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Sample records for goats experimentally infected

  1. Efficacy of clorsulon for the treatment of experimentally induced infections of Fasciola hepatica in goats.

    PubMed

    Sundlof, S F; Bliss, E L; Greiner, E C; Tran, T Q; Wertenberger, M A

    1991-01-01

    A dose titration study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of clorsulon against the adult stage of Fasciola hepatica in goats. Thirty-nine goats were experimentally infected with metacercariae of F hepatica. At 14 weeks after infection, each goat was assigned randomly to 1 of 5 groups. Goats in groups 1 to 4 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 3.5, 7, 11, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The fifth group of goats (control group) was infected with F hepatica, but were not treated with clorsulon. Postmortem examination of goats at 3 weeks after treatment revealed mean reductions in numbers of flukes of 83, 98, 99, and 100% for groups 1 to 4, respectively. Mean percentage of reduction in eggs following treatment of groups was 82, 98, 100, and 100%, respectively. The clinical effects of clorsulon in 24 goats that were not infected with F hepatica were studied. Goats in groups 1 to 3 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 7, 21, and 35 mg/kg, respectively, every other day for a total of 3 doses/goat. Group-4 goats (control group) received a vehicle placebo. Goats in group 3 were subject to postmortem examination at 14 days after dosing. Abnormal signs or lesions that could be attributed to clorsulon were not found in any goat. PMID:2021237

  2. Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats

    PubMed Central

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

  3. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host. PMID:26697224

  4. Lactation curve and milk quality of goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Francisco Canindé; de Paiva, Kaliane Alessandra Rodrigues; Coelho, Wesley Adson Costa; Nunes, Francisco Vítor Aires; da Silva, Jardel Bezerra; de Gouveia Mendes da Escóssia Pinheiro, Carolina; de Macêdo Praça, Layanne; Silva, Jean Berg Alves; Alves Freitas, Carlos Iberê; Batista, Jael Soares

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trypanosoma vivax infection on the shape of the lactation curve and the milk quality of dairy goats experimentally infected with T. vivax. In total, twenty Saanen goats, aged 26-30 months and the same number of calving (two calvings), were divided into two experimental groups: an infected group, consisting of ten goats intravenously infected with 0.5 ml of blood containing approximately 1.25 × 10(5) trypomastigotes of T. vivax and ten uninfected animals as the control group. Clinical tests and hematocrit, parasitemia, and serum biochemistry evaluations were performed on all of the goats. Milk production was measured daily for 152 days by hand milking the goats and weighing the milk. Every seven days, physiochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the milk. Wood's nonlinear model was used to analyze the lactation curve parameters. The infected goats had high levels of parasitemia and hyperthermia, significantly reduced hematocrit, serum total protein, albumin, and glucose levels and increased cholesterol and urea concentrations. Wood's model indicated that the milk production of goats in the infected group declined sharply over a short period of time and produced a flattened yield curve and significant difference (P < 0.05) in the rate of increase of peak milk production, rate of decrease of milk production after the peak, day of peak milk production, and maximum peak milk production compared with that of the control group. Trypanosomiasis also affected the persistency of lactation, which was significantly reduced in goats in the infected group. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the milk, including the fat content, defatted dry extracts (DDE) and protein content, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the goats in the infected group compared with those in the control group. The T. vivax-infected goats showed reduction in milk production, persistence of lactation, and fat levels, the

  5. Experimental Model of Tuberculosis in the Domestic Goat after Endobronchial Infection with Mycobacterium caprae ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Martín, Maite; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Romera, Nadine; Escobar, Manel; Solanes, David; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Caprine tuberculosis (TB) has increased in recent years, highlighting the need to address the problem the infection poses in goats. Moreover, goats may represent a cheaper alternative for testing of prototype vaccines in large ruminants and humans. With this aim, a Mycobacterium caprae infection model has been developed in goats. Eleven 6-month-old goats were infected by the endobronchial route with 1.5 × 103 CFU, and two other goats were kept as noninfected controls. The animals were monitored for clinical and immunological parameters throughout the experiment. After 14 weeks, the goats were euthanized, and detailed postmortem analysis of lung lesions was performed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and direct observation. The respiratory lymph nodes were also evaluated and cultured for bacteriological analysis. All infected animals were positive in a single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test at 12 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) antigen-specific responses were detected from 4 weeks p.i. until the end of the experiment. The humoral response to MPB83 was especially strong at 14 weeks p.i. (13 days after SICCT boost). All infected animals presented severe TB lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. M. caprae was recovered from pulmonary lymph nodes in all inoculated goats. MDCT allowed a precise quantitative measure of TB lesions. Lesions in goats induced by M. caprae appeared to be more severe than those induced in cattle by M. bovis over a similar period of time. The present work proposes a reliable new experimental animal model for a better understanding of caprine tuberculosis and future development of vaccine trials in this and other species. PMID:21880849

  6. Early Weight Development of Goats Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Alyssa N.; Fletcher, Darcy M.; Vogt, Megan B.; Meyer, Stephen K.; Hess, Ann M.; Eckstein, Torsten M.

    2013-01-01

    Johne’s disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne’s disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne’s disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne’s disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne’s disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne’s disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age. PMID:24349564

  7. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Chamorro, Manuel F; Neill, John D; Brodersen, Bruce W; Walz, Heather L; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Walz, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25-35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam's acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  8. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25–35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam’s acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  9. Effects of condensed tannins on goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Paolini, V; Bergeaud, J P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2003-05-01

    Although the use of tanniferous plants or condensed tannins as an alternative to anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes has been largely documented in sheep, studies remain scarce in goats. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the possible impact of condensed tannins in goats infected with adult Haemonchus contortus. Two groups of cull goats were experimentally infected with 10.000 L3 of H. contortus. After 4 weeks, quebracho extracts, representing 5% of the diet DM, were administered for 8 days to one of the two groups. Goats of the second group remained as controls. One week after the end of quebracho administration, the goats were euthanised. Individual egg excretion and pathophysiological parameters were measured weekly during the study. At the end of the study, worm counts were assessed and histological samples from the abomasa were taken to count the numbers of mucosal mast cells, globule leukocytes and eosinophils. The administration of tannins was associated with a significant decrease in egg excretion, which persisted until the end of experiment. This reduction was not associated with any difference in worm number but with a significant decrease in female fecundity. No significant changes in the mucosal density of the three inflammatory cell types were detected between the two groups. These results indicate that the major consequence of tannin consumption in goats is a reduction in worm fecundity and egg output, which does not seem related to significant changes in the local mucosal response. PMID:12719140

  10. Effect of feeding Sericea lespedeza leaf meal in goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) leaf meal feeding was evaluated in two experiments in indoor reared goats with experimental infection of Haemonchus contortus (HC) larvae. In the first experiment, ten, 8-10 months old male kids from Spanish and Alpine cross bred, pair matched for...

  11. Effect of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal in goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B R; Kommuru, D S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Shakya, K P; Miller, J E

    2011-05-31

    Effect of sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] leaf meal feeding was evaluated in two experiments in indoor reared goats with experimental infection of Haemonchus contortus larvae. In the first experiment, ten 8-10 month old male Spanish and Alpine cross kids pair matched for body weight and age were fed SL or bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay one week before infection and were infected with 5000 H. contortus L(3). The animals were maintained on the same diet for the remaining period and were slaughtered 28 days post-infection (DPI) to determine the establishment of incoming infective larvae. Goats fed SL had lower establishment (P<0.05) of H. contortus larvae than that of the control goats fed BG hay. In the second experiment, twenty-five 8-10 months old male Alpine cross, Saanen, Nubian×Saanen and Spanish kids reared in confinement on BG were experimentally infected with 5000 H. contortus L(3). On 35 DPI, the animals were allocated to two groups after blocking by fecal egg count (FEC), and one group was fed SL leaf meal (n=13), and another control group remained on BG (n=12). Four goats/group were slaughtered successively on days 7, 14, and 28 days post SL feeding, except on day 7, when five SL fed goats were slaughtered. Fecal egg counts and blood packed cell volume (PCV) were measured at weekly intervals and worm count, female worm fecundity, worm length and mucosal eosinophils, mast cells and globule leucocytes were measured after slaughter. Goats fed SL had a lower FEC (P<0.05) one week after feeding, as compared to those fed on BG, and the values remained at low level thereafter. Similarly, PCV was also significantly affected by feeding (P<0.01), and feeding and time interaction (P<0.05). However, worm burden, female worm fecundity, parasite length, and mucosal inflammatory cell count were similar between the groups. Feeding SL reduced the establishment of infective larvae and FEC of H. contortus in experimental

  12. Efficacy and safety of albendazole against experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1988-01-01

    Forty 8-week-old goats were allocated to five groups of equal size to determine the optimal dosage of albendazole against experimentally induced 14-week-old Fasciola hepatica infections. Albendazole suspension given orally at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 15 mg kg-1 of body weight was 73.3, 88.2, 88.3 and 95.9% effective, respectively, when compared to untreated controls. Mean number of F. hepatica in the untreated control goats was 75.4. No signs of toxicity were observed. When albendazole was given to eight, 8-week-old goats orally at 75 mg kg-1 (five times the optimal dosage), no signs of toxicity were observed. PMID:3347986

  13. Endogenous development of Eimeria minasensis in experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Lima, J D

    2000-06-01

    The endogenous development of Eimeria minasensis was studied in 9 coccidia-free goat kids inoculated with 10(5) sporulated oocysts/kg body weight. Kids were killed 4, 7 (2 animals), 10, 13, 16, 18, 19, and 22 days after inoculation (DAI). In tissue sections of the intestines stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy, 2 generations of meronts, gamonts, gametes, and oocysts were found. The first generation of meronts developed in cells deep in the lamina propria of the jejunum and ileum. Mature giant meronts (299.4x243.8 microm) found 16 DAI were visible to the naked eye and contained a large number of crescent-shaped merozoites. The second generation of meronts developed in the epithelial cells of crypts of the ileum and above the host cell nuclei. Mature meronts (11.5x10.1 microm) with 18-28 comma-shaped merozoites were first seen 16 DAI. Gametogenesis took place in epithelial cells of the crypts and villi of the terminal part of the ileum, cecum, and colon. Macrogametes (27.8x17.6 microm), mature microgamonts (21.3x17.0 microm), microgametes, and oocysts (30.5x19.4 microm) were found 19 DAI. Sexual stages were below the host cell nucleus. PMID:10864235

  14. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed. PMID:25285492

  15. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied. Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300-10000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoa...

  16. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276

  17. Cellular composition of granulomatous lesions in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of goats during the first year after experimental infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Krüger, C; Köhler, H; Liebler-Tenorio, E M

    2015-01-15

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes lesions in naturally and experimentally infected ruminants which greatly differ in severity, cellular composition and number of mycobacteria. Morphologically distinct lesions are already found during the clinically inapparent phase of infection. The complex local host response and number of MAP were characterized at the initial sites of lesions, organized gut-associated lymphoid tissue, in experimentally infected goats. Tissues were collected at 3, 6, 9 and 12 month post-inoculation (mpi) from goat kids that had orally received 10 times 10mg of bacterial wet mass of MAP (JII-1961). The cellular composition of lesions in Peyer's patches in the jejunum and next to the ileocecal valve was evaluated in 21 MAP-inoculated goats, where lesions were compared with unaltered tissue of six control goats. CD68+, CD4+, CD8+, γδ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and plasma cells, MHC class II+ and CD25+ cells were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in serial cryostat sections. At 3 mpi, extensive granulomatous infiltrates predominated, consisting of numerous epitheloid cells admixed with many CD4 and γδ T lymphocytes. Only single MAP were detected. This indicates a strong cellular immune reaction able to control MAP infection. γδ T lymphocytes were markedly increased in this type of lesion which may reflect their important role early in the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis. At 9 and 12 mpi, divergent lesions were observed which may reflect different outcomes of host-pathogen interactions. In five goats, minimal granulomatous lesions were surrounded by extensive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and no MAP were detected by immunohistochemistry. This was interpreted as effective host response that was able to eliminate MAP locally. In three goats, decreased numbers of lymphocytes, but extensive granulomatous infiltrates with numerous epitheloid cells containing increased numbers of mycobacteria were seen. This shift of the

  18. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. PMID:26525738

  19. Characterization of tuberculous granulomas in different stages of progression and associated tertiary lymphoid tissue in goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis.

    PubMed

    Schinköthe, Jan; Köhler, Heike; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Oral infection of goats with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) resulted in a large variety of granulomas in organized gut-associated lymphatic tissues and intestinal lymph nodes. To characterize the cellular composition of granulomas, CD4(+), CD8(+), γδ, B lymphocytes and plasma, CD25(+), CD68(+), MHC-II(+), Ki67(+) and endothelial cells were labeled in consecutive frozen sections by immunohistochemistry and acid fast bacilli (AFB) by Kinyoun stain. Granulomas with extensive necrosis, little mineralization and variable numbers of AFB surrounded by many CD4(+) T cells, but only few epitheloid macrophages were observed in severely sick goats at 2-3mpi. They were interpreted as exuberant immune reaction. Organized granulomas with very few AFB were seen in clinically healthy goats at 13mpi. The necrotic cores were surrounded by a zone of granulomatous infiltrate with many epitheloid macrophages and few lymphocytes. This zone was initially wide and highly vascularized and became progressively smaller. It was enclosed by an increasing layer of connective tissue. All organized granulomas were surrounded by compartimentalized tertiary lymphoid tissue. The granulomas in experimental infection of goats with MAH reflect the heterogeneity of lesions seen in mycobacterial infections of humans and ruminants and are therefore valuable for comparative research. PMID:27477506

  20. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)1 or 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...

  1. Heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium infection) as a cause of postrestocking mortality of goats in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Bekker, C P; Vink, D; Lopes Pereira, C M; Wapenaar, W; Langa, A; Jongejan, F

    2001-07-01

    A serological survey in Mozambique to detect antibodies to Cowdria ruminantium, the etiologic agent of heartwater, revealed a seroprevalence of 8.1% (n = 332) for goats in the northern province of Tete and of 65.6% (n = 326) for goats in the southern provinces. Translocation of 10 serologically negative goats from Tete to farms in the south resulted in two clinical cases of heartwater that were fatal. In addition, four goats seroconverted within the study period of 5 weeks. One goat showed no symptoms. Two goats died of other causes, whereas the remaining goat went missing after 1 week. Experimental needle infections of goats and sheep were conducted to confirm results and to isolate different strains of C. ruminantium. These data indicate that translocation of goats from the north to the south of Mozambique bears a high risk of C. ruminantium infection, which can cause fatal disease. PMID:11427440

  2. Impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole goats and Black Belly sheep.

    PubMed

    Ceï, W; Salah, N; Paut, C; Dumoulin, P-J; Arquet, R; Félicité, Y; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2016-03-15

    In small ruminants, the response against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections is influenced not only by the host genotype and the physiological stage but also by environmental factors, particularly the nutritional status at the time of infection. In this study we evaluated the long-term effect and the interaction between the host species and the nutritional history on the response to GIN infection in two animal models differing in their phenotypic growth and their level of GIN resistance: Black Belly sheep and Creole goats. Lambs and kids were subjected to three distinct nutritional conditions at weaning: low dietary conditions (100% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance, corresponding to 548v. 484KJ/Kg BW(0.75) for lambs and kids respectively and 6% of crude protein, CP), medium dietary conditions (150% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 13% CP) and high dietary conditions (200% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 20% CP). This 3-months period was followed by a 1-month period on the medium dietary conditions for all the animals before an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. We monitored the impact of the nutritional history (nutritional condition after weaning), on the intensity of the GIN infection by measuring individual faecal egg counts (FEC), growth rate (ADG), blood eosinophil counts and other pathophysiological parameters. The FEC, growth rate and blood eosinophil counts were significantly affected by the nutritional history in lambs but not in kids. The lowest FEC was found for lambs placed in high dietary conditions, however during the same period body weight loss was observed in this group. In low dietary conditions, kids were more resistant than lambs and the ADG was higher in lambs. However, the anaemia and the level of serum pepsinogen, marker of the abomasal mucosa integrity, were higher in kids. Our data suggest that the impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the

  3. Reaction of goats to infection with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Wafula, J S; Mushi, E Z; Wamwayi, H

    1985-07-01

    Intranasal exposure of goats to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus resulted in mild respiratory disease and virus reisolation from nasal secretions. No disease was produced in goats exposed to the same virus by the genital or ocular routes. There was serological evidence of contact transmission of infection from infected goats to cattle. Virus recrudescence was not detected in goats treated with dexamethasone two months after virus inoculation. PMID:2994191

  4. Orf virus infection in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, V; Valiakos, G

    2015-12-14

    Orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma ('Orf'). It is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, causing significant financial losses in livestock production. The disease mainly affects sheep and goats, but various other ruminants and mammals have been reported to be infected as well. It is also a zoonotic disease, affecting mainly people who come in direct or indirect contact with infected animals (e.g. farmers, veterinarians). The disease is usually benign and self-limiting, although in many cases, especially in young animals, it can be persistent and even fatal. Production losses caused by Orf virus are believed to be underestimated, as it is not a notifiable disease. This review of literature presents all latest information regarding the virus; considerations regarding treatment and prevention will be also discussed. PMID:26315771

  5. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  6. Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Courcoul, Aurélie; Klinkenberg, Don; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta; Nielen, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems. PMID:23621908

  7. Evaluation of local immune response to Fasciola hepatica experimental infection in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes of goats immunized with Sm14 vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ricardo E; Zafra, Rafael; Pérez-Ecija, Rafael A; Buffoni, Leandro; Martínez-Moreno, Alvaro; Tendler, Miriam; Pérez, José

    2010-08-01

    Protection against Fasciola hepatica in goats immunized with a synthetic recombinant antigen from Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein 14 (rSm14) was investigated by assessing worm burdens, serum levels of hepatic enzymes, faecal egg count and hepatic damage, which was evaluated using gross and microscopic morphometric observation. The nature of the local immune response was assessed by examining the distribution of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+ and γ´+ T lymphocytes along with IgG+, IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ cells in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes (HLN). The goats used consisted of group 1 (unimmunized and uninfected), group 2 [infected control - immunized with Quillaia A (Quil A)] and group 3 (immunized with rSm14 in Quil A and infected), each containing seven animals. Immunization with rSm14 in Quil A adjuvant induced a reduction in gross hepatic lesions of 56.6% (p < 0.001) and reduced hepatic and HLN infiltration of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+ and γ´+ T lymphocytes as well as IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ cells (p < 0.05). This is the first report of caprine immunization against F. hepatica using a complete rSm14 molecule derived from S. mansoni. Immunization reduced hepatic damage and local inflammatory infiltration into the liver and HLN. However, considering that Quil A is not the preferential/first choice adjuvant for Sm14 immunization, further studies will be undertaken using the monophosphoryl lipid A-based family of adjuvants during clinical trials to facilitate anti-Fasciolavaccine development. PMID:20835620

  8. Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections

    PubMed Central

    EIBACH, R.; BOTHE, F.; RUNGE, M.; FISCHER, S. F.; PHILIPP, W.; GANTER, M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other. PMID:22217267

  9. Efficacy of halofuginone lactate against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Julie; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe

    2014-05-28

    Preliminary results obtained in calves, lambs and goat kids infected by Cryptosporidium sp. have indicated a partial prophylactic efficacy of halofuginone lactate when administered at 100 μg/kg body weight (BW). In this study, the efficacy of halofuginone lactate was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts per oral route. The trial consisted in 2 replicated experiments carried out successively at 2 months of interval. Twenty-two 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally inoculated once, 2-3 days after the arrival in premises, with 10(6)C. parvum oocysts per oral route and were allocated into 2 groups. Animals of group 1 acted as untreated control whereas animals of group 2 received halofuginone lactate for 10 days from the infection day to day 9 post-infection (DPI) at a daily oral dose rate of 100 μg/kg BW. Individual oocyst shedding was monitored by daily examination of faecal smears stained by carbol fuchsin and scored semi-quantitatively (0-5) until 19 DPI. Daily diarrhoea scores, weight gain and mortality were recorded. In the first experiment, oocyst excretion started 1 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 3.6) and became undetectable from 16-19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 1 day later, showed lower scores compared to control on 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 DPI and vanished from 16 to 19 DPI. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Five kids died in the control group compared to 1 kid in the treated group. In the second (replicated) experiment, oocyst excretion started 2 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 4.5) and became undetectable 18 and 19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 2 days later, peaked on 13 DPI (mean score 2.3) and persisted until the end of the experiment. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Ten kids died in the control group compared to 3 kids in the treated group

  10. A serologic survey of Mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, T O; Adler, H E; Farver, T B; DaMassa, A J

    1981-10-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma putrefaciens infection in goat populations in Mendocino and Sonoma counties of northern California was studied, using the plate and tube agglutination tests. On a county basis, Mendocino had a higher antibody prevalence (13%) than Sonoma (10%). The overall antibody prevalence among the 377 goat serum samples tested was 11%. There was no statistical evidence to show any significant difference in prevalence on the basis of herd size. Of the common goat breeds in California, the American La Mancha had the lowest prevalence (4.7%), the Toggenberg, highest (10.8%). Angora goats shipped from Texas showed a much higher prevalence (67%) than any of the California breeds. The age-specific risk calculations indicate that all age groups were more susceptible to M putrefaciens than 4-year-old goats, with the lowest prevalence of 3.8%. The highest prevalence (21.3%) was observed in the Angora goats. Males had a lower prevalence (10.7%) than females (16.1%). A flock of sheep included in the survey showed a prevalence of 15%. PMID:7325445

  11. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations. PMID:26315774

  12. Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Rodolakis, A; Laroucau, K

    2015-12-14

    Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease. PMID:26255554

  13. Experimental studies on the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini for the respiratory tract of goats.

    PubMed Central

    Goltz, J P; Rosendal, S; McCraw, B M; Ruhnke, H L

    1986-01-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were the species of Mollicutes most commonly isolated from 175 goats with respiratory disease in Ontario. The pathogenicity of M. ovipneumoniae, strain B321B and M. arginini, strain D53e, was assessed in goats following endobronchial inoculation. One out of three two year old goats developed fever after inoculation with a pure culture of strain B321B, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis when necropsied three weeks later. Neither of the remaining goats had lesions in the respiratory tract. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was recovered from one of the animals four days after inoculation, but not at necropsy from any of the goats, at which time a marked humoral immune response with growth inhibiting antibodies was detected. In a second experiment three four to five week old goats were inoculated with the same strain and three other goats were given placebo treatment. One experimental goat developed fever and coughing, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis in the right side and pneumonia. Another goat had focal pneumonia in the left diaphragmatic lobe. Microscopically there was subacute hyperplastic suppurative bronchiolitis, atelectasis and nonsuppurative alveolitis. The infected animals did not clear the mycoplasma and not all of them produced antibodies. Mycoplasma arginini, strain D53e, did not induce lesions in any of four goat kids within 14 days after inoculation but did cause transient elevations in rectal temperature, circulating monocytes, circulating neutrophils and blood fibrinogen. Mycoplasma arginini was infective and immunogenic for all inoculated animals and showed a particular affinity for the tonsil. Thus, this study provides the first evidence that M. ovipneumoniae is pathogenic for goats causing pneumonia and pleuritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3742358

  14. Genetic and Pathological Follow-Up Study of Goats Experimentally and Naturally Exposed to a Sheep Scrapie Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Maestrale, Caterina; Cancedda, Maria G.; Pintus, Davide; Masia, Mariangela; Nonno, Romolo; Ru, Giuseppe; Carta, Antonello; Demontis, Francesca; Santucciu, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thirty-seven goats carrying different prion protein genotypes (PRNP) were orally infected with a classical scrapie brain homogenate from wild-type (ARQ/ARQ) sheep and then mated to obtain 2 additional generations of offspring, which were kept in the same environment and allowed to be naturally exposed to scrapie. Occurrence of clinical or subclinical scrapie was observed in the experimentally infected goats (F0) and in only one (F1b) of the naturally exposed offspring groups. In both groups (F0 and F1b), goats carrying the R154H, H154H, R211Q, and P168Q-P240P dimorphisms died of scrapie after a longer incubation period than wild-type, G37V, Q168Q-P240P, and S240P goats. In contrast, D145D and Q222K goats were resistant to infection. The immunobiochemical signature of the scrapie isolate and its pathological aspects observed in the sheep donors were substantially maintained over 2 goat generations, i.e., after experimental and natural transmission. This demonstrates that the prion protein gene sequence, which is shared by sheep and goats, is more powerful than any possible but unknown species-related factors in determining scrapie phenotypes. With regard to genetics, our study confirms that the K222 mutation protects goats even against ovine scrapie isolates, and for the first time, a possible association of D145 mutation with scrapie resistance is shown. In addition, it is possible that the sole diverse frequencies of these genetic variants might, at least in part, shape the prevalence of scrapie among naturally exposed progenies in affected herds. IMPORTANCE This study was aimed at investigating the genetic and pathological features characterizing sheep-to-goat transmission of scrapie. We show that in goats with different prion protein gene mutations, the K222 genetic variant is associated with scrapie resistance after natural and experimental exposure to ovine prion infectivity. In addition, we observed for the first time a protective effect of the D145

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains ...

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacan, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...

  17. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaginal infection of goats: clinical efficacy of fig latex.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bodnar, Livia; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to interfere with the replication of caprine herpesvirus (CpHV)-1 in vitro. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of vaginal administration of fig latex in goats experimentally infected with CpHV-1. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed. Thus, the fig latex maintained a partial efficacy in vivo. PMID:25835328

  18. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. PMID:24387851

  19. Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

  20. Protozoan infections (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis spp.) in sheep and goats: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Buxton, D

    1998-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a serious cause of fetal mortality in sheep and goats. Oocysts, the parasite stage responsible for initiating infection, are produced following a primary infection in cats. A primary infection in pregnant sheep and goats can establish a placental and fetal infection which may result in fetal death and resorption, abortion or stillbirth. Diagnosis is aided by the clinical picture, the presence of characteristic small white necrotic foci in placental cotyledons, the possible presence of a mummified fetus and on fetal serology and histopathology. Development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for T. gondii may also provide a valuable diagnostic tool. Measures to control abortion include improved management of farm cats, fodder and water. Vaccination of sheep with the live vaccine is an effective preventive measure and the use of decoquinate in feed may be useful in some situations. Neospora caninum is related to T. gondii and while its asexual life cycle is similar to that of the latter it is currently not known whether it has a similar sexual life cycle in a definitive host. Neospora is an important cause of fetal loss in cattle and parallels that of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats. While it does not appear to cause frequent losses in these latter animals, experimental infection is readily induced in them and if initiated during pregnancy provides a very good model of the bovine infection. Furthermore clinical signs and pathological lesions in sheep and goats are similar to those induced in them by T. gondii, although there are subtle histopathological differences. These changes will aid possible diagnosis as will specific serological tests such as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and the PCR. Sarcocystis, which exists as numerous species, undergoes a coccidian-like life cycle with each having a distinctive definitive (usually carnivore) host which

  1. Prevalence and dynamics of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in kids born from naturally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Alauddin, Md; Hossain, K M Mozaffor; Islam, Md Hemayetul; Kitoh, Katsuya; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domesticated goats intended for human consumption in a rural suburb of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 55.1% (80/145) of the goats tested in our sample. The seroprevalence among goats aged <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and ≥3 years were 36.7%, 66.0%, 59.1% and 100%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age. Among the seropositive goats, a subsample of eight free-ranging female goats with access to male goats was placed under continuous observation. During the observation period, these seropositive female goats delivered 11 kids, all of which were found to be seronegative before suckling colostrum. This finding strongly suggested that trans-placental infection rarely occurs in female goats that have acquired an infection before pregnancy. Our results indicate that infection via ingestion of oocysts plays a more important role than endogenous trans-placental infection in maintaining the endemicity of T. gondii among goats in Bangladesh. PMID:26028431

  2. Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

    2013-12-01

    Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. PMID:24140164

  3. Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission. PMID:22276529

  4. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. Two studies were completed in which supplemental feeds...

  5. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue seed on physiological parameters of mature female meat goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the study were to determine if consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue seed would affect thermoregulation and dry matter intake (DMI) in mature female meat goats. During the 4 week study, goats (n = 18) were assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6 per treatment) and f...

  6. Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats. This paper reports the experimental poisoning in goats by dried I. sericophylla and I. riedelii containing 0.05% and 0.01% swainsonine, respectively. Three groups with four animals each were used. Group 1 recei...

  7. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

  8. Pathogenesis of percutaneous infection of goats with Burkholderia pseudomallei: clinical, pathologic, and immunological responses in chronic melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Soffler, Carl; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Aboellail, Tawfik A; Marolf, Angela J; Bowen, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe suppurative to granulomatous infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease is endemic to South-East Asia and Northern Australasia and is also of interest as a potential biological weapon. Natural infection can occur by percutaneous inoculation, inhalation or ingestion, but the relative importance of each route is unknown. Experimental infection models using mice have shown inhalation to be the most lethal route of exposure, but few studies have examined the pathogenesis of percutaneous infection despite its presumptive importance in natural disease. Caprine models are useful in the study of melioidosis because goats are susceptible to natural infection by B. pseudomallei, display similar epizootiology/epidemiology to that of humans within the endemic range and develop similar pathologic lesions. Percutaneous inoculation with 104 CFU of B. pseudomallei produced disease in all experimental animals with rapid dissemination to the lungs, spleen and kidneys. Initial fever was brief, but temperatures did not return to pre-infection levels until day 18, concurrent with a dramatic lymphocytosis and the transition to chronic disease. Distribution and appearance of gross pathologic and radiographic lesions in goats were similar to caprine aerosol infection and to reported human disease. The similarities seen despite different routes of infection suggest that host or bacterial factors may be more important than the route of infection in disease pathogenesis. The nature of melioidosis in goats makes it amenable for modelling additional risk factors to produce acute clinical disease, which is important to the study of human melioidosis. PMID:24571408

  9. Prevalence pattern and biology of Sarcocystis capracanis infection in the Egyptian goats: a light and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Saleh, Ahmed; Al-Ghamdi, Ali; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Ghaffara, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-09-27

    Cysts of Sarcocystis capracanis obtained from infected goats were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Muscle tissues from fresh oesophagus, tongue, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 680 goats were slaughtered in the main abattoir of Cairo, Egypt and they were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis infection for the first time in Egypt. 540 out of 680 (79.4%) of examined goats were found to be infected with Sarcocystis sp. The infection was recorded firstly by light microscopy as spindle shaped cysts embedded in the muscle tissues. The validity of this species as S. capracanis was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall which revealed the presence of thick-radially striated wall with finger like projections, underlined by a thick layer of ground substance enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. The cyst cavity is divided by many septa extending from the ground substance and producing large number of chambers. An experimental infection using the highly infected muscles was carried out to determine the final host, which is dog. Smears of intestinal epithelium were taken to examine the endogenous stages (gamogony and sporogony) by means of light microscopy. These stages were mainly observed as to infect the lamina propria of the posterior third of the small intestine. Gamogony and zygote formation (fertilization) occurred 2-8 days post infection, while sporulation took place within the final host 13-15 days and sporocysts were passed within faeces of the infected puppies at that time. The prepatent period of S. capracanis was 12-15 days, while the patent period was extended to 37 days. In goats, infection with S. capracanis led to the loss of weight, anaemia, abortion and even death in cases of heavy infection. While bleeding, watery faeces filled with mucous on 5th and 8th day p.i. as

  10. Diagnostic testing patterns of natural Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in pygmy goats

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Steinberg, Howard; Krebs, Vernon; Collins, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen pygmy goats (Capra hircus) from a herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MPTB) were monitored with 4 diagnostic assays for 2 to 15 mo. Cellular and humoral immune responses to the infection were assessed with assays of gamma interferon (IFNγ), serum antibody [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel diffusion (AGID)], and radiometric fecal culture. Microscopic examination and radiometric culture of tissue from 12 sites were performed at necropsy. Goats were considered infected if MPTB was isolated from any tissue sample collected at necropsy. Mycobacterial isolates were confirmed as MPTB with an IS900 polymerase chain reaction assay. Ten goats whose antemortem tests indicated infection carried heavy organism burdens at necropsy, both within and beyond the gastrointestinal system. False-negative ELISA, AGID, and/or culture results were obtained in 5 of the 10 confirmed cases during the study period. In 3 goats with sporadic fecal shedding of MPTB or detectable IFNγ response, or both, no abnormalities were detected at necropsy and no MPTB was isolated from the tissue samples; the antemortem fecal-culture and IFNγ results were thus considered false-positive. Diagnosticians should be alert to the possibility of both false-positive and false-negative test results for Johne's disease in goats. False-positive fecal-culture results may occur when a high prevalence of infection exists in the herd and the premises are likely to be heavily contaminated. The diverse antemortem testing patterns seen in these goats underscore the importance of using varied diagnostic assays serially or in parallel to increase the likelihood of identifying all infected goats. PMID:12889728

  11. Prevalence of Strongyle infections in goat of Maha Koushal region, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alok Kumar; Das, G; Roy, B; Nath, S; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Sahil

    2016-06-01

    The coproculture study on Strongyle infection of goats was carried out in small holder farmers kept under semi-intensive management system in Balaghat, Narsinghpur and Chhindwara district, Madhya Pradesh, during the period from July 2011 to February 2012. Copro-culture of the samples positive for Strongyle infection revealed Haemonchus sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and Bunostomum sp. in a decreasing order in goats. The larvae of Haemonchus sp. (61.63 %) and Strongyloides sp. (7.50 %) were highest in Balaghat, Trichostrongylus (18.13 %) in Narsinghpur, while Oesophagostomum sp. (10.50 %) and Bunostomum sp. (5.75 %) were in Chhindwara district. The finding of this study indicates that, even though subclinical in nature, Strongyle infection are one of the major problems that could hamper health and productivity and there is need for design a programme to minimize and control Strongyle infection in goats in the study area. PMID:27413295

  12. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all). PMID:25499464

  13. [Pathologic-anatomical changes in newborn goats caused by an intrauterine Schmallenberg virus infection].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Henrik; Eskens, Ulrich; Nesseler, Anne; Riesse, Karin; Kaim, Ute; Volmer, Renate; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Sauerwald, Claudia; Wehrend, Axel

    2014-01-01

    A complex of various malformations in newborns was observed to an increased extent in sheep farms in the 2011/2012 lambing season. An intrauterine Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection was identified as the cause of these malformations. To date, a detailed pathological description of the deformity complex has only been given for bovine and ovine newborns.The aim of this study was therefore to provide a description of pathologic-anatomical congenital malformations in goat kids caused by intrauterine SBV infection. To this end, pathologic-anatomical and molecular biological investigations by PCR were carried out on 37 goat kids and 457 lambs from 238 sheep and goat farms in order to carry out an interspecies comparison. Of the 37 goat kids dissected, it was possible to identify a SBV infection in twelve animals (32.4%) by RT-PCR. In nine animals (24.3%) displaying pathological-anatomical malformations SBV could not be detected by PCR. The following malformations were observed: athrogryposis, deformation of spinal column, torticollis, asymmetry of the skull, brachygnathia inferior, cerebellar hypoplasia, cerebellar aplasia and internal hydrocephalus. Arthogryposis was the most common malformation, both in animals with positive PCR results and those with negative PCR results. This study documents congenital malformations caused by an intrauterine SBV infection for the first time on a large number of newborn goats. PMID:24693655

  14. Phenotypic alteration of blood and milk leukocytes in goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes a persistent and slow progressive infection in goats, characterized by chronic proliferative sinovitis, arthritis and, less frequently, pneumonia. Infected goats could also be affected by interstitial mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...

  15. Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC) by California Mastitis Test (CMT) and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC) are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI) in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT) corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC). Method Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111), in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Results Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18%) of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81%) samples while 3 (1%) samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (72% of all isolates), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates). Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000) associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ≥2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. Conclusions According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a predictor of the SCC

  16. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Bawm, Saw; Maung, Wint Yi; Win, Myat Yee; Thu, May June; Chel, Hla Myet; Khaing, Tin Aye; Wai, Soe Soe; Htun, Lat Lat; Myaing, Tin Tin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Igarashi, Makoto; Katakura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03-21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57-11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06-0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. PMID:26904362

  17. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Bawm, Saw; Maung, Wint Yi; Win, Myat Yee; Thu, May June; Chel, Hla Myet; Khaing, Tin Aye; Wai, Soe Soe; Htun, Lat Lat; Myaing, Tin Tin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Igarashi, Makoto; Katakura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. PMID:26904362

  18. Control of intramammary infections in goats: impact on somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Poutrel, B; de Crémoux, R; Ducelliez, M; Verneau, D

    1997-02-01

    Udder-half infections were recorded throughout a lactation for 1,060 goats belonging to eight commercial herds. Bacteriological examination from aseptic milk samples and somatic cell counts (SCC) determined by Fossomatic cell counting were performed at the beginning, the middle, and the end of lactation. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the prevalent microorganisms isolated. Geometric means of SCC for uninfected halves or halves infected by CNS or major pathogens were 272 x 10(3) cells/mL, 932,000 x 10(3) cells/mL and 2,443,000 x 10(3) cells/mL, respectively. Two field trials were carried out for evaluation of effectiveness of systematic treatment at drying-off (1 syringe by half) by a combination of penicillin, nafcillin, and dihydrostreptomycin labeled for bovines. In the first trial, all goats (n = 217) of two herds were treated immediately after the last milking, and two herds (n = 196) were used as untreated controls. In the second trial, 215 goats were treated at drying-off. There were no untreated controls. Dry period cures were determined by bacteriological examination of udder-half milk samples collected aseptically at drying-off and 2 wk after parturition. Impact of treatment on SCC was determined from composite milk samples collected monthly after kidding. At parturition, in the first trial, 40 of 202 (19.8%) udder halves were spontaneously cured in the control group vs 169 of 217 (77.9%) in the treatment group. In the second trial, 141 out of 215 treated halves were cured. During the first 75 d in lactation, geometric mean SCC was significantly lower for treated goats than for control goats. After 75 d, SCC for treated and control goats were similar. These data suggest that other methods are required to prevent new intramammary infections throughout the lactation in order to keep a low SCC in goat milk. To determine whether this could be accomplished through teat dipping, half of the goats in five commercial herds were dipped (n = 294) after

  19. Infection rate of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cashmere, dairy and meat goats in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-Qi; Tian, Ge-Ru; Ren, Guan-Jing; Yu, Zheng-Qing; Lok, James Barron; Zhang, Long-Xian; Wang, Xue-Ting; Song, Jun-Ke; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis contribute significantly to the high burden of zoonotic diarrhea worldwide. Goats constitute an important species in animal agriculture by providing cashmere wool, meat, and dairy products for human consumption. However, zoonotic pathogens with the potential to cause morbidity and to degrade production have been reported frequently in goats recently. The present study examined 629 fecal specimens from goats, including 315 cashmere goats, 170 dairy goats and 144 meat goats, in multiple cities of Shaanxi and Henan provinces, northwestern and central China, to investigate the infection rate and species/assemblages/genotypes of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Of these samples, 274 (43.6%) were positive for three zoonotic pathogens, including 80 (12.7%), 104 (16.5%) and 179 (28.5%) for G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi, respectively. Infections with G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi existed in meat, dairy and cashmere goats, with the highest infection rate of each pathogen being observed in meat goats. DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene from 104 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens revealed existence of Cryptosporidium xiaoi, and the zoonotic parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Genotyping of G. duodenalis based on the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene identified parasites from zoonotic assemblage A in four cashmere goats and the animal-adapted assemblage E in a group of 76 goats that included cashmere, dairy and meat animals. Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer characterized E. bieneusi genotype CHG1 and a novel genotype named as SX1 in both dairy and cashmere goats, genotypes CHS7 and COSI in meat goats, the genotype CHG2 in dairy goats, and the human-pathogenic genotype BEB6 in dairy and meat goats. This is the first detailed study to compare infection rate of the zoonotic protozoan pathogens

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharif, M; Sarvi, Sh; Shokri, A; Hosseini Teshnizi, S; Rahimi, M T; Mizani, A; Ahmadpour, E; Daryani, A

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a cosmopolitan parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is frequently found in meat-producing animals and human beings. This review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the overall prevalence of T. gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran. Data were systematically collected from 1977 to 2012 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID). Additionally, abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations were included. A total of 34 articles in field of sheep and 18 articles about goat toxoplasmosis, totalizing to the examination of 14,372 sheep and 3,120 goats, reporting prevalence of toxoplasmosis from different regions of Iran fulfilled our eligibility criteria. The overall prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis in Iran was estimated to be 31% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.259825 to 0.352382) in sheep and 27% (95% CI = 0.140097 to 0.424782) in goats, respectively. There was no significant difference in infection rate between males and females among sheep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.59 to 1.696) and goats (OR = 1.027, 95% CI = 0.685 to 1.541). Analysis revealed that infection rate in sheep over than 1 year old was 2.4 times more than that in less than 1 year old (OR = 2.396, 95% CI = 1.050 to 5.467). This systematic review and meta-analysis study revealed that infection is widespread in Iran. Further studies are required to improve strategies for controlling infection among flocks and consequently in human population. PMID:25378258

  1. Identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in Saanen goats in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of livestock and causes substantial economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. BVDV is not necessarily species specific and is known to infect domesticated and wild ruminants. In the present study, BVDV infection was identified in two Saanen goats from one farm, and two different viral subtypes were found, BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a. Each isolate was closely related to cattle isolates identified in the Republic of Korea. The two sequences obtained in this study were not consistent with border disease virus (BDV). The incidence of BVDV in this farm apparently occurred in the absence of contact with cattle and may be associated with grazing. This study demonstrates that BVDV infection may be possible to transmit among goats without exposure to cattle. Therefore, this result indicates that Saanen goats may act as natural reservoirs for BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV-1a infection in a Saanen goat. PMID:26992733

  2. Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Songer, J Glenn

    2008-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens produces enteric diseases, generically called enterotoxemias, in sheep, goats, and other animals. This microorganism can be a normal inhabitant of the intestine of most animal species, including humans, but when the intestinal environment is altered by sudden changes in diet or other factors, C. perfringens proliferates and produces potent toxins that act locally or are absorbed into the general circulation with usually devastating effects on the host. History, clinical signs, and gross postmortem findings are useful tools for establishing a presumptive diagnosis of clostridial enterotoxemia in sheep and goats. Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation. Isolation of some types of C. perfringens (e.g., B and C) can be of diagnostic value, but other types (e.g., A) are so commonly found in the intestine of normal animals that isolation is meaningless from a diagnostic point of view. The most accepted criterion in establishing a definitive diagnosis of enterotoxemia is detection of C. perfringens toxins in intestinal contents. Also, histopathological examination of brain is very useful for diagnosis of type D disease, as lesions produced by epsilon toxin in the brains of sheep and goats are pathognomonic for type D enterotoxemia. Ancillary tests, such as measuring urine glucose or observing Gram-stained smears of intestinal mucosa, can be used. However, although such tests have a presumptive diagnostic value when positive, they cannot be used to rule out a diagnosis of enterotoxemia when negative. PMID:18460610

  3. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Borges-dos-Santos, Roberto Robson; López, Jorge A.; Santos, Luciano C.; Zacharias, Farouk; David, Jorge Maurício; David, Juceni Pereira; Lima, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça

    2012-01-01

    Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): negative control (G1) (untreated), positive control (G2) (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w.), and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP). Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC), hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P < 0.05). An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P < 0.05), during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition. PMID:22548117

  4. Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats raised in Baybay city, Leyte, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Rupa, Ariel Paul M.; Portugaliza, Harvie P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal parasitism is a serious constraint affecting goat production in the Philippines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goat-populated barangays of Baybay City, Leyte. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 households or farms were interviewed, and 450 goats were sampled for fecalysis. Fecal egg count along with egg morphological identification and coproculture for third stage larvae identification were conducted. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the farm- and animal-level prevalence and risk factors. Results: Fecalysis revealed the presence of strongyle and Trichuris spp. with a farm-level prevalence of 100% and 4.94%, respectively; and animal-level prevalence of 96.22% and 4.44%, respectively. The identified strongyle genera per barangay were Haemonchus spp. (34.79%), Trichostrongylus spp. (33.29%), Oesophagostomum spp. (24.21%), Cooperia spp. (6.93%), and Chabertia spp. (0.79%). Goats older than 12 months were four times more likely to present high strongyle burden when compared to goats <6 months. With each month increase in goat’s age, the odds of acquiring strongyle infection also increased by 1.07 times. Animals kept in goat house with cemented flooring have lower odds of acquiring strongyle (odds ratio=0.12). Goats raised for leisure purposes and fed with carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum) were 8.12 and 5.52 times more likely to acquire Trichuris, respectively. Conclusion: Most of the backyard goat raisers in Baybay City, Leyte, do not practice sound helminth control measures as shown by the high prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes. The most relevant risk factors for gastrointestinal nematode infection were the age of the goat, type of goat house’s flooring, purpose of raising goats, and feeding practices. PMID:27536034

  5. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats.

    PubMed

    Gujja, S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Shaik, S A; Lambert, B D; Cherry, N M; Burke, J M

    2013-01-16

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. A study was completed in which supplemental feeds (75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets and a commercial pellet, all fed at 0.91 kg/head/day) were offered to thirty growing male Spanish goats (9 months old, 20.6 ± 2.8 kg, 10/treatment) grazing perennial warm-season grass pastures in Fort Valley, GA, from September to November, 2010. Fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals weekly to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, and animal weights were recorded at the start and end of the trial. After 11 weeks grazing, animals were slaughtered for recovery, counting, and speciation of adult GIN from the abomasum and small intestines. There was no difference in FEC between goats fed the 75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets, but both groups had lower (P<0.05) FEC than the goats fed the commercial pellets from days 35 to 77. The PCV values were not affected by the dietary treatments. Animal gain per day averaged 102.0, 77.2, and 53.3g for goats fed 95% SL, commercial, and 75% SL pellets, respectively (P<0.05). The 95% SL leaf meal pellet goats had 93.0 and 47.3% fewer (P<0.05) total (male+female) adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, respectively, than control animals, while only male H. contortus were lower (47.6%; P<0.05) in 75% SL-fed goats compared with commercial pellet-fed animals. Feeding supplemental SL leaf meal pellets improved animal performance (95% SL pellets) and reduced worm burdens (75 and 95% SL pellets) in young grazing goats and is a useful tool for natural GIN control in small ruminants. PMID:22985929

  6. Natural and experimental poisoning of goats with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plant Crotalaria retusa L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crotalaria retusa L. (rattleweed), estimated to contain about 4.96% monocrotaline (MCT) in the seed, was associated with a natural poisoning outbreak in goats. The poisoning was experimentally reproduced by the administration of C. retusa seeds containing approximately 4.49% of MCT. Thus, 1 of 3 goa...

  7. Detection of hemoplasma infection of goats by use of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay and risk factor analysis for infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kathy A; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Bauer, Amy E; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Hammac, G Kenitra; Messick, Joanne B

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and quantification of Mycoplasma ovis in goats and investigate the prevalence and risk factors for hemoplasma infection of goats located in Indiana. ANIMALS 362 adult female goats on 61 farms. PROCEDURES Primers were designed for amplification of a fragment of the dnaK gene of M ovis by use of a qPCR assay. Blood samples were collected into EDTA-containing tubes for use in total DNA extraction, blood film evaluation, and determination of PCV. Limit of detection, intra-assay variability, interassay variability, and specificity of the assay were determined. RESULTS Reaction efficiency of the qPCR assay was 94.45% (R(2), 0.99; slope, -3.4623), and the assay consistently detected as few as 10 copies of plasmid/reaction. Prevalence of infection in goats on the basis of results for the qPCR assay was 18.0% (95% confidence interval, 14% to 22%), with infected goats ranging from 1 to 14 years old, whereby 61% (95% confidence interval, 47% to 73%) of the farms had at least 1 infected goat. Bacterial load in goats infected with M ovis ranged from 1.05 × 10(3) target copies/mL of blood to 1.85 × 10(5) target copies/mL of blood; however, no bacteria were observed on blood films. Production use of a goat was the only risk factor significantly associated with hemoplasma infection. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detecting hemoplasma infection than was evaluation of a blood film, and production use of a goat was a risk factor for infection. PMID:27463552

  8. Risk factors for intramammary infections and relationship with somatic-cell counts in Italian dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Moroni, P; Pisoni, G; Ruffo, G; Boettcher, P J

    2005-07-12

    Routine examination of milk was performed on five herds of lactating goats in northern Italy as part of a milk quality-monitoring program in the year 2000. As part of the study, aseptic samples of foremilk were collected monthly from both half udders during the entire lactation for 305 goats, resulting in a total of 4571 samples. The samples were tested with cytological and bacteriological analyses to evaluate the relationship between mammary infections and somatic-cell count (SCC; Fossomatic (TM) method). Prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) was 40.2% (n = 1837) of all udder-half samples examined. The most-prevalent mastitis agents were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS), 80% (n = 1474 udder-half samples); within this group, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most-prevalent species (38%). Other prevalence were Staphylococcus aureus 6% (n = 112 udder-half samples) and environmental pathogens 14% of infected udder-half samples (n = 251) with a diverse mixture of species, none of which had a frequency of > 4%. Enterococcus faecalis was the most-frequently isolated among this group. Neither Salmonella spp. nor Listeria monocytogenes were detected. The risk (sample level) of infection differed across herds, parities, and stage of lactation according to results from logistic multiple regression. Infection was more common among goats in third and fourth parities and during the later stages of lactation. Of the 2734 samples from uninfected udder halves, the mean log2 SCC was 3.9 cell/ml; of the 1837 bacteriological positive samples, the mean log2 SCC was 5.6 cell/ml. According to results from a linear mixed model, concentrations of somatic cells tended to increase with increasing age and days in milk and with the presence of bacteria. Infection with S. aureus was associated with the highest SCS. PMID:15907567

  9. Haematobiochemical parameters of goats fed tannin rich Psidium guajava and Carissa spinarum against Haemonchus contortus infection in India.

    PubMed

    Jan, Owais Qadir; Kamili, Neyaz; Ashraf, Ajmal; Iqbal, Asif; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, Ankur

    2015-03-01

    The antihelminthic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs to minimise the effects of gastro intestinal nematodes (GIN). The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of condensed tannins (CT), obtained from regional tanniferous tree leaves, in the Haemonchus contortus infected goats on the heamatobiochemical parameters to assess the goat health. Twelve adult male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely negative control, infected control and treatment. H. contortus infected goats were allocated into infected control and treatment groups and their feeds contained 0 and 1.96 % of CT, respectively. Feeding trial was conducted for the duration of 90 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored on fortnightly basis. The animals ingesting the CT-rich leaf meal mixture had increased levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total protein, globulin, glucose and calcium, and decreased levels of blood urea; indicating a beneficial effect of CT supplementation at the selected level. However, the phosphorus balance, serum albumin levels and serum enzyme activity were not affected significantly. The study revealed that inclusion of CT in the diets of the adult male goats did not pose any threat to the health of the goats. Further, the CT based diet had beneficial impact on the haematological parameters and could therefore be included in small ruminant diets to minimize the impact of GIN. PMID:25698858

  10. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China. PMID:27478131

  11. Effect of tanniferous leaf meal based multi-nutrient blocks on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes in Haemonchus contortus infected goats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Pathak, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Khan, Muzaffer

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of multi nutrient block (MNB) supplementation with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes of goats that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Materials and Methods: Total 12 adult male goats of similar age and body weight (26.49±0.87) were allocated in 3 groups in completely randomized design. MNB supplemented in first two groups i.e. in T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat) group, while, MNB-condensed tannin (CT) supplemented in T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat + CT source). All goats were fed concentrate mixture @ 100 g/day/goat, ad lib wheat straw and MNB or MNB-CT to meet their requirement for maintenance. Body weights were recorded and blood and fecal samples were collected at 0 day and thereafter at 15 days intervals for a period of 75 days for the assessment of body weight changes, hematological profile and H. contortus loads. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response were assessed at the end of feeding trial. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV) levels were found to be highest (p<0.001, p<0.05) in T1 group followed by T3 group and lowest values were observed in T2 group. However, The PCV values between T1 and T3 groups were found to be statistically non-significant (p<0.05). The humoral and CMI response were significantly (p<0.036) higher in T3 group as compared to T2 group. MNB-CT supplementation significantly (p<0.001) reduced fecal egg counts in T3 group as compared to MNB supplemented T2 group. Conclusion: Supplementation of MNB-CT could be used as an alternative sustainable method to control H. contortus and maintained health status and performance of goats in face of parasitic challenge. PMID:27047137

  12. Cats and goat whey associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Meerburg, B G; Van Riel, J W; Cornelissen, J B; Kijlstra, A; Mul, M F

    2006-01-01

    In organic livestock production systems, farm-management factors are thought to play an important role in the on-farm prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii. Serological results and the results of an HACCP analysis were combined to determine important risk factors for the prevalence of this protozoan parasite. Mathematical analysis demonstrated that feeding goat whey to pigs and the presence of a high number of cats were positively correlated to T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs. Not covering roughage and the farmers' assumption that pigs can come into contact with cat feces also showed a positive relationship. In order to decrease the risk of T. gondii infecting their pigs, farmers should limit the access and number of cats on their farms and refrain from feeding goat whey to their pigs. PMID:16989566

  13. [Prevalence of subclinical udder infections and individual somatic cell counts in three dairy goat herds during a full lactation].

    PubMed

    Schaeren, W; Maurer, J

    2006-12-01

    For dairy goats, both the determination of the somatic cell counts (SCC) and the interpretation of these values may be a problem. Several investigations have shown that SCC for goat's milk, even from not infected mammary halves, are often higher than for cows milk. In the three herds examined about 40% of mammary halves and 30% of the goats were infected. However large differences between the three herds could be observed. In most cases, infections were caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) or corynebacteria. The SCC of individual milk samples from goats without any udder infection hardly differed from those of goats with at least one udder half infected with CNS. In 20% and 30% of the cases the SCC was higher than 750'000 cells/ml, respectively. The relation between California Mastitis Test (CMT) reactions and udder infections was not very close. Over 20% of mammary halves infected with CNS showed negative CMT reactions. On the other hand, 25% of samples from mammary halves without a proven infection reacted positively. The large differences in individual cell counts on herd and animal level indicate that production and breeding systems might be important reasons for the higher SCC. As a consequence, the most common methods for or the control of udder health and udder infections (SCC, California Mastitis Test) are of limited value for goats. Since there was only a weak relation between milk quality properties and SCC, any arguments for the introduction of legal limits below 1 million cells per ml can hardly be found. PMID:17263081

  14. Experimental infection of small ruminants with bluetongue virus expressing Toggenburg Orbivirus proteins.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Piet A; van de Water, Sandra G P; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke A; van Gennip, René G P

    2016-08-30

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype orbivirus (Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus) consisting of more than 24 recognized serotypes or neutralization groups. Recently, new BTV serotypes in goats have been found; serotype 25 (Toggenburg Orbivirusor TOV), serotype 26 (KUW2010/02), and serotype 27 from Corsica, France. KUW2010/02 has been isolated in mammalian cells but is not replicating in Culicoides cells. TOVhas been detected in goats but could not been cultured, although TOV has been successfully passed to naïve animals by experimental infection using viremic blood. Genome segments Seg-2[VP2], Seg-6[VP5], Seg-7[VP7], and Seg-10[NS3/NS3a] expressing the respective TOV proteins were incorporated in BTV using reverse genetics, demonstrating that these TOV proteins are functional in BTV replication. Depending on the incorporated TOV proteins, in vitro replication is, however, decreased compared to the ancestor BTV, in particular by TOV-VP5. Sheep and goats were experimentally infected with BTV expressing both outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5 of TOV, so-named 'TOV-serotyped BTV'. Viremia was not detected in sheep, and hardly detected in goats after infection with TOV-serotyped BTV. Seroconversion by cELISA, however, was detected, suggesting that TOV-serotyped BTV replicates in small ruminants. One goat was coincidentally pregnant, and the fetus was strong PCR-positive in blood samples and several organs, which conclusively demonstrates that TOV-serotyped BTV replicates in vivo. PMID:27527776

  15. Mycobacterium bovis infection in goats from the Northeast region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Higino, Severino Silvano dos Santos; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Dib, Cristina Corsi; do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Alves, Clebert José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2011-01-01

    A total of 8,058 male and female mixed-breed goats and 1–4 years of age were slaughtered over a period of 7 months at the public slaughterhouse of Patos city, Paraíba state, in the Northeast region of Brazil; 822 animals were inspected for gross lesions of tuberculosis, and 12 (1.46%) had lesions suggestive of tuberculosis in the mammary gland, lungs, liver and mediastinal, mesenteric, submandibular, parotid and prescapular lymph nodes. Presence of granulomatous lesions was confirmed in the submandibular lymph node of one (8.3%) goat at the histopathological examination and at the mycobacterium culture the same sample was confirmed positive. Isolate was confirmed as belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex by PCR restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). Spoligotyping identified the isolate into spoligotype SB0295 on the M. bovis Spoligotype Database website (www.mbovis.org), and it was classified as M. bovis. The occurrence of M. bovis in goats in this study suggests that this species may be a potential source of infection for humans and should be regarded as a possible problem in the advancement of control and eradication program for bovine tuberculosis in Brazil. PMID:24031775

  16. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goat abortions from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Dellarupe, A; De Felice, L; Gos, M L; Venturini, M C

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum abortions in goats from Argentina by serological, macroscopical and microscopical examination and bioassay, and to characterize the obtained isolates by molecular techniques. For this purpose, 25 caprine fetal fluids, 18 caprine fetal brains and 10 caprine placentas from 8 dairy/meat goat farms from Argentina were analyzed. Gestational age of the aborted fetuses was determined in 18 cases. Protozoal infections were detected by at least one of the applied diagnostic techniques in 44% (11/25) of examined fetuses; specifically, 24% (6/25) were positive to T. gondii, 8% (2/25) were positive to N. caninum and 12% (3/25) were positive to both parasites. In this study IFAT titers were similarly distributed in younger and older fetuses. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of one placenta revealed chalky nodules in the fetal cotyledons and normal intercotyledonary areas, as well as necrosis and calcification of mesenchymal cells in villi. Tachyzoites were observed in peritoneal wash from 2 mice inoculated with brain and a pool of brain and placenta of two fetuses. Cell culture growth of tachyzoites was achieved from one inoculated mouse, and confirmed as T. gondii by PCR. The T. gondii isolate was identified as atypical or non-canonical by nested-PCR-RFLP. This is the first study that investigated the involvement of N. caninum and T. gondii in cases of goat abortion in Argentina. PMID:25128663

  17. Variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Vishnu, P Guru; Negi, Mamta; Senapati, P K; Charita, V Gnani

    2015-03-01

    A total 290 Black Bengal goats (6 buck, 109 doe and 175 kids born from 11 sires) were studied to evaluate the variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The variability of resistance in Black Bengal goat was studied for both genetic and non-genetic factors like village, sex, age dam, sire, dam resistance group and offspring resistance group. Male kids have slightly higher resistance than female kids although it was not significant. Resistance of kids was increased as age increases and kid population showed significantly different resistance status among the offspring resistant groups. The doe population showed significantly different LEPG as per the resistance group in all the collections. The present study found that the resistance of kids under sire were varied significantly and observed that the kids under sire 1, 6-8 were significantly more resistant than the kids of the sire 2, 5 and 11 in 3rd collection and it is also noticed that maternal genetic effect has a very little impact on resistance of kids. Males (buck) were most resistant and the kids were least resistant and the resistance of dam was in between the male and kids population. PMID:25698865

  18. Epsilon Toxin Is Essential for the Virulence of Clostridium perfringens Type D Infection in Sheep, Goats, and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. P.; Adams, V.; Beingesser, J.; Hughes, M. L.; Poon, R.; Lyras, D.; Hill, A.; McClane, B. A.; Rood, J. I.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D causes disease in sheep, goats, and other ruminants. Type D isolates produce, at minimum, alpha and epsilon (ETX) toxins, but some express up to five different toxins, raising questions about which toxins are necessary for the virulence of these bacteria. We evaluated the contribution of ETX to C. perfringens type D pathogenicity in an intraduodenal challenge model in sheep, goats, and mice using a virulent C. perfringens type D wild-type strain (WT), an isogenic ETX null mutant (etx mutant), and a strain where the etx mutation has been reversed (etx complemented). All sheep and goats, and most mice, challenged with the WT isolate developed acute clinical disease followed by death in most cases. Sheep developed various gross and/or histological changes that included edema of brain, lungs, and heart as well as hydropericardium. Goats developed various effects, including necrotizing colitis, pulmonary edema, and hydropericardium. No significant gross or histological abnormalities were observed in any mice infected with the WT strain. All sheep, goats, and mice challenged with the isogenic etx mutant remained clinically healthy for ≥24 h, and no gross or histological abnormalities were observed in those animals. Complementation of etx knockout restored virulence; most goats, sheep, and mice receiving this complemented mutant developed clinical and pathological changes similar to those observed in WT-infected animals. These results indicate that ETX is necessary for type D isolates to induce disease, supporting a key role for this toxin in type D disease pathogenesis. PMID:23630957

  19. Resistance to classical scrapie in experimentally challenged goats carrying mutation K222 of the prion protein gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type) and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002). Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats. PMID:22296670

  20. The repair of segmental bone defects with porous bioglass: an experimental study in goat.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Samit K; Kundu, Biswanath; Datta, Someswar; De, Dipak K; Basu, Debabrata

    2009-02-01

    This study was exclusively conducted to evaluate healing of surgically created defects on the radius of adult Black Bengal goat after implantation of porous bioglass blocks and compare the process kinetics with normal healing. Twelve Black Bengal goats were divided randomly into two groups: control and experimental group implanted with bioglass blocks. Unicortical bone defects in radius were generated in all animals under aseptic condition. Local inflammatory reaction and healing of wound, radiological investigations, histological studies, oxytetracycline leveling and angiographic studies were performed up to 90th day post-operatively and compared with normal healing. It has been found that extensive new bone formation originating from host bone towards the implant whereas in control, the process was active from both the ends; the defect site appeared as homogenous nonfluorescent area. Thus, porous bioglass promoted bone formation over the entire extension of the defect independent of size of block in comparison to control group. PMID:18602125

  1. Evaluation of Kumaon hill goats for resistance to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Subramani, K V; Sankar, M; Prasad, A; Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Zahid, A K; Saravanan, B C; Khobra, Vikram; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of different degrees of genetic resistance/resilience of Uttarakhand hill goats to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in order to introduce into breeding schemes. Animals were naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were carried out every month for a period of 1 year and blood samples were collected every third month for the determination of indicator traits such as FEC, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean egg per gram (EPG), PCV and Hb were 1,579.6 ± 346, 35.12 ± 1.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The goats were divided into three groups (<800, 801-2,000 and >2,000) based on EPG. The EPG showed a negative correlation with both Hb and PCV (P < 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that the Hb and PCV value would decrease, if EPG increases. PMID:27413336

  2. Spontaneous and experimental glycoprotein storage disease of goats induced by Ipomoea carnea subsp fistulosa (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Armién, A G; Tokarnia, C H; Peixoto, P Vargas; Frese, K

    2007-03-01

    Spontaneous and experimental poisoning with the swainsonine-containing and calystegine-containing plant Ipomoea carnea subsp fistulosa is described. Three of 8 goats presenting with emaciation, weakness, symmetrical ataxia, posterior paresis, proprioceptive deficits, abnormal posture, abnormal postural reaction, and muscle hypertonia were necropsied. I fistulosa was suspected to be the cause of the neurologic disease in all cases. An experiment was conducted to confirm the diagnosis using 12 goats and diets containing 3 different concentrations of the plant. All goats fed I fistulosa developed neurological signs that were similar to those observed in the spontaneous intoxication. Muscle atrophy and pallor were the only macroscopic changes observed in spontaneous and in experimental intoxication. Histological lesions of spontaneous and experimental animals were similar. The most prominent lesion was cytoplasmic vacuolation in neurons of the central and the autonomous nervous system, pancreatic acinar cells, hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland, and macrophages of the lymphatic tissues. Neuronal necrosis, axonal spheroids formation, and astrogliosis were additionally observed in the brain. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic vacuoles consisted of distended lysosomes surrounded by a single-layered membrane. Nonreduced end-rests or sequence of alpha-Man, alpha-Glc, beta(1-4)-GlcNAc, and NeuNAc on lysosomal membrane were revealed by lectin histochemistry. Samples of plants used in the experimental trial contained swainsonine and calystegine and their intermediary derivate. We conclude that I fistulosa induces a glycoprotein storage disease primarily based on the inhibition of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase by the alkaloid swainsonine. PMID:17317794

  3. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics world-wide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, inclu...

  4. Occurrence of dual infection of peste-des-petits-ruminants and goatpox in indigenous goats of central India.

    PubMed

    Malik, Y S; Singh, D; Chandrashekar, K M; Shukla, S; Sharma, K; Vaid, N; Chakravarti, S

    2011-06-01

    Peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR), bluetongue (BT) and goatpox (GP) have been well recognized as causes of significant economic losses in the small ruminant population of Asia and Africa. We describe here the occurrence of these three in an outbreak noticed in non-descript goats from a subtropical region of central India. An investigation was carried out to confirm the aetiology of the heavy mortality in goats (74.6%, 112/150), with testing of samples from 12 surviving animals exhibiting mixed clinical signs indicative of PPR, BT and GP. Sandwich ELISA was used to detect PPR virus antigen and competition ELISA to detect PPR virus and BT virus antibodies. GP was confirmed on the basis of nodular lesions and an immunodiffusion assay. Eight of the 12 affected animals (66.7%) were positive for PPR virus and BT virus antibodies, and two goats (16.7%, 2/12) exhibiting clinical lesions of pox were also found positive for PPR virus/antibodies and BT virus antibodies, respectively. Although BT virus could not be identified in any sample, detection of BT virus antibodies indicated previous or possibly concurrent infection with BT virus in these goats. The N-gene-based RT-PCR was used to confirm the PPR infection in these goats, and one of the amplicons was sequenced. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed close proximity to PPR virus isolates from Tibet and China, with sequence homology of up to 96.9%. The sequence homology was relatively low with the majority of other Indian isolates (72.7-93.5%). The detection of this new PPR virus sequence indicates the circulation of cross-border strains in this region of India. It is presumed that the heavy mortality observed in goats is possibly attributable to the occurrence of mixed infection of PPR and GP, or PPR, BT and GP. PMID:21235732

  5. Evaluation of oxidant/antioxidant status, trace mineral levels, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility in goats naturally infected with Anaplasma ovis.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Seyedeh Missagh; Bahrami, Somayeh; Rasooli, Aria; Hasanvand, Saman

    2016-08-01

    Anaplasma ovis, an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects erythrocytes, is the major cause of ovine and caprine anaplasmosis. This study was performed to assess in goats infected with A. ovis the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, antioxidant status, and serum levels of microminerals. Blood samples were collected from 104 mixed breed goats in Ahvaz area, southwest Iran and subjected to parasitologic, hematologic, oxidant/antioxidant, and micromineral assessment. Anaplasma infection was detected in 30 samples (28.8 %) by microscopic examination of blood smears while PCR-RFLP analysis revealed infection with A. ovis in 68 samples (65.4 %). Studied animals were divided into three groups based on A. ovis infection: Uninfected goats as control group (group 1), PCR positive without parasitemia (group 2) and PCR positive with parasitemia (group 3). Hematological evaluation showed significantly increased lymphocyte and monocyte counts in Anaplasma-infected groups (group 2 and 3). A significantly lower MCHC and higher MCV were also observed in infected groups. In group 3 significant rises in erythrocyte's osmotic fragility in different salt concentrations and also in median corpuscular fragility (MCF) was seen. Evaluation of the antioxidant defense system of the erythrocytes revealed a decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in group 3. There was no significant difference in serum micromineral levels between infected and uninfected animals. Overall, the observed substantial decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities with remarkable elevated levels of erythrocyte osmotic fragility indicate high exposure of erythrocytes to oxidative damage in Anaplasma-infected goats. These results also suggest that the disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms in caprine anaplasmosis can promote the development of anemia. PMID:27142027

  6. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  7. Effect of fall-grazed sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) on gastrointestinal nematode infections, skin and carcass microbial load, and meat quality of growing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, has a major effect on profitability of goat production world-wide. High prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant GIN in goats has increased pressure to find effective, alternative non-sy...

  8. Humoral immune responses of Brucella-infected cattle, sheep, and goats to eight purified recombinant Brucella proteins in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Letesson, J J; Tibor, A; van Eynde, G; Wansard, V; Weynants, V; Denoel, P; Saman, E

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis research is currently focused on the identification of nonlipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens which could potentially be useful for the specific serologic diagnosis of brucellosis as well as for vaccinal prophylaxis. On the basis of previous reports, we selected eight Brucella proteins (OMP36, OMP25, OMP19, OMP16, OMP10, p17, p15, and p39) as candidate antigens to be further evaluated. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were purified with a polyhistidine tag and metal chelate affinity chromatography and evaluated in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The specificity of the iELISA was determined with sera from healthy cattle, sheep, and goats and ranged from 95 to 99%, depending on the recombinant antigen and the species tested. Sera from experimentally infected, and from naturally infected, animals were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the iELISA. The antiprotein antibody response was often delayed when compared to the anti-smooth LPS (S-LPS) response and was limited to animals which developed an active brucellosis infection (experimentally infected pregnant animals and sheep and goats from areas where brucellosis is still endemic). Among the recombinant antigens, the three cytoplasmic proteins (p17, p15, and p39) gave the most useful results. More than 80% of the animals positive in S-LPS serology were also positive with one of these cytoplasmic proteins alone or a combination of two of them. None of the recombinant antigens detected experimentally infected nonpregnant cows and sheep or naturally infected cattle. This study is a first step towards the development of a multiprotein diagnostic reagent for brucellosis. PMID:9302205

  9. First Description of Infection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) in Goats in Mainland France.

    PubMed

    Suavet, Florence; Champion, Jean-Luc; Bartolini, Luc; Bernou, Maryline; Alzieu, Jean-Pierre; Brugidou, Roland; Darnatigues, Séverine; Reynaud, Gaël; Perrin, Cécile; Adam, Gilbert; Thiéry, Richard; Duquesne, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds) using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more) than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds). This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats. PMID:26861403

  10. First Description of Infection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) in Goats in Mainland France

    PubMed Central

    Suavet, Florence; Champion, Jean-Luc; Bartolini, Luc; Bernou, Maryline; Alzieu, Jean-Pierre; Brugidou, Roland; Darnatigues, Séverine; Reynaud, Gaël; Perrin, Cécile; Adam, Gilbert; Thiéry, Richard; Duquesne, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds) using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more) than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds). This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats. PMID:26861403

  11. A Caprine Herpesvirus 1 Vaccine Adjuvanted with MF59™ Protects against Vaginal Infection and Interferes with the Establishment of Latency in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Rezza, Giovanni; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Colao, Valeriana; Tarsitano, Elvira; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN) titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats. PMID:22511971

  12. Experimental caprine neosporosis: the influence of gestational stage on the outcome of infection.

    PubMed

    Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Benavides, Julio; Silva, Ana Clécia dos Santos; Horcajo, Pilar; Oliveira, Andrea Alice da Fonseca; Ferre, Ignacio; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Here, we assessed outcome of experimental infection by Neospora caninum in goats intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at 40 (G1), 90 (G2) and 120 (G3) days of gestation. Infected goats had fever between 5 and 9 days post inoculation (dpi); all were seropositive at the time of abortion/birth. Foetal death occurred in G1 from 10 to 21 dpi (n = 7) and in G2 from 27 to 35 dpi (n = 4). Goats in G2 also had seropositive stillbirth (n = 1) and healthy kids (n = 2). G3 goats (n = 7) had 3 seropositive and 3 seronegative weak kids, and 2 seronegative healthy kids. Parasite DNA detection in placentomes was 100% in G2, 85.7% in G3 and in G1 was detected only in placentomes from the goats with foetal losses from 17 dpi (100%). Parasites were detected in foetal/kid brain (>85.7%) and liver (≥ 50%) of G2 and G3, and in G1 after 17 dpi (100%). The highest parasite loads were detected in the placentomes of G1 from 17 dpi and G2, and in foetal tissues of G1 from 17 dpi and G3. Multifocal necrotic lesions were observed in the placentas of the three groups, but they were larger and more frequent in G1 and G2. Similar lesions were observed in foetal tissues, but they were more frequent in G3. These findings suggest that, as observed in cattle and sheep, the clinical consequences of N. caninum in pregnant goats are dependent in part on the time of gestation when animals were infected. PMID:26864744

  13. Impaired Expression of Cytokines as a Result of Viral Infections with an Emphasis on Small Ruminant Lentivirus Infection in Goats.

    PubMed

    Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jarosław; Reczyńska, Daria; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Knowing about the genes involved in immunity, and being able to identify the factors influencing their expressions, helps in gaining awareness of the immune processes. The qPCR method is a useful gene expression analysis tool, but studies on immune system genes are still limited, especially on the caprine immune system. Caprine arthritis encephalitis, a disease caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), causes economic losses in goat breeding, and there is no therapy against SRLV. The results of studies on vaccines against other viruses are promising. Moreover, the Marker-Assisted Selection strategy against SRLV is possible, as has been shown in sheep breeding. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge on the caprine immune response to infection. All types of cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity, and SRLV infection influences the expression of many cytokines in different types of cells. This information encouraged the authors to examine the results of studies conducted on SRLV and other viral infections, with an emphasis on the expression of cytokine genes. This review attempts to summarize the results of studies on the expression of cytokines in the context of the SRLV infection. PMID:27399757

  14. Impaired Expression of Cytokines as a Result of Viral Infections with an Emphasis on Small Ruminant Lentivirus Infection in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jarosław; Reczyńska, Daria; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Knowing about the genes involved in immunity, and being able to identify the factors influencing their expressions, helps in gaining awareness of the immune processes. The qPCR method is a useful gene expression analysis tool, but studies on immune system genes are still limited, especially on the caprine immune system. Caprine arthritis encephalitis, a disease caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), causes economic losses in goat breeding, and there is no therapy against SRLV. The results of studies on vaccines against other viruses are promising. Moreover, the Marker-Assisted Selection strategy against SRLV is possible, as has been shown in sheep breeding. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge on the caprine immune response to infection. All types of cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity, and SRLV infection influences the expression of many cytokines in different types of cells. This information encouraged the authors to examine the results of studies conducted on SRLV and other viral infections, with an emphasis on the expression of cytokine genes. This review attempts to summarize the results of studies on the expression of cytokines in the context of the SRLV infection. PMID:27399757

  15. Coxiella burnetii Infection in a Community Operating a Large-Scale Cow and Goat Dairy, Missouri, 2013.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Holly M; Turabelidze, George; Pratt, Drew; Todd, Suzanne R; Jacobs-Slifka, Kara; Drexler, Naomi A; McCurdy, Gail; Lloyd, Jennifer; Evavold, Charles L; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Priestley, Rachael A; Singleton, Joseph; Sun, David; Tang, Minh; Kato, Cecilia; Kersh, Gilbert J; Anderson, Alicia

    2016-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen that causes Q fever in humans and is transmitted primarily from infected goats, sheep, or cows. Q fever typically presents as an acute febrile illness; however, individuals with certain predisposing conditions, including cardiac valvulopathy, are at risk for chronic Q fever, a serious manifestation that may present as endocarditis. In response to a cluster of Q fever cases detected by public health surveillance, we evaluated C. burnetii infection in a community that operates a large-scale cow and goat dairy. A case was defined as an individual linked to the community with a C. burnetii phase II IgG titer ≥ 128. Of 135 participants, 47 (35%) cases were identified. Contact with or close proximity to cows, goats, and their excreta was associated with being a case (relative risk 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3-5.3). Cases were also identified among individuals without cow or goat contact and could be related to windborne spread or tracking of C. burnetii on fomites within the community. A history of injection drug use was reported by 26/130 (20%) participants; follow-up for the presence of valvulopathy and monitoring for development of chronic Q fever may be especially important among this population. PMID:26811433

  16. The effects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay on growth rate of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Moore, D A; Terrill, T H; Kouakou, B; Shaik, S A; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Kannan, G; Burke, J M

    2008-09-01

    Goat production is increasing in the United States due to high ethnic demand, but infection with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites is a major constraint to the industry. Increasing GIN resistance to chemical anthelmintics worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies, including use of forages containing condensed tannins (CT). An experiment was designed using infected and dewormed male kids (Kiko x Spanish, 6 mo old, 18.9 +/- 3.25 kg) fed diets containing 25% concentrate and either 75% sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don], a high CT forage (87 to 181 g of CT/kg), or 75% bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay (n = 10/treatment). The kids were weighed every 14 d, and fecal and blood samples were taken weekly for fecal egg counts and packed cell volume determination, respectively. Fecal cultures were processed every 14 d to determine CT effect on larval development. At slaughter, adult GIN were collected from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and speciation. Blood samples were also analyzed for plasma urea-N, and ruminal VFA and pH were determined. The infected SL-fed kids had consistently lower (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts than the infected BG goats throughout the trial and greater (P < 0.05) packed cell volume beginning by d 77. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.001) in kids fed SL- than BG-based diets, regardless of infection status (104.3 +/- 5.0 and 75.5 +/- 4.8 g/d, respectively). Total VFA and acetate concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in the BG- than in SL-fed goats, whereas propionate levels were unaffected by diet. Acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and plasma urea-N (P = 0.03) levels were greater in BG-fed goats, whereas rumen pH was greater (P < 0.001) in the SL-fed goats. Feeding SL hay can reduce GIN infection levels and increase performance of goats compared with BG hay. PMID:18469053

  17. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Buffaloes, Sheep and Goats in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, Fengcai; YU, Xin; YANG, Yan; HU, Shuang; CHANG, Hua; YANG, Jianfa; DUAN, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in buffaloes, sheep and goats in Yunnan Province, southwestern China was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013. Methods: A total of 973 (427 buffaloes, 154 sheep and 392 goats) serum samples were collected from seven administrative regions of Yunnan Province, and examined for T. gondii antibodies by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Some risk factors related to species, age, gender and geographical origin were determined using a multinomial logistic regression. Results: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant species was estimated at 11.9%. The final logistic regression model demonstrated that host species and geographical origin were the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taken together, the results of the present study revealed a high exposure to T. gondii in ruminant species in Yunnan Province, which has an important implication for public health. PMID:26811733

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs from the North of Portugal for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Dubey, J P; Neto, Francisco; Rodrigues, Alcina; Martins, Tânia; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2013-03-31

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and risk factors associated with infection were assessed in food animals from the North of Portugal for human consumption. Antibodies were assayed by means of the modified agglutination test with a cut-off titre of 100 for cattle, and 20 for sheep, goats, and pigs; 7.5% of 161 cattle, 33.6% of 119 sheep, 18.5% of 184 goats, and 9.8% of 254 pigs were seropositive. Among the risk factors examined animal age was an important risk factor for seropositivity to T. gondii. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat should be regarded as an important source of infection to people in the study area. PMID:23290614

  19. Reduction of benzimidazole resistance in established Haemonchus contortus populations in goats using a single infection with a benzimidazole-susceptible isolate.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Villegas-Pérez, S L

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study in goats evaluated the effect of superimposing a single artificial infection with a benzimidazole (BZ)-susceptible Haemonchus contortus isolate upon established H. contortus populations of known BZ resistance by measuring the phenotypic BZ resistance of eggs collected from faeces before and after re-infection. Two H. contortus isolates, one benzimidazole resistant (BZR) and the other susceptible (BZS), were used to infect worm-free goats. Eight goats were initially infected with 2000 third-stage larvae (L3). In each case the inoculum contained a pre-determined proportion of the two isolates: 100% BZS (one goat), 75% BZS/25% BZR (two goats), 50% BZS/50% BZR (two goats), 25%BZS/75% BZR (two goats) and, finally, 100% BZR (one goat). The phenotypic BZ susceptibility of the H. contortus population formed in each goat after the first infection was determined on days 30 and 36 post-infection using an egg-hatch assay (EHA) that estimated the concentration of thiabendazole (TBZ) required for 95% inhibition of larval hatching (EC(95)) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). On day 49 post-infection, goats were re-infected with 2000 L3 of the BZS isolate alone. A second set of EHA bioassays was performed 28 days and 34 days after re-infection. The first infection protocol produced three populations classified as BZS (EC(95) 0.055-0.065 μg TBZ/ml) while four were categorized as BZR (EC(95) 0.122-0.344 μg TBZ/ml). The status of one other population could not be determined. After re-infection with BZS L3, the number of susceptible populations increased to six (EC(95) 0.043-0.074 μg TBZ/ml) while the remaining two were deemed resistant (EC(95) 0.114-119 μg TBZ/ml). Re-infection with BZS L3 thereby reduced the resistance status of most H. contortus populations. PMID:25226395

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bémer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  1. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    d'Ersu, J.; Aubin, G. G.; Mercier, P.; Nicollet, P.; Bémer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  2. Sarcocystis spp. in sheep and goats: frequency of infection and species identification by morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular tests in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Meneses, Iris Daniela S; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Gondim, Luís F Pita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are cyst-forming coccidia that infect numerous animals species, including several livestock species. Despite the importance of sheep and goat production in Brazil, little it is known about the Sarcocystis species that infect small ruminants in the country and their potential impact on meat condemnation due to the presence of macroscopic cysts of the parasite. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of infection by Sarcocystis spp. in goats and sheep intended for human consumption in Bahia State, Brazil, as well as to identify the parasite species in selected samples. The entire tongue, esophagus, and heart were collected from 120 goats and 120 sheep. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic evaluation, light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular tests. Microscopic cysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 95.8 % of sheep and 91.6 % of goats. Using either transmission electron microscopy or partial sequencing of the 18S region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for species identification, Sarcocystis tenella and Sarcocystis arieticanis were observed in sheep and Sarcocystis capracanis in goats. Macroscopic cysts were not detected in the analyzed samples. We concluded that goats and sheep destined for human consumption in Bahia possess high frequencies of Sarcocystis infection. Carcass condemnation due to Sarcocystis macrocysts seems to be rare in the studied region. S. arieticanis and S. capracanis were confirmed for the first time by electron microscopy or by molecular tests in small ruminants from Brazil. PMID:26786832

  3. An ELISA using recombinant TmHSP70 for the diagnosis of Taenia multiceps infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Nie, Huaming; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-09-15

    Infections with the tapeworm Taenia multiceps are problematic for ruminant farming worldwide. Here we develop a novel and rapid method for serodiagnosis of T. multiceps infections via an indirect ELISA (iELISA) that uses a heat shock protein, namely, TmHSP70. We extracted the total RNA of T. multiceps from the protoscoleces of cysts dissected from the brains of infected goats. Subsequently, we successfully amplified, cloned and expressed the TmHSP70 gene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant protein (∼34 kDa molecular weight) was recognized by the coenurosis positive serum. Given these initial, robust immunogenic properties for recombinant TmHSP protein, we assessed the ELISA-based serodiagnostic potential of this gene. The indirect ELISA was then optimized to 2.70 μg/well dilution for antigen and 1:80 dilution for serum,while the cut-off value is 0.446. We report that our novel TmHSP ELISA detected T. multiceps sera with a sensitivity of 1:10240 and a specificity of 83.3% (5/6). In a preliminary application, this assay correctly confirmed T. multiceps infection in 30 infected goats, consistent with the clinical examination. This study has revealed that our novel iELISA, which uses the rTmHSP protein, provides a rapid test for diagnosing coenurosis. PMID:26129973

  4. Rare Cryptococus gattii infection in an immunocompetent dairy goat following a cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Villarroel, Aurora; Maggiulli, Tessa R.

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year-old dairy goat was presented seven weeks post cesarean section for incomplete healing of the incision site. Cytology revealed cryptococcal organisms that were confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control as Cryptococcus gattii type VGIIa. Most cryptococcomas were surgically removed, but some penetrated deep in to the muscular layers and likely into peritoneum. The goat was treated daily with oral fluconazole for 6 months, and had a normal life for almost 2 years. PMID:24371749

  5. Effects of the repeated distribution of sainfoin hay on the resistance and the resilience of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Paolini, V; De La Farge, F; Prevot, F; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2005-02-28

    Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats, the need to explore novel approaches to control nematodes and to reduce the exclusive reliance on chemotherapy is strongly demanded in this host species. In sheep, several studies have shown that the consumption of tannin-rich legume forages was associated with positive effects on host resilience and resistance to parasite infection. In goats, studies on such interactions between tanniferous plants and nematode infections remain few. The objectives of the current study were to examine under natural conditions the effects of consumption of sainfoin hay by goats on the parasite populations and on host resilience. Eighteen adult cull goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis were used in the study. At the start of the assay, the goats were allocated into two groups, balanced according to weight and the levels of egg excretion. The two groups grazed separate pastures for 3 months with similar stocking rates. Goats from group S received each month indoors, for 7 days, sainfoin hay and control goats (group C) received hay of ryegrass. The diets in both groups were made isoenergetic and isoproteic and the refusals measured. Individual parasitological and pathophysiological measurements were performed fortnightly in order to compare host resistance and resilience. At the end of the study, five goats per group were necropsied. The distribution of sainfoin was associated with: (1) a higher consumption of hay; (2) significant, lower levels of nematode egg excretion which was associated with a decrease in worm fertility but no change in worm population; however, the number of intestinal worms was reduced by 50% in group S; (3) a better host resilience. In particular, after 2 months of grazing, two control goats died and half of the remaining animals needed to be treated whereas this was not the case in group S. These differences were related to

  6. An experimental mycotoxicosis in sheep and goats caused by Drechslera campanulata, a fungal pathogen of green oats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D J; Marasas, W F; Collett, M G; van der Westhuizen, G C

    1985-06-01

    Field outbreaks of a syndrome of unknown aetiology associated with the grazing of green oats (Avena sativa) in the south-western Cape Province were characterized by diarrhoea, photosensitivity and death in goats and by diarrhoea and a reduction in milk production in cows. A phytopathogenic fungus, Drechslera campanulata, was isolated from conspicuous reddish-brown leaf spots on oat plants collected from both outbreaks. Pure cultures on autoclaved maize of D. campanulata isolates from oat leaves implicated in both field outbreaks, as well as a Canadian isolate, proved to be highly toxic to ducklings, goats and sheep. Characteristic clinical signs of the fatal mycotoxicosis caused by D. campanulata culture material in goats and sheep were anorexia, apathy, diarrhoea and ruminal stasis. Photosensitivity, however, was not induced. Necrosis of the forestomach mucosa was the most characteristic gross pathological change. Histopathological findings included mild focal erosions to severe, diffuse, coagulative necrosis of the mucosa in the rumen, reticulum and omasum and congestion and haemorrhages in the abomasum. These results provide circumstantial evidence that green oat leaves infected by D. campanulata may cause outbreaks of a mycotoxicosis in grazing animals. PMID:4047622

  7. Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task

    PubMed Central

    Baciadonna, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could be the most efficient way to find patchily distributed resources in highly variable environments. Studies testing specific assumptions regarding the use of different sources of information can extend our understanding of decision making, including observed patterns of social learning. PMID:24109556

  8. Hypobiosis of Haemonchus contortus in natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gatongi, P M; Prichard, R K; Ranjan, S; Gathuma, J M; Munyua, W K; Cheruiyot, H; Scott, M E

    1998-05-01

    A total of 42 lambs, 42 kids, 21 ewes and 21 does were necropsied during an investigation of the epidemiology of Haemonchus contortus infection of sheep (Red Maasai) and goats (Small East African Goat) in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Availability and establishment of the infective stages were monitored by the necropsy of 21 tracer lambs and 21 tracer kids. Prevalence of H. contortus was over 90% in both sheep and goats and this species contributed to about 80% of the total worm burden. Only about 10% of the hypobiotic larvae were recovered from the mucosal digest whereas about 90% were recovered from the abomasal contents and washings, thereby suggesting that hypobiotic larvae may be loosely attached to the abomasal mucosa from which they may be dislodged during the processing of the abomasa for examination. Throughout the study, both adult worms and hypobiotic larvae were found in proportions that varied with seasons. Statistically, a higher proportion of hypobiotic larvae was found during the dry months than during the wet months, an indication that hypobiosis was an important feature in the survival of H. contortus during the dry months. Negligible worm burdens were acquired by the tracers during the short rains, suggesting that few H. contortus larvae survived on pasture in this season. The effectiveness of strategic control using ivermectin varied according to the timing in relation to the wet season. Treatment did not influence the seasonal pattern of hypobiosis but the treatment administered before the onset of the rains significantly reduced the numbers of both hypobiotic larvae and the adult worms. Treatment during the rains conferred a temporary relief of adult worm burden but had no impact on hypobiotic larvae. PMID:9652383

  9. Sunn hemp with chicory or pearl millet to minimize gastrointestinal nematode infection in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predominantly grass forage systems are typically used throughout the southeastern U.S., but are inadequate for nutritional needs of growing goats, and encourage problems with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Browse predominant forages would be preferable, but are not always available. Selection o...

  10. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats

    PubMed Central

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. PMID:26071051

  11. CpG-ODN enhances mammary gland defense during mastitis induced by Escherichia coli infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Min; Miao, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Shu; Li, Zhen; Zou, Si-Xiang; Deng, Yue-E

    2007-12-15

    Seven healthy native goats in early lactation, weighing 30-40 kg, were used in this study. The right mammary gland of the seven does were infused with CpG-ODN at a dosage of 100 microg kg(-1) body weight on the day 5 postpartum (PP). The left glands were used as controls and infused with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). On day 8 PP, the same dosage of CpG-ODN or PBS was again infused. On day 9 PP, the mammary glands (both right and left) of the seven does were infused with 6 x 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) Escherichia coli and, at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h postinfection (PI), milk samples were collected from all glands. Goats were euthanized at 72 h PI and the mammary tissue harvested. Infusion with 6 x 10(6)CFU ml(-1)E. coli induced acute mastitis. Histopathological evaluations showed that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) were still present in alveoli at 72 h PI, but PMNs in the CpG-ODN-treated glands has disappeared. Bacteria counts in milk peaked at 16 h PI and CpG-ODN induced a significant decrease in viable bacteria from 16 h PI until the end of the experiment. This study showed that CpG-ODN promoted the expression of its specific receptor (TLR-9 mRNA) in mammary tissue, stimulated IL-6 production, reduced bacteria counts in milk, attenuated the impact of inflammation mediators on cells and significantly shortened the inflammation course. These results suggest that the CpG-ODN improved mammary gland defense and, thereby, had a beneficial effects against mastitis caused by E. coli infection in goats. PMID:17869348

  12. Experimental infections of Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis tenella, Sarcocystis capracanis and Toxoplasma gondii in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1983-07-01

    Four littermate 6-wk-old red foxes (Nos. 1-4) were fed Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis cruzi, S. tenella and S. capracanis. One littermate fox (No. 5) served as the control. Two foxes (Nos. 1, 2) were fed tissue cysts of T. gondii and two foxes (Nos. 3, 4) were fed oocysts of T. gondii. Twenty-one to 42 days later, the same five foxes were used to test the infectivity of meat of goat, sheep, and ox experimentally inoculated with Sarcocystis. Fox 2 was fed goat meat and shed S. capracanis-like sporocysts 10 days later. Foxes 3 and 4 were fed beef, and they shed S. cruzi-like sporocysts 9 days later. Fox 5 was fed sheep meat and shed S. tenella-like sporocysts 8 days later. Foxes were killed between 36 and 55 days of the experiment and their tissues were inoculated into mice to recover T. gondii. All foxes remained clinically normal and T. gondii was recovered from all inoculated foxes and not from the control. Sarcocystis sporocysts from foxes induced lethal infections in goats, sheep, and ox. The sporocysts, meronts, merozoites, and sarcocysts of fox-derived parasites were similar to those derived from coyotes or dogs. It was concluded that the red fox can act as a final host for the three pathogenic species of Sarcocystis in cattle, sheep, and goats. PMID:6417347

  13. Efficacy of albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gastro-intestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats at the National Semi-arid Resources Research Institute, Serere, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, C; Okwee-Acai, J

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted between April and July, 2011 to determine and compare the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), levamisole (LVM) and ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected Mubende and Boer crossbred goats at the National Semi-arid Resources Research Institute in Serere, Uganda. Forty Mubende goats and 31 Boer crosses were each blocked by age and sex and randomly assigned to four groups. The first group of each breed served as the untreated control, the second was treated with albendazole (5mg/kg BW), the third with levamisole hydrochloride and oxyclozanide (7.5 and 15 mg/kg BW) and the fourth with ivermectin (0.2mg/kg BW). Each group included 7-11 animals. Treatments were administered with doses of goats in albendazole and ivermectin, and doses of sheep in levamisole, as recommended by the manufacturers. In the treated groups, goats received anthelmintics basing on individual weights. Fecal egg counts, expressed as eggs per gram and larval cultures were done on day zero before treatment and on day 13 after anthelmintic treatment. Efficacy for each anthelmintic was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). In Mubende goats, ABZ, LVM, and IVM reduced FEC by 28.5%, 91%, and 98%, respectively. In Boer crosses, ABZ, LVM, and IVM reduced FEC by 11%, 84.88% and 78.47%, respectively. At a 95% CI, only IVM was more effective in Mubende goats than Boer crosses (t=2.564, p<0.05). This may indicate occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in the goat farming sector in Uganda. Further studies need to be done to clarify the state of efficacy of the commonly used anthelmintics covering different agro ecological zones and species of animals in Uganda. PMID:23394798

  14. A review of experimental infections with bluetongue virus in the mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Peter; van Vuuren, Moritz; Venter, Estelle H; Stokstad, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Experimental infection studies with bluetongue virus (BTV) in the mammalian host have a history that stretches back to the late 18th century. Studies in a wide range of ruminant and camelid species as well as mice have been instrumental in understanding BTV transmission, bluetongue (BT) pathogenicity/pathogenesis, viral virulence, the induced immune response, as well as reproductive failures associated with BTV infection. These studies have in many cases been complemented by in vitro studies with BTV in different cell types in tissue culture. Together these studies have formed the basis for the understanding of BTV-host interaction and have contributed to the design of successful control strategies, including the development of effective vaccines. This review describes some of the fundamental and contemporary infection studies that have been conducted with BTV in the mammalian host and provides an overview of the principal animal welfare issues that should be considered when designing experimental infection studies with BTV in in vivo infection models. Examples are provided from the authors' own laboratory where the three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) have been implemented in the design of experimental infection studies with BTV in mice and goats. The use of the ARRIVE guidelines for the reporting of data from animal infection studies is emphasized. PMID:24462840

  15. Taming and training of pregnant sheep and goats and of newborn lambs, kids and calves before experimentation.

    PubMed

    Mellor, David J

    2004-06-01

    Familiarity with handling and routine procedures reduces the stress experienced by pregnant ewes and nanny goats and newborn lambs, kids and calves during experimentation. The factors that need to be considered when taming and training pregnant ewes and goats include: the behavioural and physiological effects of daily handling for six to eight weeks; the impact of the progesterone/oestrogen status of ewes on their responses to taming and training; the attainment of physiological stability after surgery; and comparison of tamed and trained ewes with non-handled ewes. The factors that need to be considered for newborn lambs, kids and calves include: beneficial effects of the experimenter being part of the birth environment of lambs, kids and calves; the impact of handling on lamb responses to feeding and painful procedures; and remote sampling effects on physiological responses. The relative value of taming and training for the humane management of animals and for producing meaningful results is assessed with reference to absence of the confounding effects of stress, and, conversely, the possible confounding effects of taming and training, on the animals' responses. PMID:23577448

  16. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  17. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  18. Response of the goat mammary gland to infection with Staphylococcus aureus revealed by gene expression profiling in milk somatic and white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background S. aureus is one of the main pathogens responsible for the intra-mammary infection in dairy ruminants. Although much work has been carried out to understand the complex physiological and cellular events that occur in the mammary gland in response to S. aureus, the protective mechanisms are still poorly understood. The objectives of the present study were to investigate gene expression during the early response of the goat mammary gland to an experimental challenge with S. aureus, in order to better understand the local and systemic response and to compare them in two divergent lines of goat selected for high and low milk somatic cell scores. Results No differences in gene expression were found between high and low SCS (Somatic Cells Score) selection lines. Analysing the two groups together, an expression of 300 genes were found to change from T0 before infection, and T4 at 24 hours and T5 at 30 hours following challenge. In blood derived white blood cells 8 genes showed increased expression between T0 and T5 and 1 gene has reduced expression. The genes showing the greatest increase in expression following challenge (5.65 to 3.16 fold change) play an important role in (i) immune and inflammatory response (NFKB1, TNFAIP6, BASP1, IRF1, PLEK, BATF3); (ii) the regulation of innate resistance to pathogens (PTX3); and (iii) the regulation of cell metabolism (CYTH4, SLC2A6, ARG2). The genes with reduced expression (−1.5 to −2.5 fold) included genes involved in (i) lipid metabolism (ABCG2, FASN), (ii) chemokine, cytokine and intracellular signalling (SPPI), and (iii) cell cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (KRT19). Conclusions Analysis of genes with differential expression following infection showed an inverse relationship between immune response and lipid metabolism in the early response of the mammary gland to the S. aureus challenge. PTX3 showed a large change in expression in both milk and blood, and is therefore a candidate for further studies on

  19. Growth and carcass attributes of growing Creole kids according to experimental infection level and type of diet.

    PubMed

    Cei, Willy; Hiol, Abel; Gobardhan, Jacky; Nepos, Angebert; Felicite, Yoan; Mahieu, Maurice; Alexandre, Gisele

    2015-06-01

    In the tropics one of the major constraints to goat production is infection by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). One promising alternative to chemotherapy is the improvement of host nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of infection and supplementation on packed cell volume (PCV), average daily gain (ADG) and carcass quality in growing Creole kids. Sixty male goats were reared indoors following a 2 × 3 factorial design: two experimental infection levels, (infected (I) and non-infected (NI)) and three diets D (G, kids were fed exclusively with tropical forages; B, kids were supplemented with dried and crushed banana and C, kids were supplemented with commercial pellets). Faecal egg counts did not vary among I groups (on average 2,200 ω/g). The PCV and ADG were improved (P < 0.001) for NI vs. I animals. There was a D effect (P < 0.001) and no I × D interaction was observed. There was no significant effect of GIN on the main carcass data, except the weights of liver, white offal and abdominal fat, which increased slightly in I compared with NI goats (P < 0.05). All carcass data increased significantly with the addition of supplement in the diet (P < 0.001), except for carcass-cut proportions. Meat physical parameters were degraded when I kids received low N diets (B or G) with higher lightness and water loss than in the C groups. Given that GIN affect the animal's N metabolism it is recommended to avoid the use of unbalanced diet such as those banana-based. Further research is necessary to assess the nutrition × parasitism interactions on physiological features and carcass quality of Creole goats. PMID:25894818

  20. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasitic infections in goat of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alok Kumar; Das, G; Roy, B; Nath, S; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Sahil

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitism in animals is one of the major problems in India causing emaciation, anaemia, oedema, weakness, diarrhoea and death. Present study was designed to generate epidemiological data on GI parasitism of goats of Madhya Pradesh, India. During 8 months study period, a total of 960 samples were collected and examined by sedimentation and floatation methods followed by egg per gram out of 960 samples, 907 (94.48 %) were positive for one or more gastrointestinal parasite, wherein coccidia was predominant (82.4 %) followed by strongyles (69.27 %), amphistomes (22.71 %), Strongyloides sp. (9.17 %), Trichuris sp. (3.85 %), Moniezia sp. (3.02 %), Schistosomes sp. (2.29 %) and Fasciola sp. (1.77 %). The seasonal incidence was found highest in monsoon (98.06 %) and lowest in winter (91.67 %). The incidence of gastrointestinal parasitism was found higher in kids (96.25 %) in comparison with adult goats (93.89 %). PMID:26688640

  1. Nonlinear hierarchical modeling of experimental infection data.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Michael D; Breheny, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear hierarchical model (NLHM) for analyzing longitudinal experimental infection (EI) data. The NLHM offers several improvements over commonly used alternatives such as repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and the linear mixed model (LMM). It enables comparison of relevant biological properties of the course of infection including peak intensity, duration and time to peak, rather than simply comparing mean responses at each observation time. We illustrate the practical benefits of this model and the insights it yields using data from experimental infection studies on equine arteritis virus. Finally, we demonstrate via simulation studies that the NLHM substantially reduces bias and improves the power to detect differences in relevant features of the infection response between two populations. For example, to detect a 20% difference in response duration between two groups (n=15) in which the peak time and peak intensity were identical, the RM-ANOVA test had a power of just 11%, and LMM a power of just 12%. By comparison, the nonlinear model we propose had a power of 58% in the same scenario, while controlling the Type I error rate better than the other two methods. PMID:27435656

  2. Isolation and analysis of tetracycline-resistant Mycoplasma agalactiae strains from an infected goat herd in Cyprus - short communication.

    PubMed

    Filioussis, George; Ioannou, Ioannis; Petridou, Evanthia; Avraam, Maria; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Kritas, Spyridon K

    2013-09-01

    A major concern with the use of tetracycline against mycoplasmas is the development of resistance. Infections in small ruminants due to tetracyclineresistant Mycoplasma agalactiae strains are becoming a frequent problem worldwide. In the present paper the detection and analysis of three tetracycline-resistant M. agalactiae strains, isolated from infected goats in Cyprus, are reported. The three field isolates were identified as M. agalactiae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showing 98% identity to the M. agalactiae PG2 reference strain. Furthermore, they were found sensitive to tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin. In contrast, they were resistant to tetracycline. None of the putative genes [tet(M), tet(O) and tet(S)] that commonly contribute to high-level resistance to tetracycline could be amplified from their genome. Contrarily, the field isolates were found to carry ISMag1, an insertion sequence related to the IS30 family of mobile elements. Although ISMag1 is widely believed to induce high-frequency chromosomal rearrangements resulting in phenotypic changes of microorganisms, its potential role in tetracycline resistance of mycoplasmas requires further studies. PMID:23921341

  3. Evidence for persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants, and there is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-ranging and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that ar...

  4. CD36 deficiency attenuates experimental mycobacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Members of the CD36 scavenger receptor family have been implicated as sensors of microbial products that mediate phagocytosis and inflammation in response to a broad range of pathogens. We investigated the role of CD36 in host response to mycobacterial infection. Methods Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, and in vitro co-cultivation of M. tuberculosis, BCG and M. marinum with Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/-murine macrophages. Results Using an in vivo model of BCG infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, we found that mycobacterial burden in liver and spleen is reduced (83% lower peak splenic colony forming units, p < 0.001), as well as the density of granulomas, and circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels in Cd36-/- animals. Intracellular growth of all three mycobacterial species was reduced in Cd36-/- relative to wild type Cd36+/+ macrophages in vitro. This difference was not attributable to alterations in mycobacterial uptake, macrophage viability, rate of macrophage apoptosis, production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species, TNF or interleukin-10. Using an in vitro model designed to recapitulate cellular events implicated in mycobacterial infection and dissemination in vivo (i.e., phagocytosis of apoptotic macrophages containing mycobacteria), we demonstrated reduced recovery of viable mycobacteria within Cd36-/- macrophages. Conclusions Together, these data indicate that CD36 deficiency confers resistance to mycobacterial infection. This observation is best explained by reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria in the Cd36-/- macrophage and a role for CD36 in the cellular events involved in granuloma formation that promote early bacterial expansion and dissemination. PMID:20950462

  5. Serological comparisons of antigenically related herpesviruses in cattle, red deer and goats.

    PubMed

    Nixon, P; Edwards, S; White, H

    1988-01-01

    Serological comparisons were made using related herpesviruses from cattle (bovid herpesvirus 1), red deer (herpesvirus of cervidae 1) and goats (bovid herpesvirus 6) by virus neutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The test samples comprised field sera from British cattle, red deer and goats and sera from experimentally infected or immunized animals. Both the cervine and caprine viruses appeared to be more closely related to bovid herpesvirus 1 than they were to each other. Cattle sera reacted most strongly with the bovine virus and deer sera with the cervine virus. Antibodies to the caprine virus were not detected in the samples from British goats. PMID:2848356

  6. Serological evidence for a hepatitis e virus-related agent in goats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sanford, B J; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Engle, R E; Dryman, B A; Cecere, T E; Buechner-Maxwell, V; Sponenberg, D P; Meng, X J

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an important public health disease in many developing countries and is also endemic in some industrialized countries. In addition to humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from pig, chicken, rat, mongoose, deer, rabbit and fish. While the genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans, the genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and infect humans and other animal species. As a part of our ongoing efforts to search for potential animal reservoirs for HEV, we tested goats from Virginia for evidence of HEV infection and showed that 16% (13/80) of goat sera from Virginia herds were positive for IgG anti-HEV. Importantly, we demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies to HEV were present in selected IgG anti-HEV positive goat sera. Subsequently, in an attempt to genetically identify the HEV-related agent from goats, we conducted a prospective study in a closed goat herd with known anti-HEV seropositivity and monitored a total of 11 kids from the time of birth until 14 weeks of age for evidence of HEV infection. Seroconversion to IgG anti-HEV was detected in seven of the 11 kids, although repeated attempts to detect HEV RNA by a broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR from the faecal and serum samples of the goats that had seroconverted were unsuccessful. In addition, we also attempted to experimentally infect laboratory goats with three well-characterized mammalian strains of HEV but with no success. The results indicate that a HEV-related agent is circulating and maintained in the goat population in Virginia and that the goat HEV is likely genetically very divergent from the known HEV strains. PMID:22909079

  7. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. PMID:24996276

  8. Antimicrobial efficacy of external fixator pins coated with a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine complex to prevent pin tract infection in a goat model.

    SciTech Connect

    Dejong, E. Schuyler; Deberardino, T. M.; Brooks, D. E.; Nelson, B. J.; Campbell, Allison A.; Bottoni, Craig R.; Pusateri, A. E.; Walton, R. S.; Guymon, C. H.; Mcmanus, Albert T.

    2001-06-01

    Background: Pin tract infection is a common complication of external fixation. An antiinfective external fixator pin might help to reduce the incidence of pin tract infection and improve pin fixation. Methods: Stainless steel and titanium external fixator pins, with and without a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating, were evaluated in a goat model. Two pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into each tibia of 12 goats. The pin sites were examined daily. On day 14, the animals were killed, and the pin tips cultured. Insertion and extraction torques were measured. Results: Infection developed in 100% of uncoated pins, whereas coated pins demonstrated 4.2% infected, 12.5% colonized, and the remainder, 83.3%, had no growth (p < 0.01). Pin coating decreased the percent loss of fixation torque over uncoated pins (p = 0.04). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating was successful in decreasing infection and improving fixation of external fixator pins.

  9. Experimental canine parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V

    1982-04-01

    In specific pathogen-free dogs, clinical signs of experimental canine parvovirus infection were mild, inconsistent and transient. Clinical signs were more pronounced in conventionally-raised dogs, but the severe disease reported in field cases was not reproduced in either group. A pronounced plasma viremia occurred on the 2nd to 4th day post-infection (d.p.i.) in dogs challenged oronasally. Antibody was detectable on the 5th d.p.i. Marked pyrexia was rare, but a significant temperature rise usually coincided with the appearance of antibody and the cessation of viremia. Significant lymphopenia, but not leukopenia, occurred on the 3rd to 7th d.p.i. Virus could be readily isolated from fecal matter on the 3rd to 8th d.p.i.; a few dogs continued to shed virus for up to 12 days. In dogs challenged parenterally, the onset of elevated temperatures, viral shed and antibody production occurred 24-48 hours sooner. Convalescent dogs were no longer contagious for susceptible contact animals 25 days or longer after challenge, although infectious virus persisted in feces for more than 6 months at room temperature. Active giardiasis seemed to exacerbate the clinical syndrome, although treatment with corticosteroids or anti-thymocyte serum did not. PMID:6211333

  10. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

    2013-10-25

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period. PMID:23972950

  11. A Multi-Antigenic Adenoviral-Vectored Vaccine Improves BCG-Induced Protection of Goats against Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infection and Prevents Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Andaluz, Anna; Moll, Xavier; Martín, Maite; Nofrarías, Miquel; McShane, Helen; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Domingo, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The “One world, one health” initiative emphasizes the need for new strategies to control human and animal tuberculosis (TB) based on their shared interface. A good example would be the development of novel universal vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection. This study uses the goat model, a natural TB host, to assess the protective effectiveness of a new vaccine candidate in combination with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. Thirty-three goat kids were divided in three groups: Group 1) vaccinated with BCG (week 0), Group 2) vaccinated with BCG and boosted 8 weeks later with a recombinant adenovirus expressing the MTBC antigens Ag85A, TB10.4, TB9.8 and Acr2 (AdTBF), and Group 3) unvaccinated controls. Later on, an endobronchial challenge with a low dose of M. caprae was performed (week 15). After necropsy (week 28), the pulmonary gross pathology was quantified using high resolution Computed Tomography. Small granulomatous pulmonary lesions (< 0.5 cm diameter) were also evaluated through a comprehensive qualitative histopathological analysis. M. caprae CFU were counted from pulmonary lymph nodes. The AdTBF improved the effects of BCG reducing gross lesion volume and bacterial load, as well as increasing weight gain. The number of Ag85A-specific gamma interferon-producing memory T-cells was identified as a predictor of vaccine efficacy. Specific cellular and humoral responses were measured throughout the 13-week post-challenge period, and correlated with the severity of lesions. Unvaccinated goats exhibited the typical pathological features of active TB in humans and domestic ruminants, while vaccinated goats showed only very small lesions. The data presented in this study indicate that multi-antigenic adenoviral vectored vaccines boosts protection conferred by vaccination with BCG. PMID:24278420

  12. Vaccination trials against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (large-colony-type) infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Bar-Moshe, B; Rapoport, E; Brenner, J

    1984-10-01

    Vaccination trials against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides in suckling and weaned kids are described. A formalin-killed vaccine with adjuvant was used. Challenge to the vaccinated suckling kids was by ingestion of dam's infected milk and by subcutaneous inoculation of 10(6) organisms, and to the vaccinated weaned kids, by subcutaneous inoculation alone. The weaned 6-week-old kids were vaccinated, given a booster 3 weeks later and challenged 1 month after that. Serological monitoring was by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The six control kids remained serologically negative and after challenge were pyrexic and mycoplasmaemic. All died or were killed in extremis, with a characteristic cellulitis at the site of inoculation, arthritis and swollen spleen. In contrast, the vaccinated kids remained healthy. There was a modest antibody response to the initial vaccination and a further steep rise after the booster. After challenge the organism was recovered only from the lymph nodes proximal to the site of challenge in some animals, and from the liver and kidney in two animals. All the vaccinated suckling kids were unaffected by ingestion of their dam's infected milk. The kids that received only one vaccine inoculation on the day of birth, and one control kid, succumbed to subcutaneous challenge, whereas the kids that were given a booster, except for one, remained healthy. PMID:6511322

  13. To-and-for extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) through a single catheter-in premature goats as an experimental model of infant respiratory Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, T; Terasaki, H; Sadanaga, M A; Tsuno, K; Morioka, T

    1988-09-01

    A new to-and-fro V-V bypass extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) through a single catheter as a blood access was investigated for its efficacy on six premature goats delivered by Cesarean section at a gestational age of 118 approximately 139 days as an experimental model of infant respiratory insufficiency, then applied to a human premature infant suffering from life threatening barotrauma that had developed from mechanical pulmonary ventilation. The extracorporeal bypass flow and the gas flow to the artificial membrane lung were controlled to keep Pa(O)(2) above 40 mmHg and Pa(CO)(2) within normal limits. The neonate's own lungs were treated with a continuous positive airway pressure of 5 approximately 12 cmH(2)O, apneic oxygenation or IMV. Two goats weighing 1250 g and 700 g died 2 approximately 2.5 hours after birth from severe circulatory distress. However, the other four neonates which were heavier than 2000 g, were successfully weaned from ECLA, and three of these could be weaned from mechanical ventilation as well. A human infant also survived and was weaned from ECLA on the third day.(Tanoue T, Terasaki H, Sadanaga M et al.: To-and-fro extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) through a single catheter-in premature goats as an experimental model of infant respiratory insufficiency. PMID:15236069

  14. Clinical fascioliasis in domestic goats in Montana.

    PubMed

    Leathers, C W; Foreyt, W J; Fetcher, A; Foreyt, K M

    1982-06-15

    Fascioliasis (Fasciola hepatica infection) was diagnosed in a herd of domestic goats in Montana. Twenty-eight goats died after a month-long clinical course of anorexia, weight loss, depression, lethargy, and decreased milk production. Clinical laboratory findings included anemia, low hemoglobin content, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilia, and high hepatic enzyme activity. The livers of affected goats had extensive parenchymal necrosis, fibrosis, and biliary hyperplasia. Albendazole oral suspension (20 mg/kg) was used to treat 45 of the remaining goats twice, 30 days apart; 15 goats were untreated controls. Egg counts for the untreated group averaged 171 fluke eggs per gram of feces, which compared with less than 1 epg per gram for the treated group. Fifteen percent of the treated goats died, whereas 73% of the untreated goats died. On the basis of necropsy findings, albendazole treatment was regarded as greater than 99% effective against adult F hepatica. PMID:7096186

  15. Muellerius capillaris in north-east Zaire: prevalence in sheep and goats and determination of intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Chartier, C

    1989-12-01

    Muellerius capillaris was the only species of nematode recovered from the lungs of young and adult sheep and goats of north-east Zaire. The prevalences were of 19% (sheep) and 32% (goats). The slug Atoxon pallens contained larvae in natural conditions and represents a potential intermediate host. The land snails Achatinidae (Achatina stuhlmanni and Limicolaria spp.) could not be experimentally infected with M. capillaris larvae. PMID:2600412

  16. Effects of intra-mammary bacterial infection with coagulase negative staphylococci and stage of lactation on shedding of epithelial cells and infiltration of leukocytes into milk: comparison among cows, goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Krifucks, Oleg; Blum, Shlomo; Rivas, Ariel L; Silanikove, Nissim

    2012-06-30

    The effects of mammary gland bacterial infection and stage of lactation on leukocyte infiltration into the mammary gland were compared among cows, goats and sheep. Animals were at two stages of lactation: mid or late. In mid-lactation animals, bacterial-free glands and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS)-infected glands were compared. In late lactation only uninfected glands were studied. Of mid-lactation bacteria-free animals, goats had the highest number of leukocytes and % polymorphonuclears (PMNs), whereas sheep had the lowest and leukocytes number in cows were intermediate between sheep and goats. Based on %PMN, two cell clusters were found in sheep, which overlapped with the parallel cell clusters of cows and goats, but with a slightly higher number of leukocytes in each cell cluster. At late lactation, goats had higher values for %PMN and leukocyte numbers in comparison to cows, which had a similar cellular profile to sheep. The cellular immune response to CNS infection was similar for the three animal species, although the number of cells was different, while the basal cell level at mid-lactation and especially at the end of lactation was species specific. PMID:22584045

  17. Serological evidence for a hepatitis E virus (HEV)-related agent in goats in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, B.J.; Emerson, S.U.; Purcell, R.H.; Engle, R.E.; Dryman, B.A.; Cecere, T.E.; Buechner-Maxwell, V.; Sponenberg, D.P.; Meng, X.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an important public health disease in many developing countries and is also endemic in some industrialized countries. In addition to humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from pig, chicken, rat, mongoose, deer, rabbit and fish. While the genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans, the genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and infect humans and other animal species. As a part of our ongoing efforts to search for potential animal reservoirs for HEV, we tested goats from Virginia for evidence of HEV infection and showed that 16% (13/80) of goat sera from Virginia herds were positive for IgG anti-HEV. Importantly, we demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies to HEV were present in selected IgG anti-HEV positive goat sera. Subsequently, in an attempt to genetically identify the HEV-related agent from goats, we conducted a prospective study in a closed goat herd with known anti-HEV seropositivity and monitored a total of 11 kids from the time of birth until 14 weeks of age for evidence of HEV infection. Seroconversion to IgG anti-HEV was detected in 7 of the 11 kids, although repeated attempts to detect HEV RNA by a broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR from the fecal and serum samples of the goats that had seroconverted were unsuccessful. In addition, we also attempted to experimentally infect laboratory goats with three well-characterized mammalian strains of HEV but with no success. The results indicate that a HEV-related agent is circulating and maintained in the goat population in Virginia and that the goat HEV is likely genetically very divergent from the known HEV strains. PMID:22909079

  18. Vaccination with rMAP Proteins Induces Protection in a Goat Model Against Infection by Oral Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four recombinant antigens (85A, 85B, Superoxide dismutase [SOD] and a fusion polypeptide [74F] of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) were used along with adjuvant dimethydioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA) to assess the differential immune responses and protective efficacy in goat again...

  19. eNOS and iNOS trigger apoptosis in the brains of sheep and goats naturally infected with the border disease virus.

    PubMed

    Dincel, Gungor Cagdas; Kul, Oguz

    2015-10-01

    In this study, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic mechanisms and if present, which pathway to trigger the apoptosis in the brains of Border Disease Virus (BDV) infected lambs (n=10) and goat kids (n=5) were investigated. Briefly, apoptotic (caspase 3, caspase 9) and anti-apoptotic markers (Bcl-2), cytokine response (TNF-α, INF-γ), reactive gliosis and myelin loss were examined. eNOS, iNOS, caspase 9, caspase 3 and GFAP expressions were higher in BDV infected tissues compared to control animals (6 kids and 6 lambs) (p<0.05). Double immunoperoxidase test revealed that TUNEL positive apoptotic cells showed significant association with increased eNOS-iNOS and iNOS-BDV expressions. However, no significant differences were found for TNFR1, TNF-α and INF-γ expressions in BD (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between the intensity of myelin loss, GFAP activity and severity of infection. Inconclusion, as a novel finding, it is established that eNOS and iNOS overexpressions are co-associated with apoptosis in BDV infected neurons and neuroglia. The results also strongly suggested that BDV infected apoptotic cells mainly prefer the intrinsic pathway that might be most likely related to increased nitric oxide levels. PMID:25882134

  20. Experimental Brucella abortus infection in wolves.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, S V; Forbes, L B

    2004-01-01

    Four juvenile male wolves (Canis lupus) each received an oral dose of 1.6-1.7 x 10(12) colony-forming units of Brucella abortus biovar 1 isolated from a bison (Bison bison) in Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada), and two others served as negative controls. Infected wolves did not show clinical signs of disease but did develop high Brucella antibody titers. Small numbers of B. abortus were excreted sporadically in feces until day 50 postinoculation (PI). Very small numbers of the bacterium were isolated from urine of only one wolf late on the same day that it was infected, and very small numbers of colonies of B. abortus were obtained from buccal swabs of three wolves for up to 48 hr PI. Two infected wolves euthanized 6 mo after the start of the experiment had no lesions, and colonies of B. abortus were isolated from thymus and most major lymph nodes. The other two infected wolves euthanized 12 mo after the start of the experiment had no lesions, and smaller numbers of brucellae were recovered from fewer lymph nodes compared with the wolves killed 6 mo earlier. The sporadic excretion of very small numbers of brucellae by the wolves was insignificant when compared with the infective dose for cattle. Brucella abortus, brucellosis, Canis lupus, pathogenesis, serology, wolf. PMID:15137489

  1. Experimental Phage Therapy for Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leang-Chung, Choh; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Li-Yen, Chang; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen intrinsically resistant to a variety of antibiotics. Phages have been developed for use as an alternative treatment therapy, particularly for bacterial infections that do not respond to conventional antibiotics. In this study, we investigated the use of phages to treat cells infected with B. pseudomallei. Phage C34 isolated from seawater was purified and characterised on the basis of its host range and morphology using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phage C34 was able to lyse 39.5% of B. pseudomallei clinical strains. Due to the presence of contractile tail, phage C34 is classified as a member of the family Myoviridae, a tailed double-stranded DNA virus. When 2 × 105 A549 cells were exposed to 2 × 107 PFU of phage C34, 24 hours prior to infection with 2 × 106 CFU of B. pseudomallei, it was found that the survivability of the cells increased to 41.6 ± 6.8% as compared to 22.8 ± 6.0% in untreated control. Additionally, application of phage successfully rescued 33.3% of mice infected with B. pseudomallei and significantly reduced the bacterial load in the spleen of the phage-treated mice. These findings indicate that phage can be a potential antimicrobial agent for B. pseudomallei infections. PMID:27387381

  2. [Effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in infective larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats].

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Maria Angela O; Domingues, Luciana F; Almeida, Gisele N; Simas, Mônica Mattos Dos S; Botura, Mariana B; Da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira G; Da Silva, Ana Valéria Araújo F; Menezes, Taise P; Batatinha, Maria José M

    2007-01-01

    Phitotherapy has been frequently utilized in parasitism control for numerous animal species. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves in larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of M. piperita extracts (196; 150.7; 115.9; 89.1; 68.5 e 52.7 mg/mL) and C. ambrosioides extracts (110,6; 85; 65,3; 50,2; 38,6 e 29,6 mg/mL) were used for the treatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Distilled water and doramectin were used in larvae cultures as negative and positive controls, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 95% of the infective larvae when M. piperita extracts were used in the concentrations of 115.9 and 196 mg/mL, and C. ambrosioides extract in the concentration of 110.6 mg/mL, supporting the effect of these extracts in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. PMID:17588325

  3. Some risk factors for reproductive failures and contribution of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats of Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Agonafir, Abebe; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Tilahun, Getachew; Medhin, Girmay; Vitale, Maria; Di Marco, Vincenzo

    2013-12-01

    Reproductive failure has a negative impact on animal production, health and welfare and ultimately rural economies. In Ethiopia, the factors affecting small ruminant reproductive efficiency are inadequately investigated. A cross-sectional survey was done from November, 2010 to May, 2011 to investigate risk factors of reproductive failures including Toxoplasma gondii infection. Analysis of 1372 sera (787 sheep and 585 goats) from 409 flocks using ELISA showed high flock (59.7%) and animal (31.8%) level T. gondii seroprevalence. An overall 24.9% (341/1372) annual abortion rate (19.6% in sheep and 32.0% in goats) was recorded. Animal level T. gondii seroprevalence was significantly associated with abortion in Ambo and Ada'a-Liben districts (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42, 3.76; P = 0.001). Questionnaire survey on 199 households of Ambo, Ada'a-Liben and Fentale districts revealed high flock level abortion (57.5%), still birth (28.9%) and neonatal losses (47.9%), which are significantly different between study districts (P<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression model showed that species (goat), large flock size, pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems, drinking water from river and stagnant water bodies, grazing/browsing in plain land and extensive management were significant predictors of flock level reproductive failures. In the final Zero inflated Poisson regression model number of abortions was significantly higher in goat than in sheep flocks (Incidence risk ratio [IRR] = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.87; P = 0.012). It is also significantly higher in pastoral (IRR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.83; P = 0.008) and agro-pastoral production systems (IRR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.86; P = 0.001) than in sedentary production system. Prevention of toxoplasmosis, improved husbandry practices and further epidemiological studies to identify causes of reproductive failures are recommended. PMID:24011595

  4. Experimental Babesia bovis infection in Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Everitt, J I; Shadduck, J A; Steinkamp, C; Clabaugh, G

    1986-09-01

    One intact and two splenectomized Holstein calves were infected intravenously with a Mexican strain of Babesia bovis and killed following the onset of severe clinical disease. A light and electron microscopic study was conducted on selected tissues to examine the relationship between parasitized erythrocytes and microvascular endothelial cells. The pattern and degree of specific organ sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes was assessed and correlated to lesions. Red blood cells infected with Babesia bovis exhibited stellate membrane protrusions. This morphological change appeared to mediate erythrocyte sequestration in the microvascular and capillary beds of the brain, kidney, and adrenal gland by an as yet unknown mechanism(s). PMID:3776013

  5. Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii

    PubMed Central

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Soares, João F.; Martins, Thiago F.; Soares, Herbert S.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A.; Almeida, Aliny P.; Pinter, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, because of the high susceptibility of A. aureolatum ticks to R. rickettsii infection, the deleterious effect that the bacterium causes in these ticks may contribute to the low infection rates (<1%) usually reported among field populations of A. aureolatum ticks in RMSF-endemic areas of Brazil. Because the number of infected ticks would gradually decrease after each generation, it seems unlikely that A. aureolatum ticks could sustain R. rickettsii infection over multiple successive generations solely by vertical transmission. PMID:21529391

  6. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs. PMID:26381440

  7. Early Events following Experimental Infection with Peste-Des-Petits Ruminants Virus Suggest Immune Cell Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Robert A.; Parida, Satya; Bailey, Dalan; Brownlie, Joe; Barrett, Thomas; Banyard, Ashley C.

    2013-01-01

    Peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a viral pathogen that causes a devastating plague of small ruminants. PPRV is an economically significant disease that continues to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world. The current understanding of PPRV pathogenesis has been heavily assumed from the closely related rinderpest virus (RPV) and other morbillivirus infections alongside data derived from field outbreaks. There have been few studies reported that have focused on the pathogenesis of PPRV and very little is known about the processes underlying the early stages of infection. In the present study, 15 goats were challenged by the intranasal route with a virulent PPRV isolate, Côte d’Ivoire ’89 (CI/89) and sacrificed at strategically defined time-points post infection to enable pre- and post-mortem sampling. This approach enabled precise monitoring of the progress and distribution of virus throughout the infection from the time of challenge, through peak viraemia and into a period of convalescence. Observations were then related to findings of previous field studies and experimental models of PPRV to develop a clinical scoring system for PPRV. Importantly, histopathological investigations demonstrated that the initial site for virus replication is not within the epithelial cells of the respiratory mucosa, as has been previously reported, but is within the tonsillar tissue and lymph nodes draining the site of inoculation. We propose that virus is taken up by immune cells within the respiratory mucosa which then transport virus to lymphoid tissues where primary virus replication occurs, and from where virus enters circulation. Based on these findings we propose a novel clinical scoring methodology for PPRV pathogenesis and suggest a fundamental shift away from the conventional model of PPRV pathogenesis. PMID:23418464

  8. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents.

    PubMed

    Souza, William Marciel de; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-05-24

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection of Sigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV). Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  9. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, William Marciel; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection ofSigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV).Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  10. Experimental infection of piglets with cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Tzipori, S; McCartney, E; Lawson, G H; Rowland, A C; Campbell, I

    1981-11-01

    Piglets from five litters were doses orally with cryptosporidium originally derived from diarrhoeic calves. The piglets were either nursed by the sow, artificially reared after sucking colostrum, or weaned on to creep feed. Colostrum-fed, artificially reared piglets obtained from two litters and exposed in the first week of life developed clinical signs of inappetence, vomiting and diarrhoea and shed oocysts in the faeces. Histologically the parasite was observed throughout the small and large intestine attached to epithelial cell surfaces and its presence was associated with extensive mucosal damage, particularly in the posterior small intestine, stunting and fusion of villi, immaturity of villous epithelial cells and oedema with increased cellularity of the lamina propria. Piglets from two other litters, both sucking and colostrum-fed artificially reared, exhibited similar but milder clinical signs. Histological lesions were less severe and cryptosporidium infection less extensive. When weaned piglets were exposed they remained clinically healthy although histologically there was evidence of cryptosporidium attachment in the small intestine and minor mucosal damage. There appears to be a good correlation between the extent of intestinal infection, the degree of mucosal damage and the severity of clinical disease induced by cryptosporidium in piglets. PMID:7342229

  11. Autoimmunity in Experimental Trypanosoma congolense Infections of Rabbits 1

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, John M.; Kreier, Julius P.

    1972-01-01

    Autoimmunity in rabbits with experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections was investigated. Complement-fixing (CF) and precipitating autoantibodies to normal allogeneic and autologous tissues were found in the sera of all infected rabbits tested; the titers of CF autoantibody occurring during infection were significantly higher than normally occurring titers of autoantibody in pre-infection serum samples. Autoantibody did not cross-react with trypanosome antigens, and Wassermann antibody was not detected in normal or infected rabbit sera. Passive transfer of autoantibody to normal rabbits did not produce observable pathology or death. Physicochemical methods of analysis revealed that the autoantibody was exclusively of the immunoglobulin M class. That cell-mediated autoimmunity to normal tissue antigens did not occur during T. congolense infections was shown by histological analyses, skin tests, migration inhibitory factor, and skin reactive factor tests. Images PMID:4629248

  12. Molecular characterization by MLVA of Coxiella burnetii strains infecting dairy cows and goats of north-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ceglie, Letizia; Guerrini, Eulalia; Rampazzo, Erika; Barberio, Antonio; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Hagen, Ferry; Lucchese, Laura; Zuliani, Federica; Marangon, Stefano; Natale, Alda

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), an obligate intracellular bacterium. In ruminants, shedding into the environment mainly occurs during parturition or abortion, but the bacterium is shed also in milk, vaginal mucus, stools and urine. In Italy few surveys have been conducted and reported seroprevalence values ranged between 10% and 60%, even if few human cases have been described. Genotyping of bacteria is crucial for enhancing diagnostic methods and for epidemiological surveillance. The objective of this study was to investigate genotypic differences of C. burnetii genotypes directly in 34 samples, collected during a 3-years survey among 11 dairy cattle and 11 goat farms in the north-eastern part of Italy using a 6-locus multiple loci variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method. The samples analysed included 13 bulk tank milk (BTM), 6 individual milk, 11 vaginal swabs and 4 foetal spleens. MLVA-type 2 was determined as the most prevalent in cattle in this study. C. burnetii strains circulating in the studied cattle population are very similar to genotypes previously described, while genotypes from goats showed an important variability. Further investigation are needed to understand the reason of this pattern. PMID:26526416

  13. Pathogenesis of Experimental Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lockridge, Kristen M.; Sequar, Getachew; Zhou, Shan Shan; Yue, Yujuan; Mandell, Carol P.; Barry, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes and maintains a lifelong persistence following infection in an immunocompetent host. The determinants of a stable virus-host relationship are poorly defined. A nonhuman primate model for HCMV was used to investigate virological and host parameters of infection in a healthy host. Juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were inoculated with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), either orally or intravenously (i.v.), and longitudinally necropsied. None of the animals displayed clinical signs of disease, although hematologic abnormalities were observed intermittently in i.v. inoculated animals. RhCMV DNA was detected transiently in the plasma of all animals at 1 to 2 weeks postinfection (wpi) and in multiple tissues beginning at 2 to 4 wpi. Splenic tissue was the only organ positive for RhCMV DNA in all animals. The location of splenic cells expressing RhCMV immediate-early protein 1 (IE1) in i.v. inoculated animals changed following inoculation. At 4 to 5 wpi, most IE1-positive cells were perifollicular, and at 25 wpi, the majority were located within the red pulp. All animals developed anti-RhCMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies within 1 to 2 wpi and IgG antibodies within 2 to 4 wpi against a limited number of viral proteins. Host reactivity to RhCMV proteins increased in titer (total and neutralizing) and avidity with time. These results demonstrate that while antiviral immune responses were able to protect from disease, they were insufficient to eliminate reservoirs of persistent viral gene expression. PMID:10516066

  14. Ability of experimentally infected chickens to infect ticks with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Piesman, J; Dolan, M C; Schriefer, M E; Burkot, T R

    1996-03-01

    Chickens were used as a laboratory model to determine the conditions affecting the ability of birds to infect ticks with Lyme disease spirochetes. Chicks (Gallus gallus) were exposed to 12 nymphal Ixodes scapularis at one week or three weeks of age. Xenodiagnostic larval ticks fed these birds at weekly intervals thereafter. Chicks exposed to infected nymphs at one week of age infected 87% of larvae at three weeks of age, but only infected 3% of larvae at four weeks and 0% of larvae at five weeks. Chicks exposed to nymphs at three weeks of age infected only 12% of larvae at four weeks, and 0% thereafter. Thus, experimentally infected chicks can infect larval ticks, but only for a brief interval after exposure. Young chicks are more infectious than older chickens. The immune response of infected chicks was rapid and directed against diverse antigens. PMID:8600769

  15. [Development of sarcocystosis in experimentally infected calves].

    PubMed

    Nevole, M; Koudela, B; Lukesová, D; Svobodová, V

    1985-01-01

    In seven calves we studied experimental invasions by sporocysts of the Sarcocystis cruzi (S. bovicanis) species, isolated from faeces of dingo dogs. Out of clinical changes, an increase in body temperature to 39.6 to 40.5 degrees C is characteristic in the fourth to the eighth week of disease, relaxed attitude of animals, progressive thinning down, anaemia of mucous membranes, diarrhoea and total dehydration. The post-mortem examination completes this observation with generalized hyperplasia of lymphatic nodes to haemorrhagic lymphadenitis and small petechial haematomata on serous coats, particularly on epicardium. Schizonts in the endothelium of capillaries in various organs were evaluated as specific lesions, demonstrated within 26 days from invasion in one calf. From 46 days after invasion we found muscular cysts in three other calves. The titres of sera in all experimental calves obtained with the NFR method are also evaluated as specific. Invaded calves died gradually between the 26th and 59th day, control calves were slaughtered and no sarcocysts were found. PMID:3918381

  16. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. PMID:24531334

  17. Clearance of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice

    PubMed Central

    Onunkwo, Charles C.; Hahn, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal skin infections are quite common in human patients. These infections often clear spontaneously, but may also progress locally and/or disseminate to cause serious and sometimes fatal deep infections. The present studies were undertaken to examine the clearance phase of experimental cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections in a mouse model system. Previous work in this system has shown that staphylococci applied to the skin rapidly disseminate to the spleen and kidney. In the present experiments the bacteria were found to persist at the skin infection site at a time (8 days after inoculation) when they had disappeared from the spleen and kidney. Examination of the infected skin at earlier times revealed rapid (within 6 h) invasion into the stratum corneum, stratum Malpighii, and dermis, but subsequent redistribution of bacteria (at 1–2 days) to more superficial sites, particularly crusts located just above the skin surface. The crusts seen in these infections were of two distinct types, which were termed type 1 and type 2. Type 1 crusts appeared first, consisted of bacteria, inflammatory cells, and debris, and developed over an intact epidermis. Type 2 crusts arose from the process of dermal necrosis previously reported to take place at 2 days in this model system. In the latter situation the bacteria were not really cleared from the epidermis and dermis; rather those layers were transformed into a superficial crust that contained the bacteria. Deep hair follicle infections in the dermis were found in these infections, but they did not persist and did not seem to be a reservoir for organisms in the dermis. Resolution of these experimental infections appeared to involve redistribution of invading bacteria to more superficial locations in crusts above the skin surface, marked proliferation of the epidermis, loss of the bacteria-laden crusts from the skin, and eventual healing of the cutaneous damage. PMID:20130894

  18. Recent developments in experimental animal models of Henipavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Rockx, Barry

    2014-07-01

    Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses (genus Henipavirus (HNV; family Paramyxoviridae) are emerging zoonotic agents that can cause severe respiratory distress and acute encephalitis in humans. Given the lack of effective therapeutics and vaccines for human use, these viruses are considered as public health concerns. Several experimental animal models of HNV infection have been developed in recent years. Here, we review the current status of four of the most promising experimental animal models (mice, hamsters, ferrets, and African green monkeys) and their suitability for modeling the clinical disease, transmission, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment for HNV infection in humans. PMID:24488776

  19. Cardiac complication after experimental human malaria infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain. She was diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and treated accordingly. She recovered quickly and her follow-up was uneventful. Whether the event was related to the study procedures such as the preceding vaccinations, malaria infection or antimalarial drugs remains elusive. However, the relation in time with the experimental malaria infection and apparent absence of an underlying condition makes the infection the most probable trigger. This is in striking contrast, however, with the millions of malaria cases each year and the fact that such complication has never been reported in the literature. The rare occurrence of cardiac events with any of the preceding study procedures may even support a coincidental finding. Apart from acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis can be considered as a final diagnosis, but the true nature and patho-physiological explanation of the event remain unclear. PMID:19958549

  20. A cross sectional study evaluating the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, potential risk factors for infection, and agreement between diagnostic methods in goats in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Amy E; Hubbard, Kirk R A; Johnson, April J; Messick, Joanne B; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Pogranichniy, Roman M

    2016-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever and is considered to be endemic in domestic ruminants. Small ruminants in particular are important reservoirs for human infection. Serologic and molecular methods are both available for diagnosis of infection with C. burnetii, but there has been little research evaluating the prevalence of this organism in small ruminants outside of the context of clinical disease outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to estimate seroprevalence of C. burnetii and the prevalence of shedding of C. burnetii DNA in milk by goats in Indiana, USA, to evaluate potential risk factors for association with C. burnetii exposure and shedding, and to assess the level of agreement between the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests used to estimate prevalence. A total of 649 does over 1 year of age and not pregnant at the time of sampling were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from 608 does representing 89 farms. Milk samples were collected from 387 does representing 85 farms. Both milk and serum samples were collected from 356 does representing 80 farms. The estimated individual seroprevalence and shedding prevalence in milk adjusted for clustering were 3.1% (n=23/608, 95% CI: 1.2-7.0%) and 2.5% (n=9/387, 9.5% CI: 1.0-5.6%) respectively. Estimated adjusted herd level C. burnetii seroprevalence and herd level shedding prevalence were 11.5% (n=10/89, 95% CI: 6.4-20.1%) and 7.0% (n=6/85, 95% CI: 3.3-14.6%) respectively. Based on a generalized estimating equation model (GEE), meat breeds of goat had 7.0 times increased odds of shedding C. burnetii DNA in milk samples as compared to dairy breeds. Agreement between tests as determined by Cohen's kappa was poor at both the individual (kappa=0.04, 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.2) and herd (kappa=0.2, 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.5) levels. This indicates that serologic screening alone is unlikely to prevent the introduction

  1. Experimental infection magnifies inbreeding depression in house mice.

    PubMed

    Ilmonen, P; Penn, D J; Damjanovich, K; Clarke, J; Lamborn, D; Morrison, L; Ghotbi, L; Potts, W K

    2008-05-01

    It is often assumed that inbreeding reduces resistance to pathogens, yet there are few experimental tests of this idea in vertebrates, and no tests for the effects of moderate levels of inbreeding more commonly found in nature. We mated wild-derived mice with siblings or first cousins and compared the resistance of their offspring to Salmonella infection with outbred controls under laboratory and seminatural conditions. In the laboratory, full-sib inbreeding reduced resistance to Salmonella and survivorship, whereas first-cousin inbreeding had no detectable effects. In competitive population enclosures, we found that first-cousin inbreeding reduced male fitness by 57% in infected vs. only 34% in noninfected control populations. Our study provides experimental evidence that inbreeding reduces resistance and ability to survive pathogenic infection, and moreover, it shows that even moderate inbreeding can cause significant fitness declines under naturalistic conditions of social stress, and especially with exposure to infectious agents. PMID:18312317

  2. Pathogenicity of avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Woods, K.L.; Iko, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) to the Hawaiian Islands (USA) is believed to have played a major role in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). This introduced disease is thought to be one of the primary factors limiting recovery of honeycreepers at elevations below 1,200 m where native forest habitats are still relatively intact. One of the few remaining species of honeycreepers with a wide elevational distribution is the Hawaii Amakihi (Hernignathus virens). We measured morbidity and mortality in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi that were captured in a high elevation, xeric habitat that is above the current range of the mosquito vector. Mortality among amakihi exposed to a single infective mosquito bite was 65% (13/20). All infected birds had significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss in body weight over the 60 day course of the experiment. Gross and microscopic lesions in birds that succumbed to malaria included enlargement and discoloration of the spleen and liver and parasitemias as high as 50% of circulating erythrocytes. Mortality in experimentally-infected amakihi was similar to that observed in Apapane (Himnatione sanguinea) and lower than that observed in Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) infected under similar conditions with the same parasite isolate. We conclude that the current elevational and geographic distribution of Hawaiian honeycreepers is determined by relative susceptibility to avian malaria.

  3. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections. PMID:25796550

  4. Effect of mid-line or low-line milking systems on milking characteristics in goats.

    PubMed

    Manzur, Alberto; Díaz, José-Ramón; Mehdid, Amine; Fernández, Nemesio; Peris, Cristòfol

    2012-08-01

    Two experiments were carried out to compare mechanical milking in mid-level (ML) and low-level (LL) milkline in goats. The first trial used 40 intramammary infection (IMI)-free goats that had been milked in ML during a pre-experimental period of 4±1 weeks post partum. These animals were divided into two groups (n=20), randomly assigning each group to ML or LL milking for a 17-week experimental period. During this period, several strategies were applied to increase teat exposure to pathogens in both experimental groups. The IMI rate was the same in both experimental groups (30% of goats), although the majority of new infections appeared earlier in ML (weeks 1-5) than in LL (weeks 7-16). Teat-end vacuum range (maximum minus minimum vacuum) was higher in ML than in LL, but no significant differences were found in the remaining variables [milk production and composition, somatic cell count (SCC), frequency of liner slips+teatcups fall off]. In the second experiment, in a crossover design (54 goats in fourth month of lactation; 2 treatments, ML and LL, in 2 experimental periods each lasting 1 week) it was observed that both the milk fractioning (reduced machine milk and increased machine stripping) and average machine milk flow worsened slightly in ML milking; in contrast, no differences were observed in total milking time or teat thickness changes after milking. It was concluded that the differences found between ML and LL are not sufficiently important to discourage breeders from using ML in goat milking. PMID:22850585

  5. Impact of experimental hookworm infection on the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Giacomin, Paul; Croese, John; Zakrzewski, Martha; Sotillo, Javier; McCann, Leisa; Nolan, Matthew J; Mitreva, Makedonka; Krause, Lutz; Loukas, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The interactions between gastrointestinal parasitic helminths and commensal bacteria are likely to play a pivotal role in the establishment of host-parasite cross-talk, ultimately shaping the development of the intestinal immune system. However, little information is available on the impact of infections by gastrointestinal helminths on the bacterial communities inhabiting the human gut. We used 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing to characterize, for the first time to our knowledge, the differences in composition and relative abundance of fecal microbial communities in human subjects prior to and following experimental infection with the blood-feeding intestinal hookworm, Necator americanus. Our data show that, although hookworm infection leads to a minor increase in microbial species richness, no detectable effect is observed on community structure, diversity or relative abundance of individual bacterial species. PMID:24795483

  6. Impact of Experimental Hookworm Infection on the Human Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Giacomin, Paul; Croese, John; Zakrzewski, Martha; Sotillo, Javier; McCann, Leisa; Nolan, Matthew J.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Krause, Lutz; Loukas, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between gastrointestinal parasitic helminths and commensal bacteria are likely to play a pivotal role in the establishment of host-parasite cross-talk, ultimately shaping the development of the intestinal immune system. However, little information is available on the impact of infections by gastrointestinal helminths on the bacterial communities inhabiting the human gut. We used 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing to characterize, for the first time to our knowledge, the differences in composition and relative abundance of fecal microbial communities in human subjects prior to and following experimental infection with the blood-feeding intestinal hookworm, Necator americanus. Our data show that, although hookworm infection leads to a minor increase in microbial species richness, no detectable effect is observed on community structure, diversity or relative abundance of individual bacterial species. PMID:24795483

  7. Experimental infections by Brucella suis type 4 in Alaskan rodents.

    PubMed

    Miller, L G; Neiland, K A

    1980-10-01

    The susceptibility of nine species of rodents and one species of lagomorph to Brucella suis type 4 was studied experimentally. The rodent species included: guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Scandinavian lemming (Lemmus lemmus), brown lemming (L. sibiricus), northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilis), varying lemmings (Dicrostonyx stevensoni and D. rubricatus), yellow-cheeked vole (Microtus xanthognathus), flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) and ground squirrel (Citellus parryii). The lagomorph, Lepus americanus (varying hare), was also studied. All of these species were readily infected by intraperitoneal inoculations of brucellae. Pathologic responses were not marked in most of these species. However, both species of varying lemmings responded dramatically to infections initiated by about as few as two cfu. All individuals of both species that were not killed eventually died from the infection. PMID:7463596

  8. Capillaria hepatica: an experimental study of infection in white mice.

    PubMed

    el-Nassery, S F; el-Gebali, W M; Oweiss, N Y

    1991-08-01

    C. hepatica were found in 15.8% of wild caught rats. Experimental studies showed that the host reaction started specifically against developing worm as early as the 9th day post infection. Eggs started to develop inside uterus in the 3rd week P.I. The second month of infection was the maximum growth and activity of worm, egglying, severe liver destruction and necrosis, degeneration, granuloma formation as well as the greatest humoral and cellular responses of the host. By the third month P.I., there was a gradual increase of the fibroblastic activity around the already formed granuloma and a decrease of antibody level in peripheral blood. Areas of hepatic regeneration started between the fibrotic granulomas and the liver enzymatic reactions returned gradually to their normal levels. Viable eggs were seen until the eighth month of infection free or surrounded by fibrous tissue. PMID:1875075

  9. Primary infection protects pigs against re-infection with Lawsonia intracellularis in experimental challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Riber, Ulla; Cordes, Henriette; Boutrup, Torsten S; Jensen, Tim K; Heegaard, Peter M H; Jungersen, Gregers

    2011-05-01

    In two separate trials pigs were experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis at 5-6 weeks of age followed by antibiotic treatment and resolution of the primary infection and then re-inoculated at 12-13 weeks of age. A treatment-control group of pigs received the primary infection and antibiotic treatment only, and served as control for the antibiotic treatment of the primary infection. A challenge-control group of pigs received the second inoculation dose only at 12-13 weeks of age to control infectivity of the challenge-dose and susceptibility of pigs to L. intracellularis at this age. Pigs were monitored for shedding of L. intracellularis in faeces by PCR, and for the development of antibodies and responses of acute phase proteins in serum. The presence of L. intracellularis antigen in the intestinal mucosa was examined in post mortem samples by immunohistochemistry. In both trials primary infected pigs were protected from infection after challenge inoculation as evidenced by absence of faecal shedding of L. intracellularis, lack of changes in acute phase protein concentrations after challenge and with low levels of bacterial antigen in the intestinal mucosa of re-inoculated pigs comparable to that of the treatment-control pigs. In contrast, challenge-control pigs shed L. intracellularis in faeces, had L. intracellularis antigen extensively present within all layers of the intestinal mucosa and developed a significant acute phase protein response in serum after the experimental infection. The acute phase protein response to L. intracellularis infection was detected as an increased rise in the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin from day-6 post infection, and increased serum concentrations of haptoglobin were generally seen 2-3 weeks after inoculation both at 5-6 and 12-13 weeks of age. In conclusion substantial protection against L. intracellularis infection was found in the re-inoculated pigs in contrast to the development of

  10. Horny Goat Weed

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid using. Bleeding disorders: Horny goat weed slows blood clotting and might increase the risk of bleeding. However, ... risk of fainting. Surgery: Horny goat weed slows blood clotting and might increase the risk of bleeding during ...

  11. Blood viscosity changes in experimentally Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Berra, H H; Piaggio, E; Revelli, S S; Luquita, A

    2005-01-01

    Microcirculatory alterations would explain focal lesions found in Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection induces host blood properties modifications and defensive responses capable of producing blood hyperviscosity, an ischemic risk factor able to affect microvascular blood flow. We studied whole blood viscosity (eta(b)) and plasmatic and cellular factors influencing it in rats, 7 and 14 days after experimental infection with T. cruzi. Increased plasma viscosity (eta(p)) was found in infected versus control rats and it was correlated with high blood parasite levels at 7 days and enhanced gamma-globulin fraction concentration at 14 days. The hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and eta(b) were higher in 14 days infected rats vs. 7 days and control animals. Also, electron microscopy observation showed morphological changes in red blood cells (RBC) at 7 and 14 days post-infection, with increased proportion of echinocyte and stomatocyte shapes transformation. In our rat model of Chagas' disease, BPL, increased plasmatic protein concentration, enhanced MCV and RBC shapes transformation would determine blood hyperviscosity, cause of microvascular blood flow abnormalities. PMID:15851836

  12. Experimental Models of Ocular Infection with Toxoplasma Gondii

    PubMed Central

    Dukaczewska, Agata; Tedesco, Roberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a vision-threatening disease and the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. In spite of the continuing global burden of ocular toxoplasmosis, many critical aspects of disease including the therapeutic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis are still under debate. To assist in addressing many aspects of the disease, numerous experimental models of ocular toxoplasmosis have been established. In this article, we present an overview on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of ocular toxoplasmosis available to date. Experimental studies on ocular toxoplasmosis have recently focused on mice. However, the majority of murine models established so far are based on intraperitoneal and intraocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We therefore also present results obtained in an in vivo model using peroral infection of C57BL/6 and NMRI mice that reflects the natural route of infection and mimics the disease course in humans. While advances have been made in ex vivo model systems or larger animals to investigate specific aspects of ocular toxoplasmosis, laboratory mice continue to be the experimental model of choice for the investigation of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:26716018

  13. Accumulation of PrP-Sc in hemal nodes of naturally and experimentally scrapie-infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal disease of sheep and goats which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent. Infection is accompanied by accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Hemal nodes, which are unique ...

  14. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4–15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as “high” in 142 samples, “moderate” in 45 samples, and “low” in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  15. Mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Timothy B; Li, Hong; Rosenburg, Stuart R; Norhausen, Robert W; Garner, Michael M

    2002-09-15

    Two sika deer from a zoo in Florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. No common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. One deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. Both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. The predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. Serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that both deer were infected with caprine herpesvirus-2, a newly recognized member of the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses. Disease in these deer was substantially different from that typically seen following infection with ovine herpesvirus-2, the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus. Findings in these deer establish the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus-2 in sika deer and illustrate the ability of this group of complex herpesviruses to cause a wide variety of clinical abnormalities in diverse species. PMID:12322924

  16. [Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].

    PubMed

    Seidel, B

    1991-03-01

    An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats. PMID:2049057

  17. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  18. Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Ricklin, Meret E; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Brechbühl, Daniel; Python, Sylvie; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Oevermann, Anna; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental intravenous infection of pigs. The data demonstrate a rapid and broad spreading of the virus to the central nervous system (CNS) and various other organs. A particular tropism of JEV in pigs not only to the CNS but also for secondary lymphoid tissue, in particular the tonsils with the overall highest viral loads, was observed. In this organ, even 11 days post infection, the latest time point of the experiment, no apparent decrease in viral RNA loads and live virus was found despite the presence of a neutralizing antibody response. This was also well beyond the clinical and viremic phase. These results are of significance for the pathogenesis of JEV, and call for further experimental studies focusing on the cellular source and duration of virus replication in pigs. PMID:26911997

  19. Experimental infection of rainbow trout with Saprolegnia parasitica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, George E.; Stehly, Guy R.

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed to experimentally induce saprolegniasis in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The development of a reliable method to produce infected fish is essential to efforts to determine the efficacy of various antifungal treatments. Three methods for inducing saprolegniasis were evaluated in waters containing known concentrations of Saprolegnia parasitica zoospores. These methods included application of the following stressors to fish: (1) abrasion and dewatering, (2) water temperature increase, and (3) a combination of abrasion, dewatering, and temperature increase. Neither physical abrasion nor temperature increase stress alone was effective for inducing saprolegniasis. Only 25.9% of fish stressed by abrasion and dewatering alone became infected. Application of both abrasion and temperature stress, however, induced saprolegniasis in 77.8% of fish tested. Most of these fish became infected after 5 d of stress treatments. No fish became infected or died in the positive control group (not stressed but exposed to S. parasitica zoospores) or the negative control group (not stressed or challenged). This method should enable researchers to induce saprolegniasis in rainbow trout to study its pathogenesis or to test the efficacy of antifungal treatments. In conducting efficacy studies, it is important that therapeutic treatments begin promptly after the first signs of saprolegniasis are observed because the disease can progress very quickly and often results in mortality.

  20. Experimental Sarcocystis hominis infection in a water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, X W; Zuo, Y X; Hu, J J

    2003-04-01

    A water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was fed 5.0 x 10(5) Sarcocystis hominis sporocysts from a human volunteer who had ingested S. hominis cysts from naturally infected cattle. A necropsy was performed on the buffalo 119 days after inoculation, and a large number of microscopic sarcocysts (approximately 5,000/g) were found in skeletal muscles. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall from buffalo muscles has upright villar protrusions measuring about 5.6 x 0.8 microm with numerous microtubules that run from the base to the apex. Sarcocysts from this buffalo were infective to 2 human volunteers, confirming their identity as S. hominis. Therefore, we believe that buffaloes can act experimentally as the intermediate host for S. hominis. PMID:12760663

  1. New fluorescence markers to distinguish co-infecting Trypanosoma brucei strains in experimental multiple infections.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Oliver; Tostado, Cristóbal

    2006-01-01

    Multiple-genotype infections are increasingly recognized as important factors in disease evolution, parasite transmission dynamics, and the evolution of drug resistance. However, the distinction of co-infecting parasite genotypes and the tracking of their dynamics have been difficult with traditional methods based on various genotyping techniques, leaving most questions unaddressed. Here we report new fluorescence markers of various colours that are inserted into the genome of Trypanosoma brucei to phenotypically label live parasites of all life cycle stages. If different parasite strains are labelled with different colours they can be easily distinguished from each other in experimental studies. A total of 10 T. brucei strains were successfully transfected with different fluorescence markers and were monitored in culture, tsetse flies and mice, to demonstrate stability of marker expression. The use of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) allowed rapid and accurate identification of parasite strains labelled with different markers. Cell counts by FACS were virtually identical to counts by traditional microscopy (n=75, Spearman's rho: 0.91, p<0.0001) but were considerably faster and had a significantly lower sampling error (66% lower, d.f.=73, t=-17.1, p<0.0001). Co-infecting strains transfected with fluorescence genes of different colour were easily distinguished by eye and their relative and absolute densities were reliably counted by FACS in experimental multiple infections in mice. Since the FACS can simultaneously determine the population sizes of differently labelled T. brucei strains or subspecies it allows detailed and efficient tracking of multiple-genotype infections within a single host or vector individual, enabling more powerful studies on parasite dynamics. In addition, it also provides a simple way to separate genotypes after experimental mixed infections, to measure responses of the single strains to an applied treatment, thus eliminating the

  2. Callithrix penicillata: a feasible experimental model for dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Milene Silveira; de Castro, Paulo Henrique Gomes; Silva, Gilmara Abreu; Casseb, Samir Mansur Moraes; Dias Júnior, Antônio Gregório; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiros; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Costa e Silva, Matheus Fernandes; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Although the murine models have the feasibility to reproduce some signs of dengue Virus (DENV) infection, the use of isogenic hosts with polarized immune response patterns does not reproduce the particularities of human disease. Our goal was to investigate the kinetics of peripheral blood biomarkers in immunocompetent Callithrix penicillata non-human primates subcutaneously infected with DENV-3. The viral load of infected animals was determinated by quantitative real time PCR. Measurements of DENV-3/IgM were performed, and several parameters were assessed by hemogram: red blood cells count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cells count, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets count. The coagulogram was performed by prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assays. The renal function was monitored by urea and creatinine, and the liver function by the aspartate (AST), and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases. Also, the level of the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 was quantified during the experimental study. Data analysis was performed considering relevant differences when baseline fold changes were found outside from 0.75 to 1.5 range. Our data demonstrated that infected animals presented relevant signs of dengue disease, including peaks of viremia at 5 days-post-infection (dpi), peaks of anti-DENV-3 IgM at 15 dpi and hemaglutination inhibition assay (HIA) from 15 to at 60 dpi. Despite early monocytosis, slight neutrophilia and lymphocytosis, animals developed persistent leucopenia starting at 4 dpi. Anemia episodes were steady at 3-4 dpi. Patent thrombocytopenia was observed from 1 to 15 dpi with sporadic decrease of APTT. A substantial increase of ALT and AST was observed with higher peak at 4 dpi. Moreover, early increases of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma besides late increase of IFN-gamma were observed. The analysis of biomarkers network pointed out two relevant strong axes during early stages of dengue fever

  3. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  4. An experimental infection model for Tetrameres americana (Cram 1927).

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Permin, A; Jensen, K-M V; Bresciani, J; Magwisha, H B

    2005-02-01

    An experimental infection model for the heteroecious spiruid nematode Tetrameres americana (Cram 1927) was developed. The cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) and the locust Locusta migratoria (L.) were found to serve as intermediate hosts for the parasite. T. americana larvae developed to full maturity in these intermediate hosts and were infective to young Lohman Brown chickens after 32 days in the cockroach and 28 days in the locust. The maximum length of the larvae was reached in the insects at 28-30 degrees C after 10-15 days, at which time the larvae measured up to 2.2 mm. The parasite did not develop in the cockroach Periplaneta americana (L.), the woodlouse Oniscus asellus (L.), or the pupal stage of the giant mealworm Zophobas morio (Fabricius). Trials in which chickens were infected directly without an intermediate host failed. Infection of 24 chickens with a dosage of 100 larvae was followed by weekly post-mortems until day 48 post-infection (p.i.) and used to describe the development of T. americana. The average establishment rate (%) and the average worm burden varied from 16.5 to 30.8. The total numbers of parasites recovered ranged from 9 to 40. During mating, in the first 2 weeks p.i. females and males were equally abundant, whereas from day 20 p.i. twice as many females were recovered. From day 13 p.i. the females average length fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.7 mm, whereas they reached their maximum width of 2.4 mm on day 48 p.i. Males reached their full length after 27 days p.i. and measured up to 6.7 mm. PMID:15616857

  5. Histopathological changes in sheep experimentally infected with Babesia ovis.

    PubMed

    Habela, M A; Reina, D; Navarrete, I; Redondo, E; Hernández, S

    1991-01-01

    Histopathological study was made of 12 Merino sheep - five splenectomized and seven intact - experimentally infected with Babesia ovis. Non-purulent encephalitis; initially exudative and subsequently interstitial pneumonia; pericarditis, myocarditis and haemorrhagic endocarditis; centrilobular necrotic hepatitis; hyperplasia of the lymphoreticular system; necrosis and vascular changes in adrenal glands were observed. The kidney was the most severely affected organ, exhibiting acute tubular necrosis typical of kidney shock syndrome. The lesions observed were suggestive of hypovolemic shock culminating in haemorrhagic diathesis owing to consumptive coagulopathy. Additionally, the massive release of catabolites from lysis and necrosis apparently produced endotoxic shock. PMID:2024425

  6. Susceptibility of avian hosts to experimental Gymnophalloides seoi infection.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Y S; Yoo, J C; Lee, S H; Chai, J Y

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether avian species are susceptible to infection with Gymnophalloides seoi (a human-infecting intestinal trematode), we exposed 7 species of birds with metacercariae obtained from oysters. The birds were necropsied at days 2, 4, and 6 postinfection (PI). The highest worm recovery at day 6 PI was obtained from the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus; mean = 56.0%), followed by the Mongolian plover (C. mongolus; 49.3%), and the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola; 32.3%). In contrast, no mature worms were recovered from the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), dunlin (C. alpina), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Among the plovers, the worms attained the greatest size at day 6 PI (254.1 x 190.4 microm) in the Kentish plover, with a significantly higher number of eggs in the uterus. The 3 species of plovers are highly susceptible to experimental G. seoi infection, suggesting that they could play a role as definitive hosts for these worms in nature. PMID:11318587

  7. 5-Lipoxygenase Activity Increases Susceptibility to Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tristão, Fabrine Sales Massafera; Rocha, Fernanda Agostini; Moreira, Ana Paula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Rossi, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Leukotrienes and lipoxins are lipid mediators produced after 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) activation that exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Here, we have investigated the contribution of 5-LO enzymatic activity in PCM using an experimental model of P. brasiliensis infection. B6.129 wild-type (B6.129) and 5-LO-deficient (5-LO−/−) mice were intravenously inoculated with a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18), and the survival rate of the infected mice was investigated on different days after yeast infection. 5-LO−/− mice exhibited an increased survival rate associated with a decreased number of CFU. The resistance of 5-LO−/− during PCM was associated with augmented nitric oxide (NO) production and the formation of compact granulomas. In addition, the absence of 5-LO was associated with a diminished number of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells, higher levels of gamma interferon and interleukin-12, and increased T-bet (a T-box transcription factor that directs Th1 lineage commitment) mRNA levels in the lungs. Taken together, our results show for the first time that 5-LO enzymatic activity increases susceptibility to P. brasiliensis, suggesting that this pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention during PCM. PMID:23381993

  8. Persistent efficacy of doramectin against experimental nematode infections in calves.

    PubMed

    Weatherley, A J; Hong, C; Harris, T J; Smith, D G; Hammet, N C

    1993-07-01

    Three studies were conducted involving cattle exposed to experimental nematode infections. These studies were designed to investigate the prophylactic activity of a single subcutaneous treatment of doramectin at 200 micrograms kg-1 body weight against infections of Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Dictyocaulus viviparus. For each study, parasite-naive calves were randomly allocated to either a treated or a matched control group. One group received doramectin and the other received doramectin and the other received either no treatment or an injection of saline at 1 ml per 50 kg body weight by the subcutaneous route. Thereafter, all calves received a daily oral challenge of infective larvae of the particular parasite species on test in each study. Challenge of each pair of treatment/control groups continued for periods of 14, 21 or 28 days. An interval of 14-21 days was then allowed to permit the parasites which had established to mature, after which all animals were slaughtered and their worm burdens determined using standard techniques. Geometric mean worm burdens were calculated from the log worm counts and used to estimate percentage efficacy. Accumulated burdens of C. oncophora in doramectin-treated cattle resulting from a daily challenge infection for 14 or 21 days were reduced by 99.2% and 90.7% respectively, in comparison with those of non-treated control animals. For D. viviparus, burdens were reduced by 100% and 99.9% after a 21 or 28 day challenge, respectively. The corresponding figures for O. ostertagi were 99.9% after a 21 day challenge and 93.7% after a 28 day challenge. PMID:8236737

  9. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    PubMed

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  10. Goat-associated Q fever: a new disease in Newfoundland.

    PubMed Central

    Hatchette, T. F.; Hudson, R. C.; Schlech, W. F.; Campbell, N. A.; Hatchette, J. E.; Ratnam, S.; Raoult, D.; Donovan, C.; Marrie, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the spring of 1999 in rural Newfoundland, abortions in goats were associated with illness in goat workers. An epidemiologic investigation and a serologic survey were conducted in April 1999 to determine the number of infections, nature of illness, and risk factors for infection. Thirty-seven percent of the outbreak cohort had antibody titers to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigen >1:64, suggesting recent infection. The predominant clinical manifestation of Q fever was an acute febrile illness. Independent risk factors for infection included contact with goat placenta, smoking tobacco, and eating cheese made from pasteurized goat milk. This outbreak raises questions about management of such outbreaks, interprovincial sale and movement of domestic ungulates, and the need for discussion between public health practitioners and the dairy industry on control of this highly infectious organism. PMID:11384518

  11. Reproductive Pathological Changes Associated with Experimental Subchronic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Nonpregnant Boer Does.

    PubMed

    Othman, A M; Abba, Y; Jesse, F F A; Ilyasu, Y M; Saharee, A A; Haron, A W; Zamri-Saad, M; Lila, M A M

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), which is a contagious and chronic disease in sheep and goats. In order to assess the histopathological changes observed in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant does infected with the bacteria, 20 apparently healthy adult Boer does were divided into four inoculation groups, intradermal, intranasal, oral, and control, consisting of five goats each. Excluding the control group, which was unexposed, other does were inoculated with 10(7) CFU/1 mL of live C. pseudotuberculosis through the various routes stated above. Thirty days after infection, the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes were collected for bacterial recovery and molecular detection, as well as histopathological examination. The mean changes in necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oedema varied in severity among the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes following different inoculation routes. Overall, the intranasal route of inoculation showed more severe (p < 0.05) lesions in all the organs examined. The findings of this study have shown that C. pseudotuberculosis could predispose to infertility resulting from pathological lesions in the uterus and ovaries of does. PMID:27006831

  12. Reproductive Pathological Changes Associated with Experimental Subchronic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Nonpregnant Boer Does

    PubMed Central

    Othman, A. M.; Abba, Y.; Jesse, F. F. A.; Ilyasu, Y. M.; Saharee, A. A.; Haron, A. W.; Zamri-Saad, M.; Lila, M. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), which is a contagious and chronic disease in sheep and goats. In order to assess the histopathological changes observed in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant does infected with the bacteria, 20 apparently healthy adult Boer does were divided into four inoculation groups, intradermal, intranasal, oral, and control, consisting of five goats each. Excluding the control group, which was unexposed, other does were inoculated with 107 CFU/1 mL of live C. pseudotuberculosis through the various routes stated above. Thirty days after infection, the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes were collected for bacterial recovery and molecular detection, as well as histopathological examination. The mean changes in necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oedema varied in severity among the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes following different inoculation routes. Overall, the intranasal route of inoculation showed more severe (p < 0.05) lesions in all the organs examined. The findings of this study have shown that C. pseudotuberculosis could predispose to infertility resulting from pathological lesions in the uterus and ovaries of does. PMID:27006831

  13. Influence of Body Condition on Influenza A Virus Infection in Mallard Ducks: Experimental Infection Data

    PubMed Central

    Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Ip, Hon S.; Owen, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (−20%, −10%, and normal ±5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. PMID:21857940

  14. Influence of body condition on influenza A virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Ip, Hon S.; Owen, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ±5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl.

  15. Influence of body condition on influenza a virus infection in mallard ducks: Experimental infection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arsnoe, D.M.; Ip, H.S.; Owen, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30) were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ??5% original body condition), and captive-bred mallards (n = 10) were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl. ?? 2011 Arsnoe et al.

  16. Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A

    1999-01-01

    A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

  17. Semen characteristics and reaction time of Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi infection.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Francis Abidemi; Okubanjo, Oluyinka Oluseyi; Ajanusi, Olagunju Joseph; Fadason, Samuel Tanko

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosomosis is a serious, often fatal disease of domestic animals and humans, and a major constraint to livestock productivity and agricultural development in areas of Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and Asia. It is caused by hemoflagelate protozoan of the genus Trypanosoma. Several species of Trypanosoma such as Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma evansi are known to infect domestic animals. Trypanosoma evansi is one of the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in the world causing disease known as "Surra" in animals. The effects of experimental T evansi infection on some aspects of reproduction in Yankasa rams were investigated over a 108-day period. Rams in the infected group A (n = 7) were each inoculated with 1 × 10(6) trypanosomes in 1 mL of donor blood via the jugular vein, whereas the control group B (n = 5) were administered 1 mL of normal saline. Semen volume, gross motility, live and/or dead sperm ratio, sperm morphologic abnormalities, and concentration as well as reaction time of infected and control rams were evaluated on a weekly basis. The results showed a nonsignificant (P > 0.05) decrease in semen volume and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentration compared to the control rams. Reaction time showed considerable significant (P < 0.05) increase from preinfection values 26.7 ± 4.54 to 94.7 ± 7.54 seconds compared to control 32.9 ± 2.64 to 33.4 ± 4.78 seconds. Furthermore, semen gross motility for infected rams differed significantly (P < 0.05) from those of the control. There was a significant surge (P < 0.05) in the total sperm morphologic abnormalities in the infected rams to 90.75 ± 2.73% by week 20 (14 weeks after infection), compared to preinfection value of 20.9 ± 0.52%. The outcome of this study suggests that infection with T evansi in Yankasa rams has far reaching severe effects on their reproductive performance. PMID:27188633

  18. Tupaia belangeri as an experimental animal model for viral infection.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development. PMID:25048261

  19. Cellular immune responses in cattle experimentally infected with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Lundén, A; Marks, J; Maley, S W; Innes, E A

    1998-11-01

    Neospora caninum has recently been identified as an important cause of infectious abortion in cattle. The parasite is closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, but the two species are antigenically distinct. To examine cell proliferative responses and the induction of IFN-gamma in experimentally infected cattle, four 2-4 months old calves were subcutaneously inoculated with N. caninum tachyzoites. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected regularly and stimulated in vitro with a crude lysate of N. caninum or T. gondii tachyzoites. Significant proliferative responses to N. caninum antigen were recorded in all calves from days 4-6 postinoculation. This response was accompanied by production of high levels of IFN-gamma. Although the calves remained seronegative to T. gondii, while seroconverting to N. caninum, stimulation with T. gondii lysate resulted in cell proliferation of a similar magnitude as that obtained using the N. caninum lysate. However, the T. gondii lysate appeared less effective than the N. caninum lysate to stimulate IFN-gamma production. Cells taken from uninfected control animals did not show any significant proliferation to either N. caninum or T. gondii antigen and no IFN-gamma was produced. These results suggest that the two parasites may possess cross-reacting T-cell epitopes, but that the T cells specific for N. caninum may have a different functional capacity. This highlights the need to investigate the antigen specificity and cytokine profile of T cells from infected animals to help understand their role in immunity to N. caninum. PMID:9988308

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in pigs infected experimentally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Andrada, M; Quesada-Canales, O; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Paz-Sánchez, Y; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia, primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), is a contagious disease characterized by catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Previous studies have evaluated immunohistochemically the distribution of Mh, different cellular populations and cytokines during Mh-induced pneumonia. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is overexpressed during inflammatory responses by different cell types in the lung. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible role of COX-2 in the pathogenesis of porcine enzootic pneumonia. COX-2 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lung tissues from 10 pigs infected experimentally with Mh. Ten pigs were inoculated intranasally with Mh and killed in pairs weekly from 1 to 5 weeks post inoculation. Three Mh-free pigs were taken as controls. Bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, bronchial submucosal glands and a small number of macrophages in the bronchoalveolar exudate expressed COX-2. COX-2 protein was always associated with areas of pneumonia and expression was minimal in lungs from control pigs. These results suggest that COX-2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of Mh-infection. PMID:24925603

  1. Experimental infection of white-tailed deer with rangiferine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, T; Stittmatter, J; Turner, K; Davis, D S

    1999-04-01

    Experimental infections of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Brucella suis biovar 4 were evaluated over a period of 6 wk. Five adult male hand-raised white-tailed deer were inoculated with 1 x 10(7) colony forming units of B. suis biovar 4 in the conjunctiva and serologically evaluated over 6 wk by the card test (CARD), rivanol test (RIV), serum agglutination test (SAT), complement fixation test (CFT), particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA), and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), as routinely used for bovine samples. Six weeks postinoculation the animals were euthanized and cultured for B. suis biovar 4. One deer became serologically positive 4 wk postinoculation on CFT, CARD, PCFIA, and cELISA. At 6 wk postinoculation, CFT was positive in four infected deer, CARD was positive in three deer; RIV, SAT, and PCFIA was positive in two deer; and cELISA was positive in one deer. Only the CFT was 100% sensitive. At necropsy B. suis biovar 4 was isolated from four of five deer, and representative colonies were biologically similar to the challenge organism. PMID:10231769

  2. Progress in the experimental therapy of severe arenaviral infections

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Brian B.; Bray, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Summary A number of viruses in the family Arenaviridae cause severe illness in humans. Lassa virus in West Africa and a number of agents in South America produce hemorrhagic fever (HF) in persons exposed to aerosolized excretions of the pathogens’ rodent hosts. Because arenaviruses are not transmitted by arthropods, and person-to-person spread is rare, human infections occur singly and sporadically, and are usually not diagnosed until the patient is severely ill. Because the arenaviruses are naturally transmitted by the airborne route, they also pose a potential threat as aerosolized bioterror weapons. The broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin was shown to reduce mortality from Lassa fever, and has been tested against Argentine HF, but it is not an approved treatment for either disease. Human immune convalescent plasma was proven to be effective for Argentine HF in a controlled trial. New treatments are needed to block viral replication without causing toxicity and to prevent the increased vascular permeability that is responsible for hypotension and shock. In this paper, we review current developments in the experimental therapy of severe arenaviral infections, focusing on drugs that have been tested in animal models, and provide a perspective on future research. PMID:22122440

  3. [Antibacterial effects of gamma-interferon in experimental Klebsiella infection].

    PubMed

    Fil'chakov, I V; Avdeeva, L V; Fil'chakov, F V; Spivak, N Ia; Protsap, E I; Ivanenko, V K

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental study on the effect of the natural and recombinant gamma-interferons (gamma-IFs) of mice on the process of the infection caused by Klebsiella sp. are presented. The infection was reproduced by intraperitoneal contamination of mice with a virulent culture of Klebsiella pneumoniae 5055, line SHK. The gamma-IFs were administered to the animals in a dose of 250 units per mouse on days 1 and 3 after the contamination. Survival of the animals, clearance of the pathogen from the blood and liver and functional activity of the phagocytes in the contaminated mice were investigated. It was shown that both the natural and recombinant gamma-IF stimulated the phagocytic activity and oxidative metabolism of the phagocytes in the contaminated mice. Activation of these functions after the use of the natural gamma-IF correlated with its marked protective effect and accelerated elimination of the pathogen from the host which was not observed after the use of the recombinant gamma-IF. PMID:1456806

  4. Staphylococci isolated from healthy goats.

    PubMed

    Valle, J; Piriz, S; de la Fuente, R; Vadillo, S

    1991-03-01

    A study was made of the staphylococcal population on the skin and on the nasal mucosa and in the milk of 133 healthy goats. Of a total of 346 strains isolated and characterised as belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, 74 (21.4%) were coagulase-positive (68 S. aureus and 6 S. hyicus), and 272 (78.6%) coagulase-negative. The novobiocin-sensitive species S. haemolyticus (23.5%), S. warneri (16.5%), S. epidermidis (11.8%), S. chromogenes (8.5%), S. caprae (6.6%) and S. hyicus (2.6%), and the novobiocin-resistant species S. xylosus (8.5%), S. sciuri (7.4%), S. saprophyticus (4.8%), S. cohnii (2.2%), S. lentus (1.1%), S. equorum (1.1%) and S. kloosii (1.1%) were identified. Twelve (4.4%) of coagulase-negative strains remained unidentified. Strains isolated in the skin of the udder and teats of the 133 goats were mainly novobiocin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci, the most prevalent species being S. haemolyticus, S. warneri and S. epidermidis. Staphylococci indicative of subclinical infection were determined in the milk of 47 (35.3%) of the 133 goats sampled. PMID:1853672

  5. Efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats: dose titration study.

    PubMed

    Terrill, T H; Dykes, G S; Shaik, S A; Miller, J E; Kouakou, B; Kannan, G; Burke, J M; Mosjidis, J A

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) parasitism is the greatest threat to economic sheep and goat production in the southern USA, and there is widespread prevalence of GIN resistance to broad-spectrum anthelmintics in this region. A natural alternative for controlling GIN in small ruminants is feeding hay of sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours., G. Don)], a perennial warm-season legume high in condensed tannins. To determine the level of SL needed to reduce GIN infection, a confinement study was completed with 32 Spanish/Boer/Kiko cross yearling bucks offered one of four diets with 75% hay and 25% concentrate (n=8, 2 pens/treatment, 4 goats/pen). The hay portion of each diet consisted of a combination of ground SL (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet) and bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the diet]. The bucks were allowed to acquire a natural GIN infection on pasture prior to moving to the pens. After a 3-week adjustment period in the pens, the goats were stratified by fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), randomly assigned to treatments and pens, and then fed the treatment diets for six weeks. During the experimental period, fecal and blood samples were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and PCV, respectively. Adult worms from abomasum and small intestines were collected for counting and identification of species at slaughter. Goats fed SL hay at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the diet had 45.3% (P=0.2048), 66.3% (P=0.0134), and 74.5% (P=0.0077) lower FEC than control animals (75% BG hay) after 21 days. The 50% and 75% SL goats had 84.6% (P=0.0625) and 91.9% (P=0.0340) lower FEC than controls by day 42. The 75% SL-fed goats tended to have higher (P=0.0624) PCV and had fewer (P=0.035) abomasal worms than control animals, while PCV and adult worm numbers of the 50% and 25% SL goats were not different from controls. The optimum level of SL hay in the diet for reducing worm numbers of small

  6. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    PubMed Central

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  7. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Vermeulen, Ben L; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Acar, Delphine D; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28-56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8(+) regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  8. [Pathohistological changes in splenectomized sheep experimentally infected with Babesia ovis].

    PubMed

    Khalacheva, M; Pavlov, N

    1977-01-01

    Studied were histopathologically the viscera (liver, lung, kidneys, heart lymph nodes, and brain) of 15 animals (10 ewes and 5 lambs), experimentally infected with blood taken from sheep donors having acute babesiasis. During the experimental period 9 of the animals died, and 6 were killed within the interval from the 4th to the 9th day. Dystrophic changes were observed in the epithelial cells of the liver and the kidney tubuli as well as pycnosis of the gangliar cells. In some of the tubuli there were hyalin cylindroids. The heart presented an edema of the endocardium with leucocyte infiltration. In the lymph nodes there were hyperemia with hemorrhages and edema with leucocyte infiltration of sinuses and follicles. It was established that in sheep babesiosis the characteristic morphologic changes appear on the fourth day. The dystrophic foci in the liver, the activation of the endothelium, the finding of hemosiderin in the Kupffer cells as well the diffuse leucocyte infiltration associated with the presence of parasites in the erythrocytes may well be referred to as histomorphologic signs in the postmortal diagnosis of babesiasis. PMID:919337

  9. Storage of gastrointestinal nematode infective larvae for species preservation and experimental infections.

    PubMed

    Chylinski, C; Cortet, J; Sallé, G; Jacquiet, P; Cabaret, J

    2015-02-01

    Techniques to preserve the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes are of considerable interest to preserve rare species and to maintain a stable source for routine experimental infections. This study compares the relative pros and cons of the two most common techniques, cryopreservation and refrigeration by comparing how they influence consequent infection outcome parameters in terms of life-history traits and fitness as a function of time using the gastrointestinal nematode of sheep Haemonchus contortus as a study species. Establishment capacity was found to be significantly reduced in cryopreserved stocks of L3 compared to refrigerated stocks, but this was followed by significant increases in their fecundity. Refrigeration did not affect L3 stocks consequent fitness by 16 months (the maximum examined) although they did incur a significant reduction in establishment, followed once again by an augmentation in fecundity. The study highlights potential areas for bias in comparing studies using L3 larvae maintained for different periods of time under different techniques. PMID:25468381

  10. Performance of commercially available serological diagnostic tests to detect Leishmania infantum infection on experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi

    2013-01-31

    Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:23021261

  11. Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies in Nigerian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W P; Okeke, A N; Shidali, N N

    1977-08-01

    Neutralising antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus were commoner in Nigerian sheep than goats while precipitating antibodies offered an alternative but less reliable indicator of previous infection. In contrast, neutralising antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were more common in goats than sheep. These findings are discussed in relation to infectivity rates in cattle and general husbandry practices. PMID:410130

  12. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  13. Experimental genital mycoplasmosis: time of infection influences pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M B; Steiner, D A

    1996-01-01

    Genital infection of rats with Mycoplasma pulmonis causes adverse pregnancy outcome and can result in in utero spread of infection to the fetus. The current study was designed to determine whether the stage of pregnancy when infection occurs influences pregnancy outcome. Rats were inoculated with 3 X 10(7) CFU of M. pulmonis at 10 days prior to breeding (-10) or at gestational day (gd) 11 or 14 and were necropsied at gd 11, 14, or 18 or within 24 h of parturition (term). Control rats received sterile broth. M. pulmonis was isolated from the placenta, amniotic fluid, or fetal tissues only from rats infected prior to breeding (P < 0.001). All infected rats had significantly more loss of pups than did control rats (P < 0.006), but rats infected prior to breeding or at the beginning of the third trimester (gd 14) were much more likely to have fetal losses. Rats infected in the early second trimester after implantation (gd 11) did not experience severe losses. Litter sizes, total litter weight, and individual pup weight from all infected rats, regardless of gestational stage when infected, were significantly smaller than those of control rats (P < 0.001). On the basis of the results of this study, we conclude that the time of infection plays a major role in determination of pregnancy outcome and spread of infection from the genital tract to the respiratory tract. PMID:8675343

  14. INDICATORS OF GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITISM AFTER AN EXPERIMENTAL HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION IN YOUNG GOATS RECEIVING DIETARY QUEBRACHO TANNIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an increase in resistance of trichostrongylid parasites to commercial anthelmintics, the search for alternative means of parasite control in small ruminants has intensified. Condensed tannins in certain legumes and browse plants have been associated with anthelmintic activity in different stud...

  15. Pathogenesis of Avian Bornavirus in Experimentally Infected Cockatiels

    PubMed Central

    Enderlein, Dirk; Herzog, Sibylle; Kaleta, Erhard F.; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Ressmeyer, Saskia; Herden, Christiane; Lierz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is the presumed causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a major fatal disease in psittacines. However, the influencing factors and pathogenesis of PDD are not known and natural ABV infection exhibits remarkable variability. We investigated the course of infection in 18 cockatiels that were intracerebrally and intravenously inoculated with ABV. A persistent ABV infection developed in all 18 cockatiels, but, as in natural infection, clinical disease patterns varied. Over 33 weeks, we simultaneously studied seroconversion, presence of viral RNA and antigens, infectious virus, histopathologic alterations, and clinical signs of infection in the ABV-infected birds. Our study results further confirm the etiologic role of ABV in the development of PDD, and they provide basis for further investigations of the pathogenetic mechanisms and disease-inducing factors for the development of PDD. PMID:22304809

  16. Comparison of four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serological diagnosis of Salmonella enteritidis infections in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed Central

    van Zijderveld, F G; van Zijderveld-van Bemmel, A M; Anakotta, J

    1992-01-01

    The program for the eradication of Salmonella enteritidis from chickens in The Netherlands is based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need for a specific and sensitive serological screening test. For that purpose, we developed four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), i.e., an indirect ELISA with S. enteritidis flagellin, an indirect ELISA with S. enteritidis lipopolysaccharide, a double-antibody sandwich blocking ELISA that uses monoclonal antibodies against S. enteritidis flagellin (GM-DAS blocking ELISA), and a double-antibody sandwich ELISA that uses monoclonal antibodies against S. enteritidis lipopolysaccharide. In the present study, we compare the results of those ELISAs with sera from experimentally infected 1-day-old chickens and with sera and eggs from experimentally infected laying hens. Experimental infections were induced with strains of S. enteritidis phage types 1 and 2, S. typhimurium, and S. panama. Sera were collected up to days 44 and 39 after infection from 1-day-old chickens and laying hens, respectively. Only the GM-DAS blocking ELISA was able to discriminate between S. enteritidis infections and infections with the other serotypes. This ELISA had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% for all serum samples from experimentally infected chickens. A field study is in progress to evaluate whether this test can be implemented in the Dutch S. enteritidis eradication program. PMID:1400954

  17. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  18. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  19. Experimental Infection of Horses with West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Richard A.; Cropp, Bruce C.; Sullivan, Kevin G.; Davis, Brent S.; Komar, Nieholas; Godsey, Marvin; Baker, Dale; Hettler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Derek A.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Mitchell, Carl J.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female Ae. albopictus fed on eight of the infected horses. In the first trial, Nt antibody titers reached >1:320, 1:20, 1:160, and 1:80 for horses 1 to 4, respectively. In the second trial, the seven horses with subclinical infections developed Nt antibody titers >1:10 between days 7 and 11 post infection. The highest viremia level in horses fed upon by the recipient mosquitoes was approximately 460 Vero cell PFU/mL. All mosquitoes that fed upon viremic horses were negative for the virus. Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature. PMID:11971771

  20. The effects of simple and disposable chicken cages for experimental Eimeria infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During experimental Eimeria infection in chickens, facilities are contaminated by fecal oocysts which are known to be highly resistance to both chemical and enzymatic treatments. Thus, studies on experimental Eimeria infection have been limited by requirement of complete elimination of residual oocy...

  1. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  2. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. Here we report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  3. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  4. Low proviral small ruminant lentivirus load as biomarker of natural restriction in goats.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Helena; Bertolotti, Luigi; Proffiti, Margherita; Cascio, Paolo; Cerruti, Fulvia; Acutis, Pier Luigi; de Andrés, Damián; Reina, Ramsés; Rosati, Sergio

    2016-08-30

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) globally affect welfare and production of sheep and goats and are mainly controlled through elimination of infected animals, independently of the viral kinetics within the single animal. Control programs are based on highly sensitive serological tests, however the existence of low antibody responders leads to the permanent presence of seronegative infected animals in the flock, thus perpetuating the infection. On the other hand, long-term non-progressors show a detectable antibody response not indicative of a shedding animal, suggesting immune contention of infection. In this study, we analyse two goat populations within the same herd, harbouring low or high proviral SRLV loads respectively, both showing a robust antibody response. In vivo findings were confirmed in vitro since fibroblastic cell lines obtained from one high and one low proviral load representative goats, showed respectively a high and a faint production of virus upon infection with reference and field circulating SRLV strains. Differences in virus production were relieved when strain CAEV-Co was used for experimental infection. We analysed LTR promoter activity, proviral load, entry step and production of virus and viral proteins. Intriguingly, proteasomal activity was higher in fibroblasts from low proviral load animals and proteasome inhibition increased viral production in both cell lines, suggesting the implication of active proteasome-dependent restriction factors. Among them, we analysed relative expression and sequences of TRIM5α, APOBEC3 (Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3) and BST-2 (Tetherin) and found a global antiviral status in low proviral carriers that may confer protection against viral shedding and disease onset. PMID:27527777

  5. Experimental Salmonella Enterica Infection in Market-weight Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Market pigs infected with Salmonella pose a significant food safety risk by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in market-weight pigs (220-240 lbs.). Pigs (n=24) were individually inoculated (intranasally; 108 cfu/mL) with Salm...

  6. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  7. Diarrhea in lambs experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium isolated from calves.

    PubMed

    Tzipori, S; Angus, K W; Gray, E W; Campbell, I; Allan, F

    1981-08-01

    Two to 5 days after oral inoculation with Cryptosporidium obtained from infected calves, 7 newborn specific-pathogen-free lambs became depressed and anorectic and developed diarrhea. Four moribund lambs were killed within 3 days after onset of illness, and the 3 other lambs died after protracted intermittent diarrhea and reduced milk intake, which lasted up to 14 days. The small and large intestines were heavily infected with Cryptosporidium, with the terminal portion of the ileum being the most severely affected. Histologic examination revealed villous atrophy, with considerable fusion and epithelial cross-bridging between villi. Lambs infected at 5 to 20 days of age had less severe clinical signs of disease, with intermittent diarrhea, reduced milk intake, and growth retardation. Lambs infected at 30 days of age became infected with the organism, but did not develop clinical signs of disease or growth retardation. PMID:7294476

  8. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. PMID:27157333

  9. [Study of cows experimentally infected with atypical mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Savov, N; Pavlov, N

    1975-01-01

    Cows were infected subcutaneously with Mycobacterium aquae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Micobacterium vaccae, and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The investigations carried out on the thirtieth day following infection revealed allergic reaction in all cows with close variations when avian and bovine tuberculin were used. The complement-fixation test with blood sera pointed to the presence of specific antibodies for the Mycobacterium genus. The histopathologic reaction in the lymph nodes, established after the slaughter of the animals on the 45th day of infection, was a proliferative-infiltrative one, the epitheloid cells being located at the periphery of the trabecules. Giant cells and necroses were missing. PMID:1198916

  10. Behavioural changes and muscle strength in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with Toxocara cati and T. canis.

    PubMed

    Santos, S V; Moura, J V L; Lescano, S A Z; Castro, J M; Ribeiro, M C S A; Chieffi, P P

    2015-07-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are nematode parasites in dogs and cats, respectively, transmitted by ingestion of embryonated eggs, transmammary and transplacental (T. canis) routes and paratenic host predation. Many parasites use mechanisms that change the behaviour of their hosts to ensure continued transmission. Several researchers have demonstrated behavioural changes in mouse models as paratenic hosts for T. canis. However, there have been no studies on behavioural changes in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with T. cati. This study investigated behavioural changes and muscle strength in male and female rats experimentally infected with T. cati or T. canis in acute and chronic phases of infection. Regardless of sex, rats infected with T. cati showed a greater decrease in muscle strength 42 days post infection compared to rats infected with T. canis. However, behavioural changes were only observed in female rats infected with T. canis. PMID:24725503

  11. Experimental Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) infections in piscivorous birds.

    PubMed

    Doffitt, Cynthia M; Pote, Linda M; King, D Tommy

    2009-07-01

    In order to determine potential definitive hosts of the digenetic trematode, Bolbophorus damnificus, two American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), two Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), two Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and two Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were captured, treated with praziquantel, and fed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) infected with B. damnificus metacercariae. Patent infections of B. damnificus, which developed in both American White Pelicans at 3 days postinfection, were confirmed by the presence of trematode ova in the feces. Mature B. damnificus trematodes were recovered from the intestines of both pelicans at 21 days postinfection, further confirming the establishment of infection. No evidence of B. damnificus infections was observed in the other bird species studied. This study provides further evidence that Double-crested Cormorants, Great Blue Herons, and Great Egrets do not serve as definitive hosts for B. damnificus. PMID:19617478

  12. Experimental infection of mice with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to infect mice. Two mice each were either mock infected or inoculated with one of three BVDV strains by the intraperitoneal (IP) (n = 8) or intranasal (IN) (n = 8) route. All mice were euthanized at day 7 postinfection (p.i.). None of the infected mice exhibited any clinical signs of illness; however, the tissues harvested after BVDV challenge showed significant histopathological changes. Blood samples from five mice that were injected IP and one mouse that was inoculated IN were positive for BVDV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the presence of viral antigen in the organs of mice infected with three BVDV strains. In IP-injected mice, BVDV antigen was detected in the spleen (5/6), mesenteric lymph nodes (4/6), lymphatic tissue of the lung (3/6), lung (1/6), and stomach (1/6) of the infected mice; however, it was not detected in the liver (0/6) or kidney (0/6). In IN-inoculated mice, BVDV antigen was detected in the lung and mesenteric lymph nodes of one BVDV-infected mouse but was not detected in other tissues. The results of this study suggest that the spleen is the most reliable tissue for BVDV antigen detection using IHC in the IP-injected group. Our study demonstrates that mice can be infected by BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV infection in mice. PMID:25850760

  13. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  14. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  15. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  16. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  17. Kinetics and anthelmintic efficacy of topical eprinomectin when given orally to goats.

    PubMed

    Badie, C; Lespine, A; Devos, J; Sutra, J F; Chartier, C

    2015-04-15

    Preliminary data suggest that topical eprinomectin in goat shows an individual variation in anthelmintic efficacy when used off-license at a dose rate of 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg BW. As a result, the use of oral administration of topical formulation of eprinomectin tends to develop in dairy goat farms in France. The plasma levels and milk excretion as well as the anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin were determined in goats following oral administration of a topical formulation of the drug at dose rates of 0.5 and 1mg/kg BW. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 17.62 ± 9.68 ng day/ml and 6.56 ± 4.00 ng day/ml for plasma and milk respectively after the administration of 0.5mg/kg BW and 45.32 ± 13.90 ng day/ml and 13.88 ± 1.77 ng day/ml for plasma and milk, respectively after the administration of 1mg/kg BW. The milk-to-plasma ratio ranged from 0.33 to 0.36 and the amount of drug recovered in the milk was 0.4% of the total administered dose. The maximum concentrations of eprinomectin residues determined in milk after oral treatment were < 20 μg/kg (Maximum Residue Limit in goat milk). The anthelmintic efficacy of the oral administration of topical eprinomectin was 100% through Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test in natural infection and ≥ 99.8% through Controlled Test in experimental infection (Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis). Additional information is needed about the fate of the vehicles used for topical formulation when given by oral route concerning food safety. PMID:25744609

  18. [Experimental and natural infection with the enzootic leukosis virus of cattle].

    PubMed

    Hofírek, B; Horín, P; Granátová, M; Machatková, M; Franz, J; Svoboda, I; Blecha, J

    1986-03-01

    A trial was performed with heifers at the age of six to seven months. The animals were experimentally infected with the lymphocytes of a virus-productive donor. Infection was produced in all the nine cases, as demonstrated by means of the positive syncytial test. As indicated by the results of the trial, the antibodies to the enzootic bovine leucosis virus (BLV) were produced soon after experimental infection. A high sensitivity of the serum-neutralization test and the ELISA method was demonstrated in this connection: by these methods, the antibodies were identified already two to three weeks after experimental infection whereas by the immunodiffusion test they could be detected only after five weeks. Twenty-four animals were exposed to natural contact infection. Within 270 days of the trial, the disease after contact was recorded only in one heifer out of the four that were in close contact with the experimentally infected animals. In this case, as compared with experimental infection, the antibodies were produced much later--after 85 to 93 days. Leucosis was recorded in none of the remaining animals. The reasons why such a favourable result was obtained were the thorough disinfection of the stables after blood collections and the strict observance of the aseptic conditions. The results of experimental infection in three cows were identical with those obtained in young cattle. In the experimentally infected dairy cows, antibodies in milk were determined by the ELISA method. As found, in milk the antibodies to BLV appear two to three weeks later than they do in serum. The ELISA method of BLV antibody detection can be used for the identification of infected animals in herds where enzootic bovine leucosis occurs. PMID:3010532

  19. Innate resistance of mice to experimental infection with Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, R M; John, D T

    1978-01-01

    The mouse system provides an excellent model for studying host resistance to Naegleria fowleri, the agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Innate resistance to infection with N. fowleri was examined with respect to infecting dose and the age, sex, and strain of mice. Intravenous inoculation with 10(7) amoebae per mouse produced 100% mortality in 9 days, whereas inoculation with fewer amoebae reduced the cumulative mortality. Male and female DUB/ICR mice of varying ages were inoculated intravenously with 2.5 X 10(5) N. fowleri per g of body weight. The youngest mice died first, with 100% mortality for both males and females, and mortality decreased with increasing age. Female mice were significantly more resistant to infection than males. Five strains of mice weighing approximately 20 g were inoculated intravenously with weight-adjusted doses; mortality ranged from 10% in C57BL/6 mice to 95% in A/HeCr mice. PMID:669800

  20. Metabolomic Profiling in Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    De Buck, Jeroen; Shaykhutdinov, Rustem; Barkema, Herman W.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA) yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months) after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA), including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics was a sensitive

  1. ATTEMPS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attemps were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studing human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru, and Nepal were held in potassium dichro...

  2. ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studying human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru and Nepal were held in potassium dich...

  3. Experimental Lyme disease in dogs produces arthritis and persistent infection.

    PubMed

    Appel, M J; Allan, S; Jacobson, R H; Lauderdale, T L; Chang, Y F; Shin, S J; Thomford, J W; Todhunter, R J; Summers, B A

    1993-03-01

    Lyme disease was reproduced in specific pathogen-free beagle dogs by exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks (Ixodes dammini). Seroconversion and disease frequency were higher after exposure to infected adult ticks than to infected nymphs. Young pups developed clinical disease more readily than older dogs. The incubation period lasted 2-5 months. Acute recurrent lameness with fibrinopurulent arthritis was the dominant clinical sign. Dogs recovered but developed persistent mild polyarthritis. B. burgdorferi persisted in recovered dogs for at least 1 year. Isolation of B. burgdorferi and detection by polymerase chain reaction was most successful from skin biopsies at the site of the tick bite. Antibody to B. burgdorferi antigens was first detected by ELISA and Western blots by 4-6 weeks after exposure. High serum levels persisted during 17 months of observation. In contrast to infection from ticks, inoculation of dogs with cultured B. burgdorferi resulted in seroconversion with a shorter duration of antibody persistence and no clinical disease. PMID:8440936

  4. SEROLOGIC RESPONSES OF CATS AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA INFECTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most important cause of a neurologic disease of horses, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Cats and other carnivores can act as its intermediate hosts and horses are aberrant hosts. Little is known of the sero-epidemiology of S. neurona infections in cats. In the...

  5. Cytokine Responses of Cattle to Experimental M. bovis Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An impediment to the development of efficacious vaccines for bovine tuberculosis has been the failure to demonstrate strong associations between immune function and protective immunity. Cytokine gene expression in response to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection was evaluated to identify correla...

  6. Comparison of monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus isolation for detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in goat tissues and secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Saliki, J T; House, J A; Mebus, C A; Dubovi, E J

    1994-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) was developed for specific detection of peste des petits ruminants virus. Compared with virus isolation in Vero cell cultures using 89 paired tissue and secretion samples from six experimentally infected goats, S-ELISA was significantly more sensitive (71.9% versus 65.2%; P < 0.05). The S-ELISA is a suitable alternative to virus isolation. PMID:8051266

  7. Efficacy of Topical Immunoglobulins against Experimental Adenoviral Ocular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nwanegbo, Edward C.; Romanowski, Eric G.; Gordon, Y. Jerold; Gambotto, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Presently, there is no U.S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA)–approved antiviral therapy for the treatment of adenoviral (Ad) ocular infections. The goal of the present study was to determine the antiviral efficacy of human immunoglobulin (Ig), a preparation of highly purified and concentrated immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies isolated from a large pool of human plasma donors, in vitro and on acute Ad replication in the Ad5 New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit ocular model. Methods The antiviral activity of human Ig against multiple wild-type and human ocular isolates of adenovirus serotypes was investigated in vitro by using neutralizing assays in different human epithelial cell lines. In vivo bilateral topical ocular toxicity and antiviral efficacy were evaluated with established Ad5/NZW rabbit ocular models. In vivo Ig antiviral results were compared with those obtained with topical 0.5% cidofovir and saline. Results In three different epithelial cell lines, ≤6.25 mg/mL of the Ig neutralized several wild-type adenoviral serotypes that cause ocular infections. A dose of ≤10 mg/mL neutralized 88% of ocular isolates of the adenovirus serotypes. After treatment of infected animals, adenovirus-positive cultures per total cultures (days 1–14; P = 0.021), the duration of Ad5 shedding, (P = 0.008), and the mean combined ocular viral titer during the early (days 1–5; P = 0.0001) and the late (days 7–14; P = 0.013) phases of infection were significantly lower in Ig-treated animals than in saline-treated animals and were similar to those in cidofovir-treated animals. Conclusions Ig demonstrated antiviral properties against multiple adenoviral serotypes in vitro and in the Ad5/NZW rabbit ocular model. Further studies are needed to advance topical immunoglobulin for treatment and prophylaxis of ocular infections. PMID:17724203

  8. Atorvastatin and metformin administration modulates experimental Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmad A; Abou Rayia, Dina M; Ashour, Dalia S; Saied, Eman M; Zineldeen, Doaa H; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2016-04-01

    The host-parasite interaction can be altered by the changes in the host environment that may be or may not be in favor of successful invasion by the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis. Metformin and atorvastatin are applied on a wide scale, to the degree that they could be considered as part of the host biochemical environment that can affect the parasite. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of alteration of the host's biochemical environment by these commonly used drugs upon the course of T. spiralis infection. Mice were divided into three groups: (1) received atorvastatin, (2) received metformin, and (3) untreated, then after one week, animals were infected with T. spiralis. The treatment continued until the end of the experiment. From each group, small intestines and muscles were removed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses as well as total muscle larval counts. We found that the oxidative stress and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the muscles were significantly reduced in both drug-receiving groups, while the total larval counts in muscles were only significantly reduced in atorvastatin-receiving group as compared to the infected control group. Moreover, marked reduction in the inflammatory cellular infiltration, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and oxidative stress was noted in the small intestines of the treated groups as compared to the infected control group. In conclusion, this study provides many insights into the different biochemical changes in the host that the parasite has to face. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects should be taken into consideration when treating infections in patients on therapy with atorvastatin or metformin. PMID:26546571

  9. Renal effects of Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally and naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Vaden, S L; Arther, R G; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Ensley, S M; Chopade, N H

    2011-03-22

    Canine heartworm infection has been associated with glomerular disease and proteinuria. We hypothesized that proteinuria, likely due to glomerular damage, would also be found in cats experimentally and naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Two populations of cats were evaluated, including 80 that were each experimentally infected with 60 infective heartworm larvae as part of a drug safety study, and 31 that were naturally infected with D. immitis. Each had a control population with which to be compared. In the experimentally infected group, we evaluated urine from 64 cats. Ten of these cats were shown to have microalbuminuria 8 months post infection. No cat refractory to infection with larvae and no cats from the control group demonstrated microalbuminuria. All 10 microalbuminuric cats were shown to have significant proteinuria, as measured by the urine protein:creatinine ratio. There was a subtle, but significant, association between worm burden and proteinuria, and although the presence of adult heartworms was required for the development of proteinuria, both microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic cats were affected. Neither the presence of circulating heartworm antibodies and antigen nor the presence of antigenuria predicted the development of proteinuria. Both heavily infected cats (5-25 adult heartworms) and cats with worm burdens compatible with natural infections (1-4 adult heartworms) developed proteinuria, and the relative numbers of cats so affected were similar between heavily and more lightly infected cats. Naturally infected cats, for which only dipstick protein determinations were available, were shown to have a significantly greater incidence of proteinuria (90% vs 35%) than did those in an age- and gender-matched control population. Additionally, the proteinuria in heartworm-infected cats was 3- to 5-fold greater in severity. We conclude that cats infected with mature adult heartworms are at risk for developing proteinuria and that this is

  10. Observations on mass production of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae from experimentally and naturally infected Bulinus tropicus.

    PubMed

    Mavenyengwa, M; Mukaratirwa, S; Obwolo, M; Monrad, J

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to establish an ideal method for mass production of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae, a study was carried out to compare the shedding capacities of Bulinus tropicus naturally and experimentally infected with C. microbothrium. A total of 906 F1 B. tropicus between 4 and 5 weeks old were each experimentally infected with two C. microbothrium miracidia and monitored for 12 weeks. The infected snails were fed on dried lettuce and fish flakes and were kept in 1 l plastic aquaria housed in a snail room where temperature, light and humidity were controlled. Seventy-four percent of the experimentally infected snails died during the prepatent period and of the remaining, only 13.2% developed patent infection, while 12.5% were refractory. Snail growth rate was poor and the average shedding rate was 20 cercariae per snail per day. Compared to the experimentally infected snails, 2200 adult B. tropicus, collected from the field and naturally infected with C. microbothrium, yielded high numbers of metacercariae. Eighty-four percent of the snails died within 7 weeks of the study with peak mortality occurring from the 2nd to the 4th week of infection and coinciding with an overall decrease in the number of cercariae shed. PMID:16958259

  11. Immunologic Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves After Oral or Intraperitoneal Experimental Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection models are useful for studying host responses to infection to aid in the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The majority of experimental models for ruminants have utilized an oral inoculation of live Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in order to establish infecti...

  12. Fetal death in cows experimentally infected with Neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle, but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. Most of the N. caninum experimental primary infections in cattle late in gestation, after 120 days of pregnancy, results in birth of full-term congenitally infected fetuses....

  13. Effect of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of three experiments was to determine the influence of high condensed tannin (CT) grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts (FEC) in goats. Sixteen naturally-infected Boer crossbred mixed sex goats were used at 124 plus minus 2.9 days of age in Experiment 1, 24 mixe...

  14. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens in Australian canids with natural or experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Fraser, A; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

    2000-02-01

    Coproparasitological and purging methods for diagnosing canids infected with the intestinal helminth Echinococcus granulosus, an important zoonotic parasite, are unreliable. Detection of coproantigens in feces of infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is suitable for detecting patent and prepatent infections with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, natural and experimental infections in domestic and wild Australian canids were investigated using a coproantigen capture ELISA. Experimental infection of dogs with E. granulosus was detected at between 14 and 22 days postinfection (PI), and optical density (OD) values remained high until termination of experiments 35 days PI. After chemotherapy, coproantigen levels in infected dogs dropped rapidly, becoming negative 2-4 days after treatment. In experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the coproantigen excretion profile was different, with ELISA OD levels peaking 15-17 days PI, then falling to low or undetectable levels by 30 days PI. Coproantigens were detected in the feces of naturally infected Australian wild dogs (dingoes, dingo/domestic dog hybrids) with infection levels ranging between 2 worms and 42,600. Preliminary data on the stability of coproantigen in dog feces exposed to environmental conditions indicated that there was no change in antigenicity over 6 days. The results suggest the coproantigen ELISA could be successfully used to monitor E. granulosus prevalence rates in Australian domestic dogs, foxes, and wild dogs. PMID:10701577

  15. Electrophoretic pattern of Linguatula serrata larva isolated goat mesenteric lymph node.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Rabeeh; Gerami, Abbas; Omrani, Vahid Fallah

    2016-06-01

    Linguatula serrata, one of the parasitic zoonoses, inhabits the canid and felid respiratory system. The parasite is tongue-shaped, lightly convex dorsally and flattened ventrally. Males measure 1.8-2 cm, while females measure 8-13 cm in length. Disease due to infection with this parasite in humans is more likely to cause pharyngitis, nausea and vomiting, sore and itchy throat, cough, phlegm and runny nose. Present study aimed to determine linguatula's larva somatic antigens in lymph nodes of infected goats and also reveal the major component of antigenic protein. To determine the electrophoretic pattern of L. serrata's larvae, 50 samples were taken from goat's referred to the slaughter house of Amol, Mazandaran, Iran. After performing SDS-PAGE on somatic antigens, 6 bands (19, 20, 36, 48, 75,100 KDa) were seen in which the 36, 48 and 75 KDa bands were more prominent. In conclusion, it is recommended to determine the most important antigenic protein of this parasite could be used an experimental model in infection up to determine the most significant component of this parasite's antigen and use of that in immunogenicity and detection of infection. PMID:27413296

  16. Babesia gibsoni: detection during experimental infections and after combined atovaquone and azithromycin therapy.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, R; Ryan, U M; Jardine, J; Robertson, I D; Irwin, P J

    2007-10-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a protozoan parasite of dogs worldwide yet both an effective treatment and a reliable method for detecting subclinical cases of this emerging infection remain elusive. Experimental B. gibsoni infections were established in vivo to investigate the efficacy of combined atovaquone and azithromycin drug therapy and to determine the detection limits of a nested-PCR, IFAT and microscopy during various stages of infection. While atovaquone and azithromycin produced a reduction in parasitaemia, it did not eliminate the parasite and drug resistance appeared to develop in one dog. Polymerase chain reaction was found to be most useful in detecting infection in the pre-acute and acute stages, while IFAT was most reliable during chronic infections. Microscopy is suggested to be only effective for detecting acute stage infections. This study also describes the detection of B. gibsoni in tissue samples during chronic infections for the first time, suggesting possible sequestration of this parasite. PMID:17543304

  17. Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans. PMID:23152826

  18. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  19. Experimental Infection of Reindeer with Cervid Herpesvirus 2▿

    PubMed Central

    das Neves, Carlos G.; Mørk, Torill; Godfroid, Jacques; Sørensen, Karen K.; Breines, Eva; Hareide, Ellinor; Thiry, Julien; Rimstad, Espen; Thiry, Etienne; Tryland, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) has been isolated from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), and serological data indicate that in reindeer this virus is endemic in Fennoscandia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. CvHV2 has been described as a cause of subclinical genital infections in reindeer, but little information on primary infections exists. In this study, six seronegative and presumably pregnant reindeer were allocated to one of two groups. Two animals were inoculated with CvHV2 intratracheally, and two animals intravaginally, with one control animal in each group receiving sterile water. Mild hyperthermia and serous discharges from the vagina and nose were observed. No abortions were recorded, but one calf died shortly after birth. Inoculated animals seroconverted and had neutralizing antibodies after days 7 to 10 postinfection. CvHV2 was detected by PCR in nasal and vaginal swabs from animals in both groups but could be isolated only from nasal swabs in the respiratory group and from vaginal swabs in the genital group. CvHV2 was detected by PCR in various organs and tissues postmortem. In control animals, the virus could not be isolated in spite of PCR-positive nasal and vaginal swab samples and some degree of positive immunostaining. One of the animals that were inoculated intratracheally developed a hemorrhagic, necrotizing bronchopneumonia, which was CvHV2 positive by PCR and immunohistochemistry. We conclude that CvHV2 can cause systemic infection, that both genital and respiratory inoculations can lead to virus shedding, and that the virus can infect the fetus in utero. PMID:19846680

  20. Helminth parasite proteomics: from experimental models to human infections

    PubMed Central

    MUTAPI, FRANCISCA

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a major human helminth infection endemic in developing countries. Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by S. haematobium, is the most prevalent human schistosome disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently control of schistosome infection is by treatment of infected people with the anthelmintic drug praziquantel, but there are calls for continued efforts to develop a vaccine against the parasites. In order for successful vaccine development, it is necessary to understand the biology and molecular characteristics of the parasite. Ultimately, there is need to understand the nature and dynamics of the relationship between the parasite and the natural host. Thus, my studies have focused on molecular characterization of different parasite stages and integrating this information with quantitative approaches to investigate the nature and development of protective immunity against schistosomes in humans. Proteomics has proved a powerful tool in these studies allowing the proteins expressed by the parasite to be characterized at a molecular and immunological level. In this review, the application of proteomic approaches to understanding the human-schistosome relationship as well as testing specific hypotheses on the nature and development of schistosome-specific immune responses is discussed. The contribution of these approaches to informing schistosome vaccine development is highlighted. PMID:22455721

  1. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats’ cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV. PMID:26671568

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been studied experimentally for years using intranasal inoculation of the golden Sytrian hamster. Because of recent evidence outlining the role in pulmonary immune development of particle size and depth of mycoplasma...

  3. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arathy D. S.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K.; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Ganta, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  4. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi-Trypanosoma rangeli co-infection ameliorates negative effects of single trypanosome infections in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses. PMID:27174360

  6. [Chemotherapy of experimental rickettsial infection under the influence of small doses of radiation].

    PubMed

    Basarab, N I

    2003-01-01

    Radiation is of particular importance among a lot of environment factors dangerous for human health, including the effect of small dozes of radiation. State of rickettsial infection under the influence of small dozes of radiation and under administration of immunostimulator Imunal and antibiotic doxycyclin has been studied. Researches were conducted on guinea pigs, using the experimental rickettsial infection. Researches have shown that the use of immunostimulator Imunal and antibiotic doxycyclin had positive effect on the immunity indices of the experimental rickettsial infection in animals in the conditions of influence of small dozes of radiation. PMID:14723161

  7. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    PubMed

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats. PMID:18457178

  8. Frequency and duration of paratyphoid organism shedding by experimentally infected bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Pourciau, S S; Springer, W T

    1978-04-01

    Four-week old bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were experimentally infected with Salmonella urbana, S. infantis, S. newport, S. gaminara, S. braenderup, and S. litchfield. Rates of mortality varied from 0 to 50%. The rate of shedding of paratyphoid organisms varied from 14 to 100% for 18 or more days after infection. The maximum duration of shedding was 53 days by 12% of the quail infected with S. braenderup and the minimum duration was 18 days by 14% of the quail infected with S. litchfield. PMID:650785

  9. Natural and experimental evidence of viscerotropic infection caused by Leishmania tropica from North Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Doha, Said A; Shehata, Magdi G; Fahmy, Adel R; Samy, Abdallah M

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form that is quite prevalent in Eastern North parts of the country in Sinai Peninsula. Leishmania tropica was identified by previous reports as the causative agent responsible for viscerotropic infections in-patients and experimental animals. Here, we reported the viscerotropic infections from naturally infected rodent Gerbillus pyramidum floweri collected from North-Sinai. Footpad and tail lesions, spleenomegaly, and malformed dark-colored spleen were the characteristic CL symptoms. The spleen of the rodent found positive to amastigote impression smear. ITS-1 DNA was sequenced and revealed 100% identity of the strain in the current study to the other L. tropica sequences identified from the patients with the suspected CL and inhabited the same study area. The current findings confirmed the susceptibility of gerbil to L. tropica, and raise the concerns for the role of rodents as accidental host suffering the infections. The susceptibility of wild and experimental rodents to the same L. tropica strain was also investigated; BALB/c and G. pyramidum were more susceptible to L. tropica (24.33 ± 4.37 and 25 ± 4.58 days post-infection, respectively). Similar viscerotropic pathologies were reported in experimental infection of only golden hamster (≈ 120 days post-infection), and G. p. floweri (≈ 160 days post-infection). PMID:25597157

  10. Experimental infection of Oncomelania quadrasi with Paragonimus ohirai.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, K; Blas, B L; Santos, A T

    1984-06-01

    Two hundred Oncomelania quadrasi collected from Leyte, Philippines were exposed to infection with Paragonimus ohirai, a rodent type lung fluke. In a group, each snail was exposed individually to 10 miracidia hatched from eggs which were brought from Japan to the Philippines. In another group, 100 snails were placed in a Petri dish and P. ohirai miracidia were added to provide 10 per snail. The observations were made each successive week after exposure. All the snails examined were positive for the larvae of P. ohirai. Nine-ten weeks after exposure, many cercariae were recognized. It was proved that O. quadrasi is highly susceptible to P. ohirai. PMID:6505784

  11. Efficacy of Ronidazole for Treatment of Cats Experimentally Infected with a Korean Isolate of Tritrichomonas foetus

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sun; Park, Sang-Ik; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ronidazole for treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus infection, 6 Tritrichomonas-free kittens were experimentally infected with a Korean isolate of T. foetus. The experimental infection was confirmed by direct microscopy, culture, and single-tube nested PCR, and all cats demonstrated trophozoites of T. foetus by day 20 post-infection in the feces. From day 30 after the experimentally induced infection, 3 cats were treated with ronidazole (50 mg/kg twice a day for 14 days) and 3 other cats received placebo. Feces from each cat were tested for the presence of T. foetus by direct smear and culture of rectal swab samples using modified Diamond's medium once a week for 4 weeks. To confirm the culture results, the presence of T. foetus rRNA gene was determined by single-tube nested PCR assay. All 3 cats in the treatment group receiving ronidazole showed negative results for T. foetus infection during 2 weeks of treatment and 4 weeks follow-up by all detection methods used in this study. In contrast, rectal swab samples from cats in the control group were positive for T. foetus continuously throughout the study. The present study indicates that ronidazole is also effective to treat cats infected experimentally with a Korean isolate of T. foetus at a dose of 50 mg/kg twice a day for 14 days. PMID:22711930

  12. Hematological and Serum Biochemical Analyses in Experimental Caprine Besnoitiosis

    PubMed Central

    Oryan, Ahmad; Namazi, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the hematological and biochemical changes in experimentally infected goats with Besnoitia caprae from the time of infection till 360 days post-infection (PI). Six male goats were inoculated subcutaneously with 13×107 bradyzoites of B. caprae, and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. The total erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, hematocrit value, and differential leukocyte counts were determined. Serum biochemical analysis, including the total protein, albumin, total globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, chloride, testosterone, calcium (Ca2+), inorganic phosphorus, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), iron (Fe2+), glucose, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase, was undertaken. Skin biopsy from the limbs were collected at weekly intervals and histologically examined for Besnoitia cysts. Cysts were present in the skin biopsies of the leg of the infected goats from day 28 PI. There were variations in hematological analyses, but no significant difference was seen. From day 30 to 360 PI, results showed that SAA, Hp, fibrinogen, and ceruloplasmin concentrations increased, whereas testosterone concentrations decreased. Infected goats exhibited decrease of albumin and increase of serum total protein and globulin concentrations. By contrast, there were no significant differences in the remained analyses concentrations. PMID:21738268

  13. Experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. V. Protective immunity in subclinical and self-healing infection in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, P M; Dumonde, D C

    1976-01-01

    This study shows how infection of CBA mice with L. tropica can be manipulated so as to mimic the principal features of both subclinical and self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis in man. CBA mice were infected with graded inocula of L. tropica promastigotes. The pattern of primary infection was found to be dependent on dose of infecting organisms: mice given low dose inocula (10(2), 10(3)) developed subclinical infections; those given high dose inocula (10(4), 10(5), 10(6)) developed overt, clinical lesions. Size and duration of lesions, and antibody production were directly proportional to dose; delayed hypersensitivity responses were inversely proportional to dose. Protective immunity to challenge infection was induced by both subclinical and clinical infection; and was manifest both during and after the healing stages of primary lesions. Protective immunity was also induced by artificial immunization with sonicated promastigotes in adjuvants but was only manifest if the challenge dose was not too large. The course of challenge infections differed depending on the method of immunization, i.e. whether by infection or artificial immunization. Lymphoid cells from immune CBA mice conferred protection on recipient syngeneic CBA mice against challenge infection; serum from immune mice did not, but suspension of immune peritoneal cells in immune serum enhanced their protective capacity. The experimental induction of protective immunity by low-dose infection, without a clinical allergic response at the site of inoculation, is of importance in designing an immunoprophylactic approach to human leishmaniasis. PMID:1261086

  14. Enterotoxaemia in goats.

    PubMed

    Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R

    1996-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia of sheep and goats occurs worldwide, but the condition in goats is poorly understood. The disease in goats is mostly caused by Clostridium perfringens type D, although the role of the toxins of this microorganism in the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. The disease occurs in three forms, peracute, acute and chronic, the cardinal clinical sign of the acute and chronic forms being diarrhoea. The main biochemical alterations are hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, while at necropsy the disease is often characterized by haemorrhagic colitis. The typical histological changes observed in the brain of sheep with enterotoxaemia are not considered to be a common feature of enterotoxaemia in goats. Although the pathogenesis of caprine enterotoxaemia has not yet been properly defined, it is usually accepted that the presence of C. perfringens type D in the small bowel, together with a sudden change to a diet rich in carbohydrates, is the main predisposing factor for the disease. Vaccination seems to be poorly effective in preventing caprine enterotoxaemia, which might be due to the fact that the enteric form of the disease is partially independent of circulating C. perfringens toxin. More studies are needed on caprine enterotoxaemia, especially of its pathogenesis and immunity, in order to develop more efficient control measures for this disease. PMID:8950829

  15. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  16. Bone formation and degradation behavior of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with or without collagen-type 1 in osteoporotic bone defects - an experimental study in osteoporotic goats.

    PubMed

    Alt, Volker; Cheung, Wing Hoi; Chow, Simon K H; Thormann, Ulrich; Cheung, Edmond N M; Lips, Katrin S; Schnettler, Reinhard; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2016-06-01

    The intention of the current work is to assess new bone formation and degradation behavior of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with (HA/col-1) or without collagen-type I (HA) in osteoporotic metaphyseal bone defects in goats. After ovariectomy and special low-calcium diet for three months, 3 drill hole defects in the vertebrae of L3, L4, L5, 4 drill hole defects in the right and left iliac crest and 1 drill hole defect at the distal femur were created in three Chinese mountain goats with a total of 24 defects. The defects were either filled with one of the biomaterials or left empty (empty defect control group). After 42 days, the animals were euthanized and the samples were assessed for new bone formation using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and histomorphometry with 2 regions of interest. Detail histology, enzymehistochemistry and immunohistochemistry as well as connexin-43 in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy were carried out for evaluation of degradation behavior of the materials and cellular responses of the surrounding tissue in respect to the implants. HR-pQCT showed the highest BV/TV ratio (p = 0.008) and smallest trabecular spacing (p = 0.005) for HA compared to the other groups in the region of interest at the interface with 1mm distance to the initially created defect. The HA/col-1 yielded the highest connectivity density (Conn.D) (p = 0.034) and the highest number of trabeculae (Tb.N) (p = 0.002) compared to the HA and the control group. Histomorphometric analysis for the core region of the initially created defect revealed a statistically higher new bone formation in the HA (p = 0.001) and HA/col-1 group (p = 0.001) compared to the empty defect group including all defect sites. This result was confirmed for site specific analysis with significant higher new bone formation for the HA group for vertebral defects compared to the empty defect group (p = 0.029). For the interface region, no

  17. Major histocompatibility complex heterozygosity reduces fitness in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Ilmonen, Petteri; Penn, Dustin J; Damjanovich, Kristy; Morrison, Linda; Ghotbi, Laleh; Potts, Wayne K

    2007-08-01

    It is often suggested that heterozygosity at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci confers enhanced resistance to infectious diseases (heterozygote advantage, HA, hypothesis), and overdominant selection should contribute to the evolution of these highly polymorphic genes. The evidence for the HA hypothesis is mixed and mainly from laboratory studies on inbred congenic mice, leaving the importance of MHC heterozygosity for natural populations unclear. We tested the HA hypothesis by infecting mice, produced by crossbreeding congenic C57BL/10 with wild ones, with different strains of Salmonella, both in laboratory and in large population enclosures. In the laboratory, we found that MHC influenced resistance, despite interacting wild-derived background loci. Surprisingly, resistance was mostly recessive rather than dominant, unlike in most inbred mouse strains, and it was never overdominant. In the enclosures, heterozygotes did not show better resistance, survival, or reproductive success compared to homozygotes. On the contrary, infected heterozygous females produced significantly fewer pups than homozygotes. Our results show that MHC effects are not masked on an outbred genetic background, and that MHC heterozygosity provides no immunological benefits when resistance is recessive, and can actually reduce fitness. These findings challenge the HA hypothesis and emphasize the need for studies on wild, genetically diverse species. PMID:17603099

  18. Experimental rabies infection in haematophagous bats Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, M. F.; Martorelli, L. F. A.; Aires, C. C.; Sallum, P. C.; Durigon, E. L.; Massad, E.

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the susceptibility and serum neutralizing antibody response of Desmodus rotundus to rabies virus, bats were inoculated with a virus isolated from a naturally infected haematophagous bat. Bats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Dilutions of rabies virus containing 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 MICLD50 (lethal dose 50% for mice inoculated by the intracerebral route) were administrated in the pectoral muscle. The presence of rabies virus was detected in brain and salivary glands by fluorescent antibody, mouse inoculation and RT-PCR. The observed mortality for each virus dose was 0, 20, 20 and 60% respectively. Serum neutralizing antibodies were tested for by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, and antibody titres greater than 0.5 IU/ml were found in 53% of bats 30 days after virus inoculation. Resistance to infection was seen in bats that developed low or no detectable antibody response as well as in bats with high titres. Among the 10 bats that died of rabies, eight showed signs of paralytic rabies and two bats showed no clinical signs. PMID:15962559

  19. Experimental Eimeria debliecki infections in nursing and weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L; Boosinger, T R

    1987-06-01

    Three litters of six, 3-day-old nursing pigs were inoculated via a stomach tube with 8.0 X 10(5), 1.6 X 10(6) or 5.0 X 10(6) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria debliecki and four groups of six, 4-week-old weaned pigs were inoculated with 8.0 X 10(5), 1.6 X 10(6), 5.0 X 10(6) or 1.0 X 10(7) sporulated oocysts of E. debliecki to determine its pathogenicity. Clinical coccidiosis or deaths did not result from infections. Infections were confined to the jejunum and occasionally the duodenum. Microscopic lesions of mild to moderate villous atrophy were observed in one nursing pig given 5.0 X 10(6) oocysts and three weaned pigs given 1.6 X 10(6), 5.0 X 10(6) and 1.0 X 10(7) oocysts and examined 5 days post-inoculation. Pathogenic bacteria or viruses were not demonstrated in any pigs. Results of this study indicate that E. debliecki is not a cause of neonatal or weaning diarrhea in pigs. PMID:3629902

  20. Experimental Infection of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Root, J. Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T.; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Spraker, Terry R.; Franklin, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the responses of raccoons to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we subcutaneously exposed them to WNV. Moderately high viremia titers (≤ 104.6 plaque forming units [PFU]/mL of serum) were noted in select individuals; however, peak viremia titers were variable and viremia was detectable in some individuals as late as 10 days post-inoculation (DPI). In addition, fecal shedding was prolonged in some animals (e.g., between 6 and 13 DPI in one individual), with up to105.0 PFU/fecal swab detected. West Nile virus was not detected in tissues collected on 10 or 16 DPI, and no histologic lesions attributable to WNV infection were observed. Overall, viremia profiles suggest that raccoons are unlikely to be important WNV amplifying hosts. However, this species may occasionally shed significant quantities of virus in feces. Considering their behavioral ecology, including repeated use of same-site latrines, high levels of fecal shedding could potentially lead to interspecies fecal-oral WNV transmission. PMID:20889868

  1. Experimental Feline Herpesvirus Infection in the Pregnant Cat

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Edward A.; Griesemer, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Intravenous inoculation of pregnant cats with feline herpesvirus produced minimal illness but resulted in abortion, intrauterine fetal death and congenital fetal infection. Placental lesions included multiple infarcts in the placental labyrinth, thrombosis of maternal vessels in the endometrium and placenta, and multifocal necrosis of the giant-cell trophoblast and endometrial epithelium in the junctional zone of the placenta associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The virus was isolated from all the placentas and uteri but from none of the fetuses aborted 6-9 days after maternal intravenous inoculation. Viral antigen was demonstrated in the uterine vessels and in the junctional zone of the placenta at this time. On postinoculation day 26, viral antigen was demonstrated in the chorioallantoic membrane on the fetal side of the placenta and in the liver of a congenitally infected fetus. Although all 4 pregnant cats inoculated intranasally with feline herpesvirus aborted, neither virus, viral antigen nor significant lesions were detected in the uteri, placentas or fetuses. Abortion after intranasal inoculation was interpreted as a nonspecific reaction secondary to the severe, debilitating upper respiratory disease that occurred. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4328861

  2. HoBi-like pestivirus experimental infection in pregnant ewes: Reproductive disorders and generation of persistently infected lambs.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Varello, Katia; Patruno, Giovanni; Camero, Michele; Sciarra, Marina; Occhiogrosso, Leonardo; Tempesta, Maria; Iulini, Barbara; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-08-01

    In order to evaluate sheep as experimental model to test the efficacy of HoBi-like pestivirus vaccines for cattle, 10 sheep at different stages of pregnancy (30 or 50 days) were experimentally infected with the Italian prototype isolate Italy-1/10-1. Irrespective of the stage of pregnancy, virus inoculation resulted in reproductive failures, consisting of abortion, stillbirths or birth of weak or persistently infected (PI) lambs. Aborted fetuses, stillborn and dead lambs displayed extensive histopathological changes, consisting of hemorrhages, congestion and mononuclear infiltration in major organs. Pestiviral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry in most tissues with remarkable signals in lungs and kidneys. PI lambs were constantly viremic, shed the virus through the nasal secretions and feces and, in all cases but one, did not have detectable HoBi-like pestivirus antibodies before the assumption of colostrum. The single seropositive infected lamb showed low-titer viremia and viral shedding that ceased only several weeks after the 3-month observation period. The study proves that sheep are susceptible to the reproduction failures caused by HoBi-like pestivirus infection and can serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of the fetal protection induced by homologous experimental vaccines. PMID:26013415

  3. THE ROLE OF DIETARY VITAMIN E IN EXPERIMENTAL LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES INFECTIONS IN TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E in turkeys experimentally infected with Listeria monocytogenes. One-day-old turkeys (n = 70) were fed diets containing either 0 or 200 IU vitamin E. After 6 weeks on the experimental diet, turkeys were orally inoculated with...

  4. Contaminated water delivery as a simple and effective method of experimental Salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Hope; Pham, Oanh H.; Benoun, Joseph M.; Ravesloot-Chávez, Marietta M.; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In most infectious disease models, it is assumed that gavage needle infection is the most reliable means of pathogen delivery to the gastrointestinal tract. However, this methodology can cause esophageal tearing and induces stress in experimental animals, both of which have the potential to impact early infection and the subsequent immune response. Materials and Methods C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with virulent Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 either by intragastric gavage preceded by sodium bicarbonate, or by contamination of drinking water. Results We demonstrate that water contamination delivery of Salmonella is equivalent to gavage inoculation in providing a consistent model of infection. Furthermore, exposure of mice to contaminated drinking water for as little as 4 hours allowed maximal mucosal and systemic infection, suggesting an abbreviated window exists for natural intestinal entry. Conclusions Together, these data question the need for gavage delivery for infection with oral pathogens. PMID:26439708

  5. Experimental infection of Boa constrictor with an orthoreovirus isolated from a snake with inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Darke, Sabina; Marschang, Rachel E; Hetzel, Udo; Reinacher, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    Orthoreoviruses have been associated with disease in reptiles, but have not previously been isolated from snakes with inclusion body disease (IBD). An orthoreovirus was isolated from a Boa constrictor diagnosed with IBD and then used to conduct a transmission study to determine the clinical importance of this virus. For the transmission study, 10 juvenile boas were experimentally infected with the isolated orthoreovirus and compared to 5 sham-infected control animals. Orthoreovirus was reisolated for a period of 18 wk after infection and weight gain was reduced in infected snakes. Histological examination showed a mild hepatitis in three of four virologically positive snakes up to 12 wk after infection. Results indicated that the orthoreovirus was moderately pathogenic, but, no evidence was found to indicate that it was the causal agent of IBD. In the light of the discovery of Arenaviruses in some snakes with IBD, it was proposed that orthoreoviruses may play a role in synergistic infection. PMID:25000715

  6. Transmission of Lawsonia intracellularis to weanling foals using feces from experimentally infected rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, D; Vannucci, F A; Mapes, S; White, A; DiFrancesco, M; Gebhart, C

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether feces from rabbits experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis were infectious to foals. Two rabbits were infected with L. intracellularis, while two rabbits served as controls. Eight foals received daily feces from either the infected or the control rabbits. All rabbits and foals were monitored daily for clinical signs for the entire study period (21days for rabbits, 42days for foals). Feces and blood were collected for the PCR detection of L. intracellularis and serologic analysis, respectively. None of the infected rabbits or foals developed clinical signs compatible with proliferative enteropathy. All infected rabbits and foals shed L. intracellularis in their feces and all seroconverted. The results support the role of rabbits as asymptomatic amplifiers of L. intracellularis and their role as sources of infection for susceptible foals. PMID:22841447

  7. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrPSc staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates. PMID:25673912

  8. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Christina M; Schneider, Jay R; Pedersen, Joel A; Heisey, Dennis M; Johnson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates. PMID:25673912

  9. Pathology of experimental Babesia microti infection in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Cullen, J M; Levine, J F

    1987-10-01

    Pathologic changes produced after 4 weeks of infection by Babesia microti in Syrian hamsters are described and compared to babesiosis of humans. Following intraperitoneal inoculation, both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis developed. Up to 70% of red blood cells were parasitized. The principal morphologic abnormalities were an increase in extramedullary hematopoiesis and hyperplasia of the mononuclear phagocytic cells of the red pulp manifested grossly as splenomegaly, marked renal tubular hemosiderosis and hypertrophy of Kupffer cells. The disease was not fatal to any hamsters during the 4 week study. The clinical signs and lesions were less severe than fatal babesiosis of asplenic humans and similar to severe, but nonfatal disease in spleen intact humans. The hamster may serve as an animal model for the studying the pathophysiology of human babesiosis and for studying potential chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:3695401

  10. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  11. Immunopathological assessments of human Blastocystis spp. in experimentally infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Abdelgelil, Noha H; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Kamal, Amany M; Hassanin, Kamel M A; Abdel-Razik, Abdel-Razik H; Abdel-Raheem, Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    Blastocystis spp., one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. The host's immune response against Blastocystis spp. infection has also not been defined yet. Therefore, this research aimed to assess the potential pathogenicity of this parasite and its ability to modulate the immune response in experimental infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice. These results demonstrated that the infected immunosuppressed mice were more affected than infected immunocompetent mice. Histopathological examination of the small intestine in the infected immunosuppressed mice showed that Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the layers. Moreover, the epithelia showed exfoliation and inflammatory cell infiltration in submucosa compared to that of the infected immunocompetent mice. As well, examination of the large intestine of the infected immunosuppressed group showed severe goblet cell hyperplasia. Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the large intestine layers compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group. Furthermore, there was a significant upregulation of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the infected immunosuppressed mice compared to that of the infected immunocompetent ones (p ≤ 0.004 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). However, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) was significantly downregulated in the infected immunosuppressed group compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group one at 10 days postinfection (p ≤ 0.002 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively). The results of this study revealed that Blastocystis spp. affected the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both groups of mice compared to healthy normal (naive) group. Additionally, these data showed that there was a significant upregulation (p ≤ 0.005) of the locally

  12. Neospora caninum in cattle: experimental infection with oocysts can result in exogenous transplacental infection, but not endogenous transplacental infection in the subsequent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McCann, C M; McAllister, M M; Gondim, L F P; Smith, R F; Cripps, P J; Kipar, A; Williams, D J L; Trees, A J

    2007-12-01

    Whilst it is presumed that infection of pregnant cattle with Neospora caninum oocysts can provoke abortion and is the likely cause of epidemic abortion outbreaks, only two previous experiments have involved inoculation of pregnant cows with oocysts (and only one abortion was provoked in 22 pregnancies). Here, we describe the oral oocyst challenge of 18 cows synchronously bred and inoculated precisely at 70 (n=6), 120 (n=6) and 210 (n=6) days in pregnancy with a nominal dose of 40,000 oocysts. Only one abortion occurred (at the 120 days challenge) which could be definitively ascribed to N. caninum and no transplacental infection (TPI) was detected in any of the other 11 calves born in the 70 and 120 day challenge groups. In contrast, 4/5 live calves born to cattle challenged at 210 days were transplacentally infected. When cows which had transplacentally infected their calves in the first pregnancy were rebred, no TPI occurred. The results show that the timing of challenge influences clinical and parasitological outcomes and that cattle in late pregnancy are exquisitely sensitive to oocyst challenge leading to exogenous TPI and congenitally infected calves. However, cattle which were indisputably systemically infected in their first pregnancy did not induce endogenous TPI in their subsequent pregnancy. This confirms previous results with experimental tachyzoite challenge and suggests that post-natal infection does not lead to persisting infections which can recrudesce in pregnancy. PMID:17624353

  13. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose oral ponazuril in weanling goats.

    PubMed

    Love, D; Gibbons, P; Fajt, V; Jones, M

    2016-06-01

    Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a triazine antiprotozoal agent that targets apicomplexan organisms. Ponazuril may have clinical application in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis due to Eimeria species in goats, along with other protozoal infections. To evaluate the absorption, distribution and elimination characteristics of ponazuril in goats, a sensitive, validated high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy method for ponazuril in caprine plasma was developed. After a single oral dose of ponazuril at 10 mg/kg, plasma samples from seven weanling goats were collected and assayed. Plasma concentrations of ponazuril in the goats peaked at 36 ± 13 h post drug administration at a concentration of 9 ± 2 μg/mL. Concentrations declined to an average of 4.2 ± 0.8 μg/mL after 168 h with an average elimination half-life of 129 ± 72 h post drug administration. This study shows that ponazuril is relatively well absorbed after a single oral dose in goats. Efficacy trials are underway to determine clinical efficacy of ponazuril in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis in goats at 10 mg/kg dosage. PMID:26542450

  14. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932

  15. Cell-mediated immunity in experimental Nocardia asteroides infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaj, T; Agarwal, S C

    1977-01-01

    Experimental mycetoma-like lesions developed in guinea pigs after subcutaneous injection of Nocardia asteroides. Although delayed hypersensitivity appeared earlier, increased macrophage migration inhibition and microbicidal activity appeared after 7 weeks. When the lesions healed, high cell-mediated immunity was present. Cell-mediated immunity was transferred to normal recipient guinea pigs from healed donor guinea pigs by spleen cell transfer. Recipient guinea pigs showed marked protection against challenge with N. asteroides. PMID:321348

  16. Trichinella papuae and Trichinella zimbabwensis induce infection in experimentally infected varans, caimans, pythons and turtles.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Marucci, G; Casulli, A; Sacchi, L; Mukaratirwa, S; Foggin, C M; La Rosa, G

    2004-03-01

    The discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in farm crocodiles of Zimbabwe has opened up a new frontier in the epidemiology of the Trichinella genus. The objective of the present study was to investigate the infectivity of encapsulated species (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. murrelli and T. nelsoni) and non-encapsulated species (T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis) in caimans (Caiman crocodilus), varans (Varanus exanthematicus), pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) and turtles (Pelomedusa subrufa) raised at their natural temperature range (26-32 degrees C). Mice and chickens were used as controls. At 6 days post-infection (p.i.), adult worms were detected in the small intestine of reptiles infected with T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis, of chickens infected with T. pseudospiralis and of mice infected with all encapsulated and non-encapsulated species. At 60 days p.i., T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis adult worms were collected from the intestine of varans and caimans and larvae from muscles of the four reptile species, T. pseudospiralis larvae from muscles of chickens, and larvae of all Trichinella species from mouse muscles. The highest reproductive capacity index of both T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis was observed in varans. The results show that T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are able to complete their entire life-cycle in both poikilothermic and homoiothermic animals. PMID:15074882

  17. Experimental Infections of Bluegill with the Trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae (Digenea: Cathaemasiidae): Histopathology and Hematological Response

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Dana M.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Gregory, Jacklyn R.; Hardy, Katherine M.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections by the digenetic trematode, Ribeiroia ondatrae, cause severe limb malformations in many North American amphibians. Ribeiroia ondatrae also infects fishes as second intermediate hosts, but less is known about the pathology and immune responses initiated in infected fish, even though reports of infected fish date back to early 1900s. To this end, we experimentally exposed juvenile Bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to three doses of R. ondatrae cercariae and monitored the pathology, parasite infection success, and humoral responses over 648 h. All exposed fish became infected with metacercariae, and the average infection load increased with exposure dose. Histologically, infection was associated with acute hemorrhages in the lateral line and local dermis at 36 h, followed by progressive granulomatous inflammation that led to the destruction of encysted metacercariae. Correspondingly, over the course of 648 h we observed an 85% decline in average infection load among hosts, reflecting the host’s clearance of the parasite. Infection was not associated with changes in fish growth or survival, but did correlate with leukocytosis and neutrophilia in circulating host blood. Understanding the physiological responses of R. ondatrae in Bluegill will help to clarify the ecological effects of this parasite and provide a foundation for subsequent comparisons into its effects on behavior, individual health, and population dynamics of Bluegill. PMID:26587684

  18. Experimental Infections of Bluegill with the Trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae (Digenea: Cathaemasiidae): Histopathology and Hematological Response.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Dana M; Schaffer, Paula A; Gregory, Jacklyn R; Hardy, Katherine M; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2015-12-01

    Infections by the digenetic trematode, Ribeiroia ondatrae, cause severe limb malformations in many North American amphibians. Ribeiroia ondatrae also infects fishes as second intermediate hosts, but less is known about the pathology and immune responses initiated in infected fish, even though reports of infected fish date back to early 1900s. To this end, we experimentally exposed juvenile Bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to three doses of R. ondatrae cercariae and monitored the pathology, parasite infection success, and humoral responses over 648 h. All exposed fish became infected with metacercariae, and the average infection load increased with exposure dose. Histologically, infection was associated with acute hemorrhages in the lateral line and local dermis at 36 h, followed by progressive granulomatous inflammation that led to the destruction of encysted metacercariae. Correspondingly, over the course of 648 h we observed an 85% decline in average infection load among hosts, reflecting the host's clearance of the parasite. Infection was not associated with changes in fish growth or survival, but did correlate with leukocytosis and neutrophilia in circulating host blood. Understanding the physiological responses of R. ondatrae in Bluegill will help to clarify the ecological effects of this parasite and provide a foundation for subsequent comparisons into its effects on behavior, individual health, and population dynamics of Bluegill. PMID:26587684

  19. Immunopathology of experimental Chagas' disease: binding of T cells to Trypanosoma cruzi-infected heart tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Mortatti, R C; Maia, L C; de Oliveira, A V; Munk, M E

    1990-01-01

    The immunopathology of Chagas' disease was studied in the experimental model of chronic infection in C57BL/10JT or mice. Sublethal infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, Y strain, induced specific antibodies and a delayed hypersensitivity response to parasite antigens. Mice developed chronic chagasic myocarditis but not skeletal muscle myositis. Binding of T cells to infected heart tissue was investigated during short-term cocultivation of lymphocytes with heart cryostat sections. T cells from infected mice and from normal controls bound equally to myocardium and liver sections from both infected and normal mice. A search in depth was attempted with cells heavily tagged with 99mTc. Labeled T cells from chagasic mice bound to both normal and infected myocardium slices. 99mTc-labeled T cells from controls gave the same binding values. Glass-adherent spleen cells behaved identically to T cells. Prior treatment of the tissue with serum from chronically infected mice did not increase the number of binding cells. Peritoneal macrophages tagged with 99mTc-sulfur colloid also bound to infected myocardium slices. The binding of macrophages was not changed by pretreatment of infected tissue with anti-T, cruzi antibodies. In short, this work did not detect any population of T cells or macrophages which could bind specifically to infected heart tissue to initiate an autoreactive process. Images PMID:2228230

  20. Diagnosis of early infection and post chemotherapeutic treatment by copro-DNA detection in experimental opisthorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Duenngai, Kunyarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is considered as a carcinogenic parasite which is responsible for cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asia. Effective treatment and control of the parasite to reduce the risk of cancer requires efficient diagnostic methods. Because of the limitations involved in human studies, the present work is aimed at comparing diagnostic performance of copro-DNA detection by PCR and fecal examination by formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) during the course of O. viverrini infection and postcurative chemotherapy in experimentally infected hamsters. A manual method of DNA preparation from fecal specimens previously established in human studies was used in PCR analysis. Following infection with varying doses of metacercariae (5, 10, 25, and 50 cysts/animal), PCR analyses were positive as early as 3 weeks post-infection while FECT were negative. PCR tests were comparable to FECT regardless of intensity of infection beginning from 4 to 12 weeks post infection. In chemotherapeutic experiments, with reference to the presence of worm in liver, treatment failures were detected by PCR but not FECT in a group of hamsters infected with 10 cysts/animal. PCR and FECT both detected residual infection at 1 and 2 weeks post-treatment in the group of animals infected with five cysts per animal. High concordant results between diagnoses by PCR, FECT, and worm burden indicated that PCR is suitable for an early diagnosis, evaluation of drug efficacy, and also re-infection post-treatment. PMID:23052766

  1. Experimental Andes virus infection in deer mice: characteristics of infection and clearance in a heterologous rodent host.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Jessica R; Haddock, Elaine; Gardner, Don; Hjelle, Brian; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    New World hantaviruses can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome with high mortality in humans. Distinct virus species are hosted by specific rodent reservoirs, which also serve as the vectors. Although regional spillover has been documented, it is unknown whether rodent reservoirs are competent for infection by hantaviruses that are geographically separated, and known to have related, but distinct rodent reservoir hosts. We show that Andes virus (ANDV) of South America, carried by the long tailed pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus), infects and replicates in vitro and in vivo in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), found in North America. In experimentally infected deer mice, viral RNA was detected in the blood, lung, heart and spleen, but virus was cleared by 56 days post inoculation (dpi). All of the inoculated deer mice mounted a humoral immune response by 14 dpi, and produced measurable amounts of neutralizing antibodies by 21 dpi. An up-regulation of Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Tgfb, a strong CD4⁺ T-cell response, and down-regulation of Il17, Il21 and Il23 occurred during infection. Infection was transient with an absence of clinical signs or histopathological changes. This is the first evidence that ANDV asymptomatically infects, and is immunogenic in deer mice, a non-natural host species of ANDV. Comparing the immune response in this model to that of the immune response in the natural hosts upon infection with their co-adapted hantaviruses may help clarify the mechanisms governing persistent infection in the natural hosts of hantaviruses. PMID:23383148

  2. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole; Gould, Daniel; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of West Nile virus (WNV) in five raptor species from July 2002 to March 2004, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (Tyto alba), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Birds were infected per mosquito bite, per os, or percutaneously by needle. Many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) WNV plaque forming units per ml serum) within 5 days postinoculation (DPI), and/ or shed virus per os or per cloaca. Infection of organs 15-27 days postinoculation was infrequently detected by virus isolation from spleen, kidney, skin, heart, brain, and eye in convalescent birds. Histopathologic findings varied among species and by method of infection. The most common histopathologic lesions were subacute myocarditis and encephalitis. Several birds had a more acute, severe disease condition represented by arteritis and associated with tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study demonstrates that raptor species vary in their response to WNV infection and that several modes of exposure (e.g., oral) may result in infection. Wildlife managers should recognize that, although many WNV infections are sublethal to raptors, subacute lesions could potentially reduce viability of populations. We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding. PMID:16699143

  3. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In t...

  4. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  5. Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E.; Jaax, N.; White, J.; Jahrling, P.

    1995-01-01

    The potential of aerogenic infection by Ebola virus was established by using a head-only exposure aerosol system. Virus-containing droplets of 0.8-1.2 microns were generated and administered into the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys via inhalation. Inhalation of viral doses as low as 400 plaque-forming units of virus caused a rapidly fatal disease in 4-5 days. The illness was clinically identical to that reported for parenteral virus inoculation, except for the occurrence of subcutaneous and venipuncture site bleeding and serosanguineous nasal discharge. Immunocytochemistry revealed cell-associated Ebola virus antigens present in airway epithelium, alveolar pneumocytes, and macrophages in the lung and pulmonary lymph nodes; extracellular antigen was present on mucosal surfaces of the nose, oropharynx and airways. Aggregates of characteristic filamentous virus were present within type I pneumocytes, macrophages, and air spaces of the lung by electron microscopy. Demonstration of fatal aerosol transmission of this virus in monkeys reinforces the importance of taking appropriate precautions to prevent its potential aerosol transmission to humans. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7547435

  6. Experimental infection of young rabbits with a rabbit enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Descôteaux, J P; Lussier, G

    1990-01-01

    The clinical signs and lesions caused by the rabbit enteric coronavirus (RECV) were studied in young rabbits orally inoculated with a suspension containing RECV particles. The inoculated animals were observed daily for evidence of diarrhea. Fecal samples and specimens from the small intestine and from the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) were collected from 2 h to 29 days postinoculation (PI) and processed for immune electron microscopy (IEM) and light microscopy. Coronavirus particles were detected in the cecal contents of most inoculated animals from 6 h to 29 days PI. Lesions were first observed 6 h PI and were characterized by a loss of the brush border of mature enterocytes located at the tips of intestinal villi and by necrosis of these cells. At 48 h PI, short intestinal villi and hypertrophic crypts were noted. In the GALT, complete necrosis of the M cells as well as necrosis of the enterocytes lining the villi above the lymphoid follicules with hypertrophy of the corresponding crypts were observed in all the animals. Five inoculated rabbits had diarrhea three days PI. The presence of RECV particles in the feces of the sick animals and the microscopic lesions observed in the small intestine suggested that the virus was responsible for the clinical signs. A few inoculated rabbits remained free of diarrhea. Fecal material collected at postmortem examination contained RECV particles. The results suggest that the virus could also produce a subclinical infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2174299

  7. Experimental infection of vertebrates of the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp, Maryland with Keystone and Jamestown Canyon viruses.

    PubMed

    Watts, D M; Tammariello, R F; Dalrymple, J M; Eldridge, B F; Russell, P K; Top, F H

    1979-03-01

    Experimental studies were conducted to assess the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) to Jamestown Canyon (JC) and/or Keystone (KEY) virus infection. Viremia occurred in 5 of 6 deer inoculated with JC virus; however, all deer developed KEY virus neutralizing antibody. Based on the observation that antibody elicited by primary infection of deer with either KEY or JC virus exhibited partial heterologous neutralization in vitro, cross-challenge experiments were performed in these animals. Keystone virus failed to infect deer 30 days post primary JC virus infection; however, deer became infected when challenged with KEY virus 80 days after the initial JC virus infection as indicated by a substantial increase in antibody titer. Similarly, JC virus failed to produce viremia in immune animals infected with KEY virus 80 days previously, although 2 of the 3 animals challenged had serological evidence of infection. Three field-collected cottontail rabbits with no evidence of KEY antibody were readily susceptible to KEY virus infection and developed viremias of 1-4 days' duration; rabbits with KEY virus antibody did not develop viremia upon KEY virus challenge. Eight antibody-negative field-collected gray squirrels became viremic following injection with KEY virus; however, a comparable group of squirrels did not become viremic when injected with JC virus. PMID:453437

  8. Transient and persistent experimental infection of nonhuman primates with Helicobacter pylori: implications for human disease.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A; Berg, D E; Incecik, E T; Fiala, N; Heman-Ackah, L M; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J

    1996-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori can establish chronic infection in the human gastric mucosa, and it is a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and a principal risk factor for gastric cancer. This creates a need for H. pylori infection models that mimic the human condition. To test the suitability of rhesus monkeys as infection models, H. pylori-free animals were inoculated intragastrically with mixtures of H. pylori strains, bacteria recovered from colonized animals were typed by arbitrarily primed PCR, and host inflammatory and immunologic responses were monitored. Among five H. pylori-free animals inoculated with a mixture of two human strains plus one monkey strain, one became persistently infected and one became only transiently infected. The recovered bacteria matched the monkey input strain in DNA fingerprint. A subsequent trial using two new human isolates and three animals that had resisted colonization by the monkey strain resulted in persistent infection in one animal and transient infection in two others. Antral gastritis, anti-H. pylori serum immunoglobulin G, and atrophy all increased, but with patterns that differed among animals. We conclude that (i) rhesus monkeys can be infected experimentally with H. pylori, (ii) individuals differ in susceptibility to particular bacterial strains, (iii) infections may be transient, and (iv) the fitness of a particular strain for a given host helps determine the consequences of exposure to that strain. PMID:8757808

  9. Pilot-Scale Pulsed UV Light Irradiation of Experimentally Infected Raspberries Suppresses Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Immunocompetent Suckling Mice.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, L; Hubert, B; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Ballet, J J; Agoulon, A; Orange, N; Gargala, G

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., a significant cause of foodborne infection, have been shown to be resistant to most chemical food disinfectant agents and infective for weeks in irrigation waters and stored fresh vegetal produce. Pulsed UV light (PL) has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium spp. on surfaces of raw or minimally processed foods or both. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PL on viability and in vivo infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts present on raspberries, a known source of transmission to humans of oocyst-forming apicomplexan pathogens. The skin of each of 20 raspberries was experimentally inoculated with five 10-μl spots of an oocyst suspension containing 6 × 10(7) oocysts per ml (Nouzilly isolate). Raspberries were irradiated by PL flashes (4 J/cm(2) of total fluence). This dose did not affect colorimetric or organoleptic characteristics of fruits. After immunomagnetic separation from raspberries, oocysts were bleached and administered orally to neonatal suckling mice. Seven days after infection, mice were euthanized, and the number of oocysts in the entire small intestine was individually assessed by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. Three of 12 and 12 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10 and 100 oocysts isolated from nonirradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Four of 12 and 2 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Oocyst counts were lower in animals inoculated with 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries (92 ± 144 and 38 ± 82, respectively) than in animals infected with 100 oocysts from nonirradiated raspberries (35,785 ± 66,221, P = 0.008). PL irradiation achieved oocyst reductions of 2 and 3 log for an inoculum of 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts, respectively. The present pilot-scale evaluation suggests that PL is an effective mode of decontamination for raspberries and prompts further applicability

  10. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity. PMID:18680652

  11. Low seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Boer goats in Missouri

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Goats are known reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever. However, there has been very little research on the prevalence of C. burnetii exposure and risk in meat goats farmed in the US. Banked serum samples were secondarily tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies. Findings The animal and herd-level seroprevalence estimates for C. burnetii were 1.2% (3/249) and 4.2% (1/24) respectively. Within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 1.2%. Conclusions This study indicates that seroprevalence of C. burnetii in Boer goats raised in Missouri was low, but it does not preclude the existence of a higher level of infection in Missouri’s meat goat herds. This result is inconclusive because this study was disadvantaged by the small number of individual animal and herds tested, which compromised the statistical power of this study to detect a possible higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii in this population, if present. More research is warranted to corroborate the preliminary findings reported here in order to determine the public health significance C. burnetii infection risks associated with contemporary goat production systems in the US. PMID:24994554

  12. Evaluation of organ function and oxidant/antioxidant status in goats with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    De, Ujjwal K; Dey, S

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the hemato-biochemical changes and status of oxidative stress in goats with scabies infection. The study was conducted on 12 Jamunapari goats; six clinically infected with scabies (group I) and six healthy goats as control (group II). The examination of skin scraping revealed the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei in the infected group. In hemato-biochemical indicators, hemoglobin%, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count, albumin and albumin: globulin ratio decreased whereas, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen increased significantly (p<0.05) in group I animals as compared to group II healthy goats. Among the oxidative stress indices, plasma nitrate and erythrocytic lipid peroxidation were increased and reduced glutathione levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group I goats as compared to group II healthy goats. The results of the present study suggest that scabies infection alters the hemato-biochemical indicators, increases oxidative stress and decreases antioxidant status in goat. PMID:20623336

  13. Experimental infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) induces chorioretinal lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalitis (EHM) remains one of the most devastating manifestations of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection but our understanding of its pathogenesis remains rudimentary, partly because of a lack of adequate experimental models. EHV-1 infection of the ocular vasculature may offer an alternative model as EHV-1-induced chorioretinopathy appears to occur in a significant number of horses, and the pathogenesis of EHM and ocular EHV-1 may be similar. To investigate the potential of ocular EHV-1 as a model for EHM, and to determine the frequency of ocular EHV-1, our goal was to study: (1) Dissemination of virus following acute infection, (2) Development and frequency of ocular lesions following infection, and (3) Utility of a GFP-expressing virus for localization of the virus in vivo. Viral antigen could be detected following acute infection in ocular tissues and the central nervous system (experiment 1). Furthermore, EHV-1 infection resulted in multifocal choroidal lesions in 90% (experiment 2) and 50% (experiment 3) of experimentally infected horses, however ocular lesions did not appear in vivo until between 3 weeks and 3 months post-infection. Taken together, the timing of the appearance of lesions and their ophthalmoscopic features suggest that their pathogenesis may involve ischemic injury to the chorioretina following viremic delivery of virus to the eye, mirroring the vascular events that result in EHM. In summary, we show that the frequency of ocular EHV-1 is 50-90% following experimental infection making this model attractive for testing future vaccines or therapeutics in an immunologically relevant age group. PMID:24308772

  14. Detection of Persistent West Nile Virus RNA in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Avian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Reisen, William K.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) persistent infection in avian hosts may potentially serve as an overwintering mechanism, House Sparrows and House Finches, experimentally and naturally infected with several strains of WNV, and two naturally infected Western Scrub-Jays were held in mosquito-proof outdoor aviaries from 2007–March 2008. Overall, 94% (n = 36) of House Sparrows, 100% (n = 14) of House Finches and 2 Western Scrub-Jays remained WNV antibody positive. When combined by species, 37% of the House Sparrows, 50% of the House Finches, and 2 Western Scrub-Jays were WNV RNA positive at necropsy, up to 36 weeks post-infection. Infectious WNV was not detected. Our study supports the hypothesis that some avian hosts support the long-term persistence of WNV RNA, but it remains unresolved whether these infections relapse to restart an avian-arthropod transmission cycle and thereby serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. PMID:22826479

  15. Experimental infection of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) with Coxsackie virus A16

    PubMed Central

    LI, Jian-Ping; LIAO, Yun; ZHANG, Ying; WANG, Jing-Jing; WANG, Li-Chun; FENG, Kai; LI, Qi-Han; LIU, Long-Ding

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) is commonly recognized as one of the main human pathogens of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). The clinical manifestations of HFMD include vesicles of hand, foot and mouth in young children and severe inflammatory CNS lesions. In this study, experimentally CA16 infected tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were used to investigate CA16 pathogenesis. The results showed that both the body temperature and the percentages of blood neutrophilic granulocytes / monocytes of CA16 infected tree shrews increased at 4-7 days post infection. Dynamic distributions of CA16 in different tissues and stools were found at different infection stages. Moreover, the pathological changes in CNS and other organs were also observed. These findings indicate that tree shrews can be used as a viable animal model to study CA16 infection. PMID:25465084

  16. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies and its associated risk factors in indigenous goats of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium and the associated risk factors in goats from five different farming provinces of South Africa. Sera collected from 686 goats of the commercial meat type (n=179), mohair type (n=9), non-descript indigenous goats from Eastern Cape (n=56), KwaZulu-Natal (n=209), Limpopo (n=111), North West (n=61) and Northern Cape (n=11) provinces and a feral Tankwa goat (n=50) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to antigens of E. ruminantium using the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Fifty two percent of these goats had ticks. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to E. ruminantium was 64.87% (445/686) with the highest seroprevalence reported for Limpopo (95.50%) and lowest for Northern Cape (20.29%). Highest seroprevalence for antibodies to E. ruminantium was observed in goats from endemic regions (76.09%), and from smallholder production systems (89.54%). High seroprevalence was also observed in non-descript indigenous goats (85.04%), adult goat (69.62%), in does (67.46%) and goats infested with ticks (85.79%). The logistic model showed a gradient of increasing risk for commercial meat type Savanna (OR=3.681; CI=1.335-10.149) and non-descript indigenous (OR=3.466; CI=1.57-7.645) compared to Boer goats and for goats from the smallholder production system (OR=2.582; CI=1.182-5.639) and those with ticks (OR=3.587; CI=2.105-6.112). Results from this study showed that E. ruminantium infections were prevalent but were widely and unevenly distributed throughout South Africa. Findings from the study facilitate identification and mapping of risk areas for heartwater and its endeminicity in South Africa and should be taken into consideration for future disease control strategies and local goat improvement programs. PMID:26829905

  17. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, M; Latrach, R; Sassi, L; Darghouth, M A

    2012-08-01

    We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation. PMID:22910672

  18. Cytokine patterns in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice treated with silymarin.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Fathy, Ghada Mahmoud; Abdel-Rahman, Sara Abdel-Rahman; El-Shafei, Mahmoud Abdel-Atei

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cytokine patterns in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice treated with silymarin. The study was conducted upon 100 mice that were divided into five groups; 20 each: uninfected control group, Schistosoma mansoni infected untreated mice (infected control), infected mice treated with praziquantel (PZQ), infected mice treated with silymarin and infected mice treated with both praziquantel and silymarin. 10 mice from each group were sacrificed at 10th and 18th weeks post infection respectively. Histopathological investigations were performed. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stain to evaluate changes of granuloma sizes and numbers. Serum levels of the cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and TGF-β1) were assessed in the sera of all groups by immunoassay. The measured levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, TNF-α, TGF-β1) were found to be significantly increased in infected mice compared to normal control. At the same time, treated groups with silymarin alone or combined with PZQ showed significant decrease in IL-4, TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels compared to infected control. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in IFN-γ level observed in all treated groups compared to infected control. In addition, the histopathological examination of the liver in the group treated with PZQ showed a reduction in the number of livers eggs granuloma at all periods of sacrification compared with the infected untreated group. However, there was more decrease in granulomas diameter in both silymarin treated group or combined with PZQ at all periods of sacrification when compared to infected untreated group. In conclusion; treatment with silymarin combined with PZQ in murine schistosomiasis could reduce hepatic fibrosis by their action on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27605811

  19. A novel experimental platform for toxigenic and non-toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yu; Saeki, Honami; Iwaki, Masaaki; Takagi, Hitrotaka; Shibayama, Keigo; Amao, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Akihiko

    2016-03-01

    Corynebacterium ulcerans is a zoonotic pathogen that can produce diphtheria toxin and causes an illness categorized as diphtheria in the European Union because its clinical appearance is similar to that of diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Despite the importance of the pathogen in public health, the organism's mechanism of infection has not been extensively studied, especially in experimental animal models. Therefore in the present study we constructed an intranasal infection system for mice. Mice are insensitive to diphtheria toxin and this has the advantage of excluding the cytotoxic effect of the toxin that might interfere with the analysis of the early stage of infection. Both the toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. ulcerans strains were capable of killing mice within 3 days after inoculation at 10(7) colony-forming units per mouse. In experimentally infected animals, C. ulcerans was detected in the respiratory tract but not in the intestinal tract. The bacterium was also detected in peripheral blood and it disseminated into the lung, kidney and spleen to produce a systemic infection. This experimental infection system provides a platform for analyzing the virulence of C. ulcerans in future studies. PMID:26607400

  20. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S. Rochelle; Ellison, Siobhan P.; Dascanio, John J.; Lindsay, David S.; Gogal, Robert M.; Werre, Stephen R.; Surendran, Naveen; Breen, Meghan E.; Heid, Bettina M.; Andrews, Frank M.; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A.; Witonsky, Sharon G.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both. PMID:26464923

  1. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S Rochelle; Ellison, Siobhan P; Dascanio, John J; Lindsay, David S; Gogal, Robert M; Werre, Stephen R; Surendran, Naveen; Breen, Meghan E; Heid, Bettina M; Andrews, Frank M; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both. PMID:26464923

  2. Which factors influence the outcome of experimental infection with Cystoisospora suis?

    PubMed

    Joachim, Anja; Schwarz, Lukas; Hinney, Barbara; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Vogl, Claus; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2014-05-01

    For reliable predictions of clinical and parasitological outcome of experimental infections with parasites, different models must be evaluated for possible influences of infection time point, infection dose and host-specific parameters such as breed or litter size. To address these issues for Cystoisospora (syn. Isospora) suis, the causative agent of porcine neonatal coccidiosis, 181 piglets from 90 litters (hybrid crosses of different breeds) were included in a retrospective study to evaluate differences in time point and dose of infection in four different experimental models ((1) 1,500 oocysts on the 4th day of life, d.o.l.; (2) 1,000 oocysts, 4th d.o.l.; (3) 1,000 oocysts, 1st d.o.l.; (4) 5,000 oocysts, 4th d.o.l.). The target variables body weight gain, faecal consistency and oocyst excretion were evaluated during the acute phase of infection (5-10 days post infection), and the influences of the dependent variables breed or litter size were estimated. Despite differences in the time course of excretion and faecal consistency, neither the average amount of excretion nor the average faecal consistency differed among models, breeds or litters of different size. High individual variability was seen in all four models as described earlier for higher infection doses. When infections on the 1st vs. 4th day of life were compared, no differences in averages could be found, in contrast to previous observations on the influence of age. Other, not yet defined, variables appear to have a greater impact on the outcome of infection than doses and time points in the tested range, despite the reliable outcome of infection with high excretion rates and signs of clinical disease. PMID:24643624

  3. Striated muscle involvement in experimental oral infection by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, María Inés; Sanjuan, Norberto A

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most frequent causes of oral infection in humans, especially during early childhood. Several experimental models have been developed to study the pathogenesis of this virus but all of them employed adult animals. In this work, we developed an experimental model that uses mice younger than 4 days old, to more closely resemble human infection. Mice were infected subcutaneously with the prototype strain McIntyre of Herpes simplex-1, and the progression of infection was studied by immunoperoxidase. All animals died within 24-72 h post-infection, while viral antigens were found in the oral epithelium, nerves and brain. The most striking result was the finding of viral antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells belonging to striated muscles. Organotypic cultures of striated muscles were performed, and viral replication was observed in them by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and viral isolation. We conclude that the infection of striated muscles is present from the onset of oral infection and, eventually, could explain some clinical observations in humans. PMID:23445118

  4. Experimental evolution can unravel the complex causes of natural selection in clinical infections.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    It is increasingly clear that rapid evolutionary dynamics are an important process in microbial ecology. Experimental evolution, wherein microbial evolution is observed in real-time, has revealed many instances of appreciable evolutionary change occurring on very short timescales of a few days or weeks in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic selection pressures. From clinical infections, including the chronic bacterial lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis that form a focus of my research, there is now abundant evidence suggesting that rapid evolution by infecting microbes contributes to host adaptation, treatment failure and worsening patient prognosis. However, disentangling the drivers of natural selection in complex infection environments is extremely challenging and limits our understanding of the selective pressures acting upon microbes in infections. Controlled evolution experiments can make a vital contribution to this by determining the causal links between predicted drivers of natural selection and the evolutionary responses of microbes. Integration of experimental evolution into studies of clinical infections is a key next step towards a better understanding of the causes and consequences of rapid microbial evolution in infections, and discovering how these evolutionary processes might be influenced to improve patient health.A video of this Prize Lecture, presented at the Society for General Microbiology Annual Conference 2015, can be viewed via this link: Michael A. Brockhurst https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1bodVSl27E. PMID:25957311

  5. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Bertran, Kateri; Costa, Taiana P; Rivas, Raquel; de la Fuente, Jorge García; Villalba, Rubén; Solanes, David; Bensaid, Albert; Majó, Natàlia; Pagès, Nonito

    2012-06-01

    West Nile disease (WND) has become a major public and veterinary health concern since the appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) in New York in 1999. The following panzootic spread in the U.S. and the recent WNV outbreaks in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin have increased interest in WND. Despite considerable investigation of WNV infection in birds, the effects of WNV on avian populations are still largely unknown. In Europe, raptors have been found to be particularly susceptible to WNV infection, but studies in birds of prey are lacking. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report an experimental infection with WNV in Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons. We show that 10-week-old captive-reared Gyr-Saker (Falco rusticolus × Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons are susceptible to WNV infection. Neither morbidity nor mortality was observed after subcutaneous WNV inoculation with mixed extracts of non-infected mosquito salivary glands. Both the macroscopic and microscopic lesions observed were similar to those previously reported in naturally and experimentally infected North American raptors. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that although Gyr-Saker hybrid falcons do not seem to be a good reservoir for WNV transmission via mosquito, they can become infected with WNV, develop viremia and antibodies, and are able to shed the virus. PMID:22448746

  6. Innate immune response in experimentally induced bovine intramammary infection with Staphylococcus simulans and S. epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are in several countries the most common bacteria isolated in subclinical mastitis. To investigate the innate immune response of cows to infections with two common mastitis-causing CNS species, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans, experimental intramammary infection was induced in eight cows using a crossover design. The milk somatic cell count (SCC), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity, milk amyloid A (MAA), serum amyloid A (SAA) and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined at several time points before and after challenge. All cows became infected and showed mild to moderate clinical signs of mastitis. The spontaneous elimination rate of the 16 infections was 31.3%, with no difference between species. Infections triggered a local cytokine response in the experimental udder quarters, but cytokines were not detected in the uninfected control quarters or in systemic circulation. The innate local immune response for S. simulans was slightly stronger, with significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β and IL-8. The IL-8 response could be divided into early, delayed, or combined types of response. The CNS species or persistency of infection was not associated with the type of IL-8 response. No significant differences were seen between spontaneously eliminated or persistent infections. PMID:21414189

  7. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  8. Virological and clinico-pathological features of orf virus infection in experimentally infected rabbits and mice.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, J F; Masuda, E K; Martins, M; Diel, D G; Rock, D L; Weiblen, R; Flores, E F

    2011-01-01

    Many aspects of the biology of orf virus (ORFV) infection remain poorly understood and attempts to establish animal models have yielded conflicting and non-reproducible results. We herein describe the characterization of ORFV infection and disease in rabbits and mice. A protocol of intradermal inoculation was employed to inoculate 10(8.5)TCID₅₀/mL of ORFV strain IA-82 in the skin of ears, of the back and labial commissures. All inoculated rabbits presented a clinical course characterized by erythema, macules, papules/vesicles or pustules that eventually dried originating scabs. Local signs started around days 3 and 4 post-inoculation (pi) and lasted 3-10 days. Virus was recovered from lesions between days 2 and 14pi. Histological examination of lesions revealed focal proliferative dermatitis with ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in keratinocytes, histological hallmarks of contagious ecthyma in sheep. A similar, albeit milder clinical course occurred in 5/10 inoculated mice; virus was recovered from lesions from three animals. Inoculated lambs - used as controls - developed severe lesions of contagious ecthyma. VN tests performed at day 28pi failed to detect neutralizing antibodies in all inoculated animals. In contrast, convalescent rabbit sera were positive by ELISA at dilutions from 100 to 400. These results show that rabbits are susceptible to ORFV infection and thus may be used to study selected aspects of ORFV biology. PMID:20833245

  9. The effects of protein dietary supplementation on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis

    PubMed Central

    Konwar, Priyanka; Tiwari, S. P.; Gohain, M.; Kumari, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of protein on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis under semi-intensive condition. Materials and Methods: 20 goat kids (3-5 months old with an average body weight of 8.90 kg) were randomly allocated to four groups: T1, served as a negative control, without receiving concentrate feed, and T2, T3, and T4 that received concentrate feed containing 16, 20, and 24% digestible crude protein, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 60 days. Results: In this study, protein supplementation had a significant (p<0.05) effect on fecal egg counts even after 15 days; hemoglobin (Hb) (g/dl) after 45 days; total leukocyte count (103/mm3) and total erythrocyte count (106/mm3) after 30 days; packed cell volume (%), lymphocyte (%), and eosinophil (%) after 15 days of supplementation, whereas monocyte (%) and neutrophil (%) values were not significantly influenced by protein supplementation effect during the entire experiment. The values of mean corpuscular volume (fl) were affected significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01) due to protein supplementation after 30 days, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) (pg) after 45 days, but MCH concentration (g/dl) was not significantly different among the experimental groups during the entire experiment. Conclusion: The dietary supplementation with different levels of protein significantly improved the hematological profiles and inhibited the nematodosis infection in the experimental goat kids. PMID:27047042

  10. Evaluation of a commercial ELISA kit for detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in serum, plasma and meat juice from experimentally and naturally infected sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common food borne zoonoses worldwide, and can be a serious life-threatening disease in the congenitally infected fetus and in immunosupressed patients. Among food animals, sheep along with goats and pigs possess the highest incidence of T. gondii cysts in meat, and play a major role as a source of human infection. Methods In this study, a new commercial ELISA kit (PrioCHECK® Toxoplasma Ab SR, Prionics Schlieren-Zurich, Switzerland) for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies in serum, plasma and meat juice of sheep, was evaluated by comparing it with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and real-time PCR, on samples from experimentally inoculated and naturally exposed sheep. Results The commercial ELISA detected the infection status in 50% and 100% of sheep orally inoculated with 10,000 T. gondii oocysts (n = 6), from two or three weeks post infection (wpi), respectively, both on serum and plasma samples. Meat juice from all experimentally inoculated sheep collected at slaughter (12 wpi) showed positive ELISA values. In naturally exposed sheep (n = 396), the ELISA showed a very good agreement with IFAT (kappa = 0.91-1.0) and IHA (kappa = 0.96-1.0) performed on serum; and a positive correlation was observed between ELISA values and IFAT titers. By a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, the commercial ELISA had relative sensitivities between 93.33% and 100%, and relative specificities between 96.87% and 100% respect to IFAT and IHA, depending on the considered cut-off value and animal groups tested. Furthermore, the ELISA correctly recognized all animals reacting positive in real-time PCR. The ELISA results on meat juice agreed with those on serum samples in all experimentally inoculated animals, and in 94 out of 96 (97.9%) naturally exposed sheep, when meat juice was tested at a 1:10 dilution. Conclusion The commercial ELISA kit

  11. Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genet...

  12. Effects of malaria (Plasmodium relicturm) on activity budgets of experimentally-infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanquinea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorinks, N.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    We used behavioral, physiological, and parasitological measures to document effects of acute malarial infections on activity budgets of experimentally infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanguinea). Five of eight birds died within 20 to 32 days after exposure to a single infective mosquito bite. Infected Apapane devoted less time to locomotory activities involving flight, walking or hopping, and stationary activities such as singing, preening, feeding, and probing. The amount of time spent sitting was positively correlated with parasitemia and increased dramatically after infection and between treatment and control groups. Birds that succumbed to infection experienced a significant loss of body mass and subcutaneous fat, whereas surviving Apapane were better able to maintain body condition and fat levels. When rechallenged with the parasite five months after initial infection, surviving birds experienced no increase in parasitemia, indicating that they had become immune to reinfection. Regardless of the outcome, infected birds experienced acute illness that would have left them unable to forage or to escape from predators in the wild.

  13. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection. PMID:18973416

  14. Virulence comparison and quantification of horizontal bovine viral diarrhoea virus transmission following experimental infection in calves.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, S; Dewulf, J; Mathijs, E; Laureyns, J; Mostin, L; Cay, A B

    2014-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes persistent infections by infecting the fetus of susceptible animals during gestation. These persistently infected (PI) animals are important sources of infection. On the contrary, transiently infected (TI) animals are believed to be less important, but transient infections with a severe BVDV-2 strain can spread explosively. To assess the importance of TI cattle in the epidemiology of BVDV, two experimental infections were performed to determine basic reproduction ratios (R0). In each experiment three calves were infected via intranasal inoculation and housed together with seven susceptible animals. Two strains isolated in Belgium were used, a virulent BVDV-1b and a virulent BVDV-2a field isolate, resulting in an R0 of 0.25 (95% CI 0.01; 1.95) and 0.24 (95% CI 0.01; 2.11), respectively. A PI animal was then introduced to the remaining uninfected animals and produced an R of +∞ (95% CI 1.88; +∞). These results support the suggestion that TI animals, compared to PI animals, contribute only a limited amount to BVDV spread. Additionally, the severe clinical symptoms observed in the field with these isolates could not be reproduced during these experiments, suggesting that other factors besides strain virulence influence the clinical manifestations evoked by BVDV. PMID:25201251

  15. Dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of classical swine fever virus in experimentally infected pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable disease. However, we are far from fully understand the distribution, tissue tropism, pathogenesis, replication and excretion of CSFV in pigs. In this report, we investigated the dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of the virus in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results A relative quantification real-time PCR was established and used to detect the virus load in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs. The study revealed that the virus was detected in all 21 of the internal organs and blood collected from pigs at day 1 to day 8 post infections, and had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections. However, there was irregular distribution virus load in most internal organs over the first 2 days post infection. Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum usually contain the highest viral loads, while heart, duodenum and brain show relatively low viral loads. Conclusions All the data suggest that CSFV had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections in experimentally infected pigs detected by real-time RT-PCR, which was in consistent with the result of the IHC staining. The data also show that CSFV was likely to reproduce in blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and the ileum, while unlikely to replicate in the heart, duodenum and brain. The results provide a foundation for further clarification of the pathogenic mechanism of CSFV in internal organs, and indicate that blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum may be preferred sites of acute infection. PMID:21535885

  16. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    PubMed Central

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  17. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    PubMed

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  18. Testicular and epididymal pathology in Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    Okubanjo, Oluyinka O; Sekoni, Victor O; Ajanusi, Ologunja J; Nok, Andrew J; Adeyeye, Adewale A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathological effect of experimental Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense) infection on the testes and epididymis of Yankasa rams. Methods Nine intact un-castrated rams were obtained and divided into 2 groups of 6 infected with 1×106 T. congolense and 3 uninfected controls. Four infected and one uninfected control rams were sacrificed on Day 75 post infection and the remaining four rams (two each of infected and control groups) on Day 86 post infection. Results All infected rams became parasitaemic within 7-11 days post infection with clinical trypanosomosis characterized by peri-orbital oedema and a transient period of scrotal oedema, this was followed by progressive decrease in scrotal size. At postmortem, the organs from infected rams were pale and emaciated but no observable lesion was seen in the uninfected control group. At histology, the testes showed areas of necrosis on the interstitial tissue characterized by destruction of cellular structures within the tissues and seminiferous tubules. There was moderate to severe testicular degeneration manifested by loss of tissue architecture and infiltration with macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Fibrous connective tissues were also seen in the testes of the infected rams indicative of replacement of normal cells by fibrous connective tissue. The epididymis of the infected rams had collection of some spermatocytes and desquamated epithelial cells in the epithelial ducts although others were devoid of spermatocytes in their ducts leading to loss of epididymal sperm reserves. However, these were not seen in the uninfected control rams. Conclusions T. congolense causes testicular and epididymal damage which may render the rams infertile or sterile.

  19. Transcriptional activation of bovine leukemia virus in blood cells from experimentally infected, asymptomatic sheep with latent infections.

    PubMed Central

    Lagarias, D M; Radke, K

    1989-01-01

    Infection by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is characterized by a long latency period, after which some individuals develop B-cell tumors. The behavior of BLV and related retroviruses during the latency period between initial infection and subsequent tumorigenesis is poorly understood. We used in situ hybridization to detect BLV transcripts in individual peripheral blood mononuclear cells from experimentally infected, asymptomatic sheep with latent infections. Viral RNA was not found in most peripheral blood cells that had been isolated as rapidly as possible from circulating blood, but it was present in rare cells. BLV RNA transcripts increased in a biphasic manner within a few hours after the blood cells were placed in culture. Exposure to fetal bovine serum was identified as the principal cause of this transcriptional activation, which occurred in fewer than 1 in 1,000 cells. Agents known to activate immune cells polyclonally caused a further increase in the number of cells containing BLV RNA within 8 h. In some cases, the numbers of viral transcripts within individual cells also increased. Thus, BLV is not detectably expressed in most resting lymphocytes circulating in the blood, but its transcription is activated by components of fetal bovine serum and can be augmented by molecules that mimic activation of immune cells. This activation, which might occur in lymphoid tissue during an immune response, may lead to the synthesis of viral regulatory proteins that are thought to initiate tumorigenesis through host cell genes. Images PMID:2539506

  20. Cutaneous pythiosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; Silva, T R; Oliveira-Filho, J C; Riet-Correa, F

    2015-01-01

    Pythiosis is reported for the first time in a goat. The affected goat had daily access to an aquatic environment and had developed an ulcerative lesion on the skin of the left hindlimb. Microscopically, there were dermal pyogranulomas with 'negatively stained' hyphae, which were identified immunohistochemically as Pythium insidiosum. PMID:25555632

  1. The Goat in the Rug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  2. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by real-time PCR in naturally and experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Cui, Xianlan; Cui, Hongyu; Shi, Xingming; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hu, Shunlei; Hao, Lianwei; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens. PMID:23840745

  3. Pathology of Experimental Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in Immunocompetent and Immunosuppressed Mice in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadi, Hafidh I.; Al-Mahmood, Saevan S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate pathology of experimental Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Iraqi isolate) infection in normal and immunosuppressed mice. Pathological changes were not seen in negative control mice while secondary bacterial infections were noted in the lungs, kidneys, and heart of mice given dexamethasone. Typical E. cuniculi infection lesions were found in brain, livers, lungs, and kidneys of mice given 107  E. cuniculi spores/mouse orally. These lesions were in the form of nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with vasculitis in brain, interstitial inflammation with infiltration of both lymphocytes and plasma cells in lung tissue, and nonsuppurative interstitial (focal and diffuse) nephritis, presence of vacuole containing mature and immature spores in enterocytes within the tips of villi, and lymphoiod hyperplasia of the white pulp and vasculitis of the intratrabecular vessels. Mice that were given 107  E. cuniculi spores/mouse orally showed lesions similar to those observed in the previous group (vasculitis and granulomas) but the lesions were more severe and widespread. In conclusion, this is the first report of experimental E. cuniculi infection induced by E. cuniculi isolated from a naturally infected rabbit in Iraq and that infection became more severe and widespread upon the administration of dexaethasone. PMID:24772366

  4. Detection of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus by Real-Time PCR in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Cui, Xianlan; Cui, Hongyu; Shi, Xingming; Zhang, Xiaomin; Hu, Shunlei; Hao, Lianwei; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Marek's disease virus. The real-time PCR was reproducible as the coefficients of variation of reproducibility of the intra-assay and the inter-assay were less than 2%. The real-time PCR was used to detect the levels of the ILTV DNA in the tissues of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens infected with ILTV at different times post infection. ILTV DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, larynx, tongue, thymus, glandular stomach, duodenum, pancreatic gland, small intestine, large intestine, cecum, cecal tonsil, bursa of Fabricius, and brain of chickens in the infection group and the contact-exposure group. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the ILTV real-time PCR assay revealed its suitability for detection and quantitation of ILTV in the samples from clinically and experimentally ILTV infected chickens. PMID:23840745

  5. A review of experimental and natural infections of animals with monkeypox virus between 1958 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Scott; Buller, R Mark

    2013-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was discovered in 1958 during an outbreak in an animal facility in Copenhagen, Denmark. Since its discovery, MPXV has revealed a propensity to infect and induce disease in a large number of animals within the mammalia class from pan-geographical locations. This finding has impeded the elucidation of the natural host, although the strongest candidates are African squirrels and/or other rodents. Experimentally, MPXV can infect animals via a variety of multiple different inoculation routes; however, the natural route of transmission is unknown and is likely to be somewhat species specific. In this review we have attempted to compile and discuss all published articles that describe experimental or natural infections with MPXV, dating from the initial discovery of the virus through to the year 2012. We further discuss the comparative disease courses and pathologies of the host species. PMID:23626656

  6. Experimental system, and its evaluation for the control of surgically inducted infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevebaugh, M. D.; Nelson, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effect is reported to design, fabricate, test and evaluate a prototype experimental system for the control of surgically induced infections. The purpose is to provide the cleanest possible environment within a hospital surgery room and eliminate contamination sources that could cause infections during surgery. The system design is described. The system provides for a portable laminar flow clean room, a full bubble helmet system with associated communications and ventilation subsystems for operating room personnel, and surgical gowns that minimize the migration of bacteria. The development test results consisting of portability, laminar flowrate, air flow pattern, electrostatic buildup, noise level, ventilation, human factors, electrical and material compatibility tests are summarized. The conclusions are that the experimental system is effective in reducing the airborne and wound contamination although the helmets and gowns may not be a significant part of this reduction. Definitive conclusions with regard to the infection rate cannot be made at this time.

  7. Similar patterns of infection with bovine foamy virus in experimentally inoculated calves and sheep.

    PubMed

    Materniak, Magdalena; Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin; Kuzmak, Jacek

    2013-03-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are the least known retroviruses commonly found in primates, cats, horses, and cattle. Although FVs are considered apathogenic, simian and feline FVs have been shown to be associated with some transient health abnormalities in animal models. Currently, data regarding the course of infection with bovine FV (BFV) are not available. In this study, we conducted experimental infections of natural (cattle) and heterologous (sheep) hosts with the BFV(100) isolate and monitored infection patterns in both hosts during the early phase postinoculation as well as after long-term infection. Four calves and six sheep inoculated with BFV(100) showed no signs of pathology but developed persistent infection, as confirmed by virus rescue, consistent detection of BFV-specific antibodies, and presence of viral DNA. In both hosts, antibodies against BFV Gag and Bet appeared early after infection and persisted at high and stable levels while seroreactivity toward Env was consistently detectable only in BFV-infected sheep. Interestingly, the BFV proviral DNA load was highest in lung, spleen, and liver and moderate in leukocytes, while salivary glands contained either low or undetectable DNA loads in calves or sheep, respectively. Additionally, comparison of partial BFV sequences from inoculum and infected animals demonstrated very limited changes after long-term infection in the heterologous host, clearly less than those found in BFV field isolates. The persistence of BFV infection in both hosts suggests full replication competence of the BFV(100) isolate with no requirement of genetic adaptation for productive replication in the authentic and even in a heterologous host. PMID:23325680

  8. Similar Patterns of Infection with Bovine Foamy Virus in Experimentally Inoculated Calves and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are the least known retroviruses commonly found in primates, cats, horses, and cattle. Although FVs are considered apathogenic, simian and feline FVs have been shown to be associated with some transient health abnormalities in animal models. Currently, data regarding the course of infection with bovine FV (BFV) are not available. In this study, we conducted experimental infections of natural (cattle) and heterologous (sheep) hosts with the BFV100 isolate and monitored infection patterns in both hosts during the early phase postinoculation as well as after long-term infection. Four calves and six sheep inoculated with BFV100 showed no signs of pathology but developed persistent infection, as confirmed by virus rescue, consistent detection of BFV-specific antibodies, and presence of viral DNA. In both hosts, antibodies against BFV Gag and Bet appeared early after infection and persisted at high and stable levels while seroreactivity toward Env was consistently detectable only in BFV-infected sheep. Interestingly, the BFV proviral DNA load was highest in lung, spleen, and liver and moderate in leukocytes, while salivary glands contained either low or undetectable DNA loads in calves or sheep, respectively. Additionally, comparison of partial BFV sequences from inoculum and infected animals demonstrated very limited changes after long-term infection in the heterologous host, clearly less than those found in BFV field isolates. The persistence of BFV infection in both hosts suggests full replication competence of the BFV100 isolate with no requirement of genetic adaptation for productive replication in the authentic and even in a heterologous host. PMID:23325680

  9. Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves after Oral or Intraperitoneal Experimental Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the infection process to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is tantamount to the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics for the control of this disease in the field. The current study compared the effectiveness of oral and intraperitoneal methods of experimental in...

  10. Experimental infection studies of avian influenza in wild birds as a complement to surveillance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last ten years, an unprecedented amount of experimental and field research has expanded our understanding of AI virus infection in wild birds. The majority of this work, however, has specifically focused on H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, which is a biologically uni...

  11. Immunologic Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Neonatal Calves after Oral or Intraperitoneal Experimental Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study was designed to compare experimental oral and intraperitoneal inoculation on early host immune responses to MAP infection. Blood samples were obtained on d -5 and -4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and monthly thereafter for the 12 month term of the study. Isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear...

  12. ORAL SHEDDING OF MARBURG VIRUS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED EGYPTIAN FRUIT BATS (ROUSETTUS AEGYPTIACUS)

    PubMed Central

    Amman, Brian R.; Jones, Megan E. B.; Sealy, Tara K.; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Schuh, Amy J.; Bird, Brian H.; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D.; Martin, Brock E.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus (Marburg marburgvirus; MARV) causes sporadic outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) in Africa. The Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) has been identified as a natural reservoir based most-recently on the repeated isolation of MARV directly from bats caught at two locations in southwestern Uganda where miners and tourists separately contracted MHF from 2007–08. Despite learning much about the ecology of MARV through extensive field investigations, there remained unanswered questions such as determining the primary routes of virus shedding and the severity of disease, if any, caused by MARV in infected bats. To answer these questions and others, we experimentally infected captive-bred R. aegyptiacus with MARV under high (biosafety level 4) containment. These experiments have shown infection profiles consistent with R. aegyptiacus being a bona fide natural reservoir host for MARV and demonstrated routes of viral shedding capable of infecting humans and other animals. PMID:25375951

  13. Experimental Reactivation of Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection in a Modified Cornell-Like Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hong Min; Kwon, Kee Woong; Cho, Sang-Nae; Shin, Sung Jae; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The latency and reactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been well studied. However, there have been few studies of the latency and reactivation of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), the most common etiological non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species next to M. tuberculosis in humans worldwide. We hypothesized that latent MAC infections can be reactivated following immunosuppression after combination chemotherapy with clarithromycin and rifampicin under experimental conditions. To this end, we employed a modified Cornell-like murine model of tuberculosis and investigated six strains consisting of two type strains and four clinical isolates of M. avium and M. intracellulare. After aerosol infection of each MAC strain, five to six mice per group were euthanized at 2, 4, 10, 18, 28 and 35 weeks post-infection, and lungs were sampled to analyze bacterial burden and histopathology. One strain of each species maintained a culture-negative state for 10 weeks after completion of 6 weeks of chemotherapy, but was reactivated after 5 weeks of immunosuppression in the lungs with dexamethasone (three out of six mice in M. avium infection) or sulfasalazine (four out of six mice in both M. avium and M. intracellulare infection). The four remaining MAC strains exhibited decreased bacterial loads in response to chemotherapy; however, they remained at detectable levels and underwent regrowth after immunosuppression. In addition, the exacerbated lung pathology demonstrated a correlation with bacterial burden after reactivation. In conclusion, our results suggest the possibility of MAC reactivation in an experimental mouse model, and experimentally demonstrate that a compromised immune status can induce reactivation and/or regrowth of MAC infection. PMID:26406237

  14. Protective immunization against Staphylococcus aureus infection in a novel experimental wound model in mice.

    PubMed

    Schennings, Torgny; Farnebo, Filip; Szekely, Laszlo; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

    2012-10-01

    A novel murine experimental wound infection model was used to assess the efficacy of multi-component immunization against Staphylococcus aureus infection. Necrotic lesions were induced in mice with venom from Bothrops asper and infected with a low inoculum, 1 × 10(2) CFU. The wound infection model therefore more resembles a clinical case of S. aureus infection compared with conventional infection models where far more bacteria are required. Before infection, mice were immunized with four recombinant S.aureus proteins expressed from Escherichia coli: (i) domains 1-3 of Extracellular adherence protein (Eap), (ii) Efb - D (fusion protein combining Extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) and a fibronectin binding domain (D) of the fibronectin binding protein (FnBP) and (iii) clumping factor A (ClfA). In the immunized group, lower bacterial colonization, undisturbed crust formation and significantly faster wound healing were found compared with the unimmunized control group. Efb and Eap have previously been found to impair wound healing and neutralization of these proteins by antibodies restores a more natural wound healing process. This effect is further also enhanced by the proposed opsonic activity of antibodies against ClfA and FnBP. PMID:22958286

  15. Antibody and inflammatory responses in laying hens with experimental primary infections of Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Atxutegi, C; Gandolfi, B; Arangüena, T; Sepúlveda, R; Arévalo, M; Simón, F

    2009-04-01

    Ascaridia galli, an intestinal nematode that affects hens and other domestic and wild birds, causes economic losses in avian exploitations. The present work shows that A. galli stimulates a strong antibody response as well as an intense inflammatory reaction, in the intestinal mucous of experimentally infected Lohmann Brown laying hens. IgG antibodies against soluble extracts of A. galli embrionated eggs and adult worms, were detected in both blood and yolks eggs from infected hens during a period of 105 days after the infection. This indicates that hens transfer to their offspring a part of the IgG antibodies produced when they become infected. The antigens responsible for the stimulation of specific IgG were molecules of 30-34, 44-54 and 58-90 kDa, while in the yolk eggs of infected hens a reactivity directed against antigens of molecular weight (M(w)) lower than 50 kDa was detected. Histology revealed traumatic lesions with leukocyte infiltration, and inflammation of the intestinal wall of the infected hens after 105 days of initial infection. The possible influence of the immune and inflammatory response on the population dynamics of the parasite is discussed. PMID:19167166

  16. Oxidative stress associated with pathological lesions in the liver of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Mendes, Ricardo E; Lucca, Neuber J; Schwertz, Claiton I; Henker, Luan C; Olsson, Débora C; Piva, Manoela M; Sangoi, Manuela; Campos, Luízi P; Moresco, Rafael N; Jaques, Jeandre A; Da silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant status and oxidative profile in serum and liver of rats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica and its relationship with pathological findings. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups: group A consisted of 12 healthy rats and group B of 12 rats infected orally with 20 metacercaria of F. hepatica. At days 20 and 150 post-infection (PI), blood and liver samples of six animals from each group were collected. The protein oxidation (AOPP technique: advanced oxidation protein products) and antioxidants (FRAP technique: ferric reducing antioxidant power) levels were measured in serum and liver. Furthermore, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and lipid peroxidation (TBARS technique: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were measured in liver. AOPP and FRAP levels were increased (P < 0.05) in serum and liver of infected animals in acute and chronic infection when compared with healthy animals. The same occurred with TBARS and NOx levels in the liver (P < 0.05). Histopathology revealed periportal fibrous hepatitis, composed of an abundant inflammatory infiltrate in portal spaces on infected animals, as well as bile duct hyperplasia. The results found seem to be related to the host free radical production demonstrated in serum samples and liver due to the parasite infection. PMID:26311170

  17. [Experimental infection in man and monkey (Cercopithecus callitrichus) by sarcosporidian cysts of cattle and swine].

    PubMed

    Hiepe, F; Hiepe, T; Hlinak, P; Jungmann, R; Horsch, R; Weidauer, B

    1979-01-01

    Reported in this paper is experimental sarcosporidial infection of man and lower primates (grass monkey). The courses of infection were followed up by coprological and serological tests. Oral-alimentary administration of 100 Sarcocystis (S.)-fusiformis cysts obtained from cattle muscle caused patent infection in man. Gastro-intestinal symptoms developed in one of the probands, between five and seven days after infection. No sporocysts were detectable from the stools of seven probands who had consumed 200 g each of commercially available minced pork which contained small amounts of Sarcocystis miescherania villi. Rise in antibody to Sarcocystes following infection was detected however, by means of indirect fluorescence antibody reaction (IFAR). Gastrointestinal complaints were reported by one of the probands, one day after infection. No sporocysts were detectable from the stools of four grass monkeys, following oral-alimentary administration of 50 or 25 S. miescherania cysts, but rise in antibody to S. miescherania was recorded in these cases. Those grass monkeys which had received 50 cysts responded by exhibiting, after infection, severe clinical phenomena with intestinal signs and symptoms of the central nervous sytem. PMID:121795

  18. Infectivity of DWV associated to flower pollen: experimental evidence of a horizontal transmission route.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Maurizio; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Luisi, Elena; Forzan, Mario; Giusti, Matteo; Sagona, Simona; Tolari, Francesco; Felicioli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a honeybee pathogen whose presence is generally associated with infestation of the colony by the mite Varroa destructor, leading to the onset of infections responsible for the collapse of the bee colony. DWV contaminates bee products such as royal jelly, bee-bread and honey stored within the infected hive. Outside the hive, DWV has been found in pollen loads collected directly from infected as well as uninfected forager bees. It has been shown that the introduction of virus-contaminated pollen into a DWV-free hive results in the production of virus-contaminated food, whose role in the development of infected bees from virus-free eggs has been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to ascertain the presence of DWV on pollen collected directly from flowers visited by honeybees and then quantify the viral load and (ii) determine whether the virus associated with pollen is infective. The results of our investigation provide evidence that DWV is present on pollen sampled directly from visited flowers and that, following injection in individuals belonging to the pollinator species Apis mellifera, it is able to establish an active infection, as indicated by the presence of replicating virus in the head of the injected bees. We also provide the first indication that the pollinator species Osmia cornuta is susceptible to DWV infection. PMID:25419704

  19. EFFICACY OF NITAZOXANIDE AGAINST Toxocara canis: LARVAL RECOVERY AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Santos, Sergio Vieira dos; Assis, Jesiel Maurício Lemos; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) against toxocariasis was investigated in an experimental murine model and results were compared to those obtained using mebendazole. Sixty male BALB/c mice, aged six to eight weeks-old, were divided into groups of 10 each; fifty were orally infected with 300 larvaed eggs of T. canis and grouped as follows, G I: infected untreated mice; G II: infected mice treated with MBZ (15 mg/kg/day) 10 days postinfection (dpi); G III: infected mice treated with NTZ (20 mg/kg/day) 10 dpi; G IV: infected mice treated with MBZ 60 dpi; G V: infected mice treated with NTZ 60 dpi; GVI: control group comprising uninfected mice. Mice were bled via retro-orbital plexus on four occasions between 30 and 120 dpi. Sera were processed using the ELISA technique to detect IgG anti- Toxocara antibodies. At 120 dpi, mice were sacrificed for larval recovery in the CNS, liver, lungs, kidneys, eyes and carcass. Results showed similar levels of anti- Toxocara IgG antibodies among mice infected but not submitted to treatment and groups treated with MBZ or NTZ, 10 and 60 dpi. Larval recovery showed similar values in groups treated with NTZ and MBZ 10 dpi. MBZ showed better efficacy 60 dpi, with a 72.6% reduction in the parasite load compared with NTZ, which showed only 46.5% reduction. We conclude that administration of these anthelmintics did not modify the humoral response in experimental infection by T. canis. No parasitological cure was observed with either drug; however, a greater reduction in parasite load was achieved following treatment with MBZ. PMID:26422159

  20. EFFICACY OF NITAZOXANIDE AGAINST Toxocara canis: LARVAL RECOVERY AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    PubMed Central

    LESCANO, Susana A. Zevallos; dos SANTOS, Sergio Vieira; ASSIS, Jesiel Maurício Lemos; CHIEFFI, Pedro Paulo

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) against toxocariasis was investigated in an experimental murine model and results were compared to those obtained using mebendazole. Sixty male BALB/c mice, aged six to eight weeks-old, were divided into groups of 10 each; fifty were orally infected with 300 larvaed eggs of T. canisand grouped as follows, G I: infected untreated mice; G II: infected mice treated with MBZ (15 mg/kg/day) 10 days postinfection (dpi); G III: infected mice treated with NTZ (20 mg/kg/day) 10 dpi; G IV: infected mice treated with MBZ 60 dpi; G V: infected mice treated with NTZ 60 dpi; GVI: control group comprising uninfected mice. Mice were bled via retro-orbital plexus on four occasions between 30 and 120 dpi. Sera were processed using the ELISA technique to detect IgG anti- Toxocaraantibodies. At 120 dpi, mice were sacrificed for larval recovery in the CNS, liver, lungs, kidneys, eyes and carcass. Results showed similar levels of anti- ToxocaraIgG antibodies among mice infected but not submitted to treatment and groups treated with MBZ or NTZ, 10 and 60 dpi. Larval recovery showed similar values in groups treated with NTZ and MBZ 10 dpi. MBZ showed better efficacy 60 dpi, with a 72.6% reduction in the parasite load compared with NTZ, which showed only 46.5% reduction. We conclude that administration of these anthelmintics did not modify the humoral response in experimental infection by T. canis. No parasitological cure was observed with either drug; however, a greater reduction in parasite load was achieved following treatment with MBZ. PMID:26422159

  1. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium in Goats across Four Provincial Level Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Rongsheng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Yuxuan; Chen, Yongjun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Zhaoguo

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium in goats from Guangdong Province, Hubei Province, Shandong Province, and Shanghai City of China. Six hundred and four fecal samples were collected from twelve goat farms, and the overall infection rate was 11.4% (69/604). Goats infected with Cryptosporidium were found in eleven farms across four provincial areas, and the infection rate ranged from 2.9% (1/35) to 25.0% (9/36). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified. Cryptosporidium xiaoi (45/69, 65.2%) was the dominant species, followed by C. parvum (14/69, 20.3%) and C. ubiquitum (10/69, 14.5%). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was varied with host age and goat kids were more susceptible to be infected than adult goats. Subtyping C. parvum and C. ubiquitum positive samples revealed C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 and C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa were the most common subtypes. Other C. parvum subtypes were detected as well, such as IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA17G2R1. All of these subtypes have also been detected in humans, suggesting goats may be a potential source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. This was the first report of C. parvum subtypes IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA17G2R1 infecting in goats and the first molecular identification of C. parvum and its subtypes in Chinese goats. PMID:25343501

  2. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  3. Goats Primed with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Boosted with a Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ag85A Show Enhanced Protection against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Nofrarías, Miquel; López-Soria, Sergio; Romera, Nadine; Singh, Mahavir; Abad, F. Xavier; Xing, Zhou; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Domingo, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    This is the first efficacy study using the experimental goat model, a natural host of tuberculosis (TB), to evaluate the efficacy of heterologous Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prime followed by boosting with a replication-deficient adenovirus expressing the antigen Ag85A (AdAg85A). Three experimental groups of 11 goat kids each were used: BCG vaccinated, BCG vaccinated and AdAg85A boosted, and nonvaccinated. Twenty-two goat kids were vaccinated with ∼5 × 105 CFU of BCG (week 0), and 11 of them were boosted at week 8 with 109 PFU of AdAg85A. At week 14, all goats were challenged by the endobronchial route with ∼1.5 × 103 CFU of Mycobacterium caprae. The animals were euthanized at week 28. Cellular and humoral immunity induced by vaccination and M. caprae infection was measured throughout the study. After challenge BCG-AdAg85A-vaccinated animals exhibited reduced pathology compared to BCG-vaccinated animals in lungs and in pulmonary lymph nodes. There were significant reductions in bacterial load in both groups of vaccinated goats, but the reduction was more pronounced in prime-boosted animals. Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and humoral responses were identified as prognostic biomarkers of vaccination outcome depending on their correlation with pathological and bacteriological results. As far as we know, this is the first report using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to measure vaccine efficacy against pulmonary TB in an animal model. The use in vaccine trials of animals that are natural hosts of TB may improve research into human TB vaccines. PMID:22761299

  4. Use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to determine optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection in goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding manag...

  5. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P<0.05) sharply from the early morning to early-noon (10:00 a.m.) and remained at a high level until evenings which thereafter decreased to their initial levels during the night both in naturally and experimentally infected birds. This resulted in a more apparent increase or a decrease in AEO at the corresponding time points, respectively, and led to much higher egg excretions during the daytime than the nights. Despite the apparent within day fluctuations in egg excretion, neither EPG (P=0.704) nor AEO (P=0.499) nor EPD (P=0.149) was significantly different among the four collection days. Similarly, there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a

  6. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S.; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. IMPORTANCE Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation

  7. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are the major source of Q fever in humans. To investigate the goat’s immune response we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via inhalation with a Dutch outbreak isolate of C. burnetii. All animals were successfully infected. Phase 1 and Phase 2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies were measured. Cellular immune responses were investigated by interferon-gamma, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (IFN-γ Elispot), lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and systemic cytokines. After two weeks post inoculation (wpi), a strong anti-C. burnetii Phase 2 IgM and IgG antibody response was observed while the increase in IgM anti-Phase 1 antibodies was less pronounced. IgG anti-Phase 1 antibodies started to rise at 6 wpi. Cellular immune responses were observed after parturition. Our results demonstrated humoral and cellular immune responses to C. burnetii infection in pregnant goats. Cell-mediated immune responses did not differ enough to distinguish between Coxiella-infected and non-infected pregnant animals, whereas a strong-phase specific antibody response is detected after 2 wpi. This humoral immune response may be useful in the early detection of C. burnetii-infected pregnant goats. PMID:23915213

  8. ntegrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) using sericea lespedeza (SL), FAMACHA, and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in weaned goats in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of effective anthelmintics for control of GIN in goats has led to the need for an integrated management approach. FAMACHA is an effective tool for selective deworming of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats, while COWP and SL grazing have reduced H. contortus infection. The objective was to exam...

  9. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated. PMID:26361966

  10. Distribution of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves.

    PubMed

    Marin, M S; Leunda, M R; Verna, A E; Morán, P E; Odeón, A C; Pérez, S E

    2016-03-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. BoHV-1 encephalitis is only occasionally reported. However, several cases of neurological disease have been recently attributed to BoHV-1. In this study, the distribution and pathological alterations caused by two BoHV-1 strains in the nervous system of experimentally infected calves during acute infection and reactivation are described. Calves were inoculated intranasally with BoHV-1 Los Angeles (BoHV-1.LA) or Cooper (BoHV-1.Cooper) strains. Acutely infected calves were euthanased at 6 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) and 7 days post-inoculation (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2). Latently infected calves that were given dexamethasone to induce reactivation were euthanased at 2 days (BoHV-1.Cooper, n = 2) or 5 days (BoHV-1.LA, n = 2) after dexamethasone administration. Both BoHV-1 strains were isolated from the brains of acutely infected calves. Distribution of viral DNA in the neural tissues was similar for both strains. During reactivation, neither BoHV-1.LA nor BoHV-1.Cooper was isolated from any brain section or trigeminal ganglia in infected calves. Macroscopic lesions were not evident in any group. In BoHV-1.LA infected calves, microscopic lesions were found in the brain but not in the trigeminal ganglia. Microscopic lesions in the brain of BoHV-1.Cooper infected calves were not as evident as in BoHV-1.LA infected animals. However, mononuclear infiltrates and neuronophagia were present in trigeminal ganglia. The results of this study demonstrated that respiratory BoHV-1 strains are able to replicate and disseminate within the bovine nervous tissue and provide evidence of the neuroinvasiveness of BoHV-1 strains. PMID:26831158

  11. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  12. Transcriptomic study of 39 ostreid herpesvirus 1 genes during an experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Amélie; Faury, Nicole; Pépin, Jean-François; Renault, Tristan

    2014-06-01

    Massive mortality outbreaks have been reported in France since 2008 among Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, with the detection of a particular OsHV-1 variant called μVar. Virus infection can be induced in healthy spat in experimental conditions allowing to better understand the disease process, including viral gene expression. Although gene expression of other herpesviruses has been widely studied, we provide the first study following viral gene expression of OsHV-1 over time. In this context, an in vivo transcriptomic study targeting 39 OsHV-1 genes was carried out during an experimental infection of Pacific oyster spat. For the first time, several OsHV-1 mRNAs were detected by real-time PCR at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 18 h, 26 h and 42 h post-injection. Several transcripts were detected at 2h post-infection and at 18 h post-infection for all selected ORFs. Quantification of virus gene expression at different times of infection was also carried out using an oyster housekeeping gene, Elongation factor. Developing an OsHV-1-specific reverse transcriptase real time PCR targeting 39 viral gene appears a new tool in terms of diagnosis and can be used to complement viral DNA detection in order to monitor viral replication. PMID:24681357

  13. Experimental infection of suckling mice by subcutaneous inoculation with Oropouche virus.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo I; Almeida, Mariana F P; Paula, Flávia E; Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Saranzo, Ariane Mattioli; Paula, André E; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Correa, Vani Maria Alves; Acrani, Gustavo Olszanski; Neder, Luciano; Arruda, Eurico

    2012-12-01

    Oropouche virus, of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Simbu, is an important causative agent of arboviral febrile illness in Brazil. An estimated 500,000 cases of Oropouche fever have occurred in Brazil in the last 30 years, with recorded cases also in Panama, Peru, Suriname and Trinidad. We have developed an experimental model of Oropouche virus infection in neonatal BALB/c mouse by subcutaneous inoculation. The vast majority of infected animals developed disease on the 5th day post infection, characterized mainly by lethargy and paralysis, progressing to death within 10 days. Viral replication was documented in brain cells by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and virus titration. Multi-step immunohistochemistry indicated neurons as the main target cells of OROV infection. Histopathology revealed glial reaction and astrocyte activation in the brain and spinal cord, with neuronal apoptosis. Spleen hyperplasia and mild meningitis were also found, without viable virus detected in liver and spleen. This is the first report of an experimental mouse model of OROV infection, with severe involvement of the central nervous system, and should become useful in pathogenesis studies, as well as in preclinical testing of therapeutic interventions for this emerging pathogen. PMID:22877689

  14. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  15. Evaluation of 6-azauridine and 5-iododeoxyuridine in the treatment of experimental viral infections.

    PubMed

    Steffenhagen, K A; Easterday, B C; Galasso, G J

    1976-06-01

    The potential antiviral activity of 6-azauridine and 5-iododeoxyuridine was evaluated in a coordinated study at five institutions. Experimental models in five species, the mouse, rabbit, swine, cat, and ferret, were established with use of 10 viruses: Herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2, murine cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, Shope fibroma virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, swine influenza virus, feline viral rhinotracheitis virus, feline panleukopenia virus, and ferret distemper virus. Criteria for selection were: (1) representation from a number of major groups of viruses, (2) reproduction of natural routes of infection, and (3) simulation of potentially treatable viral infections of man. Antiviral activity was observed for 5-iododeoxyuridine in H. hominis infections in hairless mice and influenza in swine, and a slight degree of efficacy was noted in rabbits infected with Shope fibroma virus. Toxicity was also observed in most of the experimental models. There was a suggestion of antiviral activity with 6-azauridine in swine infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus; however, enhancement of disease and some toxicity were seen in most of the other models. Efficacy of these two compounds was not well substantiated by these studies. PMID:180189

  16. Experimental infection of calves with Haemonchus placei and Haemonchus contortus: Assessment of parasitological parameters.

    PubMed

    Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Buzzulini, Carolina; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Salatta, Bruna; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-02-15

    The present study evaluated the viability and possible effects of Haemonchus contortus infections in experimentally prime infected calves, comparing them to infections by Haemonchus placei. Ten male Holstein newborns were used. All calves were individually weighed for subsequent group formation, in which two animals were kept as a control group, inoculated with water (GI); four animals were inoculated with 10,000 third stage (L3) Haemonchus contortus larvae (GII); and the remaining four calves were inoculated with 10,000 third stage (L3) H. placei larvae (GIII). All experimental animals were necropsied on the 42nd day after inoculation. Based on results obtained by the present study, it can be concluded that bovine calves were susceptible to infections by both Haemonchus species (placei and contortus). H. contortus presented an inferior pre-patent period when compared to H. placei. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between Haemonchus burdens recovered from both infected groups (GII and GIII). Moreover, H. contortus females maintained an egg production rate similar to H. placei females in young animals, which can contribute to pasture contamination by both Haemonchus species. This could possibly lead to negative reflexes on helminth control based on a mixed pasture with bovines and ovines, especially when it involves younglings. PMID:26827856

  17. Enhancement of Immunohistochemical Detection of Salmonella in Tissues of Experimentally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, J.; Janczyk, P.; Hünigen, H.; Plendl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1×1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni’s fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  18. Early Immune Markers Associated with Experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in a Neonatal Calf Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to observe early markers of cell-mediated immunity in naïve calves infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and how expression of these markers evolved over the 12-month period of infection. Methods of experimental infection included: Control (n...

  19. Early Immune Markets Associated with Experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in a Neonatal Calf Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection models are useful for studying host responses to infection to aid in the development of diagnostic tools and vaccines. The current study compared experimental oral and intraperitoneal MAP infection on early host immune responses. Twenty neonatal Holstein calves were assigned to 5 treatment...

  20. Detection of Vaccinia virus in blood and faeces of experimentally infected cows.

    PubMed

    Guedes, M I M C; Rehfeld, I S; de Oliveira, T M L; Assis, F L; Matos, A C D; Abrahão, J S; Kroon, E G; Lobato, Z I P

    2013-12-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV), a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), affects dairy cattle and milkers, causing economic, veterinary and human health impacts. Despite such impacts, there are no experimental studies about the pathogenesis of BV in cows to assess whether there is a systemic spread of the virus and whether there are different ways of VACV shedding. Trying to answer some of these questions, a study was proposed using experimental inoculation of VACV in cows. All experimentally infected cows developed lesions compatible with VACV infection in cattle. Two of the six animals presented VACV DNA in blood and faecal samples, starting at the 2nd and the 3rd day post-infection (d.p.i.), respectively, and lasting until the 36th d.p.i., in an intermittent way. This study provides new evidence that VACV can be detected in blood and faeces of infected cows, suggesting that BV could be a systemic disease, and also bringing new information about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of BV. PMID:22909142

  1. Genetic and experimental evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Meng, X J; Halbur, P G; Shapiro, M S; Govindarajan, S; Bruna, J D; Mushahwar, I K; Purcell, R H; Emerson, S U

    1998-12-01

    Prior to the recent discovery of the swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV) in pigs from the midwestern United States, HEV was not considered endemic to this country. Since swine HEV is antigenically and genetically related to human strains of HEV, it was important to characterize this new virus further. The infectivity titer of a pool of swine HEV in pigs was determined in order to prepare a standardized reagent and to evaluate the dose response in pigs. Although the sequence of swine HEV varied extensively from those of most human strains of HEV, it was very closely related to the two strains of human HEV (US-1 and US-2) isolated in the United States. The U.S. strains which were recently recovered from two patients with clinical hepatitis E in the United States shared >/=97% amino acid identity with swine HEV in open reading frames 1 and 2. Phylogenetic analyses of different regions of the genome revealed that swine HEV and the U.S. strains grouped together and formed a distinct branch. These results suggested that swine HEV may infect humans. When we inoculated rhesus monkeys and a chimpanzee, experimental surrogates of humans, with swine HEV, the primates became infected. Furthermore, in a reciprocal experiment, specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally infected with the US-2 strain of human HEV that is genetically similar to swine HEV. These results provided experimental evidence for cross-species infection by the swine virus. Thus, humans appear to be at risk of infection with swine HEV or closely related viruses. PMID:9811705

  2. Experimental infection of serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with European bat lyssavirus type 1a.

    PubMed

    Freuling, C; Vos, A; Johnson, N; Kaipf, I; Denzinger, A; Neubert, L; Mansfield, K; Hicks, D; Nuñez, A; Tordo, N; Rupprecht, C E; Fooks, A R; Müller, T

    2009-10-01

    The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) accounts for the vast majority of bat rabies cases in Europe and is considered the main reservoir for European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1, genotype 5). However, so far the disease has not been investigated in its native host under experimental conditions. To assess viral virulence, dissemination and probable means of transmission, captive bats were infected experimentally with an EBLV-1a virus isolated from a naturally infected conspecific from Germany. Twenty-nine wild caught bats were divided into five groups and inoculated by intracranial (i.c.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection or by intranasal (i.n.) inoculation to mimic the various potential routes of infection. One group of bats was maintained as uninfected controls. Mortality was highest in the i.c.-infected animals, followed by the s.c. and i.m. groups. Incubation periods varied from 7 to 26 days depending on the route of infection. Rabies did not develop in the i.n. group or in the negative-control group. None of the infected bats seroconverted. Viral antigen was detected in more than 50% of the taste buds of an i.c.-infected animal. Shedding of viable virus was measured by virus isolation in cell culture for one bat from the s.c. group at 13 and 14 days post-inoculation, i.e. 7 days before death. In conclusion, it is postulated that s.c. inoculation, in nature caused by bites, may be an efficient way of transmitting EBLV-1 among free-living serotine bats. PMID:19515825

  3. Microbial dynamics during the ripening of a mixed cow and goat milk cheese manufactured using frozen goat milk curd.

    PubMed

    Campos, G; Robles, L; Alonso, R; Nuñez, M; Picon, A

    2011-10-01

    To overcome the seasonal shortage of goat milk in mixed milk cheese manufacture, pasteurized goat milk curd and high-pressure-treated raw goat milk curd manufactured in the spring were held at -24 °C for 4 mo, thawed, and mixed with fresh cow milk curd for the manufacture of experimental cheeses. Control cheeses were made from a mixture of pasteurized cow and goat milk. The microbiota of experimental and control cheeses was studied using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Bacterial enumeration by classical methods showed lactic acid bacteria to be the dominant population in both control and experimental cheeses. In total, 681 isolates were grouped by partial amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) into 4 groups and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (563 isolates), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (72 isolates), Lactobacillus spp. (34 isolates), and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris (12 isolates). Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of cheese showed (1) the predominance of Lc. lactis in all cheeses; (2) the presence of Leu. pseudomesenteroides population in all cheeses from d 15 onward; (3) the presence of a Lactobacillus plantarum population in control cheese until d 15 and in experimental cheeses throughout the ripening period. Due to the most diverse and complete set of peptidases present in the genus Lactobacillus, the prevalence of this population in experimental cheeses could give rise to differences in cheese flavor between experimental and control cheeses. PMID:21943728

  4. Impact of experimental duel infections with Schistosoma mansoni and Echinoccocus granulosus on hepatic histopathology.

    PubMed

    Elwakil, Hala S; Ali, Nehad M; Talaat, Roba M; Osman, Wesam M

    2007-12-01

    Experimental duel infection with S. mansoni and E. granulosus was induced in mice to determine their effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) level and accordingly on the sequences of histopathological lesions affecting the liver. The results showed that serum NO level was significantly increased (p<0.05) in mice infected with both parasites (GI) in comparison to either S. mansoni (GIV) or E. granulosus (GV). The NO elevation on hepatic pathological lesions of both diseases showed a marked reduction of granuloma size with absence of concentric fibrosis in GI as early as 4 weeks of concomitant infection as compared to GIV. In spite of the significant increase of NO level when E. granulosus infection induced in late stages of schistosomisais (GsII & III), yet granuloma size was not suppressed. Also, there was absence or death of hydatid cyst in mice (GI) compared to E. granulosus (GV). So, the duel infection with the two parasites affected serum NO level and hepatic histopathology, by ameliorative or deteriorative effects, according to duration of infection with either. PMID:18431992

  5. Interleukin 12 is effective treatment for an established systemic intracellular infection: experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    When administered at or near the initiation of experimental intracellular infection caused by Leishmania major, Toxoplasma gondii, or Cryptococcus neoformans, treatment with the immuno-regulatory cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12), induces protective antimicrobial activity. In contrast, once infections are established, IL-12 exerts considerably less or no effect in the face of a suppressive Th2 cell- associated response (L. major) or rapidly progressive fatal infection (T. gondii). To test the efficacy of IL-12 in an established intracellular protozoal infection but under quite different immunologic conditions (Th1 cell response, acquired resistance), L. donovani- infected BALB/c mice were treated starting 2 wk after challenge coincident with the onset of the Th1 cell response. In this environment, 7 d of IL-12 treatment reduced liver parasite burdens by 47%, an effect comparable to that induced by exogenous interferon (IFN) gamma. The in vivo mechanism responsive to IL-12 was complex, and required both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as natural killer cells and the action of multiple endogenous antileishmanial cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha). Early treatment with IL-12 before the expression of the Th1 cell response was also effective and induced an accelerated, near-cure response via an IFN-gamma-dependent mechanism. These results extend the antimicrobial-inducing capacity of IL-12 beyond prophylaxis by indicating that IL-12 can exert clear-cut therapeutic activity in an established intracellular infection. PMID:7807019

  6. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4Rα expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4Rα-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  7. Experimental West Nile virus infection in Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, N.M.; Hahn, D.C.; Gould, D.H.; Bowen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Eastern Screech Owls (EASOs) were experimentally infected with the pathogenic New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) by subcutaneous injection or per os. Two of nine subcutaneously inoculated birds died or were euthanatized on 8 or 9 days postinfection (DPI) after <24 hr of lethargy and recumbency. All subcutaneously inoculated birds developed levels of viremia that are likely infectious to mosquitoes, with peak viremia levels ranging from 105.0 to 109.6 plaque-forming units/ml. Despite the viremia, the remaining seven birds did not display signs of illness. All birds alive beyond 5 DPI seroconverted, although the morbid birds demonstrated significantly lower antibody titers than the clinically normal birds. Cagemates of infected birds did not become infected. One of five orally exposed EASOs became viremic and seroconverted, whereas WNV infection in the remaining four birds was not evident. All infected birds shed virus via the oral and cloacal route. Early during infection, WNV targeted skin, spleen, esophagus, and skeletal muscle. The two morbid owls had myocardial and skeletal muscle necrosis and mild encephalitis and nephritis, whereas some of the clinically healthy birds that were sacrificed on 14 DPI had myocardial arteritis and renal phlebitis. WNV is a significant pathogen of EASOs, causing pathologic lesions with varying clinical outcomes.

  8. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Tina S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Vadekær, Dorte F; Jungersen, Gregers; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2015-03-15

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. galli infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases increased mortality. More importantly, the parasitised chickens are more susceptible to secondary infections and their ability to develop vaccine-induced protective immunity against other diseases may be compromised. Detailed information about the immune response to the natural infection may be exploited to enable future vaccine development. In the present study, expression of immune genes in the chicken spleen during an experimental infection with A. galli was investigated using the Fluidigm(®) BioMark™ microfluidic qPCR platform which combines automatic high-throughput with attractive low sample and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens. Increased expression of MBL, CRP, IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12β and IL-18 followed at week 6 p.i. and at both week 6 and 9 p.i. expression of DEFβ1 was highly increased in infected chickens. In summary, apart from also earlier reported increased expression of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-13 we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal lumen. Increased expression of DEFβ1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the

  9. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Scott W; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G; Miller, Daniel M; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  10. Macrophage Activation Associated with Chronic Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Results in More Severe Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.; Miller, Daniel M.; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P.; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  11. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. PMID:26578676

  12. Antibody response against Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats is dose dependent

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Domestic pigs are the main representatives of the domestic cycle of Trichinella spiralis that play a role in transmission to humans. In Europe, backyard pigs of small household farms are the most important risks for humans to obtain trichinellosis. Rats might play a role in the transmission of Trichinella spiralis from domestic to sylvatic animals and vice versa. In order to be able to investigate the role of wild rats in the epidemiology of T. spiralis in The Netherlands, we studied the dynamics of antibody response after T. spiralis infections in experimental rats, using infection doses ranging from very low (10 muscle larvae, ML, per rat) to very high (16 000 ML per rat). To evaluate the feasibility of rats surviving high infection doses with T. spiralis, clinical and pathological parameters were quantified. Serological tools for detecting T. spiralis in rats were developed to quantitatively study the correlation between parasite load and immunological response. The results show that an infection dose-dependent antibody response was developed in rats after infection with as low as 10 ML up to a level of 10 000 ML. A positive correlation was found between the number of recovered ML and serum antibody levels, although specific measured antibody levels correspond to a wide range of LPG values. Serum antibodies of rats that were infected even with 10 or 25 ML could readily be detected by use of the T. spiralis western blot 2 weeks post infection. We conclude that based on these low infection doses, serologic tests are a useful tool to survey T. spiralis in wild rats. PMID:22129040

  13. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  14. Experimental infection of laboratory-bred bank voles (Myodes glareolus) with murid herpesvirus 4.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David J; Kipar, Anja; Leeming, Gail; Sample, Jeffery T; Stewart, James P

    2012-11-01

    MuHV-4 is a natural pathogen of rodents of the genus Apodemus (e.g., wood mice, yellow-necked mice) and Myodes glareolus (bank voles). We report experimental MuHV-4 infection of bank voles in comparison with infection of A. sylvaticus (wood mice) and BALB/c mice. Like in wood mice, the level of productive replication in the lungs of bank voles was significantly lower than in BALB/c mice. In contrast to other hosts, however, the level of latent infection in the lung and spleen of bank voles was extremely low. These findings, together with those of previous studies, suggest that bank voles are an occasional and inefficient host for MuHV-4. PMID:22782137

  15. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sheep strains isolated from Cyprus sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

    2015-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358

  16. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    SciTech Connect

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  17. Pathogenesis of reproductive failure induced by Trypanosoma vivax in experimentally infected pregnant ewes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in different stages of pregnancy, determining the pathogenesis of reproductive failure, and confirming transplacental transmission. We used 12 pregnant ewes distributed into four experimental groups: G1, was formed by three ewes infected with T. vivax in the first third of pregnancy (30 days); G2 comprised three infected ewes in the final third of pregnancy (100 days); G3 and G4 were composed of three non-infected ewes with the same gestational period, respectively. Each ewe of G1 and G2 was inoculated with 1.25 × 105 tripomastigotes. Clinical examination, determination of parasitemia, serum biochemistry (albumin, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and urea), packed cell volume (PCV), serum progesterone, and pathological examination were performed. Placenta, amniotic fluid, blood and tissues from the fetuses and stillbirths were submitted to PCR. Two ewes of G1 (Ewe 1 and 3) presented severe infection and died in the 34th and 35th days post-infection (dpi), respectively; but both fetuses were recovered during necropsy. In G2, Ewe 5 aborted two fetuses on the 130th day (30 dpi) of pregnancy; and Ewe 6 aborted one fetus in the 140th day (40 dpi) of gestation. Ewes 2 and 4 delivered two weak lambs that died five days after birth. Factors possibly involved with the reproductive failure included high parasitemia, fever, low PCV, body score, serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and progesterone. Hepatitis, pericarditis, and encephalitis were observed in the aborted fetuses. The presence of T. vivax DNA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, blood, and tissues from the fetuses confirms the transplacental transmission of the parasite. Histological lesion in the fetuses and placenta also suggest the involvement of the parasite in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive failure in ewes. PMID:23289625

  18. Age-Specificity of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Sheep, Goats and Cattle on Subsistence Farms in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Moizur; AZAD, Md. Thoufic Anam; NAHAR, Lovely; ROUF, Shah Md. Abdur; OHYA, Kenji; CHIOU, Shih-Pin; BABA, Minami; KITOH, Katsuya; TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats. PMID:24849051

  19. Comparing presence of avian paramyxovirus-1 through immunohistochemistry in tracheas of experimentally and naturally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Brown, Corrie C; Sullivan, Lauren; Dufour-Zavala, Louise; Kulkarni, Arun; Williams, Susan; Susta, Leonardo; Zhang, Jian; Sellers, Holly

    2013-03-01

    Tracheas from chickens infected both in the field and experimentally with lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (also known as avian paramyxovirus-1 [APMV-1] and referred to here as "lentogenic NDV") were examined histopathologically to score degree of pathologic changes and by immunohistochemistry to determine presence of viral protein. In the field cases there was often a striking lack of correlation between severity of tracheal lesions and amount of immunohistochemical signal for APMV-1 protein. Experimental cases had minimal pathologic changes and also minimal immunohistochemical signal. Positive cells were often associated with surface deciliation. It may be that lentogenic NDV has only a minor role as a respiratory pathogen, merely compromising the mucosa to allow other respiratory pathogens to infect and worsen the clinical and pathologic presentation. PMID:23678727

  20. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  1. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  2. [The protective activity of 2 normal immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous administration in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection].

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Ch L; Veleva, K V; Tekelieva, R Kh; Pencheva, P I

    1991-02-01

    The antibody levels in 18 batches of the preparations of human immunoglobulin, Immunovenin and Immunovenin-Intact, for intravenous injection were determined in the enzyme immunoassay with the use of the mixture of P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide antigens of seven immunotypes. The average antibody titers in these preparations were identical. The preparations were found to have protective action against P. aeruginosa experimental infection in mice. PMID:1907793

  3. Cholinesterase as inflammatory markers in a experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Costa, Márcio M; Silva, Aleksandro S da; Paim, Francine C; França, Raqueli; Dornelles, Guilherme L; Thomé, Gustavo R; Serres, Jonas D S; Schmatz, Roberta; Spanevello, Rosélia M; Gonçalves, Jamile F; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Mazzanti, Cinthia M A; Lopes, Sonia T A; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of cholinesterases as an inflammatory marker in acute and chronic infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits experimentally infected. Twelve adult female New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into two groups with 6 animals each: control group (rabbits 1-6) and infected group (rabbits 7-12). Infected group received intraperitoneally 0.5 mL of blood from a rat containing 108 parasites per animal. Blood samples used for cholinesterases evaluation were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 and 118 days post-inoculation (PI). Increased activity (P<0.05) of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were observed in the blood on days 7 and 27, respectively and no differences were observed in cholinesterase activity in other periods. No significant difference in AChE activity (P>0.05) was observed in the encephalic structures. The increased activities of AChE and BChE probably have a pro-inflammatory purpose, attempting to reduce the concentration of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which has an anti-inflammatory property. Therefore, cholinesterase may be inflammatory markers in infection with T. evansi in rabbits. PMID:23011112

  4. Experimental infection of cattle, sheep and pigs with 'Hobi'-like pestivirus.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Moreno, Ana; Armenise, Carlo; Losurdo, Michele; Camero, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cordioli, Paolo; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-03-23

    To date, limited information is available on the ability of 'Hobi'-like pestiviruses (putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3) to infect and cause disease in animal species traditionally affected by pestiviruses. In order to obtain new insights into host range and pathogenic potential of this atypical pestivirus, BVDV-seronegative calves (n=5), lambs (n=5) and piglets (n=5) were experimentally infected with the European 'Hobi'-like strain Italy-1/10-1, whereas two animals per species served as uninfected controls. Appearance of clinical signs, leukopenia, viremia, viral shedding and seroconversion were monitored for 28 days post-infection. Calves and lambs were successfully infected, displaying respiratory signs (nasal discharge), moderate hyperthermia and leukopenia, viremia and viral shedding through the nasal and faecal routes. Antibody responses were observed in both animal species by ELISA and virus neutralisation assays. In contrast, inoculated piglets did not display any clinical signs nor leukopenia and viral RNA was not detected in any biological samples. Nevertheless, the presence of detectable antibodies by virus neutralisation accounted for a successful, albeit limited infection of these animals. PMID:21955447

  5. Western Immunoblot Analysis of the Antigens of Haemobartonella felis with Sera from Experimentally Infected Cats

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, A. Rick; Pate, Melanie G.; Harvey, John W.; Gaskin, Jack M.; Barbet, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    Cats were experimentally infected with a Florida isolate of Haemobartonella felis in order to collect organisms and evaluate the immune response to H. felis. Cryopreserved organisms were thawed and injected intravenously into nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats. Splenectomized animals were given 10 mg of methylprednisolone per ml at the time of inoculation. Blood films were evaluated daily for 1 week prior to infection and for up to 60 days postinfection (p.i.). Blood for H. felis purification was repeatedly collected from splenectomized animals at periods of peak parasitemias. Organisms were purified from infected blood by differential centrifugation, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes for immunoblot analysis. Serum was collected from nonsplenectomized animals prior to and for up to 60 days p.i. and was used on immunoblots to identify antigens. The combination of splenectomy and corticosteroid treatment resulted in marked, cyclic parasitemias without concurrent severe anemia, providing an opportunity to harvest organisms in a manner that was not lethal to the animals. Several antigens (150, 52, 47, 45, and 14 kDa) were identified. An antigen with a molecular mass of approximately 14 kDa appeared to be one of the most immunodominant and was consistently recognized by immune sera collected at various times during the course of infection. These data suggest that one or more of these antigens might be useful for the serologic diagnosis of H. felis infections in cats. PMID:10203508

  6. GOATS Image Projection Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  7. Panorganismal metabolic response modeling of an experimental Echinostoma caproni infection in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Saric, Jasmina; Li, Jia V; Wang, Yulan; Keiser, Jennifer; Veselkov, Kirill; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Yap, Ivan K S; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic profiling of host tissues and biofluids during parasitic infections can reveal new biomarker information and aid the elucidation of mechanisms of disease. The multicompartmental metabolic effects of an experimental Echinostoma caproni infection have been characterized in 12 outbred female mice infected orally with 30 E. caproni metacercariae each, using a further 12 uninfected animals as a control group. Mice were killed 36 days postinfection and brain, intestine (colon, ileum, jejeunum), kidney, liver, and spleen were removed. Metabolic profiles of tissue samples were measured using high-resolution magic angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy and biofluids measured by applying conventional (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed via principal component analysis, partial least-squares-derived methods and hierarchical projection analyses. Infection-induced metabolic changes in the tissues were correlated with altered metabolite concentrations in the biofluids (urine, plasma, fecal water) using hierarchical modeling and correlation analyses. Metabolic descriptors of infection were identified in liver, renal cortex, intestinal tissues but not in spleen, brain or renal medulla. The main physiological change observed in the mouse was malabsorption in the small intestine, which was evidenced by decreased levels of various amino acids in the ileum, for example, alanine, taurine, glutamine, and branched chain amino acids. Furthermore, altered gut microbial activity or composition was reflected by increased levels of trimethylamine in the colon. Our modeling approach facilitated in-depth appraisal of the covariation of the metabolic profiles of different biological matrices and found that urine and plasma most closely reflected changes in ileal compartments. In conclusion, an E. caproni infection not only results in direct localized (ileum and jejenum) effects, but also causes remote metabolic changes (colon and several peripheral organs), and therefore

  8. Experimental rabies virus infection in Artibeus jamaicensis bats with CVS-24 variants.

    PubMed

    Reid, J E; Jackson, A C

    2001-12-01

    An experimental model of rabies was established in the fruit-eating bat species Artibeus jamaicensis. The infections caused by CVS-N2c and CVS-B2c, which are both stable variants of CVS-24, were compared after inoculation of adult bats in the right masseter muscle. CVS-N2c produced neurologic signs of rabies with paresis, ataxia, and inability to fly, while CVS-B2c did not produce neurologic signs. Bats were sacrificed and the distribution of rabies virus antigen was assessed in tissue sections with immunoperoxidase staining. Both viruses spread to the brain stem and bilaterally to the trigeminal ganglia by days 2 to 3. CVS-N2c had disseminated widely in the central nervous system (CNS) by day 4 and had involved the spinal cord, thalamus, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. CVS-B2c had infected neurons in the spinal cord on day 5 and in the cerebellum, thalamus, and cerebral cortex on day 6. Infected pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus were observed on day 5 in CVS-N2c infection, but infected neurons were never noted in the hippocampus in CVS-B2c infection. CVS-N2c infected many more neurons and more prominently involved neuronal processes than CVS-B2c. CVS-N2c spread more efficiently in the CNS than CVS-B2c. Morphologic changes of apoptosis or biochemical evidence of DNA fragmentation were not observed in neurons with either virus after this route of inoculation. The different neurovirulent properties of these CVS variants in this model were not related to their in vivo ability to induce apoptosis. PMID:11704883

  9. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Dawn M; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E; Vandeberg, John L; Champagne, Donald E; Yabsley, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa-e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n=3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7-14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21-84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  10. Clinical and Pathological Changes in Rams Experimentally Infected with Actinobacillus seminis and Histophilus somni

    PubMed Central

    Moustacas, Valéria S.; Silva, Teane M. A.; Costa, Luciana F.; Carvalho Júnior, Custódio A.; Santos, Renato L.; Paixão, Tatiane A.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious epididymitis is considered a major cause of economic losses for the sheep industry worldwide. This study aimed to investigate clinical and pathological changes associated with experimental infections with A. seminis and H. somni in rams. Twenty rams of age 18 to 24 months were infected by intraepididymal inoculation of A. seminis (n = 10) and H. somni (n = 10). Rams were weekly examined and biological samples were collected during six weeks. All rams inoculated with A. seminis and 80% inoculated with H. somni became infected. The recovery of bacteria was possible in semen and urine samples and tissues in both experimental groups. Clinically, there were a decrease in testicular consistency and an increase in measures of the left epididymis tails in both experimental groups. The main gross changes were observed in the reproductive tract. Microscopically, the main lesions were inflammatory changes in the genitourinary tract and testicular degeneration. A. seminis and H. somni were able to colonize several organs of the genitourinary tract in rams, being indistinguishable by clinical exam, necropsy or histopathology. For differential diagnosis, it is important to use diagnostic techniques for direct confirmation of the etiologic agent. PMID:24592151

  11. Effects of vaccination against paratuberculosis on tuberculosis in goats: diagnostic interferences and cross-protection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most countries carrying out campaigns of bovine tuberculosis (TB) eradication impose a ban on the use of mycobacterial vaccines in cattle. However, vaccination against paratuberculosis (PTB) in goats is often allowed even when its effect on TB diagnosis has not been fully evaluated. To address this issue, goat kids previously vaccinated against PTB were experimentally infected with TB. Results Evaluation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion induced by avian and bovine tuberculins (PPD) showed a predominant avian PPD-biased response in the vaccinated group from week 4 post-vaccination onward. Although 60% of the animals were bovine reactors at week 14, avian PPD-biased responses returned at week 16. After challenge with M. caprae, the IFN-γ responses radically changed to show predominant bovine PPD-biased responses from week 18 onward. In addition, cross-reactions with bovine PPD that had been observed in the vaccinated group at week 14 were reduced when using the M. tuberculosis complex-specific antigens ESAT-6/CFP-10 and Rv3615c as new DIVA (differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals) reagents, which further maintained sensitivity post-challenge. Ninety percent of the animals reacted positively to the tuberculin cervical comparative intradermal test performed at 12 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, post-mortem analysis showed reductions in tuberculous lesions and bacterial burden in some vaccinated animals, particularly expressed in terms of the degree of extrapulmonary dissemination of TB infection. Conclusions Our results suggest a degree of interference of PTB vaccination with current TB diagnostics that can be fully mitigated when using new DIVA reagents. A partial protective effect associated with vaccination was also observed in some vaccinated animals. PMID:23072619

  12. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Results Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. Conclusions The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection reduces disease severity in an experimental model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Katherine W.; Crooks, James; Hussain, Khiyam; O’Brien, Kate; Braitch, Manjit; Kareem, Huner; Constantinescu, Cris S.; Robinson, Karen; Gran, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that infection with the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is less common amongst patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). We aimed to compare the prevalence of H. pylori amongst MS patients and healthy controls, and also investigated the impact of this infection on an animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The H. pylori status of 71 MS patients and 42 healthy controls was determined by serology. Groups of C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. pylori, or given diluent alone as a placebo, prior to inducing EAE. Clinical scores were assessed for all mice, and spleens and spinal cord tissue were harvested. CD4+ T cell subsets were quantified by flow cytometry, and T cell proliferation assays were performed. In MS patients the seroprevalence of H. pylori was half that of healthy controls (p = 0.018). Over three independent experiments, prior H. pylori infection had a moderate effect in reducing the severity of EAE (p = 0.012). In line with this, the antigen-specific T cell proliferative responses of infected animals were significantly reduced (p = 0.001), and there was a fourfold reduction in the number of CD4+ cells in the CNS. CD4+ populations in both the CNS and the spleens of infected mice also contained greatly reduced proportions of IFNγ+, IL-17+, T-bet+, and RORγt+ cells, but the proportions of Foxp3+ cells were equivalent. There were no differences in the frequency of splenic CD4+cells expressing markers of apoptosis between infected and uninfected animals. H. pylori was less prevalent amongst MS patients. In mice, the infection exerted some protection against EAE, inhibiting both Th1 and Th17 responses. This could not be explained by the presence of increased numbers of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, or T cell apoptosis. This is the first direct experimental evidence showing that H. pylori may provide protection against

  14. Differences in signs and lesions in sheep and goats with enterotoxemia induced by intraduodenal infusion of Clostridium perfringens type D.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, T E; Butler, D G; Prescott, J F; Wilcock, B P

    1991-07-01

    Enterotoxemia was induced in 4 lambs and 4 goat kids by continuous intraduodenal infusion of a whole culture of Clostridium perfringens type D. Clinical signs, hematologic values, biochemical alterations, and postmortem lesions in the lambs and goat kids were compared. The 4 lambs and 4 goat kids died within 25 hours of beginning the infusions. Lesions were not observed in the gastrointestinal tract of the 4 lambs; however, severe hemorrhagic enterocolitis was found in the 4 goat kids. This difference between the lambs and goat kids in the lesions caused by experimentally induced enterotoxemia may explain the discrepancies reported between sheep and goats in clinical signs, response to treatment, and efficacy of vaccination observed in naturally induced enterotoxemia in the 2 species. PMID:1892271

  15. Evaluation of North American antibody detection tests for diagnosis of brucellosis in goats.

    PubMed

    Mikolon, A B; Gardner, I A; Hietala, S K; Hernandez de Anda, J; Chamizo Pestaña, E; Hennager, S G; Edmondson, A J

    1998-06-01

    The sensitivities and specificities of 17 antibody detection tests for brucellosis in goats were estimated. Tests evaluated included the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) card test with 8% cell concentration (8%Card), USDA rapid automated presumptive test (RAP), Mexican rose bengal plate tests with 8 and 3% cell concentrations (8%RB and 3%RB), French rose bengal plate test with 4.5% cell concentration (4.5%RB), USDA standard plate test (SPT), USDA buffered acidified plate agglutination test (BAPA), USDA and Mexican rivanol tests (URIV and MRIV), USDA standard tube tests with Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis antigens (SATA and SATM), serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), USDA cold-fixation complement fixation tests with B. abortus and B. melitensis antigens (CFA and CFM), USDA and Mexican milk ring tests (UBRT and MBRT), and a milk ELISA. Test sensitivity was evaluated by using two groups of 10 goats experimentally infected with B. melitensis or B. abortus and monitored for 24 weeks. Specificity was evaluated by using 200 brucellosis-free nonvaccinated goats from 10 California herds. The 3%RB was considered a good screening test because of high sensitivity at week 24 postinfection (90%), ease of performance, and low cost. The cold-fixation CFA and CFM had 100% specificity in the field study and were considered appropriate confirmatory tests. The milk ELISA was significantly more sensitive (P < 0.05) than the UBRT and significantly more specific (P < 0.05) than the MBRT. The milk ELISA also had the advantage of objectivity and ease of interpretation. PMID:9620406

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage and pulmonary histopathology in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) experimentally infected with Otostrongylus circumlitus.

    PubMed

    Piché, Caroline; Measures, Lena; Bédard, Christian; Lair, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize pathologic changes associated with experimental infection of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) with the lungworm Otostrongylus circumlitus (Metastrongyloidea: Crenosomatidae). The leukocyte differential cell count in samples obtained by unguided bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and the intensity of the histologic lesions in the lungs were assessed in seven harp seals experimentally exposed to 300 infective, third-stage O. circumlitus larvae. Seven unexposed harp seals were used as controls. First-stage larvae were observed in the feces of three of the seven exposed seals at 38, 42, and 45 days postexposure (dpe). Adult nematodes were found in the right primary bronchi of two of these three seals at necropsy 53 dpe. Fifty-six BALs were performed on the 14 seals. No statistical difference was observed between the exposed and control seals and among the four sampling times in percentage of neutrophils and macrophages in the BAL fluid. A significant difference was observed between the exposed and control seal groups in the percentage of eosinophils (P<0.0001), the count of eosinophils having increased by a factor of 70.4 in exposed seals. Significant statistical differences were observed between exposed and control seals in intensity of interstitial inflammation (P=0.001), bronchitis (P=0.02), bronchiolitis (P=0.04), alveolitis (P=0.03), and interstitial granulomatous inflammation (P=0.04). Our findings showed that harp seals are susceptible to infection with O. circumlitus. However, parasitic infections were transient and of low intensity, at least under our experimental conditions. PMID:20688634

  17. EFFECT OF PRIOR SERIAL IN VIVO PASSAGE ON THE FREQUENCY OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS CONTAMINATION IN EGGS FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental infection models are valuable tools for understanding and preventing the deposition of Salmonella enteritidis inside eggs. Oral inoculation is believed to closely simulate naturally occurring S. enteritidis infections of chickens, but oral infection studies have often generated relative...

  18. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Luciana da S.; Pereira, Elder N.; da Silva, Augusta A.; Bentivóglio Costa Silva, Vinícius; Freitas, Fagner L. da C.

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of 5 × 104 E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. PMID:26464925

  19. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in edible tissues of healthy and experimentally infected pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bladek, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej; Jablonski, Artur; Gajda, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the comparison of the tissue pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in healthy pigs and pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Tulathromycin was given to 24 healthy and 24 infected pigs by intramuscular injection at a single dosage of 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.). Pigs were euthanised at each group and then samples of liver, kidney, muscle, injection site and skin with fat were taken at scheduled time points. Drug concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. In this study, higher values of the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were calculated in all tissue samples taken from infected than healthy pigs. In pigs with App the AUCs of liver, kidney, muscle, skin with fat and injection site were 1111, 1973, 235, 181 and 2931 mg kg(-1) h, while in pigs without inflammation they were 509, 1295, 151, 111 and 1587 mg kg(-1) h, respectively. Maximum drug tissue concentrations (Cmax) in infected animals were 2370, 6650, 2016, 666 and 83,870 µg kg(-1), while in healthy pigs they were 1483, 6677, 1733, 509 and 55,006 µg kg(-1), respectively. The eliminations half-times (T1/2) were respectively longer in all tissue samples taken from infected animals (from 157.3 to 187.3 h) than in healthy ones (from 138.6 to 161.2 h). The tulathromycin tissue concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in all tissue samples of the infected pigs compared with the healthy animals at 360 h (from 0.0014 to 0.0280) and at 792 h (from 0.0007 to 0.0242) after drug administration. The results suggest that the tissue pharmacokinetic properties and residue depletion of tulathromycin can be influenced by the disease state of animals. PMID:26247868

  20. Induction of protective immunity against experimental Eimeria tenella infection using serum exosomes.

    PubMed

    Del Cacho, Emilio; Gallego, Margarita; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Quilez, Joaquin; Lillehoj, Erik P; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2016-07-15

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria, a unicellular, apicomplexan protist which primarily infects intestinal epithelia resulting in nutrient malabsorption and reduced growth of commercial poultry. Vaccination of chickens with exosomes isolated from antigen presenting cells containing parasite antigens (Ags) represents a promising alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis, but is restricted in its commercial application due to limitations on production scale-up for mass immunization programs. Here, we report the biochemical and physiologic characteristics of exosomes derived from serum of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens and their feasibility for inducing protective immunity to experimental coccidiosis. Exosomes isolated from the serum of E. tenella-infected chickens contained a subset of protein Ags found in the intact parasite. Serum-derived exosomes containing these E. tenella Ags localized to the intestine and spleen following intramuscular injection into naïve chickens. In vitro ELISPOT assays revealed increased numbers of IL-2-, IL-4-, IL-6-, and IFN-γ-secreting cells in the intestine and spleen of exosome-administered chickens, compared with vehicle controls. Pre-immunization of chickens with serum exosomes from E. tenella-infected chickens increased both body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, and reduced both fecal parasite shedding and gut lesion scores following parasite infection, compared with vehicle controls. Finally, immunization with CD80(+) serum exosomes stimulated greater numbers of cytokine-producing cells, and higher levels of protective immunity to E. tenella infection, compared with CD80(-) exosomes. These results suggest the possibility of producing an effective, parasite-free vaccine against avian coccidiosis under field conditions using serum-derived CD80(+) exosomes containing parasite Ags. PMID:27270382

  1. Temporal localization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in reproductive tissues of experimentally infected boars.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Cinta; García, Carlos; Simarro, Isabel; Castro, José M

    2003-11-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to be shed in the semen of infected boars. To determine whether the reproductive tissues could be a persistent source of virus and the possible origin of PRRSV found in semen of infected boars, 20 PRRSV-seronegative boars were intranasally inoculated with 5 x 10(6) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of PRRSV and necropsied at different times post-inoculation (p.i.) from Day 2 to Day 37 p.i. Blood samples were collected before experimental inoculation, at necropsy and at different times p.i. At necropsy, epididymal semen and reproductive tissues were collected and the presence of the virus determined by virus isolation. The infection of the boars was demonstrated by the isolation of the virus from the sera of all inoculated boars and by seroconversion. PRRSV was detected in serum samples from Day 2 to Day 23 p.i., although the viremic period was largely dependent on the individual response to infection. Viral replication was proven within different reproductive tissues from Day 2 to Day 23 p.i., being most consistently found in the epididymus. In addition, PRRSV was isolated in semen from Day 4 to Day 10 p.i. The correlation of a diminished viremia and the inability to isolate PRRSV from semen or reproductive tissues may be due to one of two possibilities. First, viremia is responsible for most of the virus isolated from reproductive tissues due to the movement of PRRSV-infected cells out of the blood and into the tissues. Second, viremia may initially seed the reproductive tissues with PRRSV, and then the virus is produced into the reproductive tract and shed into semen at low levels. PMID:14519471

  2. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  3. Differential immune response between fundic and pyloric abomasal regions upon experimental ovine infection with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Cuenca-Verde, C; Valdivia-Anda, G; Cuéllar-Ordaz, J A; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2012-04-30

    The effect of experimental haemonchosis on the number of tissue eosinophils, plasma cells and lymphocyte subpopulations was evaluated in the fundic abomasal region, the pyloric abomasal region and the abomasal lymph node of Blackbelly lambs, which are resistant to infection, and Columbia lambs, which are susceptible to infection. An increase in the number of tissue eosinophils and CD4+ and WC1(+)γδ T-cells was observed in the pyloric abomasal region of Blackbelly lambs and correlated with lower worm burden and greater resistance to infection. Increases in IgA+ plasma cells from the pyloric abomasal region were observed in both infected groups, but there was no difference between the groups. Therefore, increases in IgA+ plasma cells did not explain the resistance observed. Infection caused a significant increase in tissue eosinophils in the abomasal lymph node of Blackbelly lambs and a decrease in the number of CD4+ T-cells in lambs of both breeds. CD8+ T-cells and IgG+ and IgM+ plasma cells were not associated with either infection or resistance. In this work, clear differences were observed in the numbers of CD4+ and WC1(+)γδ T-cells, tissue eosinophils and IgA+ plasma cells between the abomasal regions studied. These differences indicate that the immunological response is not homogenous in all abomasal mucosa and that evaluating the response from a single abomasal region may not be representative of the cellular response across the abomasum. PMID:22153120

  4. Buparvaquone is active against Neospora caninum in vitro and in experimentally infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martinez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Ritler, Dominic; Hostettler, Isabel; Arranz-Solís, David; Ortega-Mora, Luis; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The naphthoquinone buparvaquone is currently the only drug used against theileriosis. Here, the effects of buparvaquone were investigated in vitro and in an experimental mouse model for Neospora caninum infection. In 4-day proliferation assays, buparvaquone efficiently inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite replication (IC50 = 4.9 nM; IC100 = 100 nM). However, in the long term tachyzoites adapted and resumed proliferation in the presence of 100 nM buparvaquone after 20 days of cultivation. Parasiticidal activity was noted after 9 days of culture in 0.5 µM or 6 days in 1 µM buparvaquone. TEM of N. caninum infected fibroblasts treated with 1 µM buparvaquone showed that the drug acted rather slowly, and ultrastructural changes were evident only after 3–5 days of treatment, including severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the parasitophorous vacuole matrix and a diminished integrity of the vacuole membrane. Treatment of N. caninum infected mice with buparvaquone (100 mg/kg) either by intraperitoneal injection or gavage prevented neosporosis symptoms in 4 out of 6 mice in the intraperitoneally treated group, and in 6 out of 7 mice in the group receiving oral treatment. In the corresponding controls, all 6 mice injected intraperitoneally with corn oil alone died of acute neosporosis, and 4 out of 6 mice died in the orally treated control group. Assessment of infection intensities in the treatment groups showed that, compared to the drug treated groups, the controls showed a significantly higher parasite load in the lungs while cerebral parasite load was higher in the buparvaquone-treated groups. Thus, although buparvaquone did not eliminate the parasites infecting the CNS, the drug represents an interesting lead with the potential to eliminate, or at least diminish, fetal infection during pregnancy. PMID:25941626

  5. Immunization with live influenza viruses in an experimental model of allergic bronchial asthma: infection and vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Chirkova, Tatiana; Petukhova, Galina; Korenkov, Daniil; Naikhin, Anatoliy; Rudenko, Larisa

    2008-01-01

    Background  Asthmatics in particular have a need for influenza vaccines because influenza infection is a frequent cause of hospitalization of patients with bronchial asthma. Currently, only inactivated influenza vaccines are recommended for influenza prevention in asthma sufferers. Objective  The aim of our study was to analyze and compare the effects of influenza infection and vaccination with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) on different phases of experimental murine allergic bronchial asthma (acute asthma and remission phase) and on subsequent exposure to allergen in sensitized animals. Methods  Ovalbumin (OVA)‐specific serum IgE levels, IL‐4 production by spleen and lung lymphocytes, and histological changes in the lungs of mice infected with pathogenic virus or LAIV were studied at two phases of OVA‐induced bronchial asthma (acute asthma and remission). Results  Infection with pathogenic virus both in acute asthma and remission led to asthma exacerbation associated with the production of OVA‐specific IgE, IL‐4 and significant inflammatory infiltration in airways. Infection, even after complete virus clearance, induced the aggravation of lung inflammation and IgE production in asthmatic mice additionally exposed to OVA. Immunization with LAIV at remission did not enhance allergic inflammatory changes in the lung, OVA‐specific IgE or IL‐4 production. Then after additional OVA exposure, histological and immunological changes in these mice were the same as in the control group. Conclusions  Influenza infection provokes asthma exacerbation regardless of the disease phase. Immunization with LAIV during the remission phase of bronchial asthma is safe and does not interfere upon subsequent contact of asthma sufferers with allergen. PMID:19453421

  6. Fasciola hepatica: comparative metacercarial productions in experimentally-infected Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella

    PubMed Central

    Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Rondelaud, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As large numbers of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica are necessary for research, experimental infections of Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella with this digenean were carried out to determine the better intermediate host for metacercarial production and, consequently, the most profitable snail for decreasing the cost price of these larvae. Pre-adult snails (4 mm in shell height) originating from two populations per lymnaeid species were individually exposed to two or five miracidia, raised at 23 °C and followed for cercarial shedding up to their death. Compared to values noted in G. truncatula, the survival of P. columella on day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater, while the prevalence of F. hepatica infection was significantly lower. In the four P. columella groups, metacercarial production was significantly greater than that noted in the four groups of G. truncatula (347–453 per cercariae-shedding snail versus 163–275, respectively). Apart from one population of G. truncatula, the use of five miracidia per snail at exposure significantly increased the prevalence of F. hepatica in P. columella and the other population of G. truncatula, whereas it did not have any clear effect on the mean number of metacercariae. The use of P. columella for experimental infections with F. hepatica resulted in significantly higher metacercarial production than that noted with G. truncatula, in spite of a lower prevalence for the former lymnaeid. This finding allows for a significant decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production. PMID:25907356

  7. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  8. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  9. Pathology in dogs with experimental canine H3N2 influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Lee, C S; Kang, B K; Park, B K; Oh, J S; Song, D S

    2010-06-01

    Avian-lineage H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV)-associated respiratory disease, which can be fatal, emerged in South Korean dogs in 2007. We show here that dogs experimentally infected with CIV only developed respiratory tract diseases, as no extrapulmonary lesions and virus antigens were detected. This differs from the multiorgan diseases that avian influenza H5N1 induces in small experimental animals. However, the CIV-infected dogs developed a distinctively severe, long-persistent bronchointerstitial pneumonia, which differs from the acute but short-term bronchopneumonia that human (H1N1 and H3N2) influenza cause in rodents and ferrets. Histopathology and in situ TUNEL assays revealed that the neutrophils infiltrating the lesions were undergoing apoptosis, which probably reflects the attempts by the body to maintain appropriate numbers of neutrophils for defense against secondary bacterial infections. Our observations suggest that neutrophils along with the related chemoattractant cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-8, etc.) may play a key role in the pathogenesis of H3N2 CIV in dogs. PMID:19963232

  10. Anticestodal activity of Houttuynia cordata leaf extract against Hymenolepis diminuta in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun K; Temjenmongla

    2011-10-01

    The leaves of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) are considered to have anthelmintic properties in the traditional medicine of Naga tribes in Northeast India and, therefore, are used by the natives to treat the intestinal worm infections. In the present study, the anticestodal activity of H. cordata leaf extract was investigated against Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic cestode, in experimentally infected albino rats. For the assessment of anticestodal efficacy, the eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces counts and worm loads of animals were monitored following treatment with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg p.o. doses of leaf extract to different groups of rats harbouring larval, immature and mature H. diminuta infections. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose-dependent (P < 0.05). Further, the extract showed its maximum efficacy against the mature Hymenolepis worms. In this case, the 800 mg/kg dose of extract significantly reduced (P < 0.001) the EPG counts of animals by 57.09% and worm load by 75.00%, at post-treatment. In comparison, the reference drug praziquantel at 5 mg/kg showed a reduction in the EPG counts and worm load of experimental animals by 80.37 and 87.50%, respectively. These findings indicate that leaves of H. cordata possess significant anticestodal property and provide a rationale for their use in traditional medicine as an anthelmintic. PMID:23024502

  11. Photolasertherapy for the treatment of infections in neurosurgery: experimental and clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, Gian F.

    1996-12-01

    At the first time, the CO2 laser was utilised in infective neurosurgical pathology as a surgical cutting instrument to remove inflammatory pseudomembranes in chronic osteomyelitis, and as a vaporising instmment on the dura mater surface. Successively, the instrument, defocused and at a low power, was used for prolonged and diffuse photo coagulation ofthe surgical cavity, particularly, ofthe dural surface and ofthe osteomyelitic bone edges, with the aim to sterilise tissues. So, we saw a shortening of the average time of wound healing and a lack of recurrence of the septic pathology. Then, we have treated, with CO2 laser, intracranial infective pathology: i.e. primary abscesses, capsulated or not, circumscribed purulent encephalitis, secondary abscesses in surgical cavities (patients operated for intracranial hematomas and tumors). In these cases we have obtained a lack of septic recurrences and an improvement ofneurological post-operative course. Thank to these results, we have continued to use laser in infective pathology; for giving an experimental support to these results we have carried on researches in vivo (on the experimental animal) to see the interaction between the laser and inflammatory tissue, and in vitro (on bacterial culture: in solid and liquid media) to see the laser effect on the bacterial cell. The bacterial cell has been also sensibiized to the photo dynamic effect of the laser (Argon, He-Ne), with hematoporphyrin. The goal of these experiments is to understand the role of thermal, photochemical, and mechanic resonance laser effects in the interaction between laser radiation and bacterial cell.

  12. Preparation of inocula for experimental infection of blood with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Vivas-Alegre, Santiago; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; López-Fidalgo, Eduardo; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Experimental infections of either cells or animals require the preparation of good quality inocula. Unfortunately, the important pulmonary pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fastidious microorganism that suffers an autolysis process when cultured in vitro. Supplementation of Todd–Hewitt broth with a biological buffer (20 mM Tris–HCl, pH = 7.8) promotes a six hours delay in the beginning of the autolysis process. Additional improvements include washing bacteria before freezing, avoiding manipulations after thawing, and the use of glycerol (<18%) as a cryoprotectant, instead of reagents like skimmed milk that may affect cell cultures. With the proposed protocol >70% of the frozen bacteria was viable after 28 weeks at −80 °C, and aliquots were highly homogeneous. We have tested their utility in a whole blood infection model and have found that human plasma exhibits a higher microbicidal activity than whole blood, a result that we have not found previously reported. Additionally, we have also observed significant variations in the antimicrobial activity against different strains, which might be related to their virulence.•Media culture buffering extends S. pneumoniae viability for 6 h.•Washing before freezing of single use aliquots minimizes manipulation after thawing.•Experimental infection with the frozen inocula has shown that plasma has higher bactericidal activity than blood. PMID:26844211

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of potassium permanganate treatment efficacy for the control of acute experimental infection of flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of potassium permanganate against an acute and systemic experimental infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The infection was produced by waterborne exposure to the bacteria after mechanical cutaneo...

  14. Trypanosoma vivax Adhesion to Red Blood Cells in Experimentally Infected Sheep.

    PubMed

    Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A; Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Tavares-Marques, Lucinda M; Finol, Héctor J; Reyna-Bello, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomosis, a globally occurring parasitic disease, poses as a major obstacle to livestock production in tropical and subtropical regions resulting in tangible economic losses. In Latin America including Venezuela, trypanosomosis of ruminants is mainly caused by Trypanosoma vivax. Biologically active substances produced from trypanosomes, as well as host-trypanosome cellular interactions, contribute to the pathogenesis of anemia in an infection. The aim of this study was to examine with a scanning electron microscope the cellular interactions and alterations in ovine red blood cells (RBC) experimentally infected with T. vivax. Ovine infection resulted in changes of RBC shape as well as the formation of surface holes or vesicles. A frequent observation was the adhesion to the ovine RBC by the trypanosome's free flagellum, cell body, or attached flagellum in a process mediated by the filopodia emission from the trypanosome surface. The observed RBC alterations are caused by mechanical and biochemical damage from host-parasite interactions occurring in the bloodstream. The altered erythrocytes are prone to mononuclear phagocytic removal contributing to the hematocrit decrease during infection. PMID:27293960

  15. Experimental study of European bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas; Vos, Ad; Neubert, Larissa; Freuling, Conrad; Mansfield, Karen L; Kaipf, Ingrid; Denzinger, Annette; Hicks, Dan; Núñez, Alex; Franka, Richard; Rupprecht, Charles E; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2008-11-01

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can be transmitted from Daubenton's bats to humans and cause rabies. EBLV-2 has been repeatedly isolated from Daubenton's bats in the UK but appears to be present at a low level within the native bat population. This has prompted us to investigate the disease in its natural host under experimental conditions, to assess its virulence, dissemination and likely means of transmission between insectivorous bats. With the exception of direct intracranial inoculation, only one of seven Daubenton's bats inoculated by subdermal inoculation became infected with EBLV-2. Both intramuscular and intranasal inoculation failed to infect the bats. No animal inoculated with EBLV-2 seroconverted during the study period. During infection, virus excretion in saliva (both viral RNA and live virus) was confirmed up to 3 days before the development of rabies. Disease was manifested as a gradual loss of weight prior to the development of paralysis and then death. The highest levels of virus were measured in the brain, with much lower levels of viral genomic RNA detected in the tongue, salivary glands, kidney, lung and heart. These observations are similar to those made in naturally infected Daubenton's bats and this is the first documented report of isolation of EBLV-2 in bat saliva. We conclude that EBLV-2 is most likely transmitted in saliva by a shallow bite. PMID:18931061

  16. Therapeutic effect of mefloquine on Schistosoma mansoni in experimental infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shady, Omaima Mohammed; Mohammed, Soheir Sayed; Attia, Samar Sayed; Yusuf, Hebat-Allah Salah; Helmy, Dina Omar

    2016-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for treatment of schistosomiasis for its high efficacy. The present work was carried out on 160 mice to evaluate the therapeutic effect of mefloquine on experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Mice were classified into 3 groups; group I (20 infected non-treated mice), group II included 60 infected mice which were further divided into group IIm (20 mice treated with 400 mg/kg mefloquine), group IIp (20 mice treated with 1,000 mg/kg/2 days praziquantel) and group IIpm (20 mice treated with 200 mg/kg mefloquine and 500 mg/kg praziquantel), group III included 80 non-infected mice subdivided into group IIIn (20 non-treated mice), group IIIm (20 mice treated with 400 mg/kg mefloquine), group IIIp (20 mice treated with 1,000 mg/kg/2 days praziquantel), group IIIpm (20 mice treated with 200 mg mefloquine and 500 mg praziquantel). Mefloquine significantly reduced worm burden, tissue egg load, number of liver granulomas and increased the percent of dead ova within granulomas. Combination of mefloquine and praziquantel gave better curative effects than praziquantel or mefloquine given alone. PMID:27413290

  17. Tenacibaculum maritimum infection: pathology and immunohistochemistry in experimentally challenged turbot (Psetta maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Faílde, Luis Daniel; Losada, Ana Paula; Bermúdez, Roberto; Santos, Ysabel; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2013-12-01

    Tenacibaculum maritimum is the causative agent of tenacibaculosis, a bacterial disease with a worldwide distribution, which causes important losses in the turbot aquaculture. Despite the importance of this bacterium, little is known about pathogenesis of the tenacibaculosis, pattern of lesions and the portal of entry of T. maritimum. Turbots (Psetta maxima) were experimentally infected with T. maritimum using subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes of inoculation and samples of skin and internal organs were taken throughout the assay. Fish inoculated by both infection routes suffered a septicaemia but only the subcutaneous inoculation reproduces the disease signs described in natural outbreaks. Bacterial antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the internal organs 3 h after infection in fish inoculated by subcutaneous route and 6 h after the inoculation of fish by intraperitoneal route. In summary, both routes of inoculation are able to cause an infection and bacteraemia in the fish. However, subcutaneous inoculation route reproduces the disease in a faster and more reliable way than the intraperitoneal route. Moreover, bacterium spreads along the internal organs easily, but needs a gateway to penetrate in the organism and this portal of entry could be skin. PMID:24090541

  18. Experimental infection of cows with newly isolated Akabane virus strain (AKAV-7) causing encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyeoun; Jeong, Hansol; Park, Surim; Yang, Myeon-Sik; Kim, Jongwon; Bae, Jaehyun; Kwon, Yonghwan; Kim, Min-Su; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lim, Chae-Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV), an arthropod-transmitted bunyavirus, is a major cause of congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis in ruminants. In 2010, there was a major outbreak of encephalomyelitis in Korea and fifteen AKAV strains, including AKAV-7, were isolated from cows. To identify the neuropathogenicity of AKAV-7, we performed experimental infection of cows. Six-month-old female Korean Holstein dairy cattle were inoculated with AKAV-7 by various routes, including intracerebral (IC), intrasubarachnoid space (IS), subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV); a separate group was vaccinated before intravenous infection. Five of the six cows in the IC group and two of the six cows in the IS group showed clinical signs such as locomotor ataxia and paralysis of the hind limbs. Three of six cows died after IC infection 9-12 days post infection (dpi). Histopathologic changes such as nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis were confirmed in various parts of the central nervous system in the IC, IS and SC groups. Early onset of neutralizing antibodies in the serum and lower viral mRNA levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and various tissues in the vaccinated group was noticeable compared to the unvaccinated group (IV group). We suggest that the AKAV vaccine currently used in Korea may be partially effective for protection against AKAV-7 in cows. PMID:27287214

  19. Mannose-Binding Lectin Regulates Host Resistance and Pathology during Experimental Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti; Roffê, Ester; Gibson, Amanda; Cheever, Allen W.; Ezekowitz, R. Alan B.; Takahashi, Kazue; Steindel, Mario; Sher, Alan; Báfica, André

    2012-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a humoral pattern-recognition molecule important for host defense. Although recent genetic studies suggest an involvement of MBL/MASP2-associated pathways in Chagas’ disease, it is currently unknown whether MBL plays a role in host resistance to the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas’ disease. In this study we employed MBL−/− mice to assess the role of MBL in resistance to experimental infection with T. cruzi. T. cruzi infection enhanced tissue expression of MBL both at the mRNA and protein level. Similarly, symptomatic acute Chagas’ disease patients displayed increased serum concentrations of MBL compared to patients with indeterminate, asymptomatic forms of the disease. Furthermore, increased parasite loads in the blood and/or tissue were observed in MBL−/− mice compared to WT controls. This was associated with reduced systemic levels of IL-12/23p40 in MBL−/− mice. Importantly, MBL−/− mice infected with a cardiotropic strain of T. cruzi displayed increased myocarditis and cardiac fibrosis compared to WT controls. The latter was accompanied by elevated hydroxyproline content and mRNA levels of collagen-1 and -6 in the heart. These observations point to a previously unappreciated role for MBL in regulating host resistance and cardiac inflammation during infection with a major human pathogen. PMID:23139754

  20. Mannose-binding lectin regulates host resistance and pathology during experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti; Roffê, Ester; Gibson, Amanda; Cheever, Allen W; Ezekowitz, R Alan B; Takahashi, Kazue; Steindel, Mario; Sher, Alan; Báfica, André

    2012-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a humoral pattern-recognition molecule important for host defense. Although recent genetic studies suggest an involvement of MBL/MASP2-associated pathways in Chagas' disease, it is currently unknown whether MBL plays a role in host resistance to the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. In this study we employed MBL(-/-) mice to assess the role of MBL in resistance to experimental infection with T. cruzi. T. cruzi infection enhanced tissue expression of MBL both at the mRNA and protein level. Similarly, symptomatic acute Chagas' disease patients displayed increased serum concentrations of MBL compared to patients with indeterminate, asymptomatic forms of the disease. Furthermore, increased parasite loads in the blood and/or tissue were observed in MBL(-/-) mice compared to WT controls. This was associated with reduced systemic levels of IL-12/23p40 in MBL(-/-) mice. Importantly, MBL(-/-) mice infected with a cardiotropic strain of T. cruzi displayed increased myocarditis and cardiac fibrosis compared to WT controls. The latter was accompanied by elevated hydroxyproline content and mRNA levels of collagen-1 and -6 in the heart. These observations point to a previously unappreciated role for MBL in regulating host resistance and cardiac inflammation during infection with a major human pathogen. PMID:23139754

  1. Response of Cytokines and Hydrogen Peroxide to Sporothrix schenckii Exoantigen in Systemic Experimental Infection.

    PubMed

    Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Manente, Francine Alessandra; Portuondo, Deivys Leandro; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Polesi, Marisa Campos; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2016-04-01

    The response of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytokines during an experimental sporotrichosis in male Swiss mice was assessed over a period of 10 weeks by monitoring macrophage activation challenged with exoantigen (ExoAg) from the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The studied endpoints were: H2O2 production, fungal burden at spleen, apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages, and IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IL-10 production. During the two first weeks of infection was observed low burden of yeast in spleen and high response of H2O2, IL-2, and IL-1β. The weeks of highest fungal burden (fourth-sixth) coincided with major apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages, normal production of IL-6 and lower production of H2O2, IL-2, and IL-1β, suggesting a role for these three last in the early control of infection. On the other hand, IL-1β (but not IL-6) was recovered since the sixth week, suggesting a possible role in the late phase of infection, contributing to the fungal clearance in conjunction with the specific mechanisms. The IL-10 was elevated until the sixth, principally in the second week. These results evidences that ExoAg is involved in the host immune modulation, influencing the S. Schenckii virulence, and its role is related with the time of the infection in the model used. PMID:26603044

  2. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Villa, Luz A.; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo. PMID:22645497

  3. Trypanosoma vivax Adhesion to Red Blood Cells in Experimentally Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A.; Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Tavares-Marques, Lucinda M.; Finol, Héctor J.; Reyna-Bello, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomosis, a globally occurring parasitic disease, poses as a major obstacle to livestock production in tropical and subtropical regions resulting in tangible economic losses. In Latin America including Venezuela, trypanosomosis of ruminants is mainly caused by Trypanosoma vivax. Biologically active substances produced from trypanosomes, as well as host-trypanosome cellular interactions, contribute to the pathogenesis of anemia in an infection. The aim of this study was to examine with a scanning electron microscope the cellular interactions and alterations in ovine red blood cells (RBC) experimentally infected with T. vivax. Ovine infection resulted in changes of RBC shape as well as the formation of surface holes or vesicles. A frequent observation was the adhesion to the ovine RBC by the trypanosome's free flagellum, cell body, or attached flagellum in a process mediated by the filopodia emission from the trypanosome surface. The observed RBC alterations are caused by mechanical and biochemical damage from host-parasite interactions occurring in the bloodstream. The altered erythrocytes are prone to mononuclear phagocytic removal contributing to the hematocrit decrease during infection. PMID:27293960

  4. Tuberculoid nodular thelitis in a dairy goat flock.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Christophe; Albaric, Olivier; Cesbron, Nora; Despres, Jérôme; Hoogveld, Charlotte; Michelet, Lorraine; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura

    2016-03-01

    An unusual outbreak of teat/udder skin lesions occurred in a dairy goat flock in France. Lesions first appeared as circular, indurated, erythematous areas of skin and progressed to form dark raised haemorrhagic crusts and ulcerative plaques. Histopathological examination revealed marked granulomatous dermatitis with multifocal ulceration. The granulomatous inflammation, with frequent Langhans type multinucleated cells and central caseous necrosis, was indicative of mycobacterial infection. The presence of non-cultivable mycobacteria was confirmed by sequencing PCR products from DNA extracted directly from the lesions and sequences matched a novel mycobacterial pathogen closely related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis and previously identified in cattle thelitis. The association of nodular gross lesions and tuberculoid granulomas on the teat and lower udder, and the presence of mycobacteria DNA support a diagnosis of tuberculoid nodular thelitis in goats due to mycobacterial infection. PMID:26831157

  5. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with...

  6. Experimental infection of dogs (Canis familiaris) with sporulated oocysts of Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Bandini, Luciana A; Neto, Aldo F A; Pena, Hilda F J; Cavalcante, Guacyara T; Schares, Gereon; Nishi, Sandra M; Gennari, Solange M

    2011-03-10

    Neospora caninum is widely distributed in the world and this parasite is one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. Dogs and coyotes are definitive hosts of N. caninum and several species of domestic and wild animals are intermediate hosts. Dogs can become infected by the ingestion of tissues containing cysts and then excrete oocysts. It is not yet known whether sporulated oocysts are able to induce a patent infection in dogs, i.e. a shedding of N. caninum oocysts in feces. The objective of this study was to experimentally examine the infection of dogs by sporulated oocysts. The oocysts used in the experiment were obtained by feeding dogs with brain of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) positive for anti-N. caninum antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT ≥200). Oocysts shed by these dogs were confirmed to be N. caninum by molecular methods and by bioassay in gerbils, and sporulated N. caninum oocysts were used for the oral infection of four dogs. The dogs were 8 weeks old and negative for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Dogs 1 and 4 received an inoculum of 10,000 sporulated oocysts each; dog 2 an inoculum of 5000 sporulated oocysts and dog 3 received 1000 sporulated oocysts of N. caninum. The total feces excreted by these dogs were collected and examined daily for a period of 30 days. No oocysts were found in their feces. The dogs were monitored monthly for a 6-month period to observe a possible seroconversion and when this occurred the animals were eliminated from the experiment. Dogs 1 and 4 seroconverted 1 month after the infection with titer, in the IFAT, of 1600 and 800, respectively; the other two dogs presented no seroconvertion during the 6-month period. Dogs 1 and 2 were euthanized 180 days after infection and were examined for the detection of N. caninum in tissues (brain, muscle, lymph node, liver, lung, heart and bone marrow) by immunohistochemistry and PCR with negative results in both techniques. Bioassay in gerbils with

  7. [Experimental study of mixed infection by Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhi].

    PubMed

    Lobanov, V V; Kolpikova, L D; Sharikov, A M; Gavrilov, B V

    1998-01-01

    Mixed infection caused by V.cholerae and S.typhi was studied on guinea pig gall-bladder, used as an experimental model. These microorganisms coexisted in association in animals and exhibited no pronounced antagonistic properties in vitro. The cultures isolated from the organs of infected guinea pigs did not differ from initial ones. The study revealed that in nutrient broth containing 50% of dried bile salmonellae were preserved, but not V.cholerae. The latter could co-exist with S.typhi in 1% biliary medium prepared on meat-peptone broth (MPB). The use of bile and MPB as the basis for media intended for the study of material obtained from cholera and typhoid fever patients is recommended. PMID:9825490

  8. The effect of energy malnutrition in ruminants on experimental infection with Dermatophilus congolensis.

    PubMed

    Sanders, A B; How, S J; Lloyd, D H; Hill, R

    1990-11-01

    The ability of malnourished and optimally fed animals to resist infection with D. congolensis was assessed by the dose-response to experimental inoculation. The severity of infection, as measured by scoring the lesions, was the same in both groups of lambs. However marked differences were seen between the two groups in the appearance of scabs and in the time taken for them to resolve. The malnourished animals had more persistent, chronic lesions compared with the more obvious, acute type lesions seen on the skin of the healthy controls. These results were probably related to the reduced rates of wool growth and lanolin production found in the malnourished lambs, which may reflect a reduction in the rate of cellular turnover in the skin of these animals. PMID:2079551

  9. Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Lupton, H W; Reed, D E

    1979-09-01

    Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute keratoconjunctivitis and a fatal systemic infection. The clinical syndrome was characterized initially by blepharospasm and ocular discharge. The rabbits were markedly depressed on post-exposure day (PED) 5 and were dead or moribund on PED 6. The virus was readily recovered from liver and adrenal gland tissue on PED 6 and from conjunctival swabs on PED 1 to 6. Histopathologic studies revealed a few necrotic foci in the liver and multiple focal to diffuse necrosis of the adrenal glands. Viral isolation and immunofluorescence tests were used to demonstrate a direct association between infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antigens and the lesions. PMID:230773

  10. Experimental infection of warthos (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) with African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Gainaru, M D; Van Dellen, A F

    1980-03-01

    Although there were no obvious signs of illness following experimental infection of young warthog with African swine fever virus, the animals developed viraemias between 10(2,4) and 10(3,6) HD50/ml within the first week of infection, and virus concentrations in a number of lymphatic tissues attained high levels (greater than or equal to 10(6) HD50/g). Unlike in blood, and to some extent in the spleen, virus titres in lymph nodes did not decline appreciable during the 33-day observation period, since at the end of the period lymphatic tissues from 2 warthog were still infectious for domestic pigs to which these tissues were fed. PMID:7454231

  11. Pathology of experimental African trypanosomiasis in rabbits infected with Trypanosoma rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Nagle, R B; Dong, S; Guillot, J M; McDaniel, K M; Lindsley, H B

    1980-11-01

    The pathologic response of New Zealand White rabbits to experimental infection with Trypanosoma rhodesiense is described. Autopsies of 18 rabbits killed from 30-44 days after infection revealed focal perivascular inflammation of the ears, eyes and testes. Examination by electron microscopy revealed extravascular trypanosomes in the dermis of the ear and interstitium of testes. Deposits of IgG, IgM and C3 were in renal glomeruli associated with glomerular hypercellularity; proteinuria was present as evidenced by an increase in tubular hyaline droplets. There was marked hyperplasia of lymph nodes and spleen with generalized increase in the number of macrophage and plasma cells. In contrast there was thymic atrophy. The findings suggest an immunologic host response associated with severe localized vascular injury. PMID:7446810

  12. Suppression of in vivo cell-mediated immunity during experimental influenza A virus infection of adults.

    PubMed

    Skoner, D P; Angelini, B L; Jones, A; Seroky, J; Doyle, W J; Fireman, P

    1996-12-20

    A variety of recent evidence documents that otitis media is a frequent complication of upper respiratory tract viral infections. This relationship has been attributed to the interaction of a number of virus-provoked host responses, including eustachian tube dysfunction, changes in nasopharyngeal bacterial flora and suppressed immune function. The present study examined the effect of experimental influenza A virus infection on immune function as assessed by delayed skin test reactivity to candida, tetanus, and diphtheria/tetanus antigens in healthy adults with (n = 12) and without (n = 15) allergic rhinitis. All subjects became infected with the challenge virus as evidenced by viral shedding into nasal secretions and/or a four-fold rise in convalescent serum antibody titers compared to baseline. Intradermal skin tests were placed at baseline and 2, 4, 17, and 24 days after intranasal influenza A inoculation, the reactions were imaged and recorded 48 h after placement, and response areas were calculated by computerized digitization. The average combined areas for the three antigens (+/- S.T.D.) on each of the 5 study days were 1.4 +/- 1.4, 0.7 +/- 0.7, 0.6 +/- 0.6, 1.4 +/- 1.4, and 1.2 +/- 1.2 cm2, respectively. The responses to candida, but not tetanus and diphtheria/tetanus, returned to baseline levels by day 17. Repeated measures ANOVA documented significant effects of study day and antigen, but not allergy status. These results show that experimental influenza A infection suppressed delayed hypersensitivity skin tests in both allergic and non-allergic subjects, and suggest that alterations in immune function may contribute to otitis media. PMID:9119602

  13. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (p<0.01). At the overall individual-animal level, 32.5% (714/2195, 95% CI=30.6-34.5) of goats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (p<0.001). A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (p<0.05). Increases in the female herd size (logarithmic scale) were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, while increases in male herd size had a negative association with seropositivity. If other sheep or goat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These

  14. Differences in intermittent and continuous fecal shedding patterns between natural and experimental Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infections in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to study shedding patterns of cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). While multiple single farm studies of MAP dynamics were reported, there is not large-scale meta-analysis of both natural and experimental infections. Large difference...

  15. Influence of exogenous melatonin on horizontal transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in experimentally infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current research was to determine if exogenous melatonin would exert a “protective” effect on the gastrointestinal tract of sheep and prevent or reduce the horizontal transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from experimentally-infected to non-infected or “naïve” sheep. Sixteen crossbred ewe...

  16. In Vivo Activity of a Novel Polymeric Guanidine in Experimental Skin Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Christina; Tobudic, Selma; Macfelda, Karin; Graninger, Wolfgang; Georgopoulos, Apostolos

    2007-01-01

    The in vivo efficacy of the novel polymeric guanidine AKACID Plus was evaluated in a guinea pig model of experimental skin infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Topical application of AKACID Plus at concentrations of ≥0.5% was as effective as mupirocin 2% cream in the treatment of superficial skin infection with MRSA. PMID:17620381

  17. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  18. Use of Noninvasive Parameters to Evaluate Swiss Webster Mice During Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jerônimo D S; Hoppe, Luanda Y; Duque, Thabata L A; de Castro, Solange Lisboa; Oliveira, Gabriel M

    2016-04-01

    Until now, there has been neither an agreed-upon experimental model nor descriptors of the clinical symptoms that occur over the course of acute murine infection. The aim of this work is to use noninvasive methods to evaluate clinical signs in Swiss Webster mice that were experimentally infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi during acute phase (Inf group). Infected mice showed evident clinical changes beginning in the second week of infection (wpi) when compared to the noninfected group (NI): (1) animals in hunched postures, closed eyes, lowered ears, peeling skin, increased piloerection, prostration, and social isolation; (2) significant decrease in body weight (Inf: 26.2 ± 2.6 g vs. NI: 34.2 ± 2.5 g) and in chow (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 6.3 ± 0.5 mg) and water (2.4 ± 0.5 vs. 5.8 ± 0.7 ml) intake; (3) significant decrease of spontaneous activity as locomotor parameters: distance (0.64 ± 0.06 vs. 1.8 ± 0.13 m), velocity (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 6.7 ± 1.5 cm/sec), and exploratory behavior by frequency (1.0 ± 0.5 vs. 5.7 ± 1.0 events) and duration (1.4 ± 0.3 vs. 5.1 ± 0.5 sec in central arena region); (4) significant increase in the PR (41.7 ± 8.7 vs. 27.6 ± 1.9 msec) and QT intervals (39.7 ± 2.0 vs. 27.5 ± 4.0 msec), and a decreased cardiac frequency (505 ± 52.8 vs. 774 ± 17.8 msec), showing a marked sinus bradycardia and an atrioventricular block. At 3 and 4 wpi, the surviving animals showed a tendency of recovery in body weight, food intake, locomotor activity, and exploratory interest. Through the use of noninvasive parameters, we were able to monitor the severity of the infection in individuals prior to death. Our perspective is the application of noninvasive methods to describe clinical signs over the course of acute infection complementing the preclinical evaluation of new agents, alone or in combination with benznidazole. PMID:26741817

  19. Experimental infection of Foxes with European bat Lyssaviruses type-1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Barrat, Jacques; Brookes, Sharon M; Healy, Derek M; Wasniewski, Marine; Litaize, Estelle; Biarnais, Mélanie; Johnson, Linda; Fooks, Anthony R

    2009-01-01

    Background Since 1954, there have been in excess of 800 cases of rabies as a result of European Bat Lyssaviruses types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2) infection, mainly in Serotine and Myotis bats respectively. These viruses have rarely been reported to infect humans and terrestrial mammals, as the only exceptions are sheep in Denmark, a stone marten in Germany and a cat in France. The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of foxes to EBLVs using silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as a model. Results Our experimental studies have shown that the susceptibility of foxes to EBLVs is low by the intramuscular (IM) route, however, animals were sensitive to intracranial (IC) inoculation. Mortality was 100% for both EBLV-1 (~4.5 logs) and EBLV-2 (~3.0 logs) delivered by the IC route. Virus dissemination and inflammatory infiltrate in the brain were demonstrated but virus specific neutralising antibody (VNA) was limited (log(ED50) = 0.24–2.23 and 0.95–2.39 respectively for specific EBLV-1 and EBLV-2). Foxes were also susceptible, at a low level, to peripheral (IM) infection (~3.0 logs) with EBLV-1 but not EBLV-2. Three out of 21 (14.3%) foxes developed clinical signs between 14 and 24 days post-EBLV-1 infection. None of the animals given EBLV-2 developed clinical disease. Conclusion These data suggest that the chance of a EBLV spill-over from bat to fox is low, but with a greater probability for EBLV-1 than for EBLV-2 and that foxes seem to be able to clear the virus before it reaches the brain and cause a lethal infection. PMID:19454020

  20. Iron metabolism in hamsters experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona: influence on disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sobroza, Ânderson O; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Alekandro S; Dornelles, Guilherme L; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Duarte, Marta M M F; Hausen, Bruna S; Sangoi, Manuela B; Moresco, Rafael N; Stefani, Lenita M; Mazzantti, Cinthia M; Lopes, Sonia T A; Leal, Marta L R

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the classic iron markers associated to the storage process in hamsters experimentally infected by Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. Four groups with six hamsters each were used; two were negative controls (C7 and C14) and two were composed by infected animals (T7 and T14). Blood samples were collected on the seventh (C7 and T7) and fourteenth days (C14 and T14) post-inoculation. Iron availability was determined in sera samples through the assessment of iron, ferritin, transferrin, and iron binding capacity, whereas the bone marrow was also evaluated for the presence of iron by Pearl's reaction. Additionally, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) were assessed, along with hepcidin and IL-6 levels. Based on the results, it was possible to observe the onset of an anemic profile, predominantly hemolytic and regenerative. Also, The other parameters showed an increase in seric iron (P<0.01) and ferritin (P<0.01), and a positive Pearl's reaction in T7 and T14, when compared with the control groups. Transferrin levels decreased (P<0.05) in animals of T14 with saturation index. TAC was increased in both periods (P<0.01), while TOS was increased only on T14 (P<0.05). Hepcidin and IL-6 were increased on T7 and T14 (P<0.01). Therefore, it was observed that the serum profile from infected animals showed a strong hemolytic pattern, with some demonstration of ferric tissue sequestration when the infection tended to become chronic. The results show that iron metabolism is activated in hamsters infected by L. interrogans serovar Pomona. PMID:25449998

  1. House finch responses to Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection do not vary with experimentally increased aggression.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James Stephen; Moore, Ignacio Tomás; Hawley, Dana Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Aggression can alter infectious disease dynamics through two, non-exclusive mechanisms: 1) increasing direct contact among hosts and 2) altering hosts' physiological response to pathogens. Here we examined the latter mechanism in a social songbird by manipulating intraspecific aggression in the absence of direct physical contact. We asked whether the extent of aggression an individual experiences alters glucocorticoid levels, androgen levels, and individual responses to infection in an ecologically relevant disease model: house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). Wild-caught male finches were housed in one of three settings, designed to produce increasing levels of aggression: 1) alone, with no neighbor ("no neighbor"), 2) next to a sham-implanted stimulus male ("sham neighbor"), or 3) next to a testosterone-implanted stimulus male ("testosterone neighbor"). Following one week of social treatment, focal males were experimentally infected with MG, which causes severe conjunctivitis and induces sickness behaviors such as lethargy and anorexia. While social treatment increased aggression as predicted, there were no differences among groups in baseline corticosterone levels, total circulating androgens, or responses to infection. Across all focal individuals regardless of social treatment, pre-infection baseline corticosterone levels were negatively associated with the severity of conjunctivitis and sickness behaviors, suggesting that corticosterone may dampen inflammatory responses in this host-pathogen system. However, because corticosterone levels differed based upon population of origin, caution must be taken in interpreting this result. Taken together, these results suggest that in captivity, although aggression does not alter individual responses to MG, corticosterone may play a role in this disease. PMID:25387693

  2. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Seyedeh F.; Mohd Daud, Hassan Hj.; Sharifpour, Issa; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Shankar, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793); snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910); koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758); broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864); goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758); climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792); and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701). The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01). Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of maturity

  3. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy. PMID:27203082

  4. [Foot and mouth disease in sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Ganter, M; Graunke, W D; Steng, G; Worbes, H

    2001-12-01

    Small ruminants play an important role in the epidemiology and transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD). The main reasons therefore are: FMD is difficult to diagnose as infected sheep not always show typical clinical symptoms or as the cardinal signs mimicked other diseases. Sheep and goats may be carriers. Infected herds which practice transhumance or are nomadic can spread the infection to other herds long before diagnose of the disease is established. Shipping and trade with live sheep and goats is much more common world wide than in other FMD susceptible species. Lack of registration of all sheep and goat herds (especially of small hobby herds) and lack of individual identifications signs (ear tags) may result in incomplete control measurements under FMD conditions. Basing on published experiences with the actual FMD epidemic in the UK and basing on the own experiences with the restrictions to prevent from spreading of the FMD from the UK to Germany suggestions for future disease control are made. PMID:11822163

  5. Efficacy of a benzenedisulfonamide against experimental Fasciola hepatica infections in calves.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, J H; Bradley, R E

    1983-11-01

    The anthelmintic efficacy of a benzenedisulfonamide was evaluated by administering the drug parenterally at dosage levels of 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg of body weight to crossbred Brahman calves with experimental Fasciola hepatica infections. In the 3-week period after treatment, fluke ova counts of treated calves were markedly reduced from counts obtained just before treatment. At necropsy, the mean fluke recovery for all 4 benzenedisulfonamide dosages were significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced. The efficacy of benzenedisulfonamide against F hepatica at dosage levels of 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg was 97.5%, 99.5%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. PMID:6650967

  6. Virtual screen for repurposing approved and experimental drugs for candidate inhibitors of EBOLA virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Veljkovic, Veljko; Loiseau, Philippe M.; Figadere, Bruno; Glisic, Sanja; Veljkovic, Nevena; Perovic, Vladimir R.; Cavanaugh, David P.; Branch, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus epidemic has presented numerous challenges with respect to control and treatment because there are no approved drugs or vaccines for the Ebola virus disease (EVD). Herein is proposed simple theoretical criterion for fast virtual screening of molecular libraries for candidate inhibitors of Ebola virus infection. We performed a repurposing screen of 6438 drugs from DrugBank using this criterion and selected 267 approved and 382 experimental drugs as candidates for treatment of EVD including 15 anti-malarial drugs and 32 antibiotics. An open source Web server allowing screening of molecular libraries for candidate drugs for treatment of EVD was also established. PMID:25717373

  7. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control.

    PubMed

    Suen, Willy W; Uddin, Muhammad J; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A; Bowen, Richard A; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-01-01

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections. PMID:26184326

  8. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Willy W.; Uddin, Muhammad J.; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R.; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A.; Bowen, Richard A.; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-01-01

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections. PMID:26184326

  9. Efficacy of Milbemax (milbemycin oxime + praziquantel) in the treatment of dogs experimentally infected with Crenosoma vulpis.

    PubMed

    Conboy, G; Bourque, A; Miller, L; Seewald, W; Schenker, R

    2013-12-01

    Crenosoma vulpis, the fox lungworm, infects wild and domestic canids and is a cause of chronic respiratory disease in dogs in North America and Europe. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg)/praziquantel (5mg/kg) (Milbemax; Novartis Animal Health, Inc.) against C. vulpis infection in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study using experimentally infected dogs. Sixteen beagles (8 males, 8 females) were each given 100 infective third-stage larvae of C. vulpis. Fecal samples were examined for first-stage larvae by quantitative Baermann examination pre-exposure and at days 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 post-infection (PI). All of the dogs were shedding larvae in the feces at 21 days PI. The dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups. At 28 days PI, Group 1 (4 males, 4 females) received placebo only while Group 2 (4 males, 4 females) received a single treatment of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg) and praziquantel (5mg/kg). The 16 dogs were euthanized and necropsied at 49 days PI. Lungs were removed, assessed for gross lesions (graded on a subjective scale 0-3 with 0 being normal) and C. vulpis were collected by lung-flush and counted. Samples of lung tissue were preserved for evaluation of histopathology and the lesions graded on a subjective scale (0-3 with 0 being normal). Gross and histopathology lesions were detected in all 8 untreated Group 1 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 1.8 ± 0.7 (range 1-3) and 3.0 ± 0.0 (range 3), respectively. Gross lesions were observed in 3/8 and histopathology lesions in all 8 of the treated Group 2 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 0.4 ± 0.5 (range 0-1) and 1.3 ± 0.4 (range 1-2), respectively. The mean (geometric) number for adult C. vulpis recovered in untreated dogs was 48.3 (range 25-70) compared with 0.65 (range 0-2) in animals treated with Milbemax. The resulting efficacy against C. vulpis was 98.7%. The number of C. vulpis was significantly lower for treated

  10. Outbreak of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in golden Guernsey goats in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R; Evans, H; Rolfe, S; de la Rua-Domenech, R; Crawshaw, T; Higgins, R J; Schock, A; Clifton-Hadley, R

    2009-09-19

    An outbreak of caprine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis was disclosed in June 2008, affecting goats of the golden Guernsey breed kept on 10 separate smallholdings in south-west Wales and the west of England. Following the initial diagnosis at postmortem examination, 30 goats that reacted positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, together with five in-contact animals, were euthanased and subjected to postmortem examination and mycobacterial culture. Spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat analysis of isolates showed that they were all of the same genotype, endemic to south-west Wales. Retrospective movement tracings identified a goat herd in south-west Wales, by then completely dispersed, as the probable common source of infection. There was a perfect correlation between the SICCT test and culture results in all slaughtered goats. Grossly visible tubercular lesions were observed at postmortem examination in all but one reactor. PMID:19767636

  11. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity. PMID:26667529

  12. Maternal and foetal cytokine production in dams naturally and experimentally infected with Neospora caninum on gestation day 110.

    PubMed

    Darwich, L; Li, Y; Serrano-Pérez, B; Mur-Novales, R; Garcia-Ispierto, I; Cabezón, O; López-Gatius, F; Almería, S

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, IFN-γ (Th1), IL-17A (Th17) and IL-4 (Th2) concentrations in response to concanavalin (ConA) and Neospora caninum antigen (Nc-1) stimulation were determined in cultures of cells from control uninfected (n=4), naturally N. caninum-infected (n=3) and experimentally N. caninum-infected (n=6) pregnant dams and their foetuses. Experimental animals were infected at 110days of gestation and euthanized 6weeks post-infection. In culture supernatants from the dams, significantly higher IFN-γ and IL-4 levels were found in the experimentally-infected animals compared to the control or naturally-infected dams. However, among the experimentally-infected dams no significant differences in IFN-γ production were observed regardless of the incidence of live or aborted/dead foetuses, though spleen cultures of dams carrying live foetuses showed the highest levels of IFN-γ. IL-17A production was very low and occasional in the dams infected with N. caninum and did not seem to be a major regulator of IFN-γ production in this model. Experimentally infected dams with live foetuses showed higher IL-4 levels and accordingly IFN-γ/IL-4 ratios were significantly lower than ratios recorded for cows with aborted/dead foetuses. In the infected foetuses of these dams, only spleen cultures showed high levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 after Nc-1 antigen and ConA stimulation, respectively. No IL-17A was detected in the foetuses. As conclusion, although we could not clearly relate a protective immune response against N. caninum abortion only to IFN-γ levels in cell cultures, our results highlight the important role of an inverse IFN-γ/IL-4 balance in conferring protection against abortion induced by this parasite. PMID:27473975

  13. Diagnosis of the strongyloid nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Marques, P D; Malta, F M; Meisel, D M C L; Corral, M A; Pinho, J R; Costa-Cruz, J M; Chieffi, P P; Gryschek, R C B; Paula, F M

    2016-07-01

    Strongyloides venezuelensis is an intestinal nematode of rats, frequently used as a model for studying human and animal strongyloidiasis. In the present study, we evaluated parasitological, serological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of experimental S. venezuelensis in rats, Rattus norvegicus. Blood and faecal samples were collected and analysed up to 60 days post infection (pi) with adult worm recovery occurring from 5 to 45 days pi. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum levels of IgG antibodies increased up to 28 days pi, thereafter decreasing by day 60 pi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays detected S. venezuelensis DNA in faecal samples of rats from 5 to 21 days pi. The present study therefore represents the first step towards improving the diagnosis of experimental strongyloidiasis. PMID:26169305

  14. Identification and ribotypes of Staphylococcus caprae isolates isolated as human pathogens and from goat milk.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenesch, F; Eykyn, S J; Bes, M; Meugnier, H; Fleurette, J; Etienne, J

    1995-01-01

    We report five cases of human infection with Staphylococcus caprae. Two were community acquired (one case each of endocarditis and urinary tract infection); the other three were acquired in a hospital (two cases of bacteremia associated with intravenous access and one case of urinary tract infection). Analysis of human isolates and goat isolates from eight herds showed that they could be misidentified by some commercial identification systems but were clearly identified as S. caprae by ribotyping, according to their species-specific ribotype. Phylogenetic methods applied to the ribotypes did not reveal two distinct lineages corresponding to the goat and human origins of the isolates, although human ribotypes were clearly distinguishable by the presence of a core of four specific bands. The latter observation may reflect some degree of evolutionary change within the species between human and goat isolates. PMID:7790455

  15. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber offi