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After the purchase price of the animals, feed is the single largest cost associated with raising goats, typically accounting for 60 percent or more of to- tal production costs. Nutrition exerts a very large influence on flock reproduction, milk production, and kid growth. Late-gestation and lactation are the most critical periods for doe nutrition, with lactation placing the highest nutritional
Goat meat in human nutrition as a primary and supplementary nutrient source is presented in terms of the dist ribution of goats, production characteristics, composition and nutrient value of goat meat, muscle fat and processed goat meat. Man is a complex being living in a complex environment, under varyingdegrees of psychological and physical strain. The most severe and most common
The report describes research work done on the development of new breeds of dairy goats with a high potential of milk production. The productive performance, body dimension and growth, reproductive performance; and behavior of the new breeds are given in ...
The Newport Harbor Lighthouse may not be the best-known light in Newport Harbor, but its place in history is unchallenged as the first beacon to guide mariners into the bustling Newport of the early 1800s. The lighthouse stands on Goat Island, so named because early Newport residents pastured their goats there, and is known locally as Goat Island Lighthouse. This
Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour. Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy. Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems. PMID:20888155
Fatet, Alice; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Leboeuf, Bernard
A 4-year trial in Canterbury showed that gorse (Ulex europaeus L.) can be a year-round maintenance feed for goats. Goats consistently ate more gorse than did sheep, and preferred flowers, green foliage, and bark. When green foliage was sparse, they ate brown stems. Non-lactating feral goats performed just as well on gorse as on pasture. Liveweights peaked in summer and
The clinical, pathological and parasitological features of giardiasis resulting from experimental inoculation with 3 × 106Giardia cysts were studied in goat kids. All experimentally inoculated goat kids given Giardia cysts became infected. Three of the eight inoculated kids had decreased appetite, formless feces and become slightly depressed beginning 7 or 8 days post inoculation. The mean duration of the appearance
Browse appears to be important in the diet of goats, but no good explanations or reasons are in the literature. Digestibility data on browse in goats are few. Semi- arid natural tropical grass hay was con- sumed more by goats than sheep, but digestibility coefficients were similar between species except for crude fiber, which was digested better in goats. Rice
The Indian subcontinent contains 20 well-characterized goat breeds, which vary in their genetic potential for the production of milk, meat, and fibre; disease resistance; heat tolerance; and fecundity. Indian goats make up 20% of the world's goat population, but there has been no extensive study of these economically important animals. Therefore, we have undertaken the present investigation of 363 goats
Manjunath B. Joshi; Pramod K. Rout; Ajoy K. Mandal; Chris Tyler-Smith; Lalji Singh; Kumarasamy Thangaraj
CASE HISTORY: Two crossbred, castrated male goats, a 5-month-old and an 8-month-old, were observed ingesting Vestia foetida (Solanaceae). Later, the goats were seen standing splay-legged and apparently disoriented.CLINICAL FINDINGS: When examined, both goats were in sternal recumbency and had mydriasis; the younger goat had a diminished menace response. When the goats were made to stand, they were ataxic and had
Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.
Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images
Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.
...described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (5) All goats intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator, except that goats for export to Canada or Mexico for immediate slaughter may be...
The wild goats, Bezoar, Markhol and Ibex, possibly, the respective predecessors of the predominant Bezoar, Savannah and Nubian types, have contributed to the development of approximately 570 goat breed populations in the world. Numerous identifiable morphological characteristics and production performance in these breeds outline the potential for the genetic improvement of the efficiency of meat goat production. The management of
Forty-two goats maintained at the university sheep breeding farm (SBF) Alusteng were tested for pregnancy using a medata type of ultrasonic equipment, with a rectal probe, working on `Doppler principle'. Out of the 32 goats predicted pregnant, 25 goats delivered normally, showing an overall accuracy of 78.1%. The accuracy of different sounds audible for predicting pregnancy was 100%, 100% and
Korean native goat (KNG, the black goat) is the only indigenous breed in Korea and the population is about 500,000 heads in about 50,000 farms. The meat of KNG has generally considered goats as a healthy food that helps the seasonal attunement of the human body. With this background, KNG has been consumed much more in processed form like an
Goats milk has been said to be a suitable alternative to cows milk for people with lactose intolerance and cows milk protein intolerance, but most of the evidence is anecdotal. This review discusses some of the marginal differences which distinguish goats milk from cows milk, leading to suggestions that in certain cases goats milk may be tolerated differently from cows
Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates homeostatic and reward-related feeding behavior. Recent evidence indicates that acylation of ghrelin by the gut enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is necessary to render ghrelin maximally active within its target tissues. Here we tested the hypothesis that GOAT activity modulates food motivation and food hedonics using behavioral pharmacology and mutant mice deficient for GOAT and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR). We evaluated operant responding following pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin and assessed the necessity of endogenous GOAT activity for operant responding in GOAT and GHSR-null mice. Hedonic-based feeding behavior also was examined in GOAT-KO and GHSR-null mice using a "Dessert Effect" protocol in which the intake of a palatable high fat diet "dessert" was assessed in calorically-sated mice. Pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin augmented operant responding; notably, this effect was dependent on intact GHSR signaling. GOAT-KO mice displayed attenuated operant responding and decreased hedonic feeding relative to controls. These behavioral results correlated with decreased expression of the orexin-1 receptor in reward-related brain regions in GOAT-KO mice. In summary, the ability of ghrelin to stimulate food motivation is dependent on intact GHSR signaling and modified by endogenous GOAT activity. Furthermore, GOAT activity is required for hedonic feeding behavior, an effect potentially mediated by forebrain orexin signaling. These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding. PMID:22982020
Davis, J F; Perello, M; Choi, D L; Magrisso, I J; Kirchner, H; Pfluger, P T; Tschoep, M; Zigman, J M; Benoit, S C
Goat milk and its products of yoghurt, cheese and powder have three-fold significance in human nutrition: (1) feeding more starving and malnourished people in the developing world than from cow milk; (2) treating people afflicted with cow milk allergies and gastro-intestinal disorders, which is a significant segment in many populations of developed countries; and (3) filling the gastronomic needs of
|This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…
The optional dairy ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are goat's skim milk, goat's milk, and goat's cream. These optional dairy ingredients may be used in liquid, concentrated, and/or dry form. (c)...
The report establishes nutrient requirements of goats from original studies directly concerned with the needs of goats. Past efforts relied heavily on extrapolation of values derived from cattle and sheep studies. The discussion of energy and protein requ...
An experimental study was carried out in neonatal goat kids to examine the infectivity of Cryptosporidium oocysts, pattern of oocyst shedding and morphological changes in the intestine during the infection. Cryptosporidium oocysts isolated from adult asymptomatic goats, and identified as C. parvum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used in this study. Of three 4-day-old goat kids, two were orally
F. Noordeen; N. U. Horadagoda; A. C. M. Faizal; R. P. V. J. Rajapakse; M. A. A. Razak; A. Arulkanthan
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear\\u000a transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized\\u000a at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors
Esmail Behboodi; Erdogan Memili; David T. Melican; Margaret M. Destrempes; Susan A. Overton; Jennifer L. Williams; Peter A. Flanagan; Robin E. Butler; Hetty Liem; Li How Chen; Harry M. Meade; William G. Gavin; Yann Echelard
Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787
Organic goat production contributes to the alleviation of poverty of producers who rely on marginal land for their livelihoods, while meeting the increasing demand for organic products globally. Nutritional strategies that are naturally occurring, low cost and easy to apply can improve the productive performance of goats and render organic production profitable and successful. Adequate protein intake enhances immunity and
Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...
The present review covers the main topics related to goats in the last two years. The main topics were pathology, reproduction, milk and cheese production and quality, production systems, nutrition, hair production, drugs knowledge and meat production. Especially energy use by goats in different conditions and the role of somatic cell count in intramammary infections and milk and cheese quality
Analysis of export supply functions showed that the price elasticity for quantities of goat skins exported from Brazil is +0.30 which indicates an inelastic response to price. Conversely, the elasticity of goat skins exported relative to the price of shee...
Electrolytic lesions were made in the hypothalamic region of a series of goats. In three of the goats, bilateral lesions in the lateral area caused temporary aphagia lasting from 4 to 12 days. Adipsia lasted 8 and 23 days, respectively, in the aphagie goats. In a fourth goat, bilateral lesions in the anterior hypothalamie area caused~ aphagia and hypodipsia lasting
This study describes the transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in 54 goats with confirmed Johne’s disease (JD). Compared with the control group (0.8 ± 0.4 mm thick), the test group presented with mild (2.8 ± 0.2 mm), moderate (4.2 ± 0.4 mm), and severe (6.9 ± 1.1 mm) thickening of the intestinal wall. The most outstanding ultrasonographic findings were pronounced enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 49 goats. In 36 goats, the enlarged lymph nodes showed a hypoechoic cortex and a hyperechoic medulla. In 7 goats, the cortex and medulla were hypoechoic. In 5 goats, the cortex and the medulla could not be differentiated. In the remaining cases, the cortex and medulla contained small hypoechoic lesions. Necropsy findings included enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 goats and thickening of the small intestinal wall in 30 goats. Compared with the postmortem results, the antemortem ultrasound sensitivity in detecting intestinal wall thickness and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes was 80% and 94%, respectively.
The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil. PMID:21852038
Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes
The cause of mortality in sahelian goats was investigated in three local government areas of Borno State (Kukawa, Maiduguri and Mongonu) that are known for high goat production. A total of 150 selected flocks (50 flocks from each of the local government areas) were administered questionnaires through spot visits and interviews of the flock owners. On the whole, 644 (21.8%) goats died between May 1996 and April 1997 out of the 2956 goats in the 150 flocks. Mortality (41.4%) was higher in kids (<6-month old) than in adults (14.4%). Gastrointestinal disorders (dyspepsia), and respiratory diseases were the most-common causes of mortality. Cause-specific mortality risks did not differ between kids and adults. PMID:10727748
...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...
...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...
Mange caused byPsoroptes cuniculi was first recognised in goats in Fiji in 1977. Of 33 widely separated herds examined 16 were infested 4 herds having the “extensive” type lesions in older goats. Treatment of the skin and superficial ear lesions with malathion or gamma-BHC was successful but mites survived in the proximal parts of the ear canal. Re-appearance of the
Three databases were constructed to estimate endogenous urinary N (EUN) in nonlactating and lactating goats. The first database consisted of 22 observations in which urinary N (UN) was measured with nonlactating goats fed diets very low in N concentration (0.032–0.33% of DM). A log-log weighted linear regression of EUN (g) on BW (kg) indicated that 0.75 was an appropriate power
J Luo; A. L Goetsch; J. E Moore; Z. B Johnson; T Sahlu; C. L Ferrell; M. L Galyean; F. N Owens
The Xinjiang goat had a lower cashmere weight (137 g), shorter cashmere length (5.0 cm), but finer cashmere diameter (12.74 ?m) than other types. If graded up with the Liaoning cashmere goat to the 2nd generation, cashmere weights were 320 g and 300 g for yearling bucks and yearling does, respectively, cashmere length was 7.0 cm and cashmere diameter increased
A 1-year-old female Boer goat was presented with a 1-day history of pigmenturia, anorexia, and shivering. Anemia was not present initially, but progressive hemolytic anemia developed subsequently and was characterized by the finding of Heinz bodies in both intact RBCs and in ghost cells and the presence of atypical fusiform RBCs. Plasma biochemical analysis revealed increased activities of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase, hyperbilirubinemia, and azotemia. Histopathologic examination of a liver biopsy revealed necrosis of individual hepatocytes and intracytoplasmic rhodamine-positive granules, consistent with copper. Copper concentration in ante-mortem hepatic tissue was increased, and a diagnosis of copper toxicosis was made. Despite supportive therapy, the goat continued to decline and was euthanized. Necropsy findings included hepatic necrosis and hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Freshly collected specimens of liver and kidney had markedly increased copper concentrations. The mineral composition of the water, grass hay, and goat chow was evaluated, and toxins and significant mineral imbalances were not found. The underlying cause of the hepatic accumulation and subsequent release of copper remains unclear in this goat. Recently, Boer goats have been recognized as being prone to copper toxicosis and may be more susceptible than other breeds; similar to sheep, Boer goats may experience a hemolytic crisis secondary to copper toxicosis. PMID:23121408
Cregar, Laura C; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Ringen, Davin R; Evans, Tim J; Johnson, Gayle C; Kuroki, Keiichi
Colostral samples were taken immediately after confinement from 16 Chios ewes and 12 Damascus goats for determination of fat, crude protein (CP), lactose, ash and total solids (TS). Milk samples from sheep (n = 432), goats (n = 721) and cows (n = 861) representative of all stages of lactation were also taken, over the period 1983 to 1988. These
Prediction of the yield and quality of different types of cheeses that could be produced from a given type and\\/or amount of goat milk is of great economic benefit to goat milk producers and goat cheese manufacturers. Bulk tank goat milk was used for manufacturing hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses (N=25, 25 and 24, respectively) to develop predictive formulae of
S. S. Zeng; K. Soryal; B. Fekadu; B. Bah; T. Popham
China has numerous native domestic goat breeds, but so far there has been no extensive study on genetic diversity, population demographic history, and origin of Chinese goats. Here, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic goats by determining a 481-bp fragment of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region from 368 individuals representing
Shan-Yuan Chen; Yan-Hua Su; Shi-Fang Wu; Tao Sha; Ya-Ping Zhang
This paper analyses the progress in recent research in goat nutrition since the last International Conference on Goats (Tours, 2000). This review reveals clear progress in the quality of papers, now similar to those on cattle or sheep, particularly on nutritional aspects in tropical areas. Topics dealt with in goat nutrition are feeding behaviour, particularly on pastures or rangelands, feed
Goats are an environmentally adaptive specie of livestock, extremely opportunistic and afford the small limited resource landowner(s) an alternative enterprise. The goat provides food security, high quality protein (for human consumption), biological land enhancement and many 'value-added' products to increase revenue generated on a holistically sustainable rural farm. Meat goat numbers have been significantly increasing within the US since the
For a long time, mineral requirements of goats have been extrapolated from those of cattle and sheep. To date advances in goat nutritional research allow more specific mineral recommendations. Endogenous losses of calcium and phosphorus might be more related to dry matter intake than to the bodyweight. True absorption coefficient of P is probably higher for goats (70–75%) than for
SUMMARY - Metabolism trials were carried out with two groups of male, weaned Wistar rats to determine the nutritional value of the goat and cow milk protein. Diets contained 15% protein and 10% fat. The protein source was skimmed milk powder goat or cow milk, and the fat source was goat or cow milk fat. The food intake, growth rates
E. Ramos Morales; F. D. Carmona López; F. Gil Extremera; M. R. Sanz Sampelayo; J. Boza
... 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions Â§ 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...
...2009-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 Â§ 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for...
...2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 Â§ 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for...
Cases of poisoning by oleander (Nerium oleander) were observed in several species, except in goats. This study aimed to evaluate the pathological effects of oleander in goats. The experimental design used three goats per group: the control group, which did not receive oleander and the experimental group, which received leaves of oleander (50mg\\/kg\\/day) for six consecutive days. On the seventh
R. R. Barbosa; J. D. Fontenele-Neto; B. Soto-Blanco
Production of goat milk cheese in North America has been growing rapidly during the past several years. However, information on chemical composition and its seasonal varia- tion of year-round bulk-collected goat milk is limited. The objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composi- tion of commercial goat milk shipments for an entire year to provide fundamental information for
Ming R. Guo; Peter H. Dixon; Young W. Park; James A. Gilmore; Paul S. Kindstedt
Safety and immunogenicity of an experimental combined vaccine comprising attenuated strains of Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and goat poxvirus (GTPV) was evaluated in goats. Goats immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of vaccine consisting of 103TCID50 of each of PPRV and GTPV were monitored for clinical and serological responses for a period of 4 weeks postimmunization (pi) and postchallenge (pc).
Madhusudan Hosamani; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Bimalendu Mondal; Arnab Sen; V. Bhanuprakash; Santanu Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Mahendra Pal Yadav; Raj Kumar Singh
Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.
Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal
The study was carried out in a flock consisting of 110 goats. Nine species of coccidia were found: Eimeria christenseni, E. arloingi, E. jolchijev, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. alijevi, E. apsheronica, E. caprina, E. caprovina and E. hirci. Eighty-one percent of adults and 100% of kids were infected. Number of oocysts per gram of feces in kids ranged form 1200 to 202000. Clinical symptoms in about 50% of kids were observed. Toltrazuril (Baycox, Bayer), 20 mg/kg of body weight was highly efficacious in therapy of goat coccidiosis. PMID:10206107
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a number of methodologies, i.e. PLANIMETER, GEOMETRIC, GRID, UNESP-GRID, UFSM, ZEISS and DELTA-T, in determining ribeye area (REA) of 65 Saanen goats of varying body condition. Goats were grouped according to body weight at slaughter (5.3, 11.2, 12.9, 16.4, 21.0, 22.1, 27.7, 28.6 and 35.2kg). Tracing based on transverse
E. A. Yáñez; A. C. D. Ferreira; A. N. Medeiros; J. M. Pereira Filho; I. A. M. A. Teixeira; K. T. Resende
For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic
P. TABERLET; A. VALENTINI; H. R. REZAEI; S. NADERI; F. POMPANON; R. NEGRINI; P. AJMONE-MARSAN
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors were enucleated, karyoplast-cytoplast couplets were constructed, and then fused and activated simultaneously by a single electrical pulse. Fused couplets were either co-cultured with oviductal cells in TCM-199 medium (in vitro culture) or transferred to intermediate recipient goat oviducts (in vivo culture) until final transfer. The resulting morulae and blastocysts were transferred to the final recipients. Pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography 25-30 days after embryo transfer. In vitro cultured NT embryos developed to morulae and blastocyst stages but did not produce any pregnancies while 30% (6/20) of the in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts produced pregnancies. Two of these pregnancies were resorbed early in gestation. Of the four recipients that maintained pregnancies to term, two delivered dead fetuses 2-3 days after their due dates, and two recipients gave birth to healthy kids at term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed that both kids were transgenic and had integration sites consistent with those observed in the adult cell line. PMID:15359599
Behboodi, Esmail; Memili, Erdogan; Melican, David T; Destrempes, Margaret M; Overton, Susan A; Williams, Jennifer L; Flanagan, Peter A; Butler, Robin E; Liem, Hetty; Chen, Li How; Meade, Harry M; Gavin, William G; Echelard, Yann
An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22?cm?×?22?cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.
Collier, Jessica R.; Byers, Stacey R.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Worley, Deanna R.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Grossman, Alicia N.; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J.
Comparisons were made between castrated male red deer, Angora × New Zealand feral goats, and Border-Leicester × Romney sheep fed chaffed lucerne hay ad libitum during summer and winter. Measurements were made of apparent digestibility, fractional outflow rate (FOR) of rumen digesta, rumen pool size, and particle size breakdown in the rumen, at voluntary feed intake (VFI) during both summer
B. M. Francoise Domingue; D. W. Dellow; P. R. Wilson; T. N. Barry
Histopathology submissions from 28 goats with dermatological disease were identified in an archival search of pathology files. Microscopic sections of skin biopsy specimens were examined for the presence of Malassezia spp. organisms. Six cases with many Malassezia yeasts were identified histopathologically. Based on the extent of clinical disease, three cases were regarded as localized and three were generalized infections. Clinical findings included alopecia with dry seborrhoea (four cases), greasy seborrhoea (one case), and no clinical findings specific to localized Malassezia infection when concurrent bacterial infection was present (one case). Mild pruritus was reported in two cases of generalized infection. No breed predilection was apparent. Three cases were male and three were female. Malassezia dermatitis occurred in goats from 10 months to 13 years of age. Three of six cases had concurrent bacterial infection. Skin lesions resolved following topical antifungal therapy in the two goats that were treated. Histopathological findings in all cases were severe follicular and epidermal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with minimal epithelial change and mild superficial perivascular to interstitial nonsuppurative inflammation. Numerous budding yeasts were visible within the stratum corneum of all cases; however, Malassezia was not isolated in the three cases in which culture was attempted. Based upon these findings, the authors suggest that the diagnosis Malassezia dermatitis in goats is most likely to be made by cytological examination of skin impressions or by examination of skin biopsy samples. PMID:21535256
Although louping ill affects mainly sheep, a 2011 outbreak in northern Spain occurred among goats. Histopathologic lesions and molecular genetics identified a new strain of louping ill virus, 94% identical to the strain from Britain. Surveillance is needed to minimize risk to domestic and wildlife species and humans.
Royo, Luis J.; Martinez, Claudia Perez; Fernandez de Mera, Isabel G.; Hofle, Ursula; Polledo, Laura; Marreros, Nelson; Casais, Rosa; Marin, Juan F. Garcia
Data on 1044 Alpine, 773 Granadina, 1118 Nubian, 560 Saanen and 312 Toggenburg does, recorded from 1982 to 2001 at the National Goat Center, Tlahualilo, Durango, México, were used to examine breed differences and relationships between traits observed at birth (date and weight) and at first kidding (age, litter weight and month of kidding) with stayability up to their 4th,
M. Pérez-Razo; F. Sánchez; G. Torres-Hernández; C. Becerril-Pérez; J. Gallegos-Sánchez; F. González-Cos??o; C. Meza-Herrera
A genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting conformation traits was performed by genotyping 288 Angora goats offspring from 8 half-sub families with 76 microsatellite markers. The following traits were recorded: weaning weight (WW, Kg); stature (S, cm); chest depth (CD, cm); shoulder width (SW, cm); rump length (RL, cm); rump width (RW, cm); head length (HL, cm); head
G. Marrube; E. M. Cano; D. L. Roldan; F. Bidinost; M. Abad; D. Allain; D. Vaiman; H. Taddeo; M. A. Poli
Intravenous anaesthesia is gradually becoming popular in veterinary practice. Traditionally, general anaesthesia is induced with intravenous drugs and then maintained with inhalation agents. Inhalation anaesthetic agents cause more significant dose-dependent cardiorespiratory depression than intravenous anaesthetic drugs, creating a need to use less of the inhalation anaesthetic agents for maintenance of general anaesthesia by supplementing with intravenous anaesthesia drugs. Better still, if anaesthesia is maintained completely with intravenous anaesthetic drugs, autonomic functions remain more stable intra-operatively. Patient recovery from anaesthesia is smoother and there is less pollution of the working environment than happens with inhalation anaesthetic agents. Recently, a number of drugs with profiles (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) suitable for prolonged intravenous anaesthesia have been studied, mostly in humans and, to a certain extent, in dogs and horses. There is currently very little scientific information on total intravenous anaesthesia in goats, although, in the past few years, some scholarly scientific articles on drugs suitable for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats have been published. This review article explored the information available on drugs that have been assessed for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats, with the aim of promoting incorporation of these drugs into total intravenous anaesthesia protocols in clinical practice. That way, balanced anaesthesia, a technique in which drugs are included in anaesthetic protocols for specific desired effects (hypnosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation, autonomic stabilisation) may be utilised in improving the welfare of goats undergoing general anaesthesia. PMID:23718851
Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...
Factors influencing the feeding behavior of goats include grazing management practices, type of vegetation and season, breed and stage of production, group size, and properties of diets fed in confinement. Considerable information has been gathered from visual observation during daylight. However, tools are now available to characterize the feeding behavior of goats while grazing and while in confinement throughout the day. Global positioning system collars can be used to assess horizontal and vertical distances traveled, up or down position of the head, and movement within pasture or rangeland areas. A commercially available leg activity monitor allows estimation of the number of steps and time spent standing, lying, and moving rapidly without grazing. However, these measurements do not directly determine grazing. Therefore, prediction equations based on visual observation must be developed. Classification tree analysis is a robust method in developing these equations because the decision tree can be pruned or expanded to provide the best fit. Another equipment system determines time spent eating, ruminating, and remaining idle from the pattern of jaw movement. In addition to use of n-alkanes as internal markers to estimate digestibility, their profile can provide an indication of the botanical composition of the selected diet. Automated feeding systems for confined goats permit determinations such as number of feeder visits and meals, eating time, and rate and pattern of feed intake. Heart rate measured while goats are in normal production settings can be used to predict total energy expenditure through multiplication by energy expenditure per heartbeat of individual animals. To partition the activity energy cost, an estimate of ME intake or measures of changes in body energy status and milk energy yield are needed to determine other sources of heat to be subtracted from total energy expenditure. These methods create the opportunity to gain a fuller understanding of factors influencing the feeding behavior of goats and the relationships with levels and efficiencies of production. PMID:19783702
Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb
D. E. Mushi; L. O. Eik; M. S. Thomassen; O. Sørheim; T. Ådnøy
The nutritional status of goats used in a forest vegetation control was evaluated by the performance of goats in two field trials conducted in 1995 and 1996. Nutritional status of the goats was determined by assessing weight gain performance and the composition of the forages consumed. Six 0.202 ha (132.68 m x 15.25 m) forest paddocks were assigned in a
C. Blanche; M. Brown; W. Webster; H. Pearson; N. Escobar
Tulathromycin is a triamilide antibiotic that maintains therapeutic concentrations for an extended period of time. The drug is approved for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and swine and is occasionally used in goats. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in meat goats, 10 healthy Boer goats were administered a single 2.5mg\\/kg subcutaneous dose of tulathromycin. Plasma concentrations were
Gabrielle Young; Geof W. Smith; Teresa L. Leavens; Scott E. Wetzlich; Ronald E. Baynes; Sharon E. Mason; Jim E. Riviere; Lisa A. Tell
Thirty-eight domestic goats from an area of Ehrlichia chaffeensis endemicity were tested for antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis and for E. chaffeensis-specific 16S rRNA gene fragments by an indirect fluorescent antibody test and a nested PCR assay, respectively. Twenty-eight of 38 (73.7%) goats had antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis (>1:128), and 6 of 38 (15.8%) goats were positive by diagnostic
VIVIEN G. DUGAN; SUSAN E. LITTLE; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; ASHLEY D. BEALL
Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological\\u000a zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This\\u000a paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of
Domestic animals have played a key role in human history. Despite their importance, however, the origins of most domestic species remain poorly understood. We assessed the phylogenetic history and population structure of domestic goats by sequencing a hypervariable segment (481 bp) of the mtDNA control region from 406 goats representing 88 breeds distributed across the Old World. Phylogeographic analysis revealed three highly divergent goat lineages (estimated divergence >200,000 years ago), with one lineage occurring only in eastern and southern Asia. A remarkably similar pattern exists in cattle, sheep, and pigs. These results, combined with recent archaeological findings, suggest that goats and other farm animals have multiple maternal origins with a possible center of origin in Asia, as well as in the Fertile Crescent. The pattern of goat mtDNA diversity suggests that all three lineages have undergone population expansions, but that the expansion was relatively recent for two of the lineages (including the Asian lineage). Goat populations are surprisingly less genetically structured than cattle populations. In goats only ?10% of the mtDNA variation is partitioned among continents. In cattle the amount is ?50%. This weak structuring suggests extensive intercontinental transportation of goats and has intriguing implications about the importance of goats in historical human migrations and commerce.
Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.
Harms, J. E.; Milton, D. J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D. J.; Harris, W. K.; Goleby, B.
Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma is a contagious tumour of the mucosal nasal glands affecting young adult sheep or goats. The disease occurs naturally in all continents except Australia and New Zealand. Clinical signs include continuous nasal discharge, respiratory distress, exophthalmos and skull deformations. The tumour is classified histologically as a low-grade adenocarcinoma. Nasal glands of both respiratory and olfactory muosal glands seem to be the origin of the neoplasia. It has been experimentally transmitted in sheep and goats using either tumour extracts or concentrated nasal fluids. Two distinct retroviruses are implicated in the aetiology of the neoplasia one in sheep (ONAV) and one in goats (CNAV). We suggest that jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), ONAV, CNAV, and their endogenous counterparts represent a unique family of retroviruses. The similarities between these viruses suggests that any control strategies, including vaccination, may be appropriate to both diseases. The differences, however, represent a unique resource for delineating the function of individual regions of the virus. It is intriguing that whilst ONAV and CNAV appear to be as different to each other as they are to JSRV, that they have very similar disease pathologies, distinct from that of OPA. Additionally, all three exogenous viruses manage to avoid instigating any apparent immune response. Whether this is indeed a result of tolerance induced by the endogenous counterparts or whether the viruses themselves have unique immunosuppressive properties will be an important finding. PMID:12596900
De las Heras, M; Ortín, A; Cousens, C; Minguijón, E; Sharp, J M
Sixty-three Boer crossbred goats were used in 5 separate experiments (Exp. 1 to 5) to evaluate the effects of a commercial probiotic supplement on growth performance (Exp. 1 to 4), diet digestibility (Exp. 5), carcass traits (Exp. 3), and fecal bacterial populations (Exp. 4). Goats were either fed a commercially pelleted concentrate diet and supplemented with a commercial probiotic (PRO) that had shown anecdotal positive effects on goat growth and performance according to local goat producers, or they remained as controls. The dose of PRO used was within the labeled dose for sheep for all studies. For Exp. 1, goat BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 7 d for 56 d. For Exp. 2 to 4, BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 14 d. The first day of supplementation was considered d 0. Carcass traits were also collected at slaughter on d 57 for Exp. 3, and fecal samples were collected every 14 d for microbial culture for Exp. 4. For Exp. 5, which was a digestibility trial that lasted for 10 d, animals were placed in metabolic pens for collection of feces and orts. Growth performance of goats was not affected by probiotic supplementation, with the exception of performance in Exp. 2, in which ADG and G:F were improved (P < 0.03) in PRO goats compared with control goats on d 56 only (treatment x day interaction; P < 0.05), averaging 0.21 +/- 0.02 kg/d for PRO goats and 0.11 +/- 0.02 kg/d for control goats for ADG and 0.17 +/- 0.02 for PRO goats and 0.10 +/- 0.02 for control goats for G:F. Carcass weights and weights of fabricated cuts (shoulder, loin, leg, rack, shank, and total parts) as well as carcass length, leg circumference, loin eye area, and backfat were not influenced by PRO supplementation. Apparent digestibilities of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, and GE (on a DM basis) were similar for the PRO and control treatments. Fecal culture analysis of Escherichia coli and coliforms, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations were not influenced by the PRO treatment. Overall, although the PRO treatment affected goat ADG and G:F in Exp. 2, no PRO treatment effects were noted on growth performance for Exp. 1, 3, and 4. Furthermore, the PRO treatment did not affect diet digestibility, carcass traits, or fecal microbial populations in goats. In conclusion, no consistent benefits were noted from supplementing healthy, growing meat goats with PRO. PMID:18849380
Whitley, N C; Cazac, D; Rude, B J; Jackson-O'Brien, D; Parveen, S
The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P < 0.05) in the goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol concentrations was detected. From this point of view, distillate rosemary leaves can be proposed as an ingredient in ruminant feed because they both alter neither the yield nor the quality of Murciano-Granadina goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid. PMID:20608728
Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio
The Ibicenca or Pitiüsa goat is the most endangered goat breed of Spain. This breed occurs only on the Pitiüse islands (Ibiza and Formentera), with fewer than 147 animals on 17 different farms, indicating a clear risk of extinction. In response to this condition, a program to rescue the breed was initiated, involving: (1) the characterization of morphological variables of
M. E. Camacho; A. Vallecillo; A. Martínez; M. Miró-Arias; Y. Méndez; A. Pons; J. V. Delgado
This paper reports for the first time accidental intoxication of Angora goats with salinomycin contaminated feed in Turkey. Clinical, laboratory and postmortem findings are described. Angora goats were examined clinically and biochemical analysis of blood, electrocardiogram and histopathological examinations were carried out. The feed was shown to contain 680ppm\\/kg of salinomycin.
Z. T Agaoglu; Y Akgul; I Keles; S Ugras; A Aksoy; A Cinar
Our previous study morphologically revealed that the adult goat vomeronasal (VN) system was different from the rodent and opossum one, and at least two types of VN systems exist in mammals. However, it remains unknown whether the developments in both types of VN systems are ontogenetically distinct and when the goat VN system is established. In this study, we morphologically
Shu Takigami; Yoshihiro Wakabayashi; Shunji Ohsako; Satoshi Ohkura; Hiroaki Okamura; Atsushi Ikai; Masumi Ichikawa; Toshiya Osada
Goats are economically important in many countries and little is known of caprine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 143 goats from 3 Brazilian States, using modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25); 46 (32.2%) tested positive. Samples of brain, heart, ...
Faecal Samples of 80 goats belonging to Nachi and Teddy breeds were collected bimonthly from areas around Multan, Pakistan. The overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in goats and relationship between body weight, age, breed of the host and also effect of parasite on the litter size of the host were studied. The overall prevalence of F. hepatica was 28.75%. Infection
The objective of the study was to compare the pathology induced by four fungi compared to a saline control. Thirty weanling goats were randomly assigned to 5 groups, 6 goats per group. Four fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Mucor ramosissimus, and Montosporium lanuginosa ) isola...
Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth fac- tors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essen- tial to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity.Therefore,weinvestigatedthefactorsaffecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among
F. Y. Wu; P. H. Tsao; D. C. Wang; S. Lin; J. S. Wu; Y. K. Cheng
The Green Goat, a diesel\\/battery hybrid switcher locomotive, demonstrated impressive fuel savings as the engine never operates at idle as on a conventional locomotive. The Railpower Green Goat locomotive design incorporates all of the above features, but most importantly, focuses on keeping the concept as well as the implementation as simple as possible. During initial trials at the Union Pacific
Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...
Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hr collection period and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by both cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014%
W. W. Sutton; R. G. Patzer; A. A. Mullen; P. B. Hahn; G. D. Potter
The phylogenetic relationship of Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep and goats on the basis of their 18S RNA gene structure was addressed in the present study. For this purpose, the complete sequences of the small ribosomal RNA genes of a panel of sheep and goat piroplasm isolates, including T. lestoquardi, T. ovis, T. separata, B. ovis, B. motasi, B.
Leonhard Schnittger; Hong Yin; Marc J. Gubbels; Doreen Beyer; Stefan Niemann; Frans Jongejan; Jabbar S. Ahmed
The use of goat and sheep milk for manufacture of different milk and milk products is increasing, although the proportion is much less compared to cow and buffalo milk worldwide, but it is much better organized in some countries than in others. Manufacturing of goat and sheep milk commercially or artisanally on the farm for direct sales is done successfully
A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market. PMID:20163593
Databases were constructed to determine ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) and BW gain (MEg) of preweaning, growing and mature goats by regressing ME intake (MEI) against ADG. Goats were categorized as dairy, meat (? 50% Boer) or indigenous biotypes. The preweaning database included 98 treatment means representing 1016 goats and the growing goat database consisted of 333 treatment means. Because
J Luo; A. L Goetsch; T Sahlu; I. V Nsahlai; Z. B Johnson; J. E Moore; M. L Galyean; F. N Owens; C. L Ferrell
BACKGROUND: Suckling can be a peaceful or vulnerable event for goats and kids, whereas, separation is suggested as stressful. The aim of this study was to investigate physiology and behaviour in these two different situations in dairy goats. METHODS: Four studies were performed with seven goats kept with their first-born kid in individual boxes. The goats were videotaped and heart
Louise Winblad von Walter; Lena Lidfors; Andrzej Madej; Kristina Dahlborn; Eva Hydbring-Sandberg
The preliminary findings from an investigation into the health and welfare of goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the UK are described. An assessment protocol involving direct observations of the goats was developed in order to assess their welfare. Twenty-four dairy goat farms in England and Wales were visited and assessed during the period autumn 2004 to summer 2005.
K. Anzuino; N. J. Bell; K. J. Bazeley; C. J. Nicol
Chemical composition, cholesterol levels, fatty acid profile, meat taste, and quality parameters were evaluated in 48 buck kids from goats of the Guanzhong Dairy breed (Group G) and their crosses (Group F1: 1/2 Boermale symbolx1/2 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F2: 3/4 Boermale symbolx1/4 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F3: 7/8 Boermale symbolx1/8 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol) at different ages of slaughter (6, 8 and 10 months). Results indicated that grading hybridization (P<0.05) affected meat nutritive value. The muscle of hybrid goats had lower crude fat and cholesterol, higher crude protein, and greater proportion of C18:2 and C18:3 than that of Group G at each age. Group F1 goats had better (P<0.05) desirable fatty acid (DFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratios and greater (C18:0+C18:1/C16:0) ratios (P<0.01) than those of the other genotypes. Furthermore, the muscles of hybrid goats were tenderer and juicier compared to Group G. In all four groups, cholesterol levels increased (P<0.01), muscle color became redder (P<0.05) and tenderness decreased (P<0.05) with increasing age. The low level of lipids and cholesterol, good meat quality, and the higher ratio of unsaturated to SFA in Group F1 indicate better quality for human consumption. PMID:20374792
The West African Dwarf (WAD) goat is well-adapted to the humid forest regions of Sub-Saharan Africa where it makes significant contributions to the livelihoods of hundreds of thousands of farm families. However, its potential role in poverty alleviation programmes in this region has not been fully exploited. Comprehensive studies are needed on ways that WAD goats can play a greater
The present study describes epidemic resurgence of a goat-specific syndrome simulating goat dermatitis at six different places in Pakistani Punjab province and at two places in Sindh province after a lapse of 56 years. The occurrence of the syndrome was limited to February thru July 2004; being absent thereafter till May 2007. Cumulative attack rate of the syndrome was 0.2%;
Ghulam Muhammad; Muhammad Hammad Hussain; Muhammad Saqib; Muhammad Khalid Mansoor; Muhammad Nadeem Asi; Abeera Naureen
Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (P<0.05) proteins and 13% higher (P<0.05) fat content than goat meats. Moreover, m. longissimus dorsi samples from lambs were less red (a(?)) (P<0.05) and had lower colour intensity (C) and wider hue angle (H) than that from goats. Meat from lambs and Cashmere goats had higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P<0.001), especially stearic acid and lower ones for total unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the meat from Norwegian goats. Sensory panellists scored lamb meat fattier, juicier and more tender than goat meats. Meat from Cashmere goats scored highest (P<0.05) in whiteness, and lowest (P<0.05) in both colour tone and colour intensity. It is concluded that, since C18:0 was the main contributor of SFA in meat from Norwegian lamb and Cashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability. PMID:22063606
Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T
Goat feeding preferences for straw pellets flavored with ryegrass (Lolium perenne, cv. Belida) or white clover (Trifolium repens, cv. Huia) aromatic extracts, obtained by means of a cold aromatic extraction method, were assessed with cafeteria trials. Prior to the trials, odor differences between the two plant species, the two aromatic extracts, and the straw pellets sprayed with the two aromatic extracts were verified using sensory analysis performed by 30 human panelists. Since odor differences observed among fresh samples were still detectable in aromatic extracts and moistened pellets, the extraction method was considered effective in reproducing plant odors. Straw pellets sprayed with either distilled water (W) or ryegrass (R) or clover (C) aromatic extracts were used to assess flavor preferences of 12 female Rossa Mediterranea goats. Sprayed pellet preference was evaluated in two sessions conducted in two consecutive weeks. Each session consisted of three two-choice presentations performed on three consecutive days. In both sessions, food intake, proportion of food intake, time spent feeding, and proportion of time spent feeding were significantly affected by pellet type (0.05 > P > 0.001). In particular, straw pellets sprayed with ryegrass extract were highly selected compared to those sprayed with clover (0.01 > P > 0.001) or water (0.01 > P > 0.001). In addition, in the second session, the clover extract was preferred to distilled water (0.05 > P > 0.01). The results of this study gave two main indications: first, goat selectivity for rye-grass against clover was consistent even when straw pellets sprayed with odors of these plants were offered, and secondly, the addition of aromatic extracts to straw pellets increased the preference for pellets. PMID:11925067
De, Rosa G; Moio, L; Napolitano, F; Grasso, F; Gubitosi, L; Bordi, A
A 1-year-old female Boer goat was presented for necropsy following spontaneous death and history of acute recumbency, nystagmus, and sialorrhea. A swollen area was grossly observed in the brainstem at the level of the pons. On cut surface, the right cerebellar peduncles were expanded by a focal, pale, poorly demarcated, slightly depressed, and soft area of malacia. Microscopically, this area contained diffuse edema and necrosis, with microabscesses, neuronal necrosis, neuronophagia, axonal spheroids, vasculitis, and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. The diagnosis was based on the morphologic findings, fluorescent antibody test results, and special staining. PMID:23576239
Prion diseases such as scrapie in small ruminants, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in man, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. These diseases result from the accumulation of misfolded conformers of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP) in the central nervous system. To date naturally-occurring PrP free animals have not been reported. Here we describe healthy non-transgenic animals, Norwegian Dairy Goats, lacking prion protein due to a nonsense mutation early in the gene. These animals are predicted to be resistant to prion disease and will be valuable for research and for production of prion-free products.
Background The reticulum plays a crucial role in the ruminant digestive tract because the primary cycle of rumen motility always starts with a reticular contraction. In contrast to cattle, there are only few results on the ultrasonographic examination of the reticulum in goats. Therefore, it was the goal of the present study, to describe the results of ultrasonography of the reticulum of 30 healthy Saanen goats. Methods Ultrasonography was carried out on standing, non-sedated animals using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer. The shape, contour and motility of the reticulum were investigated. A nine-minute video recording of the reticulum was made for each goat and the frequency, duration and amplitude of reticular contractions were calculated as described for cattle. Results The reticulum appeared as a crescent-shaped structure with a smooth contour located immediately adjacent to the diaphragm. 0.8 to 2.1 (1.41 ± 0.31) reticular contractions were seen per minute. In all goats, biphasic reticular contractions were observed. 90% of the goats also had monophasic reticular contractions, and two had triphasic contractions. During the nine-minute observation periods, there were 0 to 6 monophasic reticular contractions and 6 to 15 biphasic contractions per goat. The duration of the biphasic contractions was 6.56 ± 0.74 s, which was significantly longer than the monophasic contractions at 4.31 ± 0.81 s. The average interval between two reticular contractions was 45.06 ± 12.57 s. Conclusion Ultrasonography of the reticulum in goats is a valuable tool to characterise the appearance and motility of this organ. In addition to the biphasic motility pattern seen in cattle the reticular motility of goats is characterized by monophasic reticular contractions. The results of the present study are an important contribution for better understanding of the reticular motility in goats.
Anaemia is the most prominent clinical sign of trypanosomosis in domestic animals but little is known about its pathogenesis. This work investigated erythrophagocytosis as the possible cause of anaemia. Pathogenic Trypanosoma congolense (IL3000) was intravenously inoculated into six goats at 3x10(6) trypanosomes per goat. Six other goats were maintained as controls. The infection was studied for 10 weeks and parasitaemia, packed cell volume (PCV) and serum protein levels were determined. The amount of erythrophagocytosis was determined from the amount of 51Cr-labelled red blood cells (RBCs) phagocytosed by self mononuclear cells (MNCs) in vitro and by microscopically counting phagocytosed RBCs on Giemsa stained smears of incubated mixtures of RBCs and self MNCs. The infection resulted in trypanosomosis with rapid progressive anaemia and mean peaks of parasitaemia of about 3x10(3)ml(-1). In infected goats, a significant (P<0.05) mean reduction in PCV (of 37-22%) was observed starting from about 20 days up to 56 days post-infection. Within this same phase, significant (P<0.05) differences in mean radioactivity counts of (51)Cr incorporated into MNCs were observed with infected goats' samples having counts 50% higher than the control goats' samples. Microscopically, the mean number of phagocytosed RBCs in infected goats' MNCs was noted to be 80% higher (P<0.05) than that of control goats. Appreciable increases (P<0.05) in mean serum globulin levels, from 3.5 to 4.7g/dl, were observed within 3 weeks of infection. The study showed that erythrophagocytosis is an important mechanism leading to anaemia in the pathophysiology of T. congolense infection in Zambian goats. PMID:11230918
The present study describes the investigation of seasonal changes in seminal plasma proteins of Saanen goats under natural conditions in south Brazil. Proteins were isolated by liquid chromatography on heparin Sepharose CL-6B column and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Important differences were observed in the pattern of heparin-affinity proteins (HAPs), such as a band of 178 kDa unique to the breeding season; a decrease in 119 kDa proteins; and an increase in proteins ranging from 73 to 104 kDa. HAP caused deterioration of sperm motility and acrosome breakage in media containing and not containing skimmed milk; the effect was most remarkable with the proteins from the nonbreeding season. Furthermore, HAP presented phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, which was 4.4-fold higher in nonbreeding season than in breeding season. Binding sites for HAP were identified in the sperm surface, particularly at the middle piece of the spermatozoa. These results indicate that proteins from goat seminal plasma are under seasonal control and associated with sperm function during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. PMID:12041898
La Falci, V S N; Tortorella, H; Rodrigues, J L; Brandelli, A
Goat rearing is increasingly becoming popular among smallholder mixed crop- livestock farmers. Goat production is regarded as a feasible means to improve the income and nutrition of rural communities and to bring these communities into commercial marketing systems (Braker et al, 2002). The goat has become very popular in recent years as a pathway out of poverty (Ahuya et al.,
The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (P<0.05) SLW and CDM than non-supplemented groups. The Xhosa lop-eared (XLE) and Nguni (NGN) goats had higher pH24 (P<0.05) than BOR and XBC goats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (P<0.05). The sunflower cake supplemented BOR and NGN goats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. PMID:21784584
Reproductive data collected from 13 medium-size goat farms in central Mexico (582 goats), were used to investigate if linear type traits influenced reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy goats. Data were analysed using multiple stepwise forward logistic regressions. Goats with the higher scores for strength were 1.43 times more likely (p < 0.05) to have larger litters (1.49 vs 1.39) than goats with lower strength. Goats approaching level rump angles were 1.68 times more likely (p < 0.01) to have larger litters, compared with goats with extremely sloped rump angles (1.48 vs 1.37). Goats with rear legs nearly straight (posty) in hock tended (p < 0.08) to presented larger litters than goats with rear legs slightly angled (sickled) in hock (1.49 vs 1.38). Less pronounced rump angle was favourable associated (p < 0.05) with litter weight (4.88 vs 4.53 kg) compared with goats with low pin bones. Goats with poorer udder texture were 1.42 more likely (p < 0.05) to have heavier litters than goats with good udder texture. Goats with faulty mammary system tended (p < 0.07) to have heavier litters than goats with good mammary system. Increasing udder height was associated (p < 0.05) with increasing number of services per conception. Goats with good fore udder attachment and non-refined heads were at reduced risk (p < 0.05) for stillbirths. Goats with stronger median ligament were 65% less likely (p < 0.05) to lose their foetuses than those with looser udder support. Our findings indicate that a greater litter size and litter weight is expected in goats as rump angle becomes less sloped. This study showed that a relationship exists between strength of goats and litter size, and that some traits linked to high milk yield were antagonist to some reproductive traits. PMID:18507796
Fourteen thymomas have been collected and reviewed from our autopsy series of 2600 white angora goats. The gross and microscopic characteristics of these tumors are described and compared and contrasted with similar tumors in a variety of mammalian specie...
C. S. Streett N. H. Altman J. Y. Terner C. C. Berdjis
A model of Leu and protein metabolism by the mam- mary gland and hind leg of lactating goats was con- structed and evaluated from data collected by using (15N, 1-13C)Leu kinetics measured during amino acid (AA) infusion and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (IC). Goats were given continuous intravenous infusions of either saline or AA (65 g\\/d) for 7.5 d and fromd5to7.5goatsweresubjectedtoIC.Arteriovenous
B. J. Bequette; C. E. Kyle; L. A. Crompton; S. E. Anderson; M. D. Hanigan
Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response) and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits) at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of individual neurological signs.
Homozygous mice devoid of functional Prnp are resistant to scrapie and prion propagation, but heterozygous mice for Prnp disruption still suffer from prion disease and prion deposition. We have previously generated heterozygous cloned goats with\\u000a one allele of Prnp functional disruption. To obtain goats with both alleles of Prnp be disrupted which would be resistant to scrapie completely, a second-round
Caihong Zhu; Bei Li; Guohua Yu; Jianquan Chen; Huiqing Yu; Juan Chen; Xujun Xu; Youbing Wu; Aimin Zhang; Guoxiang Cheng
Rastogi, S. K., Kumar, N., Singh, S. P. and Tyagi, S. K. 1993. Normal erythrogram of mountain gaddi goats during different physiological conditions. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 3: 107–111.Vanous erythrocytic characteristics were studied in thirty Gaddi goats (male kids, female kids, pregnant does, non-pregnant does and bucks). Highest erythrocytic count (21.6x 10\\/?1) and MCHC (30.7%) were recorded in bucks. The
S. K. Rastog; Naresh Kumar; S. P. Singh; S. K. Tyagi
The objective of the present research was to quantify the seminiferous epithelium cells, spermatogenesis efficiency and characterize the ultrastrucure of Sertoli cells in goats. Eighteen goats were used and divided into three groups: Group I - goats without bipartition of the scrotum; Group II - animals with bipartition of the scrotum in up to 50% of the testicular length; Group III - goats with bipartition of the scrotum in more than 50% of the testicular length. The goat testes in Group III had a greater number of primary spermatocytes (25.37 ± 4.55 cells per cross sections), spermatids (112 ± 15.12 cells per cross sections), and Sertoli cells (9.46 ± 1.74 cells per cross sections) than the animals in Groups I and II (P<0.05). The spermatogenic mitotic, meiotic, and general efficiency were greater in animals in Group III (1.25 ± 0.28; 5.12 ± 1.63; 6.44 ± 1.96) when compared to those in Groups I and II. Sheet-like processes originated from the Sertoli cell body as simple and smooth structures which involved almost all the surface of germ cells. Slender cord-like processes originated from Sertoli cells and also from the sheet-like processes. The relative frequency of the cycle stages showed differences among the groups of goats studied, and the highest frequency was in Stage 3 (20.68% for goats in Group I, 21.15% for those in Group II, and 16.89% for the animals in Group III). In conclusion, goats with bipartition of the scrotum have a greater number of germ and Sertoli cells per cross section of seminiferous tubule, that indicated a greater sperm production when compared to the other groups, and the ultrastructure of the Sertoli cell process did not present any relationship with bipartition of the scrotum. PMID:22285049
Júnior, A A N Machado; Oliveira, L S; Assis Neto, A C; Alves, F R; Miglino, M A; Carvalho, M A M
The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats. PMID:18457178
Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S
Background The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones. Results The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.739 in Barbari to 0.783 in Jakhrana goats. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for 5 loci breed combinations. The DA measure of genetic distance between pairs of breeds indicated that the lowest distance was between Marwari and Sirohi (0.135). The highest distance was between Pashmina and Black Bengal. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that 6.59% of variance exists among the Indian goat breeds. Both a phylogenetic tree and Principal Component Analysis showed the distribution of breeds in two major clusters with respect to their geographic distribution. Conclusion Our study concludes that Indian goat populations can be classified into distinct genetic groups or breeds based on the microsatellites as well as mtDNA information.
Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (? 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction and minimize airborne transmission from affected dairy goat farms to prevent further spread to the near environment.
The effects of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus on lactational performance of goats were examined. The results of an ELISA for antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus were compared with milk production records. Mean production of milk, protein, fat, and lactose and somatic cell counts were compared for seropositive and seronegative goats of similar ages. The results from 1799 lactating goats from 66 herds suggested that milk production was similar for 1-yr-old goats that tested seropositive and those that tested seronegative. For 900 of those goats for which data permitted comparison, milk fat and protein were also similar. A comparison of 331 goats showed that lactose contents did not differ between 1- and 2-yr-old goats, but somatic cell counts were higher in 2-yr-old seropositive goats. PMID:9361211
This study assessed the efficacy of an Ovsynch protocol (vs. the classical cronolone containing vaginal sponge+eCG treatment) to generate fixed-time insemination in goats during the breeding season. Each regimen was applied to 24 Boer goat does. Onset and duration of estrus were determined with an aproned male and follicular development was monitored by ultrasonography. Ovulation and quality of the corpora lutea were established from progesterone concentrations. In 10-11 goats per group, LH concentrations were determined throughout the preovulatory period. Does were inseminated at pre-determined times (16 h after the second GnRH injection and 43 h after sponge removal). Estrus was identified in 96% of the Ovsynch-treated goats (at 49 h after prostaglandin injection) and in 100% of the goats synchronized with sponges (at 37 h after sponge removal). Low progesterone concentrations at the time of AI were observed in 21/24 and 24/24 goats synchronized by Ovsynch and sponges, respectively. Synchronization of the LH surge was tighter following Ovsynch compared to sponge treatment. Kidding rates (at 58 and 46% in the Ovsynch and sponge groups, respectively) and prolificacy (at 1.86 and 1.83 in the Ovsynch- and sponge-treated goats) were similar for both groups, as were the number of ovulations (2.9 and 3.3) and the proportion of does with premature corpus luteum regression (29 and 17%). When excluding does with premature luteal regression and those with low progesterone levels when receiving prostaglandins, kidding rate reached 87.5% (14/16) after Ovsynch. During the breeding season, the Ovsynch protocol may thus be an useful alternative to the sponge-eCG treatment. PMID:18336894
Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation. PMID:22890482
The preimplantation development competences of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos reconstructed with enucleated goat (Capra hircus) Metaphase II (MII) oocytes matured in vivo and whole cells derived from adult fibroblasts of several mammalian species (goat, boer goat, bovine, tahr, panda) and human patient were evaluated. The experimental results indicated that these reconstructed SCNT embryos could complete preimplantation development to
Red-colored bones were first found in Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were subsequently designated red-boned Guishan goats. However, the difference remains unclear between the bone mineral density (BMD) or elemental composition in bones between red-boned Guishan goats and common Guishan goats. Analysis of femoral bone samples by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed an increase in bone mineral density in the femoral diaphysis and distal femur of red-boned Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The data revealed that BMD increased in both the red-boned and common Guishan goats from 18 to 36 months of age. The data also indicated that the ratio of the BMD values of red-boned to common Guishan goats was higher at 36 months of age than they were at 18 months of age. Furthermore, the levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, barium, zinc, manganese, and aluminum were significantly higher in red-boned Guishan goats than common Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The results indicate that the red-boned Guishan goats were linked to the elevated levels of mineral salts observed in the bones and that this in turn may be linked to the elevated BMD levels encountered in red-boned Guishan goats. These reasons may be responsible for the red coloration in the bones of red-boned Guishan goats. PMID:22565471
Effective activation protocols that can be used during nuclear transfer investigations in goats need to be developed. We compared the development of IVF goat embryos with those of nonfertilized parthogenetically developing oocytes activated by treatment with either ionomycin or ethanol, both followed by immediate exposure to 6-diethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered from abattoir goat ovaries were either matured
E. M. Ongeri; C. L. Bormann; R. E. Butler; D. Melican; W. G. Gavin; Y. Echelard; R. L. Krisher; E. Behboodi
The difficulty of determining the intake of browse grazed by goats is widely recognized. We suggest that a reasonable estimate of the amount of edible browse available to goats grazing shrubby Mediterranean vegetation can be derived from actual grazing data of goat herds that have obtained most of their annual maintenance requirements from pasture dominated by shrubs or shrubby trees.
David Evlagon; Shmuel Kommisarchik; Tzach Glasser; Liat Hadar; No’am G. Seligman
The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of grazing sheep and goat milk fat, throughout their lactation period, was examined. Six sheep and six goat representative farms were selected at random and milk samples were taken at monthly intervals for fatty acids profile determination. Sheep and goat nutrition was based on natural grazing and on supplementary feeding during the winter months.
As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease) in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy) were studied.
Sabry A. El-Khodery; Hussein S. Hussein; Mohamed E. El-Boshy; Medhat N. Nassif
Goats maintained in farm\\/under rural condition by individual owners with definite history of vaccination were vaccinated with Freeze Dried Tissue Culture Goat Pox Vaccine and antibody titre was determined up to 1 year post-vaccination period. A few experimental goats were vaccinated and subsequently challenged with isolated virulent field virus and antibody titre of vaccinated animals observed at different intervals was
D. Barman; A. Chatterjee; C. Guha; U. Biswas; J. Sarkar; T. K. Roy; B. Roy; S. Baidya
Goat milk shows interesting similarities in comparison with human milk in terms of their oligosaccharides composition, which suggests that goat milk oligosaccharides could mimic the physiological activities described for human milk oligosaccharides. However, the supplementation of the accompanying goat milk protein in infant formulae is not allowed by the current European legislation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate
A. Martinez-Ferez; J. E. Zapata; A. Guadix; M. C. Almecija; M. Gomez; E. M. Guadix
The effects of hyaluronidase on the absorption of intramuscular succinylcholine chloride in goats are discussed. Twenty-five mature, mixed-strain dairy goats were immobilized with 0.33 mg/kg of the drug. An additional 25 goats were given corresponding dos...
F. P. Ward S. F. Swaim R. D. Chadwick G. L. Raulston N. Ohanesian
Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains ...
A dairy goat operation in Minnesota experienced a sudden, markedly increased mortality among a subgroup of its neonatal goats (approximately 46%). The animals had diarrhea and dyspnea of one to two days duration prior to death. Necropsy of four goat kids revealed marked, acute, catarrhal enteritis...
This investigation aimed to individuate the dietary factors affecting the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) con- centration in goats grazing herbaceous pasture and, particularly, to verify the relationship linking the diet crude protein (CP) content to MUN. A total of 205 individual observations regarding dietary and milk variables of 37 Girgentana goats involved in two experiments were used. Goats, averaging 154±14
Adriana Bonanno; Massimo Todaro; Antonino Di Grigoli; Maria Luisa Scatassa; Gabriele Tornambé; Maria Luigia Alicata
Scrapie eradication efforts cost 18 million dollars annually in the United States and rely heavily upon PRNP genotyping of sheep. Genetic resistance might reduce goat scrapie and limit the risk of goats serving as a scrapie reservoir, so PRNP coding sequences were examined from 446 goats of 10 breeds, 8 of which had not been previously examined at PRNP. The
Stephen White; Lynn Herrmann-Hoesing; Katherine O'rourke; Daniel Waldron; Joan Rowe; Janet Alverson
Colostrum intake in newborn goat kids is essential for the acquisition of immunoglobulins (Ig) and influencing development of gastrointestinal mucosa. The present study investigated small intestine structure in the postnatal goat kid fed lyophilized bovine colostrum, an alternative source of antibodies to small ruminants, or goat colostrum using scanning electron microscopy technique. At 0, 7 and 14h of life 15
The present study was conducted to determine if the social status of Australian Cashmere goats affects their response to the male effect in terms of LH secretion, ovulation and expression of estrus. Australian Cashmere goats were kept isolated from the males during 5 months. The index of success (SI) of each goat was calculated to establish their social rank. In
L. Alvarez; L. Zarco; F. Galindo; D. Blache; G. B. Martin
Effects of dietary crude protein level on fiber production of Angora and cashmere-producing Spanish goats were studied in 16 yearling doelings (eight Spanish, eight Angora) for 8 weeks. Goats were housed in individual stalls and maintained at constant temperature (21 °C) with 9 h light and 15 h darkness each day. Goats were initially sheared, blocked by body weight (BW)
Z. H. Jia; T. Sahlu; J. M. Fernandez; S. P. Hart; T. H. Teh
A dose titration study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of clorsulon against the adult stage of Fasciola hepatica in goats. Thirty-nine goats were experimentally infected with metacercariae of F hepatica. At 14 weeks after infection, each goat was assigned randomly to 1 of 5 groups. Goats in groups 1 to 4 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 3.5, 7, 11, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The fifth group of goats (control group) was infected with F hepatica, but were not treated with clorsulon. Postmortem examination of goats at 3 weeks after treatment revealed mean reductions in numbers of flukes of 83, 98, 99, and 100% for groups 1 to 4, respectively. Mean percentage of reduction in eggs following treatment of groups was 82, 98, 100, and 100%, respectively. The clinical effects of clorsulon in 24 goats that were not infected with F hepatica were studied. Goats in groups 1 to 3 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 7, 21, and 35 mg/kg, respectively, every other day for a total of 3 doses/goat. Group-4 goats (control group) received a vehicle placebo. Goats in group 3 were subject to postmortem examination at 14 days after dosing. Abnormal signs or lesions that could be attributed to clorsulon were not found in any goat. PMID:2021237
Sundlof, S F; Bliss, E L; Greiner, E C; Tran, T Q; Wertenberger, M A
Study Design In vivo randomized controlled study in the goat intervertebral disc (IVD) injury model. Objective To define the effects of allogeneic bone marrow-derived stromal cell injected into the degenerating goat IVDs. Summary of Background Data Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells to the degenerating disc has been suggested as a means to correct the biologic incompetence of the disc. However, large animal models with IVDs similar in shape and size to those of humans are needed to define the efficacy and safety of this approach. Methods Goat IVD degeneration was induced by stabbing with a #15 blade. One month after disc injury, the injured discs were randomly selected to receive goat bone marrow-derived stromal cell (suspended in hydrogel), saline (control), or hydrogel (control) injections. Three and 6 months after stem cell transplantation, goats were euthanized and the IVD were examined for biochemical content and tissue morphology. MR images at 3- and 6-month time points were also examined. Results The goat large animal model shows early degenerative changes following disc injury. Degenerating IVDs injected with bone marrow stromal cells showed significantly increased proteoglycan (PG) accumulation within their nucleus pulposus (NP) region. However, collagen content, MRI grade and histology did not show statistically significant differences between the cell-treated and control IVDs. Conclusions Following transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells, NP tissue contained more PG than control discs. Although this result was promising, the rate and severity of degeneration in this goat disc injury were modest, suggesting that a more severe injury and a larger sample size is indicated for future studies to better define the utility of cell therapies in this model.
Zhang, Yejia; Drapeau, Susan; An, Howard S.; Thonar, Eugene J-M.A.; Anderson, D. Greg
Tulathromycin is a triamilide antibiotic that maintains therapeutic concentrations for an extended period of time. The drug is approved for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and swine and is occasionally used in goats. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in meat goats, 10 healthy Boer goats were administered a single 2.5 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of tulathromycin. Plasma concentrations were measured by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) detection. Plasma maximal drug concentration (Cmax) was 633 ± 300 ng/ml (0.40 ± 0.26 h post-subcutaneous injection). The half-life of tulathromycin in goats was 110 ± 19.9 h. Tulathromycin was rapidly absorbed and distributed widely after subcutaneous injection 33 ± 6 L/kg. The mean AUC of the group was 12,500 ± 2020 h ng/mL for plasma. In this study, it was determined that the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin after a single 2.5 mg/kg SC injection in goats were very similar to what has been previously reported in cattle. PMID:20638089
Young, Gabrielle; Smith, Geof W; Leavens, Teresa L; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Mason, Sharon E; Riviere, Jim E; Tell, Lisa A
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are the major source of Q fever in humans. To investigate the goat’s immune response we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via inhalation with a Dutch outbreak isolate of C. burnetii. All animals were successfully infected. Phase 1 and Phase 2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies were measured. Cellular immune responses were investigated by interferon-gamma, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (IFN-? Elispot), lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and systemic cytokines. After two weeks post inoculation (wpi), a strong anti-C. burnetii Phase 2 IgM and IgG antibody response was observed while the increase in IgM anti-Phase 1 antibodies was less pronounced. IgG anti-Phase 1 antibodies started to rise at 6 wpi. Cellular immune responses were observed after parturition. Our results demonstrated humoral and cellular immune responses to C. burnetii infection in pregnant goats. Cell-mediated immune responses did not differ enough to distinguish between Coxiella-infected and non-infected pregnant animals, whereas a strong-phase specific antibody response is detected after 2 wpi. This humoral immune response may be useful in the early detection of C. burnetii-infected pregnant goats.
Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.
The composition of bulk milk of 18 herds of ewes and 14 herds of goats and the milk of 10 individual animals of each ewes and goats during a 12 weeks lactation period was studied. The average percentage of acidity of bulk ewe's milk (0.22), fat (6.4), lactose (4.3), total nitrogen (0.9) calcium (0.169), ash (0.940) and total solids (18.6) were higher than 0.17, 4.0, 3.9, 0.62, 0.130, 0.81 and 12.8 of bulk goat's milk. Phosphorus (0.074) was almost similar to (0.077), while non-protein nitrogen (0.0022) was about thirteen times lower than 0.028 of goat's milk. Determined parameters increased, whereas lactose and non-protein nitrogen decreased with progression of the lactation period. Individual ewe's milk occasionally contained 1.4% fat and 0.56% total nitrogen closely resembling individual goat's milk. PMID:3990786
Cases of poisoning by oleander (Nerium oleander) were observed in several species, except in goats. This study aimed to evaluate the pathological effects of oleander in goats. The experimental design used three goats per group: the control group, which did not receive oleander and the experimental group, which received leaves of oleander (50 mg/kg/day) for six consecutive days. On the seventh day, goats received 110 mg/kg of oleander leaves four times at one-hourly interval. A last dose of 330 mg/kg of oleander leaves was given subsequently. After the last dose was administered, clinical signs such as apathy, colic, vocalizations, hyperpnea, polyuria, and moderate rumen distention were observed. Electrocardiogram revealed second-degree atrioventricular block. Death occurred on an average at 92 min after the last dosing. Microscopic evaluation revealed renal necrosis at convoluted and collector tubules and slight myocardial degeneration was observed by unequal staining of cardiomyocytes. Data suggest that goats appear to respond to oleander poisoning in a manner similar to other species. PMID:18031775
The pharmacokinetics and effects of the opioid methadone on behaviour, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and haematocrit were studied in goats. Two goats received methadone (0.2mg/kg) intravenously and the terminal half-life was 88 and 91 min, the volume of distribution 8.4 and 6.1L/kg, and clearance 86 and 123 mL/min/kg. In a crossover study eight goats received methadone (0.6 mg/kg) or 0.15M NaCl subcutaneously (SC). After SC administration bioavailability was complete and the terminal half-life was 215 ± 84 min (mean ± SD), Tmax 31 ± 15 min and Cmax 45 ±11 ng/mL. Blood pressure and haematocrit increased while heart rate did not change. The goats did not ruminate and they climbed, scratched, gnawed and showed tail-flicking after SC methadone in contrast to NaCl administration. The use of methadone in goats may be restricted due to the inhibition of rumination and the rather short half-life. PMID:23540608
Olsén, L; Olsson, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Bondesson, U; Ingvast-Larsson, C
Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Re- search on goat meat includes nutritional quality, pack- aging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively stud- ied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic resi- dues, and sensory
T. Sahlu; L. J. Dawson; T. A. Gipson; S. P. Hart; R. C. Merkel; R. Puchala; Z. Wang; S. Zeng; A. L. Goetsch
The results of a pilot study using goats to control scrub (Betula and Salix species) in dune slack vegetation in Tentsmuir Point National Nature Reserve, U.K., are described. Botanical composition, biomass and structure were examined in two plots, one in which goats were stocked. In three summer months at a density equivalent to 32 goats\\/ha, goats reduced the biomass of
A study was conducted to optimise a multiplex serological immunoassay for use in identification of goats infected with Mycobacterium bovis. To assess assay specificity, 31 goats with a history of being free from M. bovis infection were used. To determine assay sensitivity, 180 Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin test (SICTT) positive goats were recruited. Additionally, 286 SICTT negative goats classed as
Eduard Shuralev; Padraig Quinn; Mairead Doyle; Anthony Duignan; Hang Fai Kwok; Javier Bezos; Shane A. Olwill; Eamonn Gormley; Alicia Aranaz; Margaret Good; William C. Davis; John Clarke; Clare Whelan
The behavioral consequences of pregnancy in goats were studied to test the hypothesis that pregnant females on rangeland select a diet richer in nutrients once the demands of gestation increase, and that nutrient content in goat diets changes with the grazing season. A total of 12 mature mixed breed goats either pregnant (n = 6) or non-pregnant (n = 6) were used during the dry period (February to May). Dietary samples obtained from the oral cavity of grazing goats (restrained with a short light rope permanently tightened around their neck) were used for chemical analyses. Across months, pregnant goats selected diets higher (P < 0.01) in crude protein (CP) than non-pregnant goats; this nutrient did not meet the requirements of late gestating goats. Pregnant goats made use of less (P < 0.01) fibrous feeds than non-pregnant goats. In order to cope with changing nutrient demands for pregnancy, goats adjusted their diet by increasing the selection of plants with 32% higher calcium content compared to forages selected by non-pregnant goats. The physiological state of goats did not alter the levels of phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) in their diets; these minerals were adequate to meet the demands of pregnancy. There were no effects of physiological state on concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in the goat diets during the dry season, with levels adequate for sustainability of pregnancy. Pregnant goats did not seek forages lower in tannins, alkaloids, saponins and terpenes. It was concluded that to cope with increasing pregnancy costs, goats adjusted their diets increasing selection of forages or plant parts with high nutritional value to maximize their net nutrient budget. PMID:22440037
Mellado, M; Aguilar, C N; Arévalo, J R; Rodríguez, A; García, J E; Mellado, J
The growth of three pathogenic goat mycoplasmas, strains Y, KH1 and Mycoplasma mycoides var. capri (PG3), was studied. They formed classical colonies on agar containing 1/500 thallium acetate. They were inactivated during storage at 2 to 4 C and by freezing and thawing but not by shaking. Only KH1 was killed by sonic treatment. Ultraviolet inactivation curves showed that their colony-forming units were single binucleate cells. Details of their growth curves are given. Filtration through 0.45- or 0.3-?m membrane filters removed up to 97% of the cells. Less than 0.003% passed 0.22-?m membranes. In electron micrographs, the cells were seen replicating by budding and most were 0.6 to 0.9 ?m in diameter; but cells between 0.1 and 0.2 ?m reproduced. They usually multiplied by producing one bud, a form of binary fission. However, two buds were produced by some synchronized cells, indicating that both nuclei had divided simultaneously to form progeny, an alternate method of multiplication. Images
We looked for novel genetic variations within the Six6 gene by PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and forced RFLP-PCR and estimated their associations with production traits in 2132 goats of eight indigenous Chinese breeds. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (NM_001104993.1: g.232T>C) within the goat Six6 gene was identified. The frequencies of allele "C" varied from 0.8621 to 1.000, which were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotype and allele frequencies were found to be significantly different in the breeds. Association analysis revealed a significant relationship between genotypes and cannon circumference in Hainan black goats (P = 0.047); adult individuals with genotype CT showed higher cannon circumference than those with genotype CC. Another significant association of genotypes with five-year-old fiber length was found in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats (P = 0.002). In addition, individuals with genotype CT had longer fiber length than those with genotype CC. The data revealed that the Six6 gene positively affects growth traits and cashmere traits. Polymorphism of Six6-PstI could be useful as a DNA marker for goat breeding and genetics via marker-assisted selection. PMID:22179999
Pan, C Y; Lan, X Y; Zhao, H Y; Hu, S R; Huai, Y T; Lei, C Z; Chen, H
Six goats with myotonia congenita were exposed for 1 h to 1% halothane and a single injection of suxamethonium i.v. in an attempt to induce malignant hyperthermia. No evidence of malignant hyperthermia occurred. Suxamethonium did produce a myotonic response in each goat, lasting 10-20s, which was accompanied by a transient increase in aerobic metabolism as indicated by a decrease in PvO2 from 6.6 to 5.7 kPa, an increase in PaCO2 from 5.1 to 6.1 kPa and an increase in PVCO2 from 5.5 to 6.3 kPa. There was no evidence of any metabolic acidosis since the transient changes in pH and buffer base were consistent with the increase in carbon dioxide tension. It is concluded that in goats myotonia congenita does not predispose to susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia. PMID:6821623
Triclabendazole (Fasinex), a new fasciolicide of the benzimidazole group, was tested in sheep and goats. A controlled test with 24 artificially-infected sheep revealed a 100% efficacy of triclabendazole at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 body weight against Fasciola hepatica aged 4 and 13 weeks, respectively. In naturally-acquired severe subacute to chronic fascioliasis in 66 sheep and 10 goats, the drug was highly effective in three trials when applied at 10 mg kg-1 in sheep and at 5 mg kg-1 in goats. Triclabendazole was well tolerated, whereas side effects occurred in one trial with niclofolan (Bilevon-M) (3 mg kg-1) which was used for comparison. PMID:6685399
This review summarises recent advances in the field of transgenic goats for the purpose of producing recombinant proteins in their milk. Production of transgenic goats via pronuclear microinjection of DNA expression vectors has been the traditional method, but this results in low efficiencies. Somatic cell nuclear transfer has dramatically improved efficiencies in rates of transgenesis. Characterisation of transfected cells in vitro before use in nuclear transfer guarantees that kids born are transgenic and of predetermined gender. Using these platform technologies, several recombinant proteins of commercial interest have been produced, although none of them has yet gained marketing approval. Before these technologies are implemented in goat improvement programmes, efficiencies must be improved, costs reduced, and regulatory approval obtained for the marketing of food products derived from such animals. PMID:15315745
Baldassarre, H; Wang, B; Keefer, C L; Lazaris, A; Karatzas, C N
Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301
Although there has been little study of the origin of intramammary infection (IMI) in goats, a common view is that most bacterial infection in goats occurs during milking. In the present study, the dynamics of occurrence of udder infection during and between lactations in three Anglo-Nubian goat farms in Israel was monitored. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria in the IMIs. We found that about 15% of the yearling does were already infected with bacteria when they joined the flock, whereas about 8% of the goats that dried-off returned with new IMIs. Moreover, virtually none of the goats acquired infection during lactation. Thus, our study showed that the aetiology of IMI in goats is very similar to that in dairy cows. A preventive treatment during the dry period should, therefore, be considered as an effective means of reducing the current rate of bacterial infections in goats. PMID:17227594
This study compares the prevalence of ixodid tick species on cattle and goats in Maputo Province. Adult ticks as well as the nymphs of three species, and only the adults of two species were collected from sets of five cattle at 21 localities throughout the province and compared with those collected from similar sets of goats at the same places. Amblyomma hebraeum adults and/or nymphs were present on cattle and on goats at all 21 localities, and 90 cattle and 22 goats were infested with adult ticks. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus adults and/or nymphs were collected from cattle at 20 and from goats at 15 localities, and 92 cattle and 34 goats were infested [Chi-square test (chi2), P<0.001]. The total length of several maturing female R. (Boophilus) microplus collected from cattle and goats exceeded 5 mm, indicating that they successfully engorge on both host species. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adults and/or nymphs were present on cattle at 15 and on goats at 13 localities, but 28 cattle and only one goat were infested with adult ticks (chi2, P<0.001). Adult Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were recovered from cattle at 20 and from goats at 17 localities, and 74 cattle and 69 goats were infested. Adult Rhipicephalus simus were collected from cattle at 18 and from goats at 11 localities (Fisher's exact test, P=0.04), and 60 cattle and 14 goats were infested (chi2, P<0.001). These findings underscore the advisability of including goats in acaricide application programmes designed for the control of tick-borne diseases in cattle at the same locality. PMID:20698440
De Matos, C; Sitoe, C; Neves, L; Nöthling, J O; Horak, I G
The effect of goat breed and starter culture on volatile composition and sensory scores in goat milk cheese was studied during 90d of ripening. Milk from 2 goat breeds (Gokceada and Turkish Saanen) and different starter culture systems (no starter, mesophilic and thermophilic starters) were used in the manufacture of goat milk cheeses (called Gokceada goat cheese). Volatile composition was determined by a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method. Sixty compounds including esters (13), carboxylic acids (7), aldehydes (6), ketones (8), alcohols (14), and miscellaneous compounds (12) were identified. Esters, alcohols, and carboxylic acids were the main classes of volatile components in the cheeses. Both qualitatively and quantitatively, the use of different starter cultures and goat breeds significantly influenced the volatile fraction of goat milk cheese. Decanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic (commonly named capric, caproic, and caprylic) acids were indicator compounds to distinguish the goat breeds. Principal component analysis grouped the cheeses based on the use of starter culture and goat breed. Starter-free cheeses were separately located on the plot and age-related changes were present in all samples. Sensory evaluation of 90-d-old cheeses showed that the cheeses from the Gokceada breed received higher odor, flavor, and quality scores than those from the Turkish Saanen breed, and cheeses made using mesophilic starters resulted in the most satisfactory scores for flavor and quality attributes. In conclusion, goat milk cheeses made using milk from Gokceada goats and mesophilic starter culture had the best quality in terms of volatile composition and sensory attributes. PMID:23453516
In this study, we demonstrate the production of transgenic goats by nuclear transfer of fetal somatic cells. Donor karyoplasts were obtained from a primary fetal somatic cell line derived from a 40-day transgenic female fetus produced by artificial insemination of a nontransgenic adult female with semen from a transgenic male. Live offspring were produced with two nuclear transfer procedures. In
Alexander Baguisi; Esmail Behboodi; David T. Melican; Julie S. Pollock; Margaret M. Destrempes; Christine Cammuso; Jennifer L. Williams; Scott D. Nims; Catherine A. Porter; Patricia Midura; Monica J. Palacios; Sandra L. Ayres; Richard S. Denniston; Michael L. Hayes; Carol A. Ziomek; Harry M. Meade; Robert A. Godke; William G. Gavin; Eric W. Overström; Yann Echelard
Nearly one of every five rural families in Indonesia keeps sheep or goats. The income derived from this activity averages 15-20% of the yearly income from agricultural sources. Nevertheless, until recently this type of livestock has been largely neglected...
|This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…
Abstract Phosphate enema toxicity was diagnosed in a 7-month-old, castrated male, pygmy goat. On presentation, clinical findings included mild depression, tachycardia, tachypnea, rumen stasis, muscle tremors, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyperphosphatemia, azotemia, and metabolic acidosis. Fluid diuresis and parenteral antimicrobial therapy resulted in recovery after 3 d of treatment.
Many of the potential applications of mobile robots require a small to medium sized vehicle that is capable of traversing large obstacles and rugged terrain. Search and rescue operations require a robot small enough to drive through doorways, yet capable enough to surmount rubble piles and stairs. This paper presents the GOAT (Goes Over All Terrain) vehicle, a medium scale
Michael G. Dodson; Stanley L. Owsley; Stewart J. Moorehead
Foraging behaviors of the Damascus, Mamber and Boer goat breeds were compared on shrublands of the South Carmel mountain ridge of Israel. Dietary choice was determined for a group of yearling animals of each breed (n=11 or 12), housed and grazed separately to prevent social facilitation, during a total of 4 (Mamber) or 5 (Damascus and Boer) sessions of four
T. A. Glasser; S. Y. Landau; E. D. Ungar; A. Perevolotsky; L. Dvash; H. Muklada; D. Kababya; J. W. Walker
Goats' milk cheeses (n=181) from the Hessian market (retail shops, weekly markets, farm markets) were quantitatively analysed for Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and 14 were found positive. From these samples, 64 isolates of S. aureus were characterized biochemically and genetically, including their potential to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). SE genes sea to selo was studied by PCR and gene expression was
Ömer Akineden; Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan; Elisabeth Schneider; Ewald Usleber
The traditional system of goat management is mainly characterised by low survivability and high mortalities of kids, which result in low weaning percentages. High mortality among kids and slow growth among those that survive are the major constraints to production. Weaning percentage is a measure of survivability of kids from birth to weaning. By examining the variables which affect weaning
A total of 271 candidate genes have been detected in goats. However, comprehensive investigations have been carried out on the polymorphism of some genes, involved in the control of economic traits. Candidate genes have an effect on the physiological pathway, metabolism and expression of phenotypes. For growth traits, growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin like growth factor I
Respiratory-related electromyogram (EMG) activities of the middle (MPC) and inferior (IPC) pharyngeal constrictor (PC) muscles were determined simultaneously with up to six additional upper airway abductor and adductor muscles in awake adult goats. Phasic PC activation began in late inspiration and persisted throughout expiration with a steady, an augmenting or a biphasic pattern of activity. Considerable differences were noted in
The results of a retrospective study of 23 goat kids with delayed swayback are reported. Principal clinical signs were ataxia, loss of postural control, spasticity of the hindlimbs, and muscular weakness, often progressing to permanent recumbency. Denervation of skeletal muscles was demonstrated by electromyography in 2 kids. Three kids slowly recovered during hospitalisation.Histopathological changes were characterized by degeneration of selected
A database of 622 treatment mean observations of the dietary concentration of CP and apparently digestible CP (DCP) from 146 publications was used to estimate true digestibility of CP and metabolic fecal CP (MFCP) in goats. A regression of DCP against CP with the entire database yielded the equation...
A study of West African Dwarf goats over a 5 year period indicated that these animals are not seasonal breeders but kid throughout the year. Sixty-five per cent of does kidded twice a year and multiple births accounted for 59% of all births. Seventy-two per cent of all deaths were of kids under 3 months of age. Pneumonia and starvation
Sera of 465 goats from several of the Indonesian islands were tested for indirect haemagglutinating (IHA) antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Titers > or = were found in 24% of the animals with approximately 11% having titers of > or = 256. Sera from pigs, c...
J. H. Cross P. F. D. Van Peenen N. H. M. Hsu C. Koesharjono G. M. Simanjuntak
Consumption of goat meat has increased during the last 20 years, due to the nutritional (low fat and cholesterol) and sensorial features (flavour, juiciness, tenderness), which distinguish meat from this species. Some studies have shown that meat from animals slaughtered at a young age is more appreciated and valued in the market than adult meat. The flavour and taste of
Migration of neutrophils into mammary tissue provides the first immunological line of defense against bacteria that penetrate the physical barrier of the teat canal. Evasion of neutrophil defenses provides an opportunity for invading bacteria to become established. Depletion of neutrophils results in a dramatic increase in susceptibility to intramammary infection. Numerous cytoplasmic particles are shed from the apical surface of mammary secretory cells during milk secretion in goats. Only those counting methods that are specific for deoxyribonucleic acid can distinguish cell-like particles from somatic cells and thereby give reliable estimates of somatic cell numbers in goat milk. Unlike in milk from dairy cows, the somatic cell count in goat milk is influenced by the presence of nucleated cytoplasmic particles, stage of lactation, parity, and caprine arthritis-encephalitis. Investigations indicate that a dry period is necessary for optimal milk production in dairy cows but may not be necessary in goats. However, in many other respects regulation of bovine and caprine lactation seems to be quite similar. Studies have demonstrated additive galactopoietic effects of growth hormone and frequent milking in both species and a recently isolated chemical feedback inhibitor of lactation seems effective across both species. Increasing lactational performance has the potential for decreasing milk somatic cell counts in late lactation. PMID:9051480
Raw milk from goats and cows (bovine) was combined with sodium selenite (.5 tzCi\\/10 ml milk) and incubated at 39 C to allow selenium binding to milk com- ponents. After incubation intervals be- tween .5 and 24 h, samples were sepa- rated into cream, whey, and casein fractions by centrifugation and acid precipitation. When samples were incu- bated up to
The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on MSCC were exami...
Problem statement: The effect of extracts from Neem ( Azadirachta indica ), Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium ) and Tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum) with added copper sulfate, on female Boer goats infected with gastrointestinal parasites (GIN ) was evaluated. Approach: Following initial screening for infection, animals were artificially infected with a mix containing approximately 80% Haemonchus contortus and 20% Trichostrongylus spp. After
Three groups each of eight Australian cashmere goats (four males, four females, 10 months old) were implanted at the base of the ear with melatonin pellets (18 mg) between July and October (July group), January and April (January group), or sham implanted (control). Cashmere and hair length changes were measured during the year following implantation. Rates of growth, maximum length,
This experiment conducted to identify a periodic change of ultrastructures of secondary follicle characteristics during a whole year, reveal the molecule regulation of growth of cashmere. A total of 10 cashmere goats of 1-year old were studied. The paraffin section and ultrathin slices of skin were made each month in a whole year, observed, photographed, and analyzed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope after stained. Following the development of down fiber, the ultrastructures of secondary follicle of Hexi cashmere goat showed a periodic change within a year. There were five different periods during a down fiber cycle. It was observed that the stage of telogen, proanagen, anagen, procatagen, and catagen was in January and February, March and April, May to August, September and October, and November and December, respectively. The key change observed in secondary follicle under transmission electron microscope was inner root sheath. This study illustrated the five different stage of secondary follicle of Hexi Cashmere goat within a whole growth cycle, and has provided more detailed information about the research field of Hexi cashmere goat. Choosing the suitable time to harvest the cashmere may get the profit maximization. PMID:22753049
Evaluations for milk, fat, and protein yields are calculated annually in July and evaluations for type are calculated in December. These evaluations are provided to regional computing centers, the dairy goat association, and the general public through web access. Data flows from the farms through th...
Q fever is a widespread zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Infected animals, shedding bacteria by different routes, constitute contamination sources for humans and the environment. To study Coxiella excretion, pregnant goats were inoculated by the subcutaneous route in a site localized just in front of the shoulder at 90 days of gestation with 3 doses of bacteria (108, 106 or
Nathalie Arricau Bouvery; Armel Souriau; Patrick Lechopier; Annie Rodolakis
Invasive Species: Plants: Kudzu [pdf]http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/kudzu.shtmlKudzu-Goat Interactions [pdf]http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/6750James Dickey: Kudzuhttp://www.breakoutofthebox.com/kudzu.htmKudzu Recipeshttp://home.att.net/~ejlinton/jelly.html"Ode to Billy Goats" [Quick Time]http://www.tfponline.com/absolutenm/templates/onlineExclusive.aspx?articleid=5064&zoneid=72In his time, Benjamin Franklin once observed, "In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes." Had he visited certain parts of the American South in the early 21st century, he might have added "kudzu", effectively completing that troika. This very fast growing vine has spread with amazing speed since its introduction to the United States in 1876, via the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. For decades it was used as an ornamental, but by the 1950s the plant was a ubiquitous part of the landscape in Mississippi, Alabama and other parts of the South. Recently, the city of Chattanooga has decided to enlist a new partner in the ongoing horticultural battle with this noxious weed: goats. The city's public works department decided to allow the goats free reign over a prominent ridge in town that is covered in kudzu, and so far, the results have been encouraging. Of course, things haven't been easy, and there is the "laugh factor" that was recently mentioned by a city forestry inspector, Jerry Jeansonne. Similar programs are also underway in the cities of Tallahassee and Spartanburg, South Carolina, though it remains to be seen whether or not this program can be duplicated on a wider scale. The first link will take users to a New York Times article which talks about the use of goats to control the kudzu of Chattanooga. Moving on, the second link leads to a very thorough website offered by the United States Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center. Here, visitors can learn about kudzu and the ongoing efforts to control this very hearty species. The third link leads to an important 1992 study that investigated the potential to control kudzu with the use of goats. The fourth link will take users to James Dickey's compelling poem on this very prolific vine. The fifth link leads to a number of creative recipes from one Jane Linton that make use of kudzu in such delights as kudzu blossom jelly and apple cider. Finally, the last link will take users to a recent musical number recorded in tribute to the hard-working goats of Chattanooga.
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was studied as a candidate gene for high prolificacy in goats. The polymorphism of exon 1 and flanking of GDF9 gene was detected by PCR-SSCP in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. Three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in goat breeds joined and two silent mutations (c.183A>C and c.336C>T) were identified in comparison genotype AA with genotype BB. Heterozygous genotype AB and wild type BB were detected in all five goat breeds and homozygous genotype AA was only detected in Jining Grey goats. The frequencies of genotypes AA, AB and BB were 0.18, 0.42 and 0.40 in Jining Grey goats, respectively. The genotype distribution was different (P?0.01) between high prolificacy breed (Jining Grey goat) and low prolificacy breeds (Boer, Wendeng Dairy, Liaoning Cashmere and Beijing native goats). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype AA and AB had 0.72 (P?0.01) and 0.56 (P?0.01) kids more than those with genotype BB, respectively. The does with genotype AA had 0.16 (P?>?0.05) kids more than those with genotype AB. These indicated that the allele A may have certain correlation with prolificacy in Jining Grey goats. PMID:21547534
Chu, M X; Wu, Z H; Feng, T; Cao, G L; Fang, L; Di, R; Huang, D W; Li, X W; Li, N
To determine whether a link exists between reproductive seasonality and the structure of the melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene, the latter was studied in year-round estrous breeds (Jining Grey and Boer goats) and seasonal estrous breeds (Liaoning Cashmere, Inner Mongolia Cashmere, Wendeng milk and Beijing native goats). A large fragment of exon 2 of MTNR1A gene was amplified by PCR using sheep sense and antisense primers in 260 does of six breeds. The uniform 824 bp PCR product was digested with restriction endonucleases MnII and RsaI, and checked for the presence of restriction sites. No polymorphism at the MnII cleavage sites was detected in all six goat breeds and no relationship could be established between the MnII cleavage sites of MTNR1A gene and reproductive seasonality in goats. For polymorphic RsaI cleavage site at base position 53, only genotype RR (267 bp/267 bp) was detected in Jining Grey goats, both genotype RR and genotype Rr (267 bp/320 bp) were found in all other goat breeds, no genotype rr (320 bp/320 bp) was detected in all six goat breeds. Frequency of genotype RR was obviously higher, and frequency of genotype Rr was obviously lower in year-round estrous goat breeds than in seasonal estrous goat breeds. Sequencing revealed one mutation (G52A) in genotype Rr compared with genotype RR. For polymorphic RsaI cleavage site, the differences of genotype distributions were significant (P<0.05) between year-round estrous goat breeds and seasonal estrous goat breeds. These results preliminarily showed an association between genotype RR and year-round estrus in goats, and an association between genotype Rr and seasonal estrus in goats. PMID:17046181
Chu, M X; He, Y Q; Cheng, D X; Ye, S C; Fang, L; Wang, J Y
The exons 1, 2 and flanking region of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene in five randomly selected does of Jining Grey, Boer and Liaoning Cashmere goats were amplified and analyzed. Thirteen nucleotide differences were identified in GDF9 gene between sheep (AF078545) and goats. Four SNPs (G3288A in intron 1, G423A, A959C [Gln320Pro] and G1189A [Val397Ile] in exon 2) were detected in four goat breeds with different prolificacy, in which G3288A was a new SNP in goats. The results showed that loci 3288, 423 and 1189 in Boer goats, loci 3288 and 423 in Guizhou White goats, loci 423 and 1189 in Liaoning Cashmere goats were all in complete linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1, r (2) = 1), respectively. In moderate (Boer goat) and low prolificacy (Liaoning Cashmere goat) breeds, linkage analysis indicated that there were more fervent linkage disequilibrium among loci 3288, 423 and 1189 than high prolificacy (Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats) breeds. For the 959 locus, the genotype distribution showed obvious difference between high prolificacy breeds and moderate or low prolificacy breeds (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype CC or AC had 0.81 (P < 0.01) or 0.63 (P < 0.01) kids more than those with genotype AA, respectively. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele C at 959 locus of GDF9 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. These results provide further evidence that the GDF9 gene may be significantly correlated with high prolificacy in goats. PMID:21181498
Feng, T; Geng, C X; Lang, X Z; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Di, R; Fang, L; Chen, H Q; Liu, X L; Li, N
Twenty-six Balady goats categorized according to parity into primiparous and pluriparous goats were used to investigate bacterial flora of the genital tract and hormonal profiles during the postpartum (PP) period. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in pure or mixed culture from the uterus. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from swabs obtained from the vagina and cervix of one primiparous goat. Uteri and cervices but not vaginas were free of bacterial contamination by day 10 PP except for one pluriparous goat with scanty E. coli contamination on day 25 PP. Fluctuating oestradiol 17beta (E2) levels demonstrated resumption of follicular activity as early as day 13 PP in both parity groups. Progesterone (P4) levels remained low at basal levels throughout the study period. Higher concentrations of 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2alpha (PGFM) were observed during the first week PP compared with the rest of the PP period. PGFM concentrations dropped to low basal level by day 10 PP and remained constantly low throughout the study period. P4, E2 and PGFM profiles were not different between the different parity groups. In conclusion, intrauterine infection is not common in goats with normal kidding. E. coli was the most common intrauterine bacterial isolate. E2 and P4 profiles were consistent with resumption of follicular growth but not ovulation. High PGFM concentrations coincided with the fast regression phase of uterine involution. Hormonal profile and bacterial contamination and clearance were similar to those reported in other related species and not related to parity. PMID:16420321
1. Measurements of brain and central blood temperature (Tbr and Tbl), metabolic rate (MR) and respiratory evaporative heat loss (REHL) were made in trained goats walking on a treadmill at 4.8 km h-1 at treadmill inclines of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% when they were fully hydrated and at 0% when they had been deprived of water for 72 h. 2. In hydrated goats, exercise MR increased progressively with increasing treadmill incline. Both Tbl and Tbr rose during exercise, but Tbl always rose more than Tbr, and selective brain cooling (SBC = Tbl - Tbr) increased linearly with Tbl. Significant linear relationships were also present between REHL and Tbl and between SBC and REHL. Neither the slope of the regression relating SBC to Tbl nor the threshold Tbl for onset of SBC was affected by exercise intensity. Manual occlusion of the angularis oculi veins decreased SBC in a walking goat, while occlusion of the facial veins increased SBC. 3. Dehydrated goats had higher levels of Tbl, Tbr and SBC during exercise, but the relationship between SBC and Tbl was the same in hydrated and dehydrated animals. In dehydrated animals, REHL at a given Tbl was lower and SBC was thus maintained at reduced rates of REHL. 4. It is concluded that SBC is a linear function of body core temperature in exercising goats and REHL appears to be a major factor underlying SBC in exercise. The maintenance of SBC in spite of reduced REHL in dehydrated animals could be a consequence of increased vascular resistance in the facial vein and increased flow of cool nasal venous blood into the cranial cavity. PMID:8120829
Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. PMID:20673232
Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K
A cross sectional study was conducted on 2231 small ruminants in four districts of the Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia to investigate the epidemiology of tuberculosis in goats and sheep using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test, postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culture and molecular typing methods. The overall animal prevalence of TB in small ruminants was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%–0.7%) at ?4?mm and 3.8% (95% CI: 3%–4.7%) at cutoff ?2?mm. The herd prevalence was 20% (95% CI: 12–28%) and 47% (95% CI: 37–56%) at ?4?mm and ?2?mm cut-off points, respectively. The overall animal prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.1–3.5%) and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8–7.9%) at ?4?mm and ?2?mm cut-off points, respectively. Mycobacteriological culture and molecular characterization of isolates from tissue lesions of tuberculin reactor goats resulted in isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SIT149) and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria as causative agents of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like diseases in goats, respectively. The isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in goat suggests a potential transmission of the causative agent from human and warrants further investigation in the role of small ruminants in epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the region.
Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is a major constraint to production of goats in the southeastern United States. The conventional method of control used by producers in this region is frequent use of anthelmintics during the warm season. Overuse of anthelmintics has led to an increase in the incidence of anthelmintic resistance in many parts of the world, but data on
Thomas H Terrill; Ray M Kaplan; Michael Larsen; Oreta M Samples; James E Miller; Seyoum Gelaye
Nulliparous goats were used to evaluate the effects of a standard protocol for inducing lactation with or without using a prolactin-releasing agent (reserpine). Estrus was synchronized and goats were submitted to daily s.c. injections of estradiol-17beta and progesterone (0.5 and 1.25 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) for 7 d. The goats were divided into 2 groups and injected i.m. with 1 mg/d of reserpine (n = 7) or the vehicle (n = 7) on d 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Lactation was initiated by i.m. injections of dexamethasone (10 mg/d) from d 18 to 20. Goats were machine milked once daily from d 21 to 120, at which time they were mated with herd sires. Milk was measured and sampled daily during wk 1 of lactation and weekly thereafter. Udder traits were measured in all goats at d -2 (before the induction treatment) and on d 35 and 100 (during lactation). Goats initiated lactation on d 21 (100%) and milk yield increased thereafter. The milk yield of control and reserpine-treated goats increased as lactation advanced, peaking at wk 10 of lactation, when reserpine-treated goats yielded 1,079 +/- 89 mL/d of milk compared with 850 +/- 96 mL/d for control goats. Yet milk yield at the peak was only 55% of the peak milk yield observed in contemporary primiparous goats. The composition of initial milk (d 21) was different from that expected for colostrum. Milk composition stabilized after d 3 of lactation. There were no differences among groups for milk fat, protein, casein, or whey protein, but milk from control goats contained greater nonprotein nitrogen than that from reserpine-treated goats (0.48 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%). Teat length increased from 24.7 +/- 1.1 to 34.5 +/- 2.4 mm in control goats during mammogenesis (d -2 to 35), but stabilized in reserpine goats (25.2 +/- 2.2 mm). The distance between teats (11.5 +/- 0.4 cm), and the volume (922 +/- 63 mL) and depth (15.6 +/- 0.60 cm) of the udder increased similarly in both groups during mammogenesis and lactation. After mating, 82% of herdmates became pregnant, whereas only 21% of the lactation-induced goats conceived (1 reserpine-treated and 2 control goats). In conclusion, lactation induction was effective in nulliparous goats, but neither milk yield nor the side effects on fertility seem to support its recommendation. PMID:17638986
Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Albanell, E; Carné, S; Casals, R; Such, X
The purpose of this study is to determine the etiology of abortions presented in a goat herd declared as free of brucellosis and vaccinated with RB51 located in Mexico. The serological diagnosis of brucellosis in 33 animals was performed. The study included three goats that aborted in the last third of gestation and 15 goats that gave birth normally; samples of milk and vaginal exudate were subjected to bacteriological study. All animals were negative for serological diagnosis, and isolation of Brucella melitensis was achieved in a single goat from vaginal exudate. However, the particularity is that this goat was negative to the card, indirect ELISA, and radial immunodiffusion tests. Isolation of a field strain was confirmed by biochemical test resistance to rifampicin and PCR. It is concluded that a goat which aborted in the last third of gestation was found spreading B. melitensis through vaginal discharge despite being vaccinated with RB51 and seronegative for brucellosis. PMID:21455694
The effect of 12?h road transportation on some basic blood cells and the modulating role of ascorbic acid were investigated in 40 adult Red Sokoto goats during the hot dry season. The animals were divided into two groups, GI (experimental; n = 20) and GII (control; n = 20). Group 1 was administered with ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100?mg/kg body weight, while GII was given 10?mL of sterile water per goat. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12?h. The result obtained in GII goats showed that loading, transportation, high ambient temperature (AT), and relative humidity (RH) encountered during transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia, which can cause immunosuppression. In GI goats, the administration of AA prior to loading and transportation ameliorated the adverse effects of loading and transportation stress on neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and eosinopenia of the goats.
A flock of 76 goats was struck by orf infection at the Al-Ahsa oasis in eastern Saudi Arabia. The morbidity rate was 89%, while the case fatality rate was 3%. The clinical signs were most severe in three adult goats, which survived, and in two kids, which died of the infection. The lesions were multi-focal and so serious that they prevented the infected goats from seeing, eating, lactating or walking. The virus was isolated in Vero cell culture and a scab suspension was used to experimentally infect susceptible goats. These newly infected animals suffered only mild disease but the orf virus was re-isolated and the goats seroconverted. To the best knowledge of the authors, these were the most drastic orf lesions seen during the last 17 years in goats in Saudi Arabia. PMID:20462159
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value, intake and preferences of sheep and goats for the dominant six shrubs of the holly oak maquis-type shrublands in Croatia. The experimental sheep (n=12, mean weight 28.5kg) were a local Croatian mixed breed. The experimental goats (n=12, mean weight 13.4kg) were a mixture of domestic goats crossed with Saanen
J. Rogosic; J. A. Pfister; F. D. Provenza; D. Grbesa
Mellado, M., Olvera, A., Dueñez, J. and Rodríguez, A. 2004. Effects of continuous or rotational grazing on goat diets in a desert rangeland. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 26: 93–100.A one-year experiment with continuous (traditional grazing around a permanent pen, n= 160 goats) anal rotational (grazing around 2 pens, 1.2 km apart, n= 150 goats) grazing was performed in a desert
Sensory properties of ricotta cheese, such as softness, granulosity and greasiness, were significantly different (P<0.001) among goat breeds. The lower value of adhesiveness, detected in ricotta cheese made from whey of the Local breed, may be linked to the higher fat\\/protein ratio. Goat odour was more pronounced in ricotta cheese made from whey of Siriana and Maltese goats (P<0.001) compared
M. Pizzillo; S. Claps; G. F. Cifuni; V. Fedele; R. Rubino
Preslaughter management procedures that decrease fecal contamination of skins\\/hides are likely to reduce biological hazards on carcass surfaces during slaughter and processing. This trial was conducted to determine the effects of preslaughter spray-washing on stress responses and skin and carcass bacterial counts in goats. Twenty meat goats were slaughtered in two groups (replicate) on 2 different days (10goats\\/replicate). Animals were
G. Kannan; A. K. Jenkins; K. R. Eega; B. Kouakou; G. W. McCommon
We cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding for Izumo1 of cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). Analysis of 4.6 kb Izumo1 genomic sequences in sheep and goat revealed a canonical open reading frame (ORF) of 963 bp spliced\\u000a by eight exons. Sheep and goat Izumo1 genes share >99% identity at both DNA and protein levels and are also highly
Seven Tswana goats and seven Tswana sheep suckling single (male or female) kids or lambs were milked to obtain information on the milk composition of Tswana goats and ewes under semi-intensive management. The milk samples collected were from does and ewes 40–166 days post-partum. The aim of this study was to document the chemical composition of Tswana goat and sheep's
Production objectives and breeding practices of smallholder households participating in dairy goat breeding projects were\\u000a analysed in relation to their ability to bring about sustainable genetic improvement in the dairy goat flocks in Kenya. A\\u000a stratified survey involving 311 goat keepers in 4 project sites was used. This employed both qualitative and quantitative\\u000a research methods to get a holistic view
R. C. Bett; I. S. Kosgey; A. K. Kahi; K. J. Peters
The follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHbeta) gene was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy in Jining Grey goats. According to the sequence of ovine FSHb gene, nine pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of 5' regulatory region, exon 1 and exon 2 of FSHbeta gene in both high fecundity breed (Jining Grey goat) and low fecundity breeds (Liaoning Cashmere goat, Boer goat and Angora goat) by PCR-SSCP. The results indicated that the homology of nucleotide sequence of this fragment between goat and sheep was 98 percent. Only the products amplified by primer P9 displayed polymorphism. Three genotypes (AA, AB and AC) were detected in Jining Grey goats and Liaoning Cashmere goats. Three genotypes (AA, CC and AC) were detected in Boer goats. Six genotypes (AA, BB, CC, AB, AC and BC) were detected in Angora goats. Sequencing revealed a G-->A mutation at 94 bp of exon 2 of FSHbeta gene in the BB genotype in comparison to the AA genotype and a C-->T mutation at 174 bp of exon 2 of FSHbeta gene in the CC genotype in comparison to the AA genotype. The former mutation resulted in an amino acid change: alanine-->threonine, and the latter mutation did not cause any amino acid change. Genotype frequency of AA, AB and AC was 0.686, 0.137 and 0.177 in Jining Grey goats, respectively. The does with genotype AA had 0.78 (P<0.05) or 0.64 (P<0.05) kids more than those with genotype AB or AC in Jining Grey goats, respectively. PMID:16963414
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico, is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma were found in 52 (15.2%) of 341 goats, with titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 9, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 4, 1:800 in 9, 1:1,600 in 3, and 1:3,200 or higher in 3. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms sampled, and seroprevalence varied significantly among farms (1.9-90%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with age, municipality, altitude, and climate but not with breed. Increased seroprevalence was found in goats aged 13-24 and 49-86 mo old (25% and 22.9%, respectively). Goats raised in farms in a municipality with semi-warm humid climate at 1,700 m of altitude had the highest seroprevalence (62.1%). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in goats in Michoacán State, Mexico, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii and semi-warm humid climate. Results indicate that infected goats are likely an important source of infection with T. gondii in humans in Michoacán State. PMID:23116086
Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Silva-Aguilar, D; Villena, I; Dubey, J P
The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity and infection kinetics of Bluetongue virus serotype 26 (BTV-26) in goats. Out of a group of six goats housed in insect free accommodation, five were experimentally infected with BTV-26 and one was kept uninfected as an in-contact control. Samples taken throughout the study were used to determine the kinetics of infection using a pan specific BTV real time RT-PCR assay and a group specific ELISA. The five infected goats did not show clinical signs of BTV, however high levels of viral RNA were detected and virus was isolated from the blood of all 5 goats. Antibodies against BTV were first detected between 7 and 11 dpi in all 5 experimentally infected goats. Interestingly at 21 dpi viral RNA was detected in, and virus was isolated from, the blood of the in-contact control goat, which also seroconverted. These results suggest that BTV-26 replicates to high levels in goats, causing no obvious clinical disease, suggesting that goats may be the natural host for this virus. Preliminary evidence also indicates that BTV-26 may be spread by contact transmission between goats, however a more detailed study is required in order to confirm this observation. PMID:22986055
Batten, C A; Henstock, M R; Steedman, H M; Waddington, S; Edwards, L; Oura, C A L
The objective of this study was to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable method of determining the sex of goat embryos prior to implantation through amplification of the high-motility-group (HMG) box of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene of the goats. Goat specific primers were designed for duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As an internal control gene, the goat beta-action gene sequence was simultaneously amplified together with the HMG box of goat SRY gene. Males showed both 1 SRY band and 1 beta-action band, but only 1 beta-action band was present in the agarose gel electrophoresis of females. The result indicated that the goat HMG-box sequence motif of SRY was male specific. Afterward, the optimized PCR procedure was applied in 30 embryo biopsies and the biopsied embryos were transferred into 30 recipient female goats. The sex of the 13 kids proved anatomically corresponded to the sex determined by PCR (100% accuracy). Thus, this study showed that this duplex PCR method can be applied to sex the goat pre-implantation embryos and to manipulate the sex ratio of offspring in goat breeding programs. PMID:18096334
Organic foods have lately aroused interest by virtue of their quality and their essential, exclusive characteristics. In this study, we assessed the potential of CE to detect a marker that is able to identify the particular food given to the goats and develop an effective method to determine directly the most abundant organic acid in goat's milk (viz. hippuric acid). In addition, we examined the use of the hippuric acid content of goat's milk as a general marker for authenticating organic goat's milk. The feeding of these goats can be influenced by the time of the year. For this reason, we have collected samples from 20 conventionally fed goats and 20 organically fed goats over a period of 2 months. A threshold value dependent on the hippuric acid content was thus established for the first time with a view to discriminating between conventional and organic goat's milk. Organic acids in goat's milk were separated in a running buffer consisting of 120 mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate and 0.5 mM CTAB set to pH 8. The precision of the ensuing method is acceptable for hippuric acid; thus, the RSD for peak area and migration time was less than 10 and 4%, respectively. Also, calibration curves were linear throughout the studied concentration range. PMID:20593395
Carpio, Azahara; Rodríguez-Estévez, Vicente; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Manuel; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel
The liver X receptor ? (LXR?) is a nuclear receptor of the transcription factor and is known to play a crucial role in lipid metabolism processes such as bile acid and fatty acid synthesis in humans and rodents. However, very little information is available on the role of LXR? in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in the goat mammary gland. In this investigation, a cDNA was isolated from the mammary gland of Xinong Saanen dairy goats and designated as goat LXR?. RT-PCR and RACE gave rise to the full-length cDNA of LXR?, which was comprised of 1654 bp and characterized by an ORF of 1344 bp and 5'- and 3'-UTR regions of 150 and 160 bp, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence encodes 477 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight (MW) of 50.4kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6.3. Additionally, homology search and sequence multi-alignment indicated that the putative goat LXR? amino acid sequence is very similar to those of cattle, mice, rats, swine, and humans. Bioinformatic predictions demonstrated that the LXR? protein is located in the nucleus, containing characteristic signatures of a nuclear receptor with DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). Real-time quantitative PCR suggested that LXR? was predominantly expressed in the small intestine, liver, spleen and mammary gland. Treatment of goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMEC) with different concentrations (i.e., 0.01, 0.1, 1 ?M) of T0901317, a synthetic agonist of LXR?, resulted in elevated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA levels in response to LXR? activation. The association between different T0901317 concentrations and fatty acid composition in GMEC also was examined using gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that activation of LXR? significantly increased GMEC C18:1 and C18:2 contents, but did not affect levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA). These discoveries are consistent with the notion that LXR? plays a key role in controlling lipogenesis and regulating synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in the mammary gland of goats, which may prove useful in regulation of milk fat production. PMID:22634102
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Scrapie is not considered a public health risk, but BSE has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Small ruminants are susceptible to BSE, and in 2005 BSE was identified in a farmed goat in France. We confirm another BSE case in a goat in which scrapie was originally diagnosed and retrospectively identified as suspected BSE. The prion strain in this case was further characterized by mouse bioassay after extraction from formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue embedded in paraffin blocks. Our data show that BSE can infect small ruminants under natural conditions and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie. Surveillance should continue so that another outbreak of this zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy can be prevented and public health safeguarded.
Lockey, Richard; Sallis, Rosemary E.; Terry, Linda A.; Thorne, Leigh; Holder, Thomas M.; Beck, Katy E.; Simmons, Marion M.
Information from forage, breeding and management components of the Small Ruminant CRSP was integrated by using the Texas A and M Goat Simulation Model to evaluate dual purpose goat production practices in western Kenya. Over 100 simulations were performed...
H. D. Blackburn T. C. Cartwright P. J. Howard F. Ruvuna
Data from 25 feeding trials conducted on growing goats, from different research institutes across India were subjected to multiple regression analysis to derive nutritional requirements of TDN, CP and DCP for maintenance and BW gain. Maintenance requirements for TDN, CP and DCP were 30.1, 5.83 and 3.22g\\/kg BW0.75, respectively. The corresponding requirements for one g gain in BW were 1.61,
A. B. Mandal; S. S. Paul; G. P. Mandal; A. Kannan; N. N. Pathak
A model of Leu and protein metabolism by the mammary gland and hind leg of lactating goats was constructed and evaluated from data collected by using [15N, 1-13C]Leu kinetics measured during amino acid (AA) infusion and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (IC). Goats were given continuous intravenous infusions of either saline or AA (65 g/d) for 7.5 d and from d 5 to 7.5 goats were subjected to IC. Arteriovenous kinetics were monitored on d 4 and 8 by continuous infusion (8 h) of [15N, 1-13C]Leu. Milk protein yield was increased by IC (+10%) and IC +AA (+21%), whereas AA infusion had no effect. The data were used to construct model equations that describe rates of protein synthesis and degradation, and from these equations, milk and muscle net protein synthesis were described. The model was unable to describe the observed responses in milk protein synthesis. Similar to observations in the literature, net protein gain by the hind leg increased with AA, IC, and IC + AA infusion, primarily through stimulation of protein synthesis by AA. For both tissues, IC depressed Leu oxidation, but only in the absence of AA infusion. Although the IC appears to regulate the ability of the mammary gland to coordinate blood flow and Leu catabolism in support of protein synthesis, our ability to construct a precise model describing mammary protein anabolism is still limited. In contrast, the response in protein anabolism of the hind-leg tissues of these midlactation goats was predicted well by the model, which indicate that the leg tissues were more sensitive to AA supply than the mammary gland. PMID:12146487
Bequette, B J; Kyle, C E; Crompton, L A; Anderson, S E; Hanigan, M D
Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels. PMID:841203
The present research work was conducted at Livestock Research and Development Station Surezai, Peshawar. Data was collected on 86 goats of different age groups. 44 were male and 42 were female. The mean bodyweight of male in four age groups (04-12,13-18,19-24, 24-36 months and above) were observed as 18.60 ± 1.81, 25.25 ± 2.76, 29.86 ± 1.28 and 41.47 ±
Hamayun Khan; Fida Muhammad; Riaz Ahmad; Gul Nawaz; Muhammad Zubair
The primary objective of this study was to determine if a RNA enveloped virus can be inactivated in goat colostrum using methylene blue (MB) and 1h of illumination (photodynamic inactivation (PI)).The effects of illumination on the virucidal properties of MB were studied in translucent media as well as colostrum. Concentrations of MB evaluated were 10, 1.0, 0.1 and 0.01?M. Bovine
K. E Washburn; R. N Streeter; J. T Saliki; T. W Lehenbauer; M. E Prado
Catalase plays a major role in the protection of tissues from toxic effects of H2O2 and partially reduced oxygen species. In the present study catalase was extracted and purified 330-fold from goat lung by acetone fractionation and successive chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-200, Blue Sepharose CL-6B and Ultrogel AcA-34. The purified enzyme was almost homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide gel
Non-genetic sources of variation were investigated for preweaning performance of Creole goats of Guadeloupe using 6375 individual records collected from 1980 to 1994. The analyzed sources of variation were litter size, sex, rank of lactation, year and season of kiddings. Age at first kidding averaged 17.2±3.1 months and the mean kidding interval was 8.5±1.2 months. Litter size (LS) at birth,
G Alexandre; G Aumont; J. C Mainaud; J Fleury; M Naves
Livers from 36 of 684 (5.3%) apparently healthy goats examined at an abattoir in the greater Muscat area of Oman exhibited gross pathological findings characterized by extremely pale, friable, fatty livers encompassing the entire organ. Histopathologically, diffuse hepatic lipidosis and occasional bile duct proliferation were observed. Periodic acid–Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant pigment was observed in the macrophages lining the sinusoids. These histopathological
E. H. Johnson; D. E. Muirhead; K. Annamalai; G. J. King; R. Al-Busaidy; M. Shahul Hameed
Diatomaceous earth (DE) is the skeletal remains of single-celled algae, or diatoms from fresh- water or marine sedimentary deposits. To evaluate the benefits of the use of DE in goats the effects of DE on internal parasite control was studied. Twenty Spanish and Spanish\\/Boer crosses were infected with 1.77 g (Group 1), 3.54 g (Group 2), and 5.31 g (Group
Ghrelin is a brain-gut peptide that was discovered through reverse pharmacology and was first isolated from extracts of porcine\\u000a stomach. Ghrelin binds to growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and is acylated on its serine 3 residue by ghrelin\\u000a O-acyltransferase (GOAT). Several important biological functions of ghrelin have been identified, which include its growth\\u000a hormone-releasing and appetite-inducing effects. Ghrelin exerts its
Preliminary results obtained in mice, rats and piglets experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp have indicated a partial prophylactic or curative efficacy of nitazoxanide when administered between 50 and 250 mg\\/kg\\u000a BW. In this study, the efficacy of nitazoxanide was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp oocysts. Forty-seven 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally infected once on day 0
Henri Viel; Hélène Rocques; Jennifer Martin; Christophe Chartier
Rift Valley fever (RVF), a re-emerging mosquito-borne disease of ruminants and man, was endemic in Africa but spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen, meaning it could spread even further. Little is known about innate and cell-mediated immunity to RVF virus (RVFV) in ruminants, which is knowledge required for adequate vaccine trials. We therefore studied these aspects in experimentally infected goats. We also compared RVFV grown in an insect cell-line and that grown in a mammalian cell-line for differences in the course of infection. Goats developed viremia one day post infection (DPI), which lasted three to four days and some goats had transient fever coinciding with peak viremia. Up to 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were positive for RVFV. Monocytes and dendritic cells in PBMCs declined possibly from being directly infected with virus as suggested by in vitro exposure. Infected goats produced serum IFN-?, IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines but not IFN-?. Despite the lack of IFN-?, innate immunity via the IL-12 to IFN-? circuit possibly contributed to early protection against RVFV since neutralising antibodies were detected after viremia had cleared. The course of infection with insect cell-derived RVFV (IN-RVFV) appeared to be different from mammalian cell-derived RVFV (MAM-RVFV), with the former attaining peak viremia faster, inducing fever and profoundly affecting specific immune cell subpopulations. This indicated possible differences in infections of ruminants acquired from mosquito bites relative to those due to contact with infectious material from other animals. These differences need to be considered when testing RVF vaccines in laboratory settings.
Nfon, Charles K.; Marszal, Peter; Zhang, Shunzhen; Weingartl, Hana M.
Thirty multiparous Murciano-Granadina dairy goats milked once daily were used to study the lactational effects of an extended 24-mo kidding interval (K24; n = 14) compared with the traditional 12-mo kidding interval (K12; n = 16). Goats were divided into 2 groups at wk 29 of lactation balanced with respect to parity, milk yield, and somatic cell count. Over a period of 92 wk, K12 goats were mated twice, at wk 29 during the first lactation and at wk 79 during the second lactation, whereas K24 goats were mated once, at wk 79 of extended first lactation. The K12 goats were dried off from wk 14 to 21 of pregnancy (wk 43 to 50 of lactation). Milk yield was recorded from wk 2 to 92, and milk composition was studied from wk 29 to 92. Milk fatty acids were analyzed in milk samples taken at wk 39 (wk 10 of pregnancy) and 55 (wk 5 of subsequent lactation), when milk in udder compartments (cisternal and alveolar) was also evaluated. Average milk yield during the first 29 wk was 2.23 +/- 0.13 L/d. Pregnancy reduced milk yield in K12 goats from wk 39 to 42 of lactation compared with K24 goats. During the dry period for K12 goats, milk yield of K24 goats averaged 1.53 +/- 0.10 L/d. From wk 51 to 79, K12 goats produced 32% more milk than did K24 goats, but their milk contained lower fat and protein than that of K24 goats. No changes were detected for milk lactose and somatic cell count from wk 51 to 79. From wk 80 to 92, differences in milk yield and milk composition between groups were not significant. Milk of pregnant K12 goats contained higher C16:1 and conjugated C18:2 fatty acids, and had a higher desaturase index than milk of open K24 goats at wk 39. In the following lactation (wk 55), milk of K12 goats contained higher C18:2 and C18:3, and lower C16:0 fatty acids, resulting in a lower atherogenicity index compared with K24 goats. Cisternal milk at wk 39 was lower for K12 than K24 goats, whereas alveolar milk did not differ. In K12 goats, values of cisternal milk tripled, but alveolar milk only doubled at wk 55 (wk 5 of subsequent lactation) compared with wk 39, indicating the importance of the cistern in accommodating high milk yield in early lactation. Values of cisternal and alveolar milk did not differ between wk 39 and 55 for K24 goats. Fat content was higher for alveolar milk than cisternal milk for K12 goats at wk 55 and for K24 goats at wk 39 and 55. No differences in milk protein or lactose were detected between cisternal and alveolar milk. In conclusion, pregnancy reduced milk yield from wk 10 after conceiving onwards. Extended lactation did not significantly decrease milk yield (-8.2%), but increased milk components that may contribute to cheese yield, and may be a useful strategy for reducing metabolic stress in early lactation and for simplifying herd management in dairy goats. PMID:16230695
Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X; Casals, R; Albanell, E
Recent theories on speciation suggest that interspecific hybridization is an important mechanism for explaining adaptive radiation. According to this view, hybridization can promote the rapid transfer of adaptations between different species; the hybrid population thus invades new habitats and diversifies into a variety of new species. Although hybridization is well accepted as a fairly common mechanism for diversification in plants, its role in the evolution of animals is more controversial, because reduced fitness would typically condemn animal hybrids to an evolutionary dead-end. Here, we examine DNA sequences of four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes selected for resolving phylogenetic relationships between goats, sheep, and their allies. Our analyses provide evidence of strong discordance for the position of Capra between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. We suggest that the common ancestor of wild goats arose from interspecific hybridization, and that the mitochondrial genome of a species better adapted to life at high altitudes was transferred via this route into the common ancestor of Capra. We propose that the acquisition of more efficient mitochondria has conferred a selective advantage on goats, allowing their rapid adaptive radiation during the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. Our study therefore agrees with theories that predict an important role for interspecific hybridization in the evolution and diversification of animal species. PMID:16837213
The study was conducted to isolate epidermal keratinocytes from Cashmere goat fetus with the aim to develop suitable conditions for keratinocyte cultivation and propagation. The methods developed for keratinocyte culture include (i) use of a feeder-layer of mitotically inactivated fibroblasts obtained from goat and mouse fetal skin, (ii) use of a substrate such as collagen IV, or (iii) without use of any substrate. Epidermal cell removal was established by enzymatically separating keratinocytes from 12 to 16 weeks aged fetal skin tissues treated with 0.125% trypsin solution overnight at 4 degrees C. The cells were maintained in all culture conditions with serum containing medium. Keratinocyte multiplication and proliferation were comparable in different culture conditions and the improved cellular attachment and growth have been obtained in cultures on feeder layers. Colony forming keratinocytes on feeder layer were heterogeneous in their growth potential. In feeder free conditions, high cellular density was required at plating for sub-cultivation as their poor attachment in culture dishes. This study reports the comparative efficacy of different culture conditions for keratinocyte isolation and in vitro propagation originating from Cashmere goat fetus. PMID:17881027
Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-)), and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/-)) mice. Ghrelin(-/-) mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/-) mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/-) mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities. PMID:24124572
Cai, Huan; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wang, Rui; Tschöp, Matthias H; Sévigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart
Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin?/?), and GOAT knockout (GOAT?/?) mice. Ghrelin?/? mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT?/? mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin?/? and GOAT?/? mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin?/? mice, yet potentiated in GOAT?/? mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT?/? mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin?/? and GOAT?/? mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.
Daimon, Caitlin M.; Wang, Rui; Tschop, Matthias H.; Sevigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart
Clorsulon was measured in plasma and urine of sheep and goats after administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) and after a single oral dose of 7 mg/kg. A three-compartment model with elimination occurring from the central compartment was determined to best describe the i.v. data, whereas a one-compartment model with a single exponential absorption phase best described the oral plasma data. The bioavailability of orally administered clorsulon was approximately 55% in goats and 60% in sheep. Peak plasma concentrations occurred at 14 h and 15 h after oral administration in goats and sheep, respectively. Absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract effectively prolonged the elimination of clorsulon by increasing the elimination half-life from 17 to 28 h in sheep and from 12 to 23 h in goats for the i.v. and oral routes, respectively. In both goats and sheep, approximately 50% of the i.v. dose was recovered in urine as parent drug at 48 h after administration, whereas 41% and 30% of the dose was recovered after oral administration for goats and sheep, respectively. The elimination rate constant (kel) in goats was nearly twice as large as the value determined in sheep, and the urea under the i.v. plasma curve in goats was only 63% of the value in sheep indicating that goats are more effective in their capacity to eliminate clorsulon than are sheep. These differences in drug disposition between sheep and goats may account for the reduced efficacy of clorsulon reported in goats. PMID:1433492
The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different from the one in cattle. It is defined as a resilience to infection rather
A study was carried out with 20 goats of the Mala- guena breed, half with a high (HG) and half with a low (LG) genetic capability for ?S1-casein (AS1-CN) synthe- sis, to determine whether the 2 different genotypes (that cause differences in goat milk composition) are related to differences in nutritional feed utilization. Among the 10 HG goats, 7 had
G. De la Torre; J. M. Serradilla; F. Gil Extremera; M. R. Sanz Sampelayo
The effect of supplementing a basal diet with 1 of 3 plant oils on productive efficiency and milk fatty acid composition was studied in dairy goats. Sixteen Malagueña goats were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods and 4 goats per treatment. The basal diet comprised 30% alfalfa hay and 70% pelleted concentrate. Experimental treatments were control
A. L. Martínez Marín; P. Gómez-Cortés; A. G. Gómez Castro; M. Juárez; L. M. Pérez Alba; M. Pérez Hernández; M. A. de la Fuente
Goat breeds differ in their consumption of tannin-rich browse, but the relative contributions of genetics and learning to these differences is unclear. The objective of this study was to differentiate between the effects of breed (nature) and rearing environment (nurture) on consumption of a tanniferous species by kid goats. We used Damascus and Mamber goat kids, and the browse species
Tzach Aharon Glasser; Eugene David Ungar; Serge Yan Landau; Avi Perevolotsky; Hussein Muklada; John Withers Walker
Brucella melitensis is the cause of brucellosis in sheep and goats often resulting in abortion. Few cases of B. melitensis infection in goats have occurred in the United States over the last 25 years. However, vigilance for brucellosis in goats must be maintained as it is in the bovine milk indust...
To investigate anthelmintic and nutri- tional effects of heather supplementation in goats graz- ing perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures, 40 dry Cashmere goats were randomly assigned to 4 treat- ments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 grazing man- agement treatments (supplementation with heather vs. nonsupplementation) and 2 anthelmintic treatments (treatment vs. nontreatment). Goats grazed continu- ously from May to
K. Osoro; A. Mateos-Sanz; P. Frutos; U. Garcõ ´ a; L. M. Ortega-Mora; L. M. M. Ferreira; R. Celaya; I. Ferre
The ability of the attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine virus to protect small ruminants against virulent rinderpest virus was investigated. Out of four susceptible goats that were infected with the highly virulent Saudi strain of rinderpest virus by intranasal ioculation, three developed mild clinical signs of disease and infected susceptible in-contact goats and cattle with rinderpest virus. However, four
Intensive pastoralism with goats transforms semiarid thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa from a dense vegetation of tall shrubs to an open landscape dominated by ephemeral grasses and forbs. Approx. 800 000 ha of thicket (which prior to the introduction of goats had a closed canopy and a Portulacaria afra Jacq. component) have been transformed in this manner. Ecosystem
A. J. MILLS; R. M. COWLING; M. V. FEY; G. I. H. KERLEY; J. S. DONALDSON; R. G. LECHMERE-OERTEL; A. M. SIGWELA; A. L. SKOWNO; P. RUNDEL
a ´ Abstract The present study examined the relationship between duodenal flow of purine bases and urinary excretion of their derivatives (i.e., Allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine) in selected milk goats. Three adult Granadina goats fitted with a T-shaped cannula in the abomasum were used to determine the endogenous contribution to renal excretion of purine derivatives and urinary recovery
A. Belenguer; D. Yanez; J. Balcells; N. H. Ozdemir Baber; M. Gonzalez Ronquillo
The present study examined the relationship between duodenal flow of purine bases and urinary excretion of their derivatives (i.e., Allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine) in selected milk goats. Three adult Granadina goats fitted with a T-shaped cannula in the abomasum were used to determine the endogenous contribution to renal excretion of purine derivatives and urinary recovery of abomasaly infused
A Belenguer; D Yañez; J Balcells; N. H Ozdemir Baber; M Gonzalez Ronquillo
Goats are important domestic animals in the south of Thailand due to the minimal cost of rearing and maintaining them, and their production of both meat and milk. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most threatening parasitic zoonoses and the causative agent Toxoplasma gondii uses a wide range of warm-blooded intermediate hosts including the goat. The objective of this study was
West African Dwarf sheep and goats were subjected to oesophageal fistulation and monitored over the following few weeks. Response to surgery was generally good. Although there were initial changes in body weight, rectal temperature, packed cell volume and blood haemoglobin contents, these returned to near normal values after a few days. Goats under 10 months of age died within a
The goat was the first animal domesticated to produce for the consumer. The geographic occurrence of this phenomenon, combined with the location of the cradle of the first known civilisations (Mesopotamia), contributed to the direct connection of the goat to all phases of life of the people who created and developed civilisation in the area now known as the Middle
Nutritive composition of diets and forage intake of goats utilizing pastures of cleared, two levels of thinned (25% and 55% canopy cover) and undisturbed (control) tropical woodland were compared on a seasonal basis. Esophageally fistulated goats were used to collect dietary samples for chemical analysis. Total fecal collections were used to estimate organic matter intake (OMI) and digestible energy intake
Botanical composition of diets of range goats was studied to determine seasonal preference indices of forage species and nutritional quality of selected diets on a sarcocaulescent shrubland from the Sonoran desert in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Extrusas from five esophageal cannulated adult female goats (40kg of BW) were collected at the beginning and at the end of each season from
R. Ramírez-Orduña; R. G. Ramírez; E. Romero-Vadillo; H. González-Rodríguez; J. A. Armenta-Quintana; R. Avalos-Castro
The aim of the study was to investigate the milk potential of Boer goat and South African local Indigenous goat does, under intensive and extensive nutritional regimes. Thirty-six Multiparous does (18 Boer and 18 Indigenous) were allocated to intensive (complete diet) and extensive (natural pastures) environmental groups, following kidding. Does were hand-milked twice weekly and the milk production recorded. Body
J. P. C. Greyling; V. M. Mmbengwa; L. M. J. Schwalbach; T. Muller
This study aimed to monitor the effect of a high (HD; 140% of energy requirements) versus a low diet (LD; 80% energy requirements) on oxidative status in goats during the peripartum period. Blood samples were taken from all goats at ?2, ?1, 0 (partum), +2 and +4 weeks from delivery. Blood samples were assayed for their content of reactive oxygen
A study was conducted to characterize the effect of induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on physical parameters and milk constituents of first lactation Alpine dairy goats in early lactation (22 d in milk). The right udder half of seven goats was challenged with approximately 120 colony-forming u...
Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula with respect to mineral absorption and deposition using the 3-wk- old piglet as a
S. M. Rutherfurd; A. J. Darragh; W. H. Hendriks; C. G. Prosser; D. Lowry
Bacterial pneumonia is a common and often life-threatening respiratory problem in both meat and dairy goats. Options for approved antibiotic therapy in goats to combat these bacterial infections are severely limited and frequently drugs must be used in an extra-label manner. Tulathromycin, a triamilide macrolide antimicrobial drug shown to be effective against swine and cattle respiratory bacterial agents, has been
Kristin A. Clothier; Joann M. Kinyon; Ronald W. Griffith
Background Domestic goats (Capra hircus) are a natural and experimental host of scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) of sheep and cattle. Goats are also susceptible to experimental infection with the agents of TSEs of deer and elk (chronic wasting disease) and humans (Creutzfeldt Jakob disease). Distribution of PrPSc, the abnormal prion protein, is similar in the tissues of scrapie-infected sheep and goats but no data are available on the potential shedding of the agent through the placenta, the presumed route of transmission of ovine scrapie. We describe the sparse accumulation of PrPSc in the placentas of goats with naturally acquired classical scrapie in comparison to field cases of classical ovine scrapie. Results PrPSc was detected in the shed placentas from a sample of U.S. goats with naturally occurring scrapie, diagnosed by antemortem lymphoid tissue biopsy or identified as high risk progeny of infected dams. PrPSc accumulation patterns in the intact placentome and western blot banding was similar in the caprine and ovine samples. However, levels of PrPSc estimated from ELISA and immunohistochemistry assays were generally lower in goats than in sheep, although wide variation was noted in both species. Conclusions PrPSc accumulates in the shed placentas of goats with naturally acquired scrapie. Although these levels were low in most caprine samples, the caprine placenta may contribute to prion contamination of kidding facilities and transmission to co-housed sheep or goats.
A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...
Vitamin B12 deficiency was induced in 15 small East African goats by feeding cobalt deficient Chloris gayana hay (containing 0.02 mg of Co/kg dry matter) over a 25 week experimental period. Cobalt was supplemented as an oral drench to supply 0.3 g of Co/goat/week to 15 treated goats. At intervals of 3-4 weeks, serum concentrations of Vitamin B12 , total thyroxine (TT4), free tetra-iodothyronine (FT4) and free tri-iodothyronine (FT3) were determined by radioimmunoassay, while the rate of resting metabolism was determined by measuring the goats' rate of oxygen consumption. Serum Vitamin B12 concentration was significantly higher (p<0.01) in cobalt-treated (289.6 +/- 40.76 pg/ml) than in control (142.8 +/- 28.27 pg/ml) goats. The mean serum TT4 concentration was significantly (p<0.01) higher in control (59.0 +/- 1.70 nmol/l) than in cobalt-treated (51.6 +/- 2.45 nmol/l) goats. However, the levels of FT4, FT3 and the rate of resting metabolism were unaffected by the goats' cobalt status. Furthermore, the goats did not lose weight or become anaemic. PMID:16031778
The potential to modify milk fatty acid composition and milk production by dietary administration of marine oils rich in n-3 PUFAs in goats diets is reviewed. Moreover animal and human health implications are considered. Role of nutrition in dairy goats for enhancing content of CLA in milk fat is also discussed. At last, rumen protected choline supplementation is evaluated to
G. Savoini; A. Agazzi; G. Invernizzi; D. Cattaneo; L. Pinotti; A. Baldi
The effects of fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and cardiovascular function in mechanically ventilated goats were evaluated using six healthy goats (three does and three wethers). Following induction of general anaesthesia with isoflurane delivered via a mask, endotracheal intubation was performed and anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. The baseline MAC of isoflurane (that is, the lowest
T. B. Dzikiti; G. F. Stegmann; L. N. Dzikiti; L. J. Hellebrekers
The effect of organic system on the fatty acid profile of milk and CLA content was evaluated using 30 pregnant pluriparous goats, divided into two homogeneous groups (S and O) of 15 goats each. Group S was housed in a stable and received alfalfa hay as forage, while group O was raised according EC Regulation 834\\/2007 and led to pasture.
Raffaella Tudisco; Monica I. Cutrignelli; Serena Calabrò; Giovanni Piccolo; Fulvia Bovera; Antonietta Guglielmelli; Giuseppe Moniello; Federico Infascelli
The effects of supplemental polyethylene glycol (PEG) on feeding behaviour, diet composition, intake and milk production were studied in late lactating Sarda goats browsing on a lentisk-based bushland with different herbage cover. The goats were allotted to two groups that browsed 7 h daily on 2 plots characterised by different cover proportions of woody and herbaceous species. These proportions were 90%
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and distribution of Salmonella serotypes from apparently healthy slaughtered sheep and goats from November 2002 to May 2003 at Debre Zeit abattoir, Ethiopia. From a total of 107 slaughtered animals (60 goats and 47 sheep), 642 samples (feces, mesenteric lymph node, spleen, liver, abdominal and diaphragmatic muscle) were collected aseptically. Of
The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783
S. J. Nsoso; B. Podisi; E. Otsogile; B. S. Mokhutshwane; B. Ahmadu
Although it is generally accepted that a ‘multiple origins’ hypothesis could explain the origin of Chinese goats, little supportive evidence from mtDNA control region sequencing analysis has been collected. We assessed the phylogenetic relationships among 84 individuals representing 13 Chinese indigenous goat breeds and Boer, using a hypervariable segment of mtDNA control region. A total of 49 haplotypes defined by
Bin Fan; Shi-Lin Chen; Jame H. Kijas; Bang Liu; Mei Yu; Shu-Hong Zhao; Meng-Jin Zhu; Tong-An Xiong; Kui Li
Faecal egg counts were used to study patterns of nematode infestation of adult female goats and their offspring according to season, pregnancy and lactation or age on a goat farm (n=2000) in north-western Sri Lanka. Average rainfall in the area is 825 mm and temperature is between 23 and 33°C throughout the year. The only nematode species present on the
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections. PMID:18987224
Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F
Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses ofmilk yield andcomposition (fatand protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content in- creaseswithalmostallstudiedfatsupplementsingoats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats
Studies were undertaken to compare the content and distribution of selenium in human, cow and goat milk. Selenium content of cow milk was found to be lower than that of either human or goat milk. Regardless of source, less than 3% of total milk selenium was associated with the lipid fraction. Selenium within the 120,000 x g supernatant accounted for
Performances of an ELISA, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a complement fixation test (CFT) were assessed for detecting antibodies against Coxiella burnetii after Q fever abortions in naturally infected goats. The goal of the study was to provide information useful for veterinary serodiagnosis in regard to categories of goats either experiencing Q fever abortion or not, blood sampling times and
Elodie Rousset; Benoit Durand; Mustapha Berri; Philippe Dufour; Myriam Prigent; Pierre Russo; Thibault Delcroix; Anne Touratier; Annie Rodolakis; Michel Aubert
Echocardiography has become a routine non-invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of the present study was to test the inter-day repeatability and to establish the reference values of two-dimensional (2D-) and time-motion (M-) mode echocardiographic variables in healthy adult Saanen goats. Six goats were investigated three times by the same observer at one-day interval using a standardised 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic protocol. The intra-observer inter-day repeatability was tested using analysis of variance, calculation of the coefficient of variation and confidence intervals. A single echocardiographic examination was performed in six other goats, and values obtained in the 12 goats were used to establish the 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult female Saanen goats. Statistical analysis revealed a good inter-day repeatability of the echocardiographic cardiac measurements. Echocardiographic reference values obtained in healthy adult Saanen goats seemed slightly higher than those reported in healthy Swedish domestic goats and were similar to those reported in healthy adult sheep. PMID:22158272
Leroux, A A; Moonen, M L; Farnir, F; Sandersen, C F; Deleuze, S; Salciccia, A; Amory, H
Use of goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.) to clear overgrown pastures and woodlots of unwanted vegetation may result in high rates of urine deposition where goats congregate. Surface application of limestone to dystrophic acid soils before clearing is known to augment ammonia gas volatilization from ...
The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission.
A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 × 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic
A. Ait-Saidi; G. Caja; S. Carne ´; A. A. K. Salama; J. J. Ghirardi
The grazing behaviour of three goat ecotypes, Red Sokoto (RS), West African dwarf (WAD) and their crossbreeds (CB), reared in the same environment were monitored for a period of 18 weeks at Abakaliki, Nigeria. A general inventory of forage species available and the key forage species preferred by the goats were also determined. Twenty-six forage species including 13 grasses, five
Intra- and interspecific relationships between energy intake and digestible energy intake (DEI) and water turnover (WTO) in Black Bedouin and temperate (Swiss Saanen) goats were analyzed. Available data from other species of mammals were also evaluated. A highly significant linear relationship between WTO and DE1 holds within breeds of goats under different levels of DE1 and between breeds which vary
Today, there is a shift towards a positional candidate approach in the molecular identification of genes. This study reports on an Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) mapping initiative in goats, based on sequence information gathered from a previous mammary gland cDNA systematic sequencing project. A total of 25 novel genes was localised cytogenetically on 16 goat chromosomes. Six of these ESTs
Fabienne Le Provost; Laurent Schibler; Anne Oustry-Vaiman; Patrice Martin; Edmond P Cribiu
Twelve West African Dwarf goat were slaughtered in this study. The animals were slaughtered in groups of three. The meat from each of the two hind legs from the goat was assigned to either pre- or post-rigor treatment. The main groups (pre- vs post-rigor state) were further treated in a split plot design to study the effect of three tumbling
Divers may be at risk of long-term CNS damage from non-symptomatic hyperbaric exposure. We investigated the effect of severe, controlled hyperbaric exposure on a group of healthy goats with similar histories. Thirty goats were exposed to various dive profiles over a period of 5 years, with 17 experiencing decompression sickness (DCS). Brains were scanned using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques.
S. L. Blogg; G. A. Loveman; F. M. Seddon; N. Woodger; A. Koch; M. Reuter; M. Gennser; M. G. White
The current study was carried out to find out the infection rate of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) helminths and its association with diarrhoea in goats in Lahore, Pakistan. For this purpose, 300 faecal samples from goats suffering from diarrhoea presented at the Outdoor Hospital, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, UVAS Lahore and various private as well as government hospitals located
M. IJAZ; M. S. KHAN; M. AVAIS; K. ASHRAF; M. M. ALI
Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may contain natural compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production patterns, animal performance, and health when meat goat kids were fin...
The effect of natural extracts of green tea or commercial grape seed in combination with synthetic tert methyl-butylhydroquinone at different concentrations on lipid oxidation and the redness of goat meats stored at 5°C for 9 days was evaluated. Fresh boneless Baladi goat meats were ground and mixed at varying concentrations of green tea or grape seed extract alone or combined
Taha M. Rababah; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Khaled M. Al-Qudah; Laith M. Rousan; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Muhammad H. Al-udatt; Wade Yang
The effect of natural extracts of green tea or commercial grape seed in combination with synthetic tert methyl-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) at different concentrations on lipid oxidation and the redness of goat meats stored at 5 °C for 9 days was evaluated. Fresh boneless baladi goat meats were ground and mixed at varying concentrations of green tea or grape seed extract alone
Taha M. Rababah; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Khaled M. Al-Qudah; Laith M. Rousan; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Muhammad H. Al-udatt; Wade Yang
Cargill Animal Nutrition today announced a voluntary and limited regional recall of Nutrena NatureWise Goat Pellets due to an error in labeling.Ã‚Â The bags of affected goat feed should have indicated that the feed included Decoquinate, a medicated ...
We did a descriptive study to determine whether the presence in the external ear canal of the Raillietia caprae mites and Mycoplasmas were associated. For that we sampled 360 goats slaughtered at abattoirs in the summer to identify those infested with the mite. We found only 20 infested, so used all of those plus another 47 uninfested goats selected systematically
Otero Negrete Jimena; Jaramillo Meza Laura; Miranda Morales Rosa Elena; Navarro Hernández Jaime Alonso; Quintero Martínez María Teresa
A database including 80 treatment means, based on energy balance publications, was constructed and analyzed to estimate fasting heat production (FHP) and ME required for maintenance (MEm) of goats. Experiments entailed comparative slaughter, respiration calorimetry or CO2 entry rate techniques. Goat...
The ever increasing cost of commercial concentrates, formulated from imported grains, makes supplementation in goat rations very expensive. This has given rise to the need for less dependence on concentrates and for more emphasis to be placed on forages of high nutritive value for use in weaner production systems. Twelve growing male goats (6 Boers and 6 crossbred Nubians), 3
Data on 2087 lactations from 737 Chios ewes collected between 1978 and 1989, and 1611 lactations from 486 Damascus goats collected from 1982 to 1998 at the experimental station of the Agricultural Research Institute were utilized. The ewes were the progeny of 101 sires (mean sire family size 7.3) and the goats of 101 sires (mean sire family size 4.8).
The effects of age, sex, age of dam, year of production, herd, and type of birth on cashmere weight, fiber diameter, fiber length, body weight at birth, weaning and yearling in goats, were based on 12 years data from an Inner Mongolia Albas cashmere goat stock farm. The year of production had significant influence on cashmere weight, fiber diameter and
Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158
Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P
Coagulation properties, along with the main components (protein, casein, fat), of goat milk during cheese processing were rheologically evaluated on milk of two breeds of goats (Dahlem Cashmere: DC and German Fawn: GF) using dynamic mechanical analyses. Coagulation time (CT) was estimated during gel formation at 1Hz and 1% strain for 79min after rennet addition. In the sol–gel transition range,
O. Dimassi; S. Neidhart; R. Carle; L. Mertz; G. Migliore; A. Mané-Bielfeldt; A. Valle Zárate
Acute toxic nephropathy was produced in 6 healthy goats by injecting intravenously 1% uranyl nitrate (UN) (15 mg\\/kg body weight). The early painful clinical signs simulating shock progressed with subnormal temperature, slow-shallow respiration and arrhythmic pulse followed by death due to respiratory failure within 96 to 120 hr. All the affected goats had normocytic normochromic anemia, leucocytosis, neutrophilia with left
Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the United States (US). Due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat GIN, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to increase profitability of small ruminant industries. A study was designed to test the efficacy of a high condensed tannin (CT) legume, sericea
S. A. Shaik; T. H. Terrill; J. E. Miller; B. Kouakou; G. Kannan; R. M. Kaplan; J. M. Burke; J. A. Mosjidis
Ramirez, R. G., Sauceda, J. G., Narro, J. A. and Aranda, J. 1993. Preference indices for forage species grazed by Spanish goats on a semiarid shrubland in Mexico. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 3: 55–66.Botanical composition of diets of Spanish goats was studied on the Facultad de Agronomia, V. A N. L. Experimental Station with the objectives to determine monthly differences
R. G. Ramírez; J. G. Sauceda; J. A. Narro; J. Aranda
Keskin, M. 2002. Effect of rearing systems on kid performance, lactation traits and profitability of Shami (Damascus) goats. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 22: 267–271.To compare the growth performance of kids, lactation characteristics and profitability of Shami (Damascus) goats, thirty three 4-years old does and their 39 kids were divided into two groups: In the traditional kid rearing group, kids were
One-hundred eight lactations of Murciano- Granadina goats from different years were used to compare two kid rearing systems. Goats were sepa- rated into two groups: suckling and milking. Dams in the suckling group were milked once daily until kids were weaned (wk 0 to 7 ) and then were milked twice daily. Dams in the milking group were separated from
S. Peris; G. Caja; X. Such; R. Casals; A. Ferret; C. Torre
SUMMARY - A production system approach was used to study the performance of desert black goat under semi-arid conditions in North Sinai. A random sample of 19 goat breeders was taken. Least squares analysis of variance was performed using fixed effects linear models for all productive traits to develop the technical coefficients used in the study. Biological criteria were kg
A. M. Ahmed; M. H. Kandil; H. M. El-Shaer; H. R. Metawi
The aim of this work was to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and cost in Florida dairy goats. Two groups of animals were created, one with goats under natural suckling and the other under artificial rearing. In the suckling group, the kids were suckled up to
M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; Y. Mena; J. M. Castel; P. González-Redondo; F. P. Caravaca
To provide information on the transmission dynamics of cryptosporidial infections in domestic small ruminants and the potential role of sheep and goats as a source for human cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium- positive isolates from 137 diarrheic lambs and 17 goat kids younger than 21 days of age were examined by using genotyping and subtyping techniques. Fecal specimens were collected between 2004 and
J. Quilez; Eucaris Torres; Rachel M. Chalmers; Stephen J. Hadfield; Emilio del Cacho; Caridad Sanchez-Acedo
A PCR assay for the detection of small ruminant lentiviral gag DNA (provirus) in the white blood cells of sheep and goats was developed and compared with a serological test (AGIDT). A sample of the DNA prepared from the white blood cells in 3 ml of blood from 208 sheep and goats from 18 different flocks was subjected to PCR
L. H. A. Wagter; A. Jansen; N. M. C. Bleumink-Pluym; J. A. Lenstra; D. J. Houwers
The history and species status of free-ranging goats inhabiting the Eastern Mediterranean islands is discussed with reference to morphometric, archaeological and genetic findings. A case study on the free-ranging goats on Crete (Capra aegagrus cretica) is presented. The phenotype of the Cretan goat resembles that of the wild bezoar goat (C. aegagrus). However, the mitochondrial DNA of cytochrome b and
Background The goat (Capra hircus) represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs) in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina) using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. Results We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat), with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs): on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome). These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P < 0.0001) suggesting that several chromosome regions might contain recurrent interspecies CNVRs. Genes with environmental functions were over-represented in goat CNVRs as reported in other mammals. Conclusions We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the functional relevance of these CNVs and their effects on behavior, production, and disease resistance traits in goats.
The bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) gene was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. According to mRNA sequence of ovine BMPR-IB gene, ten pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of exon 1, exon 2, exon 6 to exon 10 and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the BMPR-IB gene in both high prolificacy breed (Jining Grey goat) and low prolificacy breeds (Wendeng Dairy and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method. Only the products amplified by primers P8 and P10 of the 3'UTR displayed polymorphisms. For primer P8, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in Jining Grey and Wendeng Dairy goats, two genotypes (AA and AB) were in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (71C?T) of the BMPR-IB gene in genotype BB compared with AA. The differences of least squares mean (LSM) for litter size between genotypes AA, AB and BB were non-significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. For primer P10, three genotypes (CC, CD and DD) were detected in Jining Grey and Wendeng Dairy goats and one genotype (CC) in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (130T?C) of the BMPR-IB gene in genotype DD compared with CC. The differences of LSM for litter size between genotypes CC, CD and DD were non-significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. These results preliminarily showed that the detected loci of the BMPR-IB gene had no significant effect on prolificacy of Jining Grey goats. PMID:20300862
Chu, M X; Zhao, X H; Zhang, Y J; Jin, M; Wang, J Y; Di, R; Cao, G L; Feng, T; Fang, L; Ma, Y H; Li, K
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans.
Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien
The present study was conducted to determine if the social status of Australian Cashmere goats affects their response to the male effect in terms of LH secretion, ovulation and expression of estrus. Australian Cashmere goats were kept isolated from the males during 5 months. The index of success (SI) of each goat was calculated to establish their social rank. In the first experiment, the ten most dominant and the 10 most subordinate goats were separated from the original herd and housed in two pens (5 dominant and 5 subordinate animals in each pen). An androgenized wether was then introduced into each pen. Luteinizing hormone (LH) was measured every 20 min from 2h before to 4h after introduction of the male in the goats of first pen and from 4 to 8h after male introduction in the second pen. In the second experiment, the remaining 50 goats were exposed in their original pen to two androgenized wethers. Their association index with the males (AI) was calculated for each of these 50 goats, and the intervals from exposure to the males to the onset of estrus and to ovulation were determined. During the first 4h after male introduction, the dominant goats had more LH pulses (0.65+/-0.06 compared with 0.3+/-0.09; P<0.05) and greater LH mean concentrations (1.79+/-0.14 ng/ml compared with 1.30+/-0.15 ng/ml, P=0.05) than the subordinate animals. Although not significantly different, the AI was 35% greater for high and medium ranking goats than for low ranking animals (0.031+/-0.004, 0.032+/-0.005 and 0.023+/-0.005, respectively, P>0.05). Although the number of goats ovulating in response to male exposure was similar between dominance groups (high: 100%, medium: 94% and low ranking: 92%), the high and medium dominance goats showed a greater incidence of expression of estrus than low-dominance goats (94.4%, 89.5% and 53.8%, respectively, P<0.05). It is concluded that the social rank of the Australian Cashmere goat influences their response to the male effect in terms of early LH secretion and expression of estrus. PMID:17126504
Alvarez, L; Zarco, L; Galindo, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B
Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening infection in humans and animals caused by encapsulated yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus. Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main agents of this mycosis. Until 2002 C. gattii was classified as a variety of C. neoformans but now is accepted as an independent species. The laccase (phenoloxydase) enzyme produced by these yeasts is considered one of the main pathogenic factors for its ability to induce melanin from dihydroxyphenolic compounds. The vast majority of the studies in laccase and melanin synthesis have been developed using isolates of C. neoformans. The main objective of this study was to evaluate laccase activity in strains of C. gattii, serotype B isolated from immunocompetent goats that died of lung and disseminated cryptococcosis, in several outbreaks occurring in Spain. The laccase activities of these isolates were compared with those of other strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans. After fungal cell rupture, the supernatant of each isolate was analyzed for its laccase activity using as substrate an L-dopa 20 mM solution. The degree of enzymatic activity was assessed according to its absorbance at 450 nm and scored using Enzymatic Units (EU). The maximum values were observed in three strains of C. gattii from goats (EU > 12). The smallest values were observed in one environmental isolate of C. gattii serotype C (EU = 0.7). The highest recorded value for C. neoformans was 6.3 EU in a serotype A isolate from one human case of meningitis. C. gattii serotype B obtained from goats showed different degrees of laccase activity, being the highest in those isolated from severe outbreaks of cryptococcosis. This enzyme appears to represent a major, though nonexclusive, pathogenic factor for Cryptococcus gattii. PMID:18785783
Alvarado-Ramírez, Eidi; Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M; Sellart, Maite; Vidotto, Valerio
Neospora caninum is a protozoan which can cause abortions in caprines. However, information regarding the humoral immune response and the occurrence of reproductive disorders is scarce. This is the first study in which the kinetics of antibodies is studied in pregnant goats naturally infected by N. caninum, as well as their respective conceptuses. The subclasses of IgG (IgG1 and IgG2) were also evaluated in pregnant goats. Reproductive problems related to neosporosis (abortion and stillbirth) occurred in 15.38% of the goats. There was a statistically significant association between the increased titres of maternal IgG in the second half of the gestational period with the occurrence of endogenous transplacental transmission. The rate of congenital transmission was 77%. During the gestational period of the seropositive goats, there was mainly a predominance of the subclass IgG2, although mixed patterns of IgG2-IgG1 and the IgG1 pattern were also observed. These results indicate that N. caninum is responsible for the occurrence of important alterations in the humoral immune response of naturally infected goats, and is also a potential causative agent for reproductive disorders in goats. The high proportion of infected conceptuses reinforces the suggestion that congenital infection is one of the main routes of parasite transmission in goats. PMID:23537945
Mesquita, Leonardo P; Nogueira, Clayton I; Costa, Rafael C; Orlando, Débora R; Bruhn, Fábio R P; Lopes, Priscila F R; Nakagaki, Karen Y R; Peconick, Ana P; Seixas, Josilene N; Bezerra, Pedro S; Raymundo, Djeison L; Varaschin, Mary S
Tulathromycin, a novel triamilide in the macrolide class, is labeled for treatment of bacterial pneumonia in cattle and swine. This manuscript evaluates pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in goats. In two different studies, six juvenile and ten market-age goats received a single injection of 2.5 mg/kg of tulathromycin subcutaneously; in a third study, 18 juvenile goats were treated with 2.5, 7.5, or 12.5 mg/kg tulathromycin weekly with three subcutaneous injections. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from the plasma concentrations from single injections were similar between the two groups of goats and to previously reported parameters in cattle and swine. Mean terminal half-lives were 59.1 ± 7.6 and 61.2 ± 8.7 h for juvenile and market-age goats, respectively. In the multi-dose study, pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from plasma concentrations demonstrated significant differences at P < 0.05 among repeated injections but not among doses. Overall, pharmacokinetic parameters in goats are similar to those reported in cattle and swine, and tulathromycin may prove a useful drug for treating respiratory disease in goats. PMID:21366621
Clothier, K A; Leavens, T; Griffith, R W; Wetzlich, S E; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Tell, L A
Markhors (Capra falconeri) are among the most endangered mammal species, and several conservation measures, including ex situ breeding, are implemented to prevent their extinction. We studied sequence diversity and differentiation of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region among C. f. heptneri and C. f. megaceros kept in four zoos in relationship to lineages of other wild and domestic goats, to assess for the first time the level of molecular distinctness and variability among those subspecies, and to check for possible introgression by related Capra taxa, such as domestic goats. Levels of differentiation between some Capra falconeri lineages and modern domestic goats were similar to levels between other wild goat species (i.e., Capra aegagrus, Capra ibex) and domestic goats. Among pure markhor lineages, paraphyly was observed for C. f. heptneri, suggesting occurrence of shared ancestral polymorphism among markhor subspecies and/or ancient or recent gene exchange between subspecies. Interestingly, 35.7% of all studied markhors from three zoos are introgressed by the domestic goat. Furthermore, despite relatively small breeding group sizes, markhors have maintained a relatively high proportion of mtDNA variation within zoo groups. In any case, the existence of markhors introgressed with domestic goat DNA in zoos should be considered when selecting markhors for ex situ breeding programs with the aim of building up a stock for later reintroduction into the wild. PMID:18228130
Hammer, Sabine E; Schwammer, Harald M; Suchentrunk, Franz
The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.
The increasing interest in a healthy diet is stimulating innovative development of novel scientific products in the food industry. The viable lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products, such as yoghurt, have been associated with increased lactose tolerance, a well-balanced intestinal microflora, antimicrobial activity, stimulation of the immune system and antitumoural, anticholesterolaemic and antioxidative properties in human subjects. Recently, we have studied a human Lactobacillus spp. strain that possesses antioxidative activity. The aim of the present pilot study was to develop goats' milk fermented with the human antioxidative lactobacilli strain, Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3, and to test the effect of the fermented probiotic goats' milk on oxidative stress markers (including markers for atherosclerosis) in human blood and urine and on the gut microflora. Twenty-one healthy subjects were assigned to two treatment groups: goats' milk group and fermented goats' milk group (150 g/d) for a period of 21 d. Consumption of fermented goats' milk improved anti-atherogenicity in healthy subjects: it prolonged resistance of the lipoprotein fraction to oxidation, lowered levels of peroxidized lipoproteins, oxidized LDL, 8-isoprostanes and glutathione redox ratio, and enhanced total antioxidative activity. The consumption of fermented goats' milk also altered both the prevalence and proportion of lactic acid bacteria species in the gut microflora of the subjects. We conclude that the goats' milk fermented with our special antioxidative lactobacilli strain Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 exhibits anti-atherogenic effects. PMID:12908907
To determine the teratogenic effect of Mimosa tenuiflora, the green fresh plant was administered ad libitum to 12 goats (Group 1) from day 1 to day 30 of gestation. Upon ultrasonographic examination, on day 30, not one of these goats was pregnant, demonstrating that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. Six goats (Group 2) ingested M. tenuiflora from day 30 to day 60 of pregnancy. Four goats delivered seven healthy kids and two were not pregnant based on ultrasonographic examination on day 45 suggesting late embryonic death. Three other groups of six goats each received the plant on days 60-90 (Group 3), 90-120 (Group 4), and 120-150 (Group 5) of gestation and a control group (Group 6) all delivered normal kids, except one goat in Group 4 that aborted and one adult goat from Group 5 that was found dead. It is concluded that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. The failure to induce malformations might have resulted from a high dose of an unknown active principle of the plant causing fetal death. PMID:22178006
Dantas, Antônio Flávio M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Lopes, José Radmácyo; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip; Mota, Rinaldo A
In this investigation the pharmacokinetics of three commonly used antibiotics, ampicillin trihydrate (10 mg/kg), gentamicin sulphate (3 mg/kg) and oxytetracycline hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), given intravenously, were each studied in five Nubian goats and five desert sheep. The pharmacokinetic parameters were described by a two-compartment open model. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the two species in some kinetic parameters of ampicillin and oxytetracycline but not gentamicin. Ampicillin elimination half life (t[1/2beta]) in goats (1.20 h) was shorter than that in sheep (2.48 h), and its clearance (Cl) significantly higher in goats (2921 mL/h x kg) compared to sheep (262 mL/h x kg) (P < 0.01). Ampicillin volume of distribution (Vd[area]) was found to be significantly larger in goats (5673 mL/kg) than in sheep (992 mL/kg) (P < 0.01). For oxytetracycline, the t(1/2beta) in goats (3.89 h) was significantly shorter than that in sheep (6.30 h) and the Cl value in goats (437 mL/h x kg) was significantly higher than in sheep (281 mL/h x kg). The results suggest that when treating sheep and goats, the pharmacokinetic differences between the two species must be considered in order to optimize the therapeutic doses of ampicillin and oxytetracycline. PMID:9280365
The objective of the present study was to investigate the hemato-biochemical changes and status of oxidative stress in goats with scabies infection. The study was conducted on 12 Jamunapari goats; six clinically infected with scabies (group I) and six healthy goats as control (group II). The examination of skin scraping revealed the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei in the infected group. In hemato-biochemical indicators, hemoglobin%, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count, albumin and albumin: globulin ratio decreased whereas, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen increased significantly (p<0.05) in group I animals as compared to group II healthy goats. Among the oxidative stress indices, plasma nitrate and erythrocytic lipid peroxidation were increased and reduced glutathione levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group I goats as compared to group II healthy goats. The results of the present study suggest that scabies infection alters the hemato-biochemical indicators, increases oxidative stress and decreases antioxidant status in goat. PMID:20623336
Background Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology. Results Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51%) unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17%) unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes. Conclusion The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses.
Parent-offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids' calls 7-13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers' responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11-17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance. PMID:22719031
Briefer, Elodie F; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G
Goats' milk cheeses (n=181) from the Hessian market (retail shops, weekly markets, farm markets) were quantitatively analysed for Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and 14 were found positive. From these samples, 64 isolates of S. aureus were characterized biochemically and genetically, including their potential to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). SE genes sea to selo was studied by PCR and gene expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. SEA-SEE production in culture was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). One isolate produced SEA, 18 isolates (from 4 samples) produced SEC, while SEB, SED, and SEE were not found. Toxin production was in agreement with PCR and RT-PCR results for the presence and expression, respectively, of the corresponding toxin genes. Trans-SE genes seg, sei, selm, seln, and selo were detected in 14 isolates from 4 cheese samples, exclusively as clusters. These samples were all from small-scale producers which directly or indirectly market their products regionally. No isolate was positive for seh or sej. RT-PCR detected the presence of the corresponding mRNA for all genes except selo, further indicating the possibility that respective proteins indeed have been produced in culture. These results suggest that S. aureus in goats' milk cheese potentially produces SE like proteins, besides SEA and SEC. PMID:18455257
Both intravenous single injections of 6-tritium labeled glucose and primed continuous infusions of uniformly labeled carbon-14 glucose were applied to four nonpregnant Saanen goats. Four sequential treatments were high milk production, low milk production, "dry" with no milk production, and fasting during the dry period. The diet was 25% chopped alfalfa hay and 75% grain, and by design feed intake decreased sequentially (1.85, 1.49, .80) and 0 kg/day) with the progression from high production to fasting. Glucose irreversible loss averages from single injections of tritium labeled glucose were 199, 169, 96, and 58 mg/min for respective treatments; similar averages from continuous infusions of carbon labeled glucose for the first three treatments were 164, 132, and 76 mg/min, or about 20% less. Other blood glucose kinetic parameters were estimated after single injections, and averages declined from 5.9 to 4.5 g for pool size, 315 to 134 mg/min for total entry rate, and 115 to 76 mg/min for recycling as goats went from high production to fasting. Transfer of blood glucose to milk constituents was determined by continuous infusion. Transfer quotients for lactose were 73% for high production and 67% for low production; for casein they were 1.8 and 1.9%. The percentage of glucose irreversible loss accounted for in lactose was 31% for high production and 17% for low production whereas less than .2% was in casein. PMID:7076959
Goat embryos collected 5 and 7 days after mating, were cultured in vitro at 37 degrees C for 2 days, or stored at 5 degrees C for 1 or 2 days and then cultured for 2 days, or stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) for 2-4 weeks and then cultured for 1 day. After culture some of the embryos were transferred to recipient does. Culture and storage was carried out in Dulbecco phosphate buffer enriched with 25% goat serum. 1M glycerol or 2M dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) was added to the media used for frozen storage. Thirteen of 15 embryos cultured without prior storage showed apparently normal development in culture. Ten of the 13 were transferred and five kids were born. Twenty of 38 embryos stored at 5 degrees C developed in culture and six kids were born following the transfer of 17 embryos. Duration of storage at 5 degrees C had no marked effect upon subsequent development. Six of 48 frozen stored embryos developed in culture. All six were transferred and three kids were born. PMID:962719
Parent–offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids’ calls 7–13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers’ responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11–17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance.
Briefer, Elodie F.; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G.
Background Dairy goats are commonly housed at a space allowance of 0.7 – 0.8 m2/goat in commercial Norwegian goat herds, which is very low compared to regulations and recommendations in other European countries. One easy and cheap way to increase space allowance is to allow the animals’ access to outdoor area. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of access to an outside enclosure and environmental enrichment for dairy goats kept in slatted floor pens with low space allowance on their activity pattern and social behaviour. Methods A group of 82 dairy goats on a commercial Norwegian dairy farm were kept inside during the winter period from October to April. In April the goats were given access to an outside enclosure for 8 hours per day. After having access to the enclosure for another for two days, enrichment (branches) was provided, and after 19 days the enrichment were removed. The goats were observed for 5 hours per day for the two last days before they got access to the outside enclosure, the two days in the enclosure, the two first and the two last days with enrichment and for the following two days without enrichment by two trained observers. Results When allowed access to the enclosure, the goats spent nearly 50% of the time outside, and later the time spent outside was reduced to less than 40% (P?0.0001), but there was no clear effect of enrichment. All the goats appeared to have a regular use of the enclosure. Time spent resting decreased 59.2% to only 25.2% when the goats first got access to the enclosure, but then started to increase again (P?0.0001). Initially time spent exploring and chewing the branches was 20%, but this was reduced to around 12% in the last part of the ENRICH period (P?0.0001). Number of aggressive interactions tended to increase when the goats were allowed access to the outdoor enclosure whereas play behaviour was only observed in the outside enclosure (P?0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, the goats preferred to use the outside enclosure when being active, and branches were perceived as an attractive enrichment.
Milk from buffalo, cow, goat and camel species was collected in Ismailia in Egypt. Aflatoxin (AFM(1)) levels were lower than previous surveys, and were influenced by feeding practices. Cows and buffaloes are fed prepared rations and had highest incidence of AFM(1). Camels forage freely on available pasture and had lowest AFM(1) in their milk. Goats are fed a combination of prepared ration as a supplement to pasture grazing. Most milks (80%, 74%, 66% and 52% of the camel, goat, cow and buffalo milks, respectively) were below the European Union maximum of AFM(1) <50 ng/L and all milk samples were <500 ng/L. PMID:19710995
Motawee, Mahmoud M; Bauer, Johann; McMahon, Donald J
Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The average interval between treatments was significantly longer in dairy goat herds (4.8 months) than in the beef herds (3.6 months). The most commonly used drugs were macrocyclic lactones (37.7% in dairy and 39.5% in beef herds) and benzimidazoles (48.9% in dairy and 31.5% in beef herds). Goat production in Minas Gerais is still in its infancy, and even though using a control program associated with other health practices, producers still rely heavily on chemicals to get satisfactory results. PMID:21232868
Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão
Eight Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation were exposed to different ambient conditions, using metabolic cages in a climatic chamber. The experimental design was a crossover (2 periods of 35d and 4 goats each) and conditions were (1) thermal neutral (TN; 15 to 20°C day-night) and (2) heat stress (HS; 12-h day at 37°C and 12-h night at 30.5°C). Humidity was maintained at 40% and light-dark was constant (12-12h). The forage:concentrate ratio was adjusted daily for maintaining similar value in TN and HS goats (70:30). Water was freely available at ambient temperature. Rectal temperature and respiratory rate (0800, 1200 and 1700h) and milk yield were recorded daily, whereas milk composition, nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin in blood were analyzed weekly. At d 25, additional blood samples were taken for analysis of metabolites and indicators of the acid-base balance. Digestibility coefficients and N balance were determined (d 31 to 35) and body weight was recorded (d 35). Compared with TN goats, HS goats experienced greater rectal temperature (+0.58°C), respiratory rate (+48 breaths/min), water intake (+77%) and water evaporation (+207%). Intake of HS goats rapidly declined until d 7 (-40%), partially recovered from d 7 to 19, and steadied thereafter (-14%). No changes in digestibility or N balance were detected. Blood nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin peaked at d 7 in HS goats but did not vary thereafter. Although milk yield did not vary by treatment, milk of HS goats contained -12.5% protein and -11.5% casein than TN goats. Panting reduced concentration and pressure of CO2 in the blood of HS goats, but they were able to maintain their blood pH similar to the TN group by lowering HCO3(-) and increasing Cl(-) concentrations in their blood. In conclusion, HS dairy goats showed dramatic physiological changes during the first week of treatment and partially recovered thereafter. They were able to maintain milk yield by losing body mass, but milk protein content and protein yield were depressed. Further research is needed to assess the response of dairy goats to HS at earlier stages of lactation. PMID:23958010
Hamzaoui, S; Salama, A A K; Albanell, E; Such, X; Caja, G
Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ?95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet based mainly or exclusively on eating green grass (grazing), independently of the production system. Hence, this marker would not be useful for the actual organic policies to distinguish organic milk under the current regulations, because organic dairy ruminants can be fed organic compound feed and conserved fodder without grazing at all. PMID:23849634
Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M
Crotalaria retusa L. (rattleweed), estimated to contain about 4.96% monocrotaline (MCT) in the seed, was associated with a natural poisoning outbreak in goats. The poisoning was experimentally reproduced by the administration of C. retusa seeds containing approximately 4.49% of MCT. Thus, 1 of 3 goats given a single dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (bw) of seeds (248 mg MCT/kg bw) and 2 goats given a single dose of 347 mg MCT/kg bw showed acute clinical signs and were euthanized 10-11 days after dosing. Clinical signs and gross and histologic lesions were characteristic of acute centrilobular liver necrosis. PMID:23847092
Maia, Lisanka A; de Lucena, Ricardo B; da T Nobre, Verônica M; Dantas, Antônio F M; Colegate, Steven M; Riet-Correa, Franklin
...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding...
Comparisons of intake and digestibility of various feedstuffs by goats and sheep were reviewed. From existing data, conclusions about the comparative utilization of feeds by these species are impeded by a lack of uniformity in experimental conditions. Nev...
Background The aim of the present study was to develop a haemolytic assay for the study of the complement system in dairy goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and to characterize the major goat complement system proteins. Results The commonly used sheep erythrocyte sensitized with rabbit antibodies were not sensitive to lysis by goat serum, but the combination of human red blood cells (RBC) plus rabbit antibodies was the best option found for goat complement assay. A buffer based on HEPES instead of the classical veronal (barbitone) was developed. Three proteins were isolated: factor H, C1q and C3 and these were compared with the corresponding human proteins. A novel affinity chromatography technique was developed for isolation of factor H. Conclusions Human RBC plus rabbit antibodies were a suitable option for haemolytic assays. The isolated proteins are similar to the human counterparts.
...testing, the name of the consignor and of the consignee, and a description of the animals including breed, ages, markings, and tattoo and eartag numbers. Notwithstanding such certification, such goats shall be detained or quarantined as provided in Â§...
This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk. PMID:20105517
Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E
Research shows that contact between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep and goats can lead to respiratory disease and fatal pneumonia in bighorn sheep. We reviewed experimental methods and evidence regarding respiratory disease in bighorn sheep relative to d...
In March 1988, Archaeological/Historical Consultants conducted an intensive archaeological reconnaissance of 38 cut units within the Dry Goat Fire Salvage Sale of Stanislaus National Forest. Acreage surveyed comprised approximately 1050 acres. The project...
The response of Awassi sheep and a local breed of goats to H. contortus, the prevalent ovine and caprine strongyloid species in Iraq, was studied. A dose of 500 H. contortus (sheep origin) larvae kg-1 body wt. induced clinical and pathological changes of haemonchosis. Although the percentage recovery of worms was higher in sheep, the pathological (gross and microscopic) changes were more marked in infected goats. The extensive abomasal changes noted in goats were, in general, accompanied by a higher density or larvae in the gastric wall; the pathology did not necessarily depend upon parasite count alone and a definite relationship could not be established. The tissue changes in the goats are possibly of immunological origin, although a genetic resistance may operate, primarily at the level of worm establishment. PMID:3564353
Al-Zubaidy, A J; Altaif, K I; Al-Qaisy, H H; Makkawi, T A
SUMMARY Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other.
EIBACH, R.; BOTHE, F.; RUNGE, M.; FISCHER, S. F.; PHILIPP, W.; GANTER, M.
Several Nubian-cross goats were evaluated because of chronic progressive neurologic disease. Physical and neurologic examination revealed signs consistent with diffuse cerebellar disease. Neurologic signs included generalized hyperresponsiveness, fine head tremors, wide-based posture, dysmetria, weakness, and horizontal nystagmus. No clinical improvement was noted after removing goats from affected enclosures. Histologic examination of cerebellar tissues revealed extensive vacuolation within the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells. The clinical and histologic lesions resembled closely findings that were associated with ingestion of Solanum spp in cattle and goats. Examination of enclosures revealed Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple) that had been heavily consumed by the goat herd. We hypothesized that ingestion of S. viarum caused the neurologic disorder. PMID:12930090
Porter, Michael B; MacKay, Robert J; Uhl, Elizabeth; Platt, Simon R; de Lahunta, Alexander
Goats foraging on Mediterranean shrubs containing secondary compounds (toxins) may consume a variety of shrubs that contain different phytotoxins, thereby increasing shrub intake and avoiding toxicosis. We conducted eight experiments to examine whether goats offered different mixtures of shrubs containing different phytotoxins (tannins and saponins) would consume more shrub biomass than goats offered one shrub a single phytotoxin (tannin or saponin). In the first three experiments, goats fed a mixture of three tannin-rich shrubs (Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo, and Pistacia lentiscus) ate more foliage than goats offered only one shrub (23.2 vs. 10.7 g/kg BW; 25.2 vs. 13.4 g/kg BW, and 27.9 vs. 7.9 g/kg BW), regardless of tannin concentration in individual shrub species. Goats also consumed more foliage when offered the same three tannin-rich shrubs than when offered the saponin-rich shrub Hedera helix (25.4 vs. 8.0 g/kg BW). However, goats offered a mixture of the same three tannin-rich shrubs consumed less foliage than goats offered a mixture of two shrubs containing tannins and saponins: Quercus and Hedera (21.6 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), Arbutus and Hedera (21.8 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), and Pistacia and Hedera (19.7 vs. 22.0 g/kg BW). Comparison of intake of shrubs containing only tannins or saponins to intake of shrubs containing both tannins and saponins indicated that goats consumed more total biomass when fed with shrubs with both classes of compounds than with either tannins or saponins alone. Our results suggest that goats can increase intake of Mediterranean shrubs high in secondary compounds by selecting those with different classes of phytotoxins. Simultaneous ingestion of shrubs containing tannins and saponins may promote chemical interactions that inhibit toxic effects of these phytotoxins in the intestinal tract. In addition to complementary interactions between tannins and saponins, biological diversity within Mediterranean maquis vegetation also plays a positive role in increasing shrub intake by goats. PMID:16770718
Coccidiosis near weaning is a major cause of diarrhea, ill-thrift, and impaired performance in small ruminants. A recent survey showed that in villages of the Samaria Hills, Israel, shepherds treat young, weaned goat kids afflicted with diarrhea by cutting and feeding them the foliage of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk) or by tethering them close to lentisk bushes which they browse. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lentisk leaves do indeed have anti-coccidial value, and, if positive, to ascertain the role of tannins in this effect. We monitored for 24 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) days the effect of lentisk feeding on the development of naturally occurring coccidiosis in weaned kids artificially infected with parasitic nematodes. In Experiment 1, kids were infected with nematodes and fed lentisk foliage (PIS) or cereal hay (HAY). Coccidiosis developed at the early stage of the nematode infection, when dietary treatments were initiated. Kids in the PIS group had a lower (P<0.02) concentration of oocysts per gram feces (opg). In Experiment 2, aimed at verifying if tannins are the active component in lentisk foliage, coccidiosis occurred at the peak of the nematode infection, before experimental diets were initiated. Dietary treatments were: cereal hay (HAY), or lentisk foliage consumed without (PIS) or with (PISPEG) a 20-g daily supplement of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 4000), a molecule that impairs tannin-bonding with proteins. Goats fed the PIS diet had lower fecal opg counts than counterparts of the HAY (P<0.001) and PISPEG (P<0.002) treatments. Fecal opg counts for the HAY and PISPEG treatments did not differ, suggesting that the anti-coccidial moiety in lentisk was indeed tannins. Our results strongly suggest that: (i) in agreement with the ethno-veterinary anecdotal evidence, exposure of young, weaned goat kids to lentisk foliage alleviates coccidiosis; and (ii) this positive effect is associated with tannins. As coccidiosis is a major affliction of kids, providing them with tannin-rich browse near weaning could be an environmentally friendly way of improving their welfare and health status, in particular under bio-organic farm management. PMID:22196852
Markovics, A; Cohen, I; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Dvash, L; Ungar, E D; Azaizeh, H; Landau, S Y
Food-borne parasitic diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, are increasingly becoming a global food safety concern. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in apparently healthy, unvaccinated dairy goat flocks reared under mixed smallholders, northern Tanzania between April and October 2011. Flock- and animal-level data were collected using a questionnaire. Sera (n = 337) collected from goats aged ? 6 months and from 102 flocks, respectively, were analyzed using modified Eiken latex agglutination test. A flock was classified as T. gondii seropositive if at least one animal tested positive. Titers considered diagnostically significant (? 1:16) were detected in 19.3 % of goats and 45.17 % of flocks, respectively. The antibody levels ranged from 1:16 to 1:2,048 and among the seropositive goats, the proportion of high antibody levels (? 1:2,048), suggestive of acute infection, was 1.5 %. The study revealed that goats raised in Babati are at a lower risk of acquiring T. gondii infection (P = 0.00209) than those which are raised in Arumeru district. The prevalence of T. gondii antibody was significantly higher in crossbred (24.7 %) and Saanen (24.4 %) breed goats than in local (14.3 %) and Toggenburg (12.1 %) and in females than in males (P = 0.043). No significant difference was observed among goats kept under various husbandry practices. The relatively high seroprevalence detected in this study suggests that toxoplasmosis may be posing a significant animal and human health risk and that the consumption of goat meat may play a role in the transmission of the disease to humans. PMID:22644734
Khaled N. F., J. Illek, S. GajdÛ‰ek: Interactions between Nutrition, Blood Metabolic Profile and Milk Composition in Dairy Goats. Acta Vet. Brno 1999, 68: 253-258. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the concentrations of blood and milk constituents of dairy goats under the effects of stable diet and grazing during lactation from April to June. The
The exons 1, 2 and flanking region of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene in five randomly selected does of Jining Grey, Boer and Liaoning Cashmere goats were amplified and analyzed. Thirteen\\u000a nucleotide differences were identified in GDF9 gene between sheep (AF078545) and goats. Four SNPs (G3288A in intron 1, G423A, A959C [Gln320Pro] and G1189A [Val397Ile]\\u000a in exon 2) were
T. Feng; C. X. Geng; X. Z. Lang; M. X. Chu; G. L. Cao; R. Di; L. Fang; H. Q. Chen; X. L. Liu; N. Li
Odo, B.I., Alaku, S.O. and Omeje, S.I. 2000. Contribution of small ruminants (sheep and goats) to meat supply in Enugu state, Nigeria. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 18: 165–169.The monthly records of various livestock species (cattle, sheep, goat, pig, horse, donkey and dog) slaughtered for meat in Enugu state for a period of 8 years (1988–1995) were used to determine the
Ramirez, R.G., Rios, E. and Garza, J. 1993. Nutritional profile and intake of forage grazed by Spanish goats in a semi-arid land. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 3: 113–122.Nutritional adequacy and voluntary intake of forage selected by Spanish goats, grazing a shrubland dominated by blackbrush (Acacia rigidula) were evaluated during one year (June, 1988 through may, 1989) in Marín, county, N.L.
The objective of this study was to specify the relationships between animal species (cow versus goat) and the contents of fat-soluble constituents (fatty acids, carotenoids, retinol and ?-tocopherol) in raw milk farmhouse cheeses. Four hundred and thirty-two farmhouse cheeses (74 farms×6–7 cheeses), including 306 cow's milk cheeses and 126 goat's milk cheeses, produced in real herd management conditions throughout the
A. Lucas; E. Rock; C. Agabriel; Y. Chilliard; J. B. Coulon
The objective was to determine the effect of body energy stores, evaluated by a body mass index (BMI), and food intake (FI), on the length of the anovulatory period and ovarian activity during the seasonal reproductive transitions in Creole goats. Non-pregnant, non-lactating Creole goats (n=28) were fed to induce two different BMI conditions: Greater (GBMI; n=15), and Lesser (LBMI; n=13).
Eliab Estrada-Cortés; Héctor R. Vera-Avila; Jorge Urrutia-Morales; Eugenio Villagómez-Amezcua; Héctor Jiménez-Severiano; César A. Mejía-Guadarrama; M. Teresa Rivera-Lozano; Héctor G. Gámez-Vázquez
The aim of this study was to determine if there is a seasonal pattern of sexual activity in female Payoya goats and if this seasonality could be modulated by nutrition. During the experimental period of 20 months, 43 non-pregnant adults goats were penned under natural photoperiod at latitude 37°15?N. At the onset of the experiment, the animals were allocated to
L. A. Zarazaga; J. L. Guzmán; C. Domínguez; M. C. Pérez; R. Prieto
Ten multiparous crossbred goats, five each of alpine×beetal (AB) and saanen×beetal (SB) were selected from the National Dairy Research Institute goat herd immediately after parturition. These were managed as per the practices followed in the institute’s goatherd. Blood and milk samples were collected at biweekly intervals from day 14 post-kidding for 22 weeks (154 days). Somatic cell count, electrical conductivity,
Sheep-pox and capripox are contagious diseases of domestic small ruminants for which the causal agent is a poxvirus classified into the Capripoxvirus genus. Viruses of this group have a host range specific to sheep, goats, cattle, and possibly buffalo. Thus, they are clearly indicated as vectors for the development of recombinant vaccines for peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Here we report the immune response of goats inoculated with a recombinant capripox-PPR hemagglutinin. PMID:12381569
Diallo, A; Minet, C; Berhe, G; Le Goff, C; Black, D N; Fleming, M; Barrett, T; Grillet, C; Libeau, G
Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed,\\u000a age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) \\/ glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)\\u000a \\/ glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The\\u000a mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale,
M. Tibbo; Y. Jibril; M. Woldemeskel; F. Dawo; K. Aragaw; J. E. O. Rege
Utilization of ( 1-14 C) oleate by freshly isolated rat and goat hepatocytes was compared. Intracellular (14 C) triglyceride accumulation by hepatocytes did not differ between species. At 2 h of in- cubation, rat hepatocytes secreted ap- proximately 25 times more (14C)tri- glyceride than goat hepatocytes. Very low density lipoprotein secretion was greatest by hepatocytes incubated in media containing 4:1
Barry B. Kleppe; Robert J. Aiello; Ric R. Grummer; Louis E. Armentano
Summary A 4-year-old female native goat with the history of inappetence and no defecation was referred to the Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine of Shiraz, Shiraz, southern Iran. During exploratory laparotomy, pyloric obstruction and displacement of the abomasum to the left side was observed. Obstruction of pylorus was due to a ball-shaped phytobezoar. The goat was followed
Meimandi Parizi; Rowshan Ghasrodashti; A. Meimandi
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional indices of milk fat of 1\\/2 Boer×Saanen goats on diets supplemented with three roughages. Eighteen goats under a semi-intensive system were divided into groups, and fed an ad libitum supplement of sorghum silage, maize silage or mulberry hay. Nutritional indices were determined from three milk samples taken during winter (August) and spring–summer
E. K. Osmari; U. Cecato; F. A. F. Macedo; N. E. Souza
The aim of this study was to investigate effect of cytoplast on the development competence of reconstructed embryos derived from inter-subspecies somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT). First, the development potency of reconstructed embryos produced by transferring Boer goat fibroblast cell nucleus of different ages into enucleated Sannen goat ova was evaluated in order to determine which age of nuclear donor is favorable for the reconstructed embryos development. Secondly, the another component of reconstructed embryos, "cytoplast," was evaluated by comparing the effect of ovum cytoplast derived from Sannen male symbol x Boer female symbol descendant on the reconstructed embryos development to that of Sannen goat ovum cytoplast. The results revealed that the development rate of the reconstructed embryos derived from 2 months old Boer goat somatic cells was the highest, their gestation rate was up to 50%, and one viable male offspring was obtained. The cytoplast derived from the crossbreeding goats improves the development competence of reconstructed embryos, which birth rate was 5.5%. The genetic identification of offspring by using PCR-SSCP analysis confirmed that these cloned kids were derived from the donor. The results above reveal that the cytoplast of Sannen goat ovum could induce the dedifferentiation of somatic cell nuclei derived from Boer goat, but the reprogramming process of these reconstructed embryos seems incomplete, probably due to some incorrect processes happened after implantation. Relatedness components of nucleus donor in cytoplast of the crossbreeding goat may be helpful to induce the dedifferentiation of somatic cell nuclei completely and improve the development competence of the reconstructed embryos. PMID:17039506
An experiment was conducted to examine how milk yield capacity affects diet selection of pluriparous mixed-breed goats on rangeland. Diets of goats were examined using microhistological fecal analysis at the beginning, middle and end of a 5-month lactation. Throughout lactation (158 days) diets of low (47.8±2.9l kg per lactation) or high (66.0±8.1l kg per lactation) yielding does had similar levels
M. Mellado; R. Estrada; L. Olivares; F. Pastor; J. Mellado
The real-time polymerase chain reaction has been applied for the specific detection and quantification of goat's milk adulteration with cows’ milk. Beside cow-specific primers a primer pair targeting conserved regions in goats and cow's mitochondrial genomes was used to normalize the total quantity of DNA. The method has been shown to be highly specific, as the cow 300-bp amplicon was
A. D?browska; E. Wa?ecka; J. Bania; M. ?elazko; M. Szo?tysik; J. Chrzanowska
We conducted a cross-sectional study of risk factors for herd-level kid positivity for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in dairy-goat farms (Deux-Sèvres, western France). From January to March 2003, faeces from a convenient sample of 879 5- to 30-day-old goat kids from 60 herds were examined microscopically after staining with carbol fuschin. Oocyst shedding was scored semi-quantitatively (0 to 4+) allowing us
Arnaud Delafosse; José Antonio Castro-Hermida; Christian Baudry; Elvira Ares-Mazás; Christophe Chartier
Antibody detection-based tests for paratuberculosis offer speed and economy, 2 diagnostic test attributes important to animal industries with narrow profit margins. Application of such tests to individual milk samples instead of serum samples can further improve testing efficiency and decrease testing cost. Accuracy of a commercial bovine paratuberculosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) adapted for use on goat serum and milk samples was determined. Fecal, blood, and milk samples were collected from 159 goats belonging to 2 Wisconsin goat herds with a prior history of paratuberculosis and 1 herd of 50 goats from a paratuberculosis-free Wisconsin herd. Fecal samples were cultured using the modified BACTEC 12B media. Sera were tested according to the manufacturer's instructions for bovine samples. Milk samples were centrifuged and mixed with the ELISA kit's Mycobacterium phlei-containing diluent at a ratio of 1:2. Using fecal culture as the "gold standard," the sensitivity of the ELISA on goat serum was 64% and the sensitivity of the ELISA on goat milk was 48%. The milk ELISA had higher agreement with fecal culture results (kappa = 0.525) than the serum ELISA (kappa = 0.425). ELISA specificity was 100% on both serum and milk. Regression analysis also showed good correlation between serum and milk S/P values (r2 = 0.67). Although less sensitive, the ELISA on goat milk samples appears to offer a useful, low-cost alternative for detection of goats with paratuberculosis that have progressed to the stage of shedding M. paratuberculosis in their feces. PMID:16130993
Salgado, Miguel; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Collins, Michael T
Area and maximum depth of the longissimus muscle were measured using real-time ultrasound on 25 male Alpine goat kids. To our knowledge, this is the first report of use of real-time ultrasound to estimate carcass quality in goats. Ultrasonic measurements were taken: (A) between the 12th and 13th ribs and (B) at the first lumbar vertebra. Live weight, condition score,
K. Stanford; T. A. McAllister; M. MacDougall; D. R. C. Bailey
The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was studied on 10 intensively reared sheep and goat farms in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. Random faecal samples were collected and examined using the Merifluor((R)) immunofluorescence assay. Cryptosporidium positive samples were withheld for molecular identification using primers targeting the 18S rDNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein and 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. For the molecular identification of Giardia the beta-giardin gene and a recently developed assemblage specific PCR based on the triose phosphate isomerase gene were used. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in lambs was 13.1% (18/137), on 4 out of 10 farms. In goat kids the Cryptosporidium prevalence was 9.5% (14/148), on 6 out of 10 farms. The molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium positive isolates indicated that in lambs (n=10) the cervine genotype was predominant, whereas in the goat kids (n=11) only C. parvum was identified, with subgenotypes IIaA15G2R1 and IIdA22G1. The Giardia prevalence was 25.5% (35/137) in lambs with all 10 farms being positive, and 35.8% (53/148) in goat kids with 8 out of the 10 farms being positive. Both in the goat kids and in the lambs the host specific assemblage E was most commonly identified. However, the zoonotic assemblage A was identified in 6 out of 28 goat kids and in 2 out of 8 lambs, based on the beta-giardin sequence alignment. Using the assemblage specific PCR, mixed assemblage A and E infections were additionally identified in 2 lambs and in 5 goat kids. The results of the present study indicate that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common parasites on intensively reared sheep and goat farms in the province of East Flanders, Belgium, and that they are a potential source for zoonotic infections. PMID:18565678
Knowledge of an animal's tendencies, including their directional biases, can aid in design of handling facilities and enhance our understanding of livestock and livestock:environment interactions. Recent work suggests that goats consistently prefer to turn left in mazes. The objective of this research was to determine if free-ranging angora goats (Capra hircus) exhibit left- or right-hand tendencies when grazing in paddocks
The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on the emotional reactivity, the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system of goat offspring according to their gender, and to investigate the role of maternal cortisol in prenatal stress effects. Goats were exposed to ten transports in isolation or ten ACTH injections (0.125
S. Roussel; A. Boissy; D. Montigny; P. H. Hemsworth; C. Duvaux-Ponter
Ruminal bolus for electronic identification of Sarda goats under extensive farm conditions and the retention rate and health effects of ceramic boluses (70mm×21mm, 75g) enclosing passive transponders half-duplex (32.5mm×3.8mm) were evaluated. A metallic balling gun was used in order to insert 1411 boluses into goats (1132 adults and 279 kids) and the effect on health and retention rate were determined
Pharmacokinetic properties of the antimicrobial fluoroquinolone, enrofloxacin, were studied in female goats. Enrofloxacin was given to goats in a single dose of 2.5mgkg?1 body weight by intravenous (i.v.) route. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture into heparinized tubes at predetermined times after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin were simultaneously determined by reversed-phase high
G. S. Rao; S. Ramesh; A. H. Ahmad; H. C. Tripathi; L. D. Sharma; J. K. Malik
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly. PMID:19559583
A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) is an important member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. In the present study, a novel cDNA was isolated from the spleen of goat by RT-PCR and designated as goat APRIL (gAPRIL). The open reading frame (ORF) of this cDNA covered 753bp, encoding a protein of 250 amino acids. Sequence comparison showed that gAPRIL contains
Differences in live weight and mature size associated with farm of origin, age and sex were quantified for commercial Australian cashmere goats. Goats from 11 farms in four Australian states, consisting of 1367 does and 98 wethers aged 1–13-year-old were monitored between December and June (early summer to mid winter). We used the live weight for May, as this was
Thirty-six 1.0-year-old Liao Ning Cashmere goat wethers (BW=22.01±0.59kg) were used to determine the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) level on the performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma Zn status during the cashmere fiber growing period. The goats were randomly divided into four groups that were fed a basal diet containing 22.3mg Zn\\/kg dry matter (DM) with 0, 15, 30 or 45mg
SUMMARY During the anoestrous period, induction and synchronisation of oestrous was obtained in 30 cashmere goats at 54±5 days after kidding. A treatment for 11 days with vaginal sponges containing FGA (Fluorogestone-acetate) 45 mg and an injection of 400 I.U. of PMSG and 125 mg of PGF 2a i.m. two days before sponge removal, was used. Goats were equally divided
The recent availability of a genome-wide SNP array for the goat genome dramatically increases the power to investigate aspects of genetic diversity and to conduct genome-wide association studies in this important domestic species. We collected and analysed genotypes from 52 088 SNPs in Boer, Cashmere and Rangeland goats that had both polled and horned individuals. Principal components analysis revealed a clear genetic division between animals for each population, and model-based clustering successfully detected evidence of admixture that matched aspects of their recorded history. For example, shared co-ancestry was detected, suggesting Boer goats have been introgressed into the Rangeland population. Further, allele frequency data successfully tracked the altered genetic profile that has taken place after 40 years of breeding Australian Cashmere goats using the Rangeland animals as the founding population. Genome-wide association mapping of the POLL locus revealed a strong signal on goat chromosome 1. The 769-kb critical interval contained the polled intersex syndrome locus, confirming the genetic basis in non-European animals is the same as identified previously in Saanen goats. Interestingly, analysis of the haplotypes carried by a small set of sex-reversed animals, known to be associated with polledness, revealed some animals carried the wild-type chromosome associated with the presence of horns. This suggests a more complex basis for the relationship between polledness and the intersex condition than initially thought while validating the application of the goat SNP50 BeadChip for fine-mapping traits in goat. PMID:23216229
SUMMARY Genetic parameters were calculated for fibre traits measured on patch samples taken at 5 months of age on a crossbred population of cashmere goats, comprising goats of Scottish feral, Icelandic, Tasmanian, New Zealand and Siberian origin. Within-strain heritabilities, fitting genetic origin as a covariable, were: live weight, 0.71 (s.e. 0.08), fibre diameter, 0.63 (0.07), diameter standard deviation 0.43 (0.08),
The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449
Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735?cells/?L, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213?cells/?L, IgE 694 ± 921?IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6?KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk.
Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima
Goats, called "the cow of the poor", are the livestock species with the most significant population growth worldwide in recent years. Gastrointestinal parasitism constitutes one of the main constraints to its outdoor and extensive breeding in temperate and tropical countries. Despite a Creole goat population of nearly 4 million heads, local reports on parasitological prevalence are scarce, and while Fasciola hepatica infection is spread all over Argentina, the goat is usually neglected as a reservoir and economic losses are not considered. To evaluate gastrointestinal parasitism prevalence and associations between parasite genera and species, with emphasis on fascioliasis, Creole goats from the plateau and Andean regions from western Argentina were investigated by coprological techniques, and associations were statistically assessed. Eighty-five percent (85%) of the animals harbored one or more parasite types, while 46% showed mixed infections. Significant positive associations between F. hepatica + Strongyle eggs, Eimeria sp. + Nematodirus sp. and Nematodirus sp. + Trichuris ovis were detected. Further studies are required to define the causality of these associations and their relevance in epidemiology. F. hepatica is rarely considered as goat parasite in the country, but a 33% prevalence poses an interrogation on the role goats play on the transmission and dissemination of this zoonotic trematode. PMID:23471428
As the fast pace of genomic research continues to identify mitochondrial lineages in animals, it has become apparent that many independent studies are needed to support a robust phylogenetic inference. The aim of this study was thus to further characterize the maternal lineage, proposed to originate in southwestern region of China, using a wider survey of diverse goat breeds in China. To this end, we sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the mtDNA control region in 145 goats of 12 Chinese breeds. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese goats were classified into four distinct lineages (A, B, C and D) as previously reported. A Mantel test and the analysis of Analysis of Molecular Variance (ANOVA) indicated that there was not an obvious geographic structure among Chinese goat breeds. Population expansion analysis based on mismatch distribution and Fu's Fs statistic indicate that two expansion events in Chinese goats occurred respectively at about 11 and 29 mutational time units ago, revealing two star-like subclades in lineage B corresponding to two population expansion events. Moreover, lineage B sequences were presented only in the breeds of southwestern or surrounding regions of China. Multiple lines of evidence from this study and previous studies indicate that for Chinese goats mtDNA lineage B originated from the southwestern region of China. PMID:20163596
To understand the origin and genetic phylogeography of Chinese black goats, variations of mitochondrial DNA were characterised with 394 goats from 18 breeds, including 91 new individuals from regions poorly studied until now. Comparison of a 481-bp segment revealed a total of 192 haplotypes with 141 variable sites. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.782?±?0.079 to 1.000?±?0.020 and from 0.009?±?0.001 to 0.045?±?0.006, respectively, indicating a relatively high genetic diversity in Chinese black goats. Phylogenetic analyses identified five haplogroups (A, B1, B2, C and D). The dominant haplogroups A, B1 and B2 were distributed in most of breeds, while the haplogroups C and D were only presented in the breeds located in north or northwest of China. Analysis of molecular variance and multidimensional scaling plot of F ST analyses indicated no obvious geographic structure among breeds. Furthermore, the migration rates revealed that a wide range of gene flow or gene exchange occurred among breeds, which may result in the weak geographic structure of Chinese black goats. Population expansion analysis based on mismatch distribution indicated that two expansion events in Chinese black goats occurred at 10 and 28 mutational time units. Finally, our findings indicate the multiple maternal origins of Chinese black goats and more gene flow (female-mediated) which occurred during their domestic and breeding histories. PMID:23780786
Zhong, Tao; Zhao, Qian Jun; Niu, Li Li; Wang, Jie; Jin, Peng Fei; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lin Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hong Ping; Ma, Yue Hui
Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.
Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world.
The Agouti gene plays an important role in pigment synthesis in domestic animals. A transversion of 423G>T recognized by BanII was found after a fragment (178 bp) of the goat Agouti gene exon 4 was amplified and sequenced. To investigate its genetic effect and diversity, 677 individuals from 12 indigenous\\u000a Chinese goat breeds and one imported goat breed from South Africa
The efficacy of peritoneal fluid from rabbit and goat for in vitro maturation, fertilization and initial culture of embryos from caprine oocytes was evaluated. Peritoneal fluid was collected from adult female goats (n=9) or rabbits (n=9). Good quality oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation and fertilization in three different media viz. Tissue Culture Medium (TCM-199), goat Peritoneal Fluid (gPF)
Rakesh Kumar Malik; Inder Singh Lohan; Om Prakash Dhanda; Om Kanwar Hooda; Sajjan Singh
This paper reports the influence of nutrition on the photoperiodic control of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in female Mediterranean goats (i.e., goats from the Mediterranean area in general). Ovariectomized, oestradiol-treated goats were subjected to two consecutive intervals of 3 months of long days followed by 3 months of short days (group LDSD, N=20), or vice versa (group SDLD, N=20). The
The polymorphism of mutation Q249R in BMPR-IB gene (FecB) and loci FecXI, FecXH, FecXG, FecXB in BMP15 gene was analyzed by forced PCR-RFLP method in 550 individuals from 6 flocks or breeds of goats with litter size varied from 1.4 to 2.7 including Boer (209), Haimen (128), second generation of Boer goat crossed with Huanghuai goat (82), Huanghuai (71), Nubi
Guo-Hua Hua; Shi-Lin Chen; Jun-Tao Ai; Li-Guo Yang
Fifteen sheep and 15 goats were fed isonitrogenous amounts (7.2g N day?1) of A. nilotica, A. seyal and S. sesban as supplements to ad libitum allowance of tef straw in a randomized block design. Sheep consumed more straw and total DM than goats fed on the same browses. Digestibility of DM and NDF were higher (P < 0.05) in goats
The quality characteristics of three groups of goat meat obtained from one year and three years old Anglonubian crossed native, and culled Saanen crossed native were investigated. Significant differences in fat, ash and total collagen content, were observed among groups of goat meat (P<0.05). The meat from younger goat was lighter in color and more tender (P<0.05). Chemical composition and
In this study, we demonstrate the production of transgenic goats by nuclear transfer of fetal somatic cells. Donor karyoplasts were obtained from a primary fetal somatic cell line derived from a 40-day transgenic female fetus produced by artificial insemination of a nontransgenic adult female with semen from a transgenic male. Live offspring were produced with two nuclear transfer procedures. In one protocol, oocytes at the arrested metaphase II stage were enucleated, electrofused with donor somatic cells, and simultaneously activated. In the second protocol, activated in vivo oocytes were enucleated at the telophase II stage, electrofused with donor somatic cells, and simultaneously activated a second time to induce genome reactivation. Three healthy identical female offspring were born. Genotypic analyses confirmed that all cloned offspring were derived from the donor cell line. Analysis of the milk of one of the transgenic cloned animals showed high-level production of human antithrombin III, similar to the parental transgenic line. PMID:10331804
Baguisi, A; Behboodi, E; Melican, D T; Pollock, J S; Destrempes, M M; Cammuso, C; Williams, J L; Nims, S D; Porter, C A; Midura, P; Palacios, M J; Ayres, S L; Denniston, R S; Hayes, M L; Ziomek, C A; Meade, H M; Godke, R A; Gavin, W G; Overström, E W; Echelard, Y
Metabolic adaptations of goat mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactation were monitored in serial biopsies of the tissue. Changes in the synthetic capacity of secretory cells were studied by combining measurements of enzyme activities with short-term culture of mammary explants to measure lactose, casein and total protein synthesis. By these criteria, the main phase of mammary differentiation began in late pregnancy and was essentially complete by Week 5 of lactation, coinciding with the achievement of peak milk yield. While milk yield declined after Week 5, the activities of key enzymes expressed per mg DNA and the rates of lactose and casein synthesis in mammary explants were maintained over a considerable period. The results suggest that changes in the synthetic capacity of epithelial cells may account for much of the rise in milk yield in early lactation, but are not responsible for the declining phase of milk production characteristic of lactation in ruminants. PMID:2868125
1. The goat, sheep and calf have gustatory chemoreceptors which respond to salt, sweet, sour and bitter solutions, from which the afferent fibres pass centrally in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves. 2. Action potentials in the afferent gustatory nerves can also be detected when the tongue is irrigated with sodium bicarbonate, ethylene glycol, glycerine, and saccharine. 3. Distilled water reduces the background activity in the isolated gustatory nerves, thus demonstrating the absence of fibres in ruminant ungulates of receptors which respond to stimulation by distilled water. 4. The responses from the chemoreceptors, associated especially with the circumvallate papillae, are enhanced if the papillae are gently moved at the time of irrigation with sapid solutions. 5. The chorda tympani is most responsive to salt and acid solutions while the glossopharyngeal is more responsive to sugars, quinine and acid.
Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets. PMID:21190801
The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. ?eta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a ?eta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. PMID:20113446
The procedure of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is likely to affect the expression level of growth-related genes especially imprinting genes. In this study, expressions of growth-related genes including three imprinting genes (H19, IGF2, and IGF2R) and four non-imprinting genes (IGF1, IGF1R, GHR, and GHSR) in adult nuclear transferred (NT) goats were investigated by real-time PCR. The expressions of these genes in adult clones were found largely normal, but IGF2R and IGF1R were more highly expressed in cloned goats than in non-NT goats (P < 0.01). Analysis on mono-allelic expression pattern of imprinting genes indicated that mono-allelic expression patterns of H19 and IGF2 in cloned goats were similar to that in non-NT goats. In addition, the sequence of goat IGF2 gene and the putative amino acid sequence were obtained. The 986 nucleotide cDNA of goat IGF2 gene contained an open-reading frame of 540 nucleotides coding for 179 amino acids. Both cDNA sequence and amino acid sequence of IGF2 in goat showed their higher homology with that in sheep than in cattle; the partial cDNA fragments of H19, IGF2R, GHSR, IGF1R, and GHR in goat were also cloned and sequenced, which shared higher sequence identities with those in sheep than in cattle. PMID:17707215
Xing, Baosong; Xu, Yinxue; Cheng, Yong; Liu, Honglin; Du, Miao
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term, preslaughter stress on physiological responses and meat quality in goats of different age groups. The goats (n = 28) were classified into young (6 to 12 mo of age) and old (24 to 30 mo of age) groups, feed deprived overnight, and slaughtered at three different times (replicates). On each slaughter day, goats were either subjected to a 2-h transportation stressor (TS) or remained unstressed in holding pens (NS) before slaughter. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture from TS and NS goats at 2, 1, and 0 h before slaughter. Muscle glycogen and pH were measured on samples from longissimus muscle (LM) collected at 15 min and 24 h postmortem, and instrumental measures of meat color were obtained on the LM after a 24-h chilling period at 4 degrees C. The TS goats had higher plasma cortisol (P < 0.01) and glucose (P < 0.05) concentrations than NS goats. The rates of increase in plasma cortisol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were greater in TS than in NS goats (stressor treatment x blood sampling time, P < 0.01). Muscle glycogen concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in NS than in TS goats and higher (P < 0.01) in old vs. young goats; however, pH measured at 15 min and 24 h postmortem was not (P > 0.05) influenced by stressor treatment. Water-holding capacity of meat was not (P > 0.05) influenced by stressor treatment. Older goats had lower (P < 0.01) L* values and greater (P < 0.01) a* and chroma values than the younger goats. The a* and chroma values of loin cuts from young goat carcasses were lower in the TS than NS treatment groups, but this effect was absent in the old goat carcasses (stressor treatment x age, P < 0.05). Cooking loss percentages and shear force values for loin chops aged for 7 d were not (P < 0.05) affected by stressor treatment; however, old goats produced tougher (P < 0.01) loin chops than young goats. These results indicate that short-term preslaughter transport can cause noticeable changes in stress responses and muscle metabolism in goats. PMID:12817498
The objectives of these experiments were to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in young and mature goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether the effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding management. Two experiments were conducted during cooler months in Georgia, and 4 experiments were conducted during warmer spring or summer months in Arkansas. Meat goats received 0 up to 10 g of COWP under a variety of management conditions. In all experiments, blood and feces were collected every 3 or 7 d from 6 to 42 d to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC) to estimate the degree of GIN infection. In mature goats grazing fall pasture, mean FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated goats increased, and those of 4 g of COWP-treated goats remained low on d 0, 7, and 14 (COWP x d, P < 0.03), and FEC decreased on these days (P < 0.001). In 5 and 10 g of COWP-treated goats, PCV increased (P < 0.001), but FEC and PCV remained unchanged over time in control goats. Fecal egg counts were similar among all low doses (0.5, 1, 2, 4 g) of COWP administered to weaned kids for all dates examined (P > 0.10), which were lower on d 7 through 21 (COWP x date, P < 0.05) but similar by d 28, compared with FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated kids. Packed cell volume was lower in 0 g compared with all COWP-treated kids by d 14 (COWP x date, P < 0.05). Feeding management in combination with COWP for GIN control had little effect compared with COWP alone for these short-term studies. In conclusion, a dose of COWP as low as 0.5 g, which was considered optimal to reduce the risk of copper toxicity, was effective in reducing FEC in young goats, and 5 g of COWP was effective in older goats. Copper oxide does not appear to be effective in controlling newly acquired L4 stage (preadult) larvae, which also feed on blood, leading to decreased PCV in newly infected goats. PMID:17565056
Burke, J M; Terrill, T H; Kallu, R R; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J
The exploratory study locates the development of small ruminant livestock (goat) raising in the coastal peasant community, Salas. The features of goat herding in Salas are closely related to cyclical climatological changes. The report includes a descripti...
Cow milk allergy is the most frequent allergy in the first years of life. Milk from other mammalian species has been suggested as a possible nutritional alternative to cow milk, but in several cases, the clinical studies showed a high risk of cross-reactivity with cow milk. In the goat species, ?S?-casein (?S?-CN), coded by the CSN1S1 gene, is characterized by extensive qualitative and quantitative polymorphisms. Some alleles are associated with null (i.e., CSN1S1 0(1)) or reduced (i.e., CSN1S1 F) expression of the specific protein. The aim of this work was to obtain new information on goat milk and to evaluate its suitability for allergic subjects, depending on the genetic variation at ?s?-CN. Individual milk samples from 25 goats with different CSN1S1 genotypes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and immunoblotting, using monoclonal antibodies specific for bovine ?-CN and sera from children allergic to cow milk. A lower reaction was observed to 2 goat milk samples characterized by the CSN1S1 0(1)0(1) and 0(1)F genotypes. Moreover, a fresh food skin prick test, carried out on 6 allergic children, showed the lack of positive reaction to the 0(1)0(1) milk sample and only one weak reactivity to the 0(1)F sample. The risk of cross-reactivity between cow and goat milk proteins suggests the need for caution before using goat milk for infant formulas. However, we hypothesize that it can be used successfully in the preparation of modified formulas for selected groups of allergic patients. The importance of taking the individual goat CN genetic variation into account in further experimental studies is evident from the results of the present work. PMID:21257068
Ballabio, C; Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Gigliotti, C; Pagnacco, G; Terracciano, L; Fiocchi, A; Restani, P; Caroli, A M
Economic losses incurred by Przhevalskiana silenus in goats of Jammu province of Jammu and Kashmir (North India) were assessed from July 2005 to June 2006. Abattoir studies revealed holes in hides for 112 days (mid-December 2005 to first week of April 2006) and trimming of carcass for 243 days (July 2005 to February 2006) during a lifecycle, leading to annual losses of Rs. 7,391,432 and Rs. 10,510,837, respectively. An effect on production traits (weight gain and milk) was assessed on naturally P. silenus-infested Beetal goats. The mean body weight loss of warbled goats was 2.40 kg (equal to 1.096 kg of meat, assuming 45.7% dressing percentage of goat) leading to an annual loss of Rs. 35,473,265. The mean milk yield loss per warbled goat per day was 101.7 g resulting in losses to the tune of Rs. 19,879,012. It can be concluded that P. silenus infestation resulted in an overall loss of Rs. 73,254,547, i.e. 73.26 million annually (equivalent to US $1.62 million; US $1?=?Rs. 45.24), where reduced growth alone contributed 49% of the total losses. A study recommends that a control scheme against P. silenus infestation in goats using an effective insecticide should be followed to prevent huge economic losses in hide, milk and meat production. Economic losses associated with P. silenus infestation in goats were estimated for the first time from India. PMID:21814752
The efficiency of germ cell transplantation, the procedure of transferring germ cells from a donor male into the testes of recipient males, can be greatly increased by reduction of endogenous germ cells in recipient animals. To develop effective methods for suppression of endogenous spermatogenesis in potential pig and goat recipients, we either administered busulfan to pregnant sows or irradiated the testes of immature goats. Piglets from sows treated twice with busulfan (7.5 mg/kg) at days 98 and 108 of gestation showed reduced gonocyte numbers at 2, 4, and 8 weeks of age and reduced initiation of spermatogenesis at 16 weeks of age. For goats, groups of 3 kids at 1, 5, or 9.5 weeks of age received fractionated irradiation of the testes with 3 doses of 2 Gy on 3 consecutive days. At 2 months after irradiation, 5%–10% of seminiferous tubule cross sections contained pachytene spermatocytes, compared with 50%–100% in controls. At 3 months after irradiation, spermatozoa appeared in 20% of tubule cross sections in all treated goats and in 100% of tubules in control goats. By 6 months after irradiation, spermatogenesis had recovered in 60% of tubules in goats treated at 5 or 9.5 weeks of age but in only 29% of tubules after treatment at 1 week of age. Therefore, late gestation in utero treatment of pigs with low doses of busulfan and testicular irradiation of goats at 1 week of age will result in a reduction in the endogenous germ cell population that could facilitate donor cell colonization after germ cell transplantation.
HONARAMOOZ, ALI; BEHBOODI, ESMAIL; HAUSLER, CARL L.; BLASH, STEPHEN; AYRES, SANDRA; AZUMA, CHIEKO; ECHELARD, YANN; DOBRINSKI, INA
Performances of an ELISA, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a complement fixation test (CFT) were assessed for detecting antibodies against Coxiella burnetii after Q fever abortions in naturally infected goats. The goal of the study was to provide information useful for veterinary serodiagnosis in regard to categories of goats either experiencing Q fever abortion or not, blood sampling times and recommended cut-offs. The study was conducted on eight goat herds with evidence of C. burnetii abortions. In each herd, at least 5 goats that had aborted and 10 goats prior to parturition or at term were monitored 15, 30 and 60 days (D15, D30, D60) after the onset of Q fever abortion. The overall CFT results distribution did not differ between the two groups of goats and showed poor agreement with the ELISA results. In contrast, the ELISA and IFA results revealed comparable significant differences, but overall the ELISA test was slightly more sensitive than the IFA test. Seroprevalence, according to ELISA and IFA respectively, was higher in the aborting (88% and 82%) than in the non-aborting group (60% and 50%). High levels of serum antibodies were detected in goats post-abortion with an average of 114 %OD using ELISA and a log10(titer) of 2.4 using IFA. Strongly positive ELISA (%OD>80) and positive IFA results (log10(titers)>1.9) were significantly associated with abortion. Sampling on D15 gave the best association with ORs of 10 for ELISA and 6 for IFA. The practical interest of these results is discussed. PMID:17532581
Five serological assays were evaluated for the diagnosis of brucellosis in goats: the rose bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT), radial immunodiffusion (RID) with Brucella and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 polysaccharides, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) with cytosol, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with polyclonal and protein G conjugates and smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), native hapten polysaccharide (NH), or cytosol antigens. For optimal sensitivity, RBT had to be used with sera-antigen at a 3:1 dilution. In the RID test, Brucella melitensis biotype 1 NH could not be replaced by Brucella abortus biotype 1 or Y. enterocolitica 0:9 polysaccharides. In the ELISA, S-LPS and NH gave similar results and the protein G conjugate increased the specificity. With the sera from 55 B. melitensis culture-positive goats, the sensitivity was 100% for RBT, CFT (titer > or = 4), and ELISA with S-LPS or NH; 94% for RID; and 93% for CIEP. All tests were negative (100% specific) when testing the sera from 127 brucella-free goats. Larger discrepancies among the results of the serological tests were obtained with sera from goats of areas where brucellosis is endemic. When the sera of 20 young goats vaccinated subcutaneously (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) and bled 6 months later were examined, the specificities were as follows: NH ELISA, 60%; CFT and S-LPS ELISA, 75%; RBT, 80%; CIEP, 90%; and RID, 94%. With the sera from 10 young goats vaccinated conjunctivally (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) all tests were 100% specific 4 months after vaccination. The proportion of goats giving a positive reaction after vaccination decreased faster in RID than in other tests.
Diaz-Aparicio, E; Marin, C; Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Aragon, V; Perez-Ortiz, S; Pardo, M; Blasco, J M; Diaz, R; Moriyon, I
Background Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC) by California Mastitis Test (CMT) and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC) are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI) in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT) corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC). Method Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111), in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Results Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18%) of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81%) samples while 3 (1%) samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (72% of all isolates), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates). Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000) associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ?2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. Conclusions According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a predictor of the SCC.
The variability between and within breeds with respect to nematode egg counts (EPG), packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) was studied in 36 yearling female goats of the Caninde (15), Bhuj (6) and Anglo-Nubian (15) breeds, exposed to Haemonchus contortus. Nematode-free goats were turned to a contaminated paddock in late February. From then on, fecal egg per gram counts (EPG), packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) were determined at 2-week intervals up to Week 18. The EPG, transformed as [log(EPG + 75)], varied (P < 0.01) between goats within breeds and between weeks of exposure, but not between goat breeds (P > 0.05). PCV and Hb were affected by goat breeds (P < 0.05), by goats within breeds (P < 0.01) and by weeks of exposure (P < 0.01). Anglo-Nubians had higher (P < 0.01) PCV and Hb than Caninde; Bhuj had intermediate values. There were two EPG rises; one between Weeks 6 and 10 and the other between Weeks 14 and 16. The within breed variability was marked during the EPG rise on Week 6, when individual egg counts ranged from 130 to 2500. The EPG rises coincided with drops in Hb. PCV presented a similar trend, though not as marked. Haemonchus was responsible for more than 95% of nematode eggs counted. Considering the goat as experimental unit, the correlation coefficients (r) were: -0.45, P = 0.0064, between log(EPG + 75) and PCV; and -0.53, P = 0.0009, between log(EPG + 75) and Hb. The negative correlation between egg counts and blood values suggested breed differences in PCV and Hb were related to resistance to H. contortus infection and/or to its effects. PMID:10681034
Costa, C A; Vieira, L D; Berne, M E; Silva, M U; Guidoni, A L; Figueiredo, E A
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that play significant roles in regulating the expression of the post-transcriptional skin and hair follicle gene. In recent years, extensive studies on these microRNAs have been carried out in mammals such as mice, rats, pigs and cattle. By comparison, the number of microRNAs that have been identified in goats is relatively low; and in particular, the miRNAs associated with the processes of skin and hair follicle development remain largely unknown. In this study, areas of skin where the cashmere grows in anagen were sampled. A total of 10,943,292 reads were obtained using Solexa sequencing, a high-throughput sequencing technology. From 10,644,467 reads, we identified 3,381 distinct reads and after applying the classification statistics we obtained 316 miRNAs. Among them, using conservative identification, we found that 68 miRNAs (55 of these are confirmed to match known sheep and goat miRNAs in miRBase ) are conserved in goat and have been reported in NCBI; the remaining 248 miRNA were conserved in other species but have not been reported in goat. Furthermore, we identified 22 novel miRNAs. Both the known and novel miRNAs were confirmed by a second sequencing using the same method as was used in the first. This study confirmed the authenticity of 316 known miRNAs and the discovery of 22 novel miRNAs in goat. We found that the miRNAs that were co-expressed in goat and sheep were located in the same region of the respective chromosomes and may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. Identificaton of novel miRNAs resulted in significant enrichment of the repertoire of goat miRNAs. PMID:23236360
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that play significant roles in regulating the expression of the post-transcriptional skin and hair follicle gene. In recent years, extensive studies on these microRNAs have been carried out in mammals such as mice, rats, pigs and cattle. By comparison, the number of microRNAs that have been identified in goats is relatively low; and in particular, the miRNAs associated with the processes of skin and hair follicle development remain largely unknown. In this study, areas of skin where the cashmere grows in anagen were sampled. A total of 10,943,292 reads were obtained using Solexa sequencing, a high-throughput sequencing technology. From 10,644,467 reads, we identified 3,381 distinct reads and after applying the classification statistics we obtained 316 miRNAs. Among them, using conservative identification, we found that 68 miRNAs (55 of these are confirmed to match known sheep and goat miRNAs in miRBase ) are conserved in goat and have been reported in NCBI; the remaining 248 miRNA were conserved in other species but have not been reported in goat. Furthermore, we identified 22 novel miRNAs. Both the known and novel miRNAs were confirmed by a second sequencing using the same method as was used in the first. This study confirmed the authenticity of 316 known miRNAs and the discovery of 22 novel miRNAs in goat. We found that the miRNAs that were co-expressed in goat and sheep were located in the same region of the respective chromosomes and may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. Identificaton of novel miRNAs resulted in significant enrichment of the repertoire of goat miRNAs.
The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo yield of Day 0 protocol in Angora goats (AG) and indigenous\\u000a Kilis goats (KG) in the non-breeding season. A total of 16 Angora goats (AG group) and 11 Kilis goats (KG group) were used\\u000a in this study. In the synchronization process, after controlled internal drug release withdrawal, when estrus
Umut Ta?demir; Ali Reha A?ao?lu; Mustafa Kaymaz; Kübra Karaka?
A total of 800 goats of various breeds, age, and sex were randomly selected from Muzaffargarh (M. garh) and Layyah districts\\u000a of lower Punjab, Pakistan. The selected goats were visited twice a month to collect information about determinants influencing\\u000a goat tick infestation prevalence. For acaricidal efficacy, 360 tick-infested adult goats were subjected to an acaricidal treatment\\u000a and post-treatment quantitative assessment
Muhammad Sohail Sajid; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Nisar Khan; Ghulam Muhammad; Glen Needham; Muhammad Kasib Khan
Milk fat secretion is a complex process that initiates in the endoplasmic reticulum of the mammary epithelial cell by the budding of lipid droplets. Lipid droplets are finally released as fat globules in milk enveloped by the apical plasma membrane of the mammary epithelial cell. The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) thus comprises membrane-specific proteins and polar lipids (glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids) surrounding a core of neutral lipids (mainly triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters). We have recently described major proteins of the MFGM in the goat and we have highlighted prominent differences between goats and bovine species, especially regarding lactadherin, a major MFGM protein. Here, we show that, in the goat species, the well-documented genetic polymorphism at the ?(s1)-casein (CSN1S1) locus affects both structure and composition of milk fat globules. We first evidenced that both milk fat globule size and ?-potential are related to the ?(s1)-casein genotype. At midlactation, goats displaying strong genotypes for ?(s1)-casein (A/A goats) produce larger fat globules than goats with a null genotype at the CSN1S1 locus (O/O goats). A linear relationship (R(2)=0.75) between fat content (g/kg) in the milk and diameter of fat globules (?m) was established. Moreover, we found significant differences with regard to MFGM composition (including both polar lipids and MFGM proteins) from goats with extreme genotype at the CSN1S1 locus. At midlactation, the amount of polar lipids is significantly higher in the MFGM from goats with null genotypes for ?(s1)-casein (O/O goats; 5.97±0.11mg/g of fat; mean ± standard deviation) than in the MFGM from goats with strong genotypes for ?(s1)-casein (A/A goats; 3.96±0.12mg/g of fat; mean ± standard deviation). Two MFGM-associated proteins, namely lactadherin and stomatin, are also significantly upregulated in the MFGM from goats with null genotype for ?(s1)-casein at early lactation. Our findings are discussed with regard to techno-functional properties and nutritional value of goat milk. In addition, the genetic polymorphism in the goat species appears to be a tool to provide clues to the lipid secretion pathways in the mammary epithelial cell. PMID:22921619
Goat husbandry in Oman’s Hajar Mountains supplies income and manure to farmers. An earlier analysis concluded that it uses purchased feeds inefficiently, but did not value the contribution of mountain pastures to goat nutrition and cropland fertilization. Therefore intake of pasture vegetation, cultivated forages and purchased feeds was determined in goats from three villages in spring and autumn 2005. Faecal
E. Schlecht; U. Dickhöfer; M. Predotova; A. Buerkert
Goats and sheep often graze together and guardian dogs are commonly used for protection from predators. The objective of this experiment was to characterise how goats, sheep and guardian dogs interact spatially when grazing the same pasture by use of global positioning system (GPS) collars as an unobtrusive means of behaviour monitoring. In 2002 and 2003, three meat goats and
T. A. Gipson; T. Sahlu; M. Villaquiran; S. P. Hart; J. Joseph; R. C. Merkel; A. L. Goetsch
A review of goat production systems in harsh and dry environments of West Asia, Central Asia and the Inter-Andean valleys of Latin America reveals that while goats are an important component of a considerable number of vulnerable and resource-poor production systems, the production performance and potentials have not been sufficiently characterized nor documented. In West and Central Asia goats are
The genetic and cytogenetic map around the chromosome 1 region shown to be linked with polledness and intersexuality (PIS) in the domestic goat (Capra hircus) was refined. For this purpose, a goat BAC library was systematically screened with primers from human coding sequences, scraped chromosome 1 DNA, bovine microsatellites from the region, and BAC ends. All the BACs (n= 30)
Daniel Vaiman; Laurent Schibler; Anne Oustry-Vaiman; Eric Pailhoux; Tom Goldammer; Milena Stevanovic; Jean-Pierre Furet; Manfred Schwerin; Corinne Cotinot; Marc Fellous; Edmond P. Cribiu
The accuracy of transrectal real-time ultrasonography (RTU) scanning technique to detect ovarian structures (follicles and corpus luteum) of Serrana goats was compared to the data obtained by observation of ovarian sequential slices. This slicing technique (SLI) was considered as reference method. The laparoscopy and laparotomy techniques were also used for corpora lutea identification. For this purpose the ovaries of 14 females were observed, 7-8 days after ovulation, by transrectal ultrasonography followed by laparoscopic examination. Then ovaries were removed and studied by slicing. In the sliced sections of each ovary (n=28), follicles and corpus luteum (CL) were identified and counted. CL and follicular diameters were measured using a millimetre scale. The total number of follicles, counted by RTU, was significantly lower than that observed by SLI (P <0.01). This difference was mainly due to the under estimation of <2 mm follicles category. The correlation coefficient between category data obtained by RTU and SLI methods for the number of follicles > or =3 mm was high (r2=0.95, P <0.001), which highlights the use of UTR as a potential methodology to study the follicular dynamic of goats. There were no significant differences (P >0.05) between the average number (mean +/- S.D.) of corpus luteum identified per ovary by RTU (0.71 +/- 0.75), laparoscopy (0.58 +/- 0.71), laparotomy (0.67 +/- 0.76) or SLI (0.83 +/- 0.76) methods. The accuracy for the identification of ovulation, validated by CL detection on D7-D8 by SLI (100%), was 91.7%, 87.5% and 83.3% by RTU, laparotomy and laparoscopy, respectively. The negative predictive value of RTU, laparotomy and laparoscopy to verify the absence of a CL in the ovary was 81.8%, 75.0% and 69.2%, respectively. The specificity of all three methods for the CL identification was 100%. No significant differences (P >0.05) were found in the probability to detect the exact number of CL (0, 1 or 2) counted in each ovary between the RTU (87.5%), laparotomy (83.3%) and laparoscopy (75.0%) methods when compared with the reference method. The diameter of spherical CL could be estimated with reliability (r2=0.86; P <0.001). The real-time ultrasonographic scanning proved to be a highly accurate method for detection and measurement of several categories of follicles and CL size in Serrana goats. The results of the present study show that laparoscopy and RTU are similarly reliable techniques for CL detection. However, the RTU represents a non-traumatic technique with advantages to animal welfare both in experimental and reproductive evaluation of the size of ovarian structures. PMID:15581510
Background Suckling can be a peaceful or vulnerable event for goats and kids, whereas, separation is suggested as stressful. The aim of this study was to investigate physiology and behaviour in these two different situations in dairy goats. Methods Four studies were performed with seven goats kept with their first-born kid in individual boxes. The goats were videotaped and heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded every minute by telemetry from parturition until 24 hours after separation. One to two days after parturition, Study 1 was performed with analyses of heart rate and blood pressure around a suckling. In Study 2, performed 3-5 days after parturition, blood sampling was done before, during and after suckling. Study 3 was performed 4-6 days post partum, with blood sampling before and after a permanent goat and kid separation. In addition, vocalisations were recorded after separation. Blood samples were obtained from a jugular vein catheter and analysed for plasma cortisol, ?-endorphin, oxytocin, and vasopressin concentrations. Study 4 was performed during the first (N1) and second nights (N2) after parturition and the nights after Study 2 (N3) and 3 (N4). Heart rate, blood pressure and time spent lying down were recorded. Results The kids suckled 2 ± 0.2 times per hour and each suckling bout lasted 43 ± 15 s. In Study 1, heart rate and blood pressure did not change significantly during undisturbed suckling. In Study 2, plasma cortisol (P ? 0.05 during suckling and P ? 0.01 five minutes after suckling) and ?-endorphin (P ? 0.05) concentrations increased during suckling, but oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations did not change. In Study 3, the goats and kids vocalised intensively during the first 20 minutes after separation, but the physiological variables were not affected. In Study 4, heart rate and arterial blood pressure declined gradually after parturition and were lowest during N4 (P ? 0.05) when the goats spent longer time lying down than during earlier nights (P ? 0.01 during N1 and N3 and P ? 0.05 during N2). Conclusions Suckling elevated plasma cortisol and ?-endorphin concentrations in the goats. The intensive vocalisation in the goats after separation, earlier suggested to indicate stress, was not accompanied by cardiovascular or endocrine responses.
Background Kisspeptins are the peptide products of KISS1 gene, which operate via the G - protein-coupled receptor GPR54. These peptides have emerged as essential upstream regulators of neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the major hypothalamic node for the stimulatory control of the hypothalamic–pituitary– gonadal (HPG) axis. The present study detected the polymorphisms of caprine KISS1 gene in three goat breeds and investigated the associations between these genetic markers and litter size. Results Three goat breeds (n = 680) were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions with their intron–exon boundaries and the proximal flanking regions of KISS1 gene by DNA sequencing and PCR–RFLP. Eleven novel SNPs (g.384G>A, g.1147T>C, g.1417G>A, g.1428_1429delG, g.2124C>T, g.2270C>T, g.2489T>C, g.2510G>A, g.2540C>T, g.3864_3865delCA and g.3885_3886insACCCC) were identified. It was shown that Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong goat breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium at g.384G>A locus (P < 0.05). Both g.2510G>A and g.2540C>T loci were closely linked in Xinong Saanen (SN), Guanzhong (GZ) and Boer (BG) goat breeds (r2 > 0.33). The g.384G>A, g.2489T>C, g.2510G>A and g.2540C>T SNPs were associated with litter size (P<0.05). Individuals with AATTAATT combinative genotype of SN breed (SC) and TTAATT combinative genotype of BG breed (BC) had higher litter size than those with other combinative genotypes in average parity. The results extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the caprine KISS1 gene, which might contribute to goat genetic resources and breeding. Conclusions This study explored the genetic polymorphism of KISS1 gene, and indicated that four SNPs may play an important role in litter size. Their genetic mechanism of reproduction in goat breeds should be further investigated. The female goats with SC1 (AATTAATT) and BC7 (TTAATT) had higher litter size than those with other combinative genotypes in average parity and could be used for the development of new breeds of prolific goats. Further research on a large number of animals is required to confirm the link with increased prolificacy in goats.
The present study has demonstrated the expression of HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and UBQ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in three different age groups (Groups I, II, and III with age of 0-2, 2-5, and >5 years, respectively) of goats of tropical and temperate regions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to investigate mRNA expression of examined factors. Specificity of the desired products was documented using analysis of the melting temperature and high-resolution gel electrophoresis to verify that the transcripts are of the exact molecular size predicted. The mRNA expression of HSP60, HSP90, and UBQ was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in all age groups during peak summer season as compared with peak winter season in both tropical and temperate region goats. HSP70 mRNA expression was significantly higher (P < 0.05) during summer season as compared with winter season in tropical region goats. However, in the temperate region, in goats from all the three age groups studied, a non-significant difference of HSP70 expression between summer and winter seasons was noticed. In conclusion, results demonstrate that (1) HSP genes are expressed in caprine PBMCs and (2) higher expression of HSPs during thermal stress suggest possible involvement of them to ameliorate deleterious effect of thermal stress so as to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis in goats. PMID:22535151
Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could be the most efficient way to find patchily distributed resources in highly variable environments. Studies testing specific assumptions regarding the use of different sources of information can extend our understanding of decision making, including observed patterns of social learning. PMID:24109556
Baciadonna, Luigi; McElligott, Alan G; Briefer, Elodie F
Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L*a*b*) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699
Bacterial pneumonia is a common and often life-threatening respiratory problem in both meat and dairy goats. Options for approved antibiotic therapy in goats to combat these bacterial infections are severely limited and frequently drugs must be used in an extra-label manner. Tulathromycin, a triamilide macrolide antimicrobial drug shown to be effective against swine and cattle respiratory bacterial agents, has been identified as a potentially useful drug in caprines. The present study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of recognized bacterial respiratory pathogens to commonly prescribed antimicrobials, with a particular emphasis on the efficacy of tulathromycin against these agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing using microbroth dilution was performed on a collection of 45 Mannheimia haemolytica, 11 Pasteurella multocida, and 11 Bibersteinia trehalosi isolates from the lungs of goats with clinical pneumonia. To further characterize efficacy of tulathromycin against these pathogens, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) testing and kinetic killing assays were conducted. Most isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested; however, increased resistance as demonstrated by higher MIC values was seen in all species to penicillin, in P. multocida to sulfadimethoxine, and in B. trehalosi to the tetracyclines. All isolates were susceptible to tulathromycin, which demonstrated a high killing efficiency in both bactericidal assays. Results of this study indicate that most goat pneumonic bacterial pathogens remain susceptible to commonly prescribed antibiotics, although some evidence of resistance was seen to certain drugs; and that tulathromycin is highly effective against goat respiratory pathogens which could make it a valuable medication in this species. PMID:22078276
Clothier, Kristin A; Kinyon, Joann M; Griffith, Ronald W
The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity. PMID:20563643
Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak
Certain types of goat's cheeses are produced using unpasteurized milk, which increases the food safety concerns for these types of products. Popularity and consumption of goat's milk products have increased, and the niche market includes gourmet goat's cheeses. The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations and the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance both address the possibility for processing alternatives to heat treatment, and the use of UV light treatment may be a viable alternative that still ensures the safety of the product. Fresh goat's milk was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (L-2289) at 10(7) CFU/ml and exposed to UV light using the CiderSure 3500 apparatus (FPE Inc., Macedon, NY). Inoculated milk was exposed to a UV dose range between 0 and 20 mJ/cm2 to determine the optimal UV dose. A greater than 5-log reduction was achieved (P < 0.0001) when the milk received a cumulative UV dose of 15.8 +/- 1.6 mJ/cm2. The results of this study indicate that UV irradiation could be used for the reduction of L. monocytogenes in goat's milk. PMID:16245732
Matak, K E; Churey, J J; Worobo, R W; Sumner, S S; Hovingh, E; Hackney, C R; Pierson, M D
Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms were used for genotyping of 176 Tongshan Black-boned goats, which are Chinese indigenous goat colony for meat production. The average individual heterozygosity was 0.292. To assess the correlations between individual heterozygosity and growth in Tongshan Black-boned goat individuals, and the potential of using individual heterozygosity as an indicator of growth, the data of growth traits, including body weight, height at withers, body length, chest girth and cannon circumference, were collected. Significant correlations were observed between individual heterozygosity and body weight, height at withers, body length, heart girth, cannon circumference (P < 0.05). All the significant regression showed positive slope with R square values ranged from 0.0251 to 0.0368. These data suggests that individual heterozygosity is positively correlated with growth traits in Tongshan Black-boned goat individuals and associative overdominance may affect Tongshan Black-boned goat growth significantly. Therefore it is possible to use individual heterozygosity as an indicator of growth. Our results also provide a strong support to the overdominance hypothesis. PMID:24057243
The ability of lipoprotein lipase to move across the mammary epithelium by a paracellular route was investigated. Five goats were milked hourly to activate the paracellular pathway. Three goats responded to hourly milking with a fivefold increase in milk lipoprotein lipase activity as compared with nonresponding goats. Massage of the mammary gland was necessary in the two nonresponding goats too cause increased lipoprotein lipase activity in milk. Oxytocin treatment during hourly milking also increased enzyme activity in milk from a nonresponding goat. Activation of the paracellular pathway by hourly milking increased milk sodium and protein and decreased potassium and lactose concentrations. After a 12-h milking interval, lipoprotein lipase activity was distributed primarily in the serum (48%) and cream (40%) fractions and, to a lesser extent, in the casein (12%) fraction. Hourly milking increased enzyme activity distributed in the serum fraction (62%), whereas enzyme activity associated with the cream (32%) and casein (6%) fractions decreased. Possible mechanisms for the origin of lipoprotein lipase in milk are discussed. PMID:2745824
In order to import non-seasonal Creole goats from the Carribean to Europe for an experimental purpose, thirty Creole goats were treated with 10 mg of FSH; embryos were collected at slaughter, washed and deep frozen. After rapid thawing, they were reimplanted surgically into European dairy goats. Twenty-four females ovulated but only 17 of the ovulating females had functional corpora lutea (CL) at collection. Ovulation rate (CL goat ) and recovery rate (embryo CL ) were 13.8 and 78% for females with functional CL. Of 191 embryonic structures collected, 79% were considered suitable for deep freezing: 23% were young blastocysts, 47% were expanded blastocysts, and 30% were zona-pellucida (zp)-free and zp-damaged embryos. Seventy-eight embryos were thawed and 63 were reimplanted. Sixty-eight percent of the recipient females delivered 19 kids. The percentage of kids born relative to good-quality re-implanted embryos was higher for zp-free embryos (64%) than for young and expanded blastocyts (36%). Forty-seven percent of the donor females had strong positive serological reactions for bluetongue virus antibodies against serotypes 6 and 14. However, no recipient goats or newborn kids were positive. Virus isolation attempts on the collection media and last embryo washes were negative. PMID:16726193
Chemineau, P; Procureur, R; Cognié, Y; Lefèvre, P C; Locatelli, A; Chupin, D
The Goat Lake watershed functions as an experimental watershed for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the US Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs, the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. 36 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk. PMID:20482951
Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George
Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could be the most efficient way to find patchily distributed resources in highly variable environments. Studies testing specific assumptions regarding the use of different sources of information can extend our understanding of decision making, including observed patterns of social learning.
Seven commercially available colostrum replacers were tested for their ability to substitute for goat colostrum as a source of gammaglobulin for goat kids. One hundred kids were fed with goat colostrum or colostrum replacer after separation from their mothers at birth. Blood samples were taken from ten kids at birth, and from all kids at 48 hours after birth. Samples were used to measure the total protein content and gammaglobulin concentration of serum. Kids fed with goat colostrum had higher gammaglobulin concentrations than newborn kids or kids fed with replacer. For three replacers, the gammaglobulin concentrations were the same as those of newborn kids. For three other replacers, the gammablobulin concentrations were similar but higher than those of newborn kids. For one replacer, the levels of gammaglobulin were higher than those of in newborn kids and higher than those measured after feeding of the other replacers. None of the replacers was an adequate substitute for goat colostrum as a source of gammaglobulins. PMID:11699432
Zadoks, R N; Orsel, K; Verwer, C; de Winter, A; van Amerongen, J J; Wensing, T
KISS-1 and GPR54 were regarded as key regulators for the puberty onset and fundamental gatekeepers of sexual maturation in mammals. To explore the possible association between variations in KISS-1 and GPR54 with sexual precocity, mutation screening of exon 1 of KISS-1 and exon 1, exon 3, and partial exon 5 of GPR54 was performed in a sexual precocious breed (Jining Grey goats) and sexual late-maturing breeds (Inner Mongolia Cashmere, Angora, and Boer goats) by PCR-SSCP. The results showed that five novel mutations were identified in exon 1 and partial exon 5 of GPR54 including C96 T, T173C, G176A, G825A, and C981 T. The Jining Grey goats with genotype BB or AB had 1.07 (P < 0.05) or 0.40 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with AA. The Jining Grey goats with genotype DD or CD had 1.80 (P < 0.05) or 0.55 (P < 0.05) kids more than CC, respectively. The present study preliminarily showed an association between alleles B and D of GPR54 with high litter size and sexual precocity in Jining Grey goats. PMID:19544215
Feng, T; Zhao, Y Z; Chu, M X; Zhang, Y J; Fang, L; Di, R; Cao, G L; Li, N
PiggyBac (PB) has recently been found to be functional in various organisms. To verify and exploit its application in the cashmere goat, a PB transposon system including donor and helper vector of was developed, in which the EGFP gene in donor of vector was used as reporter. Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts cells (GFFs) were transfected with the PB transposon system and the efficiency of gene transfer was determined. Compared with random integration, PB-mediated EGFP expression levels increased 7.78-fold in the GFFs, confirming that the PB transposon system constructed successfully mediated efficient foreign gene integration in the GFFs. To further investigate the characteristics of PB-mediated integration instance, PB integration site distribution in the goat genome was examined. The results showed that PB had a preference for AT rich regions of the goat genome. Thus this study confirms the function of PB transposon in GFFs and provides a potential genetic tool for producing transgenic goats. PMID:22738962
We studied the photic (L/D cycle) and non-photic (restricted feeding) entrainment on the patterns of daily rhythm of total locomotor activity in goats. Six female Maltese goats were subjected to three different artificial L/D cycles: 12/12 L/D, 12/12 D/L and constant light. During the 12/12 L/D and 12/12 D/L, food and water were available ad libitum. During constant light, animals were subjected to a restricted feeding treatment. Total activity was recorded by means of an actigraphy-based data logger (Actiwatch-Mini). Our results showed that goats exhibited clear daily rhythms of activity in 12/12 L/D cycle, 12/12 D/L cycle and constant light, although they showed FAA prior the feeding time during the restricted feeding treatment. Goats were diurnal, with activity consistently beginning promptly following the onset of light. Even when the L/D cycle was delayed by 12 h on some days, to the daily rhythm was re-established. During the constant light period, the onset of activity was linked to the time of food administration. Our study evidences two factors for the rhythm of total locomotor activity in goats: light stimuli (photic) and food access (non photic), strongly coupled to permit organisms the adaptive temporal coordination of behaviour with stable and unstable environmental periodicities. PMID:20163683
Giannetto, Claudia; Casella, Stefania; Caola, Giovanni; Piccione, Giuseppe
The present study reports the effect of water deprivation in the Nubian goat on the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate following intravenous administration at a dose rate of 10 mg kg(-1). Water deprivation for two days, which resulted in about 7.5 per cent loss in bodyweight, produced no significant effects on the pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug. In dehydrated goats that had lost an average of 9.8 per cent of their initial bodyweights, within three days of water deprivation, ampicillin showed significantly slower clearance values (P<0.001), without affecting significantly the pharmacokinetic parameters describing the distribution of the drug. After four days of water deprivation a dehydration level at which goats lost an average of 12.6 per cent bodyweight was reached, which resulted in significant alterations in the distribution and elimination pharmacokinetic parameters of ampicillin. The volume of the central compartment (Vc) and the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) were significantly decreased (P<0.01) leading to significant elevation in plasma concentrations of the drug (P<0.01) compared with the normally hydrated animals. In water deprived goats, significantly slower clearance of the drug (P<0.001) and reduced elimination rate constant (P<0.01) with the subsequent increases in the half-life time were also observed. Dosage intervals between the usual doses of ampicillin can be increased in dehydrated goats and concentrations which were high enough to kill susceptible microorganisms could still be achieved. PMID:9839887
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the growth of lipolytic bacteria in raw goat milk stored under refrigeration for different periods on quality parameters of goat milk powder during its shelf life. Fresh goat milk (100L) was collected after milking, divided into 3 identical fractions, and stored at 4°C for 1, 3, and 5d. On d 1, 3, and 5, one sample (1L) was collected and used for microbiological and chemical analysis, and the remaining fraction (almost 30L) was spray dried and stored at 25°C. Milk powder was submitted to microbiological, chemical, and sensory analysis immediately after production, and on d 60, 120, and 180. Lipolytic psychrotrophic counts and total free fatty acid content did not increase in raw milk during storage. However, peroxide value, caprylic and capric acid concentrations, and total free fatty acid content of milk powder increased during 180d of storage, with higher levels found in milk powder manufactured with raw milk stored for 5d. Capric odor and rancid flavors increased in milk powder during storage, regardless the of storage of raw milk for 1, 3, or 5d. Heat treatments used during powder processing destroyed lipolytic psychrotrophic bacteria, but did not prevent lipolysis in milk powder. Results of this trial indicate that the storage of raw goat milk at 4°C should not exceed 3d to preserve the quality of goat milk powder during its shelf life of 180d. PMID:23664351
Fonseca, C R; Bordin, K; Fernandes, A M; Rodrigues, C E C; Corassin, C H; Cruz, A G; Oliveira, C A F
Background The Orf virus (ORFV) is the prototype of the parapoxvirus genus and it primarily causes contagious ecthyma in goats, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. In this paper, we described the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the B2L gene of ORFV from two natural outbreaks: i) in autochthonous Croatian Cres-breed sheep and ii) on small family goat farm. Results Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the ORFV B2L gene showed that the Cro-Cres-12446/09 and Cro-Goat-11727/10 were not clustered together. Cro-Cres-12446/09 shared the highest similarity with ORFV NZ2 from New Zealand, and Ena from Japan; Cro-Goat-11727/10 was closest to the HuB from China and Taiping and Hoping from Taiwan. Conclusion Distinct ORFV strains are circulating in Croatia. Although ORFV infections are found ubiquitously wherever sheep and goats are farmed in Croatia, this is the first information on genetic relatedness of any Croatian ORFV with other isolates around the world.
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes a persistent and slow progressive infection in goats, characterized by chronic proliferative sinovitis, arthritis and, less frequently, pneumonia. Infected goats could also be affected by interstitial mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...
The present study was aimed to evaluate Macrocystis pyrifera (MP) meal as a nutritional supplement for goats. There is an in- creasing interest to look at nutritional alternatives to guarantee a continuous supply of good quality forage for goats, in many communities around the world. Given its abundance and chemi- cal composition, the algae M. pyrifera is an important potential
Nidia Mora Castro; Margarita Casas Valdez; Alejandro Marín Álvarez; Ruth Noemí; Águila Ramírez; Ignacio Sánchez Rodríguez; Hugo Hernández Contreras; Leonor Sanginés García
The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on intake and digestibility in Sarda goats either fed in metabolic crates or browsing a Mediterranean scrubland, featured by tannin-rich species, was studied. In metabolic cages (Experiment 1) nine dry goats were fed ad libitum with foliage of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus L.) supplemented with 200g per day of a concentrate and either 0, 25
M Decandia; M Sitzia; A Cabiddu; D Kababya; G Molle
The aim of the present work was to monitor the effect of a high versus a low diet on the metabolic and hormonal profiles of dairy goats and the progeny. Starting from the last month of pregnancy, 14 goats were randomly allocated to two groups: Low Diet (LD) and High Diet (HD) that received a diet that covered 80% and
The botanical composition of the diet and species preference of grazing goats in different physiological states were evaluated in the autumn and winter seasons. The study was performed in a desert rangeland in the northeast (NE) Mendoza region in Argentina. Food availability was estimated from forage species cover. Rectal grab faecal samples were collected from goats, and the botanical composition
L. Allegretti; C. Sartor; S. Paez Lama; V. Egea; M. Fucili; C. Passera
The physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics and fatty acid compositions of Turkish yayik butter made from yoghurt were studied. Yayik butters were produced experimentally from goats', ewes' or cows' milk. Statistically, the differences between the physicochemical characteristics of yayik butters were generally significant. Streptococcus thermophilus counts (log cfu\\/g) of the butters produced from goats', ewes' and cows' milk were determined
The aim of this study was to estimate test properties of composite somatic cell count (cSCC) to detect subclinically Staphylococcus aureus-infected dairy goats. Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent major pathogen in goats, and responsible for the majority of clinical mastitis cases. Therefore, a diagnostic tool that detects subclinical Staph. aureus infections may be useful in decreasing the number of
The effects of once (1X) vs. twice (2X) daily milking throughout lactation on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC), and udder health were studied in 32 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats. Goats were as- signed at wk 2 of lactation to two treatment groups; once daily milking at 0900 (1X, n = 17), or twice daily milking at 0900 and
A. A. K. Salama; X. Such; G. Caja; M. Rovai; R. Casals; E. Albanell; M. P. Marín; A. Martí
Food production systems in Africa depend heavily on the use of locally adapted animals. These animals are of agricultural, cultural, and economic importance. Goats, in particular, are critical to the small-scale farmer as they are easier to acquire and maintain. Goats act as scavengers in sparse p...
Summary In April 2002, an investigation into an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in goats and sheep in Milae (Afar), Ethiopia was conducted. The investigation involved 4 flocks (722 sheep and 750 goats in total) and comprised the disease history, clinical and post-mortem examination, and microbiological analysis of nasal swabs, lung lesions, and pleural fluid samples. Clinically diseased animals exhibited
The aim of this research was to determine the effect of adding extruded linseed cake to the dry diet of goats on the concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA) in milk fat. Thirty crossbreed dairy goats were divided into 3 groups. Their diet was supplemented with 0% (control group), 5% (low group), or 10% (high group)
A. Nudda; G. Battacone; M. G. Usai; S. Fancellu; G. Pulina
To evaluate the efficacy with which recommendations of means to avoid the spread of anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematode populations are communicated to farmers on dairy goat farms in France, a questionnaire survey was undertaken on their use of antiparasitic drugs. Information was collected from 73 farms in two main areas of dairy goat production. The data referred to three
H. Hoste; C. Chartier; E. Etter; C. Goudeau; F. Soubirac; Y. Lefrileux
Effects of subclinical parasitism on productivity parameters like milk yield and fat have been described previously in cows. Until now only a few data were reported for goats. Two main topics of the institute's research focus on milking of small ruminants and strategies to reduce anthelmintic treatments. In 2003 45 goats were monitored during lactation. Milk yield and milk composition
The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the eastern U.S., particularly on small farms, to supply ethnic market demands. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters were determined when meat goat kids were finished on pastures of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC), bird...
The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize goat embryonic stem cell-like cells from in vitro produced goat embryos. Inner cell mass (ICM) cells were isolated either mechanically or by enzymatic digestion from 150 blastocysts and 35 hatched blastocysts whereas 100 morulae were used for blastomeres isolation mechanically. The ICM derived cells or blastomeres were cultured on
Three trials, one with 48 suckling Damascus goats and another two with 48 non-suckling Chios ewes (trial 2) or 48 Damascus goats (trial 3) were carried out to study the effect of yeast culture on milk yield, milk composition and liveweight changes. The degradability of five feedstuffs (barley grain, soybean meal, barley straw, barley hay, lucerne hay) in the rumen
A study has been carried out in the centre-east area of Corsica (altitude 850 m a. s. l.) in three goat herds (Corsican local breed) browsing a Mediterranean shrubland without any additional feed supply. The practical usefulness of BCS and metabolic profile in order to assess the nutritional conditions of goats during the milking period (80 to 120 days of
A. Cabiddu; A. Branca; M. Decandia; A. Pes; P. M. Santucci; F. Masoero; L. Calamari
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding legume hay (alfalfa; Medicago sativa L.) or mixed grass hay on ADG and carcass characteristics of growing goats. In Experiment 1, 24 Spanish kids, equally representing intact male, female, and wether goats, were pen-fed ad libitum eit...
Data from a research station in the central African country of Rwanda relating to purebred Small East African (SEA) goats, Anglo-Nubian × SEA and Alpine × SEA goats were analysed. Both SEA (598 days) and Alpine crosses (557 days) were younger at first kidding than the Anglo-Nubian crosses (766 days). There were no differences among genotypes in kidding interval which
Although most of the European goat farms are dairies, there are a significant number of herds dedicated to meat production as the main product. Due to the current policy of food safety in European Union, the traceability, particularly the electronic identification, is taken into consideration; however, the effect of this electronic identification has not been studied on goat kids for
Daniel Martín; Lorenzo Enrique Hernández-Castellano; Noemí Castro; Anastasio Argüello; Juan Luis López; Juan Capote
Seventy full lactations of Payoya dairy goats were used to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and rearing cost. Two animal groups were established, one with goats under natural rearing (NS) and the other under artificial rearing (AR). In the NS group, the kids had free access
M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; F. P. Caravaca; J. M. Castel; F. A. Ruiz; P. González-Redondo; M. J. Alcalde
Ghrelin acts as an endocrine link connecting physiological processes regulating food intake, body composition, growth, and energy balance. Ghrelin is the only peptide known to undergo octanoylation. The enzyme mediating this process, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract (GI; primary source of circulating ghrelin) as well as other tissues. The present study demonstrates that stomach GOAT mRNA
Manuel D. Gahete; Jose Córdoba-Chacón; Roberto Salvatori; Justo P. Castaño; Rhonda D. Kineman; Raul M. Luque
Adult biting lice Damalinia limbata (Gervais 1844) were most numerous on Angora goats in southwestern Free State Province from November to May with the smallest numbers present during August. Nymphs were most numerous from January to March with the smallest numbers present during July. The largest proportion of adult lice was present on the ventral surface of goats during winter, when population numbers were lowest, and the largest proportion of nymphs during summer, when population numbers were highest. Infestation did not affect the body weight of goats, but adversely affected both the quantity and quality of mohair produced. A single treatment with deltamethrin, applied as a pour-on along the mid-line of the backs of the goats, effectively controlled infestation and resulted in a significant increase in mohair production compared with untreated goats. Deltamethrin sprayed along the sides of the animals was equally effective in controlling infestation. PMID:16108525
Brown, L; van der Linde, T C de K; Fourie, L J; Horak, I G
Prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of Jining Grey goats. Five pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of exon 10 and part of 3'untranslated region (UTR) of PRLR gene in both high fecundity breed (Jining Grey goat) and low fecundity breeds (Liaoning Cashmere goat, Boer goat and Angora goat) by PCR-SSCP. The nucleotide sequence of exon 10 and part of 3'UTR of caprine PRLR gene was spliced in this study for the first time. The length of this sequence was 1,118 bp. This sequence shared 98.33%, 93.92%, 74.52% homology with the published mRNA of PRLR gene of sheep, cow and human separately, and shared 78.29% homology with the published partial genomic sequence of PRLR gene of the alpaca. Only the products amplified by primers P1, P2, P4 displayed polymorphisms. For primer P1, two genotypes (AA and AB) were detected in both Jining Grey goats and Liaoning Cashmere goats, two genotypes (AA and AC) were detected in Angora goats, and only genotype AA was detected in Boer goats. Sequencing revealed two mutations (186G-->A and 220T-->C) of PRLR gene in the genotype AB in comparison to the genotype AA. The former mutation resulted in an amino acid change of Asp-->Asn, and the latter mutation resulted in an amino acid change of Leu-->Pro. Only one mutation (140A-->G) was found in the genotype AC in comparison to the genotype AA, and this mutation did not cause any amino acid change. The difference of the least squares means (LSM) for litter size between AA and AB was non-significant (P>0.05) in Jining Grey goats. For primer P2, two genotypes (DD and DE) were detected in Jining Grey goats, Liaoning Cashmere goats and Boer goats, and only genotype DD was detected in Angora goats. Sequencing revealed two mutations (52G-->A and 122G-->A) of PRLR gene in the genotype DE in comparison to the genotype DD. The former mutation did not cause any amino acid change, and the latter mutation resulted in an amino acid change of Arg-->Gly. The difference of LSM for litter size between DD and DE was non-significant (P>0.05) in Jining Grey goats. For primer P4, two genotypes (FF and FG) were detected in Jining Grey goats, two genotypes (FF and GG) were detected in Liaoning Cashmere goats, only genotype FF was detected in Boer goats, and three genotypes (FF, FG and GG) were detected in Angora goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (143A-->G) of PRLR gene in the genotype GG in comparison to the genotype FF, and this mutation resulted in an amino acid change of Met-->Val. The Jining Grey does with genotype FG had 0.76 (P< 0.05) kids more than those with genotype FF. These results preliminarily showed that the PRLR gene is either a major gene that influences the prolificacy of Jining Grey goats or a molecular marker in close linkage with such a gene. PMID:17369155
Zhang, Gen-Xi; Chu, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jin-Yu; Fang, Li; Ye, Su-Cheng
Two experiments were conducted to determine the response of Creole male goats treated with long days and melatonin implants, and the response of the anovulatory does to male effect using males treated only with artificially long days. All animals were allocated to open sheds. In Exp. 1, one group of males was under natural photoperiod (CG; n = 7); the second group was submitted to 2.5 mo of long days followed by the insertion of two s.c. melatonin implants (LD+MEL; n = 7); the third group was subjected only to 2.5 mo of long days (LD; n = 7). Testicular weight was measured every 2 wk. Plasma testosterone concentrations were determined weekly. A treatment x time interaction was detected (P < 0.001) for testicular weight and plasma testosterone concentration. In the LD+MEL and LD groups, testicular size and plasma testosterone levels varied in a similar way, but differed from those observed in CG (P < 0.001). In this latter group, testicular weight displayed seasonal variations and peaked in June, whereas in treated groups this peak occurred in March. In CG, testosterone varied in a seasonal manner and plasma concentrations increased in June and remained elevated throughout the study. In experimental groups, testosterone increased in February and peaked in March. In Exp. 2, one group of males was left under natural photoperiod (CG, n = 5) and the other one was submitted to 2.5 mo of artificially long days (LD, n = 4). On March 16, two control and two treated males were put in contact with 20 and 19 females, respectively. Sexual behavior of the bucks was observed during the 5 d following male introduction. Progesterone assays and estrous behavior were used to determine ovarian and behavioral responses of the females to teasing. The anogenital sniffing, nudging, and mount instances registered in LD-treated males were greater than those observed in CG (P < 0.05). Of the does exposed to CG, none ovulated and only two of 20 females displayed estrous behavior. All does in contact with LD-treated males ovulated and showed at least one estrous behavior during the 15 d following joining (P < 0.001). These results indicate that the sexual activity of male goats from subtropical latitudes can be induced using only artificially long days. In addition, males treated in this way are capable of stimulating sexual activity in anovulatory females by the male effect. PMID:12462243
Delgadillo, J A; Flores, J A; Véliz, F G; Hernández, H F; Duarte, G; Vielma, J; Poindron, P; Chemineau, P; Malpaux, B
Goat ovarian preantral follicles were morphologically and ultrastructurally described in this work. Primordial follicles are oocytes surrounded by one layer of squamous or squamous-cuboidal granulosa cells; primary follicles have a single layer of cuboidal granulosa cells, and secondary follicles are oocytes surrounded by two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells. At all developmental stages a thick layer of glycoproteins, the basement membrane, surrounded the preantral follicles. The quiescent oocyte is spherical or oval and it has a large eccentrically located nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus. The organelles were uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. A large number of vesicles were spread throughout the cytoplasm in all the oocytes. The cytoplasm of oocytes also contains numerous rounded mitochondria besides the usual organelles. As the follicle develops, the mitochondria become elongated. The communication between the oocyte and the granulosa cells is apparently mediated through endocytosis as indicated by the abundant coated pits and vesicles noted in the cortical cytoplasm of the oocyte. The oocyte plasma membrane presented projections that penetrated between adjacent granulosa cells and a few short microvilli lying parallel to the oocyte surface. In secondary follicles, patches of zona pellucida material were observed. Overall, the results indicate that the morphological and ultrastructural organization of caprine preantral follicles resembles that of other mammals. However, some particularities were observed, and that may indicate species specific differences. PMID:11423235
Lucci, C M.; Silva, R V.; Carvalho, C A.; Figueiredo, R; Báo, N
1. [U-14C]glucose was infused intravenously into conscious lactating goats exposed to thermoneutral or cold environments for a total of 24 h. The irreversible loss of glucose from the whole body and uptake of glucose by the mammary gland was measured and glucose utilization in the udder was studied by measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into carbon dioxide in mammary venous blood, into milk lactose and milk triglyceride-glycerol. 2. Exposure to cold increased the circulating level of glucose and slightly though not significantly, increased the non-mammary irreversible loss of glucose. 3. The extraction of glucose from the circulation by the udder fell, the secretion of lactose by the udder also fell and this correlated closely with the reduced secretion of milk in the cold. 4. Simultaneous measurements of the concentrations of insulin, growth hormone and corticosteroids in the arterial plasma were made. 5. The plasma concentration of corticosteroids increased significantly in the cold. 6. It is concluded that reduced glucose uptake and lactose synthesis by the udder are important factors which reduce milk secretion during cold exposure. PMID:6989392
Faulkner, A; Thomson, E M; Bassett, J M; Thomson, G E
The objectives were to describe the magnitude and time course of changes in milk pH, Na, K, lactose, and somatic cells and to determine if paracellular pathways were altered after infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin (serotype #0128:AB12) to produce inflammation in one-half of the udder of the goat. Intramammary infusion of endotoxin increased pH, number of somatic cells, and Na and decreased K and lactose in milk. Sodium and number of somatic cells were increased by as little as .1 microgram of endotoxin; .25 microgram produced changes in most of the other parameters; maximal effect was elicited by 1 microgram of endotoxin. The gland response peaked from 5 to 7 h after infusion of endotoxin with an increase in milk cellularity as the only significant effect noted in the control gland. Infusion of [14C]lactose into the gland and [99mTc]albumin into the blood demonstrated that large molecules were more able to cross into and out of udder halves after endotoxin treatment. It is suggested that ion interchange rather than bulk flow across paracellular paths is responsible for changes. In addition, endotoxin appeared to reduce lactose secretion and synthesis. PMID:3522681
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell masses of preimplantation embryos. ES cells are pluripotent cells with the capacity for long-term propagation and broad differentiation plasticity. These cells have an exceptional functional feature in that they can differentiate into all tissues and organs, including germ cells. Established ES cell lines have been generated in mouse, human, and nonhuman primate but derivation of ES cells in farm animals has been problematic. Several ES-like cell lines from farm animals have been reported to exhibit properties of pluripotency in vitro. However, only a few of them morphologically resemble ES cells, or express markers that are associated with established ES cell lines from mouse and humans. Methods for derivation, propagation, and differentiation of ES cells from domestic animals have not been fully established. In this chapter, we describe methods for isolation of goat ES (gES) cell lines from in vivo-derived blastocysts and characterization of markers indicative of pluripotency. In addition, we outline differentiation of gES cells into all three germ layers in vivo by forming teratomas as a hallmark of pluripotency. PMID:23975805
Behboodi, Esmail; Lam, Louise; Gavin, William G; Bondareva, Alla; Dobrinski, Ina
Affinity-purified goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (GAR) was conjugated with (/sup 3/H)-propionyl succinimidate and used to localize substance P (SP), enkephalin (ENK), and serotonin immunoreactive sites in the spinal dorsal horn and medulla of the rat and cat. Autoradiographic localization was demonstrated on paraffin, frozen, Vibratome, and 2 micron plastic sections. The latter were obtained from radiolabeled Vibratome sections that were embedded in epoxy resin. The distribution of SP, ENK, and serotonin demonstrated by radioimmunocytochemistry was comparable to that observed on semiadjacent sections using peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunocytochemistry. The autoradiograms, however, were generated using primary antibody concentrations up to five times more dilute than concentrations used for the PAP procedure. Indirect radioimmunocytochemistry using a (3H) anti-immunoglobulin G second antibody can be used to localize a variety of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera. It is quantifiable at the light microscopic level and can be potentially used with peroxidase histochemistry to double label immunoreactive structures at the ultrastructural level.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of cattle, and its transmission to humans through contaminated food is thought to be the cause of the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. BSE is believed to have spread from the recycling in cattle of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM). However, during this time, sheep and goats were also exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. Both sheep and goats are experimentally susceptible to BSE, and while there have been no reported natural BSE cases in sheep, two goat BSE field cases have been documented. While cases of BSE are rare in small ruminants, the existence of scrapie in both sheep and goats is well established. In the UK, during 2006-2007, a serious outbreak of clinical scrapie was detected in a large dairy goat herd. Subsequently, 200 goats were selected for post-mortem examination, one of which showed biochemical and immunohistochemical features of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)) which differed from all other infected goats. In the present study, we investigated this unusual case by performing transmission bioassays into a panel of mouse lines. Following characterization, we found that strain properties such as the ability to transmit to different mouse lines, lesion profile pattern, degree of PrP deposition in the brain and biochemical features of this unusual goat case were neither consistent with goat BSE nor with a goat scrapie herdmate control. However, our results suggest that this unusual case has BSE-like properties and highlights the need for continued surveillance. PMID:23720218
Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type) and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002). Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats.
Two pairs of primers (P1 and P2) were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of exon 2 and intron 2 of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) gene in both high fecundity breed (Jining Grey goat) and low fecundity breeds (Boer, Angora and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats) by single strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that no polymorphism was detected for exon 2 (primer P1) of BMP4 gene in four goat breeds. For intron 2 (primer P2), three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in Jining Grey and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats, two genotypes (AB and BB) in Angora goats, and only one genotype (AA) in Boer goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (2203G>A) of BMP4 gene in the genotype BB in comparison to the genotype AA. The differences of litter size between AA, AB and BB genotypes were not significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. A pair of primer (P3) was designed to detect polymorphism in the 3' flanking region of BMP4 gene that contained dinucleotide repeated sequence (CA) in the four goat breeds by microsatellite analysis. For primer P3, three genotypes (CC, CD and DD) were detected in four goat breeds. Sequencing revealed one more CA dinucleotide in genotype DD than in genotype CC. The Jining Grey does with genotype CC had 0.55 (P < 0.05) or 0.72 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with genotype CD or DD. These results preliminarily indicated that allele C of BMP4 gene is a potential DNA marker for improving litter size in goats. PMID:21140226
Chu, M X; Lu, L; Feng, T; Di, R; Cao, G L; Wang, P Q; Fang, L; Ma, Y H; Li,