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Sample records for goal directed thinking

  1. Thinking as the control of imagination: a conceptual framework for goal-directed systems.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castelfranchi, Cristiano

    2009-07-01

    This paper offers a conceptual framework which (re)integrates goal-directed control, motivational processes, and executive functions, and suggests a developmental pathway from situated action to higher level cognition. We first illustrate a basic computational (control-theoretic) model of goal-directed action that makes use of internal modeling. We then show that by adding the problem of selection among multiple action alternatives motivation enters the scene, and that the basic mechanisms of executive functions such as inhibition, the monitoring of progresses, and working memory, are required for this system to work. Further, we elaborate on the idea that the off-line re-enactment of anticipatory mechanisms used for action control gives rise to (embodied) mental simulations, and propose that thinking consists essentially in controlling mental simulations rather than directly controlling behavior and perceptions. We conclude by sketching an evolutionary perspective of this process, proposing that anticipation leveraged cognition, and by highlighting specific predictions of our model. PMID:19347359

  2. Goal directed behavior and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Goal directed behavior is explained by two approaches: the first, which can be named as cybertetic (behavior is wieved as homeostatic and reflexive), and second, as cognitive approach, a learned response, (skills developed by whaching the behavior of another individual). The aim of the paper is to present a noninvasive method described as an interaction of human beings with environment, recording the electrical activity of the brain from the human scalp. Obtained results are in agreement of psychological theories that place at determined levels of age the acquisition of the capacities of abstract thinking and with the functional neuroanatomic studies according to which biological maturation is necessary for learning processes to develop. An acquired level of learning is in close relationship with the maturation level of the cerebral structures. PMID:27442417

  3. Goal-Directed Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Marc F.; Troisi, Thomas J.; Pompilio, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of every school district is to help students succeed academically and personally. But does every district leverage its most valuable resource, its teachers, to meet that goal? At the Valley Stream Central High School District in Nassau County, New York, these authors know how important teacher commitment is to student success, so they…

  4. Reflective Thinking as a Goal of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Jonathan

    1981-01-01

    Dewey's notion of "reflective thinking" is discussed. A model of phases of reflective thinking is described: problem recognition, enumeration of possibilities, reasoning, revision, and evaluation. Each phase has at least one parameter governing its operation and one rule for setting the optimum parameter value. Sources of individual variability…

  5. The Impact of Directed Viewing-Thinking Activity on Students' Critical Thinking: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Neo Chin; Sum, Cheung Wing

    2005-01-01

    Background: Critical thinking disposition is an area that has been overlooked in various academic fields until recent years. Critical thinking occurs only when individuals possess thinking dispositions. This study explores the possibility of using directed viewing-thinking activity (DVTA) to cultivate the critical thinking dispositions of…

  6. The Direct Teaching of Thinking as a Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    1983-01-01

    This study emphasizes the relationship of perception to thinking and explains direct teaching of thinking. Without clarity of seeing and creativity, perception is shown to become narrow patterning. The Cognitive Research Trust program is recommended for teaching thinking skills using transferable thinking "tools." Self-images of students are…

  7. A History of Critical Thinking as an Educational Goal in Graduate Theological Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, D. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The development of critical thinking skills among learners is a common educational goal across graduate theological schools. The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of some of the primary historical influences of the critical thinking movement in higher education in the United States and the movement's impact on graduate…

  8. Integrating Direct and Inquiry-Based Instruction in the Teaching of Critical Thinking: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Kelly Y. L.; Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Lai, Eva C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is a unifying goal of modern education. While past research has mostly examined the efficacy of a single instructional approach to teaching critical thinking, recent literature has begun discussing mixed teaching approaches. The present study examines three modes of instruction, featuring the direct instruction approach and the…

  9. Achievement Goals, the Classroom Environment, and Reflective Thinking: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Research pertaining to achievement goals and reflective thinking practice has received considerable attention in educational psychology. However, very few, if any, studies have looked at the impact of the classroom climate and how this psychosocial milieu may influence students' engagement in achievement goals and reflective thinking…

  10. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  11. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities. PMID:24786765

  12. Goal Statements and Goal-Directed Behavior: A Relational Frame Account of Goal Setting in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hora, Denis; Maglieri, Kristen A.

    2006-01-01

    Goal setting has consistently been shown to increase performance under specific conditions. These goal setting effects have previously been explored from both a cognitive perspective and in terms of traditional behavioral concepts. We highlight limitations of these approaches and propose a novel account based on Relational Frame Theory. This…

  13. Goal-Directed Planning for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; Dungan, J. L.; Khatib, L.; Votava, P.

    2007-12-01

    An Earth-observing sensor web is an organization of space, airborne, or in situ sensing devices for collecting measurements of the Earth's processes. Sensor web coordination involves formulating Earth science goals and transforming them into sensor web workflows, i.e., sequences of data acquisition and processing tasks that satisfy the specified goals. Automating parts of this process using recent advances in intelligent control software technology will offer improved sensor web effectiveness. Our approach to the coordination problem applies architectural concepts of workflow management systems by identifying two phases in workflow generation. In the first phase, users formulate high-level campaign goals that are automatically transformed into abstract workflow plans. An abstract workflow plan represents the organization of data acquisition and processing actions that fulfills the goals specified by the user, but leaves out details such as how requests for access to a data resource are formatted. Abstracting away these details improves the usability of sensor web resources by scientists. To implement the first phase, we utilize the Labeled Transition System Analyzer (LTSA), a model-checking software tool. LTSA contains a concise process-based language, FSP (Finite State Processes) for designing and modeling software programs. We will use LTSA and FSP to automate the process of building executable plans for accessing resources on a sensor web. FSP has the constructs for representing conditional dependencies, iterations, and parallel actions, all of which are common features in Earth science campaigns. The second phase of the process consists of the automatic transformation of an abstract plan into a concrete plan, i.e., a sequence of actions that can be autonomously executed on a sensor web. The transformation in phase two might require further decomposition of actions in the abstract plan into a sequence of lower-level data acquisition requests. It may also involve

  14. Infants Show Stability of Goal-Directed Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakkalou, Elena; Ellis-Davies, Kate; Fowler, Nia C.; Hilbrink, Elma E.; Gattis, Merideth

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that infants selectively reproduce observed actions and have argued that this selectivity reflects understanding of intentions and goals, or goal-directed imitation. We reasoned that if selective imitation of goal-directed actions reflects understanding of intentions, infants should demonstrate stability across…

  15. Neural correlates of personal goal processing during episodic future thinking and mind-wandering: An ALE meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, David; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2015-08-01

    The ability to imagine the future is a complex mental faculty that depends on an ensemble of cognitive processes supported by an extended set of brain regions. Our aim here was to shed light on one key component of future thinking--personal goal processing--and to determine its neural correlates during both directed and spontaneous forms of thoughts. To address this question, we performed separate ALE meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of episodic future thinking (EFT), mind-wandering, and personal goal processing, and then investigated the commonalities and differences in brain activity between these three domains. The results showed that the three domains activated a common set of brain regions within the default network and, most notably, the medial prefrontal cortex. This finding suggests that the medial prefrontal cortex mediates the processing of personal goals during both EFT and mind-wandering. Differences in activation were also observed, and notably regions supporting cognitive control processes (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were recruited to a lesser extent during mind-wandering than experimentally directed future thinking, suggesting that different kinds of self-generated thoughts may recruit varying levels of attentional control abilities. PMID:25931002

  16. Exploring Students' Reflective Thinking Practice, Deep Processing Strategies, Effort, and Achievement Goal Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students' academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in…

  17. Relations between Goals, Self-Efficacy, Critical Thinking and Deep Processing Strategies: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Research exploring students' academic learning has recently amalgamated different motivational theories within one conceptual framework. The inclusion of achievement goals, self-efficacy, deep processing and critical thinking has been cited in a number of studies. This article discusses two empirical studies that examined these four theoretical…

  18. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  19. Improving Student Critical Thinking and Perceptions of Critical Thinking through Direct Instruction in Rhetorical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of direct instruction in rhetorical analysis on students' critical thinking abilities, including knowledge, skills, and dispositions. The researcher investigated student perceptions of the effectiveness of argument mapping; Thinker's Guides, based on Paul's model of critical thinking; and Socratic questioning.…

  20. A model of goal directed vegetable parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to explore factors underlying parents' motivations to use vegetable parenting practices (VPP) using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP) (an adaptation of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior) as the theoretical basis for qualitative interviews. ...

  1. Goal direction and effectiveness, emotional maturity, and nuclear family functioning.

    PubMed

    Klever, Phillip

    2009-07-01

    Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal direction and effectiveness and emotional maturity. A qualitative analysis of participants' goals demonstrated that couples with higher functioning developing nuclear families, when compared with couples with lower functioning families, placed more emphasis on family goals, had more balance between family and personal goals, and pursued more goals over the 5 years. The quantitative analysis supported the hypothesis that goal effectiveness and emotional maturity influenced variation in nuclear family functioning. In addition, couple goal effectiveness and emotional maturity were associated with nuclear family functioning more strongly than individual goal effectiveness and emotional maturity were associated with individual functioning. PMID:19522784

  2. Thinking of You: Nonconscious Pursuit of Interpersonal Goals Associated With Relationship Partners

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Gráinne M.; Bargh, John A.

    2010-01-01

    The mere psychological presence of relationship partners was hypothesized to trigger interpersonal goals that are then pursued nonconsciously. Qualitative data suggested that people tend to pursue different interpersonal goals within different types of relationships (e.g., mother, best friend, coworker). In several studies, priming participants’ relationship representations produced goal-directed behavior (achievement, helping, understanding) in line with the previously assessed goal content of those representations. These findings support the hypothesis that interpersonal goals are component features of relationship representations and that mere activation of those representations, even in the partner’s physical absence, causes the goals to become active and to guide behavior nonconsciously within the current situation. PMID:12518976

  3. Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…

  4. Evidence-based medicine meets goal-directed health care.

    PubMed

    Mold, James W; Hamm, Robert; Scheid, Dewey

    2003-05-01

    Evidence-based medicine and goal-directed, patient-centered health care seem, at times, like parallel universes, though, at a conceptual level, they are perfectly compatible. Part of the problem is that many of the kinds of information required for decision making in primary care are often unavailable or difficult to find. Several case examples are used to illustrate this problem, and reasons and solutions are suggested. The goal-directed health care model could be helpful for directing the search for evidence that is relevant to the decisions that patients and their primary care physicians must make on a regular basis. PMID:12772939

  5. Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Lee; Chase, Henry W.; Baess, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine dependence, impulsivity, and capacity for goal-directed control over instrumental performance in an outcome devaluation procedure. Reduced goal-directed control was selectively associated with the Motor Impulsivity factor of Barrett's Impulsivity Scale (BIS), which reflects propensity for action without thought. These data support the claim that human impulsivity is marked by impaired use of causal knowledge to make adaptive decisions. The predominance of habit learning may play a role in psychopathological conditions that are associated with trait impulsivity. PMID:21077008

  6. Do Domestic Dogs Understand Human Actions as Goal-Directed?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Ceretta, Maria; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of other’s actions as goal-directed is considered a fundamental ability underlying cognitive and social development in human infants. A number of studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm have shown that the ability to discern intentional relations, in terms of goal-directedness of an action towards an object, appears around 5 months of age. The question of whether non-human species can perceive other’s actions as goal-directed has been more controversial, however there is mounting evidence that at least some primates species do. Recently domestic dogs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to human communicative cues and more so in cooperative and intentional contexts. Furthermore, they have been shown to imitate selectively. Taken together these results suggest that dogs may perceive others' actions as goal-directed, however no study has investigated this issue directly. In the current study, adopting an infant habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we investigated whether dogs attribute intentions to an animate (a human) but not an inanimate (a black box) agent interacting with an object. Following an habituation phase in which the agent interacted always with one of two objects, two sets of 3 trials were presented: new side trials (in which the agent interacted with the same object as in the habituation trial but placed in a novel location) and new goal trials (in which the agent interacted with the other object placed in the old location). Dogs showed a similar pattern of response to that shown in infants, looking longer in the new goal than new side trials when they saw the human agent interact with the object. No such difference emerging with the inanimate agent (the black box). Results provide the first evidence that a non-primate species can perceive another individual’s actions as goal-directed. We discuss results in terms of the prevailing mentalisitic and non-mentalistic hypotheses regarding goal-attribution. PMID

  7. The end of early-goal directed therapy?

    PubMed

    Sharif, Sameer; Owen, Julian J; Upadhye, Suneel

    2016-02-01

    Emergency medicine practitioners around the world have been confronted with the increasing challenge of managing patients in severe sepsis and septic shock. Introduction of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) revolutionized sepsis care and was adopted worldwide. Since then, multiple randomized controlled trials have been published questioning the superiority of EGDT. The purpose of this article is to review and provide clinical commentary on the ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISE trials, which address whether invasive, expensive interventions are needed to achieve mortality reduction goals in septic patients. This article discusses that EGDT bundled care is not necessary to achieve mortality reduction goals. PMID:26612702

  8. Goal-Directed Movement Enhances Body Representation Updating

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wen; Muramatsu, Katsutoshi; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; An, Qi; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yusuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Body representation refers to perception, memory, and cognition related to the body and is updated continuously by sensory input. The present study examined the influence of goals on body representation updating with two experiments of the rubber hand paradigm. In the experiments, participants moved their hidden left hands forward and backward either in response to instruction to touch a virtual object or without any specific goal, while a virtual left hand was presented 250 mm above the real hand and moved in synchrony with the real hand. Participants then provided information concerning the perceived heights of their real left hands and rated their sense of agency and ownership of the virtual hand. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when participants moved their hands with the goal of touching a virtual object and received feedback indicating goal attainment, the perceived positions of their real hands shifted more toward that of the virtual hand relative to that in the condition without a goal, indicating that their body representations underwent greater modification. Furthermore, results of Experiment 2 showed that the effect of goal-directed movement occurred in the active condition, in which participants moved their own hands, but did not occur in the passive condition, in which participants’ hands were moved by the experimenter. Therefore, we concluded that the sense of agency probably contributed to the updating of body representation involving goal-directed movement. PMID:27445766

  9. Goal-Directed Movement Enhances Body Representation Updating.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wen; Muramatsu, Katsutoshi; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; An, Qi; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yusuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Body representation refers to perception, memory, and cognition related to the body and is updated continuously by sensory input. The present study examined the influence of goals on body representation updating with two experiments of the rubber hand paradigm. In the experiments, participants moved their hidden left hands forward and backward either in response to instruction to touch a virtual object or without any specific goal, while a virtual left hand was presented 250 mm above the real hand and moved in synchrony with the real hand. Participants then provided information concerning the perceived heights of their real left hands and rated their sense of agency and ownership of the virtual hand. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when participants moved their hands with the goal of touching a virtual object and received feedback indicating goal attainment, the perceived positions of their real hands shifted more toward that of the virtual hand relative to that in the condition without a goal, indicating that their body representations underwent greater modification. Furthermore, results of Experiment 2 showed that the effect of goal-directed movement occurred in the active condition, in which participants moved their own hands, but did not occur in the passive condition, in which participants' hands were moved by the experimenter. Therefore, we concluded that the sense of agency probably contributed to the updating of body representation involving goal-directed movement. PMID:27445766

  10. Goal Direction and Effectiveness, Emotional Maturity, and Nuclear Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klever, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal direction and…

  11. Learning to Play in a Goal-Directed Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstedt, Cecilia; Pramling, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    This study concerns the relationship between learning and play. On the basis of sociocultural theory, some ideas are put forward about how this relationship can be conceptualised in the context of goal-directed practice. Empirical data from primary school with children 6-8 years old are used to illustrate and discuss this conceptualisation. It is…

  12. Habitual and goal-directed factors in (everyday) object handling.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V

    2011-09-01

    A habitual and a goal-directed system contribute to action selection in the human CNS. We examined to which extent both systems interact when selecting grasps for handling everyday objects. In Experiment 1, an upright or inverted cup had to be rotated or moved. To-be-rotated upright cups were more frequently grasped with a thumb-up grasp, which is habitually used to hold an upright cup, than inverted cups, which are not associated with a specific grasp. Additionally, grasp selection depended on the overarching goal of the movement sequence (rotation vs. transport) according to the end-state comfort principle. This shows that the habitual system and the goal-directed system both contribute to grasp selection. Experiment 2 revealed that this object-orientation-dependent grasp selection was present for movements of the dominant- and non-dominant hand. In Experiment 3, different everyday objects had to be moved or rotated. Only if different orientations of an object were associated with different habitual grasps, the grasp selection depended on the object orientation. Additionally, grasp selection was affected by the horizontal direction of the forthcoming movement. In sum, the experiments provide evidence that the interaction between the habitual and the goal-directed system determines grasp selection for the interaction with every-day objects. PMID:21748333

  13. The Construction of Career through Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Valach, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that occupational career is constructed through a system of intentional, goal-directed processes in the form of actions and projects as well as other careers, such as the family career and relationship careers. A contextual action theory of career is proposed as an approach that reflects a constructionist stance and…

  14. Goal-directed Resuscitative Interventions during Pediatric Interfacility Transport

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Michael H; Sanders, Ronald C; Moss, M Michele; Sullivan, Janice E; Prodhan, Parthak; Melguizo-Castro, Maria; Nick, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This manuscript reports results of the first NIH-funded prospective interfacility transport study, to determine the effect of goal-directed therapy administered by a specialized pediatric team to critically ill children with the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS). We hypothesized that goal-directed therapy during interfacility transport would decrease hospital length of stay, prevent multiple organ dysfunction, and reduce subsequent ICU interventions. Methods Prospective data was collected on all pediatric interfacility transport patients with SIRS transported by the Angel One Transport team at Arkansas Children’s Hospital. A 10 month data collection period was followed by institution of a goal-directed resuscitation protocol. Data was subsequently collected for 10 additional months followed by comparison of pre and post-intervention groups. All transport personnel underwent training with didactics and high-fidelity simulation until mastery with goal-directed resuscitation was achieved. Results All transport patients were screened for SIRS using established parameters, and 235 (123 pre-intervention; 112 post-intervention) were enrolled. Univariate analysis revealed shorter hospital stay (11±15vs.7±10days; p=0.02) and fewer required therapeutic ICU interventions in the post-intervention group (TISS-28 scores:19.4±6.8vs.17.3; p=0.04). ICU stay and incidence of organ dysfunction were not statistically different. Multi-variable analysis showed a 1.6 day (95%CI:1.3-2.03; p=0.02) decrease in hospital stay in the post-intervention group. Conclusions and Relevance This study suggests that goal-directed therapy administered by a specialized pediatric transport team has the potential to impact the outcomes of critically ill children. Findings from this study should be confirmed across multiple institutions, but have the potential to impact the clinical outcomes of critically ill children with SIRS. PMID:25860203

  15. Goal-Directed Decision Making with Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Máté

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroscientific data on reward-based decision making point to a fundamental distinction between habitual and goal-directed action selection. The formation of habits, which requires simple updating of cached values, has been studied in great detail, and the reward prediction error theory of dopamine function has enjoyed prominent success in accounting for its neural bases. In contrast, the neural circuit mechanisms of goal-directed decision making, requiring extended iterative computations to estimate values online, are still unknown. Here we present a spiking neural network that provably solves the difficult online value estimation problem underlying goal-directed decision making in a near-optimal way and reproduces behavioral as well as neurophysiological experimental data on tasks ranging from simple binary choice to sequential decision making. Our model uses local plasticity rules to learn the synaptic weights of a simple neural network to achieve optimal performance and solves one-step decision-making tasks, commonly considered in neuroeconomics, as well as more challenging sequential decision-making tasks within 1 s. These decision times, and their parametric dependence on task parameters, as well as the final choice probabilities match behavioral data, whereas the evolution of neural activities in the network closely mimics neural responses recorded in frontal cortices during the execution of such tasks. Our theory provides a principled framework to understand the neural underpinning of goal-directed decision making and makes novel predictions for sequential decision-making tasks with multiple rewards. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed actions requiring prospective planning pervade decision making, but their circuit-level mechanisms remain elusive. We show how a model circuit of biologically realistic spiking neurons can solve this computationally challenging problem in a novel way. The synaptic weights of our network can be learned using

  16. A Biologically Inspired Hierarchical Goal Directed Navigation Model

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Uğur M.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extended version of our previous goal directed navigation model based on forward planning of trajectories in a network of head direction cells, persistent spiking cells, grid cells, and place cells. In our original work the animat incrementally creates a place cell map by random exploration of a novel environment. After the exploration phase, the animat decides on its next movement direction towards a goal by probing linear look-ahead trajectories in several candidate directions while stationary and picking the one activating place cells representing the goal location. In this work we present several improvements over our previous model. We improve the range of linear look-ahead probes significantly by imposing a hierarchical structure on the place cell map consistent with the experimental findings of differences in the firing field size and spacing of grid cells recorded at different positions along the dorsal to ventral axis of entorhinal cortex. The new model represents the environment at different scales by populations of simulated hippocampal place cells with changing firing field sizes. Among other advantages this model allows simultaneous constant duration linear look-ahead probes at different scales while significantly extending each probe range. The extension of the linear look-ahead probe range while keeping its duration constant also limits the degrading effects of noise accumulation in the network. We show the extended model’s performance using an animat in a large open field environment. PMID:23891644

  17. Goal-directed learning and obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of ‘wanting’ drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

  18. Goal-directed learning and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Claire M; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-11-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of 'wanting' drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

  19. Goal Directed Model Inversion: A Study of Dynamic Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome 0 "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm then proceeds as follows: (1) store the action that produced the wrong outcome as a "target" (2) redefine the wrong outcome as a desired goal (3) submit the new desired goal to the system (4) compare the new action with the target action and modify the system by using a suitable algorithm for credit assignment (Back propagation in our example) (5) resubmit the original goal. Prior publications by our group in this area focused on demonstrating empirical results based on the inverse kinematic problem for a simulated robotic arm. In this paper we apply the inversion process to much simpler analytic functions in order to elucidate the dynamic behavior of the system and to determine the sensitivity of the learning process to various parameters. This understanding will be necessary for the acceptance of GDMI as a practical tool.

  20. Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David A.; Phillips, Prudence

    1985-01-01

    Presents two discussions which focus on the rationale for and goals of teaching electrochemistry at high school and college levels. The first is "Electrochemistry" by Ronald Perkins and the second is "Goals in Teaching Electrochemistry" by J. T. Maloy. (JN)

  1. Sepsis in pregnancy and early goal-directed therapy

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Julie; Sinha, Aneeta; Paech, Michael; Walters, Barry N J

    2009-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of serious morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their babies. Conventional management has evolved over many years. Improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and randomized clinical trials have led to recommendations for the formalization and standardization of the management of severe sepsis in non-pregnant patients. Most of these recommendations are applicable to pregnancy. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign and Early Goal Directed Therapy have relevance to the care of pregnant women with serious infection and are reviewed here.

  2. Color constancy in a naturalistic, goal-directed task

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, we use color information to select objects that will best serve a particular goal (e.g., pick the best-tasting fruit or avoid spoiled food). This is challenging when judgments must be made across changes in illumination as the spectrum reflected from an object to the eye varies with the illumination. Color constancy mechanisms serve to partially stabilize object color appearance across illumination changes, but whether and to what degree constancy supports accurate cross-illumination object selection is not well understood. To get closer to understanding how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a paradigm in which subjects engage in a goal-directed task for which color is instrumental. Specifically, in each trial, subjects re-created an arrangement of colored blocks (the model) across a change in illumination. By analyzing the re-creations, we were able to infer and quantify the degree of color constancy that mediated subjects' performance. In Experiments 1 and 2, we used our paradigm to characterize constancy for two different sets of block reflectances, two different illuminant changes, and two different groups of subjects. On average, constancy was good in our naturalistic task, but it varied considerably across subjects. In Experiment 3, we tested whether varying scene complexity and the validity of local contrast as a cue to the illumination change modulated constancy. Increasing complexity did not lead to improved constancy; silencing local contrast significantly reduced constancy. Our results establish a novel goal-directed task that enables us to approach color constancy as it emerges in real life. PMID:26381834

  3. Color constancy in a naturalistic, goal-directed task.

    PubMed

    Radonjic, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Brainard, David H

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, we use color information to select objects that will best serve a particular goal (e.g., pick the best-tasting fruit or avoid spoiled food). This is challenging when judgments must be made across changes in illumination as the spectrum reflected from an object to the eye varies with the illumination. Color constancy mechanisms serve to partially stabilize object color appearance across illumination changes, but whether and to what degree constancy supports accurate cross-illumination object selection is not well understood. To get closer to understanding how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a paradigm in which subjects engage in a goal-directed task for which color is instrumental. Specifically, in each trial, subjects re-created an arrangement of colored blocks (the model) across a change in illumination. By analyzing the re-creations, we were able to infer and quantify the degree of color constancy that mediated subjects' performance. In Experiments 1 and 2, we used our paradigm to characterize constancy for two different sets of block reflectances, two different illuminant changes, and two different groups of subjects. On average, constancy was good in our naturalistic task, but it varied considerably across subjects. In Experiment 3, we tested whether varying scene complexity and the validity of local contrast as a cue to the illumination change modulated constancy. Increasing complexity did not lead to improved constancy; silencing local contrast significantly reduced constancy. Our results establish a novel goal-directed task that enables us to approach color constancy as it emerges in real life. PMID:26381834

  4. Achieving Our Environmental Sustainability Goals: The Opportunities and Pitfalls of Applying Life Cycle Thinking

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increasing number of people around the world are beginning to realize that a systems approach, such as life cycle thinking, is necessary to truly achieve environmental sustainability. Without the holistic perspective that life cycle thinking provides, our actions risk leading ...

  5. Goal Directed Model Inversion: Learning Within Domain Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm makes use of these intermediate "successes" to achieve the final goal. A unique and potentially very important feature of this algorithm is the ability to modify the output of the learning module to force upon it a desired syntactic structure. This differs from ordinary supervised learning in the following way: in supervised learning the exact desired output pattern must be provided. In GDMI instead, it is possible to require simply that the output obey certain rules, i.e., that it "make sense" in some way determined by the knowledge domain. The exact pattern that will achieve the desired outcome is then found by the system. The ability to impose rules while allowing the system to search for its own answers in the context of neural networks is potentially a major breakthrough in two ways: 1) it may allow the construction of networks that can incorporate immediately some important knowledge, i.e. would not need to learn everything from scratch as normally required at present, and 2) learning and searching would be limited to the areas where it is necessary, thus facilitating and speeding up the process. These points are illustrated with examples from robotic path planning and parametric design.

  6. Goal Directed Model Inversion: Learning Within Domain Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm makes use of these intermediate "successes" to achieve the final goal. A unique and potentially very important feature of this algorithm is the ability to modify the output of the learning module to force upon it a desired syntactic structure. This differs from ordinary supervised learning in the following way: in supervised learning the exact desired output pattern must be provided. In GDMI instead, it is possible to require simply that the output obey certain rules, i.e., that it "make sense" in some way determined by the knowledge domain. The exact pattern that will achieve the desired outcome is then found by the system. The ability to impose rules while allowing the system to search for its own answers in the context of neural networks is potentially a major breakthrough in two ways: (1) it may allow the construction of networks that can incorporate immediately some important knowledge, i.e., would not need to learn everything from scratch as normally required at present; and (2) learning and searching would be limited to the areas where it is necessary, thus facilitating and speeding up the process. These points are illustrated with examples from robotic path planning and parametric design.

  7. Intensity and direction of competitive anxiety as a function of goal attainment expectation and competition goal generation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M; Hanton, S; Mellalieu, S D

    2005-12-01

    Jones's control model was adopted to investigate differences in the labelling of symptoms associated with pre-competition anxiety and self-confidence as a function of goal attainment expectation and competition goal generation. Team sport performers (N = 96) were divided into outcome, performance and process goal groups. Anxiety intensity and direction, and self-confidence were then examined as a function of goal expectancy (positive or negative) and perceived input into goal production (input or no input). MANOVA and follow-up ANOVA supported the study predictions. Specifically, participants who reported positive expectations of goal achievement and indicated some input into the goal generation process experienced the most facilitative interpretations of cognitive symptoms and greater self-confidence. The results highlight the need to consider how goals are generated when attempting to foster a sense of control and help athletes cope with the psychological demands of competition. PMID:16602170

  8. Goal-directed, habitual and Pavlovian prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gęsiarz, Filip; Crockett, Molly J.

    2015-01-01

    Although prosocial behaviors have been widely studied across disciplines, the mechanisms underlying them are not fully understood. Evidence from psychology, biology and economics suggests that prosocial behaviors can be driven by a variety of seemingly opposing factors: altruism or egoism, intuition or deliberation, inborn instincts or learned dispositions, and utility derived from actions or their outcomes. Here we propose a framework inspired by research on reinforcement learning and decision making that links these processes and explains characteristics of prosocial behaviors in different contexts. More specifically, we suggest that prosocial behaviors inherit features of up to three decision-making systems employed to choose between self- and other- regarding acts: a goal-directed system that selects actions based on their predicted consequences, a habitual system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history, and a Pavlovian system that emits reflexive responses based on evolutionarily prescribed priors. This framework, initially described in the field of cognitive neuroscience and machine learning, provides insight into the potential neural circuits and computations shaping prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, it identifies specific conditions in which each of these three systems should dominate and promote other- or self- regarding behavior. PMID:26074797

  9. Mediodorsal Thalamus Hypofunction Impairs Flexible Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Taylor, Kathleen; Bolkan, Scott S.; Ward, Ryan D.; Balsam, Peter D.; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive inflexibility is a core symptom of several mental disorders including schizophrenia. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients performing cognitive tasks have reported decreased activation of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Using a pharmacogenetic approach to model MD hypofunction we recently showed that decreasing MD activity impairs reversal learning in mice. While this demonstrates causality between MD hypofunction and cognitive inflexibility, questions remain about the elementary cognitive processes that account for the deficit. Methods Using the ‘Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs’ (DREADD) system we reversibly decreased MD activity during behavioral tasks assessing elementary cognitive processes inherent to flexible goal-directed behaviors including extinction, contingency degradation, outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (n=134 mice). Results While MD hypofunction impaired reversal learning, it did not affect the ability to learn about non-rewarded cues nor the ability to modulate action selection based on the outcome value. In contrast, decreasing MD activity delayed the ability to adapt to changes in the contingency between actions and their outcomes. In addition, while Pavlovian learning was not affected by MD hypofunction, decreasing MD activity during Pavlovian learning impaired the ability of conditioned stimuli to modulate instrumental behavior. Conclusion MD hypofunction causes cognitive inflexibility reflected by an inability to adapt actions when their consequences change. Furthermore, it alters the encoding of environmental stimuli so that they cannot be properly utilized to guide behavior. Modulating MD activity could be a potential therapeutic strategy for promoting adaptive behavior in human subjects with cognitive inflexibility. PMID:24813335

  10. Directing Teaching Skills in Speech Communication toward Critical Thinking Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Paul A.

    When critical thinking skills are set adrift from course content, teachers soon fall prey to using critical thinking skills as techniques for getting students to succeed in class rather than surviving outside the classroom. However, the majority of writers in critical thinking skills agree that the skills are not subject-specific, are teachable,…

  11. Is automatic imitation based on goal coding or movement coding? A comparison of goal-directed and goal-less actions.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Bugiani, Stefano; Grandi, Elisa; Colle, Livia

    2013-01-01

    A key issue for research on automatic imitation is whether it occurs primarily at the level of movements, that is, by automatically activating a representation of the movement/effector involved in the execution of the observed action, or at the level of goals, that is, by triggering a representation of the action goal, irrespective of how the motor act is physically instantiated. The present study presents two experiments aimed at investigating the contribution of movement coding and goal coding to automatic imitation, by assessing participants' performance in a spatial compatibility task where the observed stimuli were goal-directed and goal-less actions, which have been demonstrated to elicit, respectively, goal and movement coding. We found a significant automatic imitation effect both when the stimuli were goal-less actions and when they were actions directed toward a goal. However, the effect was stronger for the goal-less actions, even after controlling for saliency effects. These results suggest that goal coding contributes to automatic imitation, but to a lesser degree compared to movement coding. The implications of these results for theory and research on automatic imitation are discussed. PMID:23422654

  12. Think fast! The relationship between goal prediction speed and social competence in infants

    PubMed Central

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Skilled social interactions require knowledge about others’ intentions and the ability to implement this knowledge in real-time to generate appropriate responses to one’s partner. Young infants demonstrate an understanding of other people’s intentions (e.g. Woodward, Sommerville, Gerson, Henderson & Buresh, 2009), yet it is not until the second year that infants seem to master the real-time implementation of their knowledge during social interactions (e.g. Warneken & Tomasello, 2007). The current study investigates the possibility that developments in social competence during the second year are related to increases in the speed with which infants can employ their understanding of others’ intentions. Twenty- to 22-month-old infants (N = 23) viewed videos of goal-directed actions on a Tobii eye-tracker and then engaged in an interactive perspective-taking task. Infants who quickly and accurately anticipated another person’s future behavior in the eye-tracking task were more successful at taking their partner’s perspective in the social interaction. Success on the perspective-taking task was specifically related to the ability to correctly predict another person’s intentions. These findings highlight the importance of not only being a ‘smart’ social partner but also a ‘fast’ social thinker. PMID:25659980

  13. Think fast! The relationship between goal prediction speed and social competence in infants.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-09-01

    Skilled social interactions require knowledge about others' intentions and the ability to implement this knowledge in real-time to generate appropriate responses to one's partner. Young infants demonstrate an understanding of other people's intentions (e.g. Woodward, Sommerville, Gerson, Henderson & Buresh, 2009), yet it is not until the second year that infants seem to master the real-time implementation of their knowledge during social interactions (e.g. Warneken & Tomasello, 2007). The current study investigates the possibility that developments in social competence during the second year are related to increases in the speed with which infants can employ their understanding of others' intentions. Twenty- to 22-month-old infants (N = 23) viewed videos of goal-directed actions on a Tobii eye-tracker and then engaged in an interactive perspective-taking task. Infants who quickly and accurately anticipated another person's future behavior in the eye-tracking task were more successful at taking their partner's perspective in the social interaction. Success on the perspective-taking task was specifically related to the ability to correctly predict another person's intentions. These findings highlight the importance of not only being a 'smart' social partner but also a 'fast' social thinker. PMID:25659980

  14. Goal Directed Locomotion and Balance Control in Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernazza-Martin, S.; Martin, N.; Vernazza, A.; Lepellec-Muller, A.; Rufo, M.; Massion, J.; Assaiante, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on postural anticipation and multi-joint coordination during locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Three questions were addressed: (1) Are gait parameters modified in autistic children? (2) Is equilibrium control affected in autistic children? (3) Is locomotion adjusted to the experimenter-imposed goal? Six healthy…

  15. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Stasiewicz, Dorota; Falck-Ytter, Terje; von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds,…

  16. "The Goal" Project: A Group Assignment to Encourage Creative Thinking, Leadership Abilities and Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Patricia Lee

    2014-01-01

    The classroom assignment described in this paper, "The Goal" Project, gives students an opportunity to develop four of the skills and abilities required to be a successful accountant. In 1990, the Accounting Education Change Commission issued Position Statement Number One, Objectives of Education for Accountants. Appendix B of that…

  17. A Goal Direction Signal in the Human Entorhinal/Subicular Region

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Jolly, Amy E.J.; Amos, Doran P.; Hassabis, Demis; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Navigating to a safe place, such as a home or nest, is a fundamental behavior for all complex animals. Determining the direction to such goals is a crucial first step in navigation. Surprisingly, little is known about how or where in the brain this “goal direction signal” is represented. In mammals, “head-direction cells” are thought to support this process, but despite 30 years of research, no evidence for a goal direction representation has been reported [1, 2]. Here, we used fMRI to record neural activity while participants made goal direction judgments based on a previously learned virtual environment. We applied multivoxel pattern analysis [3–5] to these data and found that the human entorhinal/subicular region contains a neural representation of intended goal direction. Furthermore, the neural pattern expressed for a given goal direction matched the pattern expressed when simply facing that same direction. This suggests the existence of a shared neural representation of both goal and facing direction. We argue that this reflects a mechanism based on head-direction populations that simulate future goal directions during route planning [6]. Our data further revealed that the strength of direction information predicts performance. Finally, we found a dissociation between this geocentric information in the entorhinal/subicular region and egocentric direction information in the precuneus. PMID:25532898

  18. A goal direction signal in the human entorhinal/subicular region.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Jolly, Amy E J; Amos, Doran P; Hassabis, Demis; Spiers, Hugo J

    2015-01-01

    Navigating to a safe place, such as a home or nest, is a fundamental behavior for all complex animals. Determining the direction to such goals is a crucial first step in navigation. Surprisingly, little is known about how or where in the brain this "goal direction signal" is represented. In mammals, "head-direction cells" are thought to support this process, but despite 30 years of research, no evidence for a goal direction representation has been reported. Here, we used fMRI to record neural activity while participants made goal direction judgments based on a previously learned virtual environment. We applied multivoxel pattern analysis to these data and found that the human entorhinal/subicular region contains a neural representation of intended goal direction. Furthermore, the neural pattern expressed for a given goal direction matched the pattern expressed when simply facing that same direction. This suggests the existence of a shared neural representation of both goal and facing direction. We argue that this reflects a mechanism based on head-direction populations that simulate future goal directions during route planning. Our data further revealed that the strength of direction information predicts performance. Finally, we found a dissociation between this geocentric information in the entorhinal/subicular region and egocentric direction information in the precuneus. PMID:25532898

  19. Early goal-directed resuscitation of patients with septic shock: current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi G; Hartigan, Sarah M; Kashiouris, Markos G; Sessler, Curtis N; Bearman, Gonzalo M L

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are among the leading causes of mortality in the intensive care unit. Over a decade ago, early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) emerged as a novel approach for reducing sepsis mortality and was incorporated into guidelines published by the international Surviving Sepsis Campaign. In addition to requiring early detection of sepsis and prompt initiation of antibiotics, the EGDT protocol requires invasive patient monitoring to guide resuscitation with intravenous fluids, vasopressors, red cell transfusions, and inotropes. The effect of these measures on patient outcomes, however, remains controversial. Recently, three large randomized trials were undertaken to re-examine the effect of EGDT on morbidity and mortality: the ProCESS trial in the United States, the ARISE trial in Australia and New Zealand, and the ProMISe trial in England. These trials showed that EGDT did not significantly decrease mortality in patients with septic shock compared with usual care. In particular, whereas early administration of antibiotics appeared to increase survival, tailoring resuscitation to static measurements of central venous pressure and central venous oxygen saturation did not confer survival benefit to most patients. In the following review, we examine these findings as well as other evidence from recent randomized trials of goal-directed resuscitation. We also discuss future areas of research and emerging paradigms in sepsis trials. PMID:26316210

  20. What Children Think about Human-Animal Relationships: Incorporating Humane Education Goals in Science and Technology Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a shift in the direction of biocentrism that advocates the incorporation of humane education goals. Investigates preconceptions of human-animal relationships among a group of grade 5 students with a view to understanding their readiness to embrace a biocentric perspective. Includes recommendations for science and technology curricula and…

  1. Emotion, Intent and Voluntary Movement in Children with Autism. an Example: The Goal Directed Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longuet, Sophie; Ferrel-Chapus, Carole; Oreve, Marie-Joelle; Chamot, Jean-Marc; Vernazza-Martin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of intentionality on goal directed locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Closely linked with emotions and motivation, it is directly connected with movement planning. Is planning only preserved when the goal of the action appears motivating for healthy and autistic children? Is movement programming similar…

  2. The Attribution of Attention: 9-Month-Olds' Interpretation of Gaze as Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan C.; Ok, Su-Jeong; Luo, Yuyan

    2007-01-01

    The current study distinguishes between attributions of goal-directed perception (i.e. attention) and non-goal-directed perception to examine 9-month-olds' interpretation of others' head and eye turns. In a looking time task, 9-month-olds encoded the relationship between an actor's head and eye turns and a target object if the head and eye turns…

  3. A Further Investigation of Goal-Directed Intention Understanding in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Natalie I.; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Findings from research investigating goal-directed intention understanding in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been equivocal, in part because of the varying methodologies used across studies. This study compares both object-oriented and social-communicatively cued goal-directed intention understanding in children with ASD and…

  4. A Goal-Directed Spatial Navigation Model Using Forward Trajectory Planning Based on Grid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Uğur Murat; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    A goal-directed navigation model is proposed based on forward linear look-ahead probe of trajectories in a network of head direction cells, grid cells, place cells, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) cells. The model allows selection of new goal-directed trajectories. In a novel environment, the virtual rat incrementally creates a map composed of place cells and PFC cells by random exploration. After exploration, the rat retrieves memory of the goal location, picks its next movement direction by forward linear look-ahead probe of trajectories in several candidate directions while stationary in one location, and finds the one activating PFC cells with the highest reward signal. Each probe direction involves activation of a static pattern of head direction cells to drive an interference model of grid cells to update their phases in a specific direction. The updating of grid cell spiking drives place cells along the probed look-ahead trajectory similar to the forward replay during waking seen in place cell recordings. Directions are probed until the look-ahead trajectory activates the reward signal and the corresponding direction is used to guide goal-finding behavior. We report simulation results in several mazes with and without barriers. Navigation with barriers requires a PFC map topology based on the temporal vicinity of visited place cells and a reward signal diffusion process. The interaction of the forward linear look-ahead trajectory probes with the reward diffusion allows discovery of never before experienced shortcuts towards a goal location. PMID:22393918

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  6. Is Agency Skin Deep? Surface Attributes Influence Infants' Sensitivity to Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guajardo, Jose J.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of surface attributes in infants' identification of agents, using a habituation paradigm designed to tap infants' interpretation of grasping as goal directed (Woodward, 1998). When they viewed a bare human hand grasping objects, 7- and 12-month-old infants focused on the relation between the hand and its goal.…

  7. Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Distinguishes between critical and creative thinking and discusses critical-thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy. Outlines goals in critical-thinking curriculum, critical thinking skills (student disposition, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, presenting argument, and reflection), and…

  8. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  9. Top-down control and directed attention in self-reference effects: Goal-directed movements and the SAN.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Samuel; Moodie, Rebecca; Kritikos, Ada

    2016-01-01

    We focus on Humphreys and Sui's postulations that self-reference effects are not necessarily pre-attentive, and the self and top-down attention interact in the SAN. If so, top-down factors (goal-relevance, directed attention) should interact with self-reference effects. Our pilot data from unspeeded reach-to-grasp actions show differences in trajectories when reaching toward self- or other-relevant objects. We speculate that goal-directed actions are suited to studying the top-down control in self-reference effects. Because goal-directed action paradigms allow broad scope for modulating attention and top-down control, they will be useful for disambiguating the roles of directed attention, inhibition, and (social) context. PMID:26273903

  10. Frontostriatal Mechanisms in Instruction-Based Learning as a Hallmark of Flexible Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wolfensteller, Uta; Ruge, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    The present review intends to provide a neuroscientific perspective on the flexible (here: almost instantaneous) adoption of novel goal-directed behaviors. The overarching goal is to sketch the emerging framework for examining instruction-based learning and how this can be related to more established research approaches to instrumental learning and goal-directed action. We particularly focus on the contribution of frontal and striatal brain regions drawing on studies in both, animals and humans, but with an emphasize put on human neuroimaging studies. In section one, we review and integrate a selection of previous studies that are suited to generally delineate the neural underpinnings of goal-directed action as opposed to more stimulus-based (i.e., habitual) action. Building on that the second section focuses more directly on the flexibility to rapidly implement novel behavioral rules as a hallmark of goal-directed action with a special emphasis on instructed rules. In essence, the current neuroscientific evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex and associative striatum are able to selectively and transiently code the currently relevant relationship between stimuli, actions, and the effects of these actions in both, instruction-based learning as well as in trial-and-error learning. The premotor cortex in turn seems to form more durable associations between stimuli and actions or stimuli, actions and effects (but not incentive values) thus representing the available action possibilities. Together, the central message of the present review is that instruction-based learning should be understood as a prime example of goal-directed action, necessitating a closer interlacing with basic mechanisms of goal-directed action on a more general level. PMID:22701445

  11. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Natsheh, Joman Y.; Shiflett, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75–P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR; ADHD rat model) and Wistar–Kyoto rats (WKY), the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action–outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either MPH or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, MPH administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how MPH acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively. PMID:26635568

  12. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Natsheh, Joman Y; Shiflett, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75-P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR; ADHD rat model) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action-outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either MPH or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, MPH administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how MPH acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively. PMID:26635568

  13. Target- and Effect-Directed Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an effect) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of effect-directed and target-directed action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…

  14. Dissociable effects of salience on attention and goal-directed action.

    PubMed

    Moher, Jeff; Anderson, Brian A; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Everyday behavior frequently involves encounters with multiple objects that compete for selection. For example, driving a car requires constant shifts of attention between oncoming traffic, rearview mirrors, and traffic signs and signals, among other objects. Behavioral goals often drive this selection process [1, 2]; however, they are not the sole determinant of selection. Physically salient objects, such as flashing, brightly colored hazard signs, or objects that are salient by virtue of learned associations with reward, such as pictures of food on a billboard, often capture attention regardless of the individual's goals [3-6]. It is typically thought that strongly salient distractor objects capture more attention and are more disruptive than weakly salient distractors [7, 8]. Counterintuitively, though, we found that this is true for perception, but not for goal-directed action. In a visually guided reaching task [9-11], we required participants to reach to a shape-defined target while trying to ignore salient distractors. We observed that strongly salient distractors produced less disruption in goal-directed action than weakly salient distractors. Thus, a strongly salient distractor triggers suppression during goal-directed action, resulting in enhanced efficiency and accuracy of target selection relative to when weakly salient distractors are present. In contrast, in a task requiring no goal-directed action, we found greater attentional interference from strongly salient distractors. Thus, while highly salient stimuli interfere strongly with perceptual processing, increased physical salience or associated value attenuates action-related interference. PMID:26190076

  15. Principles of goal-directed spatial robot navigation in biomimetic models

    PubMed Central

    Milford, Michael; Schulz, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Mobile robots and animals alike must effectively navigate their environments in order to achieve their goals. For animals goal-directed navigation facilitates finding food, seeking shelter or migration; similarly robots perform goal-directed navigation to find a charging station, get out of the rain or guide a person to a destination. This similarity in tasks extends to the environment as well; increasingly, mobile robots are operating in the same underwater, ground and aerial environments that animals do. Yet despite these similarities, goal-directed navigation research in robotics and biology has proceeded largely in parallel, linked only by a small amount of interdisciplinary research spanning both areas. Most state-of-the-art robotic navigation systems employ a range of sensors, world representations and navigation algorithms that seem far removed from what we know of how animals navigate; their navigation systems are shaped by key principles of navigation in ‘real-world’ environments including dealing with uncertainty in sensing, landmark observation and world modelling. By contrast, biomimetic animal navigation models produce plausible animal navigation behaviour in a range of laboratory experimental navigation paradigms, typically without addressing many of these robotic navigation principles. In this paper, we attempt to link robotics and biology by reviewing the current state of the art in conventional and biomimetic goal-directed navigation models, focusing on the key principles of goal-oriented robotic navigation and the extent to which these principles have been adapted by biomimetic navigation models and why. PMID:25267826

  16. Principles of goal-directed spatial robot navigation in biomimetic models.

    PubMed

    Milford, Michael; Schulz, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Mobile robots and animals alike must effectively navigate their environments in order to achieve their goals. For animals goal-directed navigation facilitates finding food, seeking shelter or migration; similarly robots perform goal-directed navigation to find a charging station, get out of the rain or guide a person to a destination. This similarity in tasks extends to the environment as well; increasingly, mobile robots are operating in the same underwater, ground and aerial environments that animals do. Yet despite these similarities, goal-directed navigation research in robotics and biology has proceeded largely in parallel, linked only by a small amount of interdisciplinary research spanning both areas. Most state-of-the-art robotic navigation systems employ a range of sensors, world representations and navigation algorithms that seem far removed from what we know of how animals navigate; their navigation systems are shaped by key principles of navigation in 'real-world' environments including dealing with uncertainty in sensing, landmark observation and world modelling. By contrast, biomimetic animal navigation models produce plausible animal navigation behaviour in a range of laboratory experimental navigation paradigms, typically without addressing many of these robotic navigation principles. In this paper, we attempt to link robotics and biology by reviewing the current state of the art in conventional and biomimetic goal-directed navigation models, focusing on the key principles of goal-oriented robotic navigation and the extent to which these principles have been adapted by biomimetic navigation models and why. PMID:25267826

  17. Electromyographic analysis of goal-directed grasping behavior in the American lobster.

    PubMed

    Tomina, Yusuke; Takahata, Masakazu

    2014-10-15

    Animals spontaneously initiate goal-directed behavior including foraging action based on their appetitive motivation. The American lobster Homarus americanus exhibits grasping behavior with its crusher claw as feeding behavior that can be initiated after appropriate operant conditioning. In order to quantitatively characterize the goal-directed grasping behavior with a time resolution fine enough for neurophysiological analysis of its initiation and control mechanisms, we made simultaneous electromyographic (EMG) recording from grasping- and reaching-related muscles of the crusher claw while animals initiated grasping behavior. We developed an in vivo extracellular recording chamber that allowed the animal under a semi-restrained condition to perform operant reward learning of claw grasping. Three muscles in the crusher claw (propodite-dactyl closer/opener and coxal protractor) were found to be closely associated with spontaneous grasping behavior. In spontaneous grasping, the activation of those muscles consistently preceded the grasping onset time and exhibited different activity patterns from the grasp induced by a mechanical stimulus. Furthermore, we found that the timing of coxal protractor activation was closer to the grasp onset and its activity was briefer for goal-directed grasping behavior in trained and hungry animals than for non-goal-directed spontaneous grasping behavior in naive or satiated animals. It is suggested that the goal-directed grasping behavior of lobster is characterized, at least partly, by experience-dependent briefer activity of specific muscles involved in reaching action. PMID:25147241

  18. How to Build an Intentional Android: Infants' Imitation of a Robot's Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Shoji; Ishida, Hiraku; Kanda, Takayuki; Shimada, Yohko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young children are able to imitate a robot's goal-directed actions. Children (24-35 months old) viewed videos showing a robot attempting to manipulate an object (e.g., putting beads inside a cup) but failing to achieve its goal (e.g., beads fell outside the cup). In 1 video, the robot made eye contact with a human…

  19. A fronto-striato-subthalamic-pallidal network for goal-directed and habitual inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, Marjan; Obeso, Ignacio; Rothwell, John C; Obeso, José A

    2015-12-01

    Classically, the basal ganglia have been considered to have a role in producing habitual and goal-directed behaviours. In this article, we review recent evidence that expands this role, indicating that the basal ganglia are also involved in neural and behavioural inhibition in the motor and non-motor domains. We then distinguish between goal-directed and habitual (also known as automatic) inhibition mediated by fronto-striato-subthalamic-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks. We also suggest that imbalance between goal-directed and habitual action and inhibition contributes to some manifestations of Parkinson's disease, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Finally, we propose that basal ganglia surgery improves these disorders by restoring a functional balance between facilitation and inhibition. PMID:26530468

  20. The Effects of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity on EFL Students' Referential and Inferential Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

    2006-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of the Directed Reading Thinking Activity on Egyptian first-year secondary stage EFL students' referential and inferential reading comprehension. The study utilized a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. The subjects consisted of 72 first-year secondary students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at…

  1. Direct Instruction in Skillful Thinking in Fifth-Grade American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her use of direct instruction to introduce the skill of determining source reliability in a fifth-grade unit on immigration in American history. She structures instruction to help students establish a thinking-skill strategy that results in not only an understanding of immigration in the late 1800s to early…

  2. Of goals and habits: age-related and individual differences in goal-directed decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Ben; Walter, Maik; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated age-related and individual differences in habitual (model-free) and goal-directed (model-based) decision-making. Specifically, we were interested in three questions. First, does age affect the balance between model-based and model-free decision mechanisms? Second, are these age-related changes due to age differences in working memory (WM) capacity? Third, can model-based behavior be affected by manipulating the distinctiveness of the reward value of choice options? To answer these questions we used a two-stage Markov decision task in in combination with computational modeling to dissociate model-based and model-free decision mechanisms. To affect model-based behavior in this task we manipulated the distinctiveness of reward probabilities of choice options. The results show age-related deficits in model-based decision-making, which are particularly pronounced if unexpected reward indicates the need for a shift in decision strategy. In this situation younger adults explore the task structure, whereas older adults show perseverative behavior. Consistent with previous findings, these results indicate that older adults have deficits in the representation and updating of expected reward value. We also observed substantial individual differences in model-based behavior. In younger adults high WM capacity is associated with greater model-based behavior and this effect is further elevated when reward probabilities are more distinct. However, in older adults we found no effect of WM capacity. Moreover, age differences in model-based behavior remained statistically significant, even after controlling for WM capacity. Thus, factors other than decline in WM, such as deficits in the in the integration of expected reward value into strategic decisions may contribute to the observed impairments in model-based behavior in older adults. PMID:24399925

  3. Trait inferences in goal-directed behavior: ERP timing and localization under spontaneous and intentional processing

    PubMed Central

    Van den Eede, Sofie; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during multiple goal and trait inferences, under spontaneous or intentional instructions. Participants read sentences describing several goal-implying behaviors of a target person from which also a strong trait could be inferred or not. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the inference induced during preceding sentences. In comparison with behaviors that implied only a goal, stronger waveforms beginning at ∼150 ms were obtained when the behaviors additionally implied a trait. These ERPs showed considerable parallels between spontaneous and intentional inferences. This suggests that traits embedded in a stream of goal-directed behaviors were detected more rapidly and automatically than mere goals, irrespective of the participants’ spontaneous or intentional instructions. In line with this, source localization (LORETA) of the ERPs show predominantly activation in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during 150–200 ms, suggesting that goals were detected at that time interval. During 200–300 ms, activation was stronger at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for multiple goals and traits as opposed to goals only, suggesting that traits were inferred during this time window. A cued recall measure taken after the presentation of the stimulus material support the occurrence of goal and trait inferences and shows significant correlations with the neural components, indicating that these components are valid neural indices of spontaneous and intentional social inferences. The early detection of multiple goal and trait inferences is explained in terms of their greater social relevance, leading to privileged attention allocation and processing in the brain. PMID:19270041

  4. Characterizing a psychiatric symptom dimension related to deficits in goal-directed control.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Claire M; Kosinski, Michal; Whelan, Robert; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2016-01-01

    Prominent theories suggest that compulsive behaviors, characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction, are driven by shared deficits in goal-directed control, which confers vulnerability for developing rigid habits. However, recent studies have shown that deficient goal-directed control accompanies several disorders, including those without an obvious compulsive element. Reasoning that this lack of clinical specificity might reflect broader issues with psychiatric diagnostic categories, we investigated whether a dimensional approach would better delineate the clinical manifestations of goal-directed deficits. Using large-scale online assessment of psychiatric symptoms and neurocognitive performance in two independent general-population samples, we found that deficits in goal-directed control were most strongly associated with a symptom dimension comprising compulsive behavior and intrusive thought. This association was highly specific when compared to other non-compulsive aspects of psychopathology. These data showcase a powerful new methodology and highlight the potential of a dimensional, biologically-grounded approach to psychiatry research. PMID:26928075

  5. Predicting use of effective vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cassandra S.; Beltran, Alicia; Chen, Tzu-An; Thompson, Debbe; O’Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Objective To model effective vegetable parenting practices using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices construct scales. Design An internet survey was conducted with parents of preschoolers to assess their agreement with effective vegetable parenting practices and Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices items. Block regression modeling was conducted using the composite score of effective vegetable parenting practices scales as the outcome variable and Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices constructs as predictors in separate and sequential blocks: demographics, intention, desire (intrinsic motivation), perceived barriers, autonomy, relatedness, self-efficacy, habit, anticipated emotions, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, and lastly norms. Backward deletion was employed at the end for any variable not significant at P<0.05. Setting Houston, Texas, United States Subjects 307 parents (mostly mothers) of preschoolers Results Significant predictors in the final model in order of relationship strength included: habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection, habit of positive vegetable communications, respondent not liking vegetables, habit of keeping a positive vegetable environment, and perceived behavioral control of having a positive influence on child’s vegetable consumption. The final model’s adjusted R squared was 0.486. Conclusions This was the first study to test scales from a behavioral model to predict effective vegetable parenting practices. Further research needs to assess these Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices scales for their a) predictiveness of child consumption of vegetables in longitudinal samples and b) utility in guiding design of vegetable parenting practices interventions. PMID:25234656

  6. Predicting use of effective vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to model effective vegetable parenting practices using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices construct scales. An internet survey was conducted with 307 parents (mostly mothers) of preschoolers in Houston, Texas to assess their agreement with effective vegetable ...

  7. The Presence or Absence of Older Siblings and Variation in Infant Goal-Directed Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Vincent; Stahl, Daniel; Striano, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between having an older sibling and early goal-directed motor development. In a longitudinal study, infants were filmed playing with their mother and were observed at 5 and 12 months of age. After each observation, they were assessed with the Mental Bayley Scale. From the mother-child interaction, playing…

  8. Translational studies of goal-directed action as a framework for classifying deficits across psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristi R.; Morris, Richard W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn contingencies between actions and outcomes in a dynamic environment is critical for flexible, adaptive behavior. Goal-directed actions adapt to changes in action-outcome contingencies as well as to changes in the reward-value of the outcome. When networks involved in reward processing and contingency learning are maladaptive, this fundamental ability can be lost, with detrimental consequences for decision-making. Impaired decision-making is a core feature in a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from depression to schizophrenia. The argument can be developed, therefore, that seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders can be explained by dysfunction within common decision-making circuitry. From this perspective, gaining a better understanding of the neural processes involved in goal-directed action, will allow a comparison of deficits observed across traditional diagnostic boundaries within a unified theoretical framework. This review describes the key processes and neural circuits involved in goal-directed decision-making using evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging. Select studies are discussed to outline what we currently know about causal judgments regarding actions and their consequences, action-related reward evaluation, and, most importantly, how these processes are integrated in goal-directed learning and performance. Finally, we look at how adaptive decision-making is impaired across a range of psychiatric disorders and how deepening our understanding of this circuitry may offer insights into phenotypes and more targeted interventions. PMID:24904322

  9. Psychometric assessment of scales for a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable intake has been related to lower risk of chronic illnesses in the adult years. The habit of vegetable intake should be established early in life, but many parents of preschoolers report not being able to get their child to eat vegetables. The Model of Goal Directed Behavior (MGDB) has been...

  10. Characterizing a psychiatric symptom dimension related to deficits in goal-directed control

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M; Kosinski, Michal; Whelan, Robert; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2016-01-01

    Prominent theories suggest that compulsive behaviors, characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction, are driven by shared deficits in goal-directed control, which confers vulnerability for developing rigid habits. However, recent studies have shown that deficient goal-directed control accompanies several disorders, including those without an obvious compulsive element. Reasoning that this lack of clinical specificity might reflect broader issues with psychiatric diagnostic categories, we investigated whether a dimensional approach would better delineate the clinical manifestations of goal-directed deficits. Using large-scale online assessment of psychiatric symptoms and neurocognitive performance in two independent general-population samples, we found that deficits in goal-directed control were most strongly associated with a symptom dimension comprising compulsive behavior and intrusive thought. This association was highly specific when compared to other non-compulsive aspects of psychopathology. These data showcase a powerful new methodology and highlight the potential of a dimensional, biologically-grounded approach to psychiatry research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11305.001 PMID:26928075

  11. Infants' Perception of Goal-Directed Actions: Development through Cue-Based Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Szilvia; Leslie, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that sensitivity to goal-directed actions emerges during the first year of life. However, controversy still surrounds the question of how this sensitivity emerges and develops. One set of views emphasizes the role of observing behavioral cues, while another emphasizes the role of experience with producing own action. In a…

  12. Goal-directed decision making as probabilistic inference: A computational framework and potential neural correlates

    PubMed Central

    Solway, A.; Botvinick, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has given rise to the view that reward-based decision making is governed by two key controllers: a habit system, which stores stimulus-response associations shaped by past reward, and a goal-oriented system that selects actions based on their anticipated outcomes. The current literature provides a rich body of computational theory addressing habit formation, centering on temporal-difference learning mechanisms. Less progress has been made toward formalizing the processes involved in goal-directed decision making. We draw on recent work in cognitive neuroscience, animal conditioning, cognitive and developmental psychology and machine learning, to outline a new theory of goal-directed decision making. Our basic proposal is that the brain, within an identifiable network of cortical and subcortical structures, implements a probabilistic generative model of reward, and that goal-directed decision making is effected through Bayesian inversion of this model. We present a set of simulations implementing the account, which address benchmark behavioral and neuroscientific findings, and which give rise to a set of testable predictions. We also discuss the relationship between the proposed framework and other models of decision making, including recent models of perceptual choice, to which our theory bears a direct connection. PMID:22229491

  13. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks: Influence on Habitual versus Goal-Directed Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J; Kuschpel, Maxim S; Rapp, Michael A; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adults listened to music and played a video game during breaks interleaved with trials of a sequential two-step Markov decision task, designed to assess habitual as well as goal-directed decision making. Based on a neurocomputational model of task performance, we observed that for individuals with a rather limited working memory capacity video gaming as compared to music reduced reliance on the goal-directed decision-making system, while a rather large working memory capacity prevented such a decline. Our findings suggest differential effects of everyday activities on key decision-making processes. PMID:26982326

  14. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks: Influence on Habitual versus Goal-Directed Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kuschpel, Maxim S.; Rapp, Michael A.; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adults listened to music and played a video game during breaks interleaved with trials of a sequential two-step Markov decision task, designed to assess habitual as well as goal-directed decision making. Based on a neurocomputational model of task performance, we observed that for individuals with a rather limited working memory capacity video gaming as compared to music reduced reliance on the goal-directed decision-making system, while a rather large working memory capacity prevented such a decline. Our findings suggest differential effects of everyday activities on key decision-making processes. PMID:26982326

  15. Predicting use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing a parent's ability to influence a child's vegetable intake may require reducing the parent's use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices (IVPP). To understand the influences on IVPP, this study modeled use of IVPP using validated scales from a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenti...

  16. Exploring the neural correlates of goal-directed action and intention understanding.

    PubMed

    Carter, Elizabeth J; Hodgins, Jessica K; Rakison, David H

    2011-01-15

    Because we are a cooperative species, understanding the goals and intentions of others is critical for human survival. In this fMRI study, participants viewed reaching behaviors in which one of four animated characters moved a hand towards one of two objects and either (a) picked up the object, (b) missed the object, or (c) changed his path halfway to lift the other object. The characters included a human, a humanoid robot, stacked boxes with an arm, and a mechanical claw. The first three moved in an identical, human-like biological pattern. Right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) activity increased when the human or humanoid robot shifted goals or missed the target relative to obtaining the original goal. This suggests that the pSTS was engaged differentially for figures that appeared more human-like rather than for all human-like motion. Medial frontal areas that are part of a protagonist-monitoring network with the right pSTS (e.g., Mason and Just, 2006) were most engaged for the human character, followed by the robot character. The current data suggest that goal-directed action and intention understanding require this network and it is used similarly for the two processes. Moreover, it is modulated by character identity rather than only the presence of biological motion. We discuss the implications for behavioral theories of goal-directed action and intention understanding. PMID:20832476

  17. Success of applying early goal-directed therapy for septic shock patients in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Worapratya, Panita; Wanjaroenchaisuk, Apisit; Joraluck, Jutharat; Wuthisuthimethawee, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    Background Since early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) became standard care in severe sepsis and septic shock patients in intensive care units many years ago, we suppose that the survival rate of severe sepsis and septic shock patients improves if the resuscitative procedure is quickly implemented and is initiated in the emergency room. Objective We aimed at recording emergency department time to improve our patient care system as well as determine the rate at which EGDT goals can be achieved. The second analysis is to find out how much we can improve the survival rate. Methods This was a prospective observational study in an emergency room setting at a tertiary care facility where EGDT was applied for resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock patients. The data recorded were the initial vital signs, APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) score, SAP II (Simplified Acute Physiology II) score, SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score, time at which EGDT goals were achieved (central venous oxygen saturation [ScvO2] >70%), initial and final diagnosis, and outcome of treatment. The t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to compare between the achieved goal and nonachieved goal groups. Results There were 63 cases of severe sepsis in the study period. Only 55 patients submitted a signed consent form and had central line insertion. Twenty-eight (50.9%) cases were male. Thirty-nine (70.9%) patients achieved the goal, and the mean SAP II score was 8. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P-value =0.097). Thirty of the 39 patients (70.9%) survived in the achieved goal group, which was a statistically significant improvement of the survival rate when compared with only one of 16 patients (6.3%) surviving in the nonachieved goal group (P<0.001).

  18. Similar Mechanisms of Movement Control in Target- and Effect-Directed Actions toward Spatial Goals?

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions conducted toward temporal targets and temporal effects are controlled in a similar way. To investigate whether these findings also apply to spatially restricted movements we analyzed movement kinematics of continuous reversal movements toward given spatial targets and toward self-produced spatial effects in two experiments. In Experiment 1 target- and effect-directed movements were investigated in three different goal constellations. A spatial target/effect was always presented/produced on one movement side, on the other side either (a) no target/effect, (b) the same target/effect, or (c) a more difficult target/effect was presented/produced. Results showed that both target-directed and effect-directed movements have a typical spatial kinematic pattern and that both can be equally well described by linear functions as suggested by Fitts’ Law. However, effect-directed movements have longer movement times. In Experiment 2 participants performed target-directed movements to the one side and effect-directed movements to the other side of a reversal movement. More pronounced spatial kinematics were observed in effect-directed than in target-directed movements. Together, the results suggest that actions conducted toward spatial targets and spatial effects are controlled in a similar manner. Gradual differences in the kinematic patterns may arise because effects are cognitively more demanding. They may therefore be represented less accurately than targets. However, there was no indication of qualitative differences in the cognitive representations of effects and targets. This strengthens our assumption that both targets and effects play a comparable role in action control: they can both be viewed as goals of an action. Thus, ideomotor theories of action control should incorporate action targets as goals similar to action effects. PMID:23230426

  19. Visual Online Control of Goal-Directed Aiming Movements in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mackrous, Isabelle; Proteau, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the initial impulse of goal-directed movements was visually monitored by 5- to 12-years-old children (n = 36) in a manner similar to adults (n = 12). The participants moved a cursor toward a fixed target. In some trials, the cursor was unpredictably translated by 20 mm following movement initiation. The results showed that even the youngest children visually monitor the initial impulse of goal-directed movements. This monitoring and the error correction process that it triggers seem automatic because it occurs even when the cursor jump is not consciously detected. Finally, it appears that this process does not fully mature before late childhood, which suggests that a putative dedicated channel for processing visual hand information develops during childhood. PMID:27458399

  20. The importance of challenge for the enjoyment of intrinsically motivated, goal-directed activities.

    PubMed

    Abuhamdeh, Sami; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2012-03-01

    Although early interview-based analyses of the enjoyment of intrinsically motivated, goal-directed activities (e.g., chess, rock climbing, art making) suggested the importance of relatively difficult, "optimal" challenges, subsequent findings derived from a wider range of activities have not provided consistent support for this proposition. Two studies were conducted to clarify the relation between challenge and enjoyment. Study 1 focused on a single activity-Internet chess. The importance of challenge was evident at the subjective level (perceived challenge strongly predicted enjoyment) as well as the objective level (games against superior opponents were more enjoyable than games against inferior opponents, and close games were more enjoyable than blowouts). In Study 2, the experience sampling method was used to examine the enjoyment of challenge across a wide range of everyday activities. Activity motivation (intrinsically motivated, non-intrinsically motivated) and activity type (goal directed, non-goal directed) moderated the relation. Implications for theories of intrinsic motivation are discussed. PMID:22067510

  1. Target-specific membrane potential dynamics of neocortical projection neurons during goal-directed behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takayuki; Petersen, Carl CH

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior involves distributed neuronal circuits in the mammalian brain, including diverse regions of neocortex. However, the cellular basis of long-range cortico-cortical signaling during goal-directed behavior is poorly understood. Here, we recorded membrane potential of excitatory layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in primary somatosensory barrel cortex (S1) projecting to either primary motor cortex (M1) or secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) during a whisker detection task, in which thirsty mice learn to lick for water reward in response to a whisker deflection. Whisker stimulation in ‘Good performer’ mice, but not ‘Naive’ mice, evoked long-lasting biphasic depolarization correlated with task performance in S2-projecting (S2-p) neurons, but not M1-projecting (M1-p) neurons. Furthermore, S2-p neurons, but not M1-p neurons, became excited during spontaneous unrewarded licking in ‘Good performer’ mice, but not in ‘Naive’ mice. Thus, a learning-induced, projection-specific signal from S1 to S2 may contribute to goal-directed sensorimotor transformation of whisker sensation into licking motor output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15798.001 PMID:27328320

  2. Heroin self-administration: I. Incubation of goal-directed behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Kara L.; Twining, Robert C.; Baldwin, Anne E.; Vrana, Kent E.; Grigson, Patricia Sue

    2009-01-01

    This study used heroin self-administration to investigate incubation of goal-directed heroin-seeking behavior following abstinence. Male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered heroin on a fixed ratio 10 (FR10) schedule of reinforcement with licking of an empty spout serving as the operant behavior during 14 daily 3 h sessions. After this acquisition period, all rats received a 90 min extinction session following either 1 d or 14 d of home cage abstinence. When the extinction session occurred after only 1 d of home cage abstinence, rats with a history of heroin self-administration divided their responses equally between the previously “active” and “inactive” spouts. However, when the extinction session occurred following 14 d of home cage abstinence, the rats exhibited marked goal-directed heroin-seeking behavior by licking more on the previously “active” than “inactive” spout. These findings demonstrate that heroin-seeking behavior incubates over time, resulting in goal-directed heroin-seeking behavior in rats following 14 d but not 1 d of abstinence. Moreover, this facilitatory effect occurred in response to a different training schedule, a lower total drug intake, and after shorter periods of daily access than previously reported with heroin. PMID:18471868

  3. Latent Toxoplasma gondii infection leads to deficits in goal-directed behavior in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Getzmann, Stephan; Gajewski, Patrick D; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Goal-directed behavior is well-known to show declines in elderly individuals, possibly because of alterations in dopaminergic neural transmission. The dopaminergic system is modulated by a number of other different factors. One of these factors, which has attracted a considerable amount of interest in neurobiology, but has only rarely been examined with respect to its possible modulatory role for cognitive functions in elderly individuals, is latent Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection. Latent T. gondii infection may be of relevance to goal-directed behavior as it alters dopaminergic neural transmission. We examine goal-directed behavior in T. gondii IgG positive and negative elderly subjects in auditory distraction paradigm. We apply event-related potentials to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by latent T. gondii infection on a neurophysiological level. We show that latent T. gondii infection compromises the management of auditory distraction in elderly by specifically delaying processes of attentional allocation and disengagement. The results show that latent T. gondii infection is neglected but an important neurobiological modulator of cognitive functions in elderly individuals. PMID:24315729

  4. Target-specific membrane potential dynamics of neocortical projection neurons during goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takayuki; Petersen, Carl Ch

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior involves distributed neuronal circuits in the mammalian brain, including diverse regions of neocortex. However, the cellular basis of long-range cortico-cortical signaling during goal-directed behavior is poorly understood. Here, we recorded membrane potential of excitatory layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in primary somatosensory barrel cortex (S1) projecting to either primary motor cortex (M1) or secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) during a whisker detection task, in which thirsty mice learn to lick for water reward in response to a whisker deflection. Whisker stimulation in 'Good performer' mice, but not 'Naive' mice, evoked long-lasting biphasic depolarization correlated with task performance in S2-projecting (S2-p) neurons, but not M1-projecting (M1-p) neurons. Furthermore, S2-p neurons, but not M1-p neurons, became excited during spontaneous unrewarded licking in 'Good performer' mice, but not in 'Naive' mice. Thus, a learning-induced, projection-specific signal from S1 to S2 may contribute to goal-directed sensorimotor transformation of whisker sensation into licking motor output. PMID:27328320

  5. Putting ifs to work: goal-based relevance in conditional directives.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Denis J; Kemmelmeier, Markus; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2005-08-01

    Conditional directives are used by speakers to instruct hearers which actions are to be taken should certain events occur. The authors demonstrate that conditional directives are distinct from indicative conditionals in which speakers predict what is likely to be observed should certain events occur. The 1st set of experiments shows that goal structure determines what information speakers will select to test whether conditional directives have been followed but that these selections do not reflect their interpretations of the deontic necessity and sufficiency of the conditional relation. The 2nd set of experiments shows that formulations of conditional directives differ in how clearly speakers consider them to express their situation-specific intentions and that hearers accurately perceive what speakers intend them to do as a result of these formulations. The authors' findings illustrate a form of social rationality common in everyday interaction, which broadens normative conceptions of conditionals. PMID:16131270

  6. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  7. The why, what, where, when and how of goal-directed choice: neuronal and computational principles.

    PubMed

    Verschure, Paul F M J; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    The central problems that goal-directed animals must solve are: 'What do I need and Why, Where and When can this be obtained, and How do I get it?' or the H4W problem. Here, we elucidate the principles underlying the neuronal solutions to H4W using a combination of neurobiological and neurorobotic approaches. First, we analyse H4W from a system-level perspective by mapping its objectives onto the Distributed Adaptive Control embodied cognitive architecture which sees the generation of adaptive action in the real world as the primary task of the brain rather than optimally solving abstract problems. We next map this functional decomposition to the architecture of the rodent brain to test its consistency. Following this approach, we propose that the mammalian brain solves the H4W problem on the basis of multiple kinds of outcome predictions, integrating central representations of needs and drives (e.g. hypothalamus), valence (e.g. amygdala), world, self and task state spaces (e.g. neocortex, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, respectively) combined with multi-modal selection (e.g. basal ganglia). In our analysis, goal-directed behaviour results from a well-structured architecture in which goals are bootstrapped on the basis of predefined needs, valence and multiple learning, memory and planning mechanisms rather than being generated by a singular computation. PMID:25267825

  8. The why, what, where, when and how of goal-directed choice: neuronal and computational principles

    PubMed Central

    Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The central problems that goal-directed animals must solve are: ‘What do I need and Why, Where and When can this be obtained, and How do I get it?' or the H4W problem. Here, we elucidate the principles underlying the neuronal solutions to H4W using a combination of neurobiological and neurorobotic approaches. First, we analyse H4W from a system-level perspective by mapping its objectives onto the Distributed Adaptive Control embodied cognitive architecture which sees the generation of adaptive action in the real world as the primary task of the brain rather than optimally solving abstract problems. We next map this functional decomposition to the architecture of the rodent brain to test its consistency. Following this approach, we propose that the mammalian brain solves the H4W problem on the basis of multiple kinds of outcome predictions, integrating central representations of needs and drives (e.g. hypothalamus), valence (e.g. amygdala), world, self and task state spaces (e.g. neocortex, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, respectively) combined with multi-modal selection (e.g. basal ganglia). In our analysis, goal-directed behaviour results from a well-structured architecture in which goals are bootstrapped on the basis of predefined needs, valence and multiple learning, memory and planning mechanisms rather than being generated by a singular computation. PMID:25267825

  9. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations. PMID:25404898

  10. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations. PMID:25404898

  11. Speed/Accuracy Trade-Off between the Habitual and the Goal-Directed Processes

    PubMed Central

    Piray, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Instrumental responses are hypothesized to be of two kinds: habitual and goal-directed, mediated by the sensorimotor and the associative cortico-basal ganglia circuits, respectively. The existence of the two heterogeneous associative learning mechanisms can be hypothesized to arise from the comparative advantages that they have at different stages of learning. In this paper, we assume that the goal-directed system is behaviourally flexible, but slow in choice selection. The habitual system, in contrast, is fast in responding, but inflexible in adapting its behavioural strategy to new conditions. Based on these assumptions and using the computational theory of reinforcement learning, we propose a normative model for arbitration between the two processes that makes an approximately optimal balance between search-time and accuracy in decision making. Behaviourally, the model can explain experimental evidence on behavioural sensitivity to outcome at the early stages of learning, but insensitivity at the later stages. It also explains that when two choices with equal incentive values are available concurrently, the behaviour remains outcome-sensitive, even after extensive training. Moreover, the model can explain choice reaction time variations during the course of learning, as well as the experimental observation that as the number of choices increases, the reaction time also increases. Neurobiologically, by assuming that phasic and tonic activities of midbrain dopamine neurons carry the reward prediction error and the average reward signals used by the model, respectively, the model predicts that whereas phasic dopamine indirectly affects behaviour through reinforcing stimulus-response associations, tonic dopamine can directly affect behaviour through manipulating the competition between the habitual and the goal-directed systems and thus, affect reaction time. PMID:21637741

  12. The nucleus accumbens as a nexus between values and goals in goal-directed behavior: a review and a new hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Mannella, Francesco; Gurney, Kevin; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior is a fundamental means by which animals can flexibly solve the challenges posed by variable external and internal conditions. Recently, the processes and brain mechanisms underlying such behavior have been extensively studied from behavioral, neuroscientific and computational perspectives. This research has highlighted the processes underlying goal-directed behavior and associated brain systems including prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and, in particular therein, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). This paper focusses on one particular process at the core of goal-directed behavior: how motivational value is assigned to goals on the basis of internal states and environmental stimuli, and how this supports goal selection processes. Various biological and computational accounts have been given of this problem and of related multiple neural and behavior phenomena, but we still lack an integrated hypothesis on the generation and use of value for goal selection. This paper proposes an hypothesis that aims to solve this problem and is based on this key elements: (a) amygdala and hippocampus establish the motivational value of stimuli and goals; (b) prefrontal cortex encodes various types of action outcomes; (c) NAcc integrates different sources of value, representing them in terms of a common currency with the aid of dopamine, and thereby plays a major role in selecting action outcomes within prefrontal cortex. The “goals” pursued by the organism are the outcomes selected by these processes. The hypothesis is developed in the context of a critical review of relevant biological and computational literature which offer it support. The paper shows how the hypothesis has the potential to integrate existing interpretations of motivational value and goal selection. PMID:24167476

  13. Advanced Parkinson's disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Benatru, Isabelle; Brovelli, Andrea; Klinger, Hélène; Thobois, Stéphane; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Boussaoud, Driss; Meunier, Martine

    2013-01-01

    The present behavioral study re-addresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding vs. following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under 60 years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by PD. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced PD stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal-directed actions. PMID:23386815

  14. Effects of Stimulus-Driven and Goal-Directed Attention on Prepulse Inhibition of Brain Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Annic, Agnès; Bourriez, Jean-Louis; Delval, Arnaud; Bocquillon, Perrine; Trubert, Claire; Derambure, Philippe; Dujardin, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an operational measure of sensory gating. PPI of cortical response to a startling pulse is known to be modulated by attention. With a time-frequency analysis, we sought to determine whether goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention differentially modulate inhibition of cortical oscillations elicited by a startling pulse. Methods: An electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 26 healthy controls performing an active acoustic PPI paradigm. Startling stimuli were presented alone or either 400 or 1000 ms after one of three types of visual prepulse: to-be-attended (goal-directed attention), unexpected (stimulus-driven attention) or to-be-ignored (non-focused attention). We calculated the percentage PPI for the auditory event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) of theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta1 (13–20 Hz) and beta2 (20–30 Hz) oscillations and changes in inter-trial coherence (ITC), a measure of phase synchronization of electroencephalographic activity. Results: At 400 ms: (i) PPI of the ERSP of alpha, theta and beta1 oscillation was greater after an unexpected and a to-be-attended prepulse than after a to-be-ignored prepulse; and (ii) PPI of beta2 oscillations was greater after a to-be-attended than a to-be-ignored prepulse. At 1000 ms: (i) PPI of alpha oscillations was greater after an unexpected and a to-be-attended prepulse than after a to-be-ignored prepulse; and (ii) PPI of beta1 oscillations was greater after a to-be-attended than a to-be-ignored prepulse. The ITC values did not vary according to the type of prepulse. Conclusions: In an active PPI paradigm, stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention each have differential effects on the modulation of cortical oscillations. PMID:27524966

  15. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients

  16. [Advances in the research of early goal-directed therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock].

    PubMed

    Sun, W; Yuan, H X; An, Y Z

    2016-05-20

    Nowadays, severe infection has become one of the common problems in clinic. The morbidity of severe sepsis and septic shock is increasing, which becomes a big threat to patients with burn wounds or chronic diseases. It has become a key subject about how to cure severe sepsis and septic shock. In recent years, mortality of patients in such condition has declined slightly, which might be attributed to the application of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) in certain degree. This article reviews application of EGDT in severe sepsis and septic shock, in order to analyze its effectiveness and boundedness, as well as predict its development. PMID:27188487

  17. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João

    2015-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients

  18. Cognitive Validity of Students' Self-Reports of Classroom Mastery Goal Structure: What Students Are Thinking and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Woolley, Michael E.; Bonney, Christina R.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive interviews were employed to systematically examine the cognitive validity of self-report survey items extensively used to assess classroom mastery goal structure. In a sample of elementary and middle school students, items were identified that functioned according to their intended meaning and those eliciting less accurate…

  19. An Actor-Critic architecture and simulator for goal-directed Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Babak; Principe, Jose C; Sanchez, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The Perception-Action Cycle (PAC) is a central component of goal-directed behavior because it links internal percepts with external outcomes in the environment. Using inspiration from the PAC, we are developing a Brain-Machine Interface control architecture that utilizes both motor commands and goal information directly from the brain to navigate to novel targets in an environment. An Actor-Critic algorithm was selected for decoding the neural motor commands because it is a PAC-based computational framework where the perception component is implemented in the critic structure and the actor is responsible for taking actions. We develop in this work a biologically realistic simulator to analyze the performance of the decoder in terms of convergence and target acquisition. Experience from the simulator will guide parameter selection and assist in understanding the architecture before animal experiments. By varying the signal to noise ratio of the neural input and error signal, we were able to demonstrate how the learning rate and initial conditions affect a motor control target selection task. In this framework, the naïve decoder was able to reach targets in the presence of noise in the error signal and neural motor command with 98% accuracy. PMID:19963795

  20. Early goal-directed therapy in treatment of pediatric septic shock.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Cláudio Flauzino

    2010-09-01

    In the whole world, around 29,000 children younger than 5 years die every day, and sepsis is the most common cause of death. Whereas in adult patients vasomotor paralysis represents the predominant cause of mortality, death in pediatric sepsis is associated with severe hypovolemia and low cardiac output. The purpose of this article was to review the recent evidence on early treatment of pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock. Although current American College of Critical Care Medicine-Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines represent best practice, stronger evidences are lacking to confirm the components of these recommendations. Retrospective studies showed, at the same time, the positive effects arising from the utilization of American College of Critical Care Medicine-Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines and the existing barriers to its implementation. And one randomized control trial paralleled the results observed in adult patients and revealed that early goal-directed therapy in children is one of the few therapeutic interventions that proved to be beneficial in septic shock treatment. Early goal-directed therapy in pediatric septic shock is a successful method to optimize and parameterize treatment, but there is still a long way to turn septic shock resuscitation simpler and more widely spread. PMID:20523274

  1. A bioinspired autonomous swimming robot as a tool for studying goal-directed locomotion.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, L; Assaf, T; Mintchev, S; Marrazza, S; Capantini, L; Orofino, S; Ascari, L; Grillner, S; Wallén, P; Ekeberg, O; Stefanini, C; Dario, P

    2013-10-01

    The bioinspired approach has been key in combining the disciplines of robotics with neuroscience in an effective and promising fashion. Indeed, certain aspects in the field of neuroscience, such as goal-directed locomotion and behaviour selection, can be validated through robotic artefacts. In particular, swimming is a functionally important behaviour where neuromuscular structures, neural control architecture and operation can be replicated artificially following models from biology and neuroscience. In this article, we present a biomimetic system inspired by the lamprey, an early vertebrate that locomotes using anguilliform swimming. The artefact possesses extra- and proprioceptive sensory receptors, muscle-like actuation, distributed embedded control and a vision system. Experiments on optimised swimming and on goal-directed locomotion are reported, as well as the assessment of the performance of the system, which shows high energy efficiency and adaptive behaviour. While the focus is on providing a robotic platform for testing biological models, the reported system can also be of major relevance for the development of engineering system applications. PMID:24030051

  2. Encoding the Goal of an Object-Directed but Uncompleted Reaching Action in 6- and 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daum, Moritz M.; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-01-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement…

  3. The role of supplementary eye field in goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Stuphorn, Veit

    2015-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex has been suggested to play a role in the control, monitoring, and selection of behavior. The supplementary eye field (SEF) is a cortical area within medial frontal cortex that is involved in the regulation of eye movements. Neurophysiological studies in the SEF of macaque monkeys have systematically investigated the role of SEF in various behavioral control and monitoring functions. Inhibitory control studies indicate that SEF neurons do not directly participate in the initiation of eye movements. Instead, recent value-based decision making studies suggest that the SEF participates in the control of eye movements by representing the context-dependent action values of all currently possible oculomotor behaviors. These action value signals in SEF would be useful in directing the activity distribution in more primary oculomotor areas, to guide decisions towards behaviorally optimal choices. SEF also does not participate in the fast, inhibitory control of eye movements in response to sudden changes in the task requirements. Instead, it participates in the long-term regulation of oculomotor excitability to adjust the speed-accuracy tradeoff. The context-dependent control signals found in SEF (including the action value signals) have to be learned and continuously adjusted in response to changes in the environment. This is likely the function of the large number of different response monitoring and evaluation signals in SEF. In conclusion, the overall function of SEF in goal-directed behavior seems to be the learning of context-dependent rules that allow predicting the likely consequences of different eye movements. This map of action value signals could be used so that eye movements are selected that best fulfill the current long-term goal of the agent. PMID:25720602

  4. The role of supplementary eye field in goal-directed behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stuphorn, Veit

    2015-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex has been suggested to play a role in the control, monitoring, and selection of behavior. The supplementary eye field (SEF) is a cortical area within medial frontal cortex that is involved in the regulation of eye movements. Neurophysiological studies in the SEF of macaque monkeys have systematically investigated the role of SEF in various behavioral control and monitoring functions. Inhibitory control studies indicate that SEF neurons do not directly participate in the initiation of eye movements. Instead, recent value-based decision making studies suggest that the SEF participates in the control of eye movements by representing the context-dependent action values of all currently possible oculomotor behaviors. These action value signals in SEF would be useful in directing the activity distribution in more primary oculomotor areas, to guide decisions towards behaviorally optimal choices. SEF also does not participate in the fast, inhibitory control of eye movements in response to sudden changes in the task requirements. Instead, it participates in the long-term regulation of oculomotor excitability to adjust the speed-accuracy tradeoff. The context-dependent control signals found in SEF (including the action value signals) have to be learned and continuously adjusted in response to changes in the environment. This is likely the function of the large number of different response monitoring and evaluation signals in SEF. In conclusion, the overall function of SEF in goal-directed behavior seems to be the learning of context-dependent rules that allow predicting the likely consequences of different eye movements. This map of action value signals could be used so that eye movements are selected that best fulfill the current long-term goal of the agent. PMID:25720602

  5. Visual control of braking in goal-directed action and sport.

    PubMed

    Bardy, B G; Warren, W H

    1997-12-01

    Reaching a moving object, avoiding an obstacle, or controlling a rotation are common requirements of experts in sport and goal-directed action. Since the original analysis of optic flow, a large number of studies have addressed the problem of perception and control of braking. In this paper, the perception-action strategies described for deceleration control are reviewed; driving, docking, landing, somersaulting, running and reaching are analysed. The role played by 'tau dot', the first temporal derivative of tau, is shown to be critical. However, the so-called constant tau-dot strategy proposed to explain how we regulate our deceleration in such circumstances is critically examined and rejected. New directions in the problem of braking control are proposed that emphasize: (1) the advantage of tau-dot over other kinematic variables; (2) the task specificity of tau-dot; (3) the need to consider tau-dot as a control variable; and (4) the role played by the controller dynamics in the perception-action loop. Several directions for future research are suggested. PMID:9486438

  6. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  7. Planning Ahead: Goal-Directed Problem Solving by 2-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Schwade, Jennifer A.; Wewerka, Sandi Saeger; Delaney, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments tested 21- and 27-month olds' ability to construct a path to a mentally re-presented goal. After seeing the goal-state configuration of problems, both age groups evinced planning. Demonstration of initial solution step was less effective than goal-state exposure. Even with specification of a greater proportion of the goal path,…

  8. Goal-directed behavior under emotional distraction is preserved by enhanced task-specific activation.

    PubMed

    Wessa, Michèle; Heissler, Janine; Schönfelder, Sandra; Kanske, Philipp

    2013-03-01

    Despite the distracting effects of emotional stimuli on concurrent task performance, humans are able to uphold goal-directed behavior. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that this effect is due to the enhanced recruitment of task-specific neural resources. In a two-step functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we first localized those areas involved in mental arithmetics by contrasting arithmetic problems with a number detection task. The resulting activation maps were then used as masks in a second experiment that compared the effects of neutral and emotional distracter images on mental arithmetics. We found increased response times in the emotional distracter condition, accompanied by enhanced activation in task-specific areas, including superior parietal cortex, dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This activation increase correlated with larger behavioral impairment through emotional distraction. Similar error rates in both conditions indicate that cognitive task performance is preserved through enhanced recruitment of task-specific neural resources when emotional distracter stimuli are present. PMID:22302842

  9. ECLIPS: An extended CLIPS for backward chaining and goal-directed reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homeier, Peter V.; Le, Thach C.

    1991-01-01

    Realistic production systems require an integrated combination of forward and backward reasoning to reflect appropriately the processes of natural human expert reasoning. A control mechanism that consists solely of forward reasoning is not an effective way to promptly focus the system's attention as calculation proceeds. Often, expert system programmers will attempt to compensate for this lack by using data to enforce the desired goal directed control structure. This approach is inherently flawed in that it is attempting to use data to fulfill the role of control. This paper will describe our implementation of backward chaining in C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), and show how this has shortened and simplified various CLIPS programs. This work was done at the Aerospace Corporation, and has general applicability.

  10. Modelling the acquisition of goal-directed behaviors by populations of neurons.

    PubMed

    Guigon, E; Burnod, Y

    1995-03-01

    Recent neurophysiological studies have revealed the patterns of neuronal activity during the acquisition of goal-directed behaviors, both in single cells, and in large populations of neurons. We propose a model which helps three sets of experimental results in the monkey to be understood: (1) activity of single cells vary greatly and only population activities are causally related to behavior. The model shows how a population of stochastic neurons, whose behaviors vary widely, can learn a skilled conditioned movement with only local activity-dependent synaptic changes. (2) typical changes in neuronal activity occur when the rules governing the behavior are changed, i.e. when the relationship between cues and actions to reach a goal changes over time. There are two types of neuronal patterns during changes in reward contingency: a monotonic increasing pattern and a non-monotonic pattern which follows the change in the way the reward is obtained. Units in the model display these two types of change, which correspond to synaptic modifications related to the encoding of the behavioral significance of sensory and motor events. (3) These two patterns of neuronal activity define two populations whose anatomical distributions in the frontal lobe overlap with a gradient organized in the rostro-caudal direction. The model consists of two artificial neural networks, defined by the same set of equations, but which differ in the values of two parameters (P and Q). P defines the adaptive properties of processing units and Q describes the coding of information. The model suggests that a balance in the relative strengths of these parameters distributed along a rostro-caudal gradient can explain the distribution of neuronal types in the frontal lobe of the monkey. PMID:7622407

  11. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species. PMID:26635567

  12. Understanding Messaging Preferences to Inform Development of Mobile Goal-Directed Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Markle, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile messaging interventions have been shown to improve outcomes across a number of mental health and health-related conditions, but there are still significant gaps in our knowledge of how to construct and deliver the most effective brief messaging interventions. Little is known about the ways in which subtle linguistic variations in message content can affect user receptivity and preferences. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether any global messaging preferences existed for different types of language content, and how certain characteristics moderate those preferences, in an effort to inform the development of mobile messaging interventions. Methods This study examined user preferences for messages within 22 content groupings. Groupings were presented online in dyads of short messages that were identical in their subject matter, but structurally or linguistically varied. Participants were 277 individuals residing in the United States who were recruited and compensated through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) system. Participants were instructed to select the message in each dyad that they would prefer to receive to help them achieve a personal goal of their choosing. Results Results indicate global preferences of more than 75% of subjects for certain types of messages, such as those that were grammatically correct, free of textese, benefit-oriented, polite, nonaggressive, and directive as opposed to passive, among others. For several classes of messages, few or no clear global preferences were found. There were few personality- and trait-based moderators of message preferences, but subtle manipulations of message structure, such as changing “Try to…” to “You might want to try to…” affected message choice. Conclusions The results indicate that individuals are sensitive to variations in the linguistic content of text messages designed to help them achieve a personal goal and, in some cases, have clear preferences for

  13. The Relationships Between Self-Directed Learning, Critical Thinking, and Psychological Type, and Some Implications for Teaching in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreber, Carolin

    1998-01-01

    A study explored the extent to which 142 undergraduate students' willingness and perceived capacity to engage in self-directed learning, and ability to think critically, were explained by psychological type. Results indicate extroverted intuition is a strong predictor for self-directed learning; psychological type did not predict critical…

  14. Goal-Directed Modulation of Neural Memory Patterns: Implications for fMRI-Based Memory Detection.

    PubMed

    Uncapher, Melina R; Boyd-Meredith, J Tyler; Chow, Tiffany E; Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

    2015-06-01

    Remembering a past event elicits distributed neural patterns that can be distinguished from patterns elicited when encountering novel information. These differing patterns can be decoded with relatively high diagnostic accuracy for individual memories using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data. Brain-based memory detection--if valid and reliable--would have clear utility beyond the domain of cognitive neuroscience, in the realm of law, marketing, and beyond. However, a significant boundary condition on memory decoding validity may be the deployment of "countermeasures": strategies used to mask memory signals. Here we tested the vulnerability of fMRI-based memory detection to countermeasures, using a paradigm that bears resemblance to eyewitness identification. Participants were scanned while performing two tasks on previously studied and novel faces: (1) a standard recognition memory task; and (2) a task wherein they attempted to conceal their true memory state. Univariate analyses revealed that participants were able to strategically modulate neural responses, averaged across trials, in regions implicated in memory retrieval, including the hippocampus and angular gyrus. Moreover, regions associated with goal-directed shifts of attention and thought substitution supported memory concealment, and those associated with memory generation supported novelty concealment. Critically, whereas MVPA enabled reliable classification of memory states when participants reported memory truthfully, the ability to decode memory on individual trials was compromised, even reversing, during attempts to conceal memory. Together, these findings demonstrate that strategic goal states can be deployed to mask memory-related neural patterns and foil memory decoding technology, placing a significant boundary condition on their real-world utility. PMID:26041920

  15. Achievement Goal Theory at the Crossroads: Old Controversies, Current Challenges, and New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    Achievement goal theory has been one of the most prominent theories of motivation in educational research for more than 25 years. It has undergone considerable revision during that span, most notably with the distinction between approach and avoidance goals, debate concerning the critical features of performance goals, and the emergence of a…

  16. The Role of Self- and Social Directed Goals in a Problem-Based, Collaborative Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Wosnitza, Marold; Volet, Simone; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Students' learning goals demonstrate much stronger variety than traditional goal orientation models for classroom learning assume, especially when the educational context allows so. In this empirical study we will investigate the richness of students' goal orientation in a collaborative learning context. We do so with the help of a goal…

  17. Resonance of cortico-cortical connections of the motor system with the observation of goal directed grasping movements.

    PubMed

    Koch, Giacomo; Versace, Viviana; Bonnì, Sonia; Lupo, Federica; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    Goal directed movements require the activation of parietal, premotor and primary motor areas. In monkeys, neurons of these areas become active also during the observation of movements performed by others, especially for coding the goal of the action (mirror system). Using bifocal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy subjects, we tested whether the observation of goal directed reach to grasp actions may lead to specific changes in the short-latency connections linking key areas of the mirror system, such as the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), with the primary motor cortex (M1). We found that AIP-M1 and PMv-M1 cortico-cortical interactions were specifically activated when observing successful reaching to grasp goal directed actions, in which the hand posture was congruent with the goal of the action performed by the actor. On the other hand they were not modified when the same goal directed actions were performed wrongly with an inappropriate grasping posture. A similar profile of excitability was observed when testing specific intracortical facilitatory circuits in M1 (I(2)-waves), known to reflect the activity in cortico-cortical pathways transmitting information from PMv. We conclude that the simple observation of others' goal directed actions is able to induce specific neurophysiological changes in some cortico-cortical circuits of the human motor system. PMID:20691198

  18. A two-neuron system for adaptive goal-directed decision-making in Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Michael; Staras, Kevin; Kemenes, György

    2016-01-01

    During goal-directed decision-making, animals must integrate information from the external environment and their internal state to maximize resource localization while minimizing energy expenditure. How this complex problem is solved by the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, using a combined behavioural and neurophysiological approach, we demonstrate that the mollusc Lymnaea performs a sophisticated form of decision-making during food-searching behaviour, using a core system consisting of just two neuron types. The first reports the presence of food and the second encodes motivational state acting as a gain controller for adaptive behaviour in the absence of food. Using an in vitro analogue of the decision-making process, we show that the system employs an energy management strategy, switching between a low- and high-use mode depending on the outcome of the decision. Our study reveals a parsimonious mechanism that drives a complex decision-making process via regulation of levels of tonic inhibition and phasic excitation. PMID:27257106

  19. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding. PMID:27431039

  20. Dopaminergic modulation of positive expectations for goal-directed action: evidence from Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolpe, Noham; Nombela, Cristina; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) impairs the control of movement and cognition, including the planning of action and its consequences. This provides the opportunity to study the dopaminergic influences on the perception and awareness of action. Here we examined the perception of the outcome of a goal-directed action made by medicated patients with PD. A visuomotor task probed the integration of sensorimotor signals with the positive expectations of outcomes (Self priors), which in healthy adults bias perception toward success in proportion to trait optimism. We tested the hypotheses that (i) the priors on the perception of the consequences of one’s own actions differ between patients and age- and sex-matched controls, and (ii) that these priors are modulated by the levodopa dose equivalent (LDEs) in patients. There was no overall difference between patients and controls in the perceptual priors used. However, the precision of patient priors was inversely related to their LDE. Patients with high LDE showed more accurate priors, representing predictions that were closer to the true distribution of performance. Such accuracy has previously been demonstrated when observing the actions of others, suggesting abnormal awareness of action in these patients. These results confirm a link between dopamine and the positive expectation of the outcome of one’s own actions, and may have implications for the management of PD. PMID:26500582

  1. Hereditary cerebellar ataxia progressively impairs force adaptation during goal-directed arm movements.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Matthias; Gomez, Christopher M; Ebner, Timothy J; Konczak, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how humans with hereditary cerebellar degeneration [spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 6 and 8, n = 9] and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 9) adapted goal-directed arm movements to an unknown external force field. We tested whether learning could be generalized to untrained regions in the workspace, an aspect central to the idea of an internal model, and if any learning could be retained. After removal of the force field, SCA patients showed little or no learning-related aftereffects indicating that repeated force-field exposure never led to successful force compensation. In contrast, healthy control subjects quickly adapted their movements to the new force field. The difference in force adaptation was significant for movements to targets that required both the shoulder and elbow joint (P < 0.001). Moreover, the generalization of learned movements to targets outside the learned workspace was prevented by the cerebellar degeneration (P < 0.01). Retention of force adaptation was significantly lower in SCA patients (P = 0.003). The severity of ataxia in SCA patients correlated negatively with the extent of learning (r = -0.84, P = 0.004). Our findings imply that progressive loss of cerebellar function gradually impairs force adaptation. The failure to generalize learning suggests that cerebellar degeneration prevents the formation of an internal representation of the limb dynamics. PMID:13679403

  2. The Feeling of Action Tendencies: On the Emotional Regulation of Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion theory, over the past century and beyond, has tended to regard feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling–action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic–visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns) of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is physiologically and cognitively primed to do) in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction–feedback loops which we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modelers, and roboticists. PMID:22207854

  3. Substantia nigra pars reticulata modulates spontaneous and goal-directed behaviour of rat.

    PubMed

    Barth, T; Klingberg, F

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous and active avoidance behaviour was compared pre- and postoperatively on 11 six month old male hooded rats of the Long-Evans strain. Seven of them with small bilateral symmetric lesions only in the ventromedial part of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) were characterized by a strong decrease of exploratory parameters except rearings, without differences of ambulatory activity in the open field (OF) test. The SNR group showed a significant retention loss, increased reaction times and run durations in three variants of preoperatively consolidated Y-maze performance and weakened brightness discrimination. They were unable to relearn the tasks and to reduce errors to the preoperative level which was zero. Postoperative acquisition of a new active avoidance stereotype in the jump test box was impossible. They ignored the hanging rod in this box and did not find the escape possibility. Prevailing flexor tonus of trunk and forelegs after SNR lesions was no sufficient reason for these changes, because inborn and automated programs were far less concerned than learnt or operative programs and the accuracy of goal-directed behaviour. PMID:3390168

  4. A two-neuron system for adaptive goal-directed decision-making in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Michael; Staras, Kevin; Kemenes, György

    2016-01-01

    During goal-directed decision-making, animals must integrate information from the external environment and their internal state to maximize resource localization while minimizing energy expenditure. How this complex problem is solved by the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, using a combined behavioural and neurophysiological approach, we demonstrate that the mollusc Lymnaea performs a sophisticated form of decision-making during food-searching behaviour, using a core system consisting of just two neuron types. The first reports the presence of food and the second encodes motivational state acting as a gain controller for adaptive behaviour in the absence of food. Using an in vitro analogue of the decision-making process, we show that the system employs an energy management strategy, switching between a low- and high-use mode depending on the outcome of the decision. Our study reveals a parsimonious mechanism that drives a complex decision-making process via regulation of levels of tonic inhibition and phasic excitation. PMID:27257106

  5. Actions, Action Sequences and Habits: Evidence That Goal-Directed and Habitual Action Control Are Hierarchically Organized

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral evidence suggests that instrumental conditioning is governed by two forms of action control: a goal-directed and a habit learning process. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) has been argued to underlie the goal-directed process; however, the way in which it interacts with habits and the structure of the habitual process has remained unclear. According to a flat architecture, the habitual process corresponds to model-free RL, and its interaction with the goal-directed process is coordinated by an external arbitration mechanism. Alternatively, the interaction between these systems has recently been argued to be hierarchical, such that the formation of action sequences underlies habit learning and a goal-directed process selects between goal-directed actions and habitual sequences of actions to reach the goal. Here we used a two-stage decision-making task to test predictions from these accounts. The hierarchical account predicts that, because they are tied to each other as an action sequence, selecting a habitual action in the first stage will be followed by a habitual action in the second stage, whereas the flat account predicts that the statuses of the first and second stage actions are independent of each other. We found, based on subjects' choices and reaction times, that human subjects combined single actions to build action sequences and that the formation of such action sequences was sufficient to explain habitual actions. Furthermore, based on Bayesian model comparison, a family of hierarchical RL models, assuming a hierarchical interaction between habit and goal-directed processes, provided a better fit of the subjects' behavior than a family of flat models. Although these findings do not rule out all possible model-free accounts of instrumental conditioning, they do show such accounts are not necessary to explain habitual actions and provide a new basis for understanding how goal-directed and habitual action control interact. PMID:24339762

  6. Hepatic Perfusion Alterations in Septic Shock Patients: Impact of Early Goal-directed Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Wen; Xie, Jian-Feng; Liu, Ai-Ran; Huang, Ying-Zi; Guo, Feng-Mei; Yang, Cong-Shan; Yang, Yi; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) has become an important therapeutic management in early salvage stage of septic shock. However, splenic organs possibly remained hypoperfused and hypoxic despite fluid resuscitation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of EGDT on hepatic perfusion in septic shock patients. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out in early septic shock patients who were admitted to Intensive Care Unit within 24 h after onset and who met all four elements of the EGDT criteria after treatment with the standard EGDT procedure within 6 h between December 1, 2012 and November 30, 2013. The hemodynamic data were recorded, and oxygen metabolism and hepatic functions were monitored. An indocyanine green clearance test was applied to detect the hepatic perfusion. The patients’ characteristics were compared before treatment (T0), immediately after EGDT (T1), and 24 h after EGDT (T2). This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.org, NCT02060773. Results: Twenty-one patients were included in the study; however, the hepatic perfusion data were not included in the analysis for two patients; therefore, 19 patients were eligible for the study. Hemodynamics data, as monitored by pulse-indicator continuous cardiac output, were obtained from 16 patients. There were no significant differences in indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR) and 15-min retention rate (R15) at T0 (11.9 ± 5.0%/min and 20.0 ± 13.2%), T1 (11.4 ± 5.1%/min and 23.6 ± 14.9%), and T2 (11.0 ± 4.5%/min and 23.7 ± 15.3%) (all P > 0.05). Both of the alterations of ICG-PDR and R15 showed no differences at T0, T1, and T2 in the patients of different subgroups that achieved different resuscitation goal numbers when elected (P > 0.05). Conclusion: There were no hepatic perfusion improvements after EGDT in the early phase of patients with septic shock. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02060773 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02060773

  7. Personal and Contextual Antecedents of Achievement Goals: Their Direct and Indirect Relations to Students' Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    In this correlational research, we investigated to what extent achievement goals, in conjunction with need for achievement and fear of failure as well as perceived classroom goal structures, are related to learning strategies among upper elementary school students. After taking into account students' tendency to respond in a socially desirable…

  8. A strongly goal-directed close-range vision system for spacecraft docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Kim L.; Goddard, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    In this presentation, we will propose a strongly goal-oriented stereo vision system to establish proper docking approach motions for automated rendezvous and capture (AR&C). From an input sequence of stereo video image pairs, the system produces a current best estimate of: contact position; contact vector; contact velocity; and contact orientation. The processing demands imposed by this particular problem and its environment dictate a special case solution; such a system should necessarily be, in some sense, minimalist. By this we mean the system should construct a scene description just sufficiently rich to solve the problem at hand and should do no more processing than is absolutely necessary. In addition, the imaging resolution should be just sufficient. Extracting additional information and constructing higher level scene representations wastes energy and computational resources and injects an unnecessary degree of complexity, increasing the likelihood of malfunction. We therefore take a departure from most prior stereopsis work, including our own, and propose a system based on associative memory. The purpose of the memory is to immediately associate a set of motor commands with a set of input visual patterns in the two cameras. That is, rather than explicitly computing point correspondences and object positions in world coordinates and trying to reason forward from this information to a plan of action, we are trying to capture the essence of reflex behavior through the action of associative memory. The explicit construction of point correspondences and 3D scene descriptions, followed by online velocity and point of impact calculations, is prohibitively expensive from a computational point of view for the problem at hand. Learned patterns on the four image planes, left and right at two discrete but closely spaced instants in time, will be bused directly to infer the spacecraft reaction. This will be a continuing online process as the docking collar approaches.

  9. A strongly goal-directed close-range vision system for spacecraft docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Kim L.; Goddard, Ralph E.

    In this presentation, we will propose a strongly goal-oriented stereo vision system to establish proper docking approach motions for automated rendezvous and capture (AR&C). From an input sequence of stereo video image pairs, the system produces a current best estimate of: contact position; contact vector; contact velocity; and contact orientation. The processing demands imposed by this particular problem and its environment dictate a special case solution; such a system should necessarily be, in some sense, minimalist. By this we mean the system should construct a scene description just sufficiently rich to solve the problem at hand and should do no more processing than is absolutely necessary. In addition, the imaging resolution should be just sufficient. Extracting additional information and constructing higher level scene representations wastes energy and computational resources and injects an unnecessary degree of complexity, increasing the likelihood of malfunction. We therefore take a departure from most prior stereopsis work, including our own, and propose a system based on associative memory. The purpose of the memory is to immediately associate a set of motor commands with a set of input visual patterns in the two cameras. That is, rather than explicitly computing point correspondences and object positions in world coordinates and trying to reason forward from this information to a plan of action, we are trying to capture the essence of reflex behavior through the action of associative memory. The explicit construction of point correspondences and 3D scene descriptions, followed by online velocity and point of impact calculations, is prohibitively expensive from a computational point of view for the problem at hand. Learned patterns on the four image planes, left and right at two discrete but closely spaced instants in time, will be bused directly to infer the spacecraft reaction. This will be a continuing online process as the docking collar approaches.

  10. Global attention facilitates the planning, but not execution of goal-directed reaches

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, humans interact with multiple objects in complex environments. A large body of literature demonstrates that target selection is biased toward recently attended features, such that reaches are faster and trajectory curvature is reduced when target features (i.e., color) are repeated (priming of pop-out). In the real world, however, objects are comprised of several features—some of which may be more suitable for action than others. When fetching a mug from the cupboard, for example, attention not only has to be allocated to the object, but also the handle. To date, no study has investigated the impact of hierarchical feature organization on target selection for action. Here, we employed a color-oddity search task in which targets were Pac-men (i.e., a circle with a triangle cut out) oriented to be either consistent or inconsistent with the percept of a global Kanizsa triangle. We found that reaches were initiated faster when a task-irrelevant illusory figure was present independent of color repetition. Additionally, consistent with priming of pop-out, both reach planning and execution were facilitated when local target colors were repeated, regardless of whether a global figure was present. We also demonstrated that figures defined by illusory, but not real contours, afforded an early target selection benefit. In sum, these findings suggest that when local targets are perceptually grouped to form an illusory surface, attention quickly spreads across the global figure and facilitates the early stage of reach planning, but not execution. In contrast, local color priming is evident throughout goal-directed reaching. PMID:27467450

  11. A hierarchical model of goal directed navigation selects trajectories in a visual environment.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Uğur M; Milford, Michael J; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a Hierarchical Look-Ahead Trajectory Model (HiLAM) that incorporates the firing pattern of medial entorhinal grid cells in a planning circuit that includes interactions with hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. We show the model's flexibility in representing large real world environments using odometry information obtained from challenging video sequences. We acquire the visual data from a camera mounted on a small tele-operated vehicle. The camera has a panoramic field of view with its focal point approximately 5 cm above the ground level, similar to what would be expected from a rat's point of view. Using established algorithms for calculating perceptual speed from the apparent rate of visual change over time, we generate raw dead reckoning information which loses spatial fidelity over time due to error accumulation. We rectify the loss of fidelity by exploiting the loop-closure detection ability of a biologically inspired, robot navigation model termed RatSLAM. The rectified motion information serves as a velocity input to the HiLAM to encode the environment in the form of grid cell and place cell maps. Finally, we show goal directed path planning results of HiLAM in two different environments, an indoor square maze used in rodent experiments and an outdoor arena more than two orders of magnitude larger than the indoor maze. Together these results bridge for the first time the gap between higher fidelity bio-inspired navigation models (HiLAM) and more abstracted but highly functional bio-inspired robotic mapping systems (RatSLAM), and move from simulated environments into real-world studies in rodent-sized arenas and beyond. PMID:25079451

  12. The impact of goal-directed transvaginal ultrasonography on clinical decision-making for emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Sayrac, Neslihan; Bektas, Firat; Soyuncu, Secgin; Sayrac, Vefa

    2015-07-01

    The aim of study was to determine the impact of "goal-directed transvaginal ultrasonography" (TVUSG) on real-time clinical decision making of attending emergency physicians evaluating their level of certainty for preliminary diagnosis, admission, surgery, treatment, additional laboratory, and discharge in patients presenting with acute pelvic pain to the emergency department (ED). This prospective cross-sectional clinical study was conducted on sexually active female patients older than 18 years who presented with acute pelvic pain in the ED. The level of certainty of clinical decision making as mentioned above was measured by a visual analogue scale from 0 to 100 mm with 100 mm being most certain before and after TVUSG. Statistical analysis was performed on 88 patients. The mean age was 31.7 ±8.3 years with a median of 30 years. Among clinical decisions, there was a significant difference between pre-TVUSG and post-TVUSG certainty of the decision to perform preliminary diagnoses derived from patient's history and physical examination but not in the other outcomes (treatment, admission, surgery, and discharge). (P = .05). Of the patients included in the study, 11 (12.5%) were admitted to hospital, and 2 (2.3%) of them were operated on. The remaining 75 (85.2%) patients were discharged from the ED; of the patients that had been discharged, 18 (20.5%) patients later consulted another physician, and no further pathology could be discovered. In conclusion, US performed by attending emergency physicians may affect the certainty of their decisions in patients presenting with acute pelvic pain. This effect statistically significantly on the decision to determine preliminary diagnosis. PMID:25963680

  13. Conducted electrical weapon incapacitation during a goal-directed task as a function of probe spread.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeffrey; Dawes, Donald; Miner, James; Kunz, Sebastian; Nelson, Rebecca; Sweeney, James

    2012-12-01

    Despite training and field experience that the location and spread between conducted electrical weapon (CEW) probes is important in establishing incapacitation, there have been no human studies which have systematically examined the relationships between probe spread and incapacitation. We have investigated this relationship with the TASER(®) X26. We have also developed and validated methodologies for prospective assessment of the effectiveness of CEWs in the incapacitation of highly motivated human subjects. Subjects (n = 30) had probes placed on the front or back with randomly varied spreads in accordance with recommended targeting zones. Subjects were motivated to complete the task of disabling the device or a dummy officer suspended ten feet away during the exposure while using a training knife. Subjects were rated on their progress toward goal success and on the extent of any incapacitation using two separate observer scoring panels: one consisting of experts in physiology and X26 technology, and another of veteran peace officers. Incapacitation by all measures was found to be a function of spread; generally increasing in effectiveness up to spreads between 9 and 12 in. There were notable differences between front and back exposures, with front exposures not leading to full incapacitation of the upper extremities regardless of probe spread. This is the first published study on a quantitative methodology for directly assessing the effectiveness of CEWs in human incapacitation. We have also validated and quantified for the first time in human subjects that establishing a minimal spread between X26 probes correlates to the extent of device effectiveness. PMID:22610783

  14. The neural basis of integrating pre- and post-response information for goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Frimmel, Steffi; Wolfensteller, Uta; Mohr, Holger; Ruge, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental prerequisite for goal-directed action is to encode the contingencies between responses (R) producing specific outcomes (O) in specific stimulus conditions (S). The present study aimed to characterize the functional neuroanatomy of different associational sub-components of such S-R-O contingencies during the first few trials of exposure. We devised a novel paradigm that was suited to distinguish BOLD activation patterns related to S-R, R-O, and the full S-R-O contingency. Different from previous studies our experimental design ensured that stimulus-related processes and outcome-related processes were maximally comparable, as both were learned incidentally and lacked intrinsic incentive value, and different from trial-and-error learning situations, outcomes did not serve a special role as performance feedback. We observed contingency-related dissociations between SMA, lateral OFC, and large parts of the reward system including central OFC, anterior striatum and midbrain areas. While the lateral OFC was involved in processing differential outcomes irrespective of a predictive stimulus context, the SMA was specifically engaged when differential outcomes could be predicted by the stimulus. By contrast, the activation pattern of reward system areas suggested that these regions serve a role in integrating non-incentive differential outcome information and incentive common outcome information. Together, these results support the notion that striatal and orbitofrontal regions are involved in outcome-related processes beyond trial-and-error S-R learning, that is, when outcomes are non-incentive and do not serve as reinforcing feedback that drives learning. Furthermore, our results clarify the role of the SMA in outcome-related processes thereby supporting current versions of ideomotor theory. PMID:26522619

  15. Extended cocaine-seeking produces a shift from goal-directed to habitual responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Berini, Carole R; Ghee, Shannon M; Reichel, Carmela M

    2016-10-01

    Cocaine addiction is often characterized by a rigid pattern of behavior in which cocaine users continue seeking and taking drug despite negative consequences associated with its use. As such, full acquisition and relapse of drug-seeking behavior may be attributed to a shift away from goal-directed responding and a shift towards the maladaptive formation of rigid and habit-like responses. This rigid nature of habitual responding can be developed with extended training and is typically characterized by insensitivity to changes in outcome value. The present study determined whether cocaine (primary reinforcer) and cocaine associated cues (secondary reinforcer) could be devalued in rats with different histories of cocaine self-administration. Specifically, rats were trained on two schedules of cocaine self-administration (long-access vs. short-access). Following training the cocaine reinforcer was devalued through three separate pairings of lithium chloride with cocaine infusions. Cocaine history did not have an impact on devaluation of cocaine-associated cues. However, the reinforcing properties of cocaine were devalued only in rats on a short-access cocaine schedule but not those trained on a long-access schedule. Taken together this pattern of findings suggests that, in short access rats, devaluation is specific to the primary reinforcer and not associative stimuli such as cues. Importantly, rats that received extended training during self-administration displayed insensitivity to outcome devaluation of the primary reinforcer as well as all associative stimuli, thus displaying rigid behavioral responding similar to behavioral patterns found in addiction. Alternatively, long access cocaine exposure may have altered the devaluation threshold. PMID:27321756

  16. Apathy in Frontotemporal Degeneration: Neuroanatomical Evidence of Impaired Goal-directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Massimo, Lauren; Powers, John P.; Evans, Lois K.; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Eslinger, Paul; Ersek, Mary; Irwin, David J.; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apathy, the major manifestation of impaired goal-directed behavior (GDB), is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration (bvFTD). The behavioral and biological mechanisms of apathy, however, are not well understood. We hypothesized that GDB has multiple components—including at least initiation, planning and motivation—and that GDB is supported by a network of multiple frontal brain regions. In this study, we examined this hypothesis by evaluating the selective breakdown of GDB in bvFTD, and relating these deficits to gray matter (GM) atrophy and white matter (WM) integrity. Methods: Eighteen apathetic bvFTD participants and 17 healthy controls completed the Philadelphia Apathy Computerized Test (PACT). This test quantifies each of three components of GDB hypothesized to contribute to apathy. We then used regression analyses to relate PACT scores to GM atrophy and reduced white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA) in bvFTD. Results: Compared to controls, bvFTD participants demonstrated significant impairments in each of the three hypothesized components of GDB that contribute to apathy. Regression analyses related each component to disease in specific GM structures and associated WM tracts. Poor initiation thus was related to GM atrophy in anterior cingulate and reduced FA in the cingulum. Planning impairment was related to GM atrophy in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced FA in superior longitudinal fasciculus. Poor motivation was related to GM atrophy in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and reduced FA in uncinate fasciculus (UNC). Conclusions: bvFTD patients have difficulty with initiation, planning and motivation components of GDB. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that GDB encompasses at least three processes, that these are supported by a large-scale neural network within specific portions of the frontal lobe, and that degradation of any one of these prefrontal

  17. Neuronal activity in primate prefrontal cortex related to goal-directed behavior during auditory working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Brosch, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been documented to play critical roles in goal-directed behaviors, like representing goal-relevant events and working memory (WM). However, neurophysiological evidence for such roles of PFC has been obtained mainly with visual tasks but rarely with auditory tasks. In the present study, we tested roles of PFC in auditory goal-directed behaviors by recording local field potentials in the auditory region of left ventrolateral PFC while a monkey performed auditory WM tasks. The tasks consisted of multiple events and required the monkey to change its mental states to achieve the reward. The events were auditory and visual stimuli, as well as specific actions. Mental states were engaging in the tasks and holding task-relevant information in auditory WM. We found that, although based on recordings from one hemisphere in one monkey only, PFC represented multiple events that were important for achieving reward, including auditory and visual stimuli like turning on and off an LED, as well as bar touch. The responses to auditory events depended on the tasks and on the context of the tasks. This provides support for the idea that neuronal representations in PFC are flexible and can be related to the behavioral meaning of stimuli. We also found that engaging in the tasks and holding information in auditory WM were associated with persistent changes of slow potentials, both of which are essential for auditory goal-directed behaviors. Our study, on a single hemisphere in a single monkey, reveals roles of PFC in auditory goal-directed behaviors similar to those in visual goal-directed behaviors, suggesting that functions of PFC in goal-directed behaviors are probably common across the auditory and visual modality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26874071

  18. Assessing the Quality of Student Thinking Directly: An Exploratory Study of Two Cohorts Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollacott, L.; Snell, D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an exploratory investigation involving the direct assessment of the quality of abstract thinking of two cohorts of South African university entrants who had very good school leaving qualifications. The investigation was prompted by the observation of difficulties these students seemed to have had in a first…

  19. Integrating E-Learning into the Direct-Instruction Model to Enhance the Effectiveness of Critical-Thinking Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-Chu

    2009-01-01

    The "Direct-instruction Model" favors the use of teacher explanations and modeling combined with student practice and feedback to teach thinking skills. Using this paradigm, this study incorporates e-learning during an 18-week experimental instruction period that includes 48 preservice teachers. The instructional design in this study emphasizes…

  20. Using Directed Reading Thinking Activity Strategies To Teach Students Reading Comprehension Skills in Middle Grades Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFoe, Marguerite Corbitt

    This practicum was designed to use directed reading thinking activity strategies to teach reading comprehension skills to middle grades language arts students who frequently failed to make passing scores in reading comprehension exercises. The program included three specific strategies. The first strategy was to teach the students higher-order…

  1. Stimulating Creativity: Modulation of Convergent and Divergent Thinking by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Creativity has been conceptualized as involving 2 distinct components; divergent thinking, the search for multiple solutions to a single problem, and convergent thinking, the quest for a single solution either through an analytical process or the experience of insight. Studies have demonstrated that these abilities can be improved by cognitive…

  2. Goal Directed Resuscitation in the Prehospital Setting: A Propensity Adjusted Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Minei, Joseph P.; Maier, Ronald V.; West, Michael A.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Moore, Ernest E.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Sperry, Jason L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The scope of prehospital (PH) interventions has expanded recently; not always with clear benefit. PH crystalloid resuscitation has been challenged, particularly in penetrating trauma. Optimal PH crystalloid resuscitation strategies remain unclear in blunt trauma as does the influence of PH hypotension. The objective was to characterize outcomes for PH crystalloid volume in patients with and without PH hypotension. Methods Data were obtained from a multicenter prospective study of blunt injured adults transported from the scene with ISS > 15. Subjects were divided into HIGH (>500cc) and LOW (≤500cc) PH crystalloid groups. Propensity adjusted regression determined the association of PH crystalloid group with mortality and acute coagulopathy (admission INR>1.5) in subjects with and without PH hypotension (SBP<90mmHg) after controlling for confounders. Results Of 1,216 subjects, 822 (68%) received HIGH PH crystalloid and 616 (51%) had PH hypotension. Initial base deficit and ISS were similar between HIGH and LOW crystalloid groups in subjects with and without PH hypotension. In subjects without PH hypotension, HIGH crystalloid was associated with an increase in the risk of mortality (HR 2.5; 95%CI 1.3 – 4.9, p<0.01) and acute coagulopathy (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.01–4.9, p=0.04) but not in subjects with PH hypotension. HIGH crystalloid was associated with correction of PH hypotension on ED arrival (OR 2.02; 1.06–3.88, p=0.03). The mean corrected SBP in the ED was 104mmHg. Each 1mmHg increase in ED systolic blood pressure was associated with a 2% increase in survival in subjects with PH hypotension (OR 1.02; 1.01–1.03, p<0.01). Conclusions In severely injured blunt trauma patients, PH crystalloid >500cc was associated with worse outcome in patients without PH hypotension but not with PH hypotension. HIGH crystalloid was associated with corrected PH hypotension. This suggests PH resuscitation should be goal directed based on the presence or absence of PH

  3. Can Boards of Directors Think Strategically? Some Issues in Developing Direction-Givers' Thinking to a Mega Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garratt, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The author argues that current corporate government legislation and practice is weighted too much in the direction of "board compliance." It is, therefore, in danger of reducing the risks taken by boards of directors. In the long term this could slow significantly the growth of capitalism. He proposes a rebalancing of the fundamental board…

  4. Scientific Literacy: The Role of Goal-Directed Reading and Evaluation in Understanding Scientific Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, M. Anne; Richter, Tobias; Rouet, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the mental processes and representations that are required of laypersons when learning about science issues from texts. We begin by defining scientific literacy as the ability to understand and critically evaluate scientific content in order to achieve one's goals. We then present 3 challenges of learning from…

  5. Goal-Directed Decision Making as Probabilistic Inference: A Computational Framework and Potential Neural Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solway, Alec; Botvinick, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has given rise to the view that reward-based decision making is governed by two key controllers: a habit system, which stores stimulus-response associations shaped by past reward, and a goal-oriented system that selects actions based on their anticipated outcomes. The current literature provides a rich body of computational theory…

  6. Infant Eye-Tracking in the Context of Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbetta, Daniela; Guan, Yu; Williams, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two methods that we applied to our research to record infant gaze in the context of goal-oriented actions using different eye-tracking devices: head-mounted and remote eye-tracking. For each type of eye-tracking system, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, describe the particular experimental setups we used to study…

  7. Movement Structure in Young and Elderly Adults during Goal-Directed Movements of the Left and Right Arm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poston, Brach; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Barduson, Beth; Stelmach, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Elderly adults often exhibit performance deficits during goal-directed movements of the dominant arm compared with young adults. Recent studies involving hemispheric lateralization have provided evidence that the dominant and non-dominant hemisphere-arm systems are specialized for controlling different movement parameters and that hemispheric…

  8. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  9. A daily-life-oriented intervention to improve prospective memory and goal-directed behaviour in ageing: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Christina; Rochat, Lucien; Blum, Anaëlle; Emmenegger, Joëlle; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in the execution of goal-directed behaviours, and particularly their prospective memory component, can arise in ageing and have important consequences for autonomy. The first objective of this article is to present an intervention that trained older individuals who reported prospective memory or goal-directed behaviour problems to use "implementation intentions". This technique, which has been shown to improve different aspects of goal-directed behaviour enactment, consists of establishing a mental (verbal and/or visual) link between the action that must be performed and the situation in which it must be performed. Our programme proposes exercises of progressively increasing difficulty that are targeted at daily life situations. Our second objective was to test the programme in small groups of older adults. Preliminary data regarding the programme's feasibility and its initial efficacy show a significant improvement in the main outcome measure, a questionnaire assessing goal-directed behaviours in everyday life. The participants also reported being significantly less bothered by their difficulties, although there were no significant changes in quality of life, self-esteem, anxiety or depression. Two participants with different psychological profiles, who benefited differently from the intervention, are then presented in more detail. PMID:24559524

  10. Influence of Adult Goal-Setting Instruction on Students' Responsibility toward Self-Directed Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apa Browne, Lynn Geri

    2014-01-01

    Elementary grade students in a mid-Atlantic state school district have not been meeting academic standards on state assessments. Research indicates that academic achievement is connected to self-directed readiness to learn; however, often the instruction in strategies for student self-directed readiness to learn remains teacher-centered. The…

  11. Encoding the goal of an object-directed but uncompleted reaching action in 6- and 9-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Daum, Moritz M; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-07-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement towards one of two objects. This reaching movement was only presented until the hand passed the midpoint between the starting position and the position of the target object. Subsequently, two final states of the reaching movement were presented simultaneously. In the plausible final state, the hand grasped the object to which the reaching movement was geared; in the implausible final state, the hand grasped the other object. In Studies 1 and 3, infants watched the actor from an allocentric perspective, and in Studies 2 and 3 from an egocentric perspective. Results indicate a discrimination of the two final states if the scene was presented from an allocentric perspective: both 6- and 9-month-olds looked longer at the implausible final state. This was not the case if infants saw the action from an egocentric perspective. The presented findings show that using this paradigm, 6-month-olds are already able to infer the goal of an uncompleted action without seeing the achievement of the goal itself. However, they encoded the goal of the reaching action only when it was presented from an allocentric perspective but not from an egocentric perspective. PMID:18576968

  12. Effects of craniocervical flexion exercise on upper-limb postural stability during a goal-directed pointing task

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Ryu, Young-Uk; Lee, Mi-Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of craniocervical flexion exercise on upper-limb postural stability by measuring upper-limb postural tremor during a goal-directed pointing task. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise or control group. The exercise group performed craniocervical flexion exercise four days per week for five weeks. Upper-limb postural tremor was measured by using a three-dimensional electromagnetic motion tracking system (trakSTAR™, Ascension Technology Corporation, Burlington, VT, USA) during a goal-directed pointing task. [Results] In the exercise group, the range and velocity of the trajectories of the shoulder, wrist, and finger in the lateral direction improved significantly. However, no significant changes were observed in the control group. [Conclusion] Craniocervical flexion exercise reduces the range and velocity of upper-limb postural tremor, thereby increasing postural stability. PMID:26180368

  13. Brain-Computer Interfaces and communication in paralysis: extinction of goal directed thinking in completely paralysed patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, A.; Birbaumer, N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between physical impairment and brain-computer interface (BCI) performance. Method We present a meta-analysis of 29 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6 with other severe neurological diseases in different stages of physical impairment who were trained with a BCI. In most cases voluntary regulation of slow cortical potentials has been used as input signal for BCI control. More recently sensorimotor rhythms and the P300 event-related brain potential were recorded. Results A strong correlation has been found between physical impairment and BCI performance, indicating that performance worsens as impairment increases. Seven patients were in the complete locked-in state (CLIS) with no communication possible. After removal of these patients from the analysis, the relationship between physical impairment and BCI performance disappeared. The lack of a relation between physical impairment and BCI performance was confirmed when adding BCI data of patients from other BCI research groups. Conclusions Basic communication (yes/no) was not restored in any of the CLIS patients with a BCI. Whether locked-in patients can transfer learned brain control to the CLIS remains an open empirical question. Significance Voluntary brain regulation for communication is possible in all stages of paralysis except the CLIS. PMID:18824406

  14. Predicting use of effective responsive, structure, and non-directive control vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variables in the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP) have been shown to predict parents' use of effective vegetable parenting practices (EVPP). Psychometric analysis revealed the EVPP composite scale had three underlying subscales (responsiveness, structure, and non-directi...

  15. Individually Guided Motivation: Goal-Setting Procedures to Develop Student Self-Direction and Prosocial Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    This paper describes research and development activities dealing with a system of individually guided motivation at a Wisconsin elementary school. Four general objectives for the project are stated. These deal with motivation for learning subject matter knowledge and skills, developing independence, assuming increasing self direction, and…

  16. Motivating Goal-Directed Behavior Through Introspective Self-Talk: The Role of the Interrogative Form of Simple Future Tense

    PubMed Central

    Senay, Ibrahim; Albarracín, Dolores; Noguchi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Although essential for psychology, introspective self-talk has rarely been studied with respect to its effects on behavior. Nevertheless, the interrogative compared with the declarative form of introspective talk may elicit more intrinsically motivated reasons for action, resulting in goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 1, participants were more likely to solve anagrams if they prepared for the task by asking themselves whether they would work on anagrams as opposed to declaring that they would. In the next three experiments, merely writing Will I as opposed to I will as part of an ostensibly unrelated handwriting task produced better anagram-solving performance and stronger intentions to exercise, which suggests that priming the interrogative structure of self-talk is enough to motivate goal-directed behavior. This effect was found to be mediated by the intrinsic motivation for action and moderated by the salience of the word order of the primes. PMID:20424090

  17. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    PubMed

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared. PMID:24691755

  18. Electrophysiological evidence for flexible goal-directed cue processing during episodic retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Herron, Jane E.; Evans, Lisa H.; Wilding, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    A widely held assumption is that memory retrieval is aided by cognitive control processes that are engaged flexibly in service of memory retrieval and memory decisions. While there is some empirical support for this view, a notable exception is the absence of evidence for the flexible use of retrieval control in functional neuroimaging experiments requiring frequent switches between tasks with different cognitive demands. This absence is troublesome in so far as frequent switches between tasks mimic some of the challenges that are typically placed on memory outside the laboratory. In this experiment we instructed participants to alternate frequently between three episodic memory tasks requiring item recognition or retrieval of one of two different kinds of contextual information encoded in a prior study phase (screen location or encoding task). Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by unstudied items in the two tasks requiring retrieval of study context were reliably different, demonstrating for the first time that ERPs index task-specific processing of retrieval cues when retrieval goals change frequently. The inclusion of the item recognition task was a novel and important addition in this study, because only the ERPs elicited by unstudied items in one of the two context conditions diverged from those in the item recognition condition. This outcome constrains functional interpretations of the differences that emerged between the two context conditions and emphasises the utility of this baseline in functional imaging studies of retrieval processing operations. PMID:26892854

  19. Electrophysiological evidence for flexible goal-directed cue processing during episodic retrieval.

    PubMed

    Herron, Jane E; Evans, Lisa H; Wilding, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    A widely held assumption is that memory retrieval is aided by cognitive control processes that are engaged flexibly in service of memory retrieval and memory decisions. While there is some empirical support for this view, a notable exception is the absence of evidence for the flexible use of retrieval control in functional neuroimaging experiments requiring frequent switches between tasks with different cognitive demands. This absence is troublesome in so far as frequent switches between tasks mimic some of the challenges that are typically placed on memory outside the laboratory. In this experiment we instructed participants to alternate frequently between three episodic memory tasks requiring item recognition or retrieval of one of two different kinds of contextual information encoded in a prior study phase (screen location or encoding task). Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by unstudied items in the two tasks requiring retrieval of study context were reliably different, demonstrating for the first time that ERPs index task-specific processing of retrieval cues when retrieval goals change frequently. The inclusion of the item recognition task was a novel and important addition in this study, because only the ERPs elicited by unstudied items in one of the two context conditions diverged from those in the item recognition condition. This outcome constrains functional interpretations of the differences that emerged between the two context conditions and emphasises the utility of this baseline in functional imaging studies of retrieval processing operations. PMID:26892854

  20. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Alexia; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously) according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously) through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention. PMID:27483371

  1. Stride-Cycle Influences on Goal-Directed Head Movements Made During Walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; vanEmmerik, Richard E. A.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Horizontal head movements were studied in six subjects as they made rapid horizontal gaze adjustments while walking. The aim of the present research was to determine if gait-cycle events alter the head movement response to a visual target acquisition task. Gaze shifts of approximately 40deg were elicited by a step change in the position of a visual target from a central location to a second location in the left or right horizontal periphery. The timing of the target position change was constrained to occur at 25,50,75 and 100% of the stride cycle. The trials were randomly presented as the subjects walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed (range: 1.25 to 1.48 m/s, mean: 1.39 +/- 0.09 m/s ) . Analyses focused on the movement onset latencies of the head and eyes and on the peak velocity and saccade amplitude of the head movement response. A comparison of the group means indicated that the head movement onset lagged the eye onset (262 ms versus 252 ms). The head and eye movement onset latencies were not affected by either the direction of the target change nor the point in the gait cycle during which the target relocation occurred. However, the presence of an interaction between the gait cycle events and the direction of the visual target shift indicates that the peak head saccade velocity and head saccade amplitude are affected by the natural head oscillations that occur while walking.

  2. Action-value comparisons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex control choice between goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W.; Dezfouli, Amir; Griffiths, Kristi R.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that choice between different actions reflects the difference between their action values yet little direct evidence confirming this assumption has been reported. Here we assess whether the brain calculates the absolute difference between action values or their relative advantage, that is, the probability that one action is better than the other alternatives. We use a two-armed bandit task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and modelled responses to determine both the size of the difference between action values (D) and the probability that one action value is better (P). The results show haemodynamic signals corresponding to P in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) together with evidence that these signals modulate motor cortex activity in an action-specific manner. We find no significant activity related to D. These findings demonstrate that a distinct neuronal population mediates action-value comparisons, and reveals how these comparisons are implemented to mediate value-based decision-making. PMID:25055179

  3. High frequency synchrony in the cerebellar cortex during goal directed movements

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Jonathan D.; Sahin, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is involved in sensory-motor integration and cognitive functions. The origin and function of the field potential oscillations in the cerebellum, especially in the high frequencies, have not been explored sufficiently. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of high frequency field potentials (150–350 Hz) in the cerebellar cortex in a behavioral context. To this end, we recorded from the paramedian lobule in rats using micro electro-corticogram (μ-ECoG) electrode arrays while the animal performed a lever press task using the forelimb. The phase synchrony analysis shows that the high frequency oscillations recorded at multiple points across the paramedian cortex episodically synchronize immediately before and desynchronize during the lever press. The electrode contacts were grouped according to their temporal course of phase synchrony around the time of lever press. Contact groups presented patches with slightly stronger synchrony values in the medio-lateral direction, and did not appear to form parasagittal zones. The size and location of these patches on the cortical surface are in agreement with the sensory evoked granular layer patches originally reported by Welker's lab (Shambes et al., 1978). Spatiotemporal synchrony of high frequency field potentials has not been reported at such large-scales previously in the cerebellar cortex. PMID:26257613

  4. Reflections on the Galileoscope Program: Goals, Challenges, Achievements, and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Fienberg, R. T.; Arion, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    The value of an inexpensive telescope that could be constructed and used at night became clear in the planning process for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. In fact, it became a national and international priority to develop such a telescope. Thus was born the Galileoscope project, as it later became known. We tested nearly every department store telescope available and finding them wanting in some major aspect, project members developed and tested a series of prototypes of refracting telescope kits. A key to the project is that the telescope is professionally designed and engineered with its design informed by extensive usability testing to ensure that it can be used easily by people of all ages. The eyepiece has excellent eye relief, for example, so that one can observe with glasses. The primary image quality requirement was that the telescope be good enough to see the rings of Saturn, as well as the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, with a field of view large enough to view the entire Pleiades. The Galileoscope is an ideal telescope to reproduce the observations of Galileo, from any place bright city or dark rural site. For the science classroom, we have developed well-tested educational materials on observing with the Galileoscope and teaching optics with it, available in pdf format on the Web site www. galileoscope.org. The educational materials are standards-based and appropriate for high school and beginning-level physics classes. Some of the key project decisions will be described and the future directions of the project will be described. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation Astronomy Division. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  5. [Advance directives in Italy: a goal not yet reached but already passed?].

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Luigi; Gristina, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The advance directives (ADs) have been adopted in many countries to defend patients' autonomy. In Italy, in the past, this topic gave rise to a heated debate involving philosophers, theologians, and politicians. In 2009, the government presented a bill of law on ADs firmly criticized from a scientific, moral and juridical point of view because the bill's content is against the principles of Italian Constitution, Italian Code of Medical Ethics, Oviedo Convention, and official statements of many scientific societies. Although the bill has passed the Low Chamber it lies, even since, in the Senate, lacking in regard any agreement among the political parties. The purpose of this article is to highlight that, in our country, patients, relatives and doctors deserve a law not only related to the specific topic of ADs, but - as in other European countries (Germany, Spain, France, UK) - aimed to deal with the complex issue of end of life care as a whole. This law should take into account the sound evidence existing in regard to the four fundamental principles supporting the best scientific and ethical approaches to the end of life issues: shared decision making process between doctors and patients/relatives; rejection of dying process marked by the suffering; withholding/withdrawing futile treatments together with palliative sedation as two crucial contributions to suppress the patient suffering and pain; clear-cut difference between these clinical/ethical options and euthanasia. At the same time, this law should be able to provide physicians with a legal coverage to make all the clinical and ethical decisions more and more complex because of the continuous evolution of medical science on one hand, and the impressive development of biotechnology on the other hand. PMID:26442974

  6. Understanding Human Original Actions Directed at Real-World Goals: The Role of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R.; Lord, Louis-David; West, W. Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional

  7. Optogenetic Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptor Signaling in the Dorsomedial Striatopallidal Neurons Suppresses Goal-Directed Behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; He, Yan; Chen, Mozi; Pu, Zhilan; Chen, Li; Li, Ping; Li, Bo; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhi-Li; Li, Zhihui; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2016-03-01

    The striatum has an essential role in neural control of instrumental behaviors by reinforcement learning. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) are highly enriched in the striatopallidal neurons and are implicated in instrumental behavior control. However, the temporal importance of the A(2A)R signaling in relation to the reward and specific contributions of the striatopallidal A(2A)Rs in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) to the control of instrumental learning are not defined. Here, we addressed temporal relationship and sufficiency of transient activation of optoA(2A)R signaling precisely at the time of the reward to the control of instrumental learning, using our newly developed rhodopsin-A2AR chimeras (optoA(2A)R). We demonstrated that transient light activation of optoA(2A)R signaling in the striatopallidal neurons in 'time-locked' manner with the reward delivery (but not random optoA(2A)R activation) was sufficient to change the animal's sensitivity to outcome devaluation without affecting the acquisition or extinction phases of instrumental learning. We further demonstrated that optogenetic activation of striatopallidal A(2A)R signaling in the DMS suppressed goal-directed behaviors, as focally genetic knockdown of striatopallidal A(2A)Rs in the DMS enhanced goal-directed behavior by the devaluation test. By contrast, optogenetic activation or focal AAV-Cre-mediated knockdown of striatopallidal A(2A)R in the DLS had relatively limited effects on instrumental learning. Thus, the striatopallidal A(2A)R signaling in the DMS exerts inhibitory and predominant control of goal-directed behavior by acting precisely at the time of reward, and may represent a therapeutic target to reverse abnormal habit formation that is associated with compulsive obsessive disorder and drug addiction. PMID:26216520

  8. Organization of goal-directed action at a high level of motor skill: the case of stone knapping in India.

    PubMed

    Biryukova, E V; Bril, B

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed the relationship between goal achievement and execution variability in craftsmen who have acquired the highest "ultimate" skills of stone knapping. The goal of a knapping movement is defined as the vector of the final velocity of a hammer, crucial for detaching a flake and, consequently, for the shape of the final product. The execution of the movement is defined by the kinematic pattern of the arm (i.e., by the coordination between the joint angles corresponding to the seven arm degrees of freedom). The results show that (a) the direction of final velocity is very stable for all craftsmen, whereas the amount of kinetic energy transmitted to the stone was craftsman specific and (b) the kinematic pattern of the arm was strongly individual and was a reliable sign of the level of skill--the highest level was characterized by the highest flexibility of movement kinematics. We stress the importance of conducting the experiment in natural conditions for better understanding of the relationship among the purpose (the final shape of the stone), the goal, and the execution of the movement. PMID:18698105

  9. Interplay of directional navigation mechanisms as a function of near-goal distance: experiments with the house mouse.

    PubMed

    Alyan, S H; Jander, R

    1997-12-01

    Mice (Mus musculus) that shuttle between their nest and an outside goal use different navigation mechanisms, depending on their distance from the nest. This was studied by rotating directional cues and the mice relative to one another. Close to home (20-50 cm) mice choose path integration and orientation by beacon, while farther away from the nest distal landmark orientation becomes more important. The larger the beacon is at the home site, the greater is the distance over which it is used as a directional cue. As mice head towards their nest, they demonstrate a tendency to home by means of distal landmarks at large distances, and by means of path integration or guided beacon integration at smaller distances. This space related sequence in the use of orientation mechanisms is the reverse from the temporal sequence (stages) of learning mechanisms employed when first learning to navigate home (Alyan and Jander, 1994). PMID:24896857

  10. Distributed coordination of heterogeneous agents using a semantic overlay network and a goal-directed graphplan planner.

    PubMed

    Lopes, António Luís; Botelho, Luís Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a distributed coordination system that allows agents to seamlessly cooperate in problem solving by partially contributing to a problem solution and delegating the subproblems for which they do not have the required skills or knowledge to appropriate agents. The coordination mechanism relies on a dynamically built semantic overlay network that allows the agents to efficiently locate, even in very large unstructured networks, the necessary skills for a specific problem. Each agent performs partial contributions to the problem solution using a new distributed goal-directed version of the Graphplan algorithm. This new goal-directed version of the original Graphplan algorithm provides an efficient solution to the problem of "distraction", which most forward-chaining algorithms suffer from. We also discuss a set of heuristics to be used in the backward-search process of the planning algorithm in order to distribute this process amongst idle agents in an attempt to find a solution in less time. The evaluation results show that our approach is effective in building a scalable and efficient agent society capable of solving complex distributable problems. PMID:23704885

  11. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Esteves, P O; Oliveira, L A S; Nogueira-Campos, A A; Saunier, G; Pozzo, T; Oliveira, J M; Rodrigues, E C; Volchan, E; Vargas, C D

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the "reach-to-grasp" and "bring-to-the-body" movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  12. From Creatures of Habit to Goal-Directed Learners: Tracking the Developmental Emergence of Model-Based Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Decker, Johannes H; Otto, A Ross; Daw, Nathaniel D; Hartley, Catherine A

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical models distinguish two decision-making strategies that have been formalized in reinforcement-learning theory. A model-based strategy leverages a cognitive model of potential actions and their consequences to make goal-directed choices, whereas a model-free strategy evaluates actions based solely on their reward history. Research in adults has begun to elucidate the psychological mechanisms and neural substrates underlying these learning processes and factors that influence their relative recruitment. However, the developmental trajectory of these evaluative strategies has not been well characterized. In this study, children, adolescents, and adults performed a sequential reinforcement-learning task that enabled estimation of model-based and model-free contributions to choice. Whereas a model-free strategy was apparent in choice behavior across all age groups, a model-based strategy was absent in children, became evident in adolescents, and strengthened in adults. These results suggest that recruitment of model-based valuation systems represents a critical cognitive component underlying the gradual maturation of goal-directed behavior. PMID:27084852

  13. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, P. O.; Oliveira, L. A. S.; Nogueira-Campos, A. A.; Saunier, G.; Pozzo, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Rodrigues, E. C.; Volchan, E.; Vargas, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the “reach-to-grasp” and “bring-to-the-body” movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  14. The Learner-Directed Classroom: Developing Creative Thinking Skills through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquith, Diane B., Ed.; Hathaway, Nan E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Educators at all levels want their students to develop habits of self-directed learning and critical problem-solving skills that encourage ownership and growth. In "The Learner-Directed Classroom," practicing art educators (PreK-16) offer both a comprehensive framework for understanding student-directed learning and concrete pedagogical strategies…

  15. Summary of the 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank: new directions in urologic research.

    PubMed

    Svatek, Robert S; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Galsky, Matthew D; Lee, Cheryl T; Latini, David M; Bochner, Bernard H; Weizer, Alon Z; Apolo, Andrea B; Sridhar, Srikala S; Kamat, Ashish M; Hansel, Donna; Flaig, Thomas W; Smith, Norm D; Lotan, Yair

    2013-10-01

    The 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and representatives from the National Cancer Institute and Industry in an effort to advance bladder cancer research efforts. This year's meeting comprised panel discussions and research involving 5 separate working groups, including the Survivorship, Clinical Trials, Standardization of Care, Data Mining, and Translational Science working groups. In this manuscript, the accomplishments and objectives of the working groups are summarized. Notable efforts include: (1) the development of a survivorship care plan for early and late-stage bladder cancer; (2) the development of consensus criteria for eligibility and endpoints for bladder cancer clinical trials; (3) an improved understanding of current practice patterns regarding the use of perioperative chemotherapy in an effort to standardize care; (4) creation of a comprehensive handbook to assist researchers with developing bladder cancer databases; and (5) identification of response to therapy of high-grade non muscle invasive disease through a collaborative exchange of expertise and resources. PMID:22300756

  16. Do Gestural Interfaces Promote Thinking? Embodied Interaction: Congruent Gestures and Direct Touch Promote Performance in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Ayelet

    2011-01-01

    Can action support cognition? Can direct touch support performance? Embodied interaction involving digital devices is based on the theory of grounded cognition. Embodied interaction with gestural interfaces involves more of our senses than traditional (mouse-based) interfaces, and in particular includes direct touch and physical movement, which…

  17. When locomotion is used to interact with the environment: investigation of the link between emotions and the twofold goal-directed locomotion in humans.

    PubMed

    Vernazza-Martin, S; Longuet, S; Damry, T; Chamot, J M; Dru, V

    2015-10-01

    Walking as a means to interact with the environment has a twofold goal: body displacement (intermediate goal) and the future action on the environment (final representational goal). This involves different processes that plan, program, and control goal-directed locomotion linked to motivation as an "emotional state," which leads to achieving this twofold goal. The aim of the present study was to determine whether emotional valence associated with the final representational goal influences these processes or whether they depend more on the emotional valence associated with the intermediate goal in young adults. Twenty subjects, aged 18-35 years, were instructed to erase an emotional picture that appeared on a wall as soon as they saw it. They had to press a stop button located 5 m in front of them with their right hand. Their gait was analyzed using a force platform and the Vicon system. The main results suggest that the emotional valence of the intermediate goal has the greatest effect on the processes that organize and modulate goal-directed locomotion. A positive valence facilitates cognitive processes involved in the temporal organization of locomotion. A negative valence disturbs the cognitive processes involved in the spatial organization of the locomotion and online motor control, leading to a deviating trajectory and a final body position that is more distant from the stop button. These results are discussed in line with the motivational direction hypothesis and with the affective meaning of the intended response goal. PMID:26126802

  18. A Role of Phase-Resetting in Coordinating Large Scale Neural Networks During Attention and Goal-Directed Behavior.

    PubMed

    Voloh, Benjamin; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Short periods of oscillatory activation are ubiquitous signatures of neural circuits. A broad range of studies documents not only their circuit origins, but also a fundamental role for oscillatory activity in coordinating information transfer during goal directed behavior. Recent studies suggest that resetting the phase of ongoing oscillatory activity to endogenous or exogenous cues facilitates coordinated information transfer within circuits and between distributed brain areas. Here, we review evidence that pinpoints phase resetting as a critical marker of dynamic state changes of functional networks. Phase resets: (1) set a "neural context" in terms of narrow band frequencies that uniquely characterizes the activated circuits; (2) impose coherent low frequency phases to which high frequency activations can synchronize, identifiable as cross-frequency correlations across large anatomical distances; (3) are critical for neural coding models that depend on phase, increasing the informational content of neural representations; and (4) likely originate from the dynamics of canonical E-I circuits that are anatomically ubiquitous. These multiple signatures of phase resets are directly linked to enhanced information transfer and behavioral success. We survey how phase resets re-organize oscillations in diverse task contexts, including sensory perception, attentional stimulus selection, cross-modal integration, Pavlovian conditioning, and spatial navigation. The evidence we consider suggests that phase-resets can drive changes in neural excitability, ensemble organization, functional networks, and ultimately, overt behavior. PMID:27013986

  19. A Role of Phase-Resetting in Coordinating Large Scale Neural Networks During Attention and Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Voloh, Benjamin; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Short periods of oscillatory activation are ubiquitous signatures of neural circuits. A broad range of studies documents not only their circuit origins, but also a fundamental role for oscillatory activity in coordinating information transfer during goal directed behavior. Recent studies suggest that resetting the phase of ongoing oscillatory activity to endogenous or exogenous cues facilitates coordinated information transfer within circuits and between distributed brain areas. Here, we review evidence that pinpoints phase resetting as a critical marker of dynamic state changes of functional networks. Phase resets: (1) set a “neural context” in terms of narrow band frequencies that uniquely characterizes the activated circuits; (2) impose coherent low frequency phases to which high frequency activations can synchronize, identifiable as cross-frequency correlations across large anatomical distances; (3) are critical for neural coding models that depend on phase, increasing the informational content of neural representations; and (4) likely originate from the dynamics of canonical E-I circuits that are anatomically ubiquitous. These multiple signatures of phase resets are directly linked to enhanced information transfer and behavioral success. We survey how phase resets re-organize oscillations in diverse task contexts, including sensory perception, attentional stimulus selection, cross-modal integration, Pavlovian conditioning, and spatial navigation. The evidence we consider suggests that phase-resets can drive changes in neural excitability, ensemble organization, functional networks, and ultimately, overt behavior. PMID:27013986

  20. Effects of goal-directed fluid therapy with different lactated Ringer's: hydroxyethyl starch ratios in hemorrhagic shock dogs.

    PubMed

    Tao, J P; Huang, Q Q; Huang, H Q; Yang, J J; Shi, M; Zhou, Y; Wan, L J; Zhou, C; Ou, Y J; Tong, Y Y; Yang, D G; Si, Y Y

    2015-01-01

    The effects of goal-directed fluid therapy, with lactated Ringer's (LR) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solution, on hemorrhagic shock dogs are unknown. We aimed to determine the optimal LR: HES ratio for the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock dogs. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 ventilated dogs by drawing an estimated 60% blood volume. The animals were randomly divided into five groups (N = 8) according to the LR: HES ratio of the resuscitation fluid (3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3), and were then resuscitated for 24 h to reach the stroke volume variation (SVV) and hemoglobin (Hb) goals by fluid infusion and autologous blood perfusion. The extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), base excess (BE), sodium, chloride, Hb and creatinine clearance (Clearcrea) were checked after 24 h (R24). The EVLWI of the 3:1 group at R24 were higher than that of the 1:3 group and the baseline value (P < 0.05), whereas the PaO2 was lower (P < 0.05). In contrast to the 3:1 group at R24 and baseline, plasma chloride and sodium in the 1:3 and 1:2 groups increased; however, pH, BE, and Clearcrea decreased (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the 1:1 and 2:1 groups at R24 compared with baseline (P > 0.05). Resuscitation with LR and HES at 2:1 and 1:1 ratios are superior in maintaining the acid-base, electrolyte, and lung water balances as well as renal function in hemorrhagic shock dogs than at ratios of 3:l, 1:2, and1:3. PMID:26125873

  1. Goal-directed control with cortical units that are gated by both top-down feedback and oscillatory coherence

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Robert R.; Grayden, David B.; Thomas, Doreen A.; Gilson, Matthieu; Burkitt, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    The brain is able to flexibly select behaviors that adapt to both its environment and its present goals. This cognitive control is understood to occur within the hierarchy of the cortex and relies strongly on the prefrontal and premotor cortices, which sit at the top of this hierarchy. Pyramidal neurons, the principal neurons in the cortex, have been observed to exhibit much stronger responses when they receive inputs at their soma/basal dendrites that are coincident with inputs at their apical dendrites. This corresponds to inputs from both lower-order regions (feedforward) and higher-order regions (feedback), respectively. In addition to this, coherence between oscillations, such as gamma oscillations, in different neuronal groups has been proposed to modulate and route communication in the brain. In this paper, we develop a simple, but novel, neural mass model in which cortical units (or ensembles) exhibit gamma oscillations when they receive coherent oscillatory inputs from both feedforward and feedback connections. By forming these units into circuits that can perform logic operations, we identify the different ways in which operations can be initiated and manipulated by top-down feedback. We demonstrate that more sophisticated and flexible top-down control is possible when the gain of units is modulated by not only top-down feedback but by coherence between the activities of the oscillating units. With these types of units, it is possible to not only add units to, or remove units from, a higher-level unit's logic operation using top-down feedback, but also to modify the type of role that a unit plays in the operation. Finally, we explore how different network properties affect top-down control and processing in large networks. Based on this, we make predictions about the likely connectivities between certain brain regions that have been experimentally observed to be involved in goal-directed behavior and top-down attention. PMID:25152715

  2. How are scientific thinking skills best developed? Direct instruction vs. inquiry practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David Worth, Jr.

    Despite its support and adoption by most major scientific and educational organizations, some researchers have questioned whether inquiry learning is indeed the best method for acquiring the skills of inquiry. Klahr and colleagues have investigated the development of the control of variables strategy, or controlled comparison (CC), and claim that a brief session of direct instruction, characterized by explicit training of CC, as opposed to allowing children to discover CC through inquiry learning, is sufficient for acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of this core aspect of inquiry. Kuhn and colleagues, however, argue that direct instruction may be insufficient for development of the metastrategic level of understanding necessary to adequately maintain and transfer inquiry skills. In the present study, I attempt to identify the intervention most effective in supporting acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of these skills. Three groups of students received either a direct instruction session followed by standard classroom instruction (DI-only), an introductory session (without direct instruction) followed by practice sessions only (PR-only), or a direct instruction session followed by practice sessions (DI+PR). Practice sessions involved the use of a computer-based inquiry task requiring students to investigate the effects of five potential causal variables on an outcome. The two practice groups worked with this program during 12 sessions over nine weeks. They worked with structurally identical software programs during five weekly maintenance sessions. During this time, the DI-only group received standard classroom instruction. All groups were assessed on familiar and unfamiliar computer-based inquiry tasks at the conclusion of intervention (immediate assessment) and maintenance sessions (delayed assessment). Students in the two practice groups demonstrated improvement in an integrative measure of inquiry skill (valid intent, valid strategy, valid inference, and

  3. Assessing Business Student Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student…

  4. Bonsai Trees in Your Head: How the Pavlovian System Sculpts Goal-Directed Choices by Pruning Decision Trees

    PubMed Central

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Luke; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    When planning a series of actions, it is usually infeasible to consider all potential future sequences; instead, one must prune the decision tree. Provably optimal pruning is, however, still computationally ruinous and the specific approximations humans employ remain unknown. We designed a new sequential reinforcement-based task and showed that human subjects adopted a simple pruning strategy: during mental evaluation of a sequence of choices, they curtailed any further evaluation of a sequence as soon as they encountered a large loss. This pruning strategy was Pavlovian: it was reflexively evoked by large losses and persisted even when overwhelmingly counterproductive. It was also evident above and beyond loss aversion. We found that the tendency towards Pavlovian pruning was selectively predicted by the degree to which subjects exhibited sub-clinical mood disturbance, in accordance with theories that ascribe Pavlovian behavioural inhibition, via serotonin, a role in mood disorders. We conclude that Pavlovian behavioural inhibition shapes highly flexible, goal-directed choices in a manner that may be important for theories of decision-making in mood disorders. PMID:22412360

  5. Medial prefrontal serotonin in the rat is involved in goal-directed behaviour when affect guides decision making

    PubMed Central

    La Fors, Sabrina S. B. M.; Meerkerk, Dorie T. J.; Joosten, Ruud N. J. M. A.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Across species, serotonin (5-HT) depletion in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to cause impaired performance on tests of cognitive flexibility and the processing of affective information (e.g. information with an ‘emotional’ content). While recent work has explored the specific role of the orbital PFC herein, the role of the medial PFC remains unclear. Objectives The aim of our current experiments was to study the role of medial PFC 5-HT in both the processing of affective information and reversal learning across stimulus modalities. Materials and methods To this end, we selectively destroyed 5-HT terminals in the medial PFC of male Wistar rats by means of local infusion of the toxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. Both control and lesioned animals were tested in two reversal learning paradigms with either spatial or odour cues and an affective switch from non-preferred to preferred food rewards. Results Our results indicate that a pellet switch during reversal learning impaired performance in control animals but not in lesioned animals, independent of the stimulus modality. Conclusion These results indicate that lesioned animals are not guided in their behaviour by the affective value of the reward like intact animals and thus that medial prefrontal 5-HT is needed for affective processing in goal-directed behaviour. PMID:17874235

  6. The Allocation of Attention to Learning of Goal-Directed Actions: A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework Focusing on the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Franz, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary functions of the basal ganglia have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Supporting the proposed model, background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called “split-brain” (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres), and selected evidence from related areas of research. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains. PMID:23267335

  7. Goal-directed transthoracic echocardiography during advanced cardiac life support: A pilot study using simulation to assess ability

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Yonatan Y.; Martin, Thomas J.; Rolnitzky, Linda; Felner, Kevin; Kaufman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Goal-directed echocardiography (GDE) is used to answer specific clinical questions which provide invaluable information to physicians managing a hemodynamically unstable patient. We studied perception and ability of housestaff previously trained in GDE to accurately diagnose common causes of cardiac arrest during simulated advanced cardiac life support (ACLS); we compared their results to those of expert echocardiographers. Methods Eleven pulmonary and critical care medicine fellows, seven emergency medicine residents, and five cardiologists board-certified in echocardiography were enrolled. Baseline ability to acquire four transthoracic echocardiography views was assessed and participants were exposed to six simulated cardiac arrests and were asked to perform a GDE during ACLS. Housestaff performance was compared to the performance of five expert echocardiographers. Results Average baseline and scenario views by housestaff were of good or excellent quality 89% and 83% of the time, respectively. Expert average baseline and scenario views were always of good or excellent quality. Housestaff and experts made the correct diagnosis in 68% and 77% of cases, respectively. On average, participants required 1.5 pulse checks to make the correct diagnosis. 94% of housestaff perceived this study as an accurate assessment of ability. Conclusions In an ACLS compliant manner, housestaff are capable of diagnosing management altering pathologies the majority of the time and they reach similar diagnostic conclusions in the same amount of time as expert echocardiographers in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. PMID:25932707

  8. Working for food you don't desire. Cues interfere with goal-directed food-seeking.

    PubMed

    Watson, P; Wiers, R W; Hommel, B; de Wit, S

    2014-08-01

    Why do we indulge in food-seeking and eating behaviors at times when we are already fully sated? In the present study we investigated the hypothesis that food-associated cues in the environment can interfere with goal-directed action by eliciting food-seeking that is independent of the current desirability of the outcome. To this end, we used a computerized task in which participants learned to press keys for chocolate and popcorn rewards. Subsequently, we investigated whether satiation on one of these rewards would bias choice toward the other, still desirable, food reward. We found that satiation did indeed selectively reduce responding on the associated key in the absence of food-associated cues. In contrast, in a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) test, satiation failed to reduce cue-elicited food-seeking: in line with our hypothesis, cues that had previously been paired with chocolate and popcorn led to increased responding for the signaled food reward, independent of satiation. Furthermore, we show that food-associated cues will not only bias choice toward the signaled food (outcome-specific transfer), but also enhance the vigor of responding generally (general transfer). These findings point to a mechanism that may underlie the powerful control that cues in our obesogenic environment exert over our behavior. PMID:24743030

  9. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sarah J.

    The teaching of decision-making, problem-solving, and higher-order thinking skills is necessary to ensure adaptability to our world of accelerated change. Living skills in the technology and information age will include the understanding and application of higher level thinking skills, which will be the educational "basics" of tomorrow. Although…

  10. Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Moscarello, J M; Ben-Shahar, O; Ettenberg, A

    2009-01-30

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that food deprivation and food presentation produce different patterns of neuronal activity (as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity) in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats. Since the amygdala has been implicated in both motivational and reinforcement processes and has neuronal connections to both the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, it was of interest to assess amygdaloid c-Fos immunoreactivity during similar manipulations of food deprivation and presentation. In the current study, c-Fos counts in both basolateral and central amygdalar nuclei were observed to increase in rats 12- and 36-h food deprived (relative to 0-h controls)-an effect reversed by the presentation of either a small or large meal (2.5 or 20g of food). In another experiment, rats working on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement exhibited elevated break-points as a function of food deprivation, a result consistent with the view that the feeding manipulations increased the subjects' level of motivation. In contrast, food deprivation reduced the spontaneous locomotor activity of rats, presumably as a result of an inherent energy-conservation strategy when no food is readily available. These data suggest that the state of food deprivation is associated with: (a) enhanced behavioral output only when food is attainable (increased goal-directed behavior, but decreased spontaneous activity), and (b) increased synaptic engagement in neuronal circuits involved in affective valuation and related decision-making (increased c-Fos counts in the amygdala). PMID:18706934

  11. The Practical Teaching of Thinking Using the CoRT Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    The CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) is a five-step program in direct instruction of thinking skills which increase the number and diversity of ideas as well as help the individual establish goals, set priorities, improve interactions with others, and incorporate feeling into thinking. (DB)

  12. Simplified Severe Sepsis Protocol: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Modified Early Goal-Directed Therapy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ben; Muchemwa, Levy; Kelly, Paul; Lakhi, Shabir; Heimburger, Douglas C; Bernard, Gordon R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of a simple, goal-directed sepsis treatment protocol for reducing mortality in patients with severe sepsis in Zambia. Design Single center non-blinded randomized controlled trial Setting Emergency room, ICU, and medical wards of the national referral hospital in Lusaka, Zambia Patients 112 patients enrolled within 24 hours of admission with severe sepsis, defined as systemic inflammatory response syndrome with suspected infection and organ dysfunction Interventions Simplified Severe Sepsis Protocol (SSSP) consisting of up to 4 liters of intravenous fluids within 6 hours, guided by jugular venous pressure assessment, and dopamine and/or blood transfusion in selected patients. Control group was managed as usual care. Blood cultures were collected and early antibiotics administered for both arms. Measurements and Main Results Primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. 109 patients were included in the final analysis. 88 (80.7%) were HIV positive. Pulmonary infections were the most common source of sepsis. In-hospital mortality rate was 64.2% in the intervention group and 60.7% in the control group (RR 1.05, 95%CI:0.79-1.41). Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was isolated from 31 of 82 (37.8%) HIV positive patients with available mycobacterial blood culture results. SSSP patients received significantly more IV fluids in the first 6 hours (2.7 liters vs. 1.7 liters, p=0.002). The study was stopped early because of high mortality rate among patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure in the intervention arm (8/8, 100%) compared with the control arm [7/10, 70%, RR 1.43 (95%CI:0.95-2.14)]. Conclusion Factors other than tissue hypoperfusion probably account for much of the end organ dysfunction in African patients with severe sepsis. Studies of fluid-based interventions should utilize inclusion criteria to accurately capture patients with hypovolemia and tissue hypoperfusion who are most likely to benefit from fluids. Exclusion of

  13. Deriving Sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals (IWRGs) at Superfund Sites for the Protection of Benthic Organisms from Direct Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document contains a methodology for developing interstitial water remediation goals (IWRGs) for nonionic organic pollutants (toxicants) in sediments for the protection of benthic organisms. The document provides the basis for using the final chronic values (FCVs) from EPA’s...

  14. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  15. Early goal-directed therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock: insights and comparisons to ProCESS, ProMISe, and ARISE.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H Bryant; Jaehne, Anja Kathrin; Jayaprakash, Namita; Semler, Matthew W; Hegab, Sara; Yataco, Angel Coz; Tatem, Geneva; Salem, Dhafer; Moore, Steven; Boka, Kamran; Gill, Jasreen Kaur; Gardner-Gray, Jayna; Pflaum, Jacqueline; Domecq, Juan Pablo; Hurst, Gina; Belsky, Justin B; Fowkes, Raymond; Elkin, Ronald B; Simpson, Steven Q; Falk, Jay L; Singer, Daniel J; Rivers, Emanuel P

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 2001 there was no standard for early management of severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department. In the presence of standard or usual care, the prevailing mortality was over 40-50 %. In response, a systems-based approach, similar to that in acute myocardial infarction, stroke and trauma, called early goal-directed therapy was compared to standard care and this clinical trial resulted in a significant mortality reduction. Since the publication of that trial, similar outcome benefits have been reported in over 70 observational and randomized controlled studies comprising over 70,000 patients. As a result, early goal-directed therapy was largely incorporated into the first 6 hours of sepsis management (resuscitation bundle) adopted by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign and disseminated internationally as the standard of care for early sepsis management. Recently a trio of trials (ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe), while reporting an all-time low sepsis mortality, question the continued need for all of the elements of early goal-directed therapy or the need for protocolized care for patients with severe and septic shock. A review of the early hemodynamic pathogenesis, historical development, and definition of early goal-directed therapy, comparing trial conduction methodology and the changing landscape of sepsis mortality, are essential for an appropriate interpretation of these trials and their conclusions. PMID:27364620

  16. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  17. Implementing NICU critical thinking programs: one unit's experience.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Denise; Pilcher, Jobeth

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is the hallmark of today's nursing practice environment. Nowhere is this more critical than in the high-tech environment of the NICU. Despite the importance of critical thinking in nursing practice, there is limited information on the process of teaching new NICU nurses to think critically. Based on the principles of adult education, orientation and continuing education for NICU nurses should be goal directed, build on the learner's prior experience, and build in opportunities for active participation, reflection, and experiential learning. This article reviews the principles of adult education and their application to the process of teaching critical thinking in the NICU. One unit's experience of critical thinking education is used to provide concrete examples of how NICU education can be transformed from a traditional didactic methodology to a more dynamic experiential approach. PMID:18697653

  18. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Deborah

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes five studies that offer insight into the nature of higher-order thinking skills and the most effective methods for teaching them to students. The reviews outline the conclusions, definitions, recommendations, specific methods of teaching, instructional strategies, and programs detailed in the documents themselves.…

  19. Re-Thinking Assessment: Self- and Peer-Assessment as Drivers of Self-Direction in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kathy; O'Hara, Joe; McNamara, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: This paper focuses on assessment in Irish education, which, despite best intentions, shepherds students through the process to an extent that the individual is prone to undervalue her/his ability to trust in the self as a rational, self-thinking individual. In Ireland's assessment system lies the paradox whereby from childhood…

  20. A Closer Look at the Effects of Repeated Cocaine Exposure on Adaptive Decision-Making under Conditions That Promote Goal-Directed Control

    PubMed Central

    Halbout, Briac; Liu, Angela T.; Ostlund, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that compulsive drug seeking reflects an underlying dysregulation in adaptive behavior that favors habitual (automatic and inflexible) over goal-directed (deliberative and highly flexible) action selection. Rodent studies have established that repeated exposure to cocaine or amphetamine facilitates the development of habits, producing behavior that becomes unusually insensitive to a reduction in the value of its outcome. The current study more directly investigated the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on goal-directed learning and action selection using an approach that discourages habitual performance. After undergoing a 15-day series of cocaine (15 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline injections and a drug withdrawal period, rats were trained to perform two different lever-press actions for distinct reward options. During a subsequent outcome devaluation test, both cocaine- and saline-treated rats showed a robust bias in their choice between the two actions, preferring whichever action had been trained with the reward that retained its value. Thus, it appears that the tendency for repeated cocaine exposure to promote habit formation does not extend to a more complex behavioral scenario that encourages goal-directed control. To further explore this issue, we assessed how prior cocaine treatment would affect the rats’ ability to learn about a selective reduction in the predictive relationship between one of the two actions and its outcome, which is another fundamental feature of goal-directed behavior. Interestingly, we found that cocaine-treated rats showed enhanced, rather than diminished, sensitivity to this action–outcome contingency degradation manipulation. Given their mutual dependence on striatal dopamine signaling, we suggest that cocaine’s effects on habit formation and contingency learning may stem from a common adaptation in this neurochemical system. PMID:27047400

  1. A Closer Look at the Effects of Repeated Cocaine Exposure on Adaptive Decision-Making under Conditions That Promote Goal-Directed Control.

    PubMed

    Halbout, Briac; Liu, Angela T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that compulsive drug seeking reflects an underlying dysregulation in adaptive behavior that favors habitual (automatic and inflexible) over goal-directed (deliberative and highly flexible) action selection. Rodent studies have established that repeated exposure to cocaine or amphetamine facilitates the development of habits, producing behavior that becomes unusually insensitive to a reduction in the value of its outcome. The current study more directly investigated the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on goal-directed learning and action selection using an approach that discourages habitual performance. After undergoing a 15-day series of cocaine (15 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline injections and a drug withdrawal period, rats were trained to perform two different lever-press actions for distinct reward options. During a subsequent outcome devaluation test, both cocaine- and saline-treated rats showed a robust bias in their choice between the two actions, preferring whichever action had been trained with the reward that retained its value. Thus, it appears that the tendency for repeated cocaine exposure to promote habit formation does not extend to a more complex behavioral scenario that encourages goal-directed control. To further explore this issue, we assessed how prior cocaine treatment would affect the rats' ability to learn about a selective reduction in the predictive relationship between one of the two actions and its outcome, which is another fundamental feature of goal-directed behavior. Interestingly, we found that cocaine-treated rats showed enhanced, rather than diminished, sensitivity to this action-outcome contingency degradation manipulation. Given their mutual dependence on striatal dopamine signaling, we suggest that cocaine's effects on habit formation and contingency learning may stem from a common adaptation in this neurochemical system. PMID:27047400

  2. Consumer-Directed Goal Planning in the Delivery of Assistive Technology Services for People Who Are Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Mansha; Hammel, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Background: A consumer-directed service-delivery approach to assistive technology and environmental modification intervention was examined with people who were ageing with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: The intervention was based on a collaborative approach involving consumers, their social supports and service deliverers. Thirty…

  3. Creating science simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.

  4. The Effect of Inconsistency Appeals on the Influence of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements: An Application of Goal Disruption Theory.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Benjamin D; Siegel, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    Scholars across multiple domains have identified the presence of inconsistency-arousing information in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements and have suggested that these appeals, which highlight differences between people's actual and desired lives, may create psychological disequilibrium. However, experimental assessment of the distinct influence of inconsistency-arousing information in this domain is rare. Guided by goal disruption theory-a framework that outlines people's reactions to goal expectation violations-we created direct-to-consumer advertisements designed to make people's life inconsistencies salient. The influence of these ads on people's perceptions of, and intentions to use, prescription drugs was then assessed. Results from a structural equation modeling analysis supported the proposed model, indicating that compared to a control ad, an ad containing a goal expectation violation manipulation resulted in higher levels of psychological disequilibrium; in turn, psychological disequilibrium led to positive evaluations of the ad and the drug, positive outcome expectations of the drug, increased purposive harm endurance, and increased usage intentions. The current results suggest a psychological pathway that begins with a negative goal expectation violation and ends with increased usage intentions and a greater willingness to endure harm to make use possible. PMID:26716683

  5. Increased behavioral output but intact goal-directed and habitual responding for food reward following early-life social deprivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lomanowska, Anna M; Kraemer, Gary W

    2014-09-01

    Early-life social adversity, such as child neglect and institutionalized rearing, is associated with later-life difficulties of inhibitory control that may reflect altered attribution of salience to external stimuli. Studies in rats demonstrate that early-life social deprivation results in enhanced responsiveness to reward stimuli and conditioned reward cues. This study examined whether these effects are related to fundamental changes in appetitive conditioning processes involving instrumental goal-directed and habitual responding for food reward. Rats were reared either by the mother (maternal rearing; MR) or in complete isolation from the mother and litter (artificial rearing; AR) and tested as adults in two appetitive conditioning tasks. AR and MR rats did not differ in the amount of goal-directed effort they exerted to obtain food reward on progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. AR and MR rats also did not differ in the shift from goal-directed to habitual responding on a random interval schedule and they were equally sensitive to changes in reward value. The major difference between AR and MR rats was that AR rats exhibited more non-instrumental responses (empty food magazine entries, ineffective lever presses). Thus, early-life social deprivation of rats through AR affects the expression of unreinforced extraneous behaviors when motivational requirements are high, but does not affect conditioned goal-directed and habitual responding to reward. The findings have implications for understanding what aspects of responsiveness to external stimuli may be selectively affected in disorders of inhibition associated with early-life social adversity. PMID:24906193

  6. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms. PMID:25389391

  7. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms. PMID:25389391

  8. Relating use of effective responsive, structure, and non-directive control vegetable parenting practices to subscales from the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents may positively influence children's vegetable consumption through effective vegetable parenting practices (VPP). Research has demonstrated three dimensions of effective VPP: Effective Responsiveness, Structure, and Non-Directive Control, but there is limited research investigating each separ...

  9. Interactions between dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex underlie context-dependent stimulus valuation in goal-directed choice.

    PubMed

    Rudorf, Sarah; Hare, Todd A

    2014-11-26

    External circumstances and internal bodily states often change and require organisms to flexibly adapt valuation processes to select the optimal action in a given context. Here, we investigate the neurobiology of context-dependent valuation in 22 human subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects made binary choices between visual stimuli with three attributes (shape, color, and pattern) that were associated with monetary values. Context changes required subjects to deviate from the default shape valuation and to integrate a second attribute to comply with the goal to maximize rewards. Critically, this binary choice task did not involve any conflict between opposing monetary, temporal, or social preferences. We tested the hypothesis that interactions between regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) implicated in self-control choices would also underlie the more general function of context-dependent valuation. Consistent with this idea, we found that the degree to which stimulus attributes were reflected in vmPFC activity varied as a function of context. In addition, activity in dlPFC increased when context changes required a reweighting of stimulus attribute values. Moreover, the strength of the functional connectivity between dlPFC and vmPFC was associated with the degree of context-specific attribute valuation in vmPFC at the time of choice. Our findings suggest that functional interactions between dlPFC and vmPFC are a key aspect of context-dependent valuation and that the role of this network during choices that require self-control to adjudicate between competing outcome preferences is a specific application of this more general neural mechanism. PMID:25429140

  10. Neural mechanisms of goal-directed behavior: outcome-based response selection is associated with increased functional coupling of the angular gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Zwosta, Katharina; Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior is based on representations of contingencies between a certain situation (S), a certain (re)action (R) and a certain outcome (O). These S-R-O representations enable flexible response selection in different situations according to the currently pursued goal. Importantly however, the successful formation of such representations is a necessary but not sufficient precondition for goal-directed behavior which additionally requires the actual usage of the contingency information for action control. The present fMRI study aimed at identifying the neural basis of each of these two aspects: representing vs. explicitly using experienced S-R-O contingencies. To this end, we created three experimental conditions: S-R-O contingency present and used for outcome-based response selection, S-R-O contingency present but not used, and S-R-O contingency absent. The comparison between conditions with and without S-R-O contingency revealed that the angular gyrus is relevant for representing S-R-O contingencies. The explicit usage of learnt S-R-O representations in turn was associated with increased functional coupling between angular gyrus and several subcortical (hippocampus, caudate head), prefrontal (lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC)) and cerebellar areas, which we suggest represent different explicit and implicit processes of goal-directed action control. Hence, we ascribe a central role to the angular gyrus in associating actions to their sensory outcomes which is used to guide behavior through coupling of the angular gyrus with multiple areas related to different aspects of action control. PMID:25914635

  11. Potential application of ecological models in the European environmental risk assessment of chemicals. I. Review of protection goals in EU directives and regulations.

    PubMed

    Hommen, Udo; Baveco, J M Hans; Galic, Nika; van den Brink, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Several European directives and regulations address the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We used the protection of freshwater ecosystems against plant protection products, biocidal products, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals and priority substances under the Water Framework Directive as examples to explore the potential of ecological effect models for a refined risk assessment. Our analysis of the directives, regulations, and related guidance documents lead us to distinguish the following 5 areas for the application of ecological models in chemical risk assessment: 1) Extrapolation of organism-level effects to the population level: The protection goals are formulated in general terms, e.g., avoiding "unacceptable effects" or "adverse impact" on the environment or the "viability of exposed species." In contrast, most of the standard ecotoxicological tests provide data only on organism-level endpoints and are thus not directly linked to the protection goals which focus on populations and communities. 2) Extrapolation of effects between different exposure profiles: Especially for plant protection products, exposure profiles can be very variable and impossible to cover in toxicological tests. 3) Extrapolation of recovery processes: As a consequence of the often short-term exposures to plant protection products, the risk assessment is based on the community recovery principle. On the other hand, assessments under the other directives assume a more or less constant exposure and are based on the ecosystem threshold principle. 4) Analysis and prediction of indirect effects: Because effects on 1 or a few taxa might have consequences on other taxa that are not directly affected by the chemical, such indirect effects on communities have to be considered. 5) Prediction of bioaccumulation within food chains: All directives take the possibility of bioaccumulation, and thus secondary poisoning within the food chain, into account. PMID:20821697

  12. A novel strategy for dissecting goal-directed action and arousal components of motivated behavior with a progressive hold-down task.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew R; Jensen, Greg; Taylor, Kathleen; Mezias, Chris; Williamson, Cait; Silver, Rae; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-06-01

    Motivation serves 2 important functions: It guides actions to be goal-directed, and it provides the energy and vigor required to perform the work necessary to meet those goals. Dissociating these 2 processes with existing behavioral assays has been a challenge. In this article, we report a novel experimental strategy to distinguish the 2 processes in mice. First, we characterize a novel motivation assay in which animals must hold down a lever for progressively longer intervals to earn each subsequent reward; we call this the progressive hold-down (PHD) task. We find that performance on the PHD task is sensitive to both food deprivation level and reward value. Next, we use a dose of methamphetamine (METH) 1.0 mg/kg, to evaluate behavior in both the progressive ratio (PR) and PHD tasks. Treatment with METH leads to more persistent lever pressing for food rewards in the PR. In the PHD task, we found that METH increased arousal, which leads to numerous bouts of hyperactive responding but neither increases nor impairs goal-directed action. The results demonstrate that these tools enable a more precise understanding of the underlying processes being altered in manipulations that alter motivated behavior. PMID:26030428

  13. Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Examines creative thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy and compares creative and critical thinking. Discusses teaching for thinking, techniques for sparking creativity, activities for creating a mental museum, synectics (a group creative process to create new insights), and creating meaning through story…

  14. The automaticity of perceiving animacy: Goal-directed motion in simple shapes influences visuomotor behavior even when task-irrelevant.

    PubMed

    van Buren, Benjamin; Uddenberg, Stefan; Scholl, Brian J

    2016-06-01

    Visual processing recovers not only simple features, such as color and shape, but also seemingly higher-level properties, such as animacy. Indeed, even abstract geometric shapes are readily perceived as intentional agents when they move in certain ways, and such percepts can dramatically influence behavior. In the wolfpack effect, for example, subjects maneuver a disc around a display in order to avoid several randomly moving darts. When the darts point toward the disc, subjects (falsely) perceive that the darts are chasing them, and this impairs several types of visuomotor performance. Are such effects reflexive, automatic features of visual processing? Or might they instead arise only as contingent strategies in tasks in which subjects must interact with (and thus focus on the features of) such objects? We explored these questions in an especially direct way-by embedding such displays into the background of a completely independent "foraging" task. Subjects now moved their disc to collect small "food" dots (which appeared sequentially in random locations) as quickly as possible. The darts were task-irrelevant, and subjects were encouraged to ignore them. Nevertheless, foraging was impaired when the randomly moving darts pointed at the subjects' disc, as compared to control conditions in which they were either oriented orthogonally to the subjects' disc or pointed at another moving shape-thereby controlling for nonsocial factors. The perception of animacy thus influences downstream visuomotor behavior in an automatic manner, such that subjects cannot completely override the influences of seemingly animate shapes even while attempting to ignore them. PMID:26597889

  15. Scrutiny of Critical Thinking Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…

  16. Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. Methods We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Results The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Conclusions Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. PMID:23452663

  17. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  18. Transforming Critical Thinking: Thinking Constructively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    This book presents a reconceptualization of critical thinking theory. Drawing on pragmatic, feminist, and postmodern philosophies, the book offers an overview of the history of critical thinking and identifies its major theorists. It critiques how critical thinking is conceptualized and applied in classrooms and offers a newly delineated platform…

  19. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  20. Thinking like an Ecologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jenn

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which students examine current field research on global change. In particular, students investigate the effect of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on ecosystems by applying their knowledge of scientific inquiry and photosynthesis. The goal of the activity is for students to think like ecologists and draw…

  1. Thinking Outside the Box: Policy Strategies for Readiness, Access, and Success. Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.; Jones, Dennis P.; Longanecker, David A.; Michelau, Demaree K.

    2007-01-01

    In partnership with the American Council on Education's Center for Policy Analysis, the National Conference of State Legislatures, and the State Higher Education Executive Officers, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has been working to advance the overarching goal of the Changing Direction project, which was to examine…

  2. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  3. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  4. Harmonizing international trials of early goal-directed resuscitation for severe sepsis and septic shock: methodology of ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe and compare the design of three independent but collaborating multicenter trials of early goal-directed resuscitation for severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods We reviewed the three current trials, one each in the USA (ProCESS: protocolized care for early septic shock), Australasia (ARISE: Australasian resuscitation in sepsis evaluation), and the UK (ProMISe: protocolised management in sepsis). We used the 2010 CONSORT (consolidated standards of reporting trials) statement and the 2008 CONSORT extension for trials assessing non-pharmacologic treatments to describe and compare the underlying rationale, commonalities, and differences. Results All three trials conform to CONSORT guidelines, address the same fundamental questions, and share key design elements. Each trial is a patient-level, equal-randomized, parallel-group superiority trial that seeks to enroll emergency department patients with inclusion criteria that are consistent with the original early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) trial (suspected or confirmed infection, two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and refractory hypotension or elevated lactate), is powered to detect a 6–8 % absolute mortality reduction (hospital or 90-day), and uses trained teams to deliver EGDT. Design differences appear to primarily be driven by between-country variation in health care context. The main difference between the trials is the inclusion of a third, alternative resuscitation strategy arm in ProCESS. Conclusions Harmonization of study design and methods between severe sepsis trials is feasible and may facilitate pooling of data on completion of the trials. PMID:23958738

  5. Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but…

  6. Thinking creatively is thinking critically.

    PubMed

    Gruenfeld, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The Cartoneras projects aim to promote the celebration of language, culture, and creativity through a collaboration between top literary minds and cardboard collectors in Buenos Aires and Lima. They produce and publish beautiful books with hand-painted cardboard covers that speak of the wonderful literature inside. Inspired by those projects, the Paper Picker Press (PPP) program in Boston aims to engage higher-order thinking through an arts-based approach to rediscovering literature through play. PPP starts with the premise that a student who is thinking creatively is also thinking critically. Creative play is critical thinking. PMID:20391619

  7. Teaching Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Paul

    1986-01-01

    As the world moves from the industrial age into the information age people become less dependent on basic facts and skills and more dependent on the ability to manipulate information. The higher level thinking skills that are needed in this new age must be taught in the schools. When selecting programs for teaching thinking, educators should…

  8. Five-year experience with the peri-operative goal directed management for surgical repair of traumatic aortic injury in the eastern province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gameel, Haytham Z.; El-Tahan, Mohamed R.; Shafi, Mohammed A.; Mowafi, Hany A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdulmohsin A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Traumatic aortic injury (TAI) accounts for 1/3 of all trauma victims. Aim: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the adopted standardized immediate pre-operative and intra-operative hemodynamic goal directed control, anesthetic technique and organs protection on the morbidity and mortality in patients presented with TAI. Settings and Design: An observational retrospective study at a single university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Following ethical approval, we recruited the data of 44 patients admitted to the King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, with formal confirmation of diagnosis of blunt TAI during a 5-year period from February 2008 to April 2013 from the hospital medical records. Statistical Analysis: descriptive analysis. Results: A total of 44 victims (41 men, median (range) age 29 (22-34) years) with TAI who underwent surgical repair were recruited. Median (range) post-operative chest tube output was 700 (200-1100) ml necessitated transfusion in 5 (11.4%) of cases. Post-operative complications included transient renal failure (13.6%), pneumonia (6.8%), acute lung injury/distress syndrome (20.5%), sepsis (4.5%), wound infection (47.7%) and air leak (6.8%). No patient developed end stage renal failure or spinal cord injury. Median intensive care unit stay was 6 (4-30) days and in-hospital mortality was 9.1%. Conclusion: We found that the implementation of a standardized early goal directed hemodynamic control for the peri-operative management of patients with TAI reduces the post-operative morbidity and mortality after surgical repair. PMID:25538521

  9. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS1) have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S.; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M.; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated and died in the first post-natal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the central nervous system. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the Pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that while alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and so the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior and neonatal demise. PMID:16641247

  10. Forward Thinking. Progress Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007, "Forward Thinking" has provided the roadmap for the department's work. These goals have served the department well in aligning and focusing the work at hand. The goals are: (1) Provide guidance and support to meet school and district needs; (2) Enhance professional development involving best practices; (3) Develop tools to eliminate…

  11. How We Think We Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intellectual context of this essay is the nature of human thought as examined by philosophers and psychologists past and present. Focus of study: The study focuses on the treatment of thinking by John Dewey in his two editions of "How We Think" and by William James in his "Talks to Teachers". Research Design: This is a…

  12. Critical Thinking: Thinking with Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Urges education to help students learn through conceptual thinking. States that the first step must be to teach the subtleties of words--without a command of the language, important discriminations can be confused. Asserts that if students are to think well conceptually, surface language must dissolve, and alternative ways to communicate must be…

  13. Self-Directed Learning with Web-Based Sites: How Well Do Students' Perceptions and Thinking Match with Their Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan

    2008-01-01

    With research consistently showing that students can be motivated to learn with ICT, this case study sought to investigate Year 7 students' learning about simple machines in an ICT-enhanced environment where they could self-direct their own learning with minimal intervention from the teacher. The study is focused on how well do students and…

  14. A recommended early goal-directed management guideline for the prevention of hypothermia-related transfusion, morbidity, and mortality in severely injured trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Ryan; Callum, Jeannie; Laflamme, Claude; Tien, Homer; Nascimento, Barto; Beckett, Andrew; Alam, Asim

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is present in up to two-thirds of patients with severe injury, although it is often disregarded during the initial resuscitation. Studies have revealed that hypothermia is associated with mortality in a large percentage of trauma cases when the patient's temperature is below 32 °C. Risk factors include the severity of injury, wet clothing, low transport unit temperature, use of anesthesia, and prolonged surgery. Fortunately, associated coagulation disorders have been shown to completely resolve with aggressive warming. Selected passive and active warming techniques can be applied in damage control resuscitation. While treatment guidelines exist for acidosis and bleeding, there is no evidence-based approach to managing hypothermia in trauma patients. We synthesized a goal-directed algorithm for warming the severely injured patient that can be directly incorporated into current Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines. This involves the early use of warming blankets and removal of wet clothing in the prehospital phase followed by aggressive rewarming on arrival at the hospital if the patient's injuries require damage control therapy. Future research in hypothermia management should concentrate on applying this treatment algorithm and should evaluate its influence on patient outcomes. This treatment strategy may help to reduce blood loss and improve morbidity and mortality in this population of patients. PMID:27095272

  15. Sustainable Health Development Goals (SHDG): breaking down the walls

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world. PMID:26966502

  16. Sustainable Health Development Goals (SHDG): breaking down the walls.

    PubMed

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world. PMID:26966502

  17. SYMPOSIUM PAPERS OF THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, GOAL-DIRECTED LEADERSHIP--SUPERORDINATE TO HUMAN RELATIONS (74TH, NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OLMSTEAD, JOSEPH A.; AND OTHERS

    EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATIONS MUST BE GOAL-ORIENTED. HIGH-LEVEL LEADERSHIP MUST DEFINE ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS AND CHANNEL ACTIVITIES TO ACHIEVE THESE GOALS. STUDIES WERE MADE BY HUMRRO IN MILITARY LEADERSHIP AND SMALL GROUP EFFECTIVENESS. IT WAS FOUND THAT POTENTIAL SQUAD LEADERS, SELECTED FOR ABOVE-AVERAGE INTELLIGENCE AND…

  18. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  19. Influence of specific training on spatio-temporal parameters at the onset of goal-directed reaching in infants: a controlled trial*

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Andréa B.; Woollacott, Marjorie; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that long-term experience can promote functional changes in infants. However, much remains unknown about how a short-term experience affects performance of a task. Objective This study aims to investigate the influence of a single training session at the onset of goal-directed reaching on the spatio-temporal parameters of reaching and whether there are differences in the effects of training across different reaching positions. Method Thirty-three infants were divided into three groups: 1) a control group; 2) a group that was reach trained in a reclined position; and 3) a group trained in the supine position. The infants were submitted to two assessments (pre- and post-training) in two testing positions (supine and reclined at 45°). Results The short-duration training sessions were effective in promoting shorter reaches in the specific position in which the training was conducted. Training in the reclined position was associated with shorter and faster reaches upon assessment in the reclined position. Conclusions A few minutes of reach training are effective in facilitating reaching behavior in infants at the onset of reaching. The improvements in reaching were specific to the position in which the infants were trained. PMID:24072228

  20. Academic Goals, Goal Process Cognition, and Exam Performance among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Morris A.; Fairholme, Chris; Karoly, Paul; Ruehlman, Linda S.; Newton, Craig

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the nature of and linkages between student-generated academic goals, individual differences in self-regulatory thinking (goal process cognition), and exam performance among college students. In Study 1 (N = 365) and in Study 2 (N = 325), we elicited students' self-ascribed most important academic goals for introductory psychology…

  1. Design Thinking for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  2. Critical thinking in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadidi, Farahnaz

    2016-07-01

    We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.

  3. Evolutionary thinking

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  4. Fluid administration, vasopressor use and patient outcomes in a group of high-risk cardiac surgical patients receiving postoperative goal-directed haemodynamic therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Walker, L J C; Young, P J

    2015-09-01

    The role of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac surgical patients has not been determined. This study sought to observe the effect of a postoperative standardised haemodynamic protocol (SHP) on the administration of fluid and vasoactive drugs after high-risk cardiac surgery. This was an interventional pilot study. In 2010 to 2011, the SHP was introduced to the ICU at Wellington Regional Hospital, Wellington, New Zealand, for the perioperative management of patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery. A pulmonary artery catheter was inserted in the patients in the study group and fluids and supportive medications were provided in the ICU according to a protocol that targeted a cardiac index ≥ 2 l/min/m², mixed venous oxygen saturation ≥ 60% and a mean arterial pressure of 65 to 75 mmHg. Data from 40 consecutive high-risk cardiac surgical patients assigned to this protocol were compared with a matched cohort of 40 consecutive high-risk cardiac surgical patients receiving 'usual care' in 2009. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. There was no significant difference in the duration of noradrenaline infusion in the SHP cohort compared to historical controls (median [IQR] 18.5 hours [31.63] versus 18 hours [18.3]; P=0.35), despite patients receiving more fluid in their first 12 hours in the ICU (mean 4687 ml [SD ± 2284 ml] versus 1889 ml [SD ± 1344 ml]; P <0.001). The SHP cohort had a higher rate of reintubation (4 in 37 [10.8%] versus 0 in 40 [0%]; P=0.049). The SHP delivered significantly more fluid, but did not reduce the duration of noradrenaline infusion, compared to usual care. PMID:26310413

  5. The Effect of Early Goal-Directed Therapy on Outcome in Adult Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Qi-Hong; Liu, Song-Qiao; Pan, Chun; Xu, Xiu-Ping; Han, Ji-Bin; Xie, Jian-Feng; Huang, Ying-Zi; Guo, Feng-Mei; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) improves outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of existing clinical trials to examine whether EGDT improved outcome in the resuscitation of adult sepsis patients compared with control care. METHODS: We searched for eligible studies using MEDLINE, Elsevier, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science databases. Studies were eligible if they compared the effects of EGDT versus control care on mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Two reviewers extracted data independently. Data including mortality, sample size of the patients with severe sepsis and septic shock, and resuscitation end points were extracted. Data were analyzed using methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager 4.2 software. Random errors were evaluated by trial sequential analysis (TSA). RESULTS: Nine studies compared EGDT with control care, and 5202 severe sepsis and septic shock patients were included. A nonsignificant trend toward reduction in the longest all-cause mortality was observed in the EGDT group compared with control care (relative risk, 0.89; 99% confidence interval, 0.74–1.07; P = 0.10). However, EGDT significantly reduced intensive care unit mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients (relative risk, 0.72; 99% confidence interval, 0.57–0.90; P = 0.0002). TSA indicated lack of firm evidence for a beneficial effect. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, a nonsignificant trend toward reduction in the longest all-cause mortality in patients resuscitated with EGDT was noted. However, EGDT significantly reduced intensive care unit mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients. TSA indicated a lack of firm evidence for the results. More powered, randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the effects. PMID:27049857

  6. Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between thinking styles and personality types by having 600 undergraduate students from the University of Hong Kong respond to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS). Reports that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. (CMK)

  7. Thinking Allowed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2008-01-01

    Disability equality and improving life chances for disabled people are high on the U.K. Government's agenda at present. As someone who was once a practitioner and a manager in a busy further education environment, the author knows how difficult it is to find time to think about, and discuss with colleagues, the implications of policy. This article…

  8. Quantitative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBridge, Lee A.

    An appeal for more research to determine how to educate children as effectively as possible is made. Mathematics teachers can readily examine the educational problems of today in their classrooms since learning progress in mathematics can easily be measured and evaluated. Since mathematics teachers have learned to think in quantitative terms and…

  9. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  10. Thinking Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stu; Sharp, Janet; Zachary, Loren

    2004-01-01

    Most people think that engineering and mathematics go hand in hand. To many, being an engineer means manipulating equations and calculating measurements to design and build structures of all kinds. And they are right. Engineering does involve a great deal of mathematics. But, building structures to withstand certain environmental conditions or…

  11. Teaching Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Dwight

    2002-01-01

    If history teachers' aim is to teach students how to think, why not ask: What forms of thought do historians use, and what specific techniques will inculcate these forms? In this article, the author proposes a fundamental shift, from courses with a focus on the mastery of data to courses with a priority on learning the historian's craft. The…

  12. Visual Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    Based on the more general principle that all thinking (including reasoning) is basically perceptual in nature, the author proposes that visual perception is not a passive recording of stimulus material but an active concern of the mind. He delineates the task of visually distinguishing changes in size, shape, and position and points out the…

  13. Strategic Thinking about Institutional Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Donald R.

    Three papers, written as part of a seminar on governance and management in higher education, analyze the current situation and potential for development of MidAmerica Nazarene College in Springfield, Missouri. The first paper, "Governance and Governance Processes at MidAmerica Nazarene College," outlines the governance structure of the college and…

  14. Early goal-directed therapy after major surgery reduces complications and duration of hospital stay. A randomised, controlled trial [ISRCTN38797445

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, Rupert; Dawson, Deborah; Fawcett, Jayne; Rhodes, Andrew; Grounds, R Michael; Bennett, E David

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Goal-directed therapy (GDT) has been shown to improve outcome when commenced before surgery. This requires pre-operative admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). In cardiac surgery, GDT has proved effective when commenced after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of post-operative GDT on the incidence of complications and duration of hospital stay in patients undergoing general surgery. Methods This was a randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation. High-risk general surgical patients were allocated to post-operative GDT to attain an oxygen delivery index of 600 ml min-1 m-2 or to conventional management. Cardiac output was measured by lithium indicator dilution and pulse power analysis. Patients were followed up for 60 days. Results Sixty-two patients were randomised to GDT and 60 patients to control treatment. The GDT group received more intravenous colloid (1,907 SD ± 878 ml versus 1,204 SD ± 898 ml; p < 0.0001) and dopexamine (55 patients (89%) versus 1 patient (2%); p < 0.0001). Fewer GDT patients developed complications (27 patients (44%) versus 41 patients (68%); p = 0.003, relative risk 0.63; 95% confidence intervals 0.46 to 0.87). The number of complications per patient was also reduced (0.7 SD ± 0.9 per patient versus 1.5 SD ± 1.5 per patient; p = 0.002). The median duration of hospital stay in the GDT group was significantly reduced (11 days (IQR 7 to 15) versus 14 days (IQR 11 to 27); p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in mortality (seven patients (11.3%) versus nine patients (15%); p = 0.59). Conclusion Post-operative GDT is associated with reductions in post-operative complications and duration of hospital stay. The beneficial effects of GDT may be achieved while avoiding the difficulties of pre-operative ICU admission. PMID:16356219

  15. Effect of early goal-directed therapy on mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Chi, Dongmei; Wang, Siyang; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether patients with severe sepsis or septic shock could benefit from a strict and early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) protocol recommended by Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) Guidelines. Methods MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE/OVID and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched between March 1983 and March 2015. Eligible studies evaluated the outcomes of EGDT versus usual care or standard therapy in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. The primary outcomes were mortality within 28 days, 60 days and 90 days. Included studies must report at least one metric of mortality. Results 5 studies that enrolled 4303 patients with 2144 in the EGDT group and 2159 in the control group were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, there were slight decreases of mortality within 28 days, 60 days and 90 days in the random-effect model in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock receiving EGDT resuscitation. However, none of the differences reached statistical significance (RR=0.86; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.06; p=0.16; p for heterogeneity=0.008, I2=71%; RR=0.94; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.10; p=0.46; p for heterogeneity=0.16, I2=43%; RR=0.98; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10; p=0.75; p for heterogeneity=0.87, I2=0%, respectively). Conclusions The current meta-analysis pooled data from five RCTs and found no survival benefit of EGDT in patients with sepsis. However, the included trials are not sufficiently homogeneous and potential confounding factors in the negative trials (ProCESS, ARISE and ProMISe) might bias the results and diminish the treatment effect of EGDT. Further well-designed studies should eliminate all potential source of bias to determine if EGDT has a mortality benefit. PMID:26932135

  16. Computational Thinking Concepts for Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.

    2016-01-01

    Early education has classically introduced reading, writing, and mathematics. Recent literature discusses the importance of adding "computational thinking" as a core ability that every child must learn. The goal is to develop students by making them equally comfortable with computational thinking as they are with other core areas of…

  17. Computer Software Genres That Help Students Think! Electronic Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    To effectively integrate computers into teaching, students' thinking skills must be a priority. The goal is to align thinking processes appropriately with the software's function. By categorizing software by genre and matching it to the desired thinking skills, teachers can plan lesson activities that teach discrete skills as well as complex…

  18. Questioning Critical Thinking: Funny Faces in a Familiar Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, W. Allen

    Although college mission statements related to promoting a sense of responsibility in students, fostering the desire to learn, and promoting critical thinking sound good, few people actually think about what the words mean or help teachers understand what practices might actually achieve those goals. Thinking skills taught in classrooms can vary…

  19. Real-World Problems: Engaging Young Learners in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…

  20. The Effects of Pain Intensity on Goal Schemas and Goal Pursuit: A Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Paul; Okun, Morris A.; Enders, Craig; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although the adverse effects of chronic pain on work productivity and daily life pursuits are clear, the within-person dynamics of pain, goal cognition, and engagement in work-related and lifestyle goals remain uncharted. This study investigated the impact of pain intensity (assessed on three occasions each day) and goal-related schematic thinking (ratings of importance, planning, and goal pursuit opportunities, assessed only in the morning) on afternoon and evening work and lifestyle goal pursuit. Methods A community sample of working adults with chronic pain (N =131) were screened and interviewed about their work and lifestyle goals and completed a 21-day telephonic diary. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate within-person and between-person effects. Results At the within-person level, morning pain intensity was inversely related to schematic cognition concerning work and lifestyle goals, whereas, at the between-person level, morning pain intensity varied positively with schematic thinking about work goals as well with afternoon life-style goal pursuit. At both the between- and within- analytic levels, morning goal schemas were positively associated with the pursuit of each type of goal in the afternoon and again in the evening. Moreover, positive carry-over effects of morning goal schemas on next day afternoon goal pursuit were observed. Conclusions Whereas morning pain intensity exhibited inconsistent effects across analytic levels, morning goal-related schematic thinking consistently predicted goal pursuit across analytic levels, type of goal, and time of day. These findings have implications for treatment and prevention of pain’s potentially deleterious effects on workplace and lifestyle goals. PMID:25180547

  1. On three forms of thinking: magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    The author believes that contemporary psychoanalysis has shifted its emphasis from the understanding of the symbolic meaning of dreams, play, and associations to the exploration of the processes of thinking, dreaming, and playing. In this paper, he discusses his understanding of three forms of thinking-magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking-and provides clinical illustrations in which each of these forms of thinking figures prominently. The author views magical thinking as a form of thinking that subverts genuine thinking and psychological growth by substituting invented psychic reality for disturbing external reality. By contrast, dream thinking--our most profound form of thinking-involves viewing an emotional experience from multiple perspectives simultaneously: for example, the perspectives of primary process and secondary process thinking. In transformative thinking, one creates a new way of ordering experience that allows one to generate types of feeling, forms of object relatedness, and qualities of aliveness that had previously been unimaginable. PMID:20496835

  2. Thinking through Language. Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Dan; Kuykendall, Carol

    One of three related documents produced in response to a need for direct instruction in thinking skills, this program for middle school or junior high school students bases its approach on involvement of students in direct experiences. The book contains four units. Focusing on perception, Unit 1: "Experiencing the Arts" begins with ways sensory…

  3. What Are the Goals of Corrective Justice? Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Presents a secondary lesson in which students examine the goals of corrective justice and the differences between wrongs and injuries. Includes two critical thinking exercises based on case studies, a cartoon designed to stimulate student thinking, and a student worksheet. (CFR)

  4. The Development of Critical Thinking in Professional and Academic Bachelor Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evens, Marie; Verburgh, An; Elen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an important goal in higher education. Students are expected to grow in critical thinking during their higher education programme. The present study investigates the development of critical thinking in 1134 bachelor students in Flanders, Belgium. The study followed a mixed longitudinal design. Students' critical thinking was…

  5. Thinking-in-Concert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…

  6. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and the ways…

  7. Design thinking.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes. PMID:18605031

  8. Changing How We Think about the Goals of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Chad

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, scholars and practitioners have committed to measuring the cognitive outcomes of education. In this chapter, the author assesses the movement that focuses on cognition, to the exclusion of other outcomes. An identity-based framework is offered as an alternative.

  9. Strategic Thinking: The Untapped Resource for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Strategic thinking is an organized, analytical process by which college leaders can assess: (1) existing and potential competitors; (2) sources of competitive advantage; and (3) college capabilities and competitive position. Three outcomes of strategic thinking are: (1) clear institutional strategy and direction; (2) improved institutional…

  10. 3 Steps for Setting Healthy Eating Goals | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Expectations and Goals Activity: 3 STEPS FOR SETTING HEALTHY EATING GOALS 1. Think about what kinds of goals you might set. One key to setting realistic goals is to identify what you want to get out of it. Here are some examples of things you might want to achieve with healthier eating. Choose one of these, or get creative and come up with your own.

  11. Teaching critical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, N. G.; Wieman, Carl E.; Bonn, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year. PMID:26283351

  12. Newborns' Preference for Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craighero, Laila; Leo, Irene; Umilta, Carlo; Simion, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The central role of sensory-motor representations in cognitive functions is almost universally accepted. However, determining the link between motor execution and its sensory counterpart and when, during ontogenesis, this link originates are still under investigation. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether at birth this link is…

  13. Computational thinking and thinking about computing

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeannette M.

    2008-01-01

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing. PMID:18672462

  14. Visual Thinking Strategies = Creative and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…

  15. Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT): A Biopsychosocial Model of Self-Regulation, Executive Functions, and Personal Growth (Eudaimonia) in Evocative Contexts of PTSD, Obesity, and Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Kent, Martha; Rivers, Crystal T; Wrenn, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a biopsychosocial model of self-regulation, executive functions, and personal growth that we have applied to Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT) interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and chronic pain. Implications of the training for the prevention of maladaptation, including psychological distress and health declines, and for promoting healthy development are addressed. Existing models of attention, cognition, and physiology were sourced in combination with qualitative study findings in developing this resilience skills intervention. We used qualitative methods to uncover life skills that are most salient in cases of extreme adversity, finding that goal-directed actions that reflected an individual's values and common humanity with others created a context-independent domain that could compensate for the effects of adversity. The efficacy of the resilience skills intervention for promoting positive emotion, enhancing neurocognitive capacities, and reducing symptoms was investigated in a randomized controlled trial with a veteran population diagnosed with PTSD. The intervention had low attrition (8%) and demonstrated improvement on symptom and wellbeing outcomes, indicating that the intervention may be efficacious for PTSD and that it taps into those mechanisms which the intervention was designed to address. Feasibility studies for groups with comorbid diagnoses, such as chronic pain and PTSD, also showed positive results, leading to the application of the GRIT intervention to other evocative contexts such as obesity and chronic pain. PMID:26039013

  16. Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT): A Biopsychosocial Model of Self-Regulation, Executive Functions, and Personal Growth (Eudaimonia) in Evocative Contexts of PTSD, Obesity, and Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Martha; Rivers, Crystal T.; Wrenn, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a biopsychosocial model of self-regulation, executive functions, and personal growth that we have applied to Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT) interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and chronic pain. Implications of the training for the prevention of maladaptation, including psychological distress and health declines, and for promoting healthy development are addressed. Existing models of attention, cognition, and physiology were sourced in combination with qualitative study findings in developing this resilience skills intervention. We used qualitative methods to uncover life skills that are most salient in cases of extreme adversity, finding that goal-directed actions that reflected an individual’s values and common humanity with others created a context-independent domain that could compensate for the effects of adversity. The efficacy of the resilience skills intervention for promoting positive emotion, enhancing neurocognitive capacities, and reducing symptoms was investigated in a randomized controlled trial with a veteran population diagnosed with PTSD. The intervention had low attrition (8%) and demonstrated improvement on symptom and wellbeing outcomes, indicating that the intervention may be efficacious for PTSD and that it taps into those mechanisms which the intervention was designed to address. Feasibility studies for groups with comorbid diagnoses, such as chronic pain and PTSD, also showed positive results, leading to the application of the GRIT intervention to other evocative contexts such as obesity and chronic pain. PMID:26039013

  17. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  18. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  19. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  20. Encouragement for Thinking Critically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Sonia; Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Here we report the results obtained in an innovative teaching experience that encourages the development of Critical Thinking skills through motivational intervention. Understanding Critical Thinking as a theory of action, "we think to solve problems", and accompanying this concept with a program aimed at teaching/learning…

  1. Beyond Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Suggests our society strongly needs thinking that is constructive, generative, and organizing; describes an educational program, CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust), which teaches creative thinking as a skill; and presents reasons for teaching thinking as a specific subject area. (MBR)

  2. A Ladder of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovrich, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Scientists and students often believe that if they just think harder about a problem, a solution will follow. However, thinking about one's thinking, or using metacognition, can be a more productive expenditure of mental energy. Introducing students to metacognition allows them to discover the value of reflection. This article presents a lesson on…

  3. What Were They Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachael Adams

    2012-01-01

    Too often, teachers scratch their heads and ask, "What were my students thinking?" then answer, "I don't want to know." But teachers should want to know, and students should question their own thinking, as well. Critical thinking involves not just problem solving, creativity, analysis, and synthesis but also self-awareness of learning and learning…

  4. But do you think I’m cool? Developmental differences in striatal recruitment during direct and reflected social self-evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, Kathryn F.; Moore, William E.; Merchant, Junaid S.; Kahn, Lauren E.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    The current fMRI study investigated the neural foundations of evaluating oneself and others during early adolescence and young adulthood. Eighteen early adolescents (ages 11–14, M = 12.6) and 19 young adults (ages 22–31, M = 25.6) evaluated if academic, physical, and social traits described themselves directly (direct self-evaluations), described their best friend directly (direct other-evaluations), described themselves from their best friend’s perspective (reflected self-evaluations), or in general could change over time (control malleability-evaluations). Compared to control evaluations, both adolescents and adults recruited cortical midline structures during direct and reflected self-evaluations, as well as during direct other-evaluations, converging with previous research. However, unique to this study was a significant three-way interaction between age group, evaluative perspective, and domain within bilateral ventral striatum. Region of interest analyses demonstrated a significant evaluative perspective by domain interaction within the adolescent sample only. Adolescents recruited greatest bilateral ventral striatum during reflected social self-evaluations, which was positively correlated with age and pubertal development. These findings suggest that reflected social self-evaluations, made from the inferred perspective of a close peer, may be especially self-relevant, salient, or rewarding to adolescent self-processing – particularly during the progression through adolescence – and this feature persists into adulthood. PMID:24582805

  5. Effective Goal-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Setting organizational or program objectives is seen as requiring three steps (brainstorming goals for the year, prioritizing them, and visualizing them as smaller, discrete tasks) and six principles (making goals group-specific, setting deadlines, being realistic and explicit, writing down goals, defining measurable steps, and creating…

  6. Cross-Age Peer Tutoring of Reading and Thinking: Influence on Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.; Bryce, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Outcomes for methods to accelerate thinking skills involving some peer interaction have been more consistently positive than those for purely teacher-directed or materials-led methods. However, methods involving mainly or only peer interaction are rare. This paper describes and evaluates such a method for peer tutoring in thinking skills, which…

  7. A Case for Thinking Without Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Dijksterhuis, Ap; Strick, Madelijn

    2016-01-01

    People can engage in prolonged thought processes, such as when they are facing an important decision or when they are working on a scientific discovery. Such thought processes can take months or even years. We argue that while people engage in such thinking, they make progress not only when they consciously think but also sometimes when they are consciously thinking about something else-that is, while they think unconsciously. We review the literature on unconscious thought (UT) processes and conclude that there is indeed quite some evidence for UT. Conceptualized as a form of unconscious goal pursuit, UT is likely to be especially fruitful for thought processes that are complex, important, or interesting to the thinker. In addition, we discuss other characteristics of the UT process. We end with proposing Type 3 processes, in addition to Type 1 and Type 2 (or Systems 1 and 2) processes, to accommodate prolonged thought processes in models on thought. PMID:26817729

  8. Promoting Critical Thinking through an Interdisciplinary Study Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, WeiWei; Sankaran, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the promotion of critical thinking through an interdisciplinary curriculum design using multidisciplinary faculty as well as details the implementation of an experiential short-term study abroad program in China. To achieve this educational goal of critical thinking, along with meeting the requirements specific to each course,…

  9. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test and Business School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bycio, Peter; Allen, Joyce S.

    2009-01-01

    An intent of many business programs is to enhance the critical thinking capabilities of their students. Since AACSB accreditation requires evidence that business schools fulfill their goals, our students were required to take the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). As expected, the CCTST was significantly related to SAT performance…

  10. Stimulating Critical Thinking through Faculty Development: Design, Evaluation, and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Leonard E.; And Others

    A faculty development program designed to encourage critical thinking skills across the curriculum at the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire is described in this report. The program's goal was to stimulate faculty to add critical thinking to their pedagogical objectives. Faculty participants attended six 4-hour meetings designed to heighten their…

  11. Challenging Students with the Tools of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Critical thinking has long been a goal of social studies education, and its importance has been reiterated in documents delineating standards for the social studies. Yet, teaching critical thinking is problematic because there are competing definitions and practices and many barriers to its implementation (Wright 1995; Onosko 1989). In this…

  12. Higher Order Thinking Skills: Challenging All Students to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Explicit instruction in thinking skills must be a priority goal of all teachers. In this book, the author presents a framework of the five Rs: Relevancy, Richness, Relatedness, Rigor, and Recursiveness. The framework serves to illuminate instruction in critical and creative thinking skills for K-12 teachers across content areas. Each chapter…

  13. Attributional (Explanatory) Thinking about Failure in New Achievement Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Daniels, Lia M.; Haynes, Tara L.

    2008-01-01

    Attributional (explanatory) thinking involves the appraisal of factors that contribute to performance and is instrumental to motivation and goal striving. Little is understood, however, concerning attributional thinking when multiple causes are involved in the transition to new achievement settings. Our study examined such complex attributional…

  14. Prospective Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Reflective Thinking Skills: Descriptions of Their Students' Thinking and Interpretations of Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Amanda; Spitzer, Sandy M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined prospective middle school mathematics teachers' reflective thinking skills to understand how they learned from their own teaching practice when engaging in a modified lesson study experience. Our goal was to identify variations among prospective teachers' descriptions of students' thinking and frequency of their…

  15. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

  16. The Selfish Goal

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Green, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Gráinne

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that consciously intended goal pursuits have unintended consequences for social judgment and behavior. From evolutionary theory (Dawkins 1976/2006) and empirical evidence of a nonconscious mode of goal pursuit (Bargh, 2005) we derive the hypothesis that most human goal pursuits are open-ended in nature: Once active, goals will operate on goal-relevant content in the environment, even if that content is not the intended focus of the conscious goal. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that goals to evaluate a job applicant for either a waiter or crime reporter position also shape impressions of incidental bystanders in the situation, such that the bystander is later liked or disliked not on his own merits, but on how well his behavior matches the criteria consciously applied in evaluating the job applicant. Experiment 3 finds that a goal to help a specific target person spills over to influence actions toward incidental bystanders, but only while active. Implications of these findings for goal pursuit in everyday life are discussed. PMID:19081795

  17. A Conceptual Model for the Design and Delivery of Explicit Thinking Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Cherrie L.

    2005-01-01

    Developing student thinking skills is an important goal for most educators. However, due to time constraints and weighty content standards, thinking skills instruction is often embedded in subject matter, implicit and incidental. For best results, thinking skills instruction requires a systematic design and explicit teaching strategies. The…

  18. Pedagogy for Developing Critical Thinking in Adolescents: Explicit Instruction Produces Greatest Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Lisa M.; Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    Although the development and transfer of critical thinking skills are recognized as primary goals for education, there is little empirical evidence to help educators decide how to teach in ways that enhance critical thinking. In two studies, we compared explicit and imbedded instructional modes and assessed critical thinking with the Halpern…

  19. Teaching Critical Thinking in an Introductory Leadership Course Utilizing Active Learning Strategies: A Confirmatory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Fritz, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    Critical thinking is often seen as a universal goal of higher education but is seldom confirmed as an outcome. This study was conducted to determine whether an introductory level college leadership course that encouraged active learning increased critical thinking skills. A pre- and post-assessment of critical thinking skills was conducted using…

  20. Using Word Clouds in Online Discussions to Support Critical Thinking and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Reyes-Foster, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Being actively engaged in a task is often associated with critical thinking. Cultivating critical thinking skills, such as purposefully reflecting and analyzing one's own thinking, is a major goal of higher education. However, there is a challenge in providing college students opportunities to clearly demonstrate these skills in online courses.…

  1. Project ACT (A Project to Advance Critical Thinking). Project Termination Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Chang-Yil

    The goal of this project was to develop a sequential program for the development of critical thinking skills that could be extended to all the elementary schools in the school district. The major objectives were: (1) to enhance teachers' ability to think critically, practice in their classrooms teaching strategies to develop pupils' thinking, and…

  2. The geography of thinking.

    PubMed

    Mole, John

    2002-01-01

    People in different cultures are taught to think differently. How we gather information, process, rationalise, justify and communicate our ideas is culturally determined. Europe is divided between the pragmatic, inductive thinking of North Sea cultures and the rationalist thinking of the rest of the continent. Westerners and Asians have different mental skills and capacities deriving from the nature of written and spoken language, the relative importance of learning by rote or investigation and the social environment. Western children are expected to ask questions and test ideas for themselves, while in Asia it is unacceptable to question anyone senior in age or authority, including teachers. Westerners base thinking on reason; Asians base thinking on harmony. Whenever people of different cultures work together, different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. This applies to many spheres of work, including the medical profession. PMID:12195863

  3. Can Goals Motivate Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Alexandra; Kober, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of six papers by the Center on Education Policy exploring issues related to students' motivation to learn. This paper examines various programs that use test performance or postsecondary attendance as motivational goals and the effects of these goals on students. How do policies surrounding assessments and college…

  4. THE GOALS OF INTEGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HANDLIN, OSCAR

    THE LACK OF CLEARLY DEFINED GOALS WITHIN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IS IMPEDING ITS TACTICS AND MOMENTUM. THE STATED GOAL OF INTEGRATION ACTUALLY HAS TWO ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATIONS--FULL LEGAL EQUALITY AND RACIAL BALANCE. THE NEWER STRESS ON RACIAL BALANCE RESTS ON THE FALLACIOUS ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE NEGRO'S SITUATION IS UNIQUE BECAUSE OF SLAVERY…

  5. Addressees of Performance Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Dresel, Markus; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2008-01-01

    As performance goals aim to both procure acknowledgment of one's abilities and to avoid revealing a lack of one's abilities, the authors hypothesized that students hold specific performance goals for different addressees and that there are specific correlational patterns with other motivational constructs. They analyzed a data set of 2,675 pupils…

  6. Goal Setting and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  7. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  8. Infants Attribute Goals Even to Biomechanically Impossible Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southgate, Victoria; Johnson, Mark H.; Csibra, Gergely

    2008-01-01

    Human infants readily interpret the actions of others in terms of goals, but the origins of this important cognitive skill are keenly debated. We tested whether infants recognize others' actions as goal-directed on the basis of their experience with carrying out and observing goal-directed actions, or whether their perception of a goal-directed…

  9. An Hypothesis on Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclennan, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that there exists a "finite" number of elementary concepts and distinguishable modes of thinking, that all human beings tend to acquire the same set of elements of thinking and the same strategies with which to understand and control their physical environment, and that the method of analysis used here is a standard scientific method.…

  10. It Makes You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of paper; (4) Mobile phones…

  11. Thinking in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Ruth A.

    It is proposed that a major obstacle for intermediate-level learners of English as a Second Language is the transition from thinking in the native language to thinking in English, that this transition must be made before proceeding from the intermediate level, and that it should begin as early as possible in language training. Early in-class…

  12. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

  13. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  14. The Global Thinking Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassard, Jack; Weisburg, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Global Thinking Project, a collaborative effort between Georgia State University and the Russian Academy of Pedagogical Sciences to develop strategies, methods, and teaching materials to help students think globally. Students are connected through the AppleLink network. Student and teacher attitudes toward the project are reported.…

  15. Critical Thinking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the debates in the field of critical thinking by highlighting differences among thinkers such as Siegel, Ennis, Paul, McPeck, and Martin, and poses some questions that arise from these debates. Does rationality transcend particular cultures, or are there different kinds of thinking, different styles of reasoning? What…

  16. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  17. Thinking Skills & Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

  18. Thinking inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…

  19. Supporting Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Roaf, Caroline; Watson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at how practitioners have focused on the fully educational application of intellect to the problem of developing mathematical thinking among one's pupils. Each chapter demonstrates reflective minds at work, relying on close observation, willingness to understand the student's thinking processes and patient commitment to students…

  20. Interrelationships among Employee Participation, Individual Differences, Goal Difficulty, Goal Acceptance, Goal Instrumentality, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukl, Gary A.; Latham, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is a model for goal setting, which is based on Locke's theory that difficult but clear and specific goals, if accepted, will result in higher performance than easy goals, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all. (Author/RK)

  1. Exploring the attributes of critical thinking: a conceptual basis.

    PubMed

    Forneris, Susan G

    2004-01-01

    Many teaching methods used in nursing education to enhance critical thinking focus on teaching students how to directly apply knowledge; a technically rational approach. While seemingly effective at enhancing students' critical thinking abilities in structured learning situations, these methods don't prepare students to operationalize critical thinking to manage the complexities that actually exist in practice. The work of contemporary educational theorists Paulo Freire, Donald Schon, Chris Argyris, Jack Mezirow, Stephen Brookfield, and Robert Tennyson all share similar perspectives on thinking in practice and the use of reflection to achieve a coherence of understanding. Their perspectives provide insight on how educators can shift from a means-end approach to operationalizing thinking in practice. The author identifies four attributes of critical thinking in practice evidenced in these views, followed by a discussion of specific educational strategies that reflect these attributes, and operationalize a critical thinking process in nursing practice to achieve a coherence of understanding. PMID:16646900

  2. Thinking is believing.

    PubMed

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers as well lay people often think of beliefs as psychological states with dubious epistemic properties. Beliefs are conceptualized as unregulated conceptual structures, for the most part hypothetical and often fanciful or deluded. Thinking and reasoning on the other hand are seen as rational activities regulated by rules and governed by norms. Computational modeling of the mind has focused on rule-governed behavior, ultimately trying to reduce them to rules of logic. What if thinking is less like reasoning and more like believing? I argue that the classical model of thought as rational is mistaken and that thinking is fundamentally constituted by believing. This new approach forces us to re-evaluate classical epistemic concepts like "truth", "justification" etc. Furthermore, if thinking is believing, then it is not clear how thoughts can be modeled computationally. We need new mathematical ideas to model thought, ideas that are quite different from traditional logic-based mathematical structures. PMID:18166389

  3. Higher Order Thinking Skills among Secondary School Students in Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saido, Gulistan Mohammed; Siraj, Saedah; Bin Nordin, Abu Bakar; Al Amedy, Omed Saadallah

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of science education is to help students to develop their higher order thinking skills to enable them to face the challenges of daily life. Enhancing students' higher order thinking skills is the main goal of the Kurdish Science Curriculum in the Iraqi-Kurdistan region. This study aimed at assessing 7th grade students' higher order…

  4. Integrating Thinking Skills into the Schools. Resource Publication, Series 1 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Mark

    Thinking skills instruction involves both the mastery of skills and the development of dispositions, habits of thought, and interpersonal behavior. Schools incorporate thinking skills programs into their programs to achieve two basic goals. The first goal is the development of autonomous thinkers. The liberal tradition in American education takes…

  5. Critical Thinking: Thinking to Some Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Argues that students should continuously question the purpose of their daily classroom activities and assignments. Explains that when students are required to consider purpose, they begin to develop important intellectual skills, and to bring relevance to their critical thinking and daily life. (NB)

  6. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students. PMID:24308535

  7. Upper-Division Activities That Foster ``Thinking Like A Physicist''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogue, Corinne A.; Cerny, Leonard; Gire, Elizabeth; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Price, Edward; van Zee, Emily H.

    2010-10-01

    In this targeted poster session, curriculum developers presented their favorite upper-division activity to small groups of session participants. The developers and participants were asked to identify hidden curriculum goals related to "thinking like a physicist" and discuss how the different styles of activities might help students achieve these goals.

  8. Big Think: A Model for Critical Inquiry in Economics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoldrick, KimMarie; Garnett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Economic educators often profess the goal of teaching our students to "think like economists." Since Siegfried and colleagues (1991) coined this phrase, its meaning has been interpreted as a focus on analytical concepts and methods of economics as opposed to the broader goal of preparing students for independent, critical thought in the…

  9. Teaching Stratification: Stimulating Interest and Critical Thinking through Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Joya

    1997-01-01

    Proposes that one goal in teaching stratification is to illustrate how powerfully stratification shapes society. Discusses an effort to stimulate critical thinking through student research projects. Lists three goals: involve students in research; show how race, class, and gender impact everyday life; and clarify the importance of these issues to…

  10. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  11. Goal Setting with Couples in Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ross M.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests goal development as an effective way to set the stage for change with couples in groups. It helps to clarify issues, opens channels of communication, change behaviors in desired directions, and evaluate that change. Spouses, group members, and counselors can benefit from goal-setting. (Author/BEF)

  12. 7 CFR 3550.151 - Servicing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing goals. 3550.151 Section 3550.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.151 Servicing goals. This subpart sets forth the Rural Housing...

  13. Infants Generate Goal-Based Action Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the actions of others is critical to smooth social interactions. Prior work suggests that both understanding and anticipation of goal-directed actions appears early in development. In this study, on-line goal prediction was tested explicitly using an adaptation of Woodward's (1998) paradigm for an eye-tracking task. Twenty 11-month-olds…

  14. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  15. Thinking laterally about genomes.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Mark A

    2009-10-01

    Perhaps the most-surprising discovery of the genome era has been the extent to which prokaryotic and many eukaryotic genomes incorporate genetic material from sources other than their parent(s). Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) among bacteria was first observed about 100 years ago, and is now accepted to underlie important phenomena including the spread of antibiotic resistance and ability to degrade xenobiotics. LGT is invoked, perhaps too readily, to explain a breadth of awkward data including compositional heterogeneity of genomes, disagreement among gene-sequence trees, and mismatch between physiology and systematics. At the same time many details of LGT remain unknown or controversial, and some key questions have scarcely been asked. Here I critically review what we think we know about the existence, extent, mechanism and impact of LGT; identify important open questions; and point to research directions that hold particular promise for elucidating the role of LGT in genome evolution. Evidence for LGT in nature is not only inferential but also direct, and potential vectors are ubiquitous. Genetic material can pass between diverse habitats and be significantly altered during residency in viruses, complicating the inference of donors, In prokaryotes about twice as many genes are interrupted by LGT as are transferred intact, and about 5Short protein domains can be privileged units of transfer. Unresolved phylogenetic issues include the correct null hypothesis, and genes as units of analysis. Themes are beginning to emerge regarding the effect of LGT on cellular networks, but I show why generalization is premature. LGT can associate with radical changes in physiology and ecological niche. Better quantitative models of genome evolution are needed, and theoretical frameworks remain to be developed for some observations including chromosome assembly by LGT. PMID:20180279

  16. On rivalry and goal pursuit: Shared competitive history, legacy concerns, and strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Converse, Benjamin A; Reinhard, David A

    2016-02-01

    Seven studies converge to show that prompting people to think about a rival versus a nonrival competitor causes them to view current competitions as more connected to past ones, to be more concerned with long-term legacy, and to pursue personal goals in a more eager, less cautious manner. These results are consistent with a social-cognitive view of rivalry that defines it as a competitive relational schema. A preliminary analysis revealed that people were more likely to appeal to past competitions to explain the importance of current rivalry than nonrivalry contests. Experiment 1 showed that people view rivalry versus nonrivalry competitions as more embedded in an ongoing competitive narrative and that this perception increases legacy concerns. The next 2 experiments used a causal chain approach to examine the possibility of legacy concerns acting as a mediator between rivalry and eagerness. Experiment 2a demonstrated that longer (vs. shorter) competitive histories are associated with increased legacy concerns. Experiment 2b manipulated legacy concerns and found that this shifted regulatory focus toward eagerness. Finally, 3 experiments tested the direct effect of thinking about a rival on eager strategy selection: Thinking about rivals (vs. nonrivals) led people to be more interested in offensive than defensive strategies (Experiment 3), to initiate rather than delay their goal pursuit (Experiment 4), and to rely on spontaneous rather than deliberative reasoning (Experiment 5). We suggest that rivalries affect how people view their goals and the strategies they use for pursuing them, and that these effects are at least partially attributable to the shared history between individuals and their rivals. PMID:26479360

  17. What Hong Kong Teachers and Parents Think about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mei-Yung Lam; Lim, Swee Eng; Ma, Jung Chen; Adams, Leah D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teachers and parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong regarding what constitutes thinking skills, the importance of thinking skills in children's lives, strategies they use to foster thinking skills in young children, and their perceived roles in facilitating thinking skills. Responses revealed the need for more…

  18. Goal Orientations and Metacognitive Skills of Normal Technical and Normal Academic Students on Project Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, J.; Wang, C.; Koh, C.; Tan, O.; Liu, W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the Singapore Ministry of Education launched Project Work (PW) to encourage the application of knowledge across disciplines, and to develop thinking, communication, collaboration and metacognitive skills. This preliminary findings of a large scale study examines the role of goal orientations (achievement goals and social goals) in…

  19. Setting Your Development Goals: Start with Your Values. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternbergh, Bill; Weitzel, Sloan R.

    This guidebook is about changing the way people think about setting goals; it is about identifying goals that are important and meaningful. Creating those kinds of goals means taking stock of personal values--what one believes and how one can act to carry out those beliefs--in five key areas of life: career, self, family, community, and spirit.…

  20. RTT Goals Challenge Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Ambitious student-achievement targets turn up the heat, as winners of the $4 billion federal grant effort push to deliver. Winners of the $4 billion Race to the Top jackpot committed to grand goals in using the federal grants to raise student achievement, as measured by higher test scores, narrowed achievement gaps, and increased graduation and…

  1. Exploring Goals. Career Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    Materials contained in this career guidance unit are designed to enable senior high school students to relate their abilities scores from the Developed Abilities Performance (DAP) instrument to actual vocational areas and Long Range [occupational] Goals (LRG) for later indepth study. The length of the unit is six 55-minute periods. Instructional…

  2. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth. PMID:26273896

  3. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  4. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document defines what are considered to be the essentials in a strong mathematics program for the state of Oregon for grades K-12. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and visualization skills; (5) measurement;…

  5. The Critical Thinking Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Terry McDaniel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a critical thinking exercise program, modeled on a physical exercise workout, for elementary teachers to use in the classroom. It includes warm-up exercises, a more strenuous workout, and a cool-down period for the brain. (SM)

  6. Spanish Teachers' Views of the Goals of Science Education in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, Carlos; Vilches, Amparo; Guisasola, Jenaro; Romo, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Determines teachers' opinions regarding the goals and objectives of the teaching of science within the framework of educational reform. Attempts to disclose to what extent educational thinking gives priority to the training of students in the scientific concepts, laws, and theories needed in further courses and how this thinking pays less…

  7. The Need for Bold Thinking.

    PubMed

    Lowi-Young, Mimi; DuBois-Wing, Gwen

    2016-01-01

    Amol Verma and Sacha Bhatia's (2016) paper presents policy recommendations that merit serious consideration on a system-wide level. While they make compelling arguments about why provincial governments are ideally suited to adapt Triple Aim innovation, we are concerned that the current health system climate limits this possibility. In our commentary, we present our thoughts about the authors' admittedly aspirational goals and the realities of the pan-Canadian healthcare system. We commence our commentary by confirming our agreement about the potential inherent within the Triple Aim framework. Second, we argue how important progress can take place that may not reflect a provincial-wide system. Next, we maintain that a learning health system is an essential ingredient to advancing Triple Aim and other health system-wide improvements. Third, we wonder whether the stewardship role of government is real and possible. Finally, we question the concept of our current health system's readiness for system change. While we have raised some questions about Verma and Bhatia's thinking around provincial adoption of the Triple Aim, we applaud their ideas. We believe that transformation in provincial health systems requires bold thinking. PMID:27009585

  8. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  9. Seeing Thinking on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daisy; Wineburg, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Teaching a way of thinking requires making thinking visible. Educators need to pull back the curtains from historical cognition to show students not only what historians think, but "how" they think. Given that many students believe that history is a single story to be committed to memory and that texts speak for themselves, teaching historical…

  10. The Curiosity in Marketing Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…

  11. Goal desires moderate intention-behaviour relations.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Perugini, Marco; Hurling, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Models such as the Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behaviour and the Theory of Planned Behaviour imply that the impact of one's goals on behaviour is mediated by more proximal determinants. We hypothesize that goals can have a broader and more dynamic impact on behaviour and, specifically, that goal desires can moderate the effect of intentions on behaviour. Four studies addressed this issue by examining the direct and moderated effects of goal desires on behaviour. All of the studies required participants to complete baseline measures and then a follow-up indicator of behaviour. In Study 1 (N=119) that focused on fruit intake, Study 2 (N=123) and Study 3 (N=96) concerned with drinking alcohol and Study 4 (N=109) regarding snack consumption, behavioural intentions were more reliably related to behaviour when goal desires were strong. The results of Study 3 suggested that goal desire stability increases the likelihood of this moderator effect emerging and Study 4 revealed that this effect was not suppressed by intention stability. The findings suggest that goals and behavioural intentions can operate simultaneously and jointly influence action, a view that contradicts predictions that the effects of goals are fully mediated by more proximal behavioural determinants. PMID:17594757

  12. Self-Image Goals and Compassionate Goals: Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Jennifer; Olivier, Marc-Andre; Nuer, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Two types of interpersonal goals—self-image goals and compassionate goals—reflect distinct motivational perspectives on the relationship between the self and others—egosystem and ecosystem perspectives, respectively. Research on the associations of self-image goals and compassionate goals with students’ experiences in their first semester of college is described. Chronic self-image goals and compassionate goals predict changes in learning and achievement goals, self-regulation and goal progress, social support and friendships, emotions, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Self-image goals have costs for belonging, and compassionate goals have benefits for belonging. PMID:21218194

  13. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  14. Beyond the Enthymeme: Sorites, Critical Thinking, and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn

    A teacher presents a writing exercise designed to facilitate audience-directed, critical thinking during the process of composing, that starts students thinking in terms of sorites and enthymemes. Students first read a CIA manual, "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare," that instructs the Contra guerrillas in illegal acts and then free…

  15. How to Teach Thinking Skills in Social Studies and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Barry K.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four guidelines for providing direct instruction in thinking skills in social studies and history at any grade level. The author first describes, with examples, three major components of any thinking skill that students need to know. Second, he presents teaching techniques for making these components explicit. Third, he…

  16. Thinking about Thinking: An Exploration of Preservice Teachers' Views about Higher Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…

  17. Goal-directed Fluid Therapy May Improve Hemodynamic Stability of Parturient with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Under Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery and the Well-being of Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Duan, Qing-Fang; Fu, Wen-Ya; Chi, Xin-Zuo; Wang, Feng-Ying; Ma, Da-Qing; Wang, Tian-Long; Zhao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypotension induced by combined spinal epidural anesthesia in parturient with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) can easily compromise blood supply to vital organs including uteroplacental perfusion and result in fetal distress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) with LiDCOrapid system can improve well-being of both HDP parturient and their babies. Methods: Fifty-two stable HDP parturient scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were recruited. After loading with 10 ml/kg lactated Ringer's solution (LR), parturient were randomized to the GDFT and control group. In the GDFT group, individualized fluid therapy was guided by increase in stroke volume (ΔSV) provided via LiDCOrapid system. The control group received the routine fluid therapy. The primary endpoints included maternal hypotension and the doses of vasopressors administered prior to fetal delivery. The secondary endpoints included umbilical blood gas abnormalities and neonatal adverse events. Results: The severity of HDP was similar between two groups. The total LR infusion (P < 0.01) and urine output (P < 0.05) were higher in the GDFT group than in the control group. Following twice fluid challenge tests, the systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, cardiac output and SV in the GDFT group were significantly higher, and the heart rate was lower than in the control group. The incidence of maternal hypotension and doses of phenylephrine used prior to fetal delivery were significantly higher in the control group than in the GDFT group (P < 0.01). There were no differences in the Apgar scores between two groups. In the control group, the mean values of pH in umbilical artery/vein were remarkably decreased (P < 0.05), and the incidences of neonatal hypercapnia and hypoxemia were statistically increased (P < 0.05) than in the GDFT group. Conclusions: Dynamic responsiveness guided fluid therapy with the LiDCOrapid system may provide

  18. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  19. Critical Thinking Strategies for Nontraditional Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppert, James E.

    More than 800 students at geographically isolated Southern Arkansas University, many of whom are commuters, would be considered nontraditional students. For the most part, these individuals study harder and produce work of higher quality than many students entering college directly from high school. Critical thinking skills are especially…

  20. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863

  1. GMUGLE: A goal lattice constructor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2001-08-01

    Goal lattices are a method for ordering the goals of a system and associating with each goal the value of performing that goal in terms of how much it contributes to the accomplishment of the topmost goal of a system. This paper presents a progress report on the development of a web-based implementation of the George Mason University Goal Lattice Engine (GMUGLE). GMUGLE allows a user to interactively create goal lattices, add/delete goals, and specify their ordering relations through a web-based interface. The database portion automatically computes the GLB and LUB of pairs of goals which have been entered to form them into a lattice. Yet to be implemented is the code to input goal values, automatically apportion the values among included goals, and accrue value among the included goals.

  2. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  3. CBM with Goal Setting: Impacting Students' Understanding of Reading Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Kristine D.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study investigated if goal setting with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) was effective in increasing student awareness of goal knowledge and if students could set realistic daily reading goals. Nineteen 6th and 7th grade students with learning disabilities participated in a goal setting treatment group or a control group. During the…

  4. Online course design for teaching critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Schaber, Patricia; Shanedling, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking (CT) skills, a goal in higher education, is seldom considered in the primary design of either classroom or online courses, and is even less frequently measured in student learning. In health professional education, CT along with clinical reasoning skills is essential for the development of clinical practitioners. This study, measuring CT skill development in an online theory course, supports using a cyclical course design to build higher level processes in student thinking. Eighty-six Masters of Occupational Therapy students in four sections of an occupation-based theory course were evaluated on elements in the Paul and Elder CT Model throughout the course and surveyed for their perceptions in their ability to think critically at course completion. Results of this study demonstrated that the online theory course design contributed to improving critical thinking skills and student's perceived CT skill development as applicable to their future professional practice. In a focus group, eight students identified four effective course design features that contributed to their CT skill development: highly structured learning, timely feedback from instructor, repetition of assignments, and active engagement with the material. PMID:22544412

  5. Thinking Like a Ssssscientist!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine; Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    A fear of snakes developed into an opportunity to teach students about the process of science: formulating questions, collecting and analyzing data, and communicating findings to the public. By using snakes to help students "think like a scientist," the authors engaged students in a five-day unit on inquiry while providing information about snakes…

  6. Learning How to Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, John C.; Cracolice, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Teaching strategies are becoming increasingly oriented toward guiding students' knowledge construction through cooperative learning. Enhancing students' cognitive development is a priority; students must "learn how to think." Inquiry instruction provides students with tools to make decisions based upon available evidence and an opportunity to…

  7. Learning to Think Critically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Social Studies Project.

    Having a twofold purpose, this booklet serves as an instructional guide for teachers and as a text for junior high students. Emphasis is upon students learning to think reflectively about major issues facing a Democratic society and to analyze various claims that they read and hear everyday in the world around them. An objective of the study is to…

  8. [A seminar for thinking?].

    PubMed

    Touzet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context in which we carry out our caregiving profession influences our methods of working. In our world marked by rationalism, thinking about care, in the framework of a seminar, is a way of engaging ourselves and of not simply becoming a functionary of care. PMID:25095584

  9. Enhancing Learning and Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert F., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 16 papers on programs and approaches that have been developed around the world to enhance learning and thinking skills for children and adults. Papers are divided among three main sections focussing respectively on issues and applications, specific applications to school content, and assessment and evaluation. Papers have the…

  10. Thinking about Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Jere

    This book on middle school uses a very free-form structure to encourage educators to think about middle school's philosophy and purpose, and about how to create a successful middle school. The preface claims that it is not a book "about" teaming, advisory, interdisciplinary units, intramurals, parent-teacher conferences, and other middle school…

  11. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  12. Creativity as Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Identifies four characteristics of the creative endeavor: (1) musical imagination; (2) model of the creative process; (3) measures of creative aptitude; and (4) the observation of creative behavior. Examines the role of technology in creativity, and contends that creative thinking can be measured. Includes suggested readings. (RW)

  13. Creative Thinking in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Maud; Webster, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of creativity, focusing on music education. Emphasizes the four "p's" while examining the meaning of creativity: (1) the creative person; (2) the creative process; (3) the creative product; and (4) the creative place. Addresses how creative thinking can be at the center of teaching. (CMK)

  14. Thinking Copernican Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    The governor of Colorado explores two views related to causes of energy shortage: inadequate supply and excessive demand. Supports both increased supply and decreased demand, but offers reasons for conservation and adjustment in habits and thinking. The synthetic fuels program of Colorado is mentioned as an example. (CS)

  15. Teaching Thinking Skills: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narode, Ronald; And Others

    This document addresses some of the factors involved in teaching critical thinking skills in the science classroom. It contains sections that deal with: (1) pair problem solving--creating a Socratic learning environment (emphasizes the role of the teacher); (2) writing to learn science (the thought-process protocol); (3) integrating science…

  16. Developing Thinking in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…

  17. Thinking Like a Mathematician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael K.; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to think like a mathematician? One of the great paradoxes of mathematics education is that, although mathematics teachers are immersed in mathematical work every day of their professional lives, most of them nevertheless have little experience with the kind of work that research mathematicians do. Their ideas of what doing…

  18. Thinking Data "with" Deleuze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…

  19. Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  20. Thinking and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The importance of thinking for language learning has been recognized for some time. ELT activities which encourage active mental processing have become increasingly common. However, there is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how…

  1. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  2. Think Exit at Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Tom; Satterfield, Coy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the "Think Exit at Entry" program that has become the guiding principle for the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). The Georgia DJJ believes that the transition process begins the day the youth enters the system and continues well after release from the institution. Literature points the need for transition planning…

  3. Thinking and Believing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freie, John F.

    1987-01-01

    Critical thinking is seldom effective at encouraging students to challenge and examine preconceived positions. There is a tendency to use the rigorous questioning methods to defend preconceived positions and deflect the serious consideration of alternatives. An exercise that focused on the Cuban missile crisis is described. (MLW)

  4. Remember to Just Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2014-01-01

    This article picks up on columnist Mike Barnicle's lazy style and "I was just thinking" format in his column for the "Boston Globe." Using that model, John Harney shares a few of his thoughts on various education topics such as co ops, "competency-based education," and making civics part of the curriculum at…

  5. Tools for Smarter Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    You read in the paper this morning that people who take multivitamins have fewer heart attacks and are less likely to get cancer than people who don't. Does this information make you more likely to want to take multivitamins? To truly prepare students for life, schools need to teach them the critical thinking skills they need to answer questions…

  6. Creative Thinking through Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolf, Jane W.

    Common questions that children ask can promote creative thinking. The question, "What will happen if...?" can set the stage for creative problem solving by encouraging the use of the scientific method. The scientific method involves learning how to hypothesize, recording procedures for experimentation, developing skills in observation and data…

  7. Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannidou, Andri; Bennett, Vicki; Repenning, Alexander; Koh, Kyu Han; Basawapatna, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The iDREAMS project aims to reinvent Computer Science education in K-12 schools, by using game design and computational science for motivating and educating students through an approach we call Scalable Game Design, starting at the middle school level. In this paper we discuss the use of Computational Thinking Patterns as the basis for our…

  8. Writing, Thinking and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the potential of word processors for changing the ways in which students process written text and think about writing. Three levels of computer-aided writing are considered: simple word processors; computer-aided writing programs; and higher-level computer-aided processing; and improvements in writing quality. (41 references) (LRW)

  9. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  10. Creativity and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollen, Patsy Phillips

    How to deal with the absence of creativity and critical thinking in the educational setting is discussed. All efforts to improve education will be futile if we don't take into account the absence of relationship among the participants and between the participants and the content of education. Relationship--i.e., connecting with others and with…

  11. Knowing Is Not Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    What disturbs teachers most is not students' ignorance about our culture and history, but their unwillingness or inability to think critically about subjects that ostensibly interest them. Teachers often exacerbate this problem by oversimplifying complex issues, using "defensive" or controlling teaching strategies, and squelching debate. (MLH)

  12. Nurturing Creative, Thinking Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some ideas and experiences with training student engineers in creativity and critical thinking. In our survey, a large majority (82%) of respondents felt that as compared to all other kind of academic engagements, their projects had contributed most to develop their creativity. About 50% had also felt that their projects were…

  13. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  14. Critical Thoughts on Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars in many academic areas, including librarians, devote a significant amount of thought to critical thinking. Surveying views of its use and possibility, the author considers some key librarians' thoughts on critical thinking. In conclusion, the inability to define critical thinking means that librarians need to emphasize control of…

  15. The Importance of Undisciplined Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This past year, Baylor University created a program to reward some of its best teachers and challenge them to do something truly daring: teach their students how to think--not just how to think "about" course material, but rather how to think "through" the material. The idea is to help students learn how teachers, as practitioners of their…

  16. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  17. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  18. Teaching Thinking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest across the world in ways of developing children's thinking and learning skills. This interest has been fed by new knowledge about how the brain works and how people learn, and evidence that specific interventions can improve children's thinking and intelligence. Thinking skills are important because…

  19. Young Children's Knowledge about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of 14 studies on children's knowledge about thinking. Suggests that preschoolers appear to know that thinking is an internal mental activity that can refer to real or imaginary objects or events. However, preschoolers are poor at determining when a person is and is not thinking. This shortcoming is considerably less evident in…

  20. Promoting Thinking Skills in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glevey, Kwame E.

    2006-01-01

    How children are guided in the development of their thinking is now crucial in the twenty-first century. Over the past decades special thinking skills programmes have been developed to enhance thinking but these programmes have so far been unable to produce clear evidence to support their effectiveness. This article argues that due to the complex…

  1. Cabbage Worms and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Argues that an approach to composition instruction that emphasizes critical thinking skills produces a more analytical writer. Describes a school project that examined research on critical thinking, implemented changes in the teaching of thinking and composition, and assessed student learning. (HB)

  2. Developing Historical Thinking through Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viator, Martha Graham

    2012-01-01

    The social studies classroom can and should be a place where students learn critical thinking skills, but too often, especially in the middle grades, students are asked to focus on discrete facts on which they can be tested. The purpose of this article is to suggest that sixth graders can learn the critical thinking skills of "historical thinking"…

  3. The Functional Theory of Counterfactual Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Epstude, Kai; Roese, Neal J.

    2008-01-01

    Counterfactuals are thoughts about alternatives to past events, that is, thoughts of what might have been. This article provides an updated account of the functional theory of counterfactual thinking, suggesting that such thoughts are best explained in terms of their role in behavior regulation and performance improvement. The article reviews a wide range of cognitive experiments indicating that counterfactual thoughts may influence behavior by either of two routes: a content-specific pathway (which involves specific informational effects on behavioral intentions, which then influence behavior) and a content-neutral pathway (which involves indirect effects via affect, mind-sets, or motivation). The functional theory is particularly useful in organizing recent findings regarding counterfactual thinking and mental health. The article concludes by considering the connections to other theoretical conceptions, especially recent advances in goal cognition. PMID:18453477

  4. The Evaluation of Goal and Goal-Free Training Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carl; Roffe, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Goal-based training has specific, predetermined objectives, whereas goal-free training involves implementation of innovations whose outcomes cannot be predicted. Evaluation of goal-free training must consider clients' requirements, the effectiveness of the initiative, and application of feedback. (SK)

  5. Goal Contents and Goal Contexts: Experiments with Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Hu, Xiao Yong; Guo, Yong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Using samples of Chinese middle school students, the 2 experimental studies presented here examined the effects of goal content and goal context on test performance, free-choice engagement, and test anxiety within the framework of self-determination theory. Students' learning goals were induced as intrinsic or extrinsic with the learning…

  6. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  7. Assessing the Discipline: Aligning Curricular Structures and Student Learning with Disciplinary Goals in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Four identifiable disciplinary goals can be discerned from the development of political science as a discipline. These goals indicate that political science students will (1) attain knowledge about political systems (national and international); (2) gain an understanding of how politics works; (3) develop critical thinking skills; and, (4) learn…

  8. Goal Instability in Relation to Career Thoughts, Decision State, and Performance in a Career Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoch, Sara C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal instability and its relation to career thoughts, decision state, and performance in an undergraduate career course in a large university were investigated in this study. Participants completed six instruments measuring the nature of goals, career thinking, occupational decision making, satisfaction with career choice, tension associated with…

  9. Provisional Approaches to Goals for School Mathematics; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics K-6. In view of the experiences of other curriculum groups and of the general discussions since 1963, the present report initiates the next step in evolving the "Goals".…

  10. Effects of Critical Thinking Strategy Training on Male/Female EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahim, Mansoor; Barjesteh, Hamed; Vaseghi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    The development of critical thinking (CT) skills has become a key goal for educators in first and second language contexts. There is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how levels of thinking can be conceptualized in ELT…

  11. Quantitative and Qualitative Relations between Motivation and Critical-Analytic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, David B.; Wigfield, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine two kinds of factors that affect students' motivation to engage in critical-analytic thinking. The first, which includes ability beliefs, achievement values, and achievement goal orientations, influences the "quantitative" relation between motivation and critical-analytic thinking; that is, whether students are…

  12. Unraveling the Effects of Critical Thinking Instructions, Practice, and Self-Explanation on Students' Reasoning Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of critical thinking skills is considered an important goal in higher education, but it is still unclear which specific instructional techniques are effective for fostering it. The main aim of this study was to unravel the impact of critical thinking instructions, practice, and self-explanation prompts during practice, on students'…

  13. Is Truthiness Enough? Classroom Activities for Encouraging Evidence-Based Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Sue; Sears, Sharon R.; Burke, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching students how to think critically and develop lifelong habits of evidence-based inquiry outside of the classroom is a primary goal for educators today. This paper describes nine activities designed to promote evidence-based critical thinking in college or high school classrooms in any discipline. We have developed a seven step process for…

  14. Sociological Writing as Higher-Level Thinking: Assignments that Cultivate the Sociological Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massengill, Rebekah Peeples

    2011-01-01

    Educators agree that developing critical thinking skills is a key goal of college education. While the literature on higher-level thinking emphasizes the significance of writing for developing such skills, teachers often receive little guidance about the kinds of writing assignments that can prove most beneficial for helping students to develop…

  15. Project IMPACT. Improve Minimal Proficiences by Activating Critical Thinking. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    The major goal of Project IMPACT (Improve Minimal Proficiencies by Activating Critical Thinking) is to improve student achievement on district tests of basic skill competency. The program seeks to improve student performance on tests requiring critical thinking with emphasis on reading and mathematics. Students involved in Project IMPACT work in a…

  16. The Formal Oral Group Exam: Challenges and Possibilities--The Oral Exam and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Janice Hartwick

    Defining critical thinking as a conscious process means that teachers can make students aware of the process and can affect the process. In addition, teachers can help students to evaluate their use of the process. The goal in any course is to involve students in the practice of critical thinking, and the oral exam reflects the students'…

  17. Engaging New College Students in Metacognition for Critical Thinking: A Developmental Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students to think critically is one of the major goals of higher education. Many educators at the college level recognize this and expect students to demonstrate critical thinking early in their college experience, however for some students, a lack of preparation for these expectations poses an immediate and substantial challenge during…

  18. Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…

  19. The Impact of Faculty Teaching Practices on the Development of Students' Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Woo-jeong; Walczak, Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities recognize that one of the primary goals of higher education is to promote students' ability to think critically. Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS), this study examined the relationship between faculty teaching practices and the development of students' critical thinking skills,…

  20. The Art of Gamification; Teaching Sustainability and System Thinking by Pervasive Game Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordby, Anders; Øygardslia, Kristine; Sverdrup, Ulrik; Sverdrup, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Hedmark University College conducted a research project where students from a game development project/study program developed and tested a Pervasive Game for learning as part of a class in System Thinking. The overall game goal was to teach Sustainability through System Thinking, and to give the students a real world experience with their…

  1. Cross-Cultural Equivalency of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskifoglu, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the cross-cultural applicability of a multidimensional inventory of students' evaluation of critical thinking dispositions (California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory). The goal was to assess the cross-cultural psychometric equivalency of the CCTDI through testing measurement invariance across American and Turkish…

  2. Developing Critical and Creative Thinkers: Toward a Conceptual Model of Creative and Critical Thinking Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Liesl Baum; Cennamo, Katherine S.; Newbill, Phyllis Leary

    2009-01-01

    Critical and creative thinking skills are essential for students who plan to work and excel in the 21st-century workforce. This goal of the project reported in this article was to define critical and creative thinking in a way that would be useful for classroom teachers charged with developing such skills in their students. To accomplish their…

  3. Software for Optimizing Plans Involving Interdependent Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    A computer program enables construction and optimization of plans for activities that are directed toward achievement of goals that are interdependent. Goal interdependence is defined as the achievement of one or more goals affecting the desirability or priority of achieving one or more other goals. This program is overlaid on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system, aspects of which have been described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. Unlike other known or related planning programs, this program considers interdependences among goals that can change between problems and provides a language for easily specifying such dependences. Specifications of the interdependences can be formulated dynamically and provided to the associated planning software as part of the goal input. Then an optimization algorithm provided by this program enables the planning software to reason about the interdependences and incorporate them into an overall objective function that it uses to rate the quality of a plan under construction and to direct its optimization search. In tests on a series of problems of planning geological experiments by a team of instrumented robotic vehicles (rovers) on new terrain, this program was found to enhance plan quality.

  4. Techniques and Technology to Revise Content Delivery and Model Critical Thinking in the Neuroscience Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Illig, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate neuroscience courses typically involve highly interdisciplinary material, and it is often necessary to use class time to review how principles of chemistry, math and biology apply to neuroscience. Lecturing and Socratic discussion can work well to deliver information to students, but these techniques can lead students to feel more like spectators than participants in a class, and do not actively engage students in the critical analysis and application of experimental evidence. If one goal of undergraduate neuroscience education is to foster critical thinking skills, then the classroom should be a place where students and instructors can work together to develop them. Students learn how to think critically by directly engaging with course material, and by discussing evidence with their peers, but taking classroom time for these activities requires that an instructor find a way to provide course materials outside of class. Using technology as an on-demand provider of course materials can give instructors the freedom to restructure classroom time, allowing students to work together in small groups and to have discussions that foster critical thinking, and allowing the instructor to model these skills. In this paper, I provide a rationale for reducing the use of traditional lectures in favor of more student-centered activities, I present several methods that can be used to deliver course materials outside of class and discuss their use, and I provide a few examples of how these techniques and technologies can help improve learning outcomes. PMID:26240525

  5. Techniques and Technology to Revise Content Delivery and Model Critical Thinking in the Neuroscience Classroom.

    PubMed

    Illig, Kurt R

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate neuroscience courses typically involve highly interdisciplinary material, and it is often necessary to use class time to review how principles of chemistry, math and biology apply to neuroscience. Lecturing and Socratic discussion can work well to deliver information to students, but these techniques can lead students to feel more like spectators than participants in a class, and do not actively engage students in the critical analysis and application of experimental evidence. If one goal of undergraduate neuroscience education is to foster critical thinking skills, then the classroom should be a place where students and instructors can work together to develop them. Students learn how to think critically by directly engaging with course material, and by discussing evidence with their peers, but taking classroom time for these activities requires that an instructor find a way to provide course materials outside of class. Using technology as an on-demand provider of course materials can give instructors the freedom to restructure classroom time, allowing students to work together in small groups and to have discussions that foster critical thinking, and allowing the instructor to model these skills. In this paper, I provide a rationale for reducing the use of traditional lectures in favor of more student-centered activities, I present several methods that can be used to deliver course materials outside of class and discuss their use, and I provide a few examples of how these techniques and technologies can help improve learning outcomes. PMID:26240525

  6. Thinking Like a Geologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Geology is not something that people tend to think about in their day-to-day lives; at least, not until it is time to dig out the dusty old rock collection from the back of the science cupboard and teach the rocks and soils unit again! Geology is very much part of people's lives. Geology is about so much more than just looking at rocks and…

  7. Thinking about a limited future enhances the positivity of younger and older adults' recall: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Opitz, Philipp C; Martins, Bruna; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2016-08-01

    Compared with younger adults, older adults have a relative preference to attend to and remember positive over negative information. This is known as the "positivity effect," and researchers have typically evoked socioemotional selectivity theory to explain it. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, as people get older they begin to perceive their time left in life as more limited. These reduced time horizons prompt older adults to prioritize achieving emotional gratification and thus exhibit increased positivity in attention and recall. Although this is the most commonly cited explanation of the positivity effect, there is currently a lack of clear experimental evidence demonstrating a link between time horizons and positivity. The goal of the current research was to address this issue. In two separate experiments, we asked participants to complete a writing activity, which directed them to think of time as being either limited or expansive (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not orient them to think about time in a particular manner (Experiment 2). Participants were then shown a series of emotional pictures, which they subsequently tried to recall. Results from both studies showed that regardless of chronological age, thinking about a limited future enhanced the relative positivity of participants' recall. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not driven by changes in mood. Thus, the fact that older adults' recall is typically more positive than younger adults' recall may index naturally shifting time horizons and goals with age. PMID:27112461

  8. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    PubMed

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals. PMID:12733420

  9. Teaching Thinking on a National Scale: Israel's Pedagogical Horizons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries, Israel had its share of projects that see the implementation of inquiry and higher order thinking in schools as their main goal. However, although many of these projects were quite successful, they did not succeed in changing the bulk of teaching and learning in Israeli schools. This article describes a new national…

  10. Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills Using Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuri, G. V.; Kantamreddi, V. S. S. N; Prakash Goteti, L. N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in…

  11. Report of CCI Early Childhood Think Tank on Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    Child Care, Inc. (CCI) invited a group of early childhood experts to help reflect on what CCI had learned from other states about governance and to apply that knowledge to New York City. The goal was to foster more systemic thinking about how to move toward a more coherent early care and education system in New York City that would better meet the…

  12. Children Learn to Think and Create through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Kathleen; Blumenthal, Rachel; Lewis, Catharine

    2007-01-01

    In Kathleen Loomis's preschool classroom at the Bennington College Early Childhood Center, the goal for children is not to produce beautiful and expressive artworks or to learn specific methods of working with art media--although those things do happen. Here, the curriculum is built around the philosophy that learning to think and create with art…

  13. Critical Thinking: Strategies for Improving Student Learning, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In the last column we focused (as a primary goal of instruction) on the importance of teaching so that students learn to think their way into and through content. We stressed the need for well-designed daily structures and tactics for fostering deep learning, offering three strategies as examples. In this column, we provide four additional…

  14. A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Edward F.

    2004-01-01

    Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education scientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then we must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective observations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking can be compared. Much that is known in the…

  15. Promoting Critical-Thinking Skills by Using Negotiation Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Diana; Mukherjee, Arup

    2007-01-01

    Many writers argue that it is necessary to develop critical thinking skills in business students because these skills are needed to deal with the increasing complexities of real-life problems. Although the goal appears to be laudable, it is not always clear how to go about achieving it. In this article, the authors describe active learning…

  16. The Critical Thinking Movement in Kazakhstan: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat

    2010-01-01

    Having gained independence in 1991, Kazakhstan is making major adjustments in its educational system to meet the demands of its changing workplace. To that end, the Ministry of Education has mandated that critical thinking be incorporated into all levels. Given the importance of this goal, the authors surveyed teachers' understanding and use of…

  17. Let's Debate: Active Learning Encourages Student Participation and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oros, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Structured classroom debates (SCDs), whereby teams of students debate a question prepared outside of class, help advance two goals many political science instructors struggle to achieve with their students: classroom participation beyond the "usual suspects" present in every classroom and critical thinking and analysis of political issues. This…

  18. Effectively Using IEP Goal Banks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ellen; McCall, Renee; Aiello, Rocco; Lieberman, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    For students with disabilities, annual goals are the nuts and bolts of the everyday program outlined in their individualized education program (IEP). According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004, a present level of performance with measurable annual goals must be outlined in a student's IEP. Goals should…

  19. Preparatory Training, States of Goal Orientation, and Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scielzo, Shannon; Neeper, Michael; Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    We used an online academic-advising program to examine the effects of preparatory training designed to elicit high states of learning-goal orientation and low states of avoid goal orientation. Results indicate that training was effective in some cases for manipulating states of goal orientation. The training did not directly affect behaviors as…

  20. Musically Meaningful: The Interpersonal Goals of Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    To enhance music learning and performance, teachers can direct learners toward authentic, interpersonal goals. Teachers' aspirations for their students' positive musical experiences may be realized when learners seek to connect with their audiences and evoke responses in listeners. Instead of anxiety-promoting concerns over judgment,…

  1. Lumina Foundation's Strategic Plan. Goal 2025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumina Foundation for Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The mission of Lumina Foundation for Education is to expand access and success in education beyond high school, particularly among adults, first-generation college-going students, low-income students and students of color. This mission is directed toward a single, overarching "big goal"--to increase the percentage of Americans with high-quality…

  2. Conation, Goal Accomplishment Style and Wholistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atman, Kathryn S.; Romano, Patricia R.

    Conation is a domain of behavior or mental processes associated with goal directed action. Wholistic education stresses an integrated approach to an individual's learning process; thus, consideration of the integration of the four domains (cognitive, affective, psychomotor and conative) can find a receptive niche among educators who seek to…

  3. Thinking Interestingly: The Use of Game Play to Enhance Learning and Facilitate Critical Thinking within a Homeland Security Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozine, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Students of homeland security need to grasp a diverse body of knowledge and have a keen understanding of the variety of events and issues that impact how they can apply that knowledge. The goal of higher education should not just be about imparting knowledge but also about giving students tools and skill sets to "think interestingly" to…

  4. LinguaFolio Goal Setting Intervention and Academic Achievement: Increasing Student Capacity for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Oxana D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a shift from thinking less about teaching and more about learning. Such a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered instruction requires students to think about their own learning and to monitor their own learning development and language achievement. Researchers have identified goal setting…

  5. [Concept analysis of reflective thinking].

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A

    1999-09-01

    The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills. PMID:11040626

  6. Organizational change through Lean Thinking.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

    2008-08-01

    In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change. PMID:18647948

  7. Applying critical thinking to nursing.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2015-08-19

    Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice. PMID:26285997

  8. Achieving the Goals. Goal 4: Teacher Education and Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Goal 4 of the National Education Goals envisions that teachers will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills. This book examines what federal agencies are doing to enhance teacher preparation, presents information on career-long development, and offers program descriptions and contact names. The first…

  9. [The EEG and thinking].

    PubMed

    Petsche, H

    1990-12-01

    The on-going EEG contains information on thinking strategies during cognitive and creative tasks and during listening to music. This was demonstrated by a method taking use of the fact that both the amount of local current production and the degree of electric coupling of brain regions is characteristically changed by mental tasks. In groups of volunteers the significant changes of absolute power and coherence caused by different mental tasks are computed and entered into schematic brain maps (EEG probability maps). The results indicate the existence of general brain strategies even in mental activities as specific as those referred to above. Moreover, several relationships between EEG, psychological test scores, degree of special education and intelligence were found. Studies with extreme value validation according to intelligence and creativity test scores yielded significant differences between the groups of the best and the poorest performers during a creative task in the EEG. The EEG thus can be conceived of as deterministic chaos with different degrees of organization according to its information content. In this context, the question arises as to a possible function of the EEG for the optimization of thinking processes. PMID:2127009

  10. Promoting the teaching of critical thinking skills through faculty development.

    PubMed

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Schneider-Mitchell, Gail; Graff, Randy

    2009-06-01

    Practical and effective faculty development programs are vital to individual and institutional success. However, there is little evidence that program outcomes result in instructional changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if and how faculty development would enhance participants' use of critical thinking skills in instruction. Seven faculty members from the University of Florida College of Dentistry and one faculty member from another health science college participated in six weekly two-hour faculty development sessions in spring 2007 that focused on enhancing critical thinking skills in instruction. Kaufman's and Rachal's principles of andragogy (adult learning) were used to design the sessions. Participants used learning journals to respond to four instructor-assigned prompts and provided one presentation to peers. With the use of qualitative methods, eight themes emerged across the learning journals: teaching goals, critical thinking, awareness of learners, planned instructional change, teaching efficacy, self-doubt, external challenges, and changes made. Five of eight participants incorporated critical thinking skills into their presentations at a mean level of 2.4 or higher on a 5-point scale using Paul and Elder's behavioral definition of critical thinking skills. Faculty development opportunities that cause participants to reason through learning journals, peer presentations, and group discussion demonstrated the incorporation of critical thinking concepts in 63 percent of this cohort group's presentations, suggesting that if evidence-based pedagogies are followed, instructional changes can result from faculty development. PMID:19491344

  11. Do Critical Thinking Exercises Improve Critical Thinking Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Ellen M.; Tally, Carrie Sacco

    2009-01-01

    Although textbooks routinely include exercises to improve critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of these exercises has not been closely examined. Additionally, the connection between critical thinking skills and formal operational thought is also relatively understudied. In the study reported here, college students completed measures of…

  12. Critical Thinking: Ethical Reasoning and Fairminded Thinking, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In the last column we introduced the idea of ethical reasoning (see Paul & Elder, 2006) and discussed its importance to education, assuming the intention is to cultivate fairminded critical thinking. We also discussed the problem of intrinsic egocentric thinking as a fundamental barrier to ethical reasoning. In this column we focus on conceptual…

  13. Critical Thinking: A Stage Theory of Critical Thinking. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses six stages of the development of critical thinkers: unreflective, challenged, beginning, practicing, advanced, and master thinkers. For each stage, describes the defining feature, the principle challenge, the knowledge or insight into thinking expressed, and the individual's skill in thinking. (AJL)

  14. Critical Thinking and Disciplinary Thinking: A Continuing Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim John

    2011-01-01

    I report a study that investigated ideas about critical thinking across three disciplines: Philosophy, History and Literary Studies. The findings point to a diversity of understandings and practices, ones that suggest the limitations of a more generic approach. I argue that a more useful conception of critical thinking is as a form of…

  15. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  16. Thinking Like a Lawyer, Thinking Like a Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Richard Clay

    2013-01-01

    The legal system is the product of lawyers. Lawyers are the product of a specific educational system. Therefore, to understand the legal system, we must first explore how lawyers are trained and conditioned to think. What does it mean to "Think Like a Lawyer?'' This dissertation makes use of autoethnography to explore the experience…

  17. Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…

  18. Goal!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  19. Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David A., Ed.; Phillips, Prudence, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are two brief articles related to teaching the history of chemistry in college chemistry, "Utilizing a Historical Perspective in the Teaching of Chemistry" (Joseph W. Kamsar), and "History of Chemistry" (George B. Kauffman). (RH)

  20. What about Those Dietary Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, S. Jane

    1980-01-01

    This elaboration of the Dietary Goals for the United States, set by the U.S. Senate and Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs in 1977, details all seven dietary goals and includes a discussion of possible risk factors associated with certain chronic diseases. (JN)

  1. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  2. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    GOAL, is a test engineer oriented language designed to be used to standardize procedure terminology and as the test programming language to be used for ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. The material presented concerning GOAL includes: (1) a historical review, (2) development objectives and requirements, (3) language scope and format, and (4) language capabilities.

  3. Theme: Achieving 2020 Goal 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Reinventing Agricultural Education 2020 Project's goal of partnerships and strategic alliances, which serves as a catalyst to ensure that the other goals are accomplished and sustained. Eleven articles discuss establishing partnerships at local, state, and national levels and balancing old alliances with new connections.…

  4. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for Adolescents Questionnaire)…

  5. What Do the Pupils Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Alison

    2012-01-01

    What pupils think about mathematics often features in discussion between mathematics educators. But, how often is "what learners think about their mathematics lessons" a feature of enquiry? It could be a "high risk" strategy to garner honest comment that relates to the "classroom experience". Notions of "risk" apart, the process of collecting data…

  6. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  7. Thinking with a Futures Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the theory and practice of developing futures study for high ability students. It provides a brief history of the development of futures study, examines why futuristic thinking is particularly applicable to high ability students, and discusses specific strategies for developing futuristic thinking. (Contains references.)…

  8. Critical Thinking in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…

  9. Principals Who Think Like Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Being a principal is a complex job, requiring quick, on-the-job learning. But many principals already have deep experience in a role at the very essence of the principalship. They know how to teach. In interviews with principals, Fahey and his colleagues learned that thinking like a teacher was key to their work. Part of thinking the way a teacher…

  10. Thinking, Creativity, and Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSiano, Michael; DeSiano, Salvatore

    This document provides an introduction to the relationship between the current knowledge of focused and creative thinking and artificial intelligence. A model for stages of focused and creative thinking gives: problem encounter/setting, preparation, concentration/incubation, clarification/generation and evaluation/judgment. While a computer can…

  11. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective is encompassed in the research question driving this inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  12. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  13. Critical Thinking and Legal Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolever, Kristin R.

    Although law professors often say that first year law students need training to "think like lawyers," many law students survive law school by practicing the "skill" of rote memory. It is when they take the bar examination or actually begin to work in a law office that they need the faculty of analytical thinking, for notes must be organized into a…

  14. Preschoolers' Thinking during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages…

  15. Affective Induction and Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Díaz, María D. Martín

    2013-01-01

    Three studies explored the relation between affect and production of creative divergent thinking, assessed with the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural TTCT). In the first study, general, positive, and negative affect, assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were compared with creative production. In the second study,…

  16. Quantifying Learning in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliegel, Richard; Holland, John

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a three-year study assessing change in critical thinking demonstrated in essays written for regular class assignments. A rubric was designed and scorers trained to assess critical thinking holistically without knowledge of the writing prompt or author's status. The longitudinal improvement in scores earned by freshmen…

  17. Geospatial Thinking of Information Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Bradley Wade; Johnston, Melissa P.

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial thinking skills inform a host of library decisions including planning and managing facilities, analyzing service area populations, facility site location, library outlet and service point closures, as well as assisting users with their own geospatial needs. Geospatial thinking includes spatial cognition, spatial reasoning, and knowledge…

  18. Is Creative Thinking Normally Distributed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, John F.

    The hypothesis of positive skew in distributions of response to creative thinking tasks was studied. Data were obtained from examinees' responses to problem-solving tasks in three published studies of creative thinking. Subjects included 23 fifth graders (12 females and 11 males), 29 high school students (10 females and 19 males), and 47 female…

  19. Enhancing Thinking through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Neil, Ed.; Worsham, Toni, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a theoretical foundation on current practice in cooperative thinking. The papers offer many practical methods that can be applied to a full range of classroom settings. After an introduction, "HOTSICLE: Higher Order Thinking Skills in Cooperative Learning Environments" (Neil Davidson and Toni Worsham), there are…

  20. Transcriptome sequencing goals, assembly, and assessment.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Christopher W; Vogel, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome sequencing provides quick, direct access to the mRNA. With this information, one can design primers for PCR of thousands of different genes, SNP markers, probes for microarrays and qPCR, or just use the sequence data itself in comparative studies. Transcriptome sequencing, while getting cheaper, is still an expensive endeavor, with an examination of data quality and its assembly infrequently performed in depth. Here, we outline many of the important issues we think need consideration when starting a transcriptome sequencing project. We also walk the reader through a detailed analysis of an example transcriptome dataset, highlighting the importance of both within-dataset analysis and comparative inferences. Our hope is that with greater attention focused upon assessing assembly performance, advances in transcriptome assembly will increase as prices continue to drop and new technologies, such as Illumina sequencing, start to be used. PMID:22065435