , Pereskia grandifolia , Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma zedoria , Curcuma mangga , Curcuma inodora aff. Blatter , Zingiber officinale var. officinale (jahe gajah) and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (jahe emprit) used by Malaysia traditional health c are systems were screened for their antimicrobial activity against

Koshy Philip; Sri Nurestri; Abd Malek; Wirakarnain Sani; Sim Kae Shin; Saravana Kumar; Lee Guan Serm; Syarifah N. S. A. Rahman

2009-01-01

197

Effects of aqueous extract of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) on seed germination and radicle elongation of Monochoria vaginalis var. plantaginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the allelopathic potentials of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) on seed germination and radicle elongation of Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) Presl var. plantaginea (Roxb.) Solms-Laubat. To compare the relative allelopathic potentials of rice plants at different growth stages, aqueous extracts of dried tissues were obtained from the seeds, husks, and seedlings harvested 10, 20,

Shun Kawaguchi; Koichi Yoneyama; Takao Yokota; Yasutomo Takeuchi; Masaru Ogasawara; Makoto Konnai

1997-01-01

198

Seasonal variations in organic carbon and nutrient availability in arid zone agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out on the temporal variations in organic carbon and nutrient availability in arid zone agroforestry systems. Organic carbon, extractable P, NO3-N and NH4-N were determined in top 20 cm soil layer under three year old agroforestry systems comprising Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Hardwickia binata Roxb. and Colophosper- mum mopane (Kirk ex Benth.) Kirk ex J. Leonard tree species

G. SINGH; G. N. GUPTA; V. KUPPUSAMY

199

Biomass, net primary production and impact of bamboo plantation on soil redevelopment in a dry tropical region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and impact of a bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees) plantation on mine spoil in a dry tropical region were examined. Culm dynamics, biomass, net primary production, soil microbial biomass and N-mineralization were estimated at ages 3, 4, and 5 years. The recruitment of culm population varied between 18% and 36% and shoot mortality from 6–7% per year. Net accumulation

Anand Narain Singh; J. S Singh

1999-01-01

200

Soil Population of Helicotylenchus multicinctus under Pueraria phaseoloides, Flemingia macrophylla and Natural Bush Fallows and their Effect on Plantain Yield in the Humid Forest Zone of Southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil population densities of Helicotylenchus multicinctus (Cobb) Golden were assessed under Flemingia macrophylla [(Willd.) Merrill] and Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth, and natural bush fallows over 24 months in three villages in southern Cameroon. Also assessed was the effect of H. multicinctus on yield of plantain. Trials were set up in four to five year-old Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King

B. Banful; S. Hauser; F. Ngo Kanga; F. Kumaga; K. Ofori

2008-01-01

201

An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

202

Starch grain breakdown in cotyledon cells of germinating mung bean seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural aspects of the breakdown of starch grains during the mobilisation of reserves in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. seed germination are described. The starch grains show erosion from within leading to the formation of a hollow shell. The erosion is accompanied by intrusion of cytoplasm into the shell. No evidence of a vesicular transport system to or from the eroding face

N. Harris

1976-01-01

203

Antifungal activity and kinetics of inhibition by essential oil isolated from leaves of Aegle marmelos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of essential oil isolated from the leaves of bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb., Rutaceae) has been evaluated using spore germination assay. The oil exhibited variable efficacy against different fungal isolates and 100% inhibition of spore germination of all the fungi tested was observed at 500 ppm. However, the most resistant fungus, Fusarium udum was inhibited

B. K. Rana; U. P. Singh; V. Taneja

1997-01-01

204

Antiulcer and antimicrobial activity of Anogeissus latifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanically, the bark of Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guill. & Perr.(Combretaceae) has been reported to be used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and skin diseases. We studied the antiulcer potential and antimicrobial activity of the 50% aqueous alcoholic extract in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the above-mentioned disorders. Gastroprotective

R. Govindarajan; M. Vijayakumar; M. Singh; Ch. V. Rao; A. Shirwaikar; A. K. S. Rawat; P. Pushpangadan

2006-01-01

205

Hybridization and in vitro culture of an orchid hybrid Ascocenda ‘Kangla’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on hybridization program involving two species belonging to two different vandaceous genera, viz., Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr. var. auranticum, a narrow endemic orchid of Manipur and Vanda coerulea Griff., an endangered orchid of Appendix I of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), to synthesize the primary hybrid genus with

Rajkumar Kishor; P. S. Sha Valli Khan; G. J. Sharma

2006-01-01

206

Biotechnological applications in agriculture: A new source of edible oil and production of biofertilizer and antioxidant from its by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminalia belerica Roxb (Combretaceae) known as bahera, found abundant in tropical Asia, is a source of new edible oil (37% by dry weight of kernel), biofertilizer, tannin and antioxidant. The oilcake contains high amount of nitrogen (8.34%). On biochemical evaluation form the oil cake it is evident that about 60% NaCl extractable protein is digestible which can be converted into

D. Bera; D. Lahiri; Antonella De Leonardis; K. B. De; A. Nag

2007-01-01

207

Soil persistence and biodiversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the absence of the host plant in a Mediterranean ecosystem.  

PubMed

The occurrence of suitable mycorrhizal inocula may be an important factor affecting the dynamics of plant communities. We investigated the persistence and diversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of a mature Quercus ilex forest where ericaceous hosts were absent. Erica arborea was used as a bait plant and results were compared to soil samples from experimental plots where cuttings had allowed reappearance of this ericaceous species. Fungal endophytes were isolated and tested in mycorrhiza resynthesis trials. Sterile mycorrhizal endophytes were assigned to morphotypes whose consistency was confirmed by ITS-RFLP. The ITS region of a representative of each morphotype was sequenced. BLAST searches and Neighbour-Joining analysis indicated taxonomic affinities with different classes within Ascomycota. Our results indicate that ericoid mycorrhizal fungi persist and maintain mycorrhizal ability in habitats lacking the ericaceous host. Their persistence could favour the establishment of E. arborea seedlings in pure Q. ilex forests after disturbance phenomena. PMID:12682828

Bergero, Roberta; Girlanda, Mariangela; Bello, Federica; Luppi, Anna Maria; Perotto, Silvia

2002-10-26

208

Resistance of three co-occurring resprouter Erica species to highlyfrequent disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance to experimental, highly frequent disturbance has been analysed in three congeneric, strong-resprouter species\\u000a (Erica australis, E. scoparia and E. arborea) that co-occur in heath-dominated communities of the northern side of the Strait of Gibraltar, southern Spain. To do so,\\u000a mature individuals of the three species from a long undisturbed location were clipped at the ground level every sixth

Susana Paula; Fernando Ojeda

2006-01-01

209

Invited paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal and diurnal measurements of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, and stem sap flow were made in adult plants of Arbutus unedo, Cistus monspeliensis, Erica arborea, Myrtus communis, Phillyrea latifolia and Quercus ilex growing under field conditions in coastal Tuscany for two years. Values of pre?dawn leaf water potentials were higher than?1.5 MPa for all species during most of the

R. Gucci; R. Massai; S. Casano; S. Mazzoleni

1999-01-01

210

Distribution and diversity of species associated with deep-sea gorgonian corals off Atlantic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the associated fauna of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis. Composition and distribution of this fauna is described based on material from the continental shelf and slope off Atlantic\\u000a Canada (300–600 m depth). Samples were collected from five areas with Remotely Operated Vehicle, video grab, and bottom trawl.\\u000a The collected material consists of 25

Lene Buhl-Mortensen; Pål B. Mortensen

211

Aspects of tissue water relations and seasonal changes of leaf water potential components of evergreen and deciduous species coexisting in tropical dry forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study compared the tissue water relations and seasonal changes in leaf water potential components of an evergreen tree,Morisonia americana, and two evergreen shrubs,Capparis verrucosa andC. aristiquetae, with two deciduous trees,Humboltiella arborea andLonchocarpus dipteroneurus, and the deciduous vineMansoa verrucifera. All these species coexist in a tropical dry forest in Venezuela. Leaves of the evergreen species are sclerophyllous, while those

M. A. Sobrado

1986-01-01

212

Monomer composition and sequence of sodium alginate extracted at pilot plant scale from three commercially important seaweeds from Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine waters of the Baja California peninsula (Mexico) are a rich source of brown seaweeds with a great potential for\\u000a exploitation. For that reason, Sargassum sinicola, Eisenia arborea, and Macrocystis pyrifera collected from different locations were subjected to extraction of sodium alginate using a pilot-plant scale process developed\\u000a in our facilities. The composition and sequence parameters of the recovered

Jesús Iván Murillo-Álvarez; Gustavo Hernández-Carmona

2007-01-01

213

Distribution of deep-water gorgonian corals in relation to benthic habitat features in the Northeast Channel (Atlantic Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and abundance of deep-water gorgonian corals were investigated along 52 transects at 183–498 m depth in the Northeast Channel, between Georges Bank and Browns Bank in the northwest Atlantic, using a remotely operated vehicle and a towed video-camera system. Three species ( Paragorgia arborea, Primnoa resedaeformis, and Acanthogorgia armata) were observed. Primnoa occurred on 35 transects below 196 m depth, with highest

Pål B. Mortensen; Lene Buhl-Mortensen

2004-01-01

214

Quantifying density dependence in a bird population using human disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although density dependence has long been recognised as vital to population regulation, there have been relatively few studies\\u000a demonstrating it spatially in wildlife populations, often due to the confounding effects of variation in habitat quality.\\u000a We report on a study of woodlarks Lullula arborea, a species of European conservation concern, breeding on lowland heath in Dorset, England. We take the

John W. Mallord; Paul M. Dolman; Andy Brown; William J. Sutherland

2007-01-01

215

New mitochondrial genome organization in three interspecific somatic hybrids of Medicago sativa including the parent-specific amplification of substoichiometric mitochondrial DNA units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three somatic hybrid plants produced by protoplast fusion between Medicago sativa and each of the three species Medicago coerulea, Medicago falcata and Medicago arborea have been analysed for the composition of their mitochondrial DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis\\u000a of mitochondrial genes in somatic hybrids and their parental lines showed various degrees of rearrangement. The M. sativa+M. coerulea hybrid

F. Pupilli; P. Labombarda; S. Arcioni

2001-01-01

216

Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.  

PubMed

Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307

Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

217

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis

Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

2011-01-01

218

Effect of saline irrigation and its schedules on growth, biomass production and water use by Acacia nilotica and Dalbergia sissoo in a highly calcareous soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Afforestation programmes in arid areas suffer mainly from low rainfall, high evapo-transpirational demands, high salt content of ground-waters and impediment bykankar(calcareous) subsoil layers of root proliferation. Two of the most preferred multi-purpose tree (MPT) species, Kikar (Acacia nilotica(L.) Del.) and Shisham (Dalbergia sissooRoxb. ex DC) were furrow planted in August 1991 under such an environment in north-western parts of India

P. S Minhas; Y. P Singh; O. S Tomar; R. K Gupta

1997-01-01

219

Insulin like activity in (?) epicatechin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Water extract of the bark of plant ofPterocarpus marsupium Roxb is used as an antidiabetic drug in indigenous medicine in India. (?) Epicatechin, its active principle, has been found\\u000a to be insulinogenic. The presentin vitro study reports some insulin like activities of (?) epicatechin. Like insulin, (?) epicatechin stimulates oxygen uptake in\\u000a fat cells and tissue slices of various organs,

Faiyaz Ahmad; Parwaiz Khalid; Mohammad Mubin Khan; Anil K. Rastogi; Jalil R. Kidwai

1989-01-01

220

Germination and some metabolic characteristics in green gram seedlings as affected by sodium carbonate and bicarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 at equal conductivities (2, 4 and 6 S cm?1) on germination, seedling growth and some metabolites were studied in two cultivars of green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. cv. Varsha and cv. Pusa Baiskhi) in Petri dishes and sand culture. With increasing conductivity both the salts depressed\\u000a germination, length of shoot and root and their mass.

B. K. Garg; O. P. Garg

1982-01-01

221

Cytogenetic Identification of a New Hexaploid Coix aquatica Cytotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Coix aquatica Roxb. cyto-type, found in the southwest of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China, was identified and analyzed by acetocarmine squashing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique including genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). This new C. aquatica cyto-type was different from other C. aquatica cyto-types reported in chromosome structure. It was 2n = 30 in chromosome

HAN Yong-Hua; LI Dong-Yu; LI Ying-Cai; XUE Yue-Gui; HU Zhong-Li; SONG Yun-Chun

222

Growth of Nursery-grown Bamboo Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in two Tropical Soil Typeswith and without Fertilizer Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nursery experiment was conducted to assess the effect of bioinoculants (Glomus aggregatum, Bacillus polymixa, Azospirillum brasilense) on seedling growth promotion of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees.) in two soil types (alfisol, vertisol) with or without fertilizer application. Bamboo seedlings were grown\\u000a in the presence or absence of bioinoculants either individually or in all combinations for 180 days in field soil

T. Muthukumar; K. Udaiyan

2006-01-01

223

Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin.  

PubMed

Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes. PMID:24031931

Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

2012-06-01

224

Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin  

PubMed Central

Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes.

Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

2012-01-01

225

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil from the Leaves of Cinnamomum porrectum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil was distilled from the leaves of Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm. yielded 1.1 % of fresh weight. The analysis of essential oil by GC\\/MS showed the main component (99.8%) could be either iso-safrole or safrole. The oil was further investigated by proton NMR and revealed the main peak as safrole. The activity of the oil against Candida albicans

Chanida Palanuvej; Pornpen Werawatganone; Nijsiri Ruangrungsi

226

Characterization of polyamine oxidase from the aquatic nitrogen-fixing fern Azolla imbricata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical properties of a polyamine oxidase (PAO; EC 1.5.3.3) purified from the aquatic nitrogen-fixing fern Azolla imbricata (Roxb.) Nak. were studied. The native molecular mass of the enzyme estimated by Sephadex G 200 gel filtration was 66.2kDa. SDS-PAGE gave a single protein band corresponding to a molecular mass of 65.5kDa. The light yellow enzyme had absorption maxima at 278, 372

Sheng-Gen He; Daryl Joyce; Ming-Zu Wang

2005-01-01

227

Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex

G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Bagavan

2010-01-01

228

Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical\\u000a origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate,\\u000a hexane, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus

G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; A. Abduz Zahir; C. Venkatesan

2009-01-01

229

Effect of gamma irradiation on morphology of leaf and shoot apex of ginger, turmeric and mango-ginger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kR gamma irradiation on morphology and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valet) and mango-ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), and shoot apical organisation in ginger were studied. Higher doses (20 and 30 kR) of radiation proved to be lethal.\\u000a Morphological aberrations in foliage leaves are reported. Irradiated shoot apices of

E C Raju; J D Patel; J J Shah

1980-01-01

230

Morfología, fenología y producción de biomasa aérea del Pithecellobium dulce, en una zona de monte espinoso tropical  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cover, morphology and aerial production of dry matter (DM) of the specie Pithececellebium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. was evaluated in a xerophyte area. The population density per hectare of trees higher and smaller than 1.5 m was 264 and 1935, equivalent to 22.6 and 2.1% of total botanical community, respectively. Ten adult trees higher than 1.5 m with similar dimension,

E. C. González; E. Chacón; J. Rodríguez

231

STUDIES ON ROOTING PATTERNS OF 5YEAROLD IMPORTANT AGROFORESTRY TREE SPECIES IN NORTH BIHAR, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on rooting patterns of eight important multipurpose tree species demonstrated large variation in root depth and horizontal root spread 5 year after planting. The root depth varied between 1.01m (Acacia lenticularis L.) and 2.71m (Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd ex. Del.). Variation in horizontal root spread was 1.69m in Syzygium cumini (L.) and 7.70m in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth…Root spread

O. P. CHATURVEDI; D. K. DAS

2002-01-01

232

Spring precipitation variations over the western Himalaya, India, since A.D. 1731 as deduced from tree rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring precipitation, representative of regional-scale features, was reconstructed since A.D. 1731 using 15 site ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lambert) G. Don), prepared from distantly located moisture-stressed sites in the western Himalayan region. This is so far the strongest tree-ring-based precipitation reconstruction in terms of variance explained in the calibration model (A.D. 1897-1986) from the

Jayendra Singh; Ram R. Yadav

2005-01-01

233

Spring precipitation variations over the western Himalaya, India, since A.D. 1731 as deduced from tree rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring precipitation, representative of regional-scale features, was reconstructed since A.D. 1731 using 15 site ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lambert) G. Don), prepared from distantly located moisture-stressed sites in the western Himalayan region. This is so far the strongest tree-ring-based precipitation reconstruction in terms of variance explained in the calibration model (A.D. 1897–1986) from the

Jayendra Singh; Ram R. Yadav

2005-01-01

234

Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits  

PubMed Central

Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

2010-01-01

235

Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.  

PubMed

Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

2010-10-16

236

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Yan, Xin-Pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-Yang; Cao, Liang

2013-08-19

237

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb.

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

2013-01-01

238

Dormancy as exaptation to protect mimetic seeds against deterioration before dispersal  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Mimetic seeds simulate the appearance of fleshy fruits and arilled seeds without producing nutritive tissues as a reward for seed dispersers. In this strategy of seed dispersal, seeds may remain attached to the mother plant for long periods after maturity, increasing their availability to naïve seed dispersers. The hypothesis that seed coat impermeability in many tropical Fabaceae with mimetic seeds serves as an exaptation to protect the seeds from deterioration and rotting while awaiting dispersal was investigated. Methods Seed coat impermeability was evaluated in five mimetic-seeded species of tropical Fabaceae in south-eastern Brazil (Abarema langsdorffii, Abrus precatorius, Adenanthera pavonina, Erythrina velutina and Ormosia arborea) and in Erythrina speciosa, a ‘basal’ species in its genus, which has monochromatic brown seeds and no mimetic displays. Seed hardness was evaluated as a defence against accelerated ageing (humid chamber at 41 °C for 144 h). Seed development and physiological potential of O. arborea was evaluated and the effect of holding mature seeds in pods on the mother plant in the field for a period of 1 year under humid tropical conditions was compared with seeds stored under controlled conditions (15 °C and 40 % relative air humidity). Key Results All five mimetic-seeded species, and E. speciosa, showed strong coat impermeability, which protected the seeds against deterioration in accelerated ageing. Most O. arborea seeds only became dormant 2 months after pod dehiscence. Germination of seeds after 1 year on the plant in a humid tropical climate was 56 %, compared with 80 % for seeds stored in controlled conditions (15 °C, 45 % relative humidity). Seedling shoot length after 1 year did not differ between seed sources. Conclusions Dormancy acts in mimetic-seeded species as an exaptation to reduce seed deterioration, allowing an increase in their effective dispersal period and mitigating the losses incurred by low removal rates by naïve avian frugivores.

Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Novembre, Ana D. L. C.; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; Marcos Filho, Julio

2010-01-01

239

Transpiration in a sub-tropical ridge-top cloud forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laurel forests in the Canary Islands (Spain) survive where humid conditions are guaranteed throughout the year. On peaks and ridges, laurel forest gives way to mixed evergreen tree-heath/beech forest of low stature ("fayal-brezal") that has to cope with rapidly changing light, temperature and humidity conditions due to the occurrence of intermittent sunny and foggy periods during the mostly rainless summer. These conditions are poorly understood and there is a lack of information on the interrelations between tree physiological behavior and ambient climatic and soil water conditions in fayal-brezal. In this study sap velocities were measured for 2 years in two dominant tree species (Myrica faya and Erica arborea) in a ridge-top forest in the National Park of Garajonay on the island of La Gomera. The resulted average daily stand transpiration was 1.2 ± 0.12 mm (416 mm year-1). However, the narrow-leaved E. arborea exhibited higher sap velocities than the broad-leaved M. faya. Also, sap velocity increased with stem diameter in E. arborea but not in M. faya. Nocturnal flow activity was observed throughout the year and reflected ambient conditions on some occasions, and stem water storage recovery on others. Strong stomatal control in response to increases in vapor pressure deficit was seen in both species. Fog reduced sap velocity from 10% up to 90% but no consistent pattern was found. Soil water uptake during the dry summer (246 mm) was much larger than atmospheric water inputs (41 mm, rain and fog). The low moisture levels in the top 0.3 m of the soil had limited influence on transpiration rates indicating that vegetation must have had access to moisture in deeper layers.

García-Santos, G.

2012-09-01

240

Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments.

Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A.; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M.

2012-11-01

241

Rodents and Leptospira transmission risk in Terceira island (Azores).  

PubMed

The role of rodents as Leptospira renal carriers in Terceira island was evaluated (1993-1995) through kidney culture and serology [microscopic aglutination test (MAT)] of 94 mice and rats. Fifty-nine animals were positive (n = 41 by serology + culturing; n = 11 serology; n = 7 culturing), presenting a wide distribution in man-made and natural areas. House mice had the highest bacteriological (82.9%) and serological (90.9%) rates, being strictly related to serovar arborea. Black rats were involved in the dispersion of all isolated L. interrogans sensu lato serovars (arborea, copenhageni and icterohaemorrhagiae). Logistic regression analysis and non-metric multi-dimensional scaling, relating Leptospira infection with biological and environmental variables, expressed that adult males Mus domesticus, sexually active and living in humid biotopes, mainly above 500 m, are the most likely reservoirs. This study emphasizes the role of house-mice in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in Terceira and the need of reducing the risk of Leptospira transmission through integrated control programmes, primarily focusing on adult house-mice in peri-domestic environments, before the breeding season. PMID:11484805

Collares-Pereira, M; Mathias, M L; Santos-Reis, M; Ramalhinho, M G; Duarte-Rodrigues, P

2000-01-01

242

Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.

Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

2013-02-01

243

Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.

Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

2013-09-01

244

Pigmentation and spectral absorbance signatures in deep-water corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway.  

PubMed

The pigmentation and corresponding in vivo and in vitro absorption characteristics in three different deep-water coral species: white and orange Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, collected from the Trondheimsfjord are described. Pigments were isolated and characterized by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LC-TOF MS). The main carotenoids identified for all three coral species were astaxanthin and a canthaxanthin-like carotenoid. Soft tissue and skeleton of orange L. pertusa contained 2 times more astaxanthin g(-1) wet weight compared to white L. pertusa. White and orange L. pertusa were characterized with in vivo absorbance peaks at 409 and 473 nm, respectively. In vivo absorbance maxima for P. arborea and P. resedaeformis was typically at 475 nm. The shapes of the absorbance spectra (400-700 nm) were species-specific, indicated by in vivo, in vitro and the corresponding difference spectra. The results may provide important chemotaxonomic information for pigment when bonded to their proteins in vivo, bio-prospecting, and for in situ identification, mapping and monitoring of corals. PMID:22822381

Elde, Anette C; Pettersen, Ragnhild; Bruheim, Per; Järnegren, Johanna; Johnsen, Geir

2012-06-20

245

A new Australian species of Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) and typification of two Australian Cucumis names, all based on specimens collected by Ferdinand Mueller in 1856  

PubMed Central

Abstract As a result of his botanical explorations in northern Australia, Ferdinand von Mueller named several Cucurbitaceae that molecular data now show to be distinct, requiring their resurrection from unjustified synonymy. We here describe and illustrate Luffa saccata F. Muell. ex I.Telford, validating a manuscript name listed under Luffa graveolens Roxb. since 1859, and we lectotypify Cucumis picrocarpus F. Muell. and Cucumis jucundus F. Muell. The lectotype of the name Cucumis jucundus, a synonym of Cucumis melo, is mounted on the same sheet as the lectotype of Cucumis picrocarpus, which is the sister species of the cultivated Cucumis melo as shown in a recent publication.

Telford, Ian R. H.; Schaefer, Hanno; Greuter, Werner; Renner, Susanne S.

2011-01-01

246

TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTIC FOR PRODUCTION OF CO2 BY PHASEOLUS SEEDLINGS  

PubMed Central

The temperature characteristic for respiratory production of CO2 by young seedlings of Phaseolus aureus (Roxb.) is µ = 16,500 calories, 12–21°C., even when the analyses depend upon the use of many seedlings crowded in a small respiration chamber, provided reasonable precautions are taken to avoid injury and to permit proper thermal adaptation. There is evidence of a definite critical temperature at 20–21°. These findings agree quantitatively with those obtained with other similar seedlings, and contradict the results reported by Kurbatov and Leonov (1930); the reasons for this are analysed.

Crozier, W. J.; Navez, A. E.

1931-01-01

247

[Application of wavelet transform to infrared analysis].  

PubMed

In the present article the FTIR spectra of the xylems of Smilax glabra Roxb. and its three kinds of counterfeits were obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with OMNI-sampler directly, fast and accurately. By adopting wavelet transform analytical method the samples were studied in detail. The results showed that wavelet transform could remove the noises and condense variable, and have the advantages of fast operating speed, high degree of accuracy, and no noise disposal. It will have a good application prospect in infrared spectroscopic analysis. PMID:17260747

Li, Dan-ting; Zhang, Chang-jiang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Cun-gui

2006-11-01

248

Woody biomass potential of the Chinese tallow tree  

SciTech Connect

The Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum Roxb.) ia a rapid-growing species that has become naturalized along the Gulf and southern Atlantic coasts. The tree is particularly well adapted to poorly-drained and saline soils. Chinese tallow seedlings planted at 2' x 2' spacing produced over 5 dry tons of biomass/acre at the end of the second growing season, while the biomass accumulation on coppiced plots was more than 7 dry tons/acre at the end of the second year. The Chinese tallow tree has considerable promise as a woody biomass species in the southern coastal regions of the United States. 4 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Scheld, H.W.; Cowles, J.R.

1981-10-01

249

A new Australian species of Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) and typification of two Australian Cucumis names, all based on specimens collected by Ferdinand Mueller in 1856.  

PubMed

As a result of his botanical explorations in northern Australia, Ferdinand von Mueller named several Cucurbitaceae that molecular data now show to be distinct, requiring their resurrection from unjustified synonymy. We here describe and illustrate Luffa saccata F. Muell. ex I.Telford, validating a manuscript name listed under Luffa graveolens Roxb. since 1859, and we lectotypify Cucumis picrocarpus F. Muell. and Cucumis jucundus F. Muell. The lectotype of the name Cucumis jucundus, a synonym of Cucumis melo, is mounted on the same sheet as the lectotype of Cucumis picrocarpus, which is the sister species of the cultivated Cucumis melo as shown in a recent publication. PMID:22171190

Telford, Ian R H; Schaefer, Hanno; Greuter, Werner; Renner, Susanne S

2011-07-27

250

[Combination similarity algorithm on chromatographic fingerprints].  

PubMed

The similarity of chromatographic fingerprints is one of the effective approaches evaluating the quality stability of Chinese medicine, and the cosine of angle plays an important role in the application of similarity. However, the cosine approach is insensitive to the data difference when the distribution range of the data sets is wide. When the data proportion of the reference sample and the test sample is greatly different, it confirms that the sensitivity of the cosine to the differences of the peaks owned by both the reference sample and the test sample differs from the peaks owned only by the reference sample or the test sample in this study. The method considers the peaks owned by one sample in addition to peaks owned by both samples, and determines their own appropriate weigh targeting for the maximal homostasis value of proportion among the peaks of all of Smilax glabra Roxb. samples. The method based on sample data could reflect the difference in the chemical composition area ratio between the reference sample and test samples sensitively, and measures the similarity among the nine Smilax glabra Roxb. samples, which is a new similarity algorithm for evaluating the quality stability of herbal medicines. PMID:21381425

Zhan, Xueyan; Shi, Xinyuan; Duan, Tianxuan; Li, Lei; Qiao, Yanjiang

2010-11-01

251

Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.  

PubMed

In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

Aberoumand, Ali

2009-01-01

252

Biochemical responses in tree foliage exposed to coal-fired power plant emission in seasonally dry tropical environment.  

PubMed

A biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate the responses of plants exposed to power plant emission in a dry tropical environment. For this purpose, five sampling sites were selected in the prevailing wind direction (NE) at different distance to thermal power plant (TPP) within 8.0 km range and a reference site was selected in eastern direction at a distance of 22.0 km. The two most common tree species, Ficus benghalensis L. (Evergreen tree) and Dalbergia sisso Roxb. (deciduous tree) were selected as test plants. Ambient sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM), dust-fall rate (DFR) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, sugar and sulphate-sulphur (SO4(2-)-S) contents were measured. Ambient SO(2), NO(2), SPM, RSPM and DFR showed significant spatial and temporal variation at different sites. Considerable reduction in pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) and sugar contents were observed at sites receiving higher pollution load. Ascorbic acid exhibited significant positive correlation with pollution load. Accumulation of SO4(2-)-S in leaf tissue showed significant positive correlation with ambient SO(2) concentration at all the sites. At the same time, SO4(2-)-S showed significant negative correlation with pigment and sugar content. D. sisso Roxb. tree was found to be more sensitive as compared to F. benghalensis L. tree. PMID:18843539

Sharma, Atul Prakash; Tripathi, B D

2008-10-09

253

Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereals, millets, pulses and legumes in India.  

PubMed

Plant foods are important due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to the phenolics which are known to protect organisms against harmful effects of oxygen radicals. However, information on antioxidant activity of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore, the present study evaluated the AOA of cereals, millets, pulses and legumes, commonly consumed in India and assessed the relationship with their total phenolic content (TPC). AOA was assessed by DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and reducing power. DPPH scavenging activity ranged from 0.24 and 1.73 mg/g, whereas FRAP ranged from 16.21 to 471.71 micromoles/g. Finger millet (Eleusine cora cana) and Rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris) had the highest FRAP 471.71, 372.76 and DPPH scavenging activity 1.73, 1.07. Similar trends were observed with reducing power. Among cereals and legumes, Finger millet (Ragi) and black gram dhal (Phaseolus mungo Roxb) had the highest TPC, the values being 373 and 418 mg/100 g respectively, while rice (Oryza sativa) and green gram dhal (Phaseolus aureus Roxb) showed the least (47.6 and 62.4 mg/100 g). In the present study, FRAP (r = 0.91) and reducing power (r = 0.90) showed significant correlation with TPC in cereals and millets, but not in pulses and legumes. The results suggest that TPC contributes significantly to the AOA of Indian cereals and millets. PMID:19374263

Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C Vijaya Kumar; Raghunath, M

2009-02-01

254

[Pollen analysis from two littoral marshes (Bourdim and Garaat El-Ouez) in the El-Kala wet complex (North-East Algeria). Lateglacial and Holocene history of Algerian vegetation].  

PubMed

The study of two pollen sequences from El-Kala marshes allowed the reconstruction of the regional vegetation history supported by eight radiocarbon dates. Pollen assemblages from Bourdim site were dominated by local input of Alnus and Salix, while regional vegetation was characterized by scattered Quercus suber forests with a well-developed Erica arborea matorral. While the vegetation dynamics recorded at Bourdim is recent (Late Holocene), the majority of the pollen diagram from Garaat El-Ouez is contemporaneous to the Late Pleniglacial and is characterized by open woodlands with Pinus, Poaceae and several heliophilous herbs. The significant values of Cedrus pollen identified in this period indicate that the region of El-Kala most probably played the role of a refugium for this tree. PMID:20965444

Benslama, Mohamed; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Guiter, Frédéric; Reille, Maurice; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Migliore, Jérémy; Djamali, Morteza

2010-09-22

255

Radial variation in sap flow in five laurel forest tree species in Tenerife, Canary Islands.  

PubMed

Variations in radial patterns of xylem water content and sap flow rate were measured in five laurel forest tree species (Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Persea indica (L.) Spreng., Myrica faya Ait., Erica arborea L. and Ilex perado Ait. ssp. platyphylla (Webb & Berth.) Tutin) growing in an experimental plot at Agua García, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Measurements were performed around midday during warm and sunny days by the heat field deformation method. In all species, water content was almost constant (around 35% by volume) over the whole xylem cross-sectional area. There were no differences in wood color over the whole cross-sectional area of the stem in most species with the exception of E. arborea, whose wood became darker in the inner layers. Radial patterns of sap flow were highly variable and did not show clear relationships with tree diameter or species. Sap flow occurred over the whole xylem cross-sectional area in some species, whereas it was limited to the outer xylem layers in others. Sap flow rate was either similar along the xylem radius or exhibited a peak in the outer part of the xylem area. Low sap flow rates with little variation in radial pattern were typical for shaded suppressed trees, whereas dominant trees exhibited high sap flow rates with a peak in the radial pattern. Stem damage resulted in a significant decrease in sap flow rate in the outer xylem layers. The outer xylem is more important for whole tree water supply than the inner xylem because of its larger size. We conclude that measurement of radial flow pattern provides a reliable method of integrating sap flow from individual measuring points to the whole tree. PMID:12651490

Jiménez, M. Soledad; Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Cermák, Jan; Morales, Domingo

2000-11-01

256

Valuation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Erica species native to Turkey.  

PubMed

Erica L. species (Ericaceae) have been popularly used as antirheumatic, diuretic, astringent and treatment of urinary infections. In order to evaluate this information, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of different extracts prepared with methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water from the aerial parts of Erica arborea L., Erica manipuliflora Salisb., Erica bocquetii (Pe?men) P.F. Stevens and Erica sicula Guss. subsp. libanotica (C.&W. Barbey) P.F. Stevens (Ericaceae) of Turkish origin were investigated by using in vivo methods. For the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model, PGE(2)-induced hind paw edema model, and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema model and for the antinociceptive activity p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test in mice were employed. The ethyl acetate extracts of Erica arborea (EAE), Erica bocquetii (EBE) and Erica manipuliflora (EME) exhibited notable inhibition against carrageenan-induced (24.1-32.3%, 23.8-36.1%, 29.2-35.1%, respectively) and PGE(2)-induced (21.2-37.7%, 6.8-29.7%, and 6.2-34.1%, respectively) hind paw edema as well as TPA-induced mouse ear edema models in mice, while the ethyl acetate extract of Erica sicula subsp. libanotica (ESE) (10.7-29.7%) displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity only on the PGE(2)-induced hind paw edema model. However, the remaining extracts were found to be inactive against inflammatory models. Same extracts, i.e., EAE, EBE and EME were also found to exhibit remarkable antinociceptive activity in p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test at a dose of 100mg/kg (46.5%, 27.7% and 36.3%, respectively). PMID:18164152

Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Ye?ilada, Erdem; Güvenç, Aysegül

2007-11-22

257

Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning.  

PubMed

Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m(2)), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments. PMID:22286321

Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Angel; Moreno, José M

2012-01-30

258

Non-Invasive Measurement of Frog Skin Reflectivity in High Spatial Resolution Using a Dual Hyperspectral Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Most spectral data for the amphibian integument are limited to the visible spectrum of light and have been collected using point measurements with low spatial resolution. In the present study a dual camera setup consisting of two push broom hyperspectral imaging systems was employed, which produces reflectance images between 400 and 2500 nm with high spectral and spatial resolution and a high dynamic range. Methodology/Principal Findings We briefly introduce the system and document the high efficiency of this technique analyzing exemplarily the spectral reflectivity of the integument of three arboreal anuran species (Litoria caerulea, Agalychnis callidryas and Hyla arborea), all of which appear green to the human eye. The imaging setup generates a high number of spectral bands within seconds and allows non-invasive characterization of spectral characteristics with relatively high working distance. Despite the comparatively uniform coloration, spectral reflectivity between 700 and 1100 nm differed markedly among the species. In contrast to H. arborea, L. caerulea and A. callidryas showed reflection in this range. For all three species, reflectivity above 1100 nm is primarily defined by water absorption. Furthermore, the high resolution allowed examining even small structures such as fingers and toes, which in A. callidryas showed an increased reflectivity in the near infrared part of the spectrum. Conclusion/Significance Hyperspectral imaging was found to be a very useful alternative technique combining the spectral resolution of spectrometric measurements with a higher spatial resolution. In addition, we used Digital Infrared/Red-Edge Photography as new simple method to roughly determine the near infrared reflectivity of frog specimens in field, where hyperspectral imaging is typically difficult.

Liebisch, Frank; Walter, Achim; Greven, Hartmut; Rascher, Uwe

2013-01-01

259

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Methyl Angolensate and Luteolin-7-O-glucoside Isolated from Callus Cultures of Soymida febrifuga  

PubMed Central

Soymida febrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. is an indigenous lofty deciduous medicinal tree, monotypic genus endemic to India. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Soymida febrifuga root callus were tested for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity. Among them, ethyl acetate extract was found to be most effective, which on subjection to silica gel column chromatography led to the separation and isolation of methyl angolensate and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Structures were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Liquid Chromatographic Mass Spectroscopic methods. Further studies indicated that methyl angolensate and luteolin-7-O-glucoside had an anti-bacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium, respectively. In addition to that methyl angolensate had an anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger while luteolin-7-O-glucoside inhibited Alternaria alternata.

Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Mohammed, Arifullah; Dampuri, Gayathri; Ghanta, Rama Gopal; Raghavan, Sathees C.

2007-01-01

260

Spring precipitation variations over the western Himalaya, India, since A.D. 1731 as deduced from tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spring precipitation, representative of regional-scale features, was reconstructed since A.D. 1731 using 15 site ring width chronologies of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lambert) G. Don), prepared from distantly located moisture-stressed sites in the western Himalayan region. This is so far the strongest tree-ring-based precipitation reconstruction in terms of variance explained in the calibration model (A.D. 1897-1986) from the western Himalayan region. The twentieth century experienced the driest and wettest years in the whole reconstructed series. The 10- and 20-year means also indicate extreme precipitation periods in the twentieth century. The increasing precipitation trend noticed in the reconstructed data of the late twentieth century closely matches with instrumental data.

Singh, Jayendra; Yadav, Ram R.

2005-01-01

261

Tree-ring-based hydrological records for western Himalaya, India, since a.d. 1560  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed 565 increment cores from 325 Himalayan cedar [ Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don] trees growing at 13 moisture-stressed, widely distributed sites in the western Himalayan region. We found a strong positive relationship between our tree-ring width chronologies and spring precipitation which enabled us to reconstruct precipitation back to a.d. 1560. This reconstruction is so far the longest in this region. The calibration model explains 40% variance in the instrumental data (1953-1997). The most striking feature of the reconstruction is the unprecedented increase in precipitation during the late twentieth century relative to the past 438 years. Both wet and dry springs occurred during the Little Ice Age. A 10-year running mean showed that the driest period occurred in the seventeenth century while the wettest period occurred in the twentieth century. Spectral analysis of the reconstructed series indicated a dominant 2-year periodicity.

Singh, Jayendra; Park, Won-Kyu; Yadav, Ram R.

2006-02-01

262

Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae)  

PubMed Central

Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species.

Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

2011-01-01

263

Antioxidant activity in the extracts of two edible aroids.  

PubMed

Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC(50) values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC(50) values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198

Mandal, P; Misra, T K; Singh, I D

2010-01-01

264

Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae).  

PubMed

Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species. PMID:21738554

Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

2011-02-20

265

Screening of 25 compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species for anti-human hepatitis B virus in vitro.  

PubMed

Using an HBV-producing cell line and inhibition of the expression of the HBsAg and HBeAg as antiviral indicators, a study was conducted on 25 compounds isolated from four Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) plants, including P. amarus Schum. & Thonn., P. multi florus Willd., P. tenellus Roxb. and P. virgatus Forst. f. It was found that niranthin (1), nirtetralin (3), hinokinin (5) and geraniin (13) at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 50 micro m, suppressed effectively both HBsAg and HBeAg expression, with the highest inhibition at 74.3%, 45.3%; 69.6%, 33.9%; 68.1%, 52.3%; 32.1%, 46.6%, respectively. Of these, niranthin (1) showed the best anti-HBsAg activity, while the most potent anti-HBeAg activity was observed with hinokinin (5). PMID:12748977

Huang, Ray-Ling; Huang, Yu-Ling; Ou, Jun-Chih; Chen, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Chang, Chungming

2003-05-01

266

The triterpenoid fraction from Trichosanthes dioica root suppresses experimentally induced inflammatory ascites in rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English, is a dioecious climber found wild throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent and traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes. Objective: The present study evaluated the protective effect of the triterpenoid enriched fraction from T. dioica root (CETD) against experimentally induced acute inflammatory ascites in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: The CETD was administered orally at the different doses (25, 50 and 100?mg/kg body weight) to overnight fasted rats, and then ascites was induced by intraperitoneal administration of formalin solution. After 7?h, the rats were sacrificed and the volume of ascitic fluid was measured. Results: The CETD demonstrated significant (p?

Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

2013-07-16

267

Physiological Studies with Isolated Leaf Cells  

PubMed Central

A number of plants have been surveyed with respect to isolation by mild grinding in large quantities of leaf cells. The extent of recovery of mesophyll cells per unit leaf area was found to vary with plant species and the method of grinding. Greater than 70% recovery was obtained from the leaves of Canna indica L., Crotalaria Laburnifolia L., and Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. By pulse-chase time course experiments, the photosynthetically fixed primary carbon compounds of bean leaf cells were not converted into the ethanol-insoluble fraction. About 25% of total 14C-photoassimilates were found to leak out into the incubation medium. In contrast, Euglena and Chlorella cells incorporated their primary photosynthetic products into cellular macromolecules and the amount of “leak” was very little. 14C-Leucine supplied to the bean cells was absorbed readily and incorporated into the trichloroacetic acid insoluble fraction. Images

Kulandaivelu, G.; Gnanam, A.

1974-01-01

268

Antitumour effect of Diospyros cordifolia bark on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. (Ebenaceae), commonly known as Indian ebony, is used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In this study, the methanol extract of D. cordifolia bark (MEDC) was evaluated for its antitumour effect against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumour (EAC) cells in mice, MEDC was administered intraperitoneally at 25 and 50?mg kg?¹ bodyweight for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed to determine the tumour volume, viable and non-viable tumour cell counts, and rest were kept alive for the assessment of median survival time and increase in life span. Haematological profiles were also determined. MEDC exhibited a marked decrease in tumour growth parameters and increased the survival rate of EAC-bearing animals. MEDC normalised the haematological parameters as compared with the EAC control mice. Therefore, this study demonstrated that D. cordifolia bark possessed remarkable antitumour efficacy. PMID:21985607

Das, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Pramanik, Goutam; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

2011-10-10

269

Effect of the aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha stems on the immediate hypersensitivity reactions.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of the aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. (Thymelaeaceae) on the immediate hypersensitivity reactions. The aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha stems showed inhibitory effects on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, anaphylaxis induced by compound 48/80, and histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). The morphological examination also clearly showed that the extract prevented the degranulation of RPMC in rats. The level of compound 48/80-induced intracellular cAMP in RPMC, when the extract was added, significantly increased about 8-fold at 10 s compared with that of basal cells. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha stems inhibits the immediate hypersensitivity reaction by inhibition of histamine release from mast cells. PMID:9324002

Kim, Y C; Lee, E H; Lee, Y M; Kim, H K; Song, B K; Lee, E J; Kim, H M

1997-09-01

270

Assessment of neuropharmacological activities of Pandanus foetidus (Pandanaceae) in mice.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the leaves of Pandanus foetidus Roxb. (Pandanaceae) was assessed for neuropharmacological activities in mice using a number of experimental models. The extract dose-dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing in mice when given at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. At the same dose levels, it significantly prolonged the pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time in mice, and showed mild to moderate central nervous system depressant activity when assessed by the hole cross and the open field tests in mice model. On the basis of these findings, it can be assumed that the extract exerts its depressant effect on the central nervous system in mice by interfering with the cortical function. PMID:16649557

Uddin, S J; Shilpi, J A; Rahman, M T; Ferdous, M; Rouf, R; Sarker, S D

2006-04-01

271

Essential oil yield and chemical composition changes during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii var. motia).  

PubMed

Changes in leaf biomass yield, essential oil yield, and chemical composition were investigated during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa {Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. var. motia Burk., family Poaceae}. Eleven leaves representing different developmental stages, serially numbered from the apex to the base of the plant were utilized for the study. Leaf biomass yield increased up to the eighth leaf. Essential oil recovery increased up to the third leaf; thereafter it decreased. Minimum essential oil recovery was observed in the eleventh leaf. Essential oil yield/leaf increased up to the sixth leaf. Essential oil yield and concentrations of linalool, alpha-terpineol, geranyl isobutyrate and geraniol were relatively higher in the essential oils of mature, older leaves. Essential oil recovery, and percentages of myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, geranyl acetate, (E,Z) farnesol and geranyl hexanoate were higher in the essential oils of young, expanding leaves. PMID:21299128

Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara; Rajput, Dharmendra K; Patel, Rajendra P; Purnanand, Somasi

2010-12-01

272

Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation  

PubMed Central

This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

2012-01-01

273

Cellulose of Salicornia brachiata.  

PubMed

Cellulose was extracted from the roots, stems and stem tips of Salicornia brachiata Roxb. Each crude cellulose sample obtained was fractionated into alpha- and beta-celluloses. The yields of crude cellulose from the stems and stem tips were greatest and lowest, respectively, while the yields of alpha- and beta-celluloses were in the order, roots > stems > stem tips. The cellulose samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid state cross polarisation magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP/MAS 13C NMR), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The data were compared with those of the celluloses (predominantly alpha-cellulose) isolated from Whatman filter paper No. 4 (WFP). PMID:20433080

Sanandiya, Naresh D; Prasad, Kamalesh; Meena, Ramavatar; Siddhanta, Arup K

2010-04-01

274

Fog reduces transpiration in tree species of the Canarian relict heath-laurel cloud forest (Garajonay National Park, Spain).  

PubMed

The ecophysiologic role of fog in the evergreen heath-laurel 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands has not been unequivocally demonstrated, although it is generally assumed that fog water is important for the survival and the distribution of this relict paleoecosystem of the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. To determine the role of fog in this ecosystem, we combined direct transpiration measurements of heath-laurel tree species, obtained with Granier's heat dissipation probes, with micrometeorological and artificial fog collection measurements carried out in a 43.7-ha watershed located in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain) over a 10-month period. Median ambient temperature spanned from 7 to 15 degrees C under foggy conditions whereas higher values, ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C, were registered during fog-free periods. Additionally, during the periods when fog water was collected, global solar radiation values were linearly related (r2=0.831) to those under fog-free conditions, such that there was a 75+/-1% reduction in median radiation in response to fog. Fog events greatly reduced median diurnal tree transpiration, with rates about 30 times lower than that during fog-free conditions and approximating the nighttime rates in both species studied (the needle-like leaf Erica arborea L. and the broadleaf Myrica faya Ait.). This large decrease in transpiration in response to fog was independent of the time of the day, tree size and species and micrometeorological status, both when expressed on a median basis and in cumulative terms for the entire 10-month measuring period. We conclude that, in contrast to the turbulent deposition of fog water droplets on the heath-laurel species, which may be regarded as a localized hydrological phenomenon that is important for high-altitude wind-exposed E. arborea trees, the cooler, wetter and shaded microenvironment provided by the cloud immersion belt represents a large-scale effect that is crucial for reducing the transpirational water loss of trees that have profligate water use, such as those of the 'laurisilva'. PMID:19203969

Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos M; Aschan, Guido

2009-01-20

275

Herbivory in a Mediterranean forest: browsing impact and plant compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compensatory response of plants to defoliation is likely to have important effects on plant-ungulate equilibria in forested ecosystems. We investigated the responses of six species of Mediterranean bushes to defoliation by wild ungulates, comparing an index of browsing impact with the productivity of plants in both open and exclusion plots. The data revealed a great diversity of plant responses to herbivory: Rubus ulmifolius was able to over-compensate and replace the lost tissues. Phillyrea latifolia exhibited a similar, albeit less evident, pattern, while Cistus salvifolius was severely damaged by browsing. Other species, such as Quercus ilex, Juncus acutus and Erica arborea, were not attacked to a large extent and suffered little or no harm. The results strongly suggest that Mediterranean ecosystems may tolerate large stocking rates of ungulates. However, the reduction of plant biomass due to browsing was very different in the six studied species, suggesting that when herbivory becomes severe the structure of the ecosystem will change with the more tolerant plants becoming more abundant. We can apply these results to improve management and conservation of relict coastal forests in the Mediterranean basin which are usually of small size and where decision-makers have to compromise between the conservation of plants and that of large mammals.

Focardi, Stefano; Tinelli, Aleandro

2005-11-01

276

[Food habits of the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Nanchititla Natural Park, Mexico].  

PubMed

White-tailed deer is a species with a large behavioral plasticity and adaptation to different habitats, including their food habits. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the food habits of this species in the cloud (BMM) and pine-oak (BPE) forests. Deer scats and plant samples were obtained following standard methods, from Sierra Nanchititla Park in the State of Mexico, from June 1990 to May 1992. A total of 104 deer pellet-groups were collected, and histological analysis for herbivores was used and compared with stock samples of plant tissues collected from the study area. We applied the Spearman correlation and Morisita index to determine alimentary preference. The results showed that the deer consumes 79.44% of plant species from BMM and 20.56% of the BPE. There is a selectivity tendency for 12 of the 14 plant species located in the BMM, while for BPE no tendency was observed. Key species that are part of the elemental diet of the deer in these areas were: Acalypha setosa, Smilax pringlei, Psidium sartorianum and Dendropanax arborea. The consumption of plants did not differ significantly between the dry and rainy seasons in terms of biological form, however, during the dry season there is a tendency to consume trees, and by the end of the rainy season to consume herbs. The data indicate that the deer can be selective with BMM plants, while for the BPE tends to be opportunistic. PMID:23894977

Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Ramírez-Pulido, José; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; López, Georgina Isabel García; Janczur, Mariusz

2013-03-01

277

Genetic erosion in wild populations makes resistance to a pathogen more costly.  

PubMed

Populations that have suffered from genetic erosion are expected to exhibit reduced average trait values or decreased variation in adaptive traits when experiencing periodic or emergent stressors such as infectious disease. Genetic erosion may consequentially modify the ability of a potential host population to cope with infectious disease emergence. We experimentally investigate this relationship between genetic variability and host response to exposure to an infectious agent both in terms of susceptibility to infection and indirect parasite-mediated responses that also impact fitness. We hypothesized that the deleterious consequences of exposure to the pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) would be more severe for tadpoles descended from European treefrog (Hyla arborea) populations lacking genetic variability. Although all exposed tadpoles lacked detectable infection, we detected this relationship for some indirect host responses, predominantly in genetically depleted animals, as well as an interaction between genetic variability and pathogen dose on life span during the postmetamorphic period. Lack of infection and a decreased mass and postmetamorphic life span in low genetic diversity tadpoles lead us to conclude that genetic erosion, while not affecting the ability to mount effective resistance strategies, also erodes the capacity to invest in resistance, increased tadpole growth rate, and metamorphosis relatively simultaneously. PMID:22671558

Luquet, Emilien; Garner, Trenton W J; Léna, Jean-Paul; Bruel, Christophe; Joly, Pierre; Lengagne, Thierry; Grolet, Odile; Plénet, Sandrine

2012-02-14

278

A New Name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian Coral Formerly Known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)  

SciTech Connect

A Hawaiian species of antipatharian coral previously identified as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766, is described as Antipathes griggi Opresko, n. sp. The species forms tall, bushy colonies with elongate, upright terminal branches, often arranged uniserially. Spines are conical, mostly 0.20 to 0.26 mm tall, apically bifurcated, multilobed to jagged in appearance, and covered over most of their surface with small roundish to elongate papillae. Minute secondary spines may occur on some of the thicker branches. Polyps are 1 to 1.6 mm in transverse diameter. The species resembles A. fruticosa Gray in branching pattern, size of spines, and presence of secondary spines but differs in morphology and density of the spines (thicker, more crowded primary spines and fewer secondary spines in A. griggi). Other related species differ from A. griggi in having more widely spreading and irregularly arranged branches, no secondary spines, and either smaller spines with fewer apical lobes (A. curvata van Pesch, A. arborea Dana, and A. galapagensis Deichmann) or larger spines with the apical lobes arranged in a somewhat coronate pattern [A. spinulosa (Schultze) and A. lentipinna Brook].

Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL

2009-04-01

279

Arbutin content and antioxidant activity of some Ericaceae species.  

PubMed

Quantitative analyses and investigation of antioxidant activity of herb and dry ethanolic extracts of five species from Ericaceae family (Arbutus unedo L., Bruckentalia spiculifolia Rchb., Calluna vulgaris Salisb., Erica arborea L. and Erica carnea L.) were performed. Total polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically and arbutin content was measured both spectrophotometrically and by HPLC coupled with DAD detection. Antioxidative properites of the ethanolic extracts were tested by means of FRAP (total antioxidant capacity), lipid peroxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A significant amount of arbutin was detected only in Arbutus unedo. All samples investigated showed excellent antioxidant activity. The best inhibition of lipid peroxidation has been shown by Bruckentalia spiculifolia herb extract (62.5 microg/ml; more than 95%), which contained the highest amount of flavonoids (11.79%). The highest scavenging activity was obtained with leave extract of Arbutus unedo (IC50 = 7.14 microg/ml). The leaves of A. unedo contained a small amount of flavonoids but high content of non-tannins polyphenols. PMID:19947168

Pavlovi?, R D; Lakusi?, B; Doslov-Kokorus, Z; Kovacevi?, N

2009-10-01

280

Impacts of direct human activity and climate change on north Ethiopian mountain landscapes over 140 Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on recent environmental change in tropical areas are generally conducted over limited time scales. This study makes a multi-scale assessment over a time span of 140 years, in one of the world's most degraded areas: the highlands of Northern Ethiopia. 300 landscapes, pictured on historical photographs, starting 1868, were re-photographed and environmental changes apparent on the paired photographs were analysed through expert rating. General tendencies appearing include an improved vegetation cover nowadays as compared to any period of the last 140 years, with a second optimum in the early 20th century. In the uppermost areas (above 3500 m a.s.l.) an upward shift of the upper tree line (Erica arborea) is observed, demonstrating that global warming takes also place in this region. At lower elevations, increased vegetation cover is the result of 25 years of intense rehabilitation activities. Physical soil and water conservation follows the same trend. Regional variations occurring in these trends are observed and discussed. The findings are substantiated by field investigations. The positive changes that result from these conservation activities in the north Ethiopian highlands are an issue of global concern as they show that (1) in our study area direct human impact on the environment is overriding and (2) severe land degradation should not always be irreversible.

Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Hurni, Hans; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Ritler, Alfons; Crummey, Donald; Nievergelt, Bernhard; Moeyersons, Jan; Munro, Neil

2010-05-01

281

Seasonal patterns of terpene content and emission from seven Mediterranean woody species in field conditions.  

PubMed

The seasonal pattern of terpene content and emission by seven Mediterranean woody species was studied under field conditions. Emission rates were normalized at 30°C and 1000 ?mol·m·s PFD (photosynthetic photon flux density). Bupleurum fruticosum, Pinus halepensis, and Cistus albidus stored large amounts of terpenes (0.01-1.77% [dry matter]) with maximum values in autumn and minimum values in spring. They emitted large amounts of terpenes (2-40 ?g·g DM·h), but with no clear seasonal trend except for Cistus albidus, which had maximum values in spring and minimum values in autumn. The nonstoring species Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, Quercus coccifera and Quercus ilex also emitted large amounts of terpenes (0-40 ?g·g DM·h) and also tended to present maximum emission rates in spring, although this trend was significant only for A. unedo. At the seasonal scale, emission rates did not follow changes in photosynthetic rates; instead, they mostly followed changes in temperature. From autumn to spring, the least volatile monoterpenes such as limonene were emitted at highest rates, whereas the most volatile monoterpenes such as ?-pinene and ?-pinene were the most emitted in summer. The monoterpene emission rates represented a greater percentage of the photosynthetic carbon fixation in summer (from 0.51% in Arbutus unedo to 5.64% in Quercus coccifera) than in the rest of the seasons. All these seasonality trends must be considered when inventorying and modeling annual emission rates in Mediterranean ecosystems. PMID:10636836

Llusià, J; Peñuelas, J

2000-01-01

282

Facilitated establishment of Quercus ilex in shrub-dominated communities within a Mediterranean ecosystem: do mycorrhizal partners matter?  

PubMed

Positive plant-plant interaction is a widespread phenomenon, especially in harsh environments, which can contribute to secondary successions. Here, we investigated whether Arbutus unedo positively influences Quercus ilex establishment in shrub communities by abiotic and/or biotic interactions in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem, where we previously showed that A. unedo and Q. ilex share numerous species of mycorrhizal fungi. In a first field experiment, patterns of Q. ilex survivorship were documented. During the summer following germination, a majority of seedlings survived in A. unedo chaparral (AU), whereas most of them died in previous succession stages dominated by Erica arborea (EA). These results showed that survival of the Q. ilex seedling is succession stage dependent, probably due to the differential effects of the summer drought. In a second experiment, Q. ilex seedlings were used as bait plants to investigate the mycorrhizal inoculum in EA and AU. Morphotyping and molecular typing revealed 2.5 times higher colonization in AU than in EA, with more diverse fungi. Our results demonstrate that A. unedo facilitates mycorrhization of Q. ilex by hosting compatible ectomycorrhizal symbionts and positively influences seedling survival by buffering abiotic conditions. A comprehensive understanding of facilitation should thus include investigations of the soil biological patterns. PMID:19175678

Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Gardes, Monique

2009-01-22

283

Local variation in the distribution of benthic megafauna species associated with cold-water coral reefs on the Norwegian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability in the mix of species making up Cold-water coral reef communities is not well known. In this study abundances of a selection of megafauna (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata, Paragorgia arborea, Primnoa resedaeformis, Mycale lingua, Geodia baretti, Acesta excavata and fish) were quantified throughout 9 manned submersible video transects from 3 reef complexes (Røst Reef, Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef) on the Norwegian margin. Substrate type (coral structure, rubble, exposed hardground or soft sediment) was also recorded. Variations in the densities of these fauna (with respect to both reef complex and substrate type) were investigated, with spatial covariance between species assessed.For the majority of fauna investigated, densities varied by both reef and substrate. Spatial covariance indicated that some species may be utilising similar habitat niches, but that minor environmental differences may favour colonisation by one or other at a particular reef. Fish densities were generally higher in regions with biogenic substrate (coral structure and coral rubble substrates) than in areas of soft or hardground substrate. Further, fish were more abundant at the northerly Sotbakken Reef at time of study than elsewhere. Community structure varied by reef, and therefore management plans aimed at maintaining the biodiversity of reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin should take this lack of homogeneity into account.

Purser, Autun; Orejas, Covadonga; Gori, Andrea; Tong, Ruiju; Unnithan, Vikram; Thomsen, Laurenz

2013-02-01

284

Declining foliar and litter ?¹?N diverge from soil, epiphyte and input ?¹?N along a 120,000 yr temperate rainforest chronosequence.  

PubMed

Patterns in the natural abundance of nitrogen (N) isotopes (¹?N and ¹?N) can help in the understanding of ecosystem processes along environmental gradients, because some processes fractionate against the heavier isotope. We measured ?¹?N in many components of the Franz Josef soil chronosequence in New Zealand to see how each component varied along the sequence and within sites, and to see what this variation can tell us about how ecosystem processes such as N losses change with soil age. We analyzed ?¹?N in foliage from 18 woody species, abscised leaves from seven woody species, three soil horizons, bryophytes, lichens, bulk deposition, and nodules from the N-fixing tree Coriaria arborea (Coriariaceae). Foliar ?¹?N varied significantly across plant species. Foliage and bulk litter became ¹?N-depleted as soil age increased. Soil N from organic and mineral horizons was significantly more ¹?N-enriched than bulk litter N at each site. Increasing precipitation also decreased foliar and soil ?¹?N. Comparing input and whole ecosystem ?¹?N revealed limited evidence for net fractionation during N losses. These trends are consistent with some combination of increasing fractionation during plant N uptake, mycorrhizal transfer, within-plant processing, and soil decomposition as soils age. PMID:21272006

Menge, Duncan N L; Troy Baisden, W; Richardson, Sarah J; Peltzer, Duane A; Barbour, Margaret M

2011-01-27

285

Ever-Young Sex Chromosomes in European Tree Frogs  

PubMed Central

Non-recombining sex chromosomes are expected to undergo evolutionary decay, ending up genetically degenerated, as has happened in birds and mammals. Why are then sex chromosomes so often homomorphic in cold-blooded vertebrates? One possible explanation is a high rate of turnover events, replacing master sex-determining genes by new ones on other chromosomes. An alternative is that X-Y similarity is maintained by occasional recombination events, occurring in sex-reversed XY females. Based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, we estimated the divergence times between European tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia, and H. molleri) to the upper Miocene, about 5.4–7.1 million years ago. Sibship analyses of microsatellite polymorphisms revealed that all three species have the same pair of sex chromosomes, with complete absence of X-Y recombination in males. Despite this, sequences of sex-linked loci show no divergence between the X and Y chromosomes. In the phylogeny, the X and Y alleles cluster according to species, not in groups of gametologs. We conclude that sex-chromosome homomorphy in these tree frogs does not result from a recent turnover but is maintained over evolutionary timescales by occasional X-Y recombination. Seemingly young sex chromosomes may thus carry old-established sex-determining genes, a result at odds with the view that sex chromosomes necessarily decay until they are replaced. This raises intriguing perspectives regarding the evolutionary dynamics of sexually antagonistic genes and the mechanisms that control X-Y recombination.

Lindtke, Dorothea; Sermier, Roberto; Betto-Colliard, Caroline; Dufresnes, Christophe; Bonjour, Emmanuel; Dumas, Zoe; Luquet, Emilien; Maddalena, Tiziano; Sousa, Helena Clavero; Martinez-Solano, Inigo; Perrin, Nicolas

2011-01-01

286

Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.  

PubMed

The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

2013-01-01

287

Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis)  

PubMed Central

At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug ‘Nityananda Rasa’ 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was found significant in Gr. III and non-significant in Gr. I and Gr. II.

Prasad, Goli Penchala; Naidu, M. L.

2012-01-01

288

Effect of herbal molluscicides and their combinations on the reproduction of the snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

Effects of sublethal treatment (20 and 60% of LC50/24 h) of the plant-derived molluscicides Annona squamosa Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn. and their combinations with other herbal molluscicides, such as Cedrus deodara Roxb, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, bulb powder of Allium sativum Linn. and Polianthes tuberosa Linn., and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Rosc., and acetogenins extracted from the seeds of A. squamosa Linn., on the reproduction of the snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the plant-derived molluscicides singly and in binary combinations with other herbal molluscicides and the extracted acetogenins caused a significant reduction in the fecundity, hatchability, and survival of young snails. Withdrawal of the snails to fresh water after the above treatment caused a significant recovery in the fecundity of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Twenty-four-hour sublethal treatment with the acetogenins caused a maximum reduction in the protein, amino acid, DNA, and RNA in the ovotestis of treated Lymnaea acuminata. PMID:15253044

Singh, Amrita; Singh, D K

2004-05-01

289

Retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity in Thai herbs and spices: screening with Moloney murine leukemia viral enzyme.  

PubMed

Fifty-seven Thai herbs and spices were examined for their retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. All herbs and spices were extracted with hot-water and methanol. Reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity of the extracts was determined by using Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus reverse transcriptase (M-MuLV-RT) reacted with 3H-dTTP and radioactivity measured with a scintillation counter. Eighty-one per cent (46/57) of hot-water extracts and 54% (31/57) of methanol extracts showed inhibitory activities. At a concentration of 125 micrograms/ml, 13% (6/46) of hot-water extracts, namely Eugenia caryophyllus Bullock et Harrison, Phyllanthus urinaria Linn., Terminalia belerica Roxb., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Psidium guajava Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn., had a relative inhibitory ratio (IR) over 50%. They showed ratios of 100%, 91%, 75%, 74%, 61% and 60%, respectively. For methanol extracts, only 10% (3/31) had IR values over 50%. They were T. belerica, E. caryophyllus and N. nucifera which exhibited IR values of 83%, 54% and 54%, respectively. PMID:7524165

Suthienkul, O; Miyazaki, O; Chulasiri, M; Kositanont, U; Oishi, K

1993-12-01

290

Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and various extracts of fruits of greater cardamom.  

PubMed

Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Bari ilaichi" is a well known plant used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases and disorders like gastric ulcer. Therefore antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extracts from leaves and roots, essential oil and isolated vasicine from A. vasica were tested against various microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity was done by disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition observed was compared with that of standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined against microorganisms used in the study. The results of this study reveal that methanol extract of fruits of A. subulatum shows remarkable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli whereas in case of other microorganisms used it was found inferior to the standard drug used. Methanol extract of rind showed good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that the essential oil isolated was effective against majority of microorganisms used viz. Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:21695005

Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, S

2010-09-01

291

Effects of pig manure and wheat straw on growth of mung bean seedlings grown in aluminium toxicity soil.  

PubMed

Crop production in red soil areas may be limited by Al toxicity. A possible alternative to ameliorate Al toxicity is the application of such organic manure as crop straw and animal manure. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic materials on the alleviation of Al toxicity in acid red soil. Ground wheat straw, pig manure or CaCO3 were mixed with the soil and incubated, at 85% of water holding capacity and 25 degrees C, for 8 weeks. After the incubation, 14 seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus aures Roxb) were allowed to grow for 12 days. Results showed that application of organic material or CaCO3 increased soil pH and decreased soil monomeric inorganic Al concentrations. Growth of mung bean seedling was improved sustantially by the application of organic material or CaCO3. Pig manure or wheat straw was more effective in ameliorating Al toxicity than was CaCO3. Mung bean plants receiving pig manure or wheat straw contained relatively high concentrations of P, Ca and K in their leaves. It is suggested that the beneficial effect of organic manure on mung bean is likely due to decreasing concentrations of monomeric inorganic Al concentrations in soil solution and improvement of mineral nutrition. PMID:11198175

Shen, Q R; Shen, Z G

2001-02-01

292

Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the review also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants and reported during 2001 to 2005. Many kinds of natural products, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and some others, have shown antidiabetic potential. Particularly, schulzeines A, B, and C, radicamines A and B, 2,5-imino-1,2,5-trideoxy-L-glucitol, beta-homofuconojirimycin, myrciacitrin IV, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid (Glucosol), 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose have shown significant antidiabetic activities. Among active medicinal herbs, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae), and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Leguminosae) have been reported as beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:16719780

Jung, Mankil; Park, Moonsoo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kang, Yoon-Ho; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Sang Ki

2006-01-01

293

Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional Chinese medicinal food ingredients in China.  

PubMed

Flavonoids-enriched tissues of citrus such as peel, immature fruit and flower are consumed as culinary seasonings, tea ingredients in China for centuries. This HPLC quantitative study on the five citrus flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, sinensetin and nobiletin on a wide range of Chinese citrus fruits and several Traditional Chinese Medicinal food ingredients in East China, revealed a great diversity in flavonoid composition. Huyou peel (C. paradisi cv. Changshanhuyou) was found to be the best naringin (3.25%) and neohesperidin (2.76%) source; C. aurantium, a major ingredient of several citrus-related TCM, is also a suitable source of naringin and neohesperidin, and a good juice source for flavanone glycosides; the peel of Wenzhoumiju (C. unshiu) is one of the richest local species in hesperidin (up to 6.25%); Zaoju (C. subcompressa) has the highest content of nobiletin (0.59%), a polymethoxylated flavone. LC-ES-MS analysis of Zanthoxylum genus for flavonoids revealed for the first time the presence of significant amounts (0.74%) of hesperidin in the root of Liangmianzhen (Z. nitidum (Roxb.) DC), a relative of Sichuan pepper, which is a spice widely used in China. PMID:16816988

Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Chongwei; Bucheli, Peter; Wei, Dongzhi

2006-07-01

294

A 694-year tree-ring based rainfall reconstruction from Himachal Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed ring-width chronologies of Cedrus deodara [(Roxb.) G. Don] and Pinus gerardiana (Wall. Ex. Lamb) from a homogeneous moisture stressed area in Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh. Running correlation using a 50-year window with overlap of 25 years showed strong correlations between these species chronologies during the entire common period ( ad 1310-2005). Response function analysis indicated that except for January-February, precipitation has a direct relationship with growth of these species. We therefore combined both the species chronologies to develop a statistically calibrated reconstruction of March-July precipitation that spans from ad 1310-2004, and explains 46% of the variance contained in the instrumental data from the calibration period 1951-1994. In the past 694 years of the reconstruction, the wettest period was in the twentieth century (1963-1992) and the driest in the eighteenth century (1773-1802). The relationships observed between reconstructed precipitation and Indian summer monsoon on interdecadal scale, SOI, PDO and NAO indicate the potential utility of such long-term reconstructions in understanding the large-scale climate variability. Multi-taper method (MTM) spectral analysis indicated significant ( p < 0.05) spectral peaks at 2-4, 6, 8, 10, 30, 33, 37 and 40-42 years in the reconstructed precipitation data.

Singh, Jayendra; Yadav, Ram R.; Wilmking, Martin

2009-12-01

295

The leaf essential oils of five Vietnamese Desmos species (Annonaceae).  

PubMed

The leaf essential oils of five Desmos species from Vietnam have been extracted by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analyses. The plant samples were Desmos cochinchinensis Lour., D. penduculosus (A. DC.) Ban, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis Ban, D. chinensis Lour., and D. dumosus (Roxb.) Saff. The oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (65.9%-88.9%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6.3%-30.9%). The oxygenated counterparts were less common. The quantitatively significant constituents of the oils were alpha-pinene (2.4%-12.1%), beta-elemene (2.2-39.5%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9-26.3%), germacrene D (9.9-15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (2.0-11.4%) and alpha-humulene (3.8-7.5%). The studied oils could be classified into two chemical forms: oils with abundance of beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D and alpha-pinene (D. cochinchinensis, D. penducolosus var. tonkinensis, D. chinensis and D. Dumosus) and oil with high amounts of beta-elemene, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D (D. penduculosus). PMID:22474966

Dai, Do Ngoc; Hoi, Tran Minh; Thang, Tran Dinh; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

2012-02-01

296

Effect of astilbin on experimental diabetic nephropathy in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Astilbin, a flavonoid compound, was isolated from the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of astilbin on experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN) in vivo and in vitro and its possible mechanisms. Astilbin was added in high glucose stimulated HK-2 cells, streptozotocin-induced experimental DN, randomized to receive intragastric ( I. G.) astilbin to observe its anti-renal lesion effect. Results showed that astilbin inhibited high glucose stimulated HK-2 cell production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in vitro, especially CTGF; analogic results was also found in vivo. I. G. of astilbin 2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg significantly ameliorated renal function, reduced kidney index, while it increased body weight and survival time in animals. In addition there was no significant difference in blood glucose level between the STZ-treated group and the astilbin groups. Furthermore, astilbin ameliorated the pathological progress of renal morphology. Astilbin can exert an early renal protective role to DN, inhibit production of TGF-beta1 and especially of CTGF. We suggest that astilbin inhibition of CTGF may be a potential target in DN therapy. This work provides the first evidence for astilbin as a new candidate of DN therapeutic medicine. PMID:19644810

Li, Gui-Sheng; Jiang, Wang-Lin; Yue, Xi-Dian; Qu, Gui-Wu; Tian, Jing-Wei; Wu, Juan; Fu, Feng-Hua

2009-06-16

297

A new flavanone isolated from rhizoma smilacis glabrae and the structural requirements of its derivatives for preventing immunological hepatocyte damage.  

PubMed

From the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb., a new flavanone was isolated and named as smitilbin (1), together with 6 known compounds, engeletin (2), astilbin (3), dihydroquercetin (4), eurryphin (5), resveratrol (6), and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (7). These compounds were applied to the assay of liver nonparenchymal cells (NPC) against hepatocytes (HC) isolated from mice with an immunological liver injury. Against the NPC-caused elevation of ALT (alanine transminase) in culture supernatant from HC, the pretreatment of NPC with flavanoids (1-3) dose-dependently blocked the ALT release while 4, the aglycone of 3, did not. The chromone 5 showed a much stronger inhibition. Compound 6 also showed the activity. However, 1-7 did not show any suppression of NPC or CCl4-induced ALT release when they were used to pretreat HC. These results suggest that compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 could protect the hepatocyte damage from NPC through selectively producing the dysfunction of NPC with an essential requirement of rhamnose, and the chromone part in their structures may be critical for exhibiting the activity rather than through protecting the hepatocyte membranes. PMID:10083847

Chen, T; Li, J; Cao, J; Xu, Q; Komatsu, K; Namba, T

1999-02-01

298

Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from mulberry and identification of anthocyanins in extract using HPLC-ESI-MS.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are naturally occurring compounds that impart color to fruits, vegetables, and plants. This study aims to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions of anthocyanins from mulberry (M. atropurpurea Roxb.) using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken experiment was employed in this regard. Methanol concentration, microwave power, and extraction time were chosen as independent variables. The optimized conditions of MAE were as follows: 59.6% acidified methanol, 425 W power, 25 (v/w) liquid-to-solid ratio, and 132 s time. Under these conditions, 54.72 mg anthocyanins were obtained from 1.0 g mulberry powder. Furthermore, 8 anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in mulberry extract. The results showed that cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside are the major anthocyanins in mulberry. In addition, in comparison with conventional extraction, MAE is more rapid and efficient for extracting anthocyanins from mulberry. PMID:22260102

Zou, Tangbin; Wang, Dongliang; Guo, Honghui; Zhu, Yanna; Luo, Xiaoqin; Liu, Fengqiong; Ling, Wenhua

2011-11-10

299

Assessment of local management practices on the population ecology of some medicinal plants in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

A study on the assessment of local management practices on the population of three medicinal plants viz.: Persicaria amplexicaule. D. Don., Valeriana jatamansi Jones and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted during 2002–2004 in the coniferous forest of Northern Parts of Pakistan. The objective of the study was to know the impact of current management practices on the population size of targeted plants. The study showed that the involvement of locals in the gathering of targeted plants varied with the change in elevation. Among the targeted plants V. serpens was collected by large majorities of people (83.3%) at 2700 m followed by 72% at 2300 m and 37% at 1900 m. V. jatamansi was harvested by a small number of people (18.1%) at 1900 and 2300 m each, followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. While P. amplexicaule was harvested by a few collectors (9.1%) at 1900 m and 9.6% at 2300 m followed by 8.3% at 2700 m. The study concluded that these species have been extracted so heavily in the past that they are found now sparsely in some sites of the study area. Secondly, due to loss of its habitat by deforestation and encroachment of land for cultivation its population is on the decline towards extinction. Therefore, the current study recommends the conservation of the remaining populations of targeted plants through active participation of local communities.

Sher, Hassan; Elyemeni, Mohammad; Khan, Abdur Rehman; Sabir, Amjad

2010-01-01

300

Effects of varying concentrations of the crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dalbergia sissoo plant parts on Biomphalaria pfeifferi egg masses.  

PubMed

This study evaluated, using replicated laboratory bioassays, the toxicities of the crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. 1832 (family Leguminosae) fruits, leaves, roots and stem bark against egg masses of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848), the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) in Nigeria. Viable 0-24 hr-old embryonated egg masses were separately exposed to five different concentrations (7.81-2000 mg/l) of extracts for 24 hrs, washed in dechlorinated tap water and incubated at room temperature for a maximum of 4 weeks. The LC(50) and LC(90) values of test extracts for egg masses were calculated by probit analysis. The activities of the tested extracts were concentration-dependent. However, only the ethanolic extract of the fruits demonstrated significant activity (24 hr-LC(90) value < 100 mg/l: 89.29 mg/l). Mortalities of eggs were manifested at the gastrula/exogastrula and or the prehatch snail stage of development. The percentage of dead embryos at the prehatch snail stage decreased while the deaths of embryos at the gastrula/exogastrula stage increased, with increasing concentration of extract. Lethality of the ethanolic extract of D. sissoo fruits to embryonated egg masses of B. pfeifferi is an added advantage to its potential development for use as a plant molluscicide, as the overall efficacy of a molluscicide is greatly enhanced if it also shows significant toxicity towards snail eggs. PMID:20209005

Adenusi, Adedotun A; Odaibo, Alexander B

2009-03-07

301

Nontargeted Identification of the Phenolic and Other Compounds of Saraca asoca by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Positive Electrospray Ionization and Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used for separation and identification of phenolic and other compounds in the water extracts of Saraca asoca (Roxb.), De. Wilde. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the distribution of phenolic compounds in the different parts of the plant. The identity of compounds was established through the comparison with standards and characteristic base peaks as well as other daughter ions. In crude extracts, 34 catechin derivatives, 34 flavonoids, and 17 other compounds were identified. Interestingly, further analysis of compounds showed plant part specific unique pattern of metabolites; that is, regenerated bark is observed to be the best source for catechin/catechin derivative while flowers were found to be the source for wide variety of flavonoids. Moreover, these plant part specific compounds can be used as biomarkers for the identification of plant material or herbal drugs. Overall, the present study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the phenolic components of this herb which may be helpful not only to understand their usage but also to contribute to quality control as well.

Mittal, Ashwani; Kadyan, Preeti; Gahlaut, Anjum

2013-01-01

302

Nitric oxide alleviates arsenic-induced toxic effects in ridged Luffa seedlings.  

PubMed

Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether exogenous addition of nitric oxide (NO) as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates arsenic (As) toxicity in Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. seedlings. Arsenic (5 and 50 ?M) declined growth of Luffa seedlings which was accompanied by significant accumulation of As. SNP (100 ?M) protected Luffa seedlings against As toxicity as it declined As accumulation significantly. The photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Fm/F0 and qP were decreased while NPQ was raised by As. However, the toxic effects of As on photosynthesis were significantly ameliorated by SNP. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As, however, these oxidative indices were diminished significantly in the presence of SNP. As treatment stimulated the activities of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST, and AsA content and AsA/DHA ratio were decreased. Upon SNP addition, along with further rise in SOD and CAT activity, APX and GST activity, and levels of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio were restored considerably. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, APX and GST activities and decreased AsA content, hence led to the oxidative stress. However, the addition of SNP protected seedlings against As stress by regulating As accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23917073

Singh, Vijay Pratap; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

2013-07-16

303

Effects of Rotenoids on Isolated Plant Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The effects of several rotenoids have been studied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber and etiolated mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyls mitochondria. The selective inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is characterized by several tests: (a) no effect can be observed on exogenous NADH or succinate oxidation; (b) malate oxidation is inhibited at pH 7.5; (c) one-third decrease of ADP/O ratio appears during malate oxidation at pH 6.5 or during ?-ketoglutarate, citrate, or pyruvate oxidation at a pH about 7; (d) during malate oxidation at pH 6.5, a transient inhibition appears which can be maintained by addition of exogenous oxaloacetate; (e) in potato mitochondria, the inhibition of malate oxidation disappears at pH 6.5 when NAD+ is added. Then, a one-third decrease of the ADP/O ratio can be measured. Such a selective inhibition of complex I is obtained with deguelin, tephrosin, elliptone, OH-12 rotenone, and almost all the rotenoids extracted from Derris roots. The presence of the rings A, B, C, D, E seems to be necessary for the selective inhibition. Opening of the E ring and hydroxylation of the 9 position (rot-2?-enoic acid) give a rotenoid derivative with multisite inhibitory activities on flavoproteins, which are quite comparable to those of common flavonoids such as kaempferol (Ravanel et al. 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 375-378).

Ravanel, Patrick; Tissut, Michel; Douce, Roland

1984-01-01

304

Comparison of enteroprotective efficacy of triphala formulations (Indian Herbal Drug) on methotrexate-induced small intestinal damage in rats.  

PubMed

Triphala is categorized as a rejuvenator and antioxidant-rich Ayurvedic herbal formulation and has traditionally been used in various gastric problems including intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative enteroprotective effect of Triphala formulations against methotrexate-induced intestinal damage in rats. Triphala formulations were prepared by mixing equal (1:1:1) and unequal (1:2:4) proportions of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Intestinal damage was induced by administering methotrexate (MTX) in a dose of 12 mg/kg, orally for 4 days to albino rats. The intestinal damage response was assessed by gross and microscopical injury, measuring the intestinal permeability to phenol red and tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala equal and unequal formulations at the dose of 540 mg/kg significantly restored the depleted protein level in brush border membrane of intestine, phospholipid and glutathione content and decreased the myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase level in intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats. In addition, Triphala unequal formulation showed significant decrease in permeation clearance of phenol red with significant attenuation in the histopathological changes, level of disaccharidase in brush border membrane vesicles and lipid peroxidation content of intestinal mucosa. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that Triphala unequal formulation provides significantly more protection than Triphala equal formulation against methotrexate-induced damage in rat intestine. PMID:19170156

Nariya, Mukeshkumar; Shukla, Vinay; Jain, Sunita; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

2009-08-01

305

In vitro investigation of 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone for glycemic control.  

PubMed

2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC), a compound isolated and purified from the dried flower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae), was investigated for its glucose control benefits using in vitro methods. DMC showed strong noncompetitive (IC(50) of 43 ?M) inhibition of pancreatic ?-amylase; it was, however, ineffective against intestinal ?-glucosidase. In addition, DMC exhibited remarkable glucose transport inhibition effects in both simulated fasting and fed states in Caco-2 cell monolayers (P < 0.05). Besides, exposure of MIN6 cells to 250 ?M H(2)O(2) for 1 h caused a significant viability loss and insulin secretion reduction. Pretreatment of MIN6 cells with DMC for 2 h protected against the H(2)O(2)-induced decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner and also enhanced the impaired basal insulin secretion. Such effects highlight the therapeutic potential of DMC in the management of hyperglycemia. PMID:23013379

Hu, Ying-Chun; Luo, Ying-Di; Li, Lin; Joshi, Manoj Kumar; Lu, Yan-Hua

2012-10-10

306

Nontargeted Identification of the Phenolic and Other Compounds of Saraca asoca by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Positive Electrospray Ionization and Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used for separation and identification of phenolic and other compounds in the water extracts of Saraca asoca (Roxb.), De. Wilde. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the distribution of phenolic compounds in the different parts of the plant. The identity of compounds was established through the comparison with standards and characteristic base peaks as well as other daughter ions. In crude extracts, 34 catechin derivatives, 34 flavonoids, and 17 other compounds were identified. Interestingly, further analysis of compounds showed plant part specific unique pattern of metabolites; that is, regenerated bark is observed to be the best source for catechin/catechin derivative while flowers were found to be the source for wide variety of flavonoids. Moreover, these plant part specific compounds can be used as biomarkers for the identification of plant material or herbal drugs. Overall, the present study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the phenolic components of this herb which may be helpful not only to understand their usage but also to contribute to quality control as well. PMID:23986876

Mittal, Ashwani; Kadyan, Preeti; Gahlaut, Anjum; Dabur, Rajesh

2013-08-05

307

Genetic diversity in some perennial plant species with-in short distances.  

PubMed

Distinct morphophysiological variations observed for over 2 years with-in short distances among four perennial plants indicated genetic diversity among the lines growing at three places. The isozyme and SDS polyacrylamide gel banding patterns as genetic markers were used to investigate four perennial species, namely Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Delonix regia (Boj.) Refin., Cassia fistula L. and Calotropis procera R. Br. Plant materials collected from three locations (Agra, Gwalior and Lucknow) differing in climo-edaphic variables were examined for 4 enzyme systems, viz., esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (EST, PPO, PRX and SOD). Among the four isozymes SOD and PRX revealed best discriminating power. Protein banding patterns as well as zymogram revealed that Dalbergia sissoo growing at Gwalior was closer to that of Agra; Delonix regia depicted highest similarity between Lucknow and Agra and Calotropis procera of Lucknow location was more closer to Gwalior than Agra. The results confirm genetic diversity in the species as a means of adaptation to differing climo-edaphic variables. PMID:17717991

Pandeya, S C; Chandra, A; Pathak, P S

2007-01-01

308

Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of buagafuran in rats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of buagafuran (BF, 4-butyl-?-agarofuran), a promising antianxiety drug isolated from Gharu-wood (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb), were investigated in rats. BF plasma concentration was determined in rats after oral and intravenous doses by GC-TOF-MS. BF showed nonlinear pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of 4, 16, and 64 mg/kg. The AUC(0-?) and C(max) did not increase proportionally with doses, indicating the saturation in absorption kinetics of BF in rats after oral dosage. BF absorption was extremely poor with an absolute bioavailability below 9.5%. After oral administration of (3)H-BF (4 mg/kg) to rats, radioactivity was well distributed to the tissues examined. The highest radioactivity was found in gastrointestinal tract, followed by liver and kidney. Radioactivity in brain, as a target organ, was about 20-40% of that in plasma at all time points. Total mean percent recovery of radioactive dose was about 80% in rats (51.2% in urine; 28.7% in feces). Bile elimination was also the major excretion route of BF, and 45.4% of the radioactive dose was recovered in bile. PMID:21409681

Hu, Jin-Ping; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Hui; Li, Ya-Wei; Fan, Jiang-Hong; Li, Yan

2011-03-01

309

A critical analysis of the environment impact assessment report of the 2000 MW lower subansiri hydroelectric project with special reference to the down stream ecology and people's livelihood.  

PubMed

The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) report of the 2000 MW Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Project prepared by the WAPCOS (Water and Power Consultancy Service, 2003) indicates that downstream survey was done only up to 7 km from the dam site without giving much importance to the actual scenario and avoiding some most crucial ecological aspects. In the report, insufficient records of terrestrial flora, phytoplanktons and fish diversity are given. No records of aquatic macrophytes, riparian flora, zooplanktons, avian fauna, floodplain crops, besides peoples' livelihood and diverse habitat provided by the river in its downstream are presented in the report. Especially the wetlands, associated and influenced by the unregulated Subansiri River did not find any place in the EIA report. Interestingly, no mention of the Ganges Dolphin--Platanista gangetica gangetica Roxb. could be found in the report, whereas the river provides a healthy habitat for a good number of this critically endangered fresh water dolphin. From our pre-impact study, it is clear that rich downstream ecology of the river with its present and existing environmental scenario will be adversely affected due to the construction and operation of the proposed project, and there will be distinct possibilities of elimination of other native species. In addition, people's livelihood will be affected largely through alteration of the flow regime of the river. In-depth study with comprehensive documentation of all biotic and abiotic parameters is obligatory before taking any decision about the operation of the 2000 MW Lower Subansiri Hydroelectric Project. PMID:23505832

Baruah, Debojit; Dutta, Ranjit; Hazarika, Lakhi Prasad; Sarmah, Sarada Kanta

2011-10-01

310

Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of amblyone isolated from Amorphophallus campanulatus  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of amblyone, a triterpenoid isolated from Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb). Methods: Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal screening. Cytotoxicity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution technique to determine the antibacterial potency. Results: Large zones of inhibition were observed in disc diffusion antibacterial screening against four Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and six Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi). The MIC values against these bacteria ranged from 8 to 64 ?g/ml. In antifungal screening, the compound showed small zones of inhibition against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus aryzae. Candida albicans was resistant against the compound. In the cytotoxicity determination, LC50 of the compound against brine shrimp nauplii was 13.25 ?g/ml. Conclusions: These results suggest that the compound has good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, moderate cytotoxicity against brine shrimp nauplii and insignificant antifungal activity against the tested fungi.

Khan, Alam; Rahman, Moizur; Islam, M.S.

2008-01-01

311

Control of storage protein metabolism in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans: role of endopeptidase.  

PubMed

The autodigestive proteolytic activity of extracts of cotyledons of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) increased 4- to 5-fold during germination. A similar increase was found in the ability of these extracts to digest added casein or mung bean globulins. The increase occurred after a 2-day lag during the next 2 to 3 days of germination and coincided with the period of rapid storage protein breakdown. To understand which enzyme(s) may be responsible for this increase in proteolytic activity, the hydrolytic activity of cotyledon extracts toward a number of synthetic substrates and proteins was measured. Germination was accompanied by a marked decline in leucine aminopeptidase, while carboxypeptidase increased about 50%. There were no dramatic changes in either alpha-mannosidase or N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, enzymes which may be involved in the metabolism of the carbohydrate moieties of the reserve glycoproteins. The increase in general proteolytic activity was closely paralleled by a 10-fold increase in endopeptidase activity. This activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide. Studies with inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes showed that reagents which blocked sulfhydryl groups also inhibited the rise in general proteolytic activity. Our results suggest that the appearance of a sulfhydryl-type endopeptidase activity is a necessary prerequisite for the rapid metabolism of the reserve proteins which accompanies germination. PMID:16659204

Chrispeels, M J; Boulter, D

1975-06-01

312

Chemical constituents and antioxidant and biological activities of the essential oil from leaves of Solanum spirale.  

PubMed

The essential oil of the leaves Solanium spirale Roxb. was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed for the first time using GC and GC-MS. Thirty-nine constituents were identified, constituting 73.36% of the total chromatographical oil components. (E)-Phytol (48.10%), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.34%), beta-selinene (3.67%), alpha-selinene (2.74%), octadecanoic acid (2.12%) and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (2.00%) were the major components of this oil. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. The oil exhibited week antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 41.89 mg/mL. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 43.0 microg/mL and 21.5 microg/mL, respectively. It also showed significant cytotoxicity against KB (oral cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and NCI-H187 (small cell lung cancer) with the IC50 values of 26.42, 19.69, and 24.02 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:22908592

Keawsa-ard, Sukanya; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee; Teerawutgulrag, Aphiwat; Pyne, Stephen G

2012-07-01

313

Biodistribution properties of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B using magnetic resonance imaging in a normal and tumoric animal model  

PubMed Central

Aim: To determine the biodistribution properties of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B in rodents using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Cleistanthins A and B, constituents of Cleistanthus collinus Roxb., were labelled with gadolinium (Gd3+) directly and injected into normal and tumoric nude mice. The tissue signal intensity was measured using MRI to perform a noninvasive kinetic assay. Wistar rats were used for determination of the grayscale intensity to observe the distribution patterns of of cleistanthins A and B. Results: Cleistanthin A is kinetically more attractive to the gastrointestinal tract than is cleistanthin B, which gets accumulated in muscular tissues of mice in greater concentrations compared with cleistanthin A. Cleistanthin B but not cleistanthin A showed tumoric affinity and exhibited a tumor kinetic attraction in tumoric mice. In rats, cleistanthin A showed greater grayscale intensities in the brain, liver, and skeletal muscles in immediate post contrast MRI images, whereas the gadolinium tagged cleistanthin B showed higher grayscale intensities in the cardiac muscle and skeletal muscles in delayed post contrast MRI images. Conclusions: Cleistanthin A is more pharmacokinetically attractive to the gastrointestinal tract than cleistanthin B.

Parasuraman, Subramani; Raveendran, Ramasamy; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Ananthakrishnan, Ramesh; Jabbari-Arabzadeh, Ali; Alavidjeh, Mohammad Shafiee; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Elangovan, Sundararajan; Dhanapathi, Halanaik

2012-01-01

314

Identification and quantitation of the rice aroma compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, in bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze).  

PubMed

The aroma impact compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), has been identified for the first time in headspace of fresh bread flowers (Vallaris glabra Ktze) in which volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) at room temperature prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 50 volatiles were detected. Among these, 23 volatiles were identified, predominantly in a group of terpenes. More volatiles were found in the extract of fresh bread flowers obtained by continuous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDS). Of the 40 volatiles identified, the additional components were mainly straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons. 2AP was found in the extracts obtained by both SPME (0.37%) and SDS (2.71% relative proportion). Quantitative analyses of 2AP in bread flowers and other plant materials were performed by solvent extraction employing acidic solutions and capillary GC with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of 2AP was found in dried flowers of V. glabra at 26.1 mg/kg. By comparison with other plant sources, fresh leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb contain 2AP at 10.3 mg/kg and Thai fragrant rice, Khao Dawk Mali 105, at 3.0 mg/kg. PMID:12517110

Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Sriseadka, Tinakorn; Choonvisase, Suppachai

2003-01-15

315

Tyrosinase inhibitory cycloartane type triterpenoids from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Amberboa ramosa Jafri and their structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

New tyrosinase inhibitory cycloartane triterpenoids have been discovered from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Amberboa ramosa (Roxb.) Jafri, which is a member from the Compositae family. Utilizing the conventional spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR analysis, and also by comparing the experimental with literature data, the isolated compounds proved to be cycloartane type triterpenoids. These cycloartanes are: (22R)-cycloart-20, 25-dien-2alpha3beta22alpha triol (1), (22R)-cycloart-23-ene-3beta, 22alpha, 25-triol (2), cycloartenol (3), cycloart-23-ene-3beta, 25-diol (4), cycloart-20-ene-3beta, 25-diol (5), cycloart-25-ene-3beta, (22R) 22-diol (6), 3beta, 21, 22, 23-tetrahydroxy-cycloart-24 (31), 25 (26)-diene (7), and (23R)-5alpha-cycloart-24-ene-3beta, 21, 23-triol (8). Out of these eight compounds, compound 3 did not show any activity against the enzyme tyrosinase. Among them compound 7 was found to be the most potent (1.32 microM) when compared with the standard tyrosinase inhibitors kojic acid (16.67 microM) and L-mimosine (3.68 microM). Finally in this paper, we have discussed the structure-activity relationships of these molecules. PMID:16202612

Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Ather, Arjumand

2005-10-03

316

Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18975001

Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

2008-10-31

317

Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).  

PubMed

A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae). PMID:17196776

Rodrigues, Eliana

2006-11-26

318

Evaluation of a diospyrin derivative as antileishmanial agent and potential modulator of ornithine decarboxylase of Leishmania donovani.  

PubMed

World health organization has called for academic research and development of new chemotherapeutic strategies to overcome the emerging resistance and side effects exhibited by the drugs currently used against leishmaniasis. Diospyrin, a bis-naphthoquinone isolated from Diospyros montana Roxb., and its semi-synthetic derivatives, were reported for inhibitory activity against protozoan parasites including Leishmania. Presently, we have investigated the antileishmanial effect of a di-epoxide derivative of diospyrin (D17), both in vitro and in vivo. Further, the safety profile of D17 was established by testing its toxicity against normal macrophage cells (IC50?20.7?M), and also against normal BALB/c mice in vivo. The compound showed enhanced activity (IC50?7.2?M) as compared to diospyrin (IC50?12.6?M) against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Again, D17 was tested on L. donovani BHU1216 isolated from a sodium stibogluconate-unresponsive patient, and exhibited selective inhibition of the intracellular amastigotes (IC50?0.18?M). Also, treatment of infected BALB/c mice with D17 at 2mg/kg/day reduced the hepatic parasite load by about 38%. Subsequently, computational docking studies were undertaken on selected enzymes of trypanothione metabolism, viz. trypanothione reductase (TryR) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), followed by the enzyme kinetics, where D17 demonstrated non-competitive inhibition of the L. donovani ODC, but could not inhibit TryR. PMID:23973194

Hazra, Sudipta; Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Sarma, Madhushree Das; Sharma, Smriti; Das, Mousumi; Saudagar, Prakash; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar; Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Hazra, Banasri

2013-08-20

319

A novel aphrodisiac compound from an orchid that activates nitric oxide synthases.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have roles in several crucial biological functions including vasodilation and penile erection. There are neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthases that influence the levels of NO in tissues and blood. NO activates guanylate cyclase and thereby increases the levels of cyclic GMP (cGMP). Viagra (sildenafil), a top selling drug in the world for erectile dysfunction, inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, which hydrolyses cGMP to GMP. Thus, it fosters an NO-mediated increase in the levels of cGMP, which mediates erectile function. Here, we show the aphrodisiac activity of a novel chemical isolate from the flowers of an epiphytic orchid, Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) ex Don, which activates neuronal and endothelial, but not inducible, NO synthases. The aphrodisiac activity is caused by an increase in the level of NO in corpus cavernosum. The drug increases blood levels of NO as early as 30?min after oral administration. The active compound was isolated by column chromatography. Based on the spectral data, the active compound is found to be a new compound, 2,7,7-tri methyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane. We anticipate that our findings could lead to the development of a commercially viable and valuable drug for erectile dysfunction.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 18 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ijir.2013.18. PMID:23595103

Subramoniam, A; Gangaprasad, A; Sureshkumar, P K; Radhika, J; Arun, B K

2013-04-18

320

Inhibition of Apoplastic Calmodulin Impairs Calcium Homeostasis and Cell Wall Modeling during Cedrus deodara Pollen Tube Growth  

PubMed Central

Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most well-studied Ca2+ transducers in eukaryotic cells. It is known to regulate the activity of numerous proteins with diverse cellular functions; however, the functions of apoplastic CaM in plant cells are still poorly understood. By combining pharmacological analysis and microscopic techniques, we investigated the involvement of apoplastic CaM in pollen tube growth of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. It was found that the tip-focused calcium gradient was rapidly disturbed as one of the early events after application of pharmacological agents, while the cytoplasmic organization was not significantly affected. The deposition and distribution of acidic pectins and esterified pectins were also dramatically changed, further perturbing the normal modeling of the cell wall. Several protein candidates from different functional categories may be involved in the responses to inhibition of apoplastic CaM. These results revealed that apoplastic CaM functions to maintain the tip-focused calcium gradient and to modulate the distribution/transformation of pectins during pollen tube growth.

Wang, Li; Lv, Xueqin; Li, Hong; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong; Jin, Biao; Chen, Tong

2013-01-01

321

A Scientific Validation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Attributes of Trichosanthes dioica  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to scientifically validate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) which has been traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. This plant commonly known as “Sespadula” in English has not been explored scientifically so far for its glycemic potential except by our research group. The study was conducted with variable doses on normal, mild, and severe diabetics models, and several biochemical parameters including blood glucose level (BGL) were assessed. Maximum fall in BGL of 23.8% in normal rats and of 31.3% in mild diabetic rats was observed during their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) with the dose of 1000?mg?kg?1. In severely diabetic animals after 4 weeks treatment with FBG, postprandial glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were reduced by 28.7, 30.7, 57.2, and 18.5%, whereas high density lipoprotein, total protein, hemoglobin, and body weight were increased by 33.0, 36.7, 15.7 and 16.7%, respectively. Moreover, urine sugar was reduced from +4 to +1. Thus, the study scientifically validates the traditional use of T. diocia in diabetes management and could be developed as an effective oral agent for treating diabetes mellitus and complications associated with it.

Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Sharad Kumar; Srivastava, Amrita Kumari; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Watal, Geeta

2013-01-01

322

Bioactive compounds, RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics, and antioxidant activity of some Portuguese shrub species extracts.  

PubMed

In the ecosystem of Serra Da Estrela, some plant species have the potential to be used as raw material for extraction of bioactive products. The goal of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents of the methanolic extracts of some shrubs (Echinospartum ibericum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Juniperus communis, Ruscus aculeatus, Rubus ulmifolius, Hakea sericea, Cytisus multiflorus, Crataegus monogyna, Erica arborea and Ipomoea acuminata), and then to correlate the phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity of each extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu's method was used for the determination of total phenols, and tannins were then precipitated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); a colorimetric method with aluminum chloride was used for the determination of flavonoids, and a Dragendorff's reagent method was used for total alkaloid estimation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene bleaching tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity of extracts. The identification of phenolic compounds present in extracts was performed using RP-HPLC. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was observed. The RP-HPLC procedure showed that the most common compounds were ferulic and ellagic acids and quercetin. Most of the studied shrubs have significant antioxidant properties that are probably due to the existence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. It is noteworthy to emphasize that for Echinospartum ibericum, Hakea sericea and Ipomoea acuminata, to the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical studies have been undertaken nor their use in traditional medicine been described. PMID:22312726

Luís, Angelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

2011-12-01

323

Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.  

PubMed

One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

2007-04-20

324

An alternative method to estimate zero flow temperature differences for Granier's thermal dissipation technique.  

PubMed

Calibration of the Granier thermal dissipation technique for measuring stem sap flow in trees requires determination of the temperature difference (DeltaT) between a heated and an unheated probe when sap flow is zero (DeltaT(max)). Classically, DeltaT(max) has been estimated from the maximum predawn DeltaT, assuming that sap flow is negligible at nighttime. However, because sap flow may continue during the night, the maximum predawn DeltaT value may underestimate the true DeltaT(max). No alternative method has yet been proposed to estimate DeltaT(max) when sap flow is non-zero at night. A sensitivity analysis is presented showing that errors in DeltaT(max) may amplify through sap flux density computations in Granier's approach, such that small amounts of undetected nighttime sap flow may lead to large diurnal sap flux density errors, hence the need for a correct estimate of DeltaT(max). By rearranging Granier's original formula, an optimization method to compute DeltaT(max) from simultaneous measurements of diurnal DeltaT and micrometeorological variables, without assuming that sap flow is negligible at night, is presented. Some illustrative examples are shown for sap flow measurements carried out on individuals of Erica arborea L., which has needle-like leaves, and Myrica faya Ait., a broadleaf species. We show that, although DeltaT(max) values obtained by the proposed method may be similar in some instances to the DeltaT(max) predicted at night, in general the values differ. The procedure presented has the potential of being applied not only to Granier's method, but to other heat-based sap flow systems that require a zero flow calibration, such as the Cermák et al. (1973) heat balance method and the T-max heat pulse system of Green et al. (2003). PMID:17472936

Regalado, Carlos M; Ritter, Axel

2007-08-01

325

Comparative field water relations of three Mediterranean shrub species co-occurring at a natural CO(2) vent.  

PubMed

Annual variations in the water relations and stomatal response of Erica arborea, Myrtus communis and Juniperus communis occurring at a natural CO(2) vent were analysed under Mediterranean field conditions. A distinct gradient of CO(2)concentration ([CO(2)]) exists between two sites near a natural CO(2)-emitting vent, with higher [CO(2)] (700 micromol mol(-1)) in the proximity of the CO(2) spring. Plants at the CO(2) spring site have been growing for generations at elevated [CO(2)]. At both sites, maximum leaf conductance was related to predawn shoot water potential. The effects of water deficits during the summer drought were severe. Leaf conductance and water potential recovered after major rainfalls in September to predrought values. Strong relationships between leaf conductance, predawn water potential, and leaf-specific hydraulic resistance are consistent with the role of stomata in regulating plant water status. Considerable between-species variation in sensitivity of water potentials and stomatal characters to elevated [CO(2)] were observed. Common to all the shrubs were a reduction in leaf conductance and an increase in water potentials in response to elevated [CO(2)]. Elevated [CO(2)] decreased the sensitivity of leaf conductance to vapour pressure deficit. Morphological characters (including stomatal density and degree of sclerophylly) showed site-dependent variations, but degree and sign of such changes varied with the species and/or the season. Measurements of discrimination against (13)C provided evidence for long-term decreases of water use efficiency in CO(2) spring plants. Analysis of C isotope composition suggested that a downward adjustment of photosynthetic capacity may have occurred under elevated [CO(2)]. Elevated [CO(2)] effects on water relations and leaf morphology persisted in the long term, but the three shrubs growing in the same environment showed species-specific responses. PMID:10948241

Tognetti, R; Minnocci, A; Peñuelas, J; Raschi, A; Jones, M B

2000-06-01

326

Seasonal patterns of non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOC emission from seven Mediterranean woody species.  

PubMed

The seasonal pattern of non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOC emission by seven Mediterranean woody species (Bupleurum fruticosum, Cistus albidus, Pinus halepensis, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, Quercus coccifera, and Q. ilex) was studied under field conditions. Branch chamber samples were sorbed on carbotrap and analyzed by thermal desorption in combination with GC-MS. These non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOC emissions were large, almost of similar magnitude to those of terpenes. Overall, maximum values were recorded in spring and summer (up to 12 microg g(-1) DM h(-1) in Q. ilex) and minimum values in autumn and winter (up to 5 microg g(-1) DM h(-1) in Q. ilex). These C6-C10 VOC emissions represented 2.82% of the photosynthetic C fixation in summer and 0.22% in winter. Some compounds such as 2-ethoxyethyl acetate were emitted by most species, others such as 3-hexen-1-ol, phenol or decanal were significantly emitted only by few species. The greatest diversity of emitted non-terpenoid C6-C10 VOCs was observed in spring and in Q. ilex. Temperature seemed a strong driver of these seasonal changes but other species-specific and seasonal factors seem involved. These results indicate that C6-C10 non-terpenoid VOCs contribute a rather significant fraction of the total biogenic VOC flux from these Mediterranean species, especially in spring and summer, and therefore should be considered in VOC emission inventories and in model predictions of tropospheric chemistry. PMID:11592412

Peñuelas, J; Llusià, J

2001-10-01

327

Assessment of very long-chain fatty acids as complementary or alternative natural fecal markers to n-alkanes for estimating diet composition of goats feeding on mixed diets.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the use of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) as an alternative or a complement to n-alkane markers for estimation of diet composition of goats fed 7 different diets, composed of different proportions of herbaceous (Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens) and heathland woody species (Erica umbellata, Erica cinerea, Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea, and Ulex gallii), in a metabolism study. Diet composition was estimated from VLCFA (i.e., C(22) to C(34)) and alkane (i.e., C(25) to C(33)) concentrations in diet and feces, by least squares procedures. For all plant species VLCFA concentrations were greater than their alkane concentrations, especially for the herbaceous species and U. gallii. In general, fecal recovery of both markers was incomplete and increased in a curvilinear (P < 0.001) fashion with carbon-chain length. The plants comprising the diets had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on fecal recovery of VLCFA and alkanes. Diet composition estimates based on VLCFA alone were less accurate (P = 0.013) than those obtained using alkanes alone. Combination of VLCFA and alkane data resulted in the most accurate (P < 0.05) estimates, indicating an increase on the discriminatory power among plant species. Use of uncorrected fecal marker concentrations provided the poorest estimates of diet composition, and use of individual recovery data and mean fecal recovery data of the dietary treatment yielded the most accurate ones. Results obtained in this study show that VLCFA have potential to be used as diet composition markers along with alkanes. PMID:19395523

Ferreira, L M M; Carvalho, S; Falco, V; Celaya, R; García, U; Santos, A S; Rodrigues, M A M; Osoro, K

2009-04-24

328

Does forest fragmentation affect the same way all growth-forms?  

PubMed

Fragmentation of natural habitats is one of the main causes of the loss of biodiversity. However, all plants do not respond to habitat fragmentation in the same way due to differences in species traits. We studied the effect of patch size and isolation on the biodiversity of vegetation in the mixed-oak forests in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The aim was to evaluate whether all the growth-forms of vegetation are equally affected by forest fragmentation in order to improve the management strategies to restore this type of vegetation. This study has shown that the effect of the area and spatial isolation of the patches was not the same for the different growth-forms. Fragmentation had a mainly negative effect on the richness and diversity of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbaceous growth-forms. Moreover, the presence and/or cover of woodland herbaceous species (such as Lamiastrum galeobdolon and Helleborus viridis) and of woodland ferns (namely Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Asplenium trichomanes, Polystichum setiferum, Dryopteris affinis) were negatively affected by patch size, possibly due to the reduction of habitat quality. These species have been replaced by more generalist species (such as Cardamine pratensis, Cirsium sp., Pulmonaria longifolia or Rumex acetosella) in small patches. Patch isolation had a negative effect on the presence of forest specialist species (namely, L. galeobdolon, Frangula alnus, Hypericum androsaemum, A. adiantum-nigrum and Athyrium filix-femina) and favored colonization by more generalist species such as Cirsium sp., Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea or Ulex sp. Thus, in this region special attention should be paid to the conservation of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbs. In conservation policy focused on forest specialist species, the most valuable species in forest ecosystems, conservation of large forest areas should be promoted. PMID:21924813

Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Amezaga, Ibone; Onaindia, Miren

2011-09-15

329

Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, ?-pinene and ?-pinene for rosemary and ?-pinene, linalool and ?-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 ?g Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 ?mol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

330

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Vietnamese edible plants and their relationships with polyphenol contents.  

PubMed

The prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases by using the beneficial biological effects of polyphenolic plants have attracted increasing interest from nutritional scientists. The a-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts from 28 common Vietnamese edible plants, comprising 4 groups (plants used for making drinks, edible wild vegetables, herbs, and dark green vegetables), were investigated in vitro. The polyphenol contents of these extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and calculated as catechin equivalents. The extracts from plants used for making drinks showed the highest activities for both a-glucosidase inhibition and as antioxidants, followed by edible wild vegetables, herbs, and dark green vegetables. Positive relationships among alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities, antioxidant activities and polyphenol contents of these 28 edible plants were found in both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Four new promising materials that are similar to or better than guava leaf extract, including Syzygium zeylanicum, Cleistocalyx operculatus, Horsfieldia amygdalina and Careya arborea demonstrated high alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (93, 76, 68 and 67%, respectively) at the final concentration of 0.8 mg lyophilized material/mL solution and antioxidant activity (85, 87, 78 and 80%, respectively) at the final concentration of 30 pg lyophilized material/mL solution. These four edible plants contained significantly high polyphenol contents (equivalent to 251.7, 146.6, 136.6 and 168.6 mg of catechin/g dry weight, respectively). Thus, these four materials might be possible new sources of a-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidants suitable for use as functional foods in the future. PMID:17874833

Mai, Truong Tuyet; Thu, Nghiem Nguyet; Tien, Pham Gia; Van Chuyen, Nguyen

2007-06-01

331

Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

2010-11-01

332

Long-term hydroclimatic variability in monsoon shadow zone of western Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree-ring-width data of Himalayan cedar [Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don] from 11 homogeneous moisture stressed sites in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya were used to develop a mean chronology extending back to ad 1353. The chronology developed using Regional Curve Standardization method is the first from the Himalayan region of India showing centennial-scale variations. The calibration of ring-width chronology with instrumental precipitation data available from stations close to the tree ring sampling sites showed strong, direct relationship with March-April-May-June (MAMJ) precipitation. This strong relationship was used to supplement the instrumental precipitation data back to ad 1410. The precipitation reconstruction showed extended period of drought in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Increasingly pluvial conditions were recorded since eighteenth century, with the highest precipitation in the early part of the nineteenth century. The decreasing trend in reconstructed precipitation in the last decade of the twentieth century, consistent with the instrumental records, is associated with the decreasing trend in frequency of western disturbances. MAMJ precipitation over the monsoon shadow zone in the western Himalaya is directly associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO3-SST index of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the leading modes of climate variability influencing climate over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the relationship between ENSO and MAMJ precipitation collapsed completely during 1930-1960. The breakdown in this relationship is associated with the warm phase of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A spectral analysis of reconstructed MAMJ precipitation indicates frequencies in the range of the variability associated with modes of NAO, ENSO and AMO.

Yadav, Ram R.

2010-04-01

333

Long-term hydroclimatic variability in monsoon shadow zone of western Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree-ring-width data of Himalayan cedar [ Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don] from 11 homogeneous moisture stressed sites in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya were used to develop a mean chronology extending back to ad 1353. The chronology developed using Regional Curve Standardization method is the first from the Himalayan region of India showing centennial-scale variations. The calibration of ring-width chronology with instrumental precipitation data available from stations close to the tree ring sampling sites showed strong, direct relationship with March-April-May-June (MAMJ) precipitation. This strong relationship was used to supplement the instrumental precipitation data back to ad 1410. The precipitation reconstruction showed extended period of drought in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Increasingly pluvial conditions were recorded since eighteenth century, with the highest precipitation in the early part of the nineteenth century. The decreasing trend in reconstructed precipitation in the last decade of the twentieth century, consistent with the instrumental records, is associated with the decreasing trend in frequency of western disturbances. MAMJ precipitation over the monsoon shadow zone in the western Himalaya is directly associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO3-SST index of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the leading modes of climate variability influencing climate over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the relationship between ENSO and MAMJ precipitation collapsed completely during 1930-1960. The breakdown in this relationship is associated with the warm phase of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A spectral analysis of reconstructed MAMJ precipitation indicates frequencies in the range of the variability associated with modes of NAO, ENSO and AMO.

Yadav, Ram R.

2011-04-01

334

Determination of major carotenoids in a few Indian leafy vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Leafy vegetables [Basella rubra L., Peucedanum sowa Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Spinacia oleracea L., Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir., and Raphanus sativus L.] that are commonly used by the rural population in India were evaluated in terms of their main carotenoid pattern. The extracted carotenoids were purified by open column chromatography (OCC) on a neutral alumina column to verify their identity by their characteristic UV-visible absorption spectra. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 column with UV-visible photodiode array detection under isocratic conditions was used for quantification of isolated carotenoids. Acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane (60:20:20 v/v/v) containing 0.1% ammonium acetate was used as a mobile phase. The major carotenoids identified by both methods were lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Among the carotenoids identified, lutein and beta-carotene levels were found to be higher in these leafy vegetables. Results show that P. sowa and S. oleracea are rich sources of lutein (77-92 mg/100 g of dry wt) and beta-carotene (36-44 mg/100 g of dry wt) compared with other leafy vegetables. The purity of carotenoids eluted by OCC was clarified by HPLC, and they were found to be 92% +/- 3% for neoxanthin, 94% +/- 2% for violaxanthin, 97% +/-2% for lutein and zeaxanthin, and 90% +/- 3% for beta-carotene. It could be recommended to use P. sowa and S. oleracea as rich sources of lutein and beta-carotene for health benefits. The OCC method proposed is relatively simple and provides purified carotenoids for feeding trials. PMID:15826027

Lakshminarayana, Rangaswamy; Raju, Marisiddaiah; Krishnakantha, Thirumalai Parthasarathy; Baskaran, Vallikannan

2005-04-20

335

Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plants possessing generalized dispersal syndromes are likely to be more invasive than those relying on specialist dispersal agents. To address this issue on a local and regional scale, avian seed dispersal of the invasive alien Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was assessed in forests and spoil areas of South Carolina and along forest edges in Louisiana during the 1997-99 fruiting seasons. Tallow trees in these floristically distinct habitats had a few common and many casual visitors, and considerable species overlap among habitats was found. However, bird species differed in the importance of dispersing and dropping seeds among habitats. Important dispersal agents common to forests and spoil areas of South Carolina included Northern Flicker, American Robin and Redwinged Blackbird, whereas Red-bellied Woodpecker and European Starling were important in the former and latter habitat, respectively. In Louisiana, Red-bellied Woodpecker, American Robin, Northern Cardinal and Eastern Bluebird dispersed many seeds. Nearly all species foraging on seeds were winter residents. Estimated numbers of seeds dispersed and dropped were higher in spoil areas of South Carolina than in Louisiana because of higher numbers of individuals per visit, higher seed consumption and seed dropping rates, and longer foraging durations. Within South Carolina, more seeds were dispersed and dropped in spoil areas than in forests because of higher numbers of birds per visit. These findings show that among habitats, tallow tree attracts diverse but variable coteries of dispersal agents that are qualitatively similar in seed usage patterns. We suggest that its generalized dispersal syndrome contributes to effective seed dispersal by many bird species throughout its range. Effects of differential avian use among locales may include changes in local bird communities, and differing tallow tree demographics and invasion patterns.

Renne, I. J.; Barrow, Jr. , W. C.; Johnson, Randall, L. A.; Bridges, Jr. , W. C.

2002-01-01

336

Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models.  

PubMed

While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. PMID:18341576

Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

2008-03-13

337

A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).  

PubMed

Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging. PMID:11537665

Musgrave, M E; Vanhoy, M A

1989-01-01

338

Structure and function of shisham forests in central Himalaya, India: dry matter dynamics.  

PubMed

The biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of 5- to 15-year-old Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests growing in central Himalaya were estimated. Allometric equations were developed for all above- and below-ground components of trees and shrubs for each stand. Understorey forest floor biomass and litter fall were also estimated in forest stands. The biomass (dry matter), forest floor biomass (standing crop litter), tree litter fall and NPP of trees and shrubs increased with increasing age of the forest stand, whereas the dry matter and herb NPP decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing age of the forest. Total forest biomass and NPP ranged from 58.7 (5-year-old stand) to 136.1 t ha(-1) (15-year-old stand) and 12.6 (5-year-old stand) to 20.3 t ha(-1) year(-1) (15-year-old stand), respectively. Of these values, tree biomass accounted for 85.7 (5-year-old stand) to 90.1% (15-year-old) of total forest biomass, and tree NPP for 72.2 (5-year-old) to 82.3% (15-year-old) of total forest NPP. The biomass accumulation ratio (BAR) of the bole component (bole wood + bole bark) increased with increasing age of the forest stand. The bole BAR was 5.8 (5-year-old stand) to 7.9 (15-year-old stand). However, total BAR of the forest stand ranged from 5.5 (5-year-old) to 7.5 (15-year-old). PMID:12096818

Lodhiyal, Neelu; Lodhiyal, L S; Pangtey, Y P S

2002-01-01

339

Suppressive effect of natural sesquiterpenoids on inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in mouse macrophage cells.  

PubMed

Prostaglandins and nitric oxide produced by inducible cyclooygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), respectively, have been implicated as important mediators in the processes of inflammation and carcinogenesis. These potential COX-2 and iNOS inhibitors have been considered as antiinflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, we investigated the effect of natural sesquiterpenoids isolated from plants of the Zingiberaceae family on the activities of COX-2 and iNOS in cultured lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage cell RAW 264.7 to discover new lead compounds as COX-2 or iNOS inhibitors. Xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid, isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae), exhibited a potent inhibition of COX-2 (IC50 = 0.2 microg/mL) and iNOS activity (IC50 = 1.0 microg/mL) in the assay system of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) accumulation and nitric oxide production, respectively. Western blot analyses revealed that the inhibitory potential of xanthorrhizol on the COX-2 activity coincided well with the suppression of COX-2 protein expression in LPS-induced macrophages. In addition, sesquiterpenoids beta-turmerone and ar-turmerone isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) also showed a potent inhibitory activity of COX-2 (beta-turmerone, IC50 = 1.6 microg/mL; ar-turmerone, IC50 = 5.2 microg/mL) and iNOS (beta-turmerone, IC50 = 4.6 microg/mL; ar-turmerone, IC50 = 3.2 microg/mL). These results suggest that natural sesquiterpenoids from C. xanthorrhiza and C. zedoaria might be lead candidates for further developing COX-2 or iNOS inhibitors possessing cancer chemopreventive or anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:12086400

Lee, Sang Kook; Hong, Chai-Hee; Huh, Sun-Kyung; Kim, Sun-Sook; Oh, O-Jin; Min, Hye-Young; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2002-01-01

340

The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene–Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.–Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1–27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4–28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6–26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180–3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

2012-11-01

341

A diarylheptanoid phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa, 1,7-diphenyl-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, accelerates human osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.  

PubMed

Curcuma comosa Roxb. is ginger-family plant used to relieve menopausal symptoms. Previous work showed that C. comosa extracts protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteopenia with minimal effects on reproductive organs, and identified the diarylheptanoid (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (DPHD) as the major active component of C. comosa rhizomes. At 1-10?M, DPHD increased differentiation in transformed mouse osteoblasts, but the effect of DPHD on normal bone cells was unknown. We examined the concentration dependency and mechanism of action of DPHD relative to 17?-estradiol in nontransformed human osteoblasts (h-OB). The h-OB were 10-100 fold more sensitive to DPHD than transformed osteoblasts: DPHD increased h-OB proliferation at 10nM and, at 100nM, activated MAP kinase signaling within 30 min. In long-term differentiation assays, responses of h-OB to DPHD were significant at 10nM, and optimal response in most cases was at 100 nM. At 7-21 days, DPHD accelerated osteoblast differentiation, indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast-specific mRNA production. Effects of DPHD were eliminated by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780. During differentiation, DPHD promoted early expression of osteoblast transcription factors, RUNX2 and osterix. Subsequently, DPHD accelerated production of bone structural genes, including COL1A1 and osteocalcin comparably to 17?-estradiol. In h-OB, DPHD increased the osteoprotegerin to RANKL ratio and supported mineralization more efficiently than 10nM 17?-estradiol. We conclude that DPHD promotes human osteoblast function in vitro effectively at nanomolar concentrations, making it a promising compound to protect bone in menopausal women. PMID:23557993

Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Robinson, Lisa J; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Blair, Harry C

2013-04-01

342

A Phytoestrogen Diarylheptanoid Mediates Estrogen Receptor/Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? Protein-dependent Activation of the Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Estrogen promotes growth in many tissues by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Recently, ASPP 049, a diarylheptanoid isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb., has been identified as a phytoestrogen. This investigation determined the involvement of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the estrogenic activity of this diarylheptanoid in transfected HEK 293T and in mouse preosteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells using a TOPflash luciferase assay and immunofluorescence. ASPP 049 rapidly activated T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor-mediated transcription activity and induced ?-catenin accumulation in the nucleus. Interestingly, the effects of ASPP 049 on the transcriptional activity and induction and accumulation of ?-catenin protein in the nucleus of MC3T3-E1 cells were greater compared with estradiol. Activation of ?-catenin in MC3T3-E1 cells was inhibited by ICI 182,780, suggesting that an estrogen receptor is required. In addition, ASPP 049 induced phosphorylations at serine 473 of Akt and serine 9 of GSK-3?. Moreover, ASPP 049 also induced proliferation and expressions of Wnt target genes Axin2 and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, ASPP 049 increased alkaline phosphatase expression, and activity that was abolished by DKK-1, a blocker of the Wnt/?-catenin receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that ASPP 049 from C. comosa induced osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation through ER?-, Akt-, and GSK-3?-dependent activation of ?-catenin signaling. Our findings provide a scientific rationale for using C. comosa as a dietary supplement to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women.

Bhukhai, Kanit; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Bhummaphan, Narumol; Janjorn, Keatdamrong; Thongon, Natthakan; Tantikanlayaporn, Duangrat; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chairoungdua, Arthit

2012-01-01

343

Chemical compositions and biological activities of Amomum subulatum essential oils from Nepal.  

PubMed

The essential oils from the seed and rind of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (collected from Nepal) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 87 components were identified among the two essential oils accounting for 99.1%, and 99.0% of the oils, respectively. The two essential oils were dominated by the monoterpenoids 1,8-cineole (60.8% and 39.0%), alpha-pinene (6.4% and 4.8%), beta-pinene (8.3% and 17.7%), and alpha-terpineol (9.8% and 12.3%). Allelopathic testing of the seed essential oil showed an inhibition of seed germination of Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne, with IC50 values of 1583 and 1674 microg/mL, respectively. The seed essential oil demonstrated a stronger seedling growth inhibition of L. perenne than of L. sativa. A. subulatum seed and rind oils also showed moderate brine shrimp lethality (LC50 = 28.1 +/- 3.0 and 15.0 +/- 9.0 microg/mL, respectively). The seed and rind oils were only marginally cytotoxic (20% and 30%% kill on MCF-7 cells at 100 microg/mL, respectively), and antibacterial (MIC > or = 313 microg/mL), but A. subulatum rind oil was appreciably active against the fungus Aspergillus niger (MIC = 19.5 microg/mL). The essential oils of A. subulatum were also screened for nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans and insecticidal activity against the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta x richteri). The seed oil was only marginally toxic to the fire ant (LC50 = 1500 microg/mL), but moderately toxic to the nematode and the fruit fly (LC50 = 341 and 441 microg/mL, respectively). PMID:23074918

Satyal, Prabodh; Dosoky, Noura S; Kincer, Brittany L; Setzer, William N

2012-09-01

344

Partial characterization of a protease inhibitor which inhibits the major endopeptidase present in the cotyledons of mung beans.  

PubMed

Germination of mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Roxb.) is accompanied by an increase in the activity of the endopeptidase involved in storage protein metabolism. Enzyme activity in the cotyledons increases 25-fold during the first 5 days of germination. The cotyledons also contain inhibitory activity against the endopeptidase, and this inhibitory activity declines during germination, suggesting that inhibitors may play a role in regulating the activity of the endopeptidase.The inhibitory activity against the mung bean endopeptidase is due to the presence of two inhibitors which can be separated by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The two inhibitors have approximate molecular weights of 12,000 and smaller than 2,000 daltons. The large inhibitor coelutes with trypsin inhibitor on Sephadex G-100, but these two inhibitory activities can be separated by means of a trypsin affinity column.The inhibitory activity disappears slowly from crude extracts incubated at 6 C and more rapidly when the extracts are incubated at 25 C or 37 C. The disappearance of inhibitory activity is accompanied by a rise of the endopeptidase activity, but an examination of the kinetics of these two phenomena suggests that they are not causally related. Fractionation of the cellular organelles on sucrose gradients shows that the inhibitory activity is not associated with the protein bodies, but rather with the cytosol. Our results suggest that the endopeptidase inhibitor(s) does not regulate the increase in endopeptidase activity which accompanies germination or the metabolism of storage protein. We, therefore, postulate that the inhibitor(s) may function in protecting the cytoplasm from accidental rupturing of the protease-containing protein bodies. PMID:16659606

Baumgartner, B; Chrispeels, M J

1976-07-01

345

Optimization of aquatic-terrestrial ecosystem in relation to soil nitrogen status for the cultivation of fish and aquatic food crops of the Indian subtropics.  

PubMed

A case study was undertaken during wet and postwet seasons to improve the perennial and alternate submerged saucer-shaped ponded lands (tal and semi-tal lands) in the coasts and northeastern plains of the Indian subtropics through pisciculture and cultivation of starch- and protein-rich aquatic food crops like water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.) and makhana or fox nut (Euryale ferox Salisb.). The study revealed that the physico-chemical properties of soils (pH, organic C, organic matter, available N, P, and K) as well as quality of water (pH, EC, BOD, COD, CO3 +, HCO3-, NO3-N, SO4-S-, and Cl-), growing fish, makhana, and water chestnut was remarkably influenced by different moisture regimes and exhibited a significant improvement of soil health. The amount of organic C, available N, P, and K content were found significantly highest in the treatment where makhana was grown under alternate flooding and drying situation with a depth >2 m as compared to other treatments. Such enrichment of soil fertility, particularly in available N and P content, might be due to the accumulation of considerable amounts of biomass and fish excreta and their subsequent decomposition in situ in the soils. Therefore, the present study suggests that the N-enriched soil may effectively be utilized further for growing subsequent arable crops surroundings during summer season, which not only saves the amount of applied N fertilizer but also increases the apparent N efficiency with simultaneous increase in yield, and would benefit the farmers in this region. PMID:12805737

Puste, A M; Das, D K

2001-12-08

346

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

2010-10-05

347

Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus.  

PubMed

Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. were tested against fourth-instar larvae of malaria vector, A. subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, C. tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate of A. marmelos, E. prostrata, hexane, methanol of A. paniculata and C. hirsutus against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 167.00, 78.28, 67.24, 142.83 ppm; LC(90) = 588.31, 360.75, 371.91, and 830.01 ppm) and against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50) = 99.03, 119.89, 88.50, 105.19 ppm; LC(90) = 479.23, 564.85, 416.39, and 507.86 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf hexane extract of A. paniculata and ethyl acetate extract of E. prostrata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. tritaeniorhynchus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of plant extracts against vectors from Southern India. PMID:19165502

Elango, G; Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Zahir, A Abduz; Venkatesan, C

2009-01-23

348

Comparative anatomy of the nectary spur in selected species of Aeridinae (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims To date, the structure of the nectary spur of Aeridinae has not been studied in detail, and data relating to the nectaries of ornithophilous orchids remain scarce. The present paper compares the structural organization of the floral nectary in a range of Aeridinae species, including both entomophilous and ornithophilous taxa. Methods Nectary spurs of Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr. var. aurantiacum Pradhan, A. curvifolium (Lindl.) Schltr., A. garayi Christenson, Papilionanthe vandarum (Rchb.f.) Garay, Schoenorchis gemmata (Lindl.) J.J. Sm., Sedirea japonica (Rchb.f.) Garay & H.R. Sweet and Stereochilus dalatensis (Guillaumin) Garay were examined by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results and Conclusions The diverse anatomy of the nectary is described for a range of Aeridinae species. All species of Ascocentrum investigated displayed features characteristic of ornithophilous taxa. They have weakly zygomorphic, scentless, red or orange flowers, display diurnal anthesis, possess cryptic anther caps and produce nectar that is secluded in a relatively massive nectary spur. Unicellular, secretory hairs line the lumen at the middle part of the spur. Generally, however, with the exception of Papilionanthe vandarum, the nectary spurs of all entomophilous species studied here (Schoenorchis gemmata, Sedirea japonica, Stereochilus dalatensis) lack secretory trichomes. Moreover, collenchymatous secretory tissue, present only in the nectary spur of Asiatic Ascocentrum species, closely resembles that found in nectaries of certain Neotropical species that are hummingbird-pollinated and assigned to subtribes Maxillariinae Benth., Laeliinae Benth. and Oncidiinae Benth. This similarity in anatomical organization of the nectary, regardless of geographical distribution and phylogeny, indicates convergence.

Stpiczynska, Malgorzata; Davies, Kevin L.; Kaminska, Magdalena

2011-01-01

349

Identification of salt-induced genes from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte through expressed sequence tags analysis.  

PubMed

Salinity severely affects plant growth and development causing crop loss worldwide. We have isolated a large number of salt-induced genes as well as unknown and hypothetical genes from Salicornia brachiata Roxb. (Amaranthaceae). This is the first description of identification of genes in response to salinity stress in this extreme halophyte plant. Salicornia accumulates salt in its pith and survives even at 2 M NaCl under field conditions. For isolating salt responsive genes, cDNA subtractive hybridization was performed between control and 500 mM NaCl treated plants. Out of the 1200 recombinant clones, 930 sequences were submitted to the NCBI database (GenBank accession: EB484528 to EB485289 and EC906125 to EC906292). 789 ESTs showed matching with different genes in NCBI database. 4.8% ESTs belonged to stress-tolerant gene category and approximately 29% ESTs showed no homology with known functional gene sequences, thus classified as unknown or hypothetical. The detection of a large number of ESTs with unknown putative function in this species makes it an interesting contribution. The 90 unknown and hypothetical genes were selected to study their differential regulation by reverse Northern analysis for identifying their role in salinity tolerance. Interestingly, both up and down regulation at 500 mM NaCl were observed (21 and 10 genes, respectively). Northern analysis of two important salt tolerant genes, ASR1 (Abscisic acid stress ripening gene) and plasma membrane H+ATPase, showed the basal level of transcripts in control condition and an increase with NaCl treatment. ASR1 gene is made full length using 5' RACE and its potential role in imparting salt tolerance is being studied. PMID:19556705

Jha, Bhavanath; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Lal, Sanjay; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K

2009-04-01

350

Anti-HIV-1 activity, protease inhibition and safety profile of extracts prepared from Rhus parviflora  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, extracts prepared from the leaves of Rhus parviflora Roxb. (Anacardiaceae) were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity, which have been traditionally used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, insomnia and epilepsy. Methods Aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts prepared from leaves of the plant were tested for their cytotoxicity and anti-HIV property using reporter gene based assays as well as human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Further these extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease activity. Safety profile of the extracts was determined on viability of Lactobacillus sp., secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by vaginal keratinocytes and transepithelial resistance. Results Both aqueous (IC50?=?15 ?g/ml) and 50% ethanolic (IC50?=?26 ?g/ml) extracts prepared from leaves of R. parviflora showed anti-HIV activity in TZM-bl cells wherein the virus was treated with the extracts prior to infection. Further, both the extracts also inhibited virus load in HIV infected CEM-GFP cells and human PBLs. The anti-HIV activity is mediated through inhibition of HIV-1 protease activity. Both the extracts did not disturb the integrity of monolayer formed by intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The extracts when tested up to 100 ?g/ml did not significantly reduce the viability of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. casei. The extracts (100 ?g/ml) did not reveal any cytotoxic effect on vaginal keratinocytes (Vk2/E6E7). Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by Vk2/E6E7 cells treated with both the plant extracts were within the non-inflammatory range. Conclusions The studies reported herein showed in vitro anti-HIV activity and preliminary safety profile of the extracts prepared from the leaves of R. parviflora.

2013-01-01

351

Antitumor effects of novel compound, guttiferone K, on colon cancer by p21Waf1/Cip1-mediated G(0) /G(1) cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Low selectivity is one of the major problems of currently used anticancer drugs, therefore, there is a high demand for novel, selective antitumor agents. In this study, the anticancer effects and mechanisms of guttiferone K (GUTK), a novel polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol derivative isolated from Garcinia cowa Roxb., were examined for its development as a novel drug targeting colon cancer. GUTK concentration- and time-dependently reduced the viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells (IC(50) value 5.39 ± 0.22 ?M) without affecting the viability of normal human colon epithelial CCD 841 CoN cells and induced G(0) /G(1) cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells by down-regulating cyclins D1, D3 and cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, while selectively restoring p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 to levels comparable to those observed in normal colon cells, without affecting their levels in normal cells. GUTK (10.0 ?M) induced cleavage of PARP, caspases-3, -8 and -9 and chromatin condensation to stimulate caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. The addition of a JNK inhibitor, SP600125, partially reversed GUTK-induced caspase-3 activity, indicating the possible involvement of JNK in GUTK-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, GUTK (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the tumor volume in a syngeneic colon tumor model when used alone or in combination with 5-fluorouracil without toxicity to the mice. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor sections revealed a mechanism involving an increase in cleaved caspase-3 and a decrease in cell proliferation marker Ki-67. Our results support GUTK as a promising novel, potent and selective antitumor drug candidate for colon cancer. PMID:22733377

Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Yin, Chun; Xu, Hong Xi; Xu, Gang; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Cho, Chi Hin; Rudd, John Anthony; Lin, Ge

2012-07-11

352

Generation, annotation, analysis and database integration of 16,500 white spruce EST clusters  

PubMed Central

Background The sequencing and analysis of ESTs is for now the only practical approach for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in conifers because their very large genomes are unlikely to be sequenced in the near future. Our objective was to produce extensive collections of ESTs and cDNA clones to support manufacture of cDNA microarrays and gene discovery in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss). Results We produced 16 cDNA libraries from different tissues and a variety of treatments, and partially sequenced 50,000 cDNA clones. High quality 3' and 5' reads were assembled into 16,578 consensus sequences, 45% of which represented full length inserts. Consensus sequences derived from 5' and 3' reads of the same cDNA clone were linked to define 14,471 transcripts. A large proportion (84%) of the spruce sequences matched a pine sequence, but only 68% of the spruce transcripts had homologs in Arabidopsis or rice. Nearly all the sequences that matched the Populus trichocarpa genome (the only sequenced tree genome) also matched rice or Arabidopsis genomes. We used several sequence similarity search approaches for assignment of putative functions, including blast searches against general and specialized databases (transcription factors, cell wall related proteins), Gene Ontology term assignation and Hidden Markov Model searches against PFAM protein families and domains. In total, 70% of the spruce transcripts displayed matches to proteins of known or unknown function in the Uniref100 database (blastx e-value < 1e-10). We identified multigenic families that appeared larger in spruce than in the Arabidopsis or rice genomes. Detailed analysis of translationally controlled tumour proteins and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase families confirmed a twofold size difference. Sequences and annotations were organized in a dedicated database, SpruceDB. Several search tools were developed to mine the data either based on their occurrence in the cDNA libraries or on functional annotations. Conclusion This report illustrates specific approaches for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in an organism that is very distantly related to any of the fully sequenced genomes. The ArboreaSet sequences and cDNA clones represent a valuable resource for investigations ranging from plant comparative genomics to applied conifer genetics.

Pavy, Nathalie; Paule, Charles; Parsons, Lee; Crow, John A; Morency, Marie-Josee; Cooke, Janice; Johnson, James E; Noumen, Etienne; Guillet-Claude, Carine; Butterfield, Yaron; Barber, Sarah; Yang, George; Liu, Jerry; Stott, Jeff; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Siddiqui, Asim; Holt, Robert; Marra, Marco; Seguin, Armand; Retzel, Ernest; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

2005-01-01

353

Fire and drought affect plant communities and the greenhouse gas balance in a Mediterranean shrubland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicted changes in the seasonality and amount of rainfall under a changing climate have the potential to dramatically alter ecosystem function and species composition. Moreover, in fire-prone ecosystems, the joint effects of fire and increasing aridity may create irreversible changes to the services these ecosystems provide. To understand the effects of increasing drought and fire in a Mediterranean shrubland, we implemented an automated rainfall manipulation system, with rain-out shelters which automatically fold and unfold when conditions are rainy and dry, respectively. In January 2009, we implemented five different treatments, where annual precipitation was reduced by diminishing summer rainfall from the long-term historical average, up to a 40% reduction, following IPCC scenarios. In September 2009, we uninstalled all the shelters to burn the different plots, and reinstalled the shelters immediately afterwards. In this talk, we will present the preliminary results of an integrated experiment which aims at understanding the concomitant effects of fire and different drought intensities on the species composition and greenhouse gas balance (CO2, N2O and CH4) of a Mediterranean shrubland. We observed that plant growth was more severely affected by drought in the more shallow-rooted, malacophyllous shrub (from 116 to -7.2 mg/g/d in Cistus ladanifer), than in a deeper-rooted heather (from 5.5 to 66.9 mg/g/day in Erica arborea). This growth response was mediated by species-specific differences in hydraulics, leaf morphology and photosynthetic gas exchange of each species. Analyses of changes in species composition after fire are currently undergoing. The precipitation reduction treatments exerted drought stress on CH4 oxidizing microorganisms and thus reduced the CH4 sink strength of the ecosystem during the pre-fire period. Furthermore, the net CH4 uptake at the soil-atmosphere interface was reduced by the fire for a period of at least one month. Pedosphere-atmosphere N2O fluxes were mostly close to zero from May 2009 until one month after fire and affected neither by the precipitation manipulation nor by the fire.

Moreno, José M.; Parra, Antonio; Dannenmann, Michael; Ramírez, David A.; Diaz-Pines, Eugenio; Tejedor, Javier; Kitzler, Barbara; Karhu, Kristina; Resco, Victor; Povoas, Luciano

2010-05-01

354

Climatic belt dynamics on a tropical mountain under strong anthropogenic and zoogenic impact: Mt Tsebet (3946 m a.s.l.) in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The links between decreasing size and volume of the glaciers in East Africa's tropical mountains and the position of climatic belts on the one hand and global warming on the other have led to various interpretations on the occurrence of global warming and its magnitude and impacts in this part of the world. Here, we investigate the existence of temperature changes in East Africa and their impacts in high mountain regions by analyzing the position of climatically determined vegetation belts on Mt. Tsebet (12°52'N, 39°30'E, 3946 m a.s.l.) in northern Ethiopia between 1986 and 2010. This 27 km² massif, which was first surveyed and photographed in 1868, was chosen as a study area because, unlike Simien Mountains or Bale Mts. (Ethiopia), the antropogenic and zoogenic impact on the environment has not been reduced through time. By choosing Tsebet, we avoided areas that have become recently protected (such as the above-mentioned national parks); there, trees that newly grow more upslope might be ascribed to the protected status. In protected areas, the position of upper cropland limits may be controlled by regulations that prevent farmers from expanding farmlands upslope, even if climatic and topographic conditions would allow doing so. On Tsebet, where direct human and zoogenic impact exists up to the highest elevations, we will establish the position of two temperature-linked vegetation limits (i.e. Erica arborea and Hordeum vulgare or barley) in 1986, 1994 and 2010, through fieldwork (February 2010) and aerial photo interpretation. Changes in population density in the villages around Mt. Tsebet will be analysed through house counting on aerial photographs. The fieldwork will include a stay in mountain villages, during which interviews will be done on dates and reasons for shifting of the cultivation limit. The results will be analysed through geostatistical methods and will provide a better understanding of the magnitude of air temperature and possibly precipitation changes in this region and of the interaction between climate forcing and direct human intervention in densely populated tropical mountains.

Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Yirga, Gidey; Guyassa, Etafa; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Poesen, Jean; Hemp, Andreas; Haile, Mitiku

2010-05-01

355

The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.  

PubMed

This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities. Thereby, depending on the level of habitat quality that is aimed at, different measures may provide the most efficient solution. Lower levels of conservation can be achieved with low-cost adapted CPAs, such as an increased cutting height, reduced sowing density and grubbing instead of ploughing. Higher levels of conservation require e.g. grassland-like managed buffer strips around ponds in sensible areas, which incur much higher on-farm conservation costs. PMID:23164542

Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

2012-11-17

356

Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District)  

PubMed Central

Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes.

2010-01-01

357

Structure and function of shisham forests in central Himalaya, India: nutrient dynamics.  

PubMed

The structure and function of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests were investigated in relation to nutrient dynamics in 5- to 15-year-old stands growing in central Himalaya. Nutrient concentrations and storage in different layers of vegetation were in the order: tree > shrub > herb. Forest soil, litter and vegetation accounted for 80.1-91.9, 1.0-1.5 and 7.0-18.4%, respectively, of the total nutrients in the system. There were considerable reductions (trees 32.8-43.1; shrubs 26.2-32.4; and herbs 18-8-22-2%) in nutrient concentrations of leaves during senescence. Nutrient uptake by the vegetation as a whole and also by the different components, with and without adjustment for internal recycling, was investigated. Annual transfer of litter nutrients to the soil from vegetation was 74.8-108.4 kg ha(-1) year(-1) N, 56.8-4 kg ha(-1) year(-1) P and 38.7-46.9 kg ha(-1) year(-1) K. Turnover rate and time for different nutrients ranged between 56 and 66 % year(-1) and 1.5 and 1.8 years, respectively. The turnover rate of litter indicates that over 50% of nutrients in litter on the forest floor are released, which ultimately enhances the productivity of the forest stand. The nutrient use efficiency in Shisham forests ranged from 136 to 143 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for N, 1,441 to 1,570 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for P and 305 to 311 kg ha(-1) year(-1) for K. Compared with natural oak forest (265 kg ha(-1) year(-1) and an exotic eucalypt plantation (18 kg ha(-1) year(-1), a higher proportion of nutrients was retranslocated in Shisham forests, largely because of higher leaf tissue nutrient concentrations. This indicates a lower nutrient use efficiency of Shisham compared with eucalypt and oak. Compartment models for nutrient dynamics have been developed to represent the distribution of nutrients pools and net annual fluxes within the system. PMID:12096819

Lodhiyal, Neelu; Lodhiyal, L S; Pangtey, Y P S

2002-01-01

358

Diarylheptanoid Phytoestrogens Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Curcuma comosa: Biologic Actions in Vitro and in Vivo Indicate Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background Diarylheptanoids isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb. have been recently identified as phyto estrogens. However, the mechanism underlying their actions has not yet been identified. Objectives We characterized the estrogenic activity of three active naturally occurring diarylheptanoids both in vitro and in vivo. Methods We characterized mechanisms of estrogenic action of the diarylheptanoids (3S)-1,7-diphenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (D1), 1,7-diphenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-one (D2), and (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (D3) by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, a mammalian transfection model, and a uterotrophic assay in mice. Results All diarylheptanoids up-regulated estrogen-responsive genes in estrogen-responsive breast cancer cells (MCF-7). In HepG2 cells transfected with estrogen receptor (ER) ? or different ER? functional receptor mutants and the Vit-ERE-TATA-Luc reporter gene, all diarylheptanoids induced transcription through a ligand-dependent human ER?-ERE–driven pathway, which was abolished with ICI 182,780 (ER antagonist), whereas only D2 was active with ER?. An ER? mutant lacking the functional AF2 (activation function 2) region was not responsive to 17?-estradiol (E2) or to any of the diarylheptanoids, whereas ER? lacking the AF1 domain exhibited wild-type–like activity. D3 markedly increased uterine weight and proliferation of the uterine epithelium in ovariectomized mice, whereas D1 and D2 were inactive. D3, like E2, up-regulated lactoferrin (Ltf) gene expression. The responses to D3 in the uterus were inhibited by ICI 182,780. In addition, D3 stimulated both classical (Aqp5) and nonclassical (Cdkn1a) ER-mediated gene regulation. Conclusions The results suggest that the D3 diarylheptanoid is an agonist for ER both in vitro and in vivo, and its biological action is ER? selective, specifically requiring AF2 function, and involves direct binding via ER as well as ERE-independent gene regulation.

Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Ponglikitmongkol, Mathurose; Arao, Yukitomo; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Korach, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01

359

Histochemical and biochemical observations on storage protein metabolism and protein body autolysis in cotyledons of germinating mung beans.  

PubMed

Storage protein hydrolysis in the cotyledons of germinating mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) was examined by histochemical techniques, and the autolytic capacity of isolated protein bodies was studied with biochemical methods. The localization of endopeptidase activity within the cotyledons was studied using an India ink-gelatin film technique. After 24 hours of imbibition, a low level of endopeptidase activity was found throughout the storage tissues of the cotyledons. A marked increase in activity was noted in cells farthest from the vascular bundles 48 to 60 hours after the start of imbibition. The decrease in storage protein followed the same spatial distribution starting in the cells farthest from the bundles. The cotyledons contain a population of cells in various stages of endopeptidase activity enhancement and storage protein degradation. A wave of endopeptidase activity moves progressively through the cotyledons towards the vascular bundles leaving behind areas devoid of stored reserves and low in endopeptidase activity. Observations on the morphology of protein bodies during germination indicate that the membrane surrounding them remains intact, while the reserves disappear. This result suggests that the protein bodies may be undergoing autolysis. To determine whether this may indeed be the case, protein bodies were isolated from the meal of mung bean seeds using an aqueous medium containing 80% glycerol. The protein body preparations and the cytoplasm were assayed for the presence of a number of enzymes which may be involved in the breakdown of the storage proteins. The protein bodies contained all, or nearly all, of the carboxypeptidase, alpha-mannosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, and caseolytic activity. The cytoplasm contained all, or most, of the leucine aminopeptidase and the trypsin-like activity (benzoyl arginine-p-nitroanalide as substrate). Incubation of the isolated protein bodies resulted in the release of amino acids. An analysis of the products of hydrolysis indicated that very little, if any, storage protein was being hydrolyzed during the incubation. Hydrolysis of the storage proteins present in the protein bodies was greatly accelerated by the addition of extracts from the cotyledons of 4-day-old seedlings. The results suggest that new enzymic activities not present in the protein bodies isolated from dry seeds must either be activated or synthesized and possibly added to the protein bodies before storage protein breakdown can begin. PMID:16659290

Harris, N; Chrispeels, M J

1975-08-01

360

Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists and students. Phenological studies by the Mat-Su Career and Technical High School students helped scientists working with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to determine the best time for an aerial survey of bald eagle nests in the Matanuska Susitna Valley in Alaska. GLOBE student phenological data have also been used as part of a doctoral student dissertation, included in presentations at professional meetings and peer- reviewed scientific papers. Pre- and post- engagement assessment data have indicated a significant increase in content knowledge and science skills of pre-college students who have engaged in phenology investigations. Phenological investigations meet educational standards, help students understand the Earth as a system, do not require expensive equipment, and enable students across the globe to learn science by doing science.

Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

2011-12-01

361

Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Anopheles subpictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the oviposition, ovicidal, and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:19707789

Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

2009-08-26

362

Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50)?=37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90)?=166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50)?=26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90)?=127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90)?=324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

2010-08-06

363

Cloning and characterization of PR5 gene from Curcuma amada and Zingiber officinale in response to Ralstonia solanacearum infection.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), is an important spice crop that is badly affected by Ralstonia solanacearum wilt. Ginger does not set seed and sexual recombination has never been reported. In spite of extensive search in its habitats, no resistance source to Ralstonia induced bacterial wilt, could be located in ginger. Curcuma amada Roxb. is a potential donor for bacterial wilt resistance to Z. officinale, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. Pathogenesis-related (PR)-5 proteins are a family of proteins that are induced by different phytopathogens in many plants and share significant sequence similarity with thaumatin. Two putative PR5 genes, CaPR5 and ZoPR5, were amplified from C. amada and ginger, which encode precursor proteins of 227 and 224 amino acid residues, respectively, and share high homology with a number of other PR5 genes. The secondary and three-dimensional structure comparison did not reveal any striking differences between these two proteins. The expression of Ca and ZoPR5s under R. solanacearum inoculation was analyzed at different time points using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results reveal that CaPR5 is readily induced by the bacterium in C. amada, while ZoPR5 induction was very weak and slow in ginger. These results suggest that the CaPR5 could play a role in the molecular defense response of C. amada to pathogen attack. This is the first report of the isolation of PR5 gene from the C. amada and Z. officinale. Promoter analysis indicates the presence of a silencing element binding factor in ZoPR5-promoter, but not in CaPR5. Prospective promoter elements, such as GT-1 box and TGTCA, implicated as being positive regulatory elements for expression of PR proteins, occur in the 5'-flanking sequences of the CaPR5. Transient GUS expression study confirms its action with a weaker GUS expression in ginger, indicating that the PR5 expression may be controlled in the promoter. PMID:21594675

Prasath, D; El-Sharkawy, I; Sherif, S; Tiwary, K S; Jayasankar, S

2011-05-19

364

Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Thrombus formed in blood vessels lead to atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs sometimes cause serious and fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases although they show little toxicity in some cases. Aqueous extracts of herbs used in thrombolysis have been reported before with cytotoxic data, however, the organic extracts of herbs have not been documented. This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity. Methods An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., Ageratum conyzoides L., Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Leucas aspera Willd., Senna sophera L. Roxb., and Solanum torvum Swartz. using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Briefly, venous blood drawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. Results Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed 18.12 ± 2.34%, 48.9 ± 2.44%, 39.30 ± 0.96%, 37.32 ± 2.00%, 31.61 ± 2.97% and 31.51 ± 0.57% and clot lysis respectively. Among the herbs studied Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera showed very significant (p < 0.0001) percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to reference drug streptokinase (75.00 ± 3.04%). In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, the extracts Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed LC50 values 508.86 ± 6.62,41.16 ± 1.26, 2.65 ± 0.16, 181.67 ± 1.65, 233.37 ± 7.74 and 478.40 ± 3.23 ?g/ml, respectively, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76 ± 0.04). Conclusion Through our study it was found that Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera possessed effective thrombolytic properties whereas Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed moderate to mild thrombolytic effects while Ageratum conyzoides showed no significant effect. No extract was found cytoxic compared to positive control. Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent with in vivo effects to improve the atherothrombotic patients. However, Clausena suffruticosa could be the best one to use in this purpose.

2013-01-01