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1

Reproductive cycle of goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour.Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding

Alice Fatet; Maria-Teresa Pellicer-Rubio; Bernard Leboeuf

2011-01-01

2

Helminths of goats in Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-mortem examinations of 236 goats from all provinces in Mongolia were performed for the study of helminths in goats. Thirty-nine helminth species belonging to three classes, 14 families and 23 genera were found. Trichocephalus spiralis and Avitellina centripunctata are reported for the first time in goats in Mongolia. The prevalence and intensity of helminth infections are reported for three age

Tuya Sharkhuu

2001-01-01

3

Adrenal Adenomas in the Goat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the observations made on the cortical adenomas from the adrenal glands of 2500 white angora goats. Five hundred cortical adenomas were found in 316 goats. This high incidence parallels the high incidence of castration in this goat p...

N. H. Altman C. S. Streett J. Y. Terner C. C. Berdjis

1968-01-01

4

The Goat in the Rug.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

5

GOATS Image Projection Component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

2011-01-01

6

9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.  

...the results of the tests. (1) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age...5) of this section. (ii) Tuberculosis testing is not required for goats...the United States to be tested for tuberculosis as described in paragraph...

2014-01-01

7

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in Moroccan goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study characterizes the mitochondrial DNA diversity of Moroccan goats. 150 goats of different phenotypic entities were sampled over four geographic regions covering most of the Moroccan territory and the HVI segment of their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced. The 150 Moroccan goats represented 97 haplotypes for this mtDNA fragment. Most of this diversity was present within

B. Benjelloun; F. Pompanon; M. Ben Bati; M. Chentouf; M. Ibnelbachyr; B. El Amiri; D. Rioux; B. Boulanouar; P. Taberlet

2011-01-01

8

Clinical fascioliasis in domestic goats in Montana.  

PubMed

Fascioliasis (Fasciola hepatica infection) was diagnosed in a herd of domestic goats in Montana. Twenty-eight goats died after a month-long clinical course of anorexia, weight loss, depression, lethargy, and decreased milk production. Clinical laboratory findings included anemia, low hemoglobin content, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilia, and high hepatic enzyme activity. The livers of affected goats had extensive parenchymal necrosis, fibrosis, and biliary hyperplasia. Albendazole oral suspension (20 mg/kg) was used to treat 45 of the remaining goats twice, 30 days apart; 15 goats were untreated controls. Egg counts for the untreated group averaged 171 fluke eggs per gram of feces, which compared with less than 1 epg per gram for the treated group. Fifteen percent of the treated goats died, whereas 73% of the untreated goats died. On the basis of necropsy findings, albendazole treatment was regarded as greater than 99% effective against adult F hepatica. PMID:7096186

Leathers, C W; Foreyt, W J; Fetcher, A; Foreyt, K M

1982-06-15

9

White liver disease in goats.  

PubMed

Three field cases of ill-thrift, hepatic lipodystrophy and low tissue levels of vitamin B12 in young angora cross goats are reported. The cases meet the criteria for the diagnosis of white liver disease (WLD) described for sheep. The hypothesis that WLD is a metabolic consequence of cobalt/vit B12 deficiency in sheep and goats on a diet rich in propionate is developed, together with possible reasons for its occurrence in these species but not in cattle or red deer. PMID:16031425

Black, H; Hutton, J B; Sutherland, R J; James, M P

1988-03-01

10

[Selenium requirements of dairy goats].  

PubMed

Selenium is an essential part of the enzyme glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) and plays an important role in the intracellular aspecific immune defence. Reference values for blood levels of GSH-Px are not available for dairy goats. The EU has authorized the addition of selenium (as E), in the form of sodium selenite or sodium selenate, to animal feeds, to a maximum of 0.5 mg selenium/kg complete feed. Dairy goats given feed containing the maximum level of selenium (0.5 mg/kg) had GSH-Px levels of more than 1000 U/g Hb. The reference values for GSH-Px in cattle, horses, and pigs are between 120 and 600 U/g Hb. Newborn kids had GSH-Px levels between 350 and 400 U/g Hb, comparable with those ofnewborn calves. In conclusion, the addition of selenium to feeds for dairy goats in amounts authorized by the EU leads to blood GSH-Px levels that are substantially higher than those in other species, such as horses, cattle, and pigs. Thus the maximum level of supplemental selenium in feeds for dairy goats should be less than 0.5 mg/kg. PMID:17626576

Dercksen, D P; Counotte, G H M; Hazebroek, M Klein; Arts, W; van Rijn, T

2007-06-15

11

4-H Club Goat Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

Brown, R. Kipp

12

Molecular characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations.  

PubMed

Six Ethiopian indigenous goat populations viz. Gumuz, Agew, Begia-Medir, Bati, Abergelle, and Central Abergelle were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Society for Animal Genetics. A total of 158 individual goats were tested to assess genetic variations within and between the goat populations in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. The markers revealed 100% polymorphism across six goat populations indicating the presence of genetic diversity, which is an important variable to measure genetic variability within and between populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.56 (Central Abergelle) to 0.68 (Bati) and 0.59 (Abergelle) to 0.69 (Agew goat), respectively. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Begia-Medir and Central Abergelle (0.039), and the largest distances between Agew and Abergelle (0.140) and Gumuz and Abergelle (0.169). Neighbor-joining and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods with bootstrap value of 1,000 was used which grouped the six goat populations into two major groups viz. the Abergelle goat cluster as one group and the Agew, Gumuz, Bati, Begia-Medir, and Central Abergelle goats as the second group. In our study, the obtained higher total variation within the goat populations (95%) confirms a close relatedness of the studied goat ecotypes, which might have happened due to the existence of uncontrolled animal breeding strategies resulting from uncontrolled movement of animals through various market routes and agricultural extension systems. The study contributed to the genetic characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations and demonstrated the usefulness of the 15 microsatellite makers for biodiversity studies in goats. PMID:22237413

Hassen, Halima; Lababidi, Samer; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Baum, Michael; Tibbo, Markos

2012-08-01

13

Cow's milk and goat's milk.  

PubMed

Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

Turck, Dominique

2013-01-01

14

Goat and sheep milk products in the United States (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat and sheep milk represent only about 0.08% of the total annual milk production in the USA. Currently about 24% of the goat milk is used for fluid consumption. Approximately 75% of goat milk and 95% of the sheep milk produced is used in the production of cheeses. Predictive cheese yield formulas have been developed for both goat and sheep

F. X. Milani; W. L. Wendorff

15

Monitoring of clinical signs in goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats

Timm Konold; Gemma E Bone; Laura J Phelan; Marion M Simmons; Lorenzo González; Sílvia Sisó; Wilfred Goldmann; Saira Cawthraw; Steve AC Hawkins

2010-01-01

16

Hematological Study of Experimental Anaphylaxis in Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to measure the hematological changes in systemic anaphylaxis in goats. Goats were sensitized to horse serum and were subjected to systemic anaphylaxis shock. Analysis of blood samples collected at 24 h after each injection of antigen during sensitization, as well as at 10, 60 and 240 min after antigenic challenge in sensitized animals revealed a

T. A. QURESHI; K. B. MIRBAHAR; N. M. SOOMRO; M. KHASKHELI; A. G. ARIJO

17

Artificial insemination of dairy goats in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In France, goat Artificial Insemination (AI) plays an important role in the milk intensive production system to control reproduction and, in conjunction with progeny testing, to improve milk production. About 60?000 goats were inseminated in 1996, 95% of them before the breeding season with deep frozen semen after induction of oestrus and ovulation by hormonal treatment. The efficiency of this

B. Leboeuf; E. Manfredi; P. Boue; A. Piacère; G. Brice; G. Baril; C. Broqua; P. Humblot; M. Terqui

1998-01-01

18

Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

2013-01-01

19

Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats  

PubMed Central

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.

2013-01-01

20

Transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in goats with paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

This study describes the transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in 54 goats with confirmed Johne’s disease (JD). Compared with the control group (0.8 ± 0.4 mm thick), the test group presented with mild (2.8 ± 0.2 mm), moderate (4.2 ± 0.4 mm), and severe (6.9 ± 1.1 mm) thickening of the intestinal wall. The most outstanding ultrasonographic findings were pronounced enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 49 goats. In 36 goats, the enlarged lymph nodes showed a hypoechoic cortex and a hyperechoic medulla. In 7 goats, the cortex and medulla were hypoechoic. In 5 goats, the cortex and the medulla could not be differentiated. In the remaining cases, the cortex and medulla contained small hypoechoic lesions. Necropsy findings included enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 goats and thickening of the small intestinal wall in 30 goats. Compared with the postmortem results, the antemortem ultrasound sensitivity in detecting intestinal wall thickness and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes was 80% and 94%, respectively.

Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sebastien

2012-01-01

21

Atlas of Goat Anatomy. Part I. Osteology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the investigation was to establish a reference source for the normal anatomy of the angora goat (Capra hircus). This report, the first in a series, presents the skeletal anatomy of this animal. (Author)

C. E. Hopkins G. L. Leppart T. E. Hamm

1970-01-01

22

Application of wild goats in cashmere breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Xinjiang goat had a lower cashmere weight (137 g), shorter cashmere length (5.0 cm), but finer cashmere diameter (12.74 ?m) than other types. If graded up with the Liaoning cashmere goat to the 2nd generation, cashmere weights were 320 g and 300 g for yearling bucks and yearling does, respectively, cashmere length was 7.0 cm and cashmere diameter increased

M. Yerxat; Yalejean

1995-01-01

23

Experimental Tribulus terrestris poisoning in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven, 1–2-year-old native goats were fed dried Tribulus terrestris from Sabzevar district of Khorasan province for 8 weeks. Two goats showed clinical signs of toxicity including weight loss, depression, ruminal stasis, icterus and elevation of body temperature. Haematological and biochemical trails revealed a declining of packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma total protein and elevation of total and direct bilirubin,

M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; V. Ebrahim-pour; A. N. Mohebi

2004-01-01

24

Dicrocoeliosis in goats in Jammu, India.  

PubMed

The prevalence of dicrocoeliosis was estimated by the examination of liver of slaughtered goats (n = 228) brought from two major goat rearing regions (Kandi and R.S. Pura) of Jammu province of India. Dicrocoelium dendriticum was found in 18.9 % of the goats, with mean fluke count (±SEM) of 24.9 ± 4.4 (ranged from 0 to 478). A significant seasonal variation (p < 0.01) was recorded with maximum prevalence in winter (28.9 %), followed by post-rainy (22.2 %) and minimum in rainy season (9.4 %). The highest fluke count was observed in January (47.8 ± 24.6) while none of the examined animals was found positive in May and June. The origin of the goats had a significant association (p < 0.0001) with prevalence rates and the goats from Kandi region (27.3 %) showed higher prevalence rates as compare to R.S. Pura (8.0 %). However, the age and sex had no significant effect on the prevalence of dicrocoeliosis in goats. The histopathological examination of infected livers revealed excessive thickening and proliferation of bile duct glandular epithelium with inflammatory exudates. Also, intense mononuclear cells infiltration with young fibroblasts was observed in the surroundings of bile ducts in portal areas along with atrophy of hepatocytes. PMID:24808653

Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Borah, M K

2014-06-01

25

Experiences with Goat Project as a Tool in Human Development: Goats for Poor Women in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Income sources are few for land less, rural women in Bangladesh pushed into problems caused by loss of husband. After reviewing some research results concerning women's roles in farming in Bangladesh, the paper describes results of a project which used Black Bengal goats to assist poor women with positive results. It is concluded that goat rearing is an appropriate

M. Saadullah; M. M. Hossain; Shajeda Akhter

26

Consumer Acceptance of Goat Milk Products in Western Kenya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To evaluate potential for introduction of goat milk products in western Kenya, current milk production, processing, and consumption patterns were monitored on 80 smallholder farms in two districts in western Kenya. Consumer acceptance of goat milk compare...

K. J. Boor D. L. Bown H. A. Fitzhugh

1984-01-01

27

Besnoitiosis in wild and domestic goats in Iran.  

PubMed

Besnoitia cysts and lesions were observed in the skin, blood vessels, epididymis and testes of two wild goats (Capra aegagrus) and in the subcutaneous tissues of two domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the Fars Province of Iran. The seminiferous tubules in the wild goats showed aspermatogenesis, degeneration and atrophy of germinal epithelium. PMID:467078

Cheema, A H; Toofanian, F

1979-04-01

28

Acceptability of mineral supplements by West African dwarf goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A locally manufactured mineral supplement was provided to 36 browsing West African Dwarf (WAD) goats from 3 to 15 months of age to identify acceptability of the supplementary mineral mixture by experimental animals. Experimental goats were randomly allotted to six treatments of six goats (three male and three female) and were provided with different forms of minerals. Group I was

P. O. Ogebe; B. K. Ogunmodede; L. R. McDowell

1996-01-01

29

Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones. RESULTS: The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean

Pramod K Rout; Manjunath B Joshi; Ajoy Mandal; D Laloe; Lalji Singh; Kumarasamy Thangaraj

2008-01-01

30

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for...

2009-01-01

31

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for...

2010-01-01

32

Seasonal Changes in the Chemical Composition of Commingled Goat Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of goat milk cheese in North America has been growing rapidly during the past several years. However, information on chemical composition and its seasonal varia- tion of year-round bulk-collected goat milk is limited. The objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composi- tion of commercial goat milk shipments for an entire year to provide fundamental information for

Ming R. Guo; Peter H. Dixon; Young W. Park; James A. Gilmore; Paul S. Kindstedt

2001-01-01

33

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2009-01-01

34

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2010-01-01

35

On-farm Performance of Dual Purpose Goats and Farmers' Attitudes towards Introduction of Goats in HADO Areas of Kondoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • An on-farm trial was conducted in two villages located in the Kondoa eroded area in Central Tanzania to evaluate the performance of Anglonubian x Blended goats. In the area there were no goats due to the eviction of livestock in 1979 made by the government to arrest land degradation. In the present study twenty-four pregnant goats were sold

E. H. Goromela; I. Ledin; P. Udén

36

Bacteria associated with enzootic pneumonia in goats.  

PubMed

A histological and microbiological study of lung samples from 83 slaughtered goats (33 kids and 50 adults) drawn from a flock with a history of pleuropneumonia caused by mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides group was carried out. A total of 82% (27/33) of kids and 36% (18/50) of adult goats presented pulmonary lesions characteristic of enzootic pneumonia: lesions took the form of bronchointerstitial pneumonia with peribronchial and peribronchiolar proliferation of lymphocytes. Microbiological analysis confirmed a range of mycoplasma species, including Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides Large Colony (MmmlC) (3.70%; 1/27), Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. capri (Mmc) (7.40%; 2/27), Mycoplasma putrefaciens (22.2%; 6/27), Mycoplasma arginini (3.70%; 1/27) and Mycoplasma sp. (7.40%; 2/ 27), as well as Pasteurella multocida (14.8%; 4/27), associated with enzootic pneumonia lesions in younger animals, whereas Mycoplasma sp. was associated with enzootic pneumonia in adult goats (22.0%; 4/18). Cilia-associated respiratory (CAR) bacillus found by histochemical examination was associated with enzootic pneumonia in kids (25.9%; 7/27) and goats (44.4%; 8/18), being the first description of this bacterium in adult goats. PMID:9151536

Orós, J; Fernández, A; Rodríguez, J L; Rodríguez, F; Poveda, J B

1997-04-01

37

Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats  

PubMed Central

Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.

Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal

2013-01-01

38

Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats.  

PubMed

Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population. PMID:23814477

Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; Hyun, Bang-Hun

2013-01-01

39

Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae in goats.  

PubMed

Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae from naturally chronically-infected goats to susceptible ones was achieved by intra-nasal instillation and intra-conjunctival inoculation of cystozoite-containing suspensions, subcutaneous implantation of fascia containing cysts and alternate needle pricking between the infected and non-infected goats. Typical chronic symptoms developed in the fascia-infected does. Cystozoite inoculation into the eyes and mouth did not result in infection. Kids born of dams with acute and chronic besnoitiosis did not contract the infection in utero, suggesting that intra-uterine transmission may not occur. In contrast to does with acute besnoitiosis, which occasionally aborted, the does with chronic besnoitiosis gave birth to healthy kids. Kids below the age of 4 months (pre-weaned period) born of both infected and non-infected does were susceptible to besnoitiosis but appeared to be more resistant than adult goats. PMID:10855841

Njenga, M J; Kang'ethe, E K; Bwangamoi, O; Munyua, S J; Mugera, G M; Mutiga, E R

1999-12-01

40

Performance of dairy goats fed whole sugarcane.  

PubMed

Five lactating goats were used in a 5x5 Latin square experiment to determine the effects of feeding whole sugarcane (WSC) on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were fed diets containing 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 g kg(-1) WSC and 400, 300, 200, 100, and 0 g kg(-1) tifton hay (TH). Intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Total tract nutrient digestibilities were not influenced by WSC inclusion except for the digestibility of NDF which decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Inclusion of WSC linearly (p<0.05) decreased milk yield without affecting milk composition. It was concluded that WSC had a lower feeding values than TH for lactating goats. PMID:18663596

Cabral, A D; Batista, A M V; Mustafa, A; de Carvalho, F F R; Guim, A; Monteiro, P S; Lucena, R B

2009-03-01

41

Chondrosarcoma in the humerus of a goat.  

PubMed

The clinical, radiographical and histo-pathological findings of a chondrosarcoma in the humerus of a goat are discussed. An 11-year-old female Saanen goat was admitted for evaluation of chronic, progressive left forelimb lameness. Clinical examination revealed signs of pain in the shoulder region. Radiographs of the scapulohumeral joint showed a large lytic lesion of the proximal third of the humerus with cortical destruction, intralesional calcification and marked periosteal reactions. Differential diagnoses included aggressive bone lesions as seen with osteomyelitis or a primary bone tumour, such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma or fibrosarcoma. The goat was euthanatized for humane reasons because of the poor prognosis. On the basis of the histopathological findings, the lesion was diagnosed as grade II chondrosarcoma. The tumour had already spread to the lungs and the left prescapular lymph node at the time of diagnosis. PMID:20585719

Schmid, T; Hilbe, M; Ohlert, S; Nuss, K

2010-01-01

42

Thermosensitivity of the goat's brain.  

PubMed Central

1. Experiments were done in conscious goats to estimate the gain of brain temperature sensors and to evaluate that fraction of the thermosensitivity of the entire brain which can be determined by a thermode located in the hypothalamus. 2. The animals were implanted with local thermodes, carotid loops and intravascular heat exchangers permitting independent control of hypothalamic temperature, extrahypothalamic brain temperature and trunk core temperature. 3. Small and slow ramp-like displacements of hypothalamic temperature generated continuously increasing thermoregulatory responses without any dead band, if a negative feed-back from extrahypothalamic sources was suppressed. 4. The hypothalamic sensitivity determined by the metabolic response to slow ramp-like cooling of the thermode amounted to -1.4 W/(kg degrees C) and equalled approximately 30% of what had been found for total body core sensitivity in another series of experiments. 5. Total brain thermosensitivity was -1.6 W/(kg degrees C), which implies that a large thermode centred in the hypothalamus can detect approximately 85% of the thermosensitivity of the entire brain.

Heath, M E; Jessen, C

1988-01-01

43

Development of a prolonged estrus effect for use in Judas goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Judas goats (JGs; Capra hircus) to locate remnant animals is a powerful tool for enhancing feral goat eradication efforts, being especially important to island conservation programs. JGs are goats that are captured, fitted with radio telemetry collars and released. As goats are gregarious, JGs search out and associate with other goats. They can then be tracked down

Karl J. Campbell; Greg S. Baxter; Peter J. Murray; Bruce E. Coblentz; C. Josh Donlan

2007-01-01

44

Genetic Differentiation of Chinese Indigenous Meat Goats Ascertained Using Microsatellite Information  

PubMed Central

To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats.

Ling, Y. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Yao, N.; Ding, J. P.; Chen, H. Q.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ren, C. H.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhang, X. R.

2012-01-01

45

[Embryo transfer in the goat--a review].  

PubMed

The available techniques for the control of the estrous cycle and superovulation in goats are covered. Most commonly the estrous cycle is controlled by means of progestagen pessaries or s.c. implants. To superovulate goats, FSH is more suitable than PMSG. As an alternative, goats may be immunized against inhibin. Premature regression of corpora lutea is a common complication in superovulated goats. Collection and transfer of embryos is usually accomplished via laparotomy. Occasionally endoscopic techniques are utilized. A recently invented technique for transcervical embryo collection is touched upon. Methods of in vitro culture and preservation of embryos resemble those commonly applied in cattle. Satisfactory success rates are achieved with the transfer of frozen-thawed blastocysts. Vitrification of goat embryos is feasible. There are reports on successful splitting and fusion (chimaera formation) of goat embryos and on in vitro fertilization (IVF). The goat may serve as a suitable model for the invention of new approaches in biotechnology in ruminants. PMID:9011494

Holtz, W

1996-01-01

46

Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

2013-12-01

47

An economic analysis of communal goat production.  

PubMed

The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to control diseases or select management practices in commercial herds. It is suggested that the inputs and outputs of small-scale farming systems should be carefully analysed and that veterinary economics should also be used to evaluate the probable impact of extension messages formulated by veterinarians and animal health technicians. PMID:15214690

Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C

2004-03-01

48

Allergenicity of goat’s milk in children with cow’s milk allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is a common disease of infancy and childhood. An appropriate cow’s milk (CM) substitute is necessary for feeding babies with CMA. CM substitutes are soy formulas and casein- or whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formulas. In several countries, including Italy, goat’s milk (GM) formulas are available, and some physicians recommend them for feeding babies with CMA. Objective:

Barbara Bellioni-Businco; Roberto Paganelli; Patrizia Lucenti; Paolo G. Giampietro; Hans Perborn; Luisa Businco

1999-01-01

49

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2010-01-01

50

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2009-01-01

51

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

52

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2009-01-01

53

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2010-01-01

54

9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. 79.2...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a)...

2010-01-01

55

9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. 79.2...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a)...

2009-01-01

56

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2009-01-01

57

Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic

P. TABERLET; A. VALENTINI; H. R. REZAEI; S. NADERI; F. POMPANON; R. NEGRINI; P. AJMONE-MARSAN

2008-01-01

58

Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat  

PubMed Central

An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22?cm?×?22?cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.

Collier, Jessica R.; Byers, Stacey R.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Worley, Deanna R.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Grossman, Alicia N.; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J.

2013-01-01

59

Infiltrative cutaneous hemangiolipoma in a goat.  

PubMed

An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22?cm?×?22?cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method. PMID:23956926

Collier, Jessica R; Byers, Stacey R; Schaffer, Paula A; Worley, Deanna R; Ehrhart, E J; Duncan, Colleen G; Grossman, Alicia N; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J

2013-01-01

60

Coenuriasis in Bengal goats of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical findings and treatment of cerebral coenuriasis were studied in 52 Black Bengal goats. Bladder worms were found to be superficially located in three sites: the right and left cerebral hemispheres and the median fissure. Major clinical signs included dullness, circling, torticollis, loss of appetite, frequent bleating, pain response on pressure over the cystic area and sometimes unilateral partial blindness.

M. Nooruddin; A. S. Dey; M. A. Ali

1996-01-01

61

Health evaluation in the native Garfagnina goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A goat population named Garfagnina, from north-west Tuscany (Italy), was studied in order to evaluate the health status in an estimated population of 2500 animals. Data were collected from 31 rural farms and 320 animals. For each farm an anamnesis was collected and a clinical examination of animals was performed; sera and faecal samples were collected and tested for brucellosis,

F. Corrias; G. Brajon; F. Salari; A. Dal Prà; G. Ragona; A. Lombardo; M. Mari; I. Altomonte; G. Colombani; P. Pedri; B. Scotti; M. Martini

62

Functional disruption of the prion protein gene in cloned goats.  

PubMed

The cellular prion protein (PrPC), a membrane glycoprotein anchored to the outer surface of neurons, lymphocytes and other cells, is associated directly with the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) occurring mainly in humans, cattle, sheep and goats. Although mice lacking PrPC develop and reproduce normally and are resistant to scrapie infection, large animals lacking PrPC, especially those species in which TSE occurs naturally, are currently not available. Here, five live PRNP+/- goats cloned by gene targeting are reported. Detailed RNA-transcription and protein-expression analysis of one PRNP+/- goat showed that one allele of the caprine PRNP gene had been disrupted functionally. No gross abnormal development or behaviour could be seen in these PRNP+/- goats up to at least 3 months of age. These heterozygous PRNP+/- goats are ready to be used in producing homozygous PRNP-/- goats in which no PrPC should be expressed. PMID:16528053

Yu, Guohua; Chen, Jianquan; Yu, Huiqing; Liu, Siguo; Chen, Juan; Xu, Xujun; Sha, Hongying; Zhang, Xufeng; Wu, Guoxiang; Xu, Shaofu; Cheng, Guoxiang

2006-04-01

63

Identification of goat mammary stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Goat mammary gland epithelial cells have been used to establish primary and permanent cell lines, but to date, no data have been available regarding mammary stem cells (MaSCs) in this species. The detection and characterization of goat MaSCs is an important task for a better understanding of the cyclic character of mammary gland development, which will also offer the potential for manipulation of lactation yield and persistency. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate that a subpopulation of goat MaSCs resides in the goat mammary gland. Mammary tissue from lactating Saanen goats (Capra hircus) was dissociated and processed to a single-cell suspension. Using an in vitro colony-forming assay, we demonstrated that distinct colony types, which expressed specific lineage markers, arose from unipotent progenitors. Using two different growth media, we showed that the frequencies of caprine clonogenic progenitors differed according to growth conditions. Goat epithelial cells were transplanted under the kidney capsule of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice, where they formed organized, bilayered structures. Our results indicate the presence of goat MaSCs in the caprine mammary gland. To our knowledge, these data represent the first description of the tissue hierarchy of the goat mammary gland and demonstrate the regenerative potential of adult goat MaSCs. PMID:22238284

Prpar, Sonja; Martignani, Eugenio; Dovc, Peter; Baratta, Mario

2012-04-01

64

Oklahoma State University Department of Animal Science: Goats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great informational website from Oklahoma State University's Department of Animal Science is all about goats (_Capra hircus_). The site provides subpages with photos and information for many breeds of goats from Alpine to Zhongwei. Site visitors can search for specific goat breeds by clicking on a letter of the alphabet or by perusing an alphabetical list of goat breeds. Links are also provided to other breeds of livestock including cattle, horses, sheep, and swine. Additionally, visitors can link to information on livestock breeds by region, livestock research, and to the Virtual Livestock Library.

65

Toxicity of Jatropha cucurcas for goats.  

PubMed

Eleven Nubian goats were fed with Jatropha curcas seeds at doses ranging from 0.25 g to 10g/kg/day. All dose levels were found to be toxic with fatal conswquences within 2 to 21 days. Liver biopsy samples taken 2 days after the start of feeding and subsequent biopsies showed congestion, varying degrees of fatty change, considerable reduction in glycogen content and necrosis of the hepatocytes. Lack of appetite, reduced water consumption, diarrhoea, dehydration, sunken eyes and a steadily deteriorating condition were important clinical signs of Jatropha intoxication goats. In all animals there was a decrease in the level of glucose and a marked rise in the concentration of arginase and glutamate oxaloacetate transminase (GOT) in the serum. Post-mortem examination revealed haemorrhage in the rumen, reticulum, kidney, spleen and heart, catarrhal or haemorrhagic abomasitis and enteritis, congestion and oedema of the lung and excessive fluid in serous cavities. PMID:1154432

Adam, S E; Magzoub, M

1975-07-01

66

Experimental selenium poisoning in Nubian goats.  

PubMed

The toxicity of sodium selenite was studied in 28 Nubian goats, 20 of which died or were killed in extremis 2 h to 21 d after dosing. Single or repeated daily oral doses of 160, 80, 40, 20 and 5 mg sodium selenite/kg were toxic to goats while daily doses of selenite ranging from 0.25 to 1 mg/kg/d for 225 d were not toxic to this species of animals. The main signs of poisoning were uneasiness, inappetence, dyspnea, salivation, diarhea, paresis of the hind limbs, arching of the back, and recumbency. The main lesions were hemorrhages in the rumen, reticulum, osmasum and abomasum, hemorrhagic or catarrhal abomasitis and enteritis, fatty change and necrosis of the centrilobular hepatocytes and of the cells of the renal convoluted tubules, splenic hemosiderosis, pulmonary congestion, haemorrhage, edema and emphysema, accumulation of lymphocytes in the vital organs, and straw-colored fluid in the serous cavities. PMID:2353437

Ahmed, K E; Adam, S E; Idrill, O F; Wahbi, A A

1990-06-01

67

Non-cerebral coenurosis in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred carcasses of young goats aged between 3 and 6 months were found to be infested with cysts at routine meat inspection\\u000a at an abattoir in Dubai in 2008. Two types of cestode larvae were situated in the liver, abdominal cavities, under the skin\\u000a and between the fasciae of the skeletal muscles. Sixty-two typical coenuri loaded with multiple scolices (between

Rolf K. Schuster; Saritha Sivakumar; Tadeus Wieckowsky

2010-01-01

68

Toxoplasma infection and abortion in dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serological investigation by the indirect haemagglutination test forToxoplasma antibodies was carried out in a flock of dairy goats. Antibody titres ranging from 1:4 to 1:1,024 were found in 34% of 371 apparently healthy animals. High antibody titres of 1:256 suggestive of recent infection were noted in 18 (4.9%) animals including 13 nannies. The occurrence of a number of non-brucella abortions

M. B. Chhabra; R. M. Bhardwaj; O. P. Gautam; R. P. Gupta

1981-01-01

69

Demodicosis of goats: Haematological and biochemical changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

iEDTA (2 mg ml- ) for haematology and sodium fluoride for glucose measurement (Hawk, 1965). Serum samples were assayed for total protein (Wooton, 1974), calcium (Clark and Collip, 1925) and inorganic phosphorus (Fiske and Subba Row, 1925). Hair samples from both control and mite-infested goats were collected in sterilized tubes and washed successively with de-ionized water, ethanol and ethyl ether

M. R. Dalapati; M. K. Bhowmik; S. Sarkar; N. K. Sasmal

1997-01-01

70

Goat vitronectin: Characterization and binding to Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitronectin (Vn) is a multifunctional protein present in plasma and in the extracellular matrix. Previous studies have demonstrated binding of many bacteria to human Vn. In this study, we have characterized goat Vn and studied its interaction with S. aureus considering the importance of this bacterium in animal husbandry. Goat Vn possesses two RGD motifs, at positions 45 and 106,

Manish Mahawar; Paritosh Joshi

2008-01-01

71

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850) of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian) District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type

M. Afzal; K. Javed; M. Shafiq

72

Hematologic Parameters of the Adult Castrated Angora Goat Postquarantine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of the reports in the literature on the hematology of the domestic goat do not indicate the breed. A large group of castrated adult male angora goats were studied. This is a report of some hematological values for these animals based on samples taken...

G. M. Hutton T. E. Hamm E. A. Haight R. A. Whitney

1970-01-01

73

Transgenesis applied to goat: current applications and ongoing research.  

PubMed

Compared to experiments involving pigs, cows and/or sheep, transgenesis applied to goats is probably less advertised. However, recent successes and increasing amount of dedicated research make this species of special interest for ongoing biological and physiological questions on genome engineering in large animals. This short review aims at highlighting the current applications and limitations of the goat genome manipulation. PMID:22528467

Boulanger, Laurent; Passet, Bruno; Pailhoux, Eric; Vilotte, Jean-Luc

2012-12-01

74

Zinc Responsive Dermatopathy in Goats: Two Field Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field reports of zinc deficiency in goats have been limited in the United States. Here, we describe two field cases of goats with symmetrical alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and other, less overt clini- cal signs which have been responsive to zinc supplementation. The affected animals were used for the production of antibod- ies and were part of a herd of 40 female

LISA J. SINGER; ALAN HERRON

2000-01-01

75

The vomeronasal organ in Angora goats (Capra hircus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the morphology of the vomeronasal organ in Angora goats (Capra hircus). The heads of eight adult Angora goats (Capra hircus) obtained from the slaughterhouse were used as materials. Six heads with vomeronasal organ were examined by macro and micro dissections, the others were removed from the longitudinal ridge of mucosa in the

Kamil Besoluk; Emrullah Eken; Murat Boydak

2001-01-01

76

Phylogeny of sheep and goat Theileria and Babesia parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationship of Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep and goats on the basis of their 18S RNA gene structure was addressed in the present study. For this purpose, the complete sequences of the small ribosomal RNA genes of a panel of sheep and goat piroplasm isolates, including T. lestoquardi, T. ovis, T. separata, B. ovis, B. motasi, B.

Leonhard Schnittger; Hong Yin; Marc J. Gubbels; Doreen Beyer; Stefan Niemann; Frans Jongejan; Jabbar S. Ahmed

2003-01-01

77

Short communication MORPHOLOGY OF ESOPHAGUS OF BLACK BENGAL GOAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of esophagus of Black Bengal goat was studied 6 Black Bengal goats of over six months of age of both sex in the Department of Anatomy and Histology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh using. The topography, shape, size, esophageal length including cervical and thoracic parts were measured. The esophagus was sampled at six sites - cranial cervical, middle

M. S. Islam; M. A. Awal; M. A. Quasem; M. Asaduzzaman; S. K. Das

2008-01-01

78

PREVALENCE OF AMPHISTOMES IN BLACK BENGAL GOATS IN MYMENSINGH DISTRICT  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the prevalence of amphistome parasites in Black Bengal goats slaughtered at different slaughterhouses of Mymensingh district, a total of 144 gastro-intestinal tracts were examined during the period of July 1998 to June 1999 in the Department of Parasitology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Out of 144 Black Bengal goats, 105 (72.92%) were infected with a single or multiple species

M. Z. Uddin; N. Begum; M. M. H. Mondal

2006-01-01

79

Mycoplasma agalactiae detected in the semen of goat bucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious agalactia (CA) is among the most significant diseases affecting small ruminant populations in Mediterranean countries. This study was designed to detect the excretion in semen of CA-causing mycoplasmas in goats (Capra hircus) reared in Spain, where the disease is considered endemic. Culture techniques and PCR were conducted on 147 semen samples collected from 113 goat bucks to detect mycoplasmas.

C. de la Fe; J. Amores; A. Gómez Martín; A. Sánchez; A. Contreras; J. C. Corrales

2009-01-01

80

Weekly Milk Prediction on Dairy Goats using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks (NN) have been widely used for both prediction and classification tasks in many fields of knowledge, however, few studies are available on dairy science. In this work we use NN models to predict next week goat milk based on actual and previous milk production. A total of 35 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were selected from a commercial farm

C. Fernández; E. Soria; P. Sánchez-Seiquer; L. Gómez-Chova; R. Magdalena; J. D. Martín; M. J. Navarro; A. J. Serrano

81

Weekly milk prediction on dairy goats using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Artificial neural networks ,(NN) have ,been widely ,used for both prediction and classification tasks in many fields of knowledge, however, few studies are available on dairy science. In this work we use,NN models to predict next week goat milk based on actual and previous milk production. A total of 35 Murciano-Granadina dairy ,goats were selected from a commercial farm

C. Fernández; Emilio Soria-olivas; P. Sánchez-seiquer; Luis Gómez-chova; R. Magdalena; José David Martín-guerrero; M. J. Navarro; Antonio J. Serrano-lópez

2007-01-01

82

Genetic characterization of Barbari goats using microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in Barbari goats, a highly prolific breed distributed widely in the northern part of India, known for better milk and meat quality, was studied as a part of genetic characterization and conservation. The genomic DNA from 50 unrelated Barbari goats were amplified via PCR with a panel of 21 microsatellite markers, and resolved through 6 per cent denaturing

J. Ramamoorthi; K. Thilagam; S. N. Sivaselvam; S. M. K. Karthickeyan

2009-01-01

83

Assessment of acquired immune response to Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick infestation in different goat breeds.  

PubMed

Changes in serum gamma globulin levels, numbers of replete female ticks and engorged tick mass were used as parameters to monitor the acquired immune response (antibody mediated immune response) elicited by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations. Three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations were applied to South African Indigenous goats (Nguni), Saanen goats and cross-bred goats (Saanen goats crossed with South African Indigenous goats [Nguni]) under laboratory conditions. During the three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations the serum gamma globulin levels increased in all three breeds, whilst the mean replete female tick numbers and engorged tick mass decreased. Even though all three goat breeds exhibited an acquired immune response, the South African Indigenous goats (Nguni) response was significantly higher than that of the Saanen and cross-bred goats. However, the acquired immune response elicited by Saanen goats was significantly lower when compared with cross-bred goats. PMID:24396916

Gopalraj, Jeyanthi B P; Clarke, Francoise C; Donkin, Edward F

2013-01-01

84

Suitability of Norwegian short-tail lambs, Norwegian dairy goats and Cashmere goats for meat production - Carcass, meat, chemical and sensory characteristics.  

PubMed

Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (P<0.05) proteins and 13% higher (P<0.05) fat content than goat meats. Moreover, m. longissimus dorsi samples from lambs were less red (a(?)) (P<0.05) and had lower colour intensity (C) and wider hue angle (H) than that from goats. Meat from lambs and Cashmere goats had higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P<0.001), especially stearic acid and lower ones for total unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the meat from Norwegian goats. Sensory panellists scored lamb meat fattier, juicier and more tender than goat meats. Meat from Cashmere goats scored highest (P<0.05) in whiteness, and lowest (P<0.05) in both colour tone and colour intensity. It is concluded that, since C18:0 was the main contributor of SFA in meat from Norwegian lamb and Cashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability. PMID:22063606

Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T

2008-11-01

85

The toxicity of Aristolochia bracteata in goats.  

PubMed

Diarrhea, dyspnea, tympany, arching of the back, loss of condition, and loss of hair from the back were the prominent signs when Aristolochia bracteata was given orally to goats. The main lesions were hemorrhages in the lungs, heart, and kidneys, fatty change and congestion in the liver, mucoid abomasitis and enteritis and straw-colored fluid in serous cavities. An increase in aspartate aminotransferase activity, ammonia and urea concentrations and a decrease in the concentrations of total protein and magnesium were detected in detected in the serum. PMID:6636468

Barakat, S E; Wasfi, I A; Adam, S E

1983-09-01

86

Suppurative Rhombencephalitis and Meningitis in a Goat.  

PubMed

A 1-year-old female Boer goat was presented for necropsy following spontaneous death and history of acute recumbency, nystagmus, and sialorrhea. A swollen area was grossly observed in the brainstem at the level of the pons. On cut surface, the right cerebellar peduncles were expanded by a focal, pale, poorly demarcated, slightly depressed, and soft area of malacia. Microscopically, this area contained diffuse edema and necrosis, with microabscesses, neuronal necrosis, neuronophagia, axonal spheroids, vasculitis, and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. The diagnosis was based on the morphologic findings, fluorescent antibody test results, and special staining. PMID:23576239

Dill, J A; Rissi, D R

2013-04-10

87

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75%) had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17%) of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

2012-01-01

88

Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection. PMID:24703974

Koinari, M; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

2014-06-01

89

Follicle characteristics of non-woolly Indian goats.  

PubMed

Skin follicular studies of four non-woolly Indian goat breeds are reported. The number of primary follicles ranged from 2 to 14 mm-2 with an overall mean of 6.40 +/- 0.22. Secondary follicles per mm2 ranged from 1 to 23 with an overall mean of 9.48 +/- 0.55. The secondary/primary follicle ratios (S/P) for Black Bengal, Jamnapari, Barbari and Sirohi goats were 1.57 +/- 0.21, 1.15 +/- 0.16, 1.61 +/- 0.21 and 2.04 +/- 0.21, respectively, with an overall mean of 1.59 +/- 0.99. The corresponding values for the total follicles per mm2 for the four breeds were 16.83 +/- 1.39, 15.86 +/- 1.08, 17.66 +/- 1.41 and 13.19 +/- 1.41 with an overall mean of 15.88 +/- 0.66. Per cent primaries were lowest in Sirohi and highest in Jamnapari goats. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between breeds for the number of primary follicles and S/P ratio. Sex differences and the interaction between breed x sex were not significant for any of the follicle traits studied. On the basis of follicle characteristics the non-woolly short-haired goats offer a reasonable scope for crossing with fibre goats, and Sirohi goats possibly have better skin quality for leather conversion than other goat breeds studied. PMID:2333435

Koul, G L; Somvanshi, R; Biswas, J C

1990-03-01

90

Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems.  

PubMed

In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive). A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270) were analysed, of which 31.1% were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3%), compared with 43.3% and 36.7% infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative), were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7% of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3% of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16,450 colony forming units (CFU)/ml) compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36,300 CFU/ml) or hand-milking (48,000 CFU/ml). No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC) and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk. PMID:16108524

Kyozaire, J K; Veary, C M; Petzer, I M; Donkin, E F

2005-06-01

91

Ultrasonography of the reticulum in 30 healthy Saanen goats  

PubMed Central

Background The reticulum plays a crucial role in the ruminant digestive tract because the primary cycle of rumen motility always starts with a reticular contraction. In contrast to cattle, there are only few results on the ultrasonographic examination of the reticulum in goats. Therefore, it was the goal of the present study, to describe the results of ultrasonography of the reticulum of 30 healthy Saanen goats. Methods Ultrasonography was carried out on standing, non-sedated animals using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer. The shape, contour and motility of the reticulum were investigated. A nine-minute video recording of the reticulum was made for each goat and the frequency, duration and amplitude of reticular contractions were calculated as described for cattle. Results The reticulum appeared as a crescent-shaped structure with a smooth contour located immediately adjacent to the diaphragm. 0.8 to 2.1 (1.41 ± 0.31) reticular contractions were seen per minute. In all goats, biphasic reticular contractions were observed. 90% of the goats also had monophasic reticular contractions, and two had triphasic contractions. During the nine-minute observation periods, there were 0 to 6 monophasic reticular contractions and 6 to 15 biphasic contractions per goat. The duration of the biphasic contractions was 6.56 ± 0.74 s, which was significantly longer than the monophasic contractions at 4.31 ± 0.81 s. The average interval between two reticular contractions was 45.06 ± 12.57 s. Conclusion Ultrasonography of the reticulum in goats is a valuable tool to characterise the appearance and motility of this organ. In addition to the biphasic motility pattern seen in cattle the reticular motility of goats is characterized by monophasic reticular contractions. The results of the present study are an important contribution for better understanding of the reticular motility in goats.

2011-01-01

92

Detection of enterovirus genome sequence from diarrheal feces of goat.  

PubMed

Goat diarrheal feces were subjected to metagenome analysis by the next-generation sequencing. Nucleotide sequences with homology to enteroviruses were obtained. Primers for RT-PCR were designed based on the nucleotide sequence of these sequences at the 5'-untranslated region, and we determined 563 bp nucleotide sequences that showed homology to bovine-like and ovine enteroviruses (77-87 %). We named the virus detected in this study goat enterovirus G1 (GEV-G1). In the phylogenetic analysis, GEV-G1 belonged to a cluster containing ovine enteroviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first report on nucleotide sequences of an enterovirus infecting Japanese goats. PMID:24691818

Omatsu, Tsutomu; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Hirata, Teppei; Shiroma, Yasushi; Okazaki, Sachiko; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Nishiura, Naomi; Sassa, Yukiko; Furuya, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto; Ochiai, Hideharu; Tamaki, Shirou; Mizutani, Tetsuya

2014-06-01

93

Ophthalmoscopic characteristics in sheep and goats: comparative study.  

PubMed

The ocular fundus was examined in 40 goat eyes and 40 sheep eyes by studying ophthalmoscopic characteristics and retinograms. Similarities and differing characteristics were described. In common: tapetal colour; peripheral yellowish area surrounding the Winslow stars; unpigmented areas in the non-tapetal zone; a great amount of myelin in the optic disc; the Bergmeister's papilla and the holoangiotic retinal vascular pattern. Differences: big size of the Winslow stars in goats; myelinizated fibre over the non-tapetal zone in sheep; shape, position and myelin distribution of the optic disc; and the presence of a 'primary artery' in goats. PMID:16629956

Galán, A; Martín-Suárez, E Ma; Molleda, J Ma

2006-05-01

94

Performance of growing goats fed Gliricidia maculata.  

PubMed

Sixteen female crossbred (localxAnglo-Nubian) goats raised from 20-30kg were fed a basal diet of cassava chips, cotton seed cake, rice bran and rice straw, where 0, 30, 40 or 50% of the diet dry matter was replaced with leaves from Gliricidia maculata. All the diets containing Gliricidia resulted in a higher intake than the diet without Gliricidia, but the diet with 30% Gliricidia gave the best intake and the highest growth rate, 105g per day. Total intake was 2.8% of the body weight (BW). Five male goats of the same breed and size were used to study the effect of supplementing rice straw with different levels of Gliricidia leaves on intake and apparent digestibility of the diets. Increasing the amount of Gliricidia leaves decreased the rice straw intake but increased intake of total dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and crude protein (CP). Supplementing with Gliricidia leaves improved the dry matter digestibility (DMD), the OM digestibility and the CP digestibility in the mixed Gliricidia and rice straw diet, compared to pure rice straw, but the values were somewhat lower than could be expected by calculations from the pure rice straw and Gliricidia diets. The DMD of Gliricidia was 64.1%. PMID:11182303

van Hao, N; Ledin, I

2001-02-01

95

Apparent gossypol-induced toxicosis in adult dairy goats.  

PubMed

Consumption of a cotton-seed meal-based mineral supplement (cattle label) and a concentrate dairy mix (goat label) resulted in gossypol toxicosis in 3 adult dairy goats. The primary clinical signs were limb swelling and stiffness, ventral abdominal edema, and anorexia. All does died within a few days of the onset of illness. Necropsy revealed generalized subcutaneous edema, acute centrilobular necrosis of the liver, and myocardial fibrosis, consistent with a diagnosis of gossypol toxicosis. It was estimated that the does had consumed from 348 to 414 mg of free gossypol/d for at least 3 months. Apparent gossypol toxicosis in goats consuming this amount of free gossypol indicates that goats may be more susceptible than cattle to this substance. PMID:8163423

East, N E; Anderson, M; Lowenstine, L J

1994-02-15

96

A Series of Thymomas in the Angora Goat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourteen thymomas have been collected and reviewed from our autopsy series of 2600 white angora goats. The gross and microscopic characteristics of these tumors are described and compared and contrasted with similar tumors in a variety of mammalian specie...

C. S. Streett N. H. Altman J. Y. Terner C. C. Berdjis

1968-01-01

97

Goat Herders in Piura, Peru. Inhabitants of the Uninhabited Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes and analyzes the complex ecological, social, economics, and political context of goat husbandry in Piura, Peru. An overview of herd composition and dynamics, management practices, production and marketing is first provided. Then nine ...

A. Perevolotsky

1985-01-01

98

Ultrasonography of the abomasum in 30 Saanen goats.  

PubMed

This report describes the findings of ultrasonographic examination of the abomasum in 30 goats. A 5.0 MHz linear transducer was used to scan the left and right paramedian regions, the linea alba and the right abdominal wall of standing goats. The abomasum appeared as a heterogeneous, moderately echogenic structure with echogenic stippling. The abomasum could be seen from the linea alba in all the goats. The abomasal folds were easily identified in 19 goats and appeared as prominent echogenic bands. The cranial visible limit of the abomasum was -0.3 [2.34]cm from the xyphoid, and the caudal limit was 10.3 [3.08]cm caudal to the xyphoid. The visible length of the abomasum was 10.7 [1.96]cm and the maximum width 30.2 [7.43]cm. The height of the abomasum was 6.7 [1.79]cm. PMID:21497869

Braun, U; Jacquat, D

2012-04-01

99

Goat-associated Q fever: a new disease in Newfoundland.  

PubMed Central

In the spring of 1999 in rural Newfoundland, abortions in goats were associated with illness in goat workers. An epidemiologic investigation and a serologic survey were conducted in April 1999 to determine the number of infections, nature of illness, and risk factors for infection. Thirty-seven percent of the outbreak cohort had antibody titers to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigen >1:64, suggesting recent infection. The predominant clinical manifestation of Q fever was an acute febrile illness. Independent risk factors for infection included contact with goat placenta, smoking tobacco, and eating cheese made from pasteurized goat milk. This outbreak raises questions about management of such outbreaks, interprovincial sale and movement of domestic ungulates, and the need for discussion between public health practitioners and the dairy industry on control of this highly infectious organism.

Hatchette, T. F.; Hudson, R. C.; Schlech, W. F.; Campbell, N. A.; Hatchette, J. E.; Ratnam, S.; Raoult, D.; Donovan, C.; Marrie, T. J.

2001-01-01

100

Case 6 – EMEA: Transgenic goat producing human antithromb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human antithrombin III ATryn ® produced from transgenic goat (Genzyme Transgenics Corp.). August 2006: European Medicines\\u000a Agency (EMEA) approved Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) as first example of biopharming product going to the market.\\u000a Transgenic goats were generated expressing human antithrombin in their mammary gland and secreting it into their milk, by\\u000a injection of a suitable DNA construct into one pronucleus

Michael Bader

101

Monitoring of clinical signs in goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies  

PubMed Central

Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response) and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits) at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of individual neurological signs.

2010-01-01

102

Spermatogenesis in goats with and without scrotum bipartition.  

PubMed

The objective of the present research was to quantify the seminiferous epithelium cells, spermatogenesis efficiency and characterize the ultrastrucure of Sertoli cells in goats. Eighteen goats were used and divided into three groups: Group I - goats without bipartition of the scrotum; Group II - animals with bipartition of the scrotum in up to 50% of the testicular length; Group III - goats with bipartition of the scrotum in more than 50% of the testicular length. The goat testes in Group III had a greater number of primary spermatocytes (25.37 ± 4.55 cells per cross sections), spermatids (112 ± 15.12 cells per cross sections), and Sertoli cells (9.46 ± 1.74 cells per cross sections) than the animals in Groups I and II (P<0.05). The spermatogenic mitotic, meiotic, and general efficiency were greater in animals in Group III (1.25 ± 0.28; 5.12 ± 1.63; 6.44 ± 1.96) when compared to those in Groups I and II. Sheet-like processes originated from the Sertoli cell body as simple and smooth structures which involved almost all the surface of germ cells. Slender cord-like processes originated from Sertoli cells and also from the sheet-like processes. The relative frequency of the cycle stages showed differences among the groups of goats studied, and the highest frequency was in Stage 3 (20.68% for goats in Group I, 21.15% for those in Group II, and 16.89% for the animals in Group III). In conclusion, goats with bipartition of the scrotum have a greater number of germ and Sertoli cells per cross section of seminiferous tubule, that indicated a greater sperm production when compared to the other groups, and the ultrastructure of the Sertoli cell process did not present any relationship with bipartition of the scrotum. PMID:22285049

Júnior, A A N Machado; Oliveira, L S; Assis Neto, A C; Alves, F R; Miglino, M A; Carvalho, M A M

2012-01-01

103

Cytoarchitectural differences of myoepithelial cells among goat major salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, the distribution of myoepithelial cells (mecs) in the salivary glands was studied by both immunohistochemistry,\\u000a and transmission electron microscopy; however, little was elucidated concerning their morphological features, especially in\\u000a goats. This study was performed to investigate the correlation between the cytoarchitecture of the mecs in goat major salivary\\u000a glands (parotid, mandibular, and sublingual glands) and the nature of the

Yaser Hosny Elewa; Mohammad Hafez Bareedy; Ahmed Awad Abu Al Atta; Osamu Ichii; Saori Otsuka; Tomonori Kanazawa; Shin-Hyo Lee; Yoshiharu Hashimoto; Yasuhiro Kon

2010-01-01

104

Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.  

PubMed

A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not. PMID:24893025

Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

2014-05-01

105

Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat.  

PubMed

Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. PMID:24888466

Quintas, H; Alegria, N; Mendonça, A; Botelho, A; Alves, A; Pires, I

2014-08-01

106

Ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 Saanen goats  

PubMed Central

Background Primary diseases of the omasum are uncommon in goats, although the omasum may be involved in various gastrointestinal disorders. Examination of the caprine omasum via ultrasonography requires a good understanding of the normal appearance of the organ. However, in contrast to cattle, there is a lack of reference information on this topic in goats. Thus, the goal of the present study was to describe the results of ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 healthy Saanen goats. Results Ultrasonography was carried out in standing, non-sedated goats using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer. The location and size of the omasum, thickness of the omasal wall and visualisation of the abomasal laminae, contents and contractions were assessed. The omasum was visible from the 9th intercostal space (ICS) in all the goats, and from the 8th and 10th ICSs in 29 and 24 goats, respectively. The omasum was seen medial to the liver, but only the omasal wall closest to the transducer was visible. The dorsal omasal limit formed a dorsally convex curve running from cranioventral to caudodorsal and was furthest from the dorsal midline in the 6th ICS. The ventral omasal limit formed a ventrally convex curve. The size of the omasum was largest (10.2 ± 3.1 cm) in the 9th ICS and decreased cranially and caudally from this position. Active omasal motility was recorded in 20 goats with 0.3 to 2.0 contractions per minute. Conclusions The findings of this study provide reference ranges for the interpretation of the location and size of the omasum in goats with suspected omasal abnormalities. Ultrasonography is an ideal diagnostic tool for evaluation of the omasum, which is not accessible to conventional examination techniques, such as inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation.

2011-01-01

107

THE TRANSPORT OF SHEEP AND GOAT SPERMATOZOA IN THE EWE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Counts were made of the numbers of spermatozoa in the Fallopian tubes of ewes 24 hr after mating or after insemination with either sheep or goat semen. Spermatozoa were recovered from all five mated ewes (10\\/10 tubes), from all eight ewes inseminated with sheep semen (13\\/15 tubes) and from four of eight ewes inseminated with goat semen (7\\/16 tubes).

J. L. HANCOCK; P. T. McGOVERN

1968-01-01

108

Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats  

PubMed Central

Background The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones. Results The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.739 in Barbari to 0.783 in Jakhrana goats. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for 5 loci breed combinations. The DA measure of genetic distance between pairs of breeds indicated that the lowest distance was between Marwari and Sirohi (0.135). The highest distance was between Pashmina and Black Bengal. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that 6.59% of variance exists among the Indian goat breeds. Both a phylogenetic tree and Principal Component Analysis showed the distribution of breeds in two major clusters with respect to their geographic distribution. Conclusion Our study concludes that Indian goat populations can be classified into distinct genetic groups or breeds based on the microsatellites as well as mtDNA information.

Rout, Pramod K; Joshi, Manjunath B; Mandal, Ajoy; Laloe, D; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2008-01-01

109

One hundred two tumors in 100 goats (1987-2011).  

PubMed

Of 1146 caprine necropsy or biopsy specimens submitted from 1987 through 2011 to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Oregon State University, 100 goats (8.7%) had 102 tumors. Detailed records were available for 89 cases. Fifty-five goats were female, 17 were castrated males, and 12 were intact males. Breeds included 21 Nubian, 16 Pygmy, 10 Pygora, 8 Alpine, 4 Angora, 4 Saanen, 2 Toggenburg, and 9 crossbred goats. Dwarf, Nubian, and Saanen goats were overrepresented and Alpine and Boer goats underrepresented among cases with neoplastic disease in comparison to submissions overall. Age ranged from 7 months to 19 years (median, 7 years). Histopathology was performed on 97 tumors. Lymphoma (n = 17) was the most common tumor, followed by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (n = 10) and thymoma (n = 9). Most lymphomas were multicentric. All 7 mammary neoplasms were adenocarcinomas. Five of 7 vascular proliferations were hemangiosarcomas. All 4 melanocytic tumors were classified as (malignant) melanoma. Rarely reported caprine tumors included a choroid plexus carcinoma, 2 rhabdomyosarcomas, and 3 pheochromocytomas. Cutaneous round cell tumors were provisionally diagnosed as 2 histiocytomas and 5 mast cell tumors. Single cases of previously unreported caprine tumors included amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, myxosarcoma, sebaceous carcinoma, apocrine sweat gland adenoma, and thyroid carcinoma. Nonneoplastic entities included 2 cases of mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia and single cases of vascular hamartoma, cervical adenomatous hyperplasia, and cervical leiomyofibromatosis. The results of this 25-year retrospective study indicate that lymphoma in particular and tumors in general are common in goats. PMID:23341420

Löhr, C V

2013-07-01

110

Efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction\\u000a test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and\\/or\\u000a the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups:

Tadesse Eguale; Hassen Chaka; Daniel Gizaw

2009-01-01

111

Toxicity of Commiphora myrrha to goats.  

PubMed

An investigation was made of Commiphora myrrha used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Twelve 6-mo-old male Nubian goat kids were assigned to 4 groups: undosed controls, C myrrha-dosed at 0.25 g plant resin/kg/d, C myrrha-dosed at 1 g resin/kg/d and C myrrha dosed at 5 g plant resin/kg/d. Results of hepatorenal function tests were correlated with clinical and pathological changes. The use of 1 or 5 g plant resin/kg/d caused grinding of teeth, salivation, soft feces, inappetence, jaundice, dyspnea, ataxia and recumbency. Death occurred between 5 and 16 d. Enterohepatonephrotoxicity was accompanied by anemia, leucopenia, increases in serum ALP activity and concentrations of bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine, and decreases in total protein and albumin. The oral dose of 0.25 g plant resin/kg/d was not toxic. PMID:10509432

Omer, S A; Adam, S E

1999-10-01

112

Echocardiography in Saanen-goats: Normal findings, reference intervals in awake goats, and the effect of general anesthesia.  

PubMed

Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structures, dimensions, and mechanical function in goats is poorly documented. The goal of this study was to describe normal findings, establish normal values for two-dimensional (2DE) and M-mode (MME) echocardiography, and investigate the influence of general anaesthesia. Standardized 2DE and MME recordings were obtained on 22 healthy female Saanen goats (3.7 ± 1.1 years [mean ± SD], 60.2 ± 10.6 kg) awake (standing) and during isoflurane anesthesia (sternal recumbency). Cardiac dimensions and function were assessed and compared between treatments (awake vs. anaesthetized). Color Doppler imaging and saline contrast studies served to assess abnormal blood flow patterns. Post mortem examination was performed in a subset of 12 goats. Transthoracic echocardiography was feasible in all goats. Indices of LV systolic function proved to be significantly increased during general anesthesia. The membranous and occasionally echolucent appearance of the oval fossa suggested abnormal interatrial communication in 9 goats. Color Doppler imaging and saline contrast studies proved to be inaccurate to detect interatrial shunting of blood. Post mortem examination confirmed small persistent foramen ovale in only 3 out of 7 goats, in which it had been suspected on echocardiography. PMID:22139947

Steininger, K; Berli, A-S J; Jud, R; Schwarzwald, C C

2011-12-01

113

Stable silencing of ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene by lentivirus-mediated RNAi in goat fetal fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

?-lactoglobulin (BLG), a dominant allergen in goat milk, is difficult to remove by traditional biochemical methods. Its elimination from goat milk by genetic modification therefore poses a major challenge for modern goat breeders. A shRNA targeting BLG mRNA with high interference efficiency was identified, with which lentiviral vectors were used for mediating stable shRNA interference in goat-fetal fibroblast cells. Apart from high efficiency in the knockdown of BLG expression in these cells, lentivector-mediated RNAi manifested stable integration into the goat genome itself. Consequently, an in vitro model for goat BLG-content control was compiled, and a goat-cell line for accompanying transgenetic goat production created.

Zhang, Shumin; Xiong, Kai; Xie, Zhourui; Nan, Wenting; Liu, Honglin; Chen, Jie

2012-01-01

114

The helical flow total artificial heart: Implantation in goats.  

PubMed

To realize a total artificial heart (TAH) with high performance, high durability, good anatomical fitting, and good blood compatibility, the helical flow TAH (HFTAH) has been developed with two helical flow pumps having hydrodynamic levitation impeller. The HFTAH was implanted in goats to investigate its anatomical fitting, blood compatibility, mechanical stability, control stability, and so on. The size of the HFTAH was designed to be 80 mm in diameter and 84 mm wide. The maximum output was 19 L/min against 100 mmHg of pressure head. Eight adult female goats weighting from 45 to 56.3 kg (average 49.7 kg) were used. Under the extracorporeal circulation, natural heart was removed at the atrioventricular groove and the HFTAH was implanted. The HFTAH was driven with a pulsatile mode. The 1/R control was applied when the right atrial pressure recovered. The HFTAH could be implanted with good anatomical fitting in all goats. Two goats survived for more than a week. One goat is ongoing. Other goats did not survive for more than two days with various reasons. In the goats that survived for more than a week, the hydrodynamic bearing was worn and broken, which indicated that the bearing touched to the shaft. The cause was supposed to be the influence of the sucking effect. The potential of the HFTAH could be demonstrated with this study. The stability of the hydrodynamic bearing in a living body, especially the influence of the sucking effect, was considered to be very important and a further study should be necessary. PMID:24110289

Abe, Yusuke; Ishii, Kohei; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Sato, Masami; Hara, Shintaro; Hosoda, Kyohei; Ariyoshi, Koki; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Ono, Toshiya; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Imachi, Kou

2013-01-01

115

Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.  

PubMed

Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation. PMID:22890482

Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

2012-12-01

116

Overview of herd and CAEV status in dwarf goats in South Tyrol, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the electronic data processing proved that 323 dwarf goats older than 6 months from 165 farms were kept in 63 of the 116 communes of South Tyrol. The number of dwarf goats maintained ranged from 1 to 19 animals, the average farm size revealed to be of 2 dwarf goats\\/farm. 47 animals were aged between 6 months

H. Gufler; W. Baumgartner

2007-01-01

117

Morphological events during in vitro fertilization of prepubertal goat oocytes matured in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to study morphological changes temporally associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) of prepubertal goat oocytes and to elucidate some of the abnormalities occurring during this process. The effects of different intervals of insemination on subsequent embryonic development were also studied. Prepubertal goat oocytes collected at slaughter were matured in TCM199 supplemented with estrous goat serum (20%),

T. Mogas; M. J. Palomo; M. D. Izquierdo; M. T. Paramio

1997-01-01

118

Social rank and response to the “male effect” in the Australian Cashmere goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine if the social status of Australian Cashmere goats affects their response to the male effect in terms of LH secretion, ovulation and expression of estrus. Australian Cashmere goats were kept isolated from the males during 5 months. The index of success (SI) of each goat was calculated to establish their social rank. In

L. Alvarez; L. Zarco; F. Galindo; D. Blache; G. B. Martin

2007-01-01

119

Effects of dietary protein level on performance of Angora and cashmere-producing Spanish goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of dietary crude protein level on fiber production of Angora and cashmere-producing Spanish goats were studied in 16 yearling doelings (eight Spanish, eight Angora) for 8 weeks. Goats were housed in individual stalls and maintained at constant temperature (21 °C) with 9 h light and 15 h darkness each day. Goats were initially sheared, blocked by body weight (BW)

Z. H. Jia; T. Sahlu; J. M. Fernandez; S. P. Hart; T. H. Teh

1995-01-01

120

Ingestive behavior of goats grazing in the Southwestern Argan ( Argania spinosa) forest of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, conducted in the southwestern Argan forest of Morocco, aimed to assess goat feeding behaviour and goat diet composition. Overall grazing time averaged 387min\\/day and represented on average 70% of total time when the goats were released on pasture. Grazing time was higher during winter months. Bipedal grazing was low and never exceeded 10%. Soil grazing varied according to

A. El Aich; N. El Assouli; A. Fathi; P. Morand-Fehr; A. Bourbouze

2007-01-01

121

Short communication ARTERIAL SUPPLY TO THE ESOPHAGUS OF BLACK BENGAL GOAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the blood supply to the esophagus of Black Bengal goat a research was conducted in the Department of Anatomy and Histology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 with 12 Black Bengal goats of over 6 months of age of both sexes. The esophagus of Black Bengal goat was sampled at six sites- cranial cervical, middle cervical, caudal cervical, at the

M. S. Islam; M. A. Quasem; M. A. Awal; M. M Uddin

2008-01-01

122

Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all

M. A. Rahman; S. M. M. Rahman; M. A. Jalil; Sarder Nasir Uddin

123

STUDY ON PNEUMONIA IN BLACK BENGAL GOAT IN SELECTED AREAS OF BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed at diagnosis of pneumonia in Black Bengal goat by clinical symptoms and the association of different animal and management factors with the occurrence of pneumonia in goat. The study was carried out on a total number of 40 Black Bengal goats with respiratory disorder that were brought to the Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Boalkhali during June to

S. Islam; A. Ahad; S. Chowdhury; S. R. Barua

2006-01-01

124

Recovery of Mycoplasma agalactiae from the ears of goats experimentally infected by the intramammary route  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of inapparent carriers of Mycoplasma agalactiae and the strategies used to colonise the external ear canal in goats remain unclear. This study examined the ability of M. agalactiae to colonise the ears of goats infected experimentally by the intramammary route. The right mammary glands of 15 lactating goats were inoculated with 1010 colony forming units (cfu) of M.

Christian de la Fe; A. Castro-Alonso; P. Herráez; José B. Poveda

2011-01-01

125

Alpha s1-casein, milk composition and coagulation properties of goat milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amounts of alphas1-casein (?s1-CN), protein, fat, SNF and total solids were measured in 125 goat milk samples. Coagulation time, coagulation rate and curd firmness were measured in 75 goat milk samples by dynamic mechanical analysis using a Bohlin VOR Rheometer. After adjustments were made for month, time of milk collection and animal age, it was confirmed that goat milk with

S. Clark; J. W. Sherbon

2000-01-01

126

Transplantation of goat bone marrow stromal cells to the degenerating intervertebral disc in a goat disc-injury model  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vivo randomized controlled study in the goat intervertebral disc (IVD) injury model. Objective To define the effects of allogeneic bone marrow-derived stromal cell injected into the degenerating goat IVDs. Summary of Background Data Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells to the degenerating disc has been suggested as a means to correct the biologic incompetence of the disc. However, large animal models with IVDs similar in shape and size to those of humans are needed to define the efficacy and safety of this approach. Methods Goat IVD degeneration was induced by stabbing with a #15 blade. One month after disc injury, the injured discs were randomly selected to receive goat bone marrow-derived stromal cell (suspended in hydrogel), saline (control), or hydrogel (control) injections. Three and 6 months after stem cell transplantation, goats were euthanized and the IVD were examined for biochemical content and tissue morphology. MR images at 3- and 6-month time points were also examined. Results The goat large animal model shows early degenerative changes following disc injury. Degenerating IVDs injected with bone marrow stromal cells showed significantly increased proteoglycan (PG) accumulation within their nucleus pulposus (NP) region. However, collagen content, MRI grade and histology did not show statistically significant differences between the cell-treated and control IVDs. Conclusions Following transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells, NP tissue contained more PG than control discs. Although this result was promising, the rate and severity of degeneration in this goat disc injury were modest, suggesting that a more severe injury and a larger sample size is indicated for future studies to better define the utility of cell therapies in this model.

Zhang, Yejia; Drapeau, Susan; An, Howard S.; Thonar, Eugene J-M.A.; Anderson, D. Greg

2010-01-01

127

Apparent rarity of diminazene-resistant trypanosomes in goats infected with a diminazene-resistant population of Trypanosoma congolense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out in goats to determine the frequency with which diminazene-resistant trypanosomes occur in parasite populations before and after the intramuscular treatment of the goats with diminazene aceturate. Trypanosoma congolense IL 3274, a diminazene-resistant clone, was used to initiate infections in three groups of five goats. The goats in the first group were treated with diminazene aceturate at

M Mamman; D. J. L Williams; N. B Murphy; A. S Peregrine

1995-01-01

128

Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure  

PubMed Central

While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal’s blood pressure returned to normotensive. These results indicate that, as in the case of chicken consumption, prolonged consumption of goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure, rather the large amount of salt used in the preparation of goat meat dishes is responsible for the increase in blood pressure.

Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

2014-01-01

129

Selenium content and distribution of human, cow and goat milk.  

PubMed

Studies were undertaken to compare the content and distribution of selenium in human, cow and goat milk. Selenium content of cow milk was found to be lower than that of either human or goat milk. Regardless of source, less than 3% of total milk selenium was associated with the lipid fraction. Selenium within the 120,000 X g supernatant accounted for 72, 62 and 30% of the total in cow, human and goat milk, respectively. Glutathione peroxidase occurred in all milk samples with goat greater than human greater than cow. Percent of total peroxidase activity associated with glutathione peroxidase was 29, 27 and 65 for human, cow and goat milk, respectively. Approximately 20-28% of the selenium in milk was removed by dialysis (molecular exclusion of 6-8 kDa). After gel chromatography, 8-12 selenoprotein fractions were detected in undialyzed skim milk from each species. Most of the glutathione peroxidase activity was found in the fractions corresponding to 170 and 96 kDa in milk from all species examined. The diameric form of glutathione peroxidase also appeared in dialyzed and undialyzed milk. Distinct differences in the content and distribution of selenoproteins among these species in fresh and dialyzed milk are discussed. PMID:3037047

Debski, B; Picciano, M F; Milner, J A

1987-06-01

130

Ventilatory response of rabbits and goats to chronic progesterone administration.  

PubMed

We assessed the ventilatory response to chronic progesterone administration of 37 male rabbits and 4 castrated male goats. Rabbits, in response to 2.72 mg.kg-1.day-1 of progesterone, did not chronically hyperventilate as measured by changes in CSF [HCO-3]. Two goats given 10 mg/kg/day of progesterone by intramuscular injection, alone or in combination with estradiol or testosterone, manifested no convincing ventilatory changes. Two goats were given progesterone in the form of progesterone-containing Silastic implants. Serum progesterone levels of 8-27 ng/ml were maintained over the course of 45 days. The hyperventilation in these goats, unlike that of man, was slow to develop (8-15 days), slow to decay (10-30 days), and relatively small (resting PETCO2 fell 3-5 mm Hg relative to control); and there was no change in slope of the CO2 response curves. We conclude that goats and rabbits do not respond to progesterone like man, and therefore are not good models with which to study the mechanism(s) by which progesterone produces hyperventilation in man. PMID:7384660

Smith, C A; Kellogg, R H

1980-03-01

131

Ultrasonography of the urinary tract in 29 female Saanen goats.  

PubMed

The left and right kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra of 29 female clinically healthy Saanen goats were examined via transcutaneous and transrectal ultrasonography. In order to establish reference values the examinations were performed using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer to scan the right caudal costal part of the abdominal wall, right and left dorsal flanks and right and left inguinal regions of standing goats. A 5.0 MHz intracavity probe was used for transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the urinary bladder and urethra. The kidneys were examined in longitudinal and cross section and assessed subjectively. They could usually be seen from the 12th intercostal space on the right side and dorsal right flank. The right kidney was 8.0 ± 0.67 cm long and the left was 8.4 ± 0.64 cm long. The ureters could not be visualized in any of the goats. The length of the urinary bladder was 5.1 ± 1.38 cm, and its largest cross-sectional diameter was 2.6 ± 1.01 cm. The urethra was seen in 23 goats and appeared as echogenic lines with no visible lumen. The transition from the neck of the bladder to the internal urethral orifice extended beyond the brim of the pelvis in only one goat. PMID:22287138

Steininger, K; Braun, U

2012-02-01

132

Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are the major source of Q fever in humans. To investigate the goat’s immune response we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via inhalation with a Dutch outbreak isolate of C. burnetii. All animals were successfully infected. Phase 1 and Phase 2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies were measured. Cellular immune responses were investigated by interferon-gamma, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (IFN-? Elispot), lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and systemic cytokines. After two weeks post inoculation (wpi), a strong anti-C. burnetii Phase 2 IgM and IgG antibody response was observed while the increase in IgM anti-Phase 1 antibodies was less pronounced. IgG anti-Phase 1 antibodies started to rise at 6 wpi. Cellular immune responses were observed after parturition. Our results demonstrated humoral and cellular immune responses to C. burnetii infection in pregnant goats. Cell-mediated immune responses did not differ enough to distinguish between Coxiella-infected and non-infected pregnant animals, whereas a strong-phase specific antibody response is detected after 2 wpi. This humoral immune response may be useful in the early detection of C. burnetii-infected pregnant goats.

2013-01-01

133

Low seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Boer goats in Missouri  

PubMed Central

Background Goats are known reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever. However, there has been very little research on the prevalence of C. burnetii exposure and risk in meat goats farmed in the US. Banked serum samples were secondarily tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies. Findings The animal and herd-level seroprevalence estimates for C. burnetii were 1.2% (3/249) and 4.2% (1/24) respectively. Within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 1.2%. Conclusions This study indicates that seroprevalence of C. burnetii in Boer goats raised in Missouri was low, but it does not preclude the existence of a higher level of infection in Missouri’s meat goat herds. This result is inconclusive because this study was disadvantaged by the small number of individual animal and herds tested, which compromised the statistical power of this study to detect a possible higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii in this population, if present. More research is warranted to corroborate the preliminary findings reported here in order to determine the public health significance C. burnetii infection risks associated with contemporary goat production systems in the US.

2014-01-01

134

A novel genetic variant of the goat Six6 gene and its association with production traits in Chinese goat breeds.  

PubMed

We looked for novel genetic variations within the Six6 gene by PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and forced RFLP-PCR and estimated their associations with production traits in 2132 goats of eight indigenous Chinese breeds. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (NM_001104993.1: g.232T>C) within the goat Six6 gene was identified. The frequencies of allele "C" varied from 0.8621 to 1.000, which were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotype and allele frequencies were found to be significantly different in the breeds. Association analysis revealed a significant relationship between genotypes and cannon circumference in Hainan black goats (P = 0.047); adult individuals with genotype CT showed higher cannon circumference than those with genotype CC. Another significant association of genotypes with five-year-old fiber length was found in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats (P = 0.002). In addition, individuals with genotype CT had longer fiber length than those with genotype CC. The data revealed that the Six6 gene positively affects growth traits and cashmere traits. Polymorphism of Six6-PstI could be useful as a DNA marker for goat breeding and genetics via marker-assisted selection. PMID:22179999

Pan, C Y; Lan, X Y; Zhao, H Y; Hu, S R; Huai, Y T; Lei, C Z; Chen, H

2011-01-01

135

Cryptococcal meningitis in a goat - a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptococcus spp. are saprophytic and opportunistic fungal pathogens that are known to cause severe disease in immunocompromised animals. In goats there are reports of clinical cryptococcal pneumonia and mastitis but not of meningitis. Case presentation The following report describes a case of a five year old buck showing severe neurological signs, including paraplegia and strong pain reaction to touch of the hindquarters region. Treatment with antibiotics was unsuccessful and the animal was euthanized for humanitarian reasons. Postmortem examination revealed lumbar meningitis, lung nodules and caseous lymphadenitis lesions. Encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans were identified from the lungs and meninges, showing that cryptococcal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of goats showing paresis and hyperesthesia. The possibility of concurrent immunosuppression due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection is raised. Conclusions Cryptoccocal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis list of goat diseases with ataxia and hyperesthesia.

2014-01-01

136

Etiology of the stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex in Nigerian dwarf goats.  

PubMed Central

The causative agent of stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex was isolated in domesticated goats and Vero cell culture. It was identified immunologically and morphologically as identical with the "Peste des Petits Ruminants" virus. There were cross reactions between stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex virus isolate and rinderpest virus by immunodiffusion and complement fixation tests but no cross neutralization. Goats recovered from stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex were protected against a challenge with rinderpest virus that was lethal to control goats. Ultrastructural morphology revealed intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions made up of random arrays of fibrillar strands. Pleomorphic particles budded from the plasma membrane of infected cells and enveloped virions were seen extracellularly. Specific ferritin tagging was demonstrated in the stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex virus infected cells treated with homologous and peste des petits ruminants viral antibody systems but little, if any, tagging in the heterologous rinderpest system. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

Hamdy, F M; Dardiri, A H; Nduaka, O; Breese, S S; Ihemelandu, E C

1976-01-01

137

[Genetic diversity in goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis].  

PubMed

Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301

Xu, Limei; Liu, Chousheng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Zhigang; Han, Xu; Li, Xiaoxia; Chang, Shuang

2010-05-01

138

GOAT (goes over all terrain) vehicle: a scaleable robotic vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the potential applications of mobile robots require a small to medium sized vehicle that is capable of traversing large obstacles and rugged terrain. Search and rescue operations require a robot small enough to drive through doorways, yet capable enough to surmount rubble piles and stairs. This paper presents the GOAT (Goes Over All Terrain) vehicle, a medium scale robot which incorporates a novel configuration which puts the drive wheels on the ends of actuated arms. This allows GOAT to adjust body height and posture and combines the benefits of legged locomotion with the ease of wheeled driving. The paper presents the design of the GOAT and the results of prototype construction and initial testing.

Dodson, Michael G.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Moorehead, Stewart J.

2003-09-01

139

Non-cerebral coenurosis in goats.  

PubMed

Three hundred carcasses of young goats aged between 3 and 6 months were found to be infested with cysts at routine meat inspection at an abattoir in Dubai in 2008. Two types of cestode larvae were situated in the liver, abdominal cavities, under the skin and between the fasciae of the skeletal muscles. Sixty-two typical coenuri loaded with multiple scolices (between 46 and 474) and situated in clusters (between 6 and 17) at the inner membrane of the bladder were recorded in numbers between one and 12 in 30 animals. The volume of coenuri cysts varied between one and 40 ml. The rostellum of 300-400 microm in diameter carried 26 to 32 hooks arranged in two circles. The average length of larger and smaller hooks was 160 and 114 microm, respectively. All other metacestodes were determined as Cysticercus tenuicollis. Although the structure of coenuri and the measurements of scolices were identical with Coenurus cerebralis, the location of these metacestodes outside the central nervous system, suggests that these larvae might belong to a different strain of Multiceps multiceps or even to a closely related species. PMID:20502917

Schuster, Rolf K; Sivakumar, Saritha; Wieckowsky, Tadeus

2010-08-01

140

Isolation, characterization and kinetics of goat cystatins.  

PubMed

Two cysteine proteinase inhibitors I and II were purified from goat kidney using alkaline denaturation, ammonium sulphate fractionation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The purified inhibitors were homogenous and showed a single band on SDS PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions with an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. The cystatin forms were stable in the range of pH 3-10 and up to 95 degrees C. Immunological identity with the sheep LMW kininogen was obtained suggesting that the inhibitor is closely related to kininogens. Spectral studies confirm that the inhibitors have predominantly an alpha-helical structure and undergo major conformational changes during complex formation with papain. The inhibitors had similar inhibitory activities on cysteine proteinases. Both inhibitors inhibited papain, ficin and bromelain competitively, with maximum affinity for papain. The overall lower affinity of these inhibitors to cysteine proteinases compared to other known cystatins can be attributed to the unusual N-terminal sequence where Leu is substituted by Ile. Furthermore, N-terminal sequence analysis revealed maximum homology to mammalian LMW kininogen. PMID:16257555

Sadaf, Z; Shahid, P B; Bilqees, B

2005-12-01

141

Studies on Grazing Behavior of Goats in the Cook Islands: The Animal-Plant Complex in Forage Preference\\/Palatability Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the grazing behavior of goats in the Cook Islands was undertaken during the dry season period to elucidate goat- plant complex in forage preference\\/palatability phenomena. Three locations namely, the Seven-day Adventist School goat farm; Paringaru goat farm and Prisons farm were selected for the study. The breeds of goats found in the locations are Sannen and crossbred

E. M. AREGHEORE; I. ALI; K. OFORI; TIRIA RERE

142

[Gastrointestinal parasites in goat farms from Bergamo province (Lombardy, north Italy)].  

PubMed

A survey on gastrointestinal parasites in goat farms in Bergamo province was carried out from May 2005 to January 2006. Thirty-one dairy goat farms and 836 adult female goats were examined. Faecal sampling was carried out before the antihelminthic treatments, and the sampling times were grouped in three seasonal periods (June-August, September-October and November-March). Faecal exams were carried out by a McMaster method and eggs per gram (EPG) were calculated for each gastrointestinal parasite. Differences in prevalence of Strongylida, Trichuris and Nematodirus were found between farms with goats on pasture and those where animals were permanently housed indoor. Strongyloides spp. showed higher values of prevalence in goats housed indoor. With regard to the sampling seasons, Strongylida eggs were more prevalent in summer while Nematodirus in winter in goats at pasture. Strongyloides occurred more frequently in autumn in stabled goats. PMID:17176948

Di Cerbo, A R; Roncari, S; Zanzani, S; Bencetti, F; Manfredi, M T

2006-09-01

143

Ultrasonography of the rumen in 30 Saanen goats.  

PubMed

This study describes the results of ultrasonographic examination of the rumen in 30 healthy Saanen goats. A linear or convex transducer with a variable frequency of 5 to 13 MHz was used to scan standing, non-sedated goats. The location and size of the rumen, the distance between the wall of the rumen and abdominal wall and the appearance and size of the gas, fibre mat and fluid layers of the ruminal contents were assessed. The rumen was seen as a large organ medial to the left abdominal wall. The wall of the rumen appeared as a thick echogenic line. The longitudinal groove was seen as an echogenic notch, which divided the rumen into the dorsal and ventral sacs. The rumen could be visualized from the 9th to 12th intercostal space (ICS) and flank on the left side in all the goats. The rumen was largest in the 12th ICS at 41.6 ± 5.13 cm and smallest in the 8th ICS at 11.3 ± 4.29 cm. The dorsal sac of the rumen was largest in the left cranial flank (17.4 ± 4.43 cm) and the ventral sac was largest in the 12th ICS on the left (29.1 ± 6.03 cm). In the cranial left flank, the rumen was situated immediately adjacent to the abdominal wall in all the goats. The spleen was located between the rumen and abdominal wall in the 8th to 12 th ICS in many of the goats. The gas, fibre mat and fluid layers of the ruminal contents could be visualized in all the goats. The gas layer was 9.9 ± 3.05 cm, the fibre mat layer 16.0 ± 4.55 cm and the fluid layer 12.2 ± 5.57 cm. PMID:21866512

Braun, U; Jacquat, D; Hässig, M

2011-09-01

144

Lysozyme transgenic goats' milk influences gastrointestinal morphology in young pigs.  

PubMed

Transgenesis provides a method of expressing novel proteins in milk to increase the functional benefits of milk consumption. Transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme (hLZ) at 67% of the concentration in human breast milk were produced, thereby enhancing the antimicrobial properties of goats' milk. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of pasteurized milk containing hLZ on growth, the intestinal epithelium, and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in young weaned pigs. Pigs were placed into 4 groups and fed a diet of solid food and either control (nontransgenic) goats' milk or milk from hLZ-transgenic goats. Growth was assessed by weight gain. Nonchallenged pigs were necropsied after 6 wk, whereas the remaining pigs were necropsied at 7 wk following bacterial challenge. We determined the numbers of total coliforms and E. coli and examined small intestinal histology for all pigs. Complete blood counts were also determined pre- and postchallenge. Challenged pigs receiving hLZ milk had fewer total coliforms (P = 0.029) and E. coli (P = 0.030) in the ileum than controls. hLZ-fed pigs also had a greater duodenal villi width (P = 0.029) than controls. Additionally, nonchallenged hLZ-fed pigs had fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes per micron of villi height (P = 0.020) than nonchallenged controls. These results indicate that the consumption of pasteurized hLZ goats' milk has the potential to improve gastrointestinal health and is protective against an EPEC in young weaned pigs. These same benefits may occur in young children if they were to consume milk from hLZ-transgenic goats. PMID:18424602

Brundige, Dottie R; Maga, Elizabeth A; Klasing, Kirk C; Murray, James D

2008-05-01

145

Use of dexamethasone for induction of parturition in goats.  

PubMed

Parturition was induced in 5 goats of Beetal and Beetal x Black Bengal cross in advanced stages of pregnancy, using intramuscular injection of 10 mg of dexamethasone. Goats required 47.7 +/- 1.26 hours on average after injection for parturition. There were no deleterious effects of induction on placental expulsion, kid weight, kid survival, and postpartum fertility of does. Plasma concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol 17 beta followed a similar trend in controls and treated animals. While plasma progesterone concentrations declined before parturition, the oestradiol concentration rose to its peak on the day of parturition. PMID:2241480

Thakur, M S; Verma, S K

1990-01-01

146

An international panorama of goat selection and breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation of the biodiversity of animal breeds is an important condition to maintain the ability of animal production to adapt to the changing conditions of breeding and production systems in the future. The decrease of the number of animal breeds has been observed both for sheep, cattle and goats in relation with the standardisation and intensification of animal production

Jean-Paul Dubeuf; Jean Boyazoglu

2009-01-01

147

Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

Miles, William F. S.

2009-01-01

148

Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue  

PubMed Central

Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken.

Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

2013-01-01

149

The Important Candidate Genes in Goats - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 271 candidate genes have been detected in goats. However, comprehensive investigations have been carried out on the polymorphism of some genes, involved in the control of economic traits. Candidate genes have an effect on the physiological pathway, metabolism and expression of phenotypes. For growth traits, growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin like growth factor I

China SUPAKORN

2009-01-01

150

Pharmacokinetics of Pefloxacin in Goats after Intravenous or Oral Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent pefloxacin, following the administration of a single intravenous (10 mg\\/kg) or oral (20 mg\\/kg) dose, were investigated in healthy female goats. The antimicrobial activity in plasma was measured at predetermined times after drug administration by an agar well diffusion microbiological assay, using Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) as the test organism.

J. K. Malik; G. S. Rao; S. Ramesh; S. Muruganandan; H. C. Tripathi; D. C. Shukla

2002-01-01

151

Cystic Dilatation of the Parotid Duct of a Goat  

PubMed Central

Cystic dilatation of the parotid duct of a goat was diagnosed by exploratory surgery and analysis of cyst contents. The cyst and its associated salivary gland were surgically removed. This case is compared with the more common salivary mucocele. ImagesFigure 1.

Slocombe, R. F.

1980-01-01

152

Effect of semen preparation on IVF of prepubertal goat oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of these experiments was to study the effects of different methods of washing and selection of spermatozoa on the IVF of IVM oocytes from prepubertal goats. Fresh ejaculates from 3 males of proven fertility were processed according to the following treatments: 1) centrifugation in TALP, 2) centrifugation in sucrose-based Ficoll medium, 3) centrifugation in Percoll gradients at 40

M. J Palomo; D Izquierdo; T Mogas; M. T Paramio

1999-01-01

153

Some production traits of the West African Dwarf goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of West African Dwarf goats over a 5 year period indicated that these animals are not seasonal breeders but kid throughout the year. Sixty-five per cent of does kidded twice a year and multiple births accounted for 59% of all births. Seventy-two per cent of all deaths were of kids under 3 months of age. Pneumonia and starvation

E. N. W. Oppong; N. M. N. Yebuah

1981-01-01

154

Effect of ivermectin on sarcoptic mange lesions of goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcoptic mange is undoubtedly the most common, unpleasant and difficult to treat of all the mange infestations in goats (Jackson, 1986). The problem in cattle, pigs and cats can be controlled by a single subcutaneous dose of ivermectin whereas in dogs two subcutaneous doses of ivermectin at 14 day intervals has been reported successful (Lavigne and Smith, 1983; Martineau, Vaillancourt

M. Zamri-Saad; A. Kamal Hizat; W. M. Kamil

1990-01-01

155

Genotypic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in Iranian goats  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate and characterize the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) from goats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Methods A total of 120 goats were screened from abattoirs of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Forty out of 120 samples were infected with cystic echinococcosis and 29 out of 40 infected samples were fertile hydatid cysts (containing protoscolices) which were collected from the livers and lungs of infected goats. DNA samples were extracted from the protoscolices and characterized by mitochondrial DNA sequencing of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. Results Sequences analysis of nine fertile hydatid cysts indicated that all isolated samples were infected with the G1 sheep strain and two sequences were belonged to G14 and G1c microvarients of the G1 genotype. Conclusions The results showed that goats act as alternative intermediate hosts for sheep strain. G1 genotype seems to be the main route of transmission and it should be considered in further studies.

Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Reza; Omrani, Vahid Fallah; Spotin, Adel; Esfandiari, Behzad

2013-01-01

156

Melatonin and fleece growth in Australian cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups each of eight Australian cashmere goats (four males, four females, 10 months old) were implanted at the base of the ear with melatonin pellets (18 mg) between July and October (July group), January and April (January group), or sham implanted (control). Cashmere and hair length changes were measured during the year following implantation. Rates of growth, maximum length,

W. R. L. Klören; B. W. Norton

1995-01-01

157

Identification of the secondary follicle cycle of Hexi cashmere goat.  

PubMed

This experiment conducted to identify a periodic change of ultrastructures of secondary follicle characteristics during a whole year, reveal the molecule regulation of growth of cashmere. A total of 10 cashmere goats of 1-year old were studied. The paraffin section and ultrathin slices of skin were made each month in a whole year, observed, photographed, and analyzed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope after stained. Following the development of down fiber, the ultrastructures of secondary follicle of Hexi cashmere goat showed a periodic change within a year. There were five different periods during a down fiber cycle. It was observed that the stage of telogen, proanagen, anagen, procatagen, and catagen was in January and February, March and April, May to August, September and October, and November and December, respectively. The key change observed in secondary follicle under transmission electron microscope was inner root sheath. This study illustrated the five different stage of secondary follicle of Hexi Cashmere goat within a whole growth cycle, and has provided more detailed information about the research field of Hexi cashmere goat. Choosing the suitable time to harvest the cashmere may get the profit maximization. PMID:22753049

He, Yanyu; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu

2012-09-01

158

Experimental aerosol Mycobacterium bovis model of infection in goats.  

PubMed

The use of animal models is essential in testing the efficacy for novel therapies against tuberculosis (TB). Calves and non-human primates are examples of large animal models currently used to test TB vaccine efficacy but these animals are difficult and very expensive to house under high containment conditions. The goat may represent an effective but less expensive alternative for testing prototype vaccines against TB. Goats are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium caprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Aerosolized bacteria are the most common source of natural infection in humans and the primary site of natural infection is the respiratory tract. We developed a simple procedure for infecting goats with M. bovis by aerosol exposure. After 8 and 12 weeks of infection the goats were euthanized, post-mortem analysis was performed, and all exposed animals presented TB compatible lesions in the lung and associated lymph nodes. Selected lung lesions and respiratory lymph nodes were evaluated and cultured for bacteriological and histological analysis. The present work shows a reliable new animal model of aerosol infection to be used in the understanding of TB disease and development of new therapies. PMID:23850102

Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Podell, Brendan; Soffler, Carl; Brooks, Elizabeth; Izzo, Angelo; Sanchez-Campillo, Joaquin; Bowen, Richard

2013-09-01

159

Gotch ear in a goat: a case report.  

PubMed

A 1-year-old castrated male Saanen goat was observed to have drooping and edema of the left ear consistent with published accounts of gotch ear in cattle associated with a tick bite. The goat's left ear was edematous from the tip of the pinna to the base of the ear. No signs of trauma or infectious processes were observed. Three engorged Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) were observed attached inside the ear. Ticks were removed and the ear biopsied at tick attachment sites. The affected ear was treated topically with betadine after removal of the ticks. No other treatment was administered. The goat remained free of clinical signs and the edema of the ear resolved within 3 days after tick removal. No clinical adverse effects of the condition were evident. All three ticks were positive for spotted fever group rickettsia by polymerase chain reaction analysis and showed 100% similarity with the homologous sequence of Rickettsia parkeri. There was no immunohistochemical evidence of spotted fever group rickettsia in the ear samples, supporting the hypothesis that gotch ear is not due to rickettsial infection. This report represents the first apparent case of gotch ear in a goat. PMID:21395411

Edwards, Kristine T; Varela-Stokes, Andrea S; Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome

2011-08-01

160

Prion protein gene polymorphisms in natural goat scrapie  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 51 goats, including seven clinical cases, from the first herd in Greece reported to have scrapie was examined to discern an association between scrapie susceptibility and polymorphisms of the gene encoding the prion protein (PrP). Each animal was evaluated for clinical signs of the disease, histopathological lesions associated with scrapie, the presence of detectable protease- resistant PrP

Charalambos Billinis; Cynthia H. Panagiotidis; Vassilios Psychas; Stamatis Argyroudis; Anna Nicolaou; Sotirios Leontides; Orestis Papadopoulos; Theodoros Sklaviadis

2002-01-01

161

DNA fingerprint: Genetic relationship in six Indian goat breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA fingerprint and genetic relationship of 6 Indian goat breeds were studied by RAPD technique. Intra- and inter-breed divergence was estimated in terms of band sharing frequency (BSF) and mean average percentage difference (MAPD). The interbreed BSF was lower than intrabreed BSF due to more homogeneity within breed than between breeds. Inter reed BSF showed more similarity between Marwari

Anita Yadav; B R Yadav

162

Hydronephrosis in the Goat Due to Neoplasia. A Case Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The clinical history, gross and microscopic necropsy findings are presented in a case of hydronephrosis in a goat due to a primary neoplasm of the urinary tract. The neoplasm, a transitional cell adenocarcinoma, had interfered with urine flow to a degree ...

D. K. Hysell A. J. Neves

1970-01-01

163

Short communication: extraction of beta-casein from goat milk.  

PubMed

Peptides derived from milk beta-casein have potential biological activities, such as antihypertensive and immunostimulating properties. These biological properties increase the demand for the production of specific bioactive peptides. beta-Casein can be isolated directly from renneted skim milk, based on the preferential solubilization of beta-casein at low temperature. This study was conducted to compare the recovery and purity of beta-casein extracted from goat and cow milks. Rennet casein was prepared from both milks, heat treated, and dispersed in demineralized water at various temperatures. beta-Casein recovery in the soluble phase increased with decreasing incubation temperature. Concentration of beta-casein was 43% higher in goat milk than in cow milk, which had a direct effect on beta-casein recovery. Furthermore, beta-casein was extracted more efficiently from goat rennet casein. As a result, the extraction yield of beta-casein was 53% higher in goat milk than in cow milk. The purity of beta-casein extracted from both milks reached approximately 90% after incubation at 0 degrees C. PMID:18024728

Lamothe, S; Robitaille, G; St-Gelais, D; Britten, M

2007-12-01

164

'Toxoplasma gondii' Haemagglutinating Antibody Titers in Indonesian Goats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sera of 465 goats from several of the Indonesian islands were tested for indirect haemagglutinating (IHA) antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Titers > or = were found in 24% of the animals with approximately 11% having titers of > or = 256. Sera from pigs, c...

J. H. Cross P. F. D. Van Peenen N. H. M. Hsu C. Koesharjono G. M. Simanjuntak

1976-01-01

165

Organic goat production, processing and marketing: Opportunities, challenges and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic goat production can be a rewarding livelihood and is gaining popularity. Global organic production has increased significantly annually over the past decade. Industry analysts forecast that demand in many markets will continue to grow at 10–30% per year, with the international organic market expected to grow to a volume of US$ 100 billion in the next decade. Organic dairy

C. D. Lu; X. Gangyi; J. R. Kawas

2010-01-01

166

Evaluation of the Activity of Plant Extracts in Boer Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The effect of extracts from Neem ( Azadirachta indica ), Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium ) and Tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum) with added copper sulfate, on female Boer goats infected with gastrointestinal parasites (GIN ) was evaluated. Approach: Following initial screening for infection, animals were artificially infected with a mix containing approximately 80% Haemonchus contortus and 20% Trichostrongylus spp. After

M. Worku; R. Franco; J. H. Miller

2009-01-01

167

Excitability scores of goats administered ascorbic acid and transported during hot-dry conditions  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) administration on goat excitability due to transportation. Ten goats administered AA (p.o.) at 100 mg/kg of body weight before transportation served as the experimental group, and seven goats administered only 10ml/kg of sterile water (p.o.) served as controls. Excitability scores were recorded for each goat; when weighed, before, immediately after, and 3 h after 8 h of transportation. A score of one to four was allocated to each goat; higher scores represent greater excitability. Immediately after transportation, excitability scores decreased significantly, especially those of control goats (p < 0.001). At 3 h post-transportation, the excitability scores of animals in the experimental group were not significantly (p>0.05) different from their pre-transportation normal values, whereas those of control goats were significantly lower (p < 0.01). The correlation i.e. the relationship between excitability score values and percent excitability (percentage of goat with particular excitability score) for different excitability score group 3 h post-transportation was positive and highly significant (p < 0.001), in both experimental and control goats. Our results indicate that road transportation induces considerable stress (depression) in goats as evidenced by a lower excitability score post-transportation. Moreover, the administration of AA pre-transportation facilitated the transition from a state of depression to excitation. In conclusion, AA administration to animals prior to transportation may ameliorate the depression often encountered after road transportation.

Ayo, J. O.; Mamman, M.

2006-01-01

168

Polymorphism of GDF9 gene and its association with litter size in goats.  

PubMed

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was studied as a candidate gene for high prolificacy in goats. The polymorphism of exon 1 and flanking of GDF9 gene was detected by PCR-SSCP in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. Three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in goat breeds joined and two silent mutations (c.183A>C and c.336C>T) were identified in comparison genotype AA with genotype BB. Heterozygous genotype AB and wild type BB were detected in all five goat breeds and homozygous genotype AA was only detected in Jining Grey goats. The frequencies of genotypes AA, AB and BB were 0.18, 0.42 and 0.40 in Jining Grey goats, respectively. The genotype distribution was different (P?goat) and low prolificacy breeds (Boer, Wendeng Dairy, Liaoning Cashmere and Beijing native goats). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype AA and AB had 0.72 (P??0.05) kids more than those with genotype AB. These indicated that the allele A may have certain correlation with prolificacy in Jining Grey goats. PMID:21547534

Chu, M X; Wu, Z H; Feng, T; Cao, G L; Fang, L; Di, R; Huang, D W; Li, X W; Li, N

2011-08-01

169

Immunohistochemical features of PrP(d) accumulation in natural and experimental goat transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.  

PubMed

Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion disease, which naturally affects sheep and goats. Immunohistochemical epitope mapping of abnormal PrP accumulations (PrP(d)) in brain can help in characterizing sheep TSE sources or strains and in identifying potential bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infections of sheep. Natural and experimental TSE infections of goats were examined to determine whether the epitope mapping approach could also be applied to aid recognition of BSE infection in goats. Goats experimentally infected with the SSBP/1 or CH1641 sheep scrapie strains or with cattle BSE, together with four field cases of natural TSE in goats, were examined immunohistochemically with six different antibodies. CH1641 and SSBP/1 infections in goats, as in sheep, showed PrP(d) accumulations which were mainly intracellular. Some differences in targeting, particularly of Purkinje cells, was evident in inter-species comparisons of CH1641 and SSBP/1. PrP(d) labelling of goat BSE experimental cases showed extensive intracellular and extracellular accumulations, also similar to those in sheep BSE. Intra-neuronal PrP(d) in both goat and sheep BSE was labelled only by antibodies recognizing epitopes located C-terminally of residue His99, whereas in natural sheep TSE sources, and in sheep and goat SSBP/1, PrP(d) was also detected by antibodies to epitopes located between residues Trp93 and His99. Testing of four natural goat TSE samples showed one case in which epitope mapping characteristics and the overall patterns of PrP(d) accumulation was identical with those of experimental goat BSE. The four natural goat scrapie cases examined showed some degree of immunohistochemical phenotype variability, suggesting that multiple strains exist within the relatively small UK goat population. PMID:16542672

Jeffrey, M; Martin, S; González, L; Foster, J; Langeveld, J P M; van Zijderveld, F G; Grassi, J; Hunter, N

2006-01-01

170

Association between expression of reproductive seasonality and alleles of melatonin receptor 1A in goats.  

PubMed

To determine whether a link exists between reproductive seasonality and the structure of the melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene, the latter was studied in year-round estrous breeds (Jining Grey and Boer goats) and seasonal estrous breeds (Liaoning Cashmere, Inner Mongolia Cashmere, Wendeng milk and Beijing native goats). A large fragment of exon 2 of MTNR1A gene was amplified by PCR using sheep sense and antisense primers in 260 does of six breeds. The uniform 824 bp PCR product was digested with restriction endonucleases MnII and RsaI, and checked for the presence of restriction sites. No polymorphism at the MnII cleavage sites was detected in all six goat breeds and no relationship could be established between the MnII cleavage sites of MTNR1A gene and reproductive seasonality in goats. For polymorphic RsaI cleavage site at base position 53, only genotype RR (267 bp/267 bp) was detected in Jining Grey goats, both genotype RR and genotype Rr (267 bp/320 bp) were found in all other goat breeds, no genotype rr (320 bp/320 bp) was detected in all six goat breeds. Frequency of genotype RR was obviously higher, and frequency of genotype Rr was obviously lower in year-round estrous goat breeds than in seasonal estrous goat breeds. Sequencing revealed one mutation (G52A) in genotype Rr compared with genotype RR. For polymorphic RsaI cleavage site, the differences of genotype distributions were significant (P<0.05) between year-round estrous goat breeds and seasonal estrous goat breeds. These results preliminarily showed an association between genotype RR and year-round estrus in goats, and an association between genotype Rr and seasonal estrus in goats. PMID:17046181

Chu, M X; He, Y Q; Cheng, D X; Ye, S C; Fang, L; Wang, J Y

2007-10-01

171

Polymorphisms of caprine GDF9 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

The exons 1, 2 and flanking region of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene in five randomly selected does of Jining Grey, Boer and Liaoning Cashmere goats were amplified and analyzed. Thirteen nucleotide differences were identified in GDF9 gene between sheep (AF078545) and goats. Four SNPs (G3288A in intron 1, G423A, A959C [Gln320Pro] and G1189A [Val397Ile] in exon 2) were detected in four goat breeds with different prolificacy, in which G3288A was a new SNP in goats. The results showed that loci 3288, 423 and 1189 in Boer goats, loci 3288 and 423 in Guizhou White goats, loci 423 and 1189 in Liaoning Cashmere goats were all in complete linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1, r (2) = 1), respectively. In moderate (Boer goat) and low prolificacy (Liaoning Cashmere goat) breeds, linkage analysis indicated that there were more fervent linkage disequilibrium among loci 3288, 423 and 1189 than high prolificacy (Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats) breeds. For the 959 locus, the genotype distribution showed obvious difference between high prolificacy breeds and moderate or low prolificacy breeds (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype CC or AC had 0.81 (P < 0.01) or 0.63 (P < 0.01) kids more than those with genotype AA, respectively. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele C at 959 locus of GDF9 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. These results provide further evidence that the GDF9 gene may be significantly correlated with high prolificacy in goats. PMID:21181498

Feng, T; Geng, C X; Lang, X Z; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Di, R; Fang, L; Chen, H Q; Liu, X L; Li, N

2011-11-01

172

Herds of goats enlisted in the fight against kudzu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Invasive Species: Plants: Kudzu [pdf]http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/kudzu.shtmlKudzu-Goat Interactions [pdf]http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/6750James Dickey: Kudzuhttp://www.breakoutofthebox.com/kudzu.htmKudzu Recipeshttp://home.att.net/~ejlinton/jelly.html"Ode to Billy Goats" [Quick Time]http://www.tfponline.com/absolutenm/templates/onlineExclusive.aspx?articleid=5064&zoneid=72In his time, Benjamin Franklin once observed, "In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes." Had he visited certain parts of the American South in the early 21st century, he might have added "kudzu", effectively completing that troika. This very fast growing vine has spread with amazing speed since its introduction to the United States in 1876, via the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. For decades it was used as an ornamental, but by the 1950s the plant was a ubiquitous part of the landscape in Mississippi, Alabama and other parts of the South. Recently, the city of Chattanooga has decided to enlist a new partner in the ongoing horticultural battle with this noxious weed: goats. The city's public works department decided to allow the goats free reign over a prominent ridge in town that is covered in kudzu, and so far, the results have been encouraging. Of course, things haven't been easy, and there is the "laugh factor" that was recently mentioned by a city forestry inspector, Jerry Jeansonne. Similar programs are also underway in the cities of Tallahassee and Spartanburg, South Carolina, though it remains to be seen whether or not this program can be duplicated on a wider scale. The first link will take users to a New York Times article which talks about the use of goats to control the kudzu of Chattanooga. Moving on, the second link leads to a very thorough website offered by the United States Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center. Here, visitors can learn about kudzu and the ongoing efforts to control this very hearty species. The third link leads to an important 1992 study that investigated the potential to control kudzu with the use of goats. The fourth link will take users to James Dickey's compelling poem on this very prolific vine. The fifth link leads to a number of creative recipes from one Jane Linton that make use of kudzu in such delights as kudzu blossom jelly and apple cider. Finally, the last link will take users to a recent musical number recorded in tribute to the hard-working goats of Chattanooga.

Grinnell, Max

2007-06-08

173

Bacteriological findings and hormonal profiles in the postpartum Balady goats.  

PubMed

Twenty-six Balady goats categorized according to parity into primiparous and pluriparous goats were used to investigate bacterial flora of the genital tract and hormonal profiles during the postpartum (PP) period. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in pure or mixed culture from the uterus. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from swabs obtained from the vagina and cervix of one primiparous goat. Uteri and cervices but not vaginas were free of bacterial contamination by day 10 PP except for one pluriparous goat with scanty E. coli contamination on day 25 PP. Fluctuating oestradiol 17beta (E2) levels demonstrated resumption of follicular activity as early as day 13 PP in both parity groups. Progesterone (P4) levels remained low at basal levels throughout the study period. Higher concentrations of 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2alpha (PGFM) were observed during the first week PP compared with the rest of the PP period. PGFM concentrations dropped to low basal level by day 10 PP and remained constantly low throughout the study period. P4, E2 and PGFM profiles were not different between the different parity groups. In conclusion, intrauterine infection is not common in goats with normal kidding. E. coli was the most common intrauterine bacterial isolate. E2 and P4 profiles were consistent with resumption of follicular growth but not ovulation. High PGFM concentrations coincided with the fast regression phase of uterine involution. Hormonal profile and bacterial contamination and clearance were similar to those reported in other related species and not related to parity. PMID:16420321

Ababneh, M M; Degefa, T

2006-02-01

174

Selective brain cooling in goats: effects of exercise and dehydration.  

PubMed Central

1. Measurements of brain and central blood temperature (Tbr and Tbl), metabolic rate (MR) and respiratory evaporative heat loss (REHL) were made in trained goats walking on a treadmill at 4.8 km h-1 at treadmill inclines of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% when they were fully hydrated and at 0% when they had been deprived of water for 72 h. 2. In hydrated goats, exercise MR increased progressively with increasing treadmill incline. Both Tbl and Tbr rose during exercise, but Tbl always rose more than Tbr, and selective brain cooling (SBC = Tbl - Tbr) increased linearly with Tbl. Significant linear relationships were also present between REHL and Tbl and between SBC and REHL. Neither the slope of the regression relating SBC to Tbl nor the threshold Tbl for onset of SBC was affected by exercise intensity. Manual occlusion of the angularis oculi veins decreased SBC in a walking goat, while occlusion of the facial veins increased SBC. 3. Dehydrated goats had higher levels of Tbl, Tbr and SBC during exercise, but the relationship between SBC and Tbl was the same in hydrated and dehydrated animals. In dehydrated animals, REHL at a given Tbl was lower and SBC was thus maintained at reduced rates of REHL. 4. It is concluded that SBC is a linear function of body core temperature in exercising goats and REHL appears to be a major factor underlying SBC in exercise. The maintenance of SBC in spite of reduced REHL in dehydrated animals could be a consequence of increased vascular resistance in the facial vein and increased flow of cool nasal venous blood into the cranial cavity.

Baker, M A; Nijland, M J

1993-01-01

175

Tuberculosis in Goats and Sheep in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia and Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Goat  

PubMed Central

A cross sectional study was conducted on 2231 small ruminants in four districts of the Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia to investigate the epidemiology of tuberculosis in goats and sheep using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test, postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culture and molecular typing methods. The overall animal prevalence of TB in small ruminants was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%–0.7%) at ?4?mm and 3.8% (95% CI: 3%–4.7%) at cutoff ?2?mm. The herd prevalence was 20% (95% CI: 12–28%) and 47% (95% CI: 37–56%) at ?4?mm and ?2?mm cut-off points, respectively. The overall animal prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.1–3.5%) and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8–7.9%) at ?4?mm and ?2?mm cut-off points, respectively. Mycobacteriological culture and molecular characterization of isolates from tissue lesions of tuberculin reactor goats resulted in isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SIT149) and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria as causative agents of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like diseases in goats, respectively. The isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in goat suggests a potential transmission of the causative agent from human and warrants further investigation in the role of small ruminants in epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the region.

Kassa, Gezahegne Mamo; Abebe, Fekadu; Worku, Yalelet; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Bjune, Gunnar; Ameni, Gobena

2012-01-01

176

Anthelmintic resistance on goat farms in Georgia: efficacy of anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes in two selected goat herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is a major constraint to production of goats in the southeastern United States. The conventional method of control used by producers in this region is frequent use of anthelmintics during the warm season. Overuse of anthelmintics has led to an increase in the incidence of anthelmintic resistance in many parts of the world, but data on

Thomas H Terrill; Ray M Kaplan; Michael Larsen; Oreta M Samples; James E Miller; Seyoum Gelaye

2001-01-01

177

Mammogenesis and induced lactation with or without reserpine in nulliparous dairy goats.  

PubMed

Nulliparous goats were used to evaluate the effects of a standard protocol for inducing lactation with or without using a prolactin-releasing agent (reserpine). Estrus was synchronized and goats were submitted to daily s.c. injections of estradiol-17beta and progesterone (0.5 and 1.25 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) for 7 d. The goats were divided into 2 groups and injected i.m. with 1 mg/d of reserpine (n = 7) or the vehicle (n = 7) on d 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Lactation was initiated by i.m. injections of dexamethasone (10 mg/d) from d 18 to 20. Goats were machine milked once daily from d 21 to 120, at which time they were mated with herd sires. Milk was measured and sampled daily during wk 1 of lactation and weekly thereafter. Udder traits were measured in all goats at d -2 (before the induction treatment) and on d 35 and 100 (during lactation). Goats initiated lactation on d 21 (100%) and milk yield increased thereafter. The milk yield of control and reserpine-treated goats increased as lactation advanced, peaking at wk 10 of lactation, when reserpine-treated goats yielded 1,079 +/- 89 mL/d of milk compared with 850 +/- 96 mL/d for control goats. Yet milk yield at the peak was only 55% of the peak milk yield observed in contemporary primiparous goats. The composition of initial milk (d 21) was different from that expected for colostrum. Milk composition stabilized after d 3 of lactation. There were no differences among groups for milk fat, protein, casein, or whey protein, but milk from control goats contained greater nonprotein nitrogen than that from reserpine-treated goats (0.48 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%). Teat length increased from 24.7 +/- 1.1 to 34.5 +/- 2.4 mm in control goats during mammogenesis (d -2 to 35), but stabilized in reserpine goats (25.2 +/- 2.2 mm). The distance between teats (11.5 +/- 0.4 cm), and the volume (922 +/- 63 mL) and depth (15.6 +/- 0.60 cm) of the udder increased similarly in both groups during mammogenesis and lactation. After mating, 82% of herdmates became pregnant, whereas only 21% of the lactation-induced goats conceived (1 reserpine-treated and 2 control goats). In conclusion, lactation induction was effective in nulliparous goats, but neither milk yield nor the side effects on fertility seem to support its recommendation. PMID:17638986

Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Albanell, E; Carné, S; Casals, R; Such, X

2007-08-01

178

Kinetics and role of antibodies against intimin beta in colostrum and in serum from goat kids and longitudinal study of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli in goat kids.  

PubMed

The presence of antibodies to the intimin beta-binding region (Int280-beta) of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) in serum from 20 goat kids from 2 herds, as well as in goat colostrum, was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the onset and subsequent pattern of shedding of AEEC from the same goat kids over a 6-mo period was investigated. All the colostrum and serum samples tested contained antibodies against Int280-beta. The association between the antibody titer and the isolation of AEEC suggests that antibodies to intimin beta do not prevent colonization of the intestine by AEEC in goat kids. The AEEC were generally shed only transiently. Most AEEC isolated from the kids belonged to serogroup O26. Three isolates belonged to serogroup O157. These data show that goat kids may be a reservoir of AEEC that are potentially pathogenic for humans. PMID:20357960

Orden, José A; De la Fuente, Ricardo; Yuste, María; Martínez-Pulgarín, Susana; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Horcajo, Pilar; Contreras, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan C; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo

2010-01-01

179

Susceptibility of Sudanese Nubian goats, Nilotic dwarf goats and Garag ewes to experimental infection with a mechanically transmitted Trypanosoma vivax stock.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to study the susceptibility of two different types of Sudanese goats namely: Black Nubian, the Nilotic dwarf goats and ewes of Garag type to experimental infection with Trypanosoma vivax stock isolated from cattle outside tsetse area. The infection caused parasitaemia, anaemia and pyrexia in the infected goats. However, the Nilotic dwarf goats were more tolerant to the infection than the Nubian goats, showing significantly higher values of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, total red and white blood cells counts and significantly low parasitaemia and low body temperature. Garag ewes which were found to be susceptible to T. vivax infection showed different signs of anaemia and pyrexia; it is recommended that comparative studies on sensitivity of this type and other different Sudanese types of sheep to Trypanosomosis should be conducted. PMID:18817176

Osman, Nadia M; Kaila, Ghada J; Eltahir, H A; Abdel-Rahman, A H

2008-02-01

180

Isolation of Brucella melitensis from a RB51-vaccinated seronegative goat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine the etiology of abortions presented in a goat herd declared as free of brucellosis and vaccinated with RB51 located in Mexico. The serological diagnosis of brucellosis in 33 animals was performed. The study included three goats that aborted in the last third of gestation and 15 goats that gave birth normally; samples of milk and vaginal exudate were subjected to bacteriological study. All animals were negative for serological diagnosis, and isolation of Brucella melitensis was achieved in a single goat from vaginal exudate. However, the particularity is that this goat was negative to the card, indirect ELISA, and radial immunodiffusion tests. Isolation of a field strain was confirmed by biochemical test resistance to rifampicin and PCR. It is concluded that a goat which aborted in the last third of gestation was found spreading B. melitensis through vaginal discharge despite being vaccinated with RB51 and seronegative for brucellosis. PMID:21455694

Herrera, Enrique; Rivera, Aldo; Palomares, E Gabriela; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

2011-08-01

181

Experimental vaginal infection of goats with semen contaminated with the "CPG" strain of Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The objective was to characterize the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in goats experimentally infected vaginally with semen contaminated with the CPG strain (genotype III). Ten female goats were randomly allocated into 2 groups (G1 and G2), each with 5 animals, and inseminated during estrus. Goats in G1 were inseminated with semen containing 1 × 10(5) tachyzoites, whereas those in G2 (control) were inseminated with semen free from tachyzoites (insemination = day 0). In G1, seroconversion (indirect immunofluorescence reaction) and DNA (polymerase chain reaction) in the blood was present in 4/5 and 3/5, respectively, from the 7th day. In G2, all goats were negative in all tests. Embryonic reabsorption occurred in 4 of 5 goats from G1 between days 21 and 49. In conclusion, artificial vaginal insemination with semen containing tachyzoites of T. gondii -infected goats and is a potential transmission route of this parasite through semen. PMID:23391103

Wanderley, Flaviana Santos; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Câmara, Diogo Ribeiro; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Feitosa, Bruna Catarina de Oliveira; Freire, Roberta Lemos; de Moraes, Erica Paes Barreto Xavier; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

2013-08-01

182

Chronic atrial fibrillation causes left ventricular dysfunction in dogs but not goats: experience with dogs, goats, and pigs.  

PubMed

Structural remodeling in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs over weeks to months. To study the electrophysiological, structural, and functional changes that occur in chronic AF, the selection of the best animal model is critical. AF was induced by rapid atrial pacing (50-Hz stimulation every other second) in pigs (n = 4), dogs (n = 8), and goats (n = 9). Animals underwent MRIs at baseline and 6 mo to evaluate left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). Dogs were given metoprolol (50-100 mg po bid) and digoxin (0.0625-0.125 mg po bid) to limit the ventricular response rate to <180 beats/min and to mitigate the effects of heart failure. The pacing leads in pigs became entirely encapsulated and lost the ability to excite the heart, often before the onset of sustained AF. LV EF in dogs dropped from 54 ± 11% at baseline to 33 ± 7% at 6 mo (P < 0.05), whereas LV EF in goats did not drop significantly (69 ± 8% at baseline vs. 60 ± 9% at 6 mo, P = not significant). After 6 mo of AF, fibrosis levels in dog atria and ventricles increased, whereas only atrial fibrosis levels increased in goats compared with control animals. In our experience, the pig model is not appropriate for chronic rapid atrial pacing-induced AF studies. Rate-controlled chronic AF in the dog model developed HF and LV fibrosis, whereas the goat model developed only atrial fibrosis without ventricular dysfunction and fibrosis. Both the dog and goat models are representative of segments of the patient population with chronic AF. PMID:23812387

Dosdall, Derek J; Ranjan, Ravi; Higuchi, Koji; Kholmovski, Eugene; Angel, Nathan; Li, Li; Macleod, Rob; Norlund, Layne; Olsen, Aaron; Davies, Christopher J; Marrouche, Nassir F

2013-09-01

183

Production performance of Dera Din Panah goat under desert range conditions in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of fodder availability and prolificacy on birth weight, weaning weight, weight at 6 and 9 months age, and pre- and\\u000a post-weaning growth rates of Dera Din Panah goat were determined. A total of 350 records of Dera Din Panah (DDP) goats maintained\\u000a at Sheep and Goat Development Centre, Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed using Harvey’s Mixed\\u000a Model

M. Yaqoob; F. Shahzad; M. Aslam; M. Younas; G. Bilal

2009-01-01

184

Molecular cloning and characterization of Izumo1 gene from sheep and cashmere goat reveal alternative splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding for Izumo1 of cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). Analysis of 4.6 kb Izumo1 genomic sequences in sheep and goat revealed a canonical open reading frame (ORF) of 963 bp spliced\\u000a by eight exons. Sheep and goat Izumo1 genes share >99% identity at both DNA and protein levels and are also highly

Wan-Jin XingBao-Da; Bao-Da Han; Qi Wu; Li Zhao; Xiao-Hong Bao; Shorgan Bou

2011-01-01

185

Periparturient rise in fecal egg counts associated with prolactin concentration increase in French Alpine dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous data on periparturient relaxation of immunity during gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats are scarce and\\u000a conflicting; one study carried out in fiber (Angora) goats showed a positive association of fecal egg counts with prolactin\\u000a concentrations around parturition, whereas the two other available studies dealing with dairy goats, gave divergent results.\\u000a The objectives of the study were thus to assess

C. Chartier; H. Hoste; W. Bouquet; B. Malpaux; I. Pors; C. Koch

1998-01-01

186

Genetic polymorphism of ?s1- and ?s2-caseins in Hungarian Milking Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to perform an initial characterization of milk quality and to determine genetic polymorphism at the CSN1S1 and CSN1S2 locus in two herds of local dairy goats (Hungarian Milking). The fat, protein and lactose level of milk samples in Hungarian Milking Goats were compared to other local goat breeds worldwide and it was concluded that

Szilvia Kusza; Gyula Veress; Sándor Kukovics; András Jávor; Armand Sanchez; Antonella Angiolillo; Zsuzsanna B?sze

2007-01-01

187

Identification of sex-specific polymorphic sequences in the goat amelogenin gene for embryo sexing.  

PubMed

Amelogenin (AMEL) is a conserved gene located on the sex chromosomes of mammals. It is involved in the formation of enamel, which is the hard, white material that forms the protective outer layer of each tooth. In this study, we first cloned and determined the intron sequences of the goat AMELX and AMELY genes from female and male ear tissues. The polymorphic AMEL alleles were further analyzed by PCR-based RFLP and Southern blot hybridization analyses. Results showed that intron 5 nucleotide sequences of the goat AMELY gene contains multiple deletions/insertions and shares only 48.5% identity to intron 5 of the goat AMELX gene. Based on the polymorphic AMEL intron sequences, a set of sex-specific triplex primers was designed to PCR amplify a single fragment of 264 bp from the X chromosome of female goats and 2 fragments of 264 and 206 bp from the X and Y chromosomes, respectively, of male goats. An increased sensitivity for sex determination was reached with a single blastomere at the blastula stage isolated from goat embryos. A total of 43 goat embryos were used to estimate a 100% accuracy rate of this method confirmed by chromosomal karyotyping and live births. The embryo sexing technique has been successfully applied in different strains of goats including Alpine, Saanen, Nubian, and Taiwan goats. PMID:21421829

Tsai, T C; Wu, S H; Chen, H L; Tung, Y T; Cheng, W T K; Huang, J C; Chen, C M

2011-08-01

188

Goat liver X receptor ?, molecular cloning, functional characterization and regulating fatty acid synthesis in epithelial cells of goat mammary glands.  

PubMed

The liver X receptor ? (LXR?) is a nuclear receptor of the transcription factor and is known to play a crucial role in lipid metabolism processes such as bile acid and fatty acid synthesis in humans and rodents. However, very little information is available on the role of LXR? in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in the goat mammary gland. In this investigation, a cDNA was isolated from the mammary gland of Xinong Saanen dairy goats and designated as goat LXR?. RT-PCR and RACE gave rise to the full-length cDNA of LXR?, which was comprised of 1654 bp and characterized by an ORF of 1344 bp and 5'- and 3'-UTR regions of 150 and 160 bp, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence encodes 477 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight (MW) of 50.4kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6.3. Additionally, homology search and sequence multi-alignment indicated that the putative goat LXR? amino acid sequence is very similar to those of cattle, mice, rats, swine, and humans. Bioinformatic predictions demonstrated that the LXR? protein is located in the nucleus, containing characteristic signatures of a nuclear receptor with DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). Real-time quantitative PCR suggested that LXR? was predominantly expressed in the small intestine, liver, spleen and mammary gland. Treatment of goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMEC) with different concentrations (i.e., 0.01, 0.1, 1 ?M) of T0901317, a synthetic agonist of LXR?, resulted in elevated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA levels in response to LXR? activation. The association between different T0901317 concentrations and fatty acid composition in GMEC also was examined using gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that activation of LXR? significantly increased GMEC C18:1 and C18:2 contents, but did not affect levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA). These discoveries are consistent with the notion that LXR? plays a key role in controlling lipogenesis and regulating synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in the mammary gland of goats, which may prove useful in regulation of milk fat production. PMID:22634102

Wang, Wei; Luo, Jun; Zhong, Yu; Lin, Xian-Zi; Shi, Heng-Bo; Zhu, Jiang-Jiang; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu-Ting; Zhao, Wang-Sheng

2012-08-15

189

Toxicity of Jatropha curcas in sheep and goats.  

PubMed

The sequential development of the clinical signs and lesions in the organs of desert sheep and Nubian goats dosed with Jatropha curcas seeds at 0.05, 0.5 and 1 g/kg/day was studied. Diarrhoea, reduced water consumption, dehydration, sunken eyes, inappetence and loss in condition were the important signs of J curcas poisoning in sheep and goats. The main pathological changes were haemorrhage in the rumen, reticulum, lungs, kidneys and heart, catarrhal and/or haemorrhagic enteritis, hepatic fatty change, pulmonary congestion and oedema and straw-coloured fluid in serous cavities. An increase in the concentrations of AST, ammonia, potassium and sodium and a decrease in total protein and calcium were detected in the serum. Haematological changes were haemoconcentration and leucocytosis. PMID:504810

Ahmed, O M; Adam, S E

1979-07-01

190

Deriving nutrient requirements of growing Indian goats under tropical condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 25 feeding trials conducted on growing goats, from different research institutes across India were subjected to multiple regression analysis to derive nutritional requirements of TDN, CP and DCP for maintenance and BW gain. Maintenance requirements for TDN, CP and DCP were 30.1, 5.83 and 3.22g\\/kg BW0.75, respectively. The corresponding requirements for one g gain in BW were 1.61,

A. B. Mandal; S. S. Paul; G. P. Mandal; A. Kannan; N. N. Pathak

2005-01-01

191

Efficacy of nitazoxanide against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results obtained in mice, rats and piglets experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp have indicated a partial prophylactic or curative efficacy of nitazoxanide when administered between 50 and 250 mg\\/kg\\u000a BW. In this study, the efficacy of nitazoxanide was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp oocysts. Forty-seven 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally infected once on day 0

Henri Viel; Hélène Rocques; Jennifer Martin; Christophe Chartier

2007-01-01

192

Goat farming systems in Martinique: management and breeding strategies.  

PubMed

To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies). PMID:18815894

Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N

2009-04-01

193

Acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of the metabolic consequences of exposure to elevated partial pressures of nitrogen and helium under normobaric and hyperbaric conditions in goats. The results include the finding that hyperbaric nitrogen causes and increase in metabolic rate and a general decrease in blood constituent levels which is interpreted as reflecting a shift toward fatty acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrates. A similar but more pronounced pattern was observed with hyperbaric helium.

Schatte, C. L.; Bennett, P. B.

1973-01-01

194

Sulfate supplementation of Angora goats: metabolic and mohair responses.  

PubMed

Eight castrated male Angora goats were used in a repeated, simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin square designed experiment to evaluate metabolic and mohair responses of Angora goats to sulfate supplementation. Goats had ad libitum access to isonitrogenous diets containing a .16 (basal), .23, .29, or .34% S (DM basis), which yielded N:S ratios of 12.7, 8.3, 6.8, or 5.5:1. Feed intakes were not affected (P greater than .20) by dietary S level. Quadratic increases (P less than .05) to S supplementation were observed in grease and clean mohair production, grease and clean staple strength, and staple length. Mohair diameter, med fiber, kemp fiber, S, and cysteine contents were not affected (P greater than .05) by supplemental S. Averaged across the prefeeding, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandial sampling times, ruminal pH, ammonia N, total S, organic S, protein S, and plasma urea N and organic S concentrations were quadratically increased (P less than .05) by supplemental S. Ruminal sulfate S, total sulfide S, and plasma sulfate S were linearly increased (P less than .05) by supplemental S. Retention of N and mohair S yield exhibited quadratic increases (P less than .05), but S retention exhibited a linear increase (P less than .001) with increased S intake. Calculated by regression, the optimum dietary S concentration for maximum clean mohair production was .267% of dietary DM for a N:S ratio of 7.2:1, suggesting that the National Research Council N:S ratio of 10:1 is inadequate for Angora goats. The optimum level of digestible S was calculated to be .18% of the diet DM. PMID:1399900

Qi, K; Lu, C D; Owens, F N; Lupton, C J

1992-09-01

195

Productive performances of Guadeloupean Creole goats during the suckling period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-genetic sources of variation were investigated for preweaning performance of Creole goats of Guadeloupe using 6375 individual records collected from 1980 to 1994. The analyzed sources of variation were litter size, sex, rank of lactation, year and season of kiddings. Age at first kidding averaged 17.2±3.1 months and the mean kidding interval was 8.5±1.2 months. Litter size (LS) at birth,

G Alexandre; G Aumont; J. C Mainaud; J Fleury; M Naves

1999-01-01

196

The ghrelin\\/GOAT\\/GHS-R system and energy metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghrelin is a brain-gut peptide that was discovered through reverse pharmacology and was first isolated from extracts of porcine\\u000a stomach. Ghrelin binds to growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and is acylated on its serine 3 residue by ghrelin\\u000a O-acyltransferase (GOAT). Several important biological functions of ghrelin have been identified, which include its growth\\u000a hormone-releasing and appetite-inducing effects. Ghrelin exerts its

Chung Thong Lim; Blerina Kola; Márta Korbonits

2011-01-01

197

Milk Flow Rate and Milking Frequency in Red Sokoto Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four Red Sokoto goats were hand milked for 120 days to determine milk flow rate. The does were grouped into three for once, twice and thrice a day milking to determine the effect of milkin g frequency on milk flow rate. The average daily milk yield and milk flow rate was 466.9g and 3.5g\\/sec, respectively. Milking frequency significantly (P<0.01) influenced

2003-01-01

198

Microbubbles assist goat liver ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been introduced to treat cancers. However, this therapy is a time-consuming procedure;\\u000a destructing a deeper volume is also difficult as ultrasonic energy attenuates exponentially with increasing depth in tissues.\\u000a The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing microbubbles on liver HIFU ablation. Seventeen\\u000a goats were divided into groups A

Tinghe Yu; Xionglin Fan; Shuhua Xiong; Kai Hu; Zhibiao Wang

2006-01-01

199

Haematological changes in experimental trypanosomiasis in Barbari goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological changes due to Trypanosoma evansi infection were studied in 12 Barbari male goats of 6–9 months of age. These were divided in two groups, A and B, consisting of eight infected and four control animals, respectively. The animals were kept in strict hygienic conditions and on a zero grazing schedule. Animals of group A were exposed to 1×106T. evansi

D. K. Sharma; Chauhan; V. K. Saxena; R. D. Agrawal

2000-01-01

200

Impact of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection on serologic surveillance for Johne's disease in goats.  

PubMed

False-positive results on serologic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are believed to occur due to cross-reacting antibody produced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C. pstb) infection in goats. This issue of compromised specificity was evaluated by testing 771 adult goats from 10 Midwestern goat herds in 2004. Assays for MAP infection included radiometric fecal culture and 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs); ELISA-positive samples were tested by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID). A synergistic hemolysin inhibition assay (SHI) was used to detect C. pstb antibody. Four infection status categories were evaluated. Category 1 goats (free of both MAP and C. pstb infection) tested negative on all MAP fecal cultures and SHI tests. Five of 181 goats were positive in both ELISAs, and 2 more were positive in ELISA-1 only. For Category 2 (MAP infected; no C. pstb infection), all animals were SHI negative. Six goats were fecal culture positive and strongly positive in both ELISAs; 2 more goats were positive only in ELISA-1. For Category 3 (C. pstb infected or vaccinated; no history of MAP infection), all fecal cultures were negative and 91% were SHI test-positive. In this population, only 2 goats were positive in both MAP ELISAs, while 84 additional goats were test-positive only on ELISA-1. In the absence of C. pstb infection, both ELISAs performed comparably, but when C. pstb infection was present the performance of ELISA-1 was significantly perturbed. Use of the ELISA-2 for goats is an effective and efficient method for Johne's disease surveillance in any goat herd. PMID:17402615

Manning, Elizabeth J B; Cushing, Heather F; Hietala, Sharon; Wolf, Cynthia B

2007-03-01

201

Production systems of Creole goat and their implications for a breeding programme.  

PubMed

The Creole goat is a local meat breed well adapted to the tropical environment of Guadeloupe, a French island in the Caribbean. A survey of 47 goat farmers was conducted in May 2008 to describe the Guadeloupean goat farming systems. It was the preliminary step for the implementation of a breeding programme for Creole goats. Farmers had 31 does on average. A small number (4%) kept only Creole goats. Most of them (62%) had a mixed herd of Creole and crossbreds. One-third of them (34%) reared only crossbred goats. Farmers appreciate the rusticity and resistance of the Creole goat but consider its growth as too slow. The most desired traits for goat selection were conformation and growth for males (77% of the answers). These traits were also important for females (30% of the answers). Maternal qualities were also frequently cited (maternal behaviour 23%, reproduction 20% and milk production 17%). Disease resistance was not seen as an important trait (10% and 7% of the answers for bucks and does, respectively). A typology constituted of five groups of farmers was also created. Farmers of three groups were retained to participate at a selection programme. They kept Creole goats and have expressed a strong willingness to join a selection programme. The results of the survey suggest that a breeding programme should mostly focus on the Creole goat as a maternal breed. Real consideration should be given to disease resistance. The Creole goat has indeed a key role to play in the sustainability of local farming systems. PMID:22445385

Gunia, M; Mandonnet, N; Arquet, R; de la Chevrotière, C; Naves, M; Mahieu, M; Alexandre, G

2010-12-01

202

Altered Lipid and Salt Taste Responsivity in Ghrelin and GOAT Null Mice  

PubMed Central

Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin?/?), and GOAT knockout (GOAT?/?) mice. Ghrelin?/? mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT?/? mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin?/? and GOAT?/? mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin?/? mice, yet potentiated in GOAT?/? mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT?/? mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin?/? and GOAT?/? mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

Daimon, Caitlin M.; Wang, Rui; Tschop, Matthias H.; Sevigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

2013-01-01

203

[Foot and mouth disease in sheep and goats].  

PubMed

Small ruminants play an important role in the epidemiology and transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD). The main reasons therefore are: FMD is difficult to diagnose as infected sheep not always show typical clinical symptoms or as the cardinal signs mimicked other diseases. Sheep and goats may be carriers. Infected herds which practice transhumance or are nomadic can spread the infection to other herds long before diagnose of the disease is established. Shipping and trade with live sheep and goats is much more common world wide than in other FMD susceptible species. Lack of registration of all sheep and goat herds (especially of small hobby herds) and lack of individual identifications signs (ear tags) may result in incomplete control measurements under FMD conditions. Basing on published experiences with the actual FMD epidemic in the UK and basing on the own experiences with the restrictions to prevent from spreading of the FMD from the UK to Germany suggestions for future disease control are made. PMID:11822163

Ganter, M; Graunke, W D; Steng, G; Worbes, H

2001-12-01

204

Genetic characterization of Barbari goats using microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in Barbari goats, a highly prolific breed distributed widely in the northern part of India, known for better milk and meat quality, was studied as a part of genetic characterization and conservation. The genomic DNA from 50 unrelated Barbari goats were amplified via PCR with a panel of 21 microsatellite markers, and resolved through 6 per cent denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. The number of alleles ranged from 4 to 11, with allele sizes ranging from 88 to 220 bp. The distribution of allele frequencies was between 0.0104 and 0.5208. Polymorphism information content varied from 0.5563 to 0.8348. The population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all except two microsatellite loci (ILSTS044 and ILSTS060). The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.8478 to 1.0000 while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.6208 to 0.8509. Based on the results of the present study, there is a good scope for exploiting the genetic variability in the Barbari goats for further improvement of performance.

Ramamoorthi, J.; Thilagam, K.; Karthickeyan, S. M. K.

2009-01-01

205

Isolation and propagation of keratinocytes derived from Cashmere goat fetus.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to isolate epidermal keratinocytes from Cashmere goat fetus with the aim to develop suitable conditions for keratinocyte cultivation and propagation. The methods developed for keratinocyte culture include (i) use of a feeder-layer of mitotically inactivated fibroblasts obtained from goat and mouse fetal skin, (ii) use of a substrate such as collagen IV, or (iii) without use of any substrate. Epidermal cell removal was established by enzymatically separating keratinocytes from 12 to 16 weeks aged fetal skin tissues treated with 0.125% trypsin solution overnight at 4 degrees C. The cells were maintained in all culture conditions with serum containing medium. Keratinocyte multiplication and proliferation were comparable in different culture conditions and the improved cellular attachment and growth have been obtained in cultures on feeder layers. Colony forming keratinocytes on feeder layer were heterogeneous in their growth potential. In feeder free conditions, high cellular density was required at plating for sub-cultivation as their poor attachment in culture dishes. This study reports the comparative efficacy of different culture conditions for keratinocyte isolation and in vitro propagation originating from Cashmere goat fetus. PMID:17881027

Islam, M S; Zhou, H M

2007-12-01

206

Mycoplasma agalactiae detected in the semen of goat bucks.  

PubMed

Contagious agalactia (CA) is among the most significant diseases affecting small ruminant populations in Mediterranean countries. This study was designed to detect the excretion in semen of CA-causing mycoplasmas in goats (Capra hircus) reared in Spain, where the disease is considered endemic. Culture techniques and PCR were conducted on 147 semen samples collected from 113 goat bucks to detect mycoplasmas. No animal showed clinical symptoms of CA at the moment of the screening. M. agalactiae was identified using both diagnostic methods in three semen samples collected from three different bucks. These animals belonged to a group of animals in which semen had been analyzed twice and only the second sample proved positive, suggesting the possibility of intermittent excretion. This is the first report of the isolation of M. agalactiae from semen collected from naturally infected goats. Future studies should investigate whether semen could be a real source of CA infection by determining if the agent may be transmitted during natural service or when semen is used for artificial insemination. PMID:19773063

de la Fe, C; Amores, J; Martín, A Gómez; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C

2009-12-01

207

Unusual hepatic parenchymal crystalloid material and biliary microliths in goats.  

PubMed

Investigation into an outbreak of suspected photosensitivity in Boer goats grazing green oats (Avena sativa) led to the finding of microscopical parenchymal crystaloid material and biliary microliths in the livers of 3 ewes that were killed for necropsy. Neither Tribulus terrestris nor Panicum spp. occurred on the farm. Further investigation resulted in the isolation, from leaf spots on the oat leaves, of the fungus Drechslera campanulata, cultures of which have been shown to be highly toxic to sheep, goats and calves. The hepatic parenchymal crystalloid material, which did not invoke any inflammatory reaction, occurred intracellularly in hepatocytes and extracellulary in sinusoids and central veins. Histochemically, this material reacted positively for calcium and free fatty acids and ranged from nonbirefringent, grey spicules to birefringent, glass-like sheaved crystals. A distinctive feature in the livers of the 3 goats was the presence of periductal concentric fibrosis and cast-like biliary microliths which occasionally contained a core of birefringent crystalloid material morphologically and histochemically different from that seen in the parenchyma. An aetiological relationship between the presence of highly toxic D. campanulata isolates on green oats and the hepatopathy with biliary microliths and calcium-free fatty acid crystalloids is possible. PMID:2634769

Collett, M G; Spickett, A M

1989-09-01

208

Small ruminant production in Turkey: highlighting in goat production.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the effects of structural, governmental and socio-economic conditions linked to small ruminant production, especially goat production. The number of small ruminants in Turkey fell from almost 51,530 in 1990, to 31,761 in 2007. In 1990, the number of small ruminants started to decrease due to structural, genetic and economic reasons such as a lack of state support policies, high costs of inputs, poor performance of local breeds, socio-economic conditions, and migration. In Turkey, the socio-economic and geographical structure make small ruminant production an important profession; it is also a significant source of income in rural regions. 35% of red meat and 12% of milk production is obtained from small ruminants. Although, Turkey has the highest goat population among its border and EU countries, ranks low with milk production. Reasons for the present situation are well evaluated; changes and tendencies in sheep and goat production as well as milk and meat production that are examined and associated with the population of Turkey are widely discussed. In addition, in order to improve the present situation, some technical and structural suggestions are mentioned. PMID:19597751

Ocak, Sezen; Davran, Müge K; Güney, Okan

2010-02-01

209

Anthelmintic and nutritional effects of heather supplementation on Cashmere goats grazing perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate anthelmintic and nutri- tional effects of heather supplementation in goats graz- ing perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures, 40 dry Cashmere goats were randomly assigned to 4 treat- ments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 grazing man- agement treatments (supplementation with heather vs. nonsupplementation) and 2 anthelmintic treatments (treatment vs. nontreatment). Goats grazed continu- ously from May to

K. Osoro; A. Mateos-Sanz; P. Frutos; U. Garcõ ´ a; L. M. Ortega-Mora; L. M. M. Ferreira; R. Celaya; I. Ferre

210

Estimation of Relationship Between Hot Carcass Weight and Eye Muscle Area Which Effects on Meat Production of Black Bengal Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 16 castrated male goats were taken to measure hot carcass wt and eye muscle area to estimate meat production of goats. These goats were 12 months of age. In this experiment significant (0.1%) correlation was found between Hot carcass wt. and eye muscle area.

2007-01-01

211

A comparative study on reproductive performance and productivity of the Black Bengal and Crossbred goat at Atrai, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was carried out to detect the status of different productive and reproductive parameters of Black Bengal and Crossbred goats at Bandaikhara village under Atrai Upazilla of Naogaon district during the period of September to December\\/2005. The average age at first sign of heat of Black Bengal goats was better than that of Crossbred goats. In Black Bengal

Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan; S. M. Niaz Mahmud; Azizul Islam

2007-01-01

212

Copy Number Variation and Missense Mutations of the Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) Gene in Goat Breeds with Different Coat Colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In goats, classical genetic studies reported a large number of alleles at the Agouti locus with effects on coat color and pattern distribution. From these early studies, the dominant AWt (white\\/tan) allele was suggested to cause the white color of the Saanen breed. Here, we sequenced the coding region of the goat ASIP gene in 6 goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese,

L. Fontanesi; F. Beretti; V. Riggio; E. Gómez González; S. Dall’Olio; R. Davoli; V. Russo; B. Portolano

2009-01-01

213

Latent infection of male goats with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri at an artificial insemination centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious agalactia affects goats and is caused by several species of mycoplasma including Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc). Male goats, latently infected with M.agalactiae and Mmc, were identified at a dairy goat breeding artificial insemination centre. In three samplings, conducted over 1year, ear swabs were assessed for both of the above organisms using culture and PCR techniques.

Christian de la Fe; Angel Gómez Martín; Joaquín Amores; Juan C. Corrales; Antonio Sánchez; José B. Poveda; Antonio Contreras

2010-01-01

214

Can Coxiella burnetii be transmitted by embryo transfer in goats?  

PubMed

The detection of significant bacterial loads of Coxiella burnetii in flushing media and tissue samples from the genital tracts of nonpregnant goats represents a risk factor for in utero infection and transmission during embryo transfer. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) whether cells of early goat embryos isolated from in vivo-fertilized goats interact with C. burnetii in vitro, (2) whether the embryonic zona pellucida (ZP) protects early embryo cells from infection, and (3) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol for bovine embryos. The study was performed in triple replicate: 12 donor goats, certified negative by ELISA and polymerase chain reaction, were synchronized, superovulated, and subsequently inseminated by Q fever-negative males. Sixty-eight embryos were collected 4 days later by laparotomy. Two-thirds of the resulting ZP-intact and ZP-free 8- to 16-cell embryos (9-9, 11-11, and 4-4 in replicates 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were placed in 1 mL minimum essential medium containing 10(9)C. burnetii CBC1 (IASP, INRA Tours). After overnight incubation at 37 °C and 5% CO2, the embryos were washed according to the IETS procedure. In parallel, the remaining third ZP-intact and ZP-free uninfected embryos (3-3, 5-5, and 2-2 in replicates 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were subjected to the same procedures, but without C. burnetii, thus serving as controls. The 10 washing fluids for all batches of each replicate were collected and centrifuged for 1 hour at 13,000 × g. The washed embryos and pellets were tested by polymerase chain reaction. Coxiella burnetii DNA was found in all batches of ZP-intact and ZP-free infected embryos after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the first five washing fluids for ZP-intact embryos and in the first eight washing fluids for ZP-free embryos. None of the control batches (embryos and washing fluids) were found to contain bacterial DNA. These results clearly indicate that caprine early embryonic cells are susceptible to infection by C. burnetii. The bacterium shows a strong tendency to adhere to the ZP after in vitro infection, and the washing procedure recommended by the IETS for bovine embryos failed to remove it. The persistence of these bacteria makes the embryo a potential means of transmission to recipient goats. Further studies are needed to investigate whether the enzymatic treatment of caprine embryos infected by C. burnetii would eliminate the bacteria from the ZP. PMID:23816284

Alsaleh, A; Fieni, F; Rodolakis, A; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Larrat, M; Chatagnon, G; Pellerin, J L

2013-10-01

215

The potential of Elephantorrhiza elephantina as an anthelminthic in goats.  

PubMed

Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch. Skeels. is used by farmers in the Eastern Cape Province to control helminths in goats. An in vitro study revealed efficacy of its fractions against adult Haemonchus contortus. This study was conducted to validate efficacy of fractions in vivo, on gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats. A total of 36 goats (18 males and 18 females) between ages of 8 and 12 months were used; these were randomly assigned to six treatments (A-F). For treatments A and B, goats received Prodose orange® (Albendazole 1.92 % m/v, closantel 3.94 % mv) at 2 ml/10 kg and distilled water at 0.5 ml/kg per os, respectively, whereas those under treatments C to E received aqueous fractions of E. elephantina at concentrations of 12. 5, 25, 50 and 75 mg/ml, dosed at 2 ml/10 kg. On days 1, 28 and 56, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and larval count, blood samples taken for packed cell volume (PCV) and body weights recorded to assess weight changes. The aqueous fraction caused highest the total faecal egg count reductions (TFECR) % of 81.7 %, 96.8 % and 98.6 % at doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg, respectively, on day 56. This was comparable to the commercial drug Prodose orange®, which caused TFECR% of 94.9 % at the same time. The fraction also caused reduction of Haemonchus contortus and strongyloides larvae at all dose levels, but these were not significantly different (P?>?0.05) to the negative control. There was an increase in body weights of animals at dose concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Animals receiving the fraction had weight increases of between 3 and 4 kg by end of experiment (over 56 days), but those drenched with Prodose orange ® gained by less than 2 kg. The fraction also increased PCV levels at all doses on days 28 and 56 and this was comparable to the group on commercial drug. The reductions of FEC and worm larvae, as well as increase in PCVs are indicative that E. elephantina posses some antihelmintic properties against gastrointestinal parasites in goats. With a minimum dose concentration of 25 mg/ml being effective, this means that farmers can use little material. Increase in weight gain revealed in this study may indicate that the plant may have some nutritional value; further study is therefore called for to validate the plant for its nutritive value. PMID:22526291

Maphosa, V; Masika, P J

2012-08-01

216

IMPACT OF MUCUNA BEAN (Mucuna spp.) SUPPLEMENTATION ON MILK PRODUCTION OF GOATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The objective of the trial was to determine the impact of supplementation with Mucuna bean (Mucuna spp.) on milk production of goats during a 28-day period. Experimental goats were in their third and fourth month of lactation and on average weighed 36.00 ± 5.15 kg. Supplements offered were ramon (Brosimum alicastrum) or Mucuna bean. Basal diet was chopped Napier

H. Mendoza-Castillo; J. B. Castillo-Caamal; A. Ayala-Burgos

217

The Minimum Quarantine Period for the Stabilization of Blood Cell Values in the Angora Goat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the investigation was to find the minimum period that a castrated, male, angora goat must be quarantined, after the stress of shipment, before its blood cell values become stabilized. A group of 125 goats was divided into five groups of 25 ...

T. E. Hamm G. M. Hutton E. A. Haight

1970-01-01

218

Phenotypic Characterization of Indigenous Tswana Goats and Sheep Breeds in Botswana: Continuous Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783

S. J. Nsoso; B. Podisi; E. Otsogile; B. S. Mokhutshwane; B. Ahmadu

2004-01-01

219

IODINE CONCENTRATION IN MILK OF SHEEP AND GOATS FROM FARMS IN SOUTH BOHEMIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trávníãek, J., J. Kursa: Iodine Concentration in Milk Sheep and Goats from Farms in South Bohemia. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 35-42. Iodine concentration was determined in milk samples collected from 60 sheep on 10 farms and from 94 goats of 64 farmers. The animals were grazed in the summer and fed hay of local harvests in the winter. Pregnant

J. TRÁVNÍâEK; J. KURSA

220

Changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters during prepartum and postpartum periods in female Baladi goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight healthy Baladi female goats were used in this study to investigate the changes which may occur in some hematological and biochemical parameters during different physiological stages in female Baladi goats. Blood samples were collected before pregnancy, prepartum (4, 3, 2, 1 weeks before parturition), day of parturition and postpartum periods (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after parturition). Hematological

Mohamed E Azab; Hussein A Abdel-Maksoud

1999-01-01

221

Polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing of BMPR1B gene in prolific Assam hill goat.  

PubMed

Assam hill goat (Capra hircus) is a prolific local goat in India. bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR1B) gene was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. The objective of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in the exonic region of BMPR1B gene of Assam hill goat. Total 90 blood samples were collected randomly from different parts of Assam and genomic DNA were extracted using phenol-chloroform method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined by spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, respectively. PCR amplicon showed a product of 140 bp fragment of BMPR1B gene. The purified product upon digestion with AvaII showed monomorphic banding pattern and revealed wild type alleles with AA genotype. Nucleotide sequencing showed one new mutation 773 (G?C) which is found to be unique in Assam hill goat. Construction of tree at nucleotide level generates from the present experiment lies in common cluster which differs from the other breeds of goat. The analysis of polymorphism for BMPR1B in Assam hill goat indicates that the genetic factor responsible for prolificacy or multiple kidding rates is not related to the reported mutated alleles of BMPR1B gene. Therefore, attempts to be made to detect other SNPs for BMPR1B gene or otherwise effort should be made towards other fecundity gene which might be responsible for the prolificacy of Assam hill goat. PMID:24535267

Dutta, Rupam; Laskar, Subimal; Borah, Probodh; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti; Das, Bula; Zaman, Galib; Barman, Nagendra Nath; Saikia, Deep Prakash

2014-06-01

222

Effects of goat pastoralism on ecosystem carbon storage in semiarid thicket, Eastern Cape, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive pastoralism with goats transforms semiarid thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa from a dense vegetation of tall shrubs to an open landscape dominated by ephemeral grasses and forbs. Approx. 800 000 ha of thicket (which prior to the introduction of goats had a closed canopy and a Portulacaria afra Jacq. component) have been transformed in this manner. Ecosystem

A. J. MILLS; R. M. COWLING; M. V. FEY; G. I. H. KERLEY; J. S. DONALDSON; R. G. LECHMERE-OERTEL; A. M. SIGWELA; A. L. SKOWNO; P. RUNDEL

2005-01-01

223

Short Communication: Comparison of Manual Versus Semiautomatic Milk Recording Systems in Dairy Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 × 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic

A. Ait-Saidi; G. Caja; S. Carne ´; A. A. K. Salama; J. J. Ghirardi

2008-01-01

224

The Use of Tanniferous Plants to Control Infestations of Haemonchus contortus Parasites in Meat Goats1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of tanniferous plants to control internal parasites in meat goats is a promising alternative to reducing or eliminating the use of synthetic drugs. Summary The economic benefits of developing a comprehensive natural alternative anthelmintic management program that includes the use of tanniferous plants would have significant health and economic impact on the meat goat industry. Tanniferous plants also

Tyrell Kahan; Sally Williams; Ray Mobley; Ikechukwu Ezenwa; Eric Peterson

225

PCR detection of lentiviral GAG segment DNA in the white blood cells of sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR assay for the detection of small ruminant lentiviral gag DNA (provirus) in the white blood cells of sheep and goats was developed and compared with a serological test (AGIDT). A sample of the DNA prepared from the white blood cells in 3 ml of blood from 208 sheep and goats from 18 different flocks was subjected to PCR

L. H. A. Wagter; A. Jansen; N. M. C. Bleumink-Pluym; J. A. Lenstra; D. J. Houwers

1998-01-01

226

Effects of Amino Acids Administered to a Perfused Area of the Skin in Angora Goats'12  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of infusion of supplemental amino acids on growth of mohair by Angora goats was investigated using a skin perfusion model. Four Angora wethers (average BW 32 rl: 2 kg) were implanted bilaterally with silicon catheters into the superficial branches of the deep circumflex iliac artery and vein. For the first 14 d of the experiment, goats were arterially

R. Puchala; T. Sahlu; S. G. Pierzynowski; S. P. Hart

2010-01-01

227

Cheese production potential of milk of Dahlem Cashmere goats from a rheological point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation properties, along with the main components (protein, casein, fat), of goat milk during cheese processing were rheologically evaluated on milk of two breeds of goats (Dahlem Cashmere: DC and German Fawn: GF) using dynamic mechanical analyses. Coagulation time (CT) was estimated during gel formation at 1Hz and 1% strain for 79min after rennet addition. In the sol–gel transition range,

O. Dimassi; S. Neidhart; R. Carle; L. Mertz; G. Migliore; A. Mané-Bielfeldt; A. Valle Zárate

2005-01-01

228

Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158

Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

2011-08-01

229

Effects of non-genetic factors on production traits of Inner Mongolia cashmere goats in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of age, sex, age of dam, year of production, herd, and type of birth on cashmere weight, fiber diameter, fiber length, body weight at birth, weaning and yearling in goats, were based on 12 years data from an Inner Mongolia Albas cashmere goat stock farm. The year of production had significant influence on cashmere weight, fiber diameter and

H. M Zhou; D Allain; J. Q Li; W. G Zhang; X. C Yu

2003-01-01

230

Production GH transgenic goat improving mammogenesis by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Growth hormone is a positive regulator of mammary gland development. Dairy animals that are administered growth hormone display enhanced lactation performance, a desirable agricultural trait. The objective of the current research was to generate an improved milk production phenotype in a large animal model using over-expressed GH in the mammary gland to promote mammogenesis. To this end, we constructed a mammary gland-specific expression vector, pcGH, and demonstrated effective GH expression in goat mammary epithelial cells in vitro by ELISA. Then, to produce transgenic offspring that were capable of stable GH expression in vivo, the linearized pcGH vector was electroporated into goat fetal fibroblasts. Cell colonies that were positive for GH were used as donors for nuclear transfer to enucleated oocytes. A total of 253 morulae or blastocytes developed from the reconstructed embryos were transferred to 56 recipients, resulting in 24 pregnancies at day 35. Finally, six transgenic goats were born. PCR detection confirmed the success of the cloning procedure. To observe the mammogenesis of dairy goats, the GH transgenic goats were mated with a completely healthy buck. In the later pregnancy period, the mammary gland of the GH transgenic goats were extensive than non-transgenic goats. These experiments indicated that the pcGH vector was incorporated into the transgenic goats and affected mammogenesis, which laid a solid foundation for elucidating the impact of GH on mammogenesis and lactation performance. PMID:24706058

Zhang, Q; Chen, J Q; Lin, J; Yu, Q H; Yu, H Q; Xu, X J; Liu, G H; Yang, Q

2014-07-01

231

Effects of CSN1S2 Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268) and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440) breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats) and daily milk yield (202 goats) were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05). The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05).

Yue, X. P.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Mao, C. C.; Lan, X. Y.; Chen, H.; Lei, C. Z.

2013-01-01

232

Indigenous knowledge of fodder tree selectivity by local goats in the mid-hills of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Tree fodder is an important constituent of livestock feed in the mid-hills of Nepal, particularly so during the dry winter. The purpose of this paper is to compare the ranking of tree fodders by indigenous goat raisers to the selectivity of fodder by goats. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Fodder from six trees, namely, khanayo (Ficus semicordata), sal (Shorea robusta), kabro

Luma Nidhi Pandey; Michael Kam; Shambhu B. Pandey; Chet R. Upreti; Netra P. Osti; A. Allan Degen

2009-01-01

233

Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult Saanen goats.  

PubMed

Echocardiography has become a routine non-invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of the present study was to test the inter-day repeatability and to establish the reference values of two-dimensional (2D-) and time-motion (M-) mode echocardiographic variables in healthy adult Saanen goats. Six goats were investigated three times by the same observer at one-day interval using a standardised 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic protocol. The intra-observer inter-day repeatability was tested using analysis of variance, calculation of the coefficient of variation and confidence intervals. A single echocardiographic examination was performed in six other goats, and values obtained in the 12 goats were used to establish the 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult female Saanen goats. Statistical analysis revealed a good inter-day repeatability of the echocardiographic cardiac measurements. Echocardiographic reference values obtained in healthy adult Saanen goats seemed slightly higher than those reported in healthy Swedish domestic goats and were similar to those reported in healthy adult sheep. PMID:22158272

Leroux, A A; Moonen, M L; Farnir, F; Sandersen, C F; Deleuze, S; Salciccia, A; Amory, H

2012-02-11

234

Effects of dietary phytoestrogens on plasma testosterone and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in male goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to xenoestrogens in humans and animals has gained increasing attention due to the effects of these compounds on reproduction. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of low-dose dietary phytoestrogen exposure, i.e. a mixture of genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, on the establishment of testosterone production during puberty in male goat kids. METHODS: Goat kids

David Gunnarsson; Gunnar Selstam; Yvonne Ridderstråle; Lena Holm; Elisabeth Ekstedt; Andrzej Madej

2009-01-01

235

Factors affecting success of embryo collection and transfer in a transgenic goat program  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a goat transgenic program that took place in Israel from July 1995 to February 1996, Saanen (n = 343) and Nubian x Damascus (n = 378) crossbred goats of mixed ages were used as donors (n = 433) and recipients (n = 288). The effects of season, age, number of surgical procedures, previous hormonal treatments and ovulation rate on

E. Gootwine; I. Barash; A. Bor; I. Dekel; A. Friedler; M. Heller; U. Zaharoni; A. Zenue; M. Shani

1997-01-01

236

COMPLIANCE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED CURING METHODS TO CONTROL BLACK BENGAL GOAT SKIN DETERIORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine microbial spoilage of skins of Black Bengal goats at various stages and to assess the efficacy of modified curing processes of that skins, during the period of July to November 2006. A total number of six intact skins from Black Bengal goat of two years of age were obtained from markets located at Bangladesh

M. H. O. Rashid; M. P. Siddique; M. A. Zinnah; M. A. Huq; M. A. Samad; M. M. Rahman

2008-01-01

237

Efficiency of Male Goat Markets in the Central Alluvial Plains of West Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marketing of goats has been studied in the four animal markets of Nadia and Hooghly districts of Central Alluvial Plains of West Bengal. Data have been collected from 30 sellers and 30 buyers, selected randomly from each market during 2001-02. In all, 228 Black Bengal and 76 Jamunapari goats have been found transacted among the selected sellers and buyers

Arun Pandit

2005-01-01

238

The repair of segmental bone defects with porous bioglass: An experimental study in goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was exclusively conducted to evaluate healing of surgically created defects on the radius of adult Black Bengal goat after implantation of porous bioglass blocks and compare the process kinetics with normal healing. Twelve Black Bengal goats were divided randomly into two groups: control and experimental group implanted with bioglass blocks. Unicortical bone defects in radius were generated in

Samit K. Nandi; Biswanath Kundu; Someswar Datta; Dipak K. De; Debabrata Basu

2009-01-01

239

PREVALENCE, POPULATION DYNAMICS AND PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INTESTINAL HELMINTHS IN BLACK BENGAL GOATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence, population dynamics and pathological effects of intestinal helminths in Black Bengal goats were studied by examining 150 viscera collecting from different slaughter houses of Mymensingh district from the period of November 2005 to May 2006 in the Department of Parasitology and Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, of which 94.67% goats were infected with one or more species of helminths.

U. K. Mohanta; T. Farjana; S. Majumder; M. M. H. Mondal

2007-01-01

240

EFFECT OF GREEN TEA AND GRAPE SEED AND TBHQ ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BALADI GOAT MEATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of natural extracts of green tea or commercial grape seed in combination with synthetic tert methyl-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) at different concentrations on lipid oxidation and the redness of goat meats stored at 5 °C for 9 days was evaluated. Fresh boneless baladi goat meats were ground and mixed at varying concentrations of green tea or grape seed extract alone

Taha M. Rababah; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Khaled M. Al-Qudah; Laith M. Rousan; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Muhammad H. Al-udatt; Wade Yang

2011-01-01

241

Effects of Green Tea and Grape Seed and TBHQ on Physicochemical Properties of Baladi Goat Meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of natural extracts of green tea or commercial grape seed in combination with synthetic tert methyl-butylhydroquinone at different concentrations on lipid oxidation and the redness of goat meats stored at 5°C for 9 days was evaluated. Fresh boneless Baladi goat meats were ground and mixed at varying concentrations of green tea or grape seed extract alone or combined

Taha M. Rababah; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Khaled M. Al-Qudah; Laith M. Rousan; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Muhammad H. Al-udatt; Wade Yang

2011-01-01

242

Variability of resistance in goats infected with Haemonchus contortus in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability between and within breeds with respect to nematode egg counts (EPG), packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) was studied in 36 yearling female goats of the Caninde (15), Bhuj (6) and Anglo-Nubian (15) breeds, exposed to Haemonchus contortus. Nematode-free goats were turned to a contaminated paddock in late February. From then on, fecal egg per gram counts

C. A. F. Costa; L. da S. Vieira; M. E. A. Berne; M. U. D. Silva; A. L. Guidoni; E. A. P. Figueiredo

2000-01-01

243

Detection of Mycoplasma agalactiae Antigen in Sheep and Goats by Monoclonal Antibody Based Sandwich ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zendulková D., H. J. Ball, A. Madanat, P. Lány, Z. Pospí‰il: Detection of Mycoplasma agalactiae Antigen in Sheep and Goats by a Monoclonal Antibody- Based Sandwich ELISA, Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 461-464. A preliminary epidemiological survey was carried out to find out whether contagious agalactia of sheep and goats was present in herds in the Czech Republic or Jordan.

D. ZENDULKOVÁ; H. J. BALL; A. MADANAT; P. LÁNY; Z. POSPÍ

244

Immunohistochemical Characterization of Lung Lesions Induced Experimentally by Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis in Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats aged 3 months were inoculated with a recent isolate of Mycoplasma agalactiae (five animals) or Mycoplasma bovis (five animals) by a combined (intratracheal+intranasal) route. Two control goats were inoculated by the same route with sterile mycoplasma broth. Animals were killed 14 or 21 days after infection. At necropsy, tracheal and lung tissue was taken for pathological and immunohistochemical examination

F. Rodr??guez; J. Sarradell; J. B. Poveda; H. J. Ball; A. Fernández

2000-01-01

245

Evidence for the transmission of scrapie to sheep and goats from a vaccine against Mycoplasma agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accidental infection from a vaccine was suggested as the explanation for the sudden increase in outbreaks of scrapie in Italy in 1997 and 1998. This paper describes a recent outbreak of scrapie in sheep and goats which were exposed to the same vaccine. No ewes or goats had been imported into the herd since 1992, but a vaccine against

M. Caramelli; G. Ru; C. Casalone; E. Bozzetta; P. L. Acutis; A. Calella; G. Forloni

2001-01-01

246

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico.  

PubMed

Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains (n=492). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 174 (31%) of 562 goats, with titers of 1:25 in 18, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 10, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 32, 1:800 in 40, 1:1600 in 17, and 1:3200 or higher in 15. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased with age, and varied with breed and geographic region; goats raised in the semi-desert region (Nubian breed) had a significantly higher seroprevalence (32.7%) than those raised in the mountains (mixed breed) (18.6%). Seropositive goats were found in all 12 (100%) farms sampled. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in goats in Durango State, Mexico. Results indicate that infected goats are likely an important source of T. gondii infection in humans in Durango State. PMID:21767913

Alvarado-Esquivel, C; García-Machado, C; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

2011-12-29

247

Enumeration of transconjugated Ruminococcus albus and its survival in the goat rumen microcosm.  

PubMed Central

A transconjugant Ruminococcus albus A3 culture was released into a goat rumen, and the extent of its survival in the rumen microcosm was measured by distinguishing this bacterium from indigenous microbes by antibiotic resistance. A3 cells remained roughly constant for 14 days in this goat rumen.

Miyagi, T; Kaneichi, K; Aminov, R I; Kobayashi, Y; Sakka, K; Hoshino, S; Ohmiya, K

1995-01-01

248

Chlamydophila abortus infection in a pregnant woman associated with indirect contact with infected goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported here is the case of a pregnant woman who developed a severe Chlamydophila abortus infection after indirect contact with infected goats resulting in preterm stillbirth. The woman fully recovered after treatment with doxycycline. In the goat herd with which her husband worked Chlamydophila abortus was actively circulating, as shown by positive serology. When pregnant women present with rapidly worsening

A. Meijer; A. Brandenburg; J. de Vries; J. Beentjes; P. Roholl; D. Dercksen

2004-01-01

249

An initial comparative map of copy number variations in the goat (Capra hircus) genome  

PubMed Central

Background The goat (Capra hircus) represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs) in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina) using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. Results We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat), with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs): on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome). These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P < 0.0001) suggesting that several chromosome regions might contain recurrent interspecies CNVRs. Genes with environmental functions were over-represented in goat CNVRs as reported in other mammals. Conclusions We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the functional relevance of these CNVs and their effects on behavior, production, and disease resistance traits in goats.

2010-01-01

250

The potential to control Haemonchus contortus in indigenous South African goats with copper oxide wire particles  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of resistance of Haemonchus contortus to all major anthelmintic groups has prompted investigations into alternative control methods in South Africa, including the use of copper oxide wire particle (COWP) boluses. To assess the efficacy of COWP against H. contortus in indigenous South African goats, 18 male faecal egg-count-negative goats were each given ca.1200 infective larvae of H. contortus three times per week during weeks 1 and 2 of the experiment. These animals made up an “established” infection group (ESTGRP). At the start of week 7, six goats were each given a 2-g COWP bolus orally; six goats received a 4-g COWP bolus each and six animals were not treated. A further 20 goats constituted a “developing” infection group (DEVGRP). At the beginning of week 1, seven of the DEVGRP goats were given a 2-g COWP bolus each; seven goats were treated with a 4-g COWP bolus each and no bolus was given to a further six animals. During weeks 1–6, each of these DEVGRP goats was given ca. 400 H. contortus larvae three times per week. All 38 goats were euthanized for worm recovery from the abomasa and small intestines in week 11. In the ESTGRP, the 2-g and 4-g COWP boluses reduced the worm burdens by 95% and 93%, respectively compared to controls (mean burden ± standard deviation, SD: 23 ± 33, 30 ± 56 and 442 ± 518 worms, P = 0.02). However, in the DEVGRP goats, both the 2-g and 4-g COWP treatments were ineffective in reducing the worm burdens relative to the controls (mean burdens ± SD: 1102 ± 841, 649 ± 855, 1051 ± 661 worms, P = 0.16). Mean liver copper levels did not differ between the ESTGRP goats treated with 2-g COWP, 4-g COWP or no COWP (mean ± standard error of the mean, SEM, in ppm: 93.7 ± 8.3; 101.5 ± 8.3; 71.8 ± 8.3, P = 0.07) nor did they differ between the DEVGRP goats (mean ± SEM, in ppm: 74.1 ± 9.1; 75.4 ± 9.1; 74.9 ± 10.0, P > 0.99). The copper values were considered adequate, but not high, for goats. The COWP boluses have the potential to be used in the place of conventional anthelmintics for the control of established H. contortus infections in indigenous South African goats, but their use as part of an integrated approach to control H. contortus in the field must be fully investigated.

Vatta, A.F.; Waller, P.J.; Githiori, J.B.; Medley, G.F.

2009-01-01

251

Estimated Prevalence of Caprine Paratuberculosis in Boer Goat Herds in Missouri, USA  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to estimate true animal-level and herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in Missouri Boer goat herds. Sera harvested from blood samples collected from goats ?24 months of age in 25 Missouri Boer goat herds were tested for presence of MAP antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Herds were declared positive for MAP if one or more goats in the herd tested positive for MAP antibodies. True animal, within-herd, and between-herd prevalences were calculated using the Rogan-Gladen estimator and were 1.4% (95% CI = 0.1 to 3.6%), 3% (95% CI = 0 to 6%), and 54.7% (95% CI = 28.2 to 86.2%), respectively. Findings in this study confirmed that MAP infection is endemic in Missouri Boer goat herds.

Pithua, Patrick; Kollias, Nathaniel S.

2012-01-01

252

Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii Exposure in Boer Goat Herds in Missouri, USA.  

PubMed

Limited data currently exist on the prevalence of Toxoplasma infections in goats in the USA. The objective of this pilot investigation was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Boer goats raised in Missouri. Sera collected from 367 Boer goats in 24 herds were tested using a commercial latex agglutination assay. Evidence of T. gondii antibodies was present in 25 of the 367 goats, with titres of 1 : 32 in 4, 1 : 64 in 11, 1 : 128 in 5, 1 : 256 in 3 and 1 : 1024 in 2. Estimates for the apparent animal-level and between-herd prevalence were 6.8% (95% CI = 4.7-9.9%) and 41.7% (95% CI = 24.5-61.2%). These results confirm that Boer goats in Missouri are exposed to T. gondii and may constitute a public health risks. PMID:24256548

Yaglom, H D; Rottinghaus, A A; Pithua, P

2014-09-01

253

Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.

dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edisio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sergio Santos; Junior, Felicio Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cassia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert Jose

2014-01-01

254

Cloned DNA probes identify Anaplasma ovis in goats and reveal a high prevalence of infection.  

PubMed Central

Anaplasma organisms are observed in erythrocytes from goats with anemia and weight loss in Kenya. Three anaplasmas have been isolated in nature, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma marginale, and Anaplasma centrale. The two recognized species, A. ovis and A. marginale, are known to infect goats. Since only A. ovis causes clinical disease in goats, the Anaplasma species in goats in Kenya were identified. To detect A. ovis, a 9.6-kilobase-pair section of genomic DNA was cloned into pBR322 (pAO12A) and was used in conjunction with an A. marginale DNA probe previously derived from a gene coding for a 105,000-molecular-weight surface protein (Am105L) of A. marginale. In Southern blots, pAO12A DNA hybridized to several at least partially homologous sequences that were present in A. ovis and A. marginale genomic DNAs. The pAO12A DNA did not hybridize to Babesia bovis genomic or goat leukocyte DNA. The Anaplasma species that infected goats was identified as A. ovis by (i) DNA hybridization with pAO12A, (ii) hybridization of the A. marginale DNA probe to A. centrale and A. marginale genomic DNAs and lack of hybridization to A. ovis genomic DNA from an isolate obtained in Idaho and Anaplasma DNA from infected goats in Kenya, (iii) the intraerythrocytic location of Anaplasma organisms in infected goat blood, and (iv) the host specificity of the Anaplasma organisms for goats but not for cattle. Also, by using the two Anaplasma DNA probes, the prevalence of A. ovis in goats from seven locations in Kenya was found to range from 22 to 87%. The pAO12A DNA probe detected a 0.0035% A. ovis parasitemia in infected blood, an improved sensitivity which is suitable for use in surveillance and epidemiological studies. Images

Shompole, S; Waghela, S D; Rurangirwa, F R; McGuire, T C

1989-01-01

255

Polymorphisms of BMPR-IB gene and their relationship with litter size in goats.  

PubMed

The bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) gene was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. According to mRNA sequence of ovine BMPR-IB gene, ten pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of exon 1, exon 2, exon 6 to exon 10 and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the BMPR-IB gene in both high prolificacy breed (Jining Grey goat) and low prolificacy breeds (Wendeng Dairy and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method. Only the products amplified by primers P8 and P10 of the 3'UTR displayed polymorphisms. For primer P8, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in Jining Grey and Wendeng Dairy goats, two genotypes (AA and AB) were in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (71C?T) of the BMPR-IB gene in genotype BB compared with AA. The differences of least squares mean (LSM) for litter size between genotypes AA, AB and BB were non-significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. For primer P10, three genotypes (CC, CD and DD) were detected in Jining Grey and Wendeng Dairy goats and one genotype (CC) in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (130T?C) of the BMPR-IB gene in genotype DD compared with CC. The differences of LSM for litter size between genotypes CC, CD and DD were non-significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. These results preliminarily showed that the detected loci of the BMPR-IB gene had no significant effect on prolificacy of Jining Grey goats. PMID:20300862

Chu, M X; Zhao, X H; Zhang, Y J; Jin, M; Wang, J Y; Di, R; Cao, G L; Feng, T; Fang, L; Ma, Y H; Li, K

2010-12-01

256

Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii  

PubMed Central

Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans.

Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien

2012-01-01

257

Exploring polymorphisms and their effects on reproductive traits of the INHA and INH?A genes in three goat breeds.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the analysis of INHA and INH?A gene polymorphisms in 786 goats of three breeds: Xinong Saanen (SN), Guanzhong (GZ) and Boer (BG). We identified three new allelic variants: P1-C80G and/126G (GenBank accession no. HQ202573) in the three goat breeds and P2-C936T (GenBank accession no. HQ202572) in SN and GZ goat breeds. At P1 locus, AA, AB and BB genotypes were found in the three goat breeds. At P2 locus, CC and CT genotypes were found in SN and GZ goat breeds. After comparing genotype distribution within the three goat breeds, BG had conspicuous differences from SN and GZ (P < 0.001) at P2 locus. The SNP locus was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium at P1 locus in the three goat breeds (P < 0.05). At P2 locus, the SNP locus was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in SN and GZ goat breeds (P < 0.05). Association of polymorphisms with litter size was done at P1 locus in the three goat breeds. The result showed that AA genotype had remarkable litter size at P1 locus in the three goat breeds (P < 0.05). Therefore, these results suggest that INHA gene is a strong candidate gene that affects litter size in goats. PMID:22515685

Hou, Jinxing; An, Xiaopeng; Li, Guang; Wang, Yana; Song, Yuxuan; Cao, Binyun

2012-04-01

258

Social rank and response to the "male effect" in the Australian Cashmere goat.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to determine if the social status of Australian Cashmere goats affects their response to the male effect in terms of LH secretion, ovulation and expression of estrus. Australian Cashmere goats were kept isolated from the males during 5 months. The index of success (SI) of each goat was calculated to establish their social rank. In the first experiment, the ten most dominant and the 10 most subordinate goats were separated from the original herd and housed in two pens (5 dominant and 5 subordinate animals in each pen). An androgenized wether was then introduced into each pen. Luteinizing hormone (LH) was measured every 20 min from 2h before to 4h after introduction of the male in the goats of first pen and from 4 to 8h after male introduction in the second pen. In the second experiment, the remaining 50 goats were exposed in their original pen to two androgenized wethers. Their association index with the males (AI) was calculated for each of these 50 goats, and the intervals from exposure to the males to the onset of estrus and to ovulation were determined. During the first 4h after male introduction, the dominant goats had more LH pulses (0.65+/-0.06 compared with 0.3+/-0.09; P<0.05) and greater LH mean concentrations (1.79+/-0.14 ng/ml compared with 1.30+/-0.15 ng/ml, P=0.05) than the subordinate animals. Although not significantly different, the AI was 35% greater for high and medium ranking goats than for low ranking animals (0.031+/-0.004, 0.032+/-0.005 and 0.023+/-0.005, respectively, P>0.05). Although the number of goats ovulating in response to male exposure was similar between dominance groups (high: 100%, medium: 94% and low ranking: 92%), the high and medium dominance goats showed a greater incidence of expression of estrus than low-dominance goats (94.4%, 89.5% and 53.8%, respectively, P<0.05). It is concluded that the social rank of the Australian Cashmere goat influences their response to the male effect in terms of early LH secretion and expression of estrus. PMID:17126504

Alvarez, L; Zarco, L; Galindo, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B

2007-12-01

259

Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats  

PubMed Central

Background Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats. Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animal. All animals underwent echocardiography four times in a 72-hour period. Echocardiography was performed three times by one author and once by another. Images were stored and measured offline. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility and any differences due to animal or day were evaluated. Reference ranges (mean?±?2 standard deviations) were calculated for both species. Results Majority of the images obtained were of good to excellent quality. Image acquisition was straightforward with 5.4% of animals demonstrating a small scanning window. Reliability was excellent for majority of dimensions and time indices. There was less variation in repeatability when compared with reproducibility and differences were greater for technique than for measurements. Dimensions that were less reliable included those for right ventricular diameter and left ventricular free wall. There were many differences in cardiac dimensions between sheep and goats. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that specific reference ranges are required for these two species. Repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for the majority of cardiac dimensions and time indices suggesting that this technique is reliable and valuable for examination of clinical cases over time and for longitudinal research studies.

2012-01-01

260

Analysis of weaning-induced stress in Saanen goat kids.  

PubMed

In young ruminants' life, weaning often coincides with a period of growth stasis and poor welfare. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of coping with the new diet on behavioural and haematological stress indicators in goat kids subjected to a commonly adopted weaning practice. Immediately after birth, male Saanen goat kids were divided into two groups: MILK and WMIX. All were fed colostrum for the first 3 days and then goat milk to the age of 29 days. After that, MILK kids continued to receive milk, while the WMIX kids underwent weaning and were completely weaned by day 48. Animal behaviour was recorded daily. From day 23-50, blood samples were taken weekly and analysed for indicators of stress and immune function. No abnormal behaviour, such as injurious behaviours or stereotypies, was observed in either of the experimental groups throughout the experimental period. During the last week, fasting plasma cortisol level was significantly lower, whereas plasma activity of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly higher in WMIX kids, in relation to the MILK ones. Anyway, data were within the normal physiological range and no difference was observed neither in plasma haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, albumin and antithrombin III, nor in plasma immunoglobulin A and G, at any time, signalling no stressful condition. Therefore, differences observed in cortisol, ALT and AST could be the consequence of the metabolic changes that occur during the transition from pre-ruminant to ruminant state. The gradual weaning at 48 days of age did not result in any stressful condition and had no negative effect on weight gain. Results suggest that parameters commonly adopted to provide information on animal stress, such as cortisol and aminotransferase activity, can vary in relation to the physiological status of the animals and may bias stress assessment. PMID:22715986

Magistrelli, D; Aufy, A A; Pinotti, L; Rosi, F

2013-08-01

261

Effect of leptin on in vivo goat embryo production.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of leptin administration during superovulation on in vivo goat embryo production. Ten mature does were superovulated with 133 mg follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) i.m. in six descending doses at 12-h intervals. The goats received 4.8 ?g/kg human recombinant leptin s.c. (leptin group, n = 5) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (control group, n = 5) with the first and second FSH doses. The does were mated and subjected to embryo collection by transcervical technique 6 days later. The total number of cells per embryo and the number of cells with fragmented DNA were assessed in selected blastocysts by combining Hoechst 33342 and terminal dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining. Plasma concentrations of oestradiol (E2 ) and progesterone (P4 ) were determined by electrochemiluminescence from the day of FSH treatment, on the day of superovulatory oestrus and on the day before embryo collection. Compared with the control group, the does that received leptin had a higher number of transferable embryos (p < 0.005), fewer embryos classified as degenerated (p < 0.001) and fewer TUNEL-positive cells/blastocyst (p < 0.001). The number of transferable embryos was positively correlated with E2 concentrations on day of oestrus (r = 0.562; p < 0.01) and P4 concentrations on the day of embryo collection (r = 0.912; p < 0.001). We concluded that in vivo leptin administration during FSH treatment improved embryo quality and affected ovarian steroidogenesis in superovulated goats. PMID:24731188

Batista, Am; Gomes, Wa; Carvalho, Ccd; Monteiro, Plj; Silva, Flm; Almeida, Fc; Soares, Pc; Carneiro, Gf; Guerra, Mmp

2014-06-01

262

Semen characteristics of goats with subacute, acute and chronic besnoitiosis.  

PubMed

A study on the semen obtained from breeding goats suffering from mild to severe chronic besnoitiosis revealed marked changes in semen volume, colour, density, concentration, mass and individual motility and percentage live. There were also many neutrophils and spermatozoa with primary and secondary defects, including missing tails and deformed heads and tails. The observed changes were considered to be severe enough to account for the infertility observed in the flock. Sections of testes obtained for histopathology were characterised by massive blockage of the pampiniform plexus, degeneration of the germinal epithelium, tubular necrosis with an inflammatory infiltrate and, in some cases, accumulation of haemosiderin-like material in the tunica vaginalis. PMID:10855817

Njenga, M J; Munyua, S J; Mutiga, E R; Gathuma, J M; Kang'ethe, E K; Bwangamoi, O; Mugera, G M; Mitaru, B N

1999-03-01

263

Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)  

PubMed Central

Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

2014-01-01

264

Embryonic death in goats caused by the ingestion of Mimosa tenuiflora.  

PubMed

To determine the teratogenic effect of Mimosa tenuiflora, the green fresh plant was administered ad libitum to 12 goats (Group 1) from day 1 to day 30 of gestation. Upon ultrasonographic examination, on day 30, not one of these goats was pregnant, demonstrating that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. Six goats (Group 2) ingested M. tenuiflora from day 30 to day 60 of pregnancy. Four goats delivered seven healthy kids and two were not pregnant based on ultrasonographic examination on day 45 suggesting late embryonic death. Three other groups of six goats each received the plant on days 60-90 (Group 3), 90-120 (Group 4), and 120-150 (Group 5) of gestation and a control group (Group 6) all delivered normal kids, except one goat in Group 4 that aborted and one adult goat from Group 5 that was found dead. It is concluded that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. The failure to induce malformations might have resulted from a high dose of an unknown active principle of the plant causing fetal death. PMID:22178006

Dantas, Antônio Flávio M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Lopes, José Radmácyo; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip; Mota, Rinaldo A

2012-04-01

265

Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries).  

PubMed

Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

2014-01-01

266

Effects of Monensin on Metabolism and Production in Dairy Saanen Goats in Periparturient Period  

PubMed Central

This trial evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with monensin sodium on dry matter intake, metabolic parameters and milk yield and milk composition of dairy Saanen goats in the periparturient period. Twelve Saanen pregnant dairy goats were assigned to a treatment and a control group. Saanen goats were fed monensin as its 10% sodium salt in the amount of 33 mg/kg of total dry matter intake during 30 d before parturition till d 42 in milk. Blood samples were collected from each goat at d 30, 15 and 7 before expected kidding time and also in d 1, 7, 13, 19, 21, 28, 35 and 42 postpartum. The serum concentrations of ?-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterifed fatty acid (NEFA), calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, total protein, albumin and glucose and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were determined. The BHBA concentration significantly decreased in goats, which received monensin in comparison to controls in the postpartum period (p = 0.049). The concentration of sodium (Na) was significantly influenced by monensin treatment in the postpartum period (p = 0.048). In addition, the difference in dry matter intake was highly significant between the two groups during the pre-partum period. Controls had more dry matter intake (DMI) than treatment goats (p = 0.0001). Mean 3.5% fat corrected milk production was not influenced by monensin treatment. However, milk fat percentage was significantly decreased in monensin treated goats (p = 0.0017).

Sadjadian, Rasool; Seifi, Hesam A.; Mohri, Mehrdad; Naserian, Abbas Ali; Farzaneh, Nima

2013-01-01

267

Conservation and function of Dazl in promoting the meiosis of goat male germline stem cells.  

PubMed

Dazl (deleted in azoospermia-like) is a conserved gene in mammalian meiosis, which encodes RNA binding protein required for spermatocyte meiosis. Up to date, the expression and function of Dazl in the goat testis are unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of Dazl in dairy goat testis and their function in male germline stem cells (mGSCs). The results first revealed that the expression level of Dazl in adult testes was significantly higher than younger and immature goats, and azoospermia and male intersex testis. The dairy goat Dazl is highly conserved analysed by several online and bioinformatics software, respectively. Over-expression of Dazl promoted the expression of meiosis-related genes in dairy goat mGSCs. The expression of Stra8 was up-regulated by over-expression of Dazl analysed by Luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, results suggest the Dazl plays an important role in dairy goat spermatogenesis and that over-expression of Dazl may promote Stra8 expression in dairy goat mGSCs. PMID:24477583

Niu, Zhiwei; Hu, Yue; Liao, Mingzhi; Yu, Meng; Zhu, Haijing; Wang, Long; Wu, Jiang; Bai, Chunling; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

2014-05-01

268

Performance and Longevity of a Novel Intraosseous Device in a Goat (Capra hircus) Model  

PubMed Central

We performed 2 studies to assess the function and longevity of a novel intraosseous catheter device. For study 1, 9 goats were assigned to 3 groups (intraosseous catheter in the proximal humerus, intraosseous catheter in the proximal tibia, or standard jugular catheter). Devices in the tibia remained in place for less time than did those in the humerus, and no goats exhibited radiographic evidence of resulting damage or structural change in surrounding bone. Positive bacterial cultures were found in all 9 goats at various time points. In study 2, 18 goats were assigned to 2 groups (intraosseous catheter in the wing of the ilium or proximal humerus). Samples for serial aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures and CBC were collected while devices remained in use. Clinical monitoring and removal criteria were identical those for study 1. Catheters in the ilium remained in place for less than 24 h on average, and those in the humerus remained in place for an average of 2.5 d. Several goats with proximal humeral catheters demonstrated moderate lameness after removal, and radiographic evidence of periosteal bone growth was noted in another goat. Bloodwork indicated mild elevations of WBC counts from baseline in some cases. Bacterial growth was found in samples from 4 of 18 goats at various time points. Our study indicated that intraosseous catheters may remain safely in place for more than 24 h, but animals should be monitored closely for negative side effects for several days after removal.

Jackson, Erin E; Ashley, T Clay; Snowden, Karen F; Gresham, Vincent C; Budke, Christine M; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Taylor, Destiny A

2011-01-01

269

The copy number and integration site analysis of IGF-1 transgenic goat.  

PubMed

Transgenic animals have been used previously to study gene function, produce important proteins, and generate models for the study of human diseases. As the number of transgenic species increases, reliable detection and molecular characterization of integration sites and copy number are crucial for confirming transgene expression and genetic stability, as well as for safety evaluation and to meet commercial demands. In this study, we generated four transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). After birth, the cloned goat contained transferred insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) gene was initially confirmed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?based method. The four cloned goats were identified as IGF-1 transgenic goats by southern blotting. The number of copies of the IGF-1 gene in each of the transgenic goats was determined. Additionally, four integration sites of the transgene in the transgenic goats with a modified thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR method were identified. The four different integration sites were located on chromosomes 2, 11, 16 and 18. The present study identified the copy number and integration sites using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and TAIL-PCR, enabling the bio-safety evaluation of the transgenic goats. PMID:25018125

Lin, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Li Q; Yu, Qing H; Yang, Qian

2014-09-01

270

High prevalence of Eimeria infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.  

PubMed

A survey of dairy goats for infection with Eimeria species of coccidia was conducted in the Shaanxi province, northwestern China between December and November 2010, including Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. A total of 584 fecal samples (250 and 334 from Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, respectively) in six farms were collected. Eimeria oocysts were seen in 568 (97.3%) fecal samples, with six species, namely Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria arloingi, Eimeria alijevi, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria hirci, and Eimeria christenseni. The most prevalent were E. arloingi in Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, with an overall prevalence of 83.3% and 84.4%, and the lowest prevalence were E. christenseni (26.9%) and E. hirci (20.7%) for Saanen and Guanzhong Dairy goats, respectively. Two or more Eimeria species were commonly presented in all the age groups; 80.0% and 81.4% of positive Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats carried more than two species, and 1.6% and 6.5% of two breeds had six species. The results of the present survey suggested that Eimeria infection is wide and severe in the Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, which suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to prevent and control coccidial infection in dairy goats in this province. PMID:22057552

Zhao, Guang Hui; Lei, Li-Hui; Shang, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Man; Zhao, Yan Qing; Chen, Chao-Xi; Chen, De-Kun

2012-06-01

271

Polymorphisms of PRLR and FOLR1 genes and association with milk production traits in goats.  

PubMed

We investigated the polymorphisms of PRLR and FOLR1 genes in Xinong Saanen, Guanzhong, and Boer goat breeds by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP. Two novel SNPs were identified: KC109741: g.62130C>T in the 3?-UTR of goat gene PRLR, and KC136296: g.7884A>C in exon 3 of goat gene FOLR1. In the three goat breeds, the polymorphism information content was 0.20-0.27 at the g.62130C>T locus. At the g.7884A>C locus, it was 0.36 in Boer goats. The three goat breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium at the g.62130C>T locus. The g.62130C>T SNP was found to be significantly associated with milk production traits in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. These results are consistent with the regulatory function of PRLR in mammary gland development, milk secretion, and expression of milk protein genes; they extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the goat PRLR gene, which could be useful for breeding programs. PMID:24615071

Hou, J X; Fang, F; An, X P; Yan, Y; Ma, T; Han, P; Meng, F X; Song, Y X; Wang, J G; Cao, B Y

2014-01-01

272

Identification of conservative microRNAs in Saanen dairy goat testis through deep sequencing.  

PubMed

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a kind of small non-coding RNA molecules that function as important gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. In this study, small RNA libraries were constructed based on adult dairy goat testicular tissues and sequenced using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. Blasted to miRNAs of cow and sheep in miRBase 19.0, 373 conserved miRNAs were identified in dairy goat testis and 91 novel paired-miRNAs were found. Expression of miRNAs in the dairy goat testis (miR-10b, miR-126-3p, miR-126-5p, miR-34c, miR-449b and miR-1468) was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In addition, the 128 conserved miRNAs were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in dairy goat testis with those in cow and mouse, which all might be involved in dairy goat testis development and meiosis. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the biology of testis in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology and development in the dairy goat. PMID:23981187

Wu, J; Zhu, H; Song, W; Li, M; Liu, C; Li, N; Tang, F; Mu, H; Liao, M; Li, X; Guan, W; Li, X; Hua, J

2014-02-01

273

Modulation of electrolyte homeostasis by dietary nitrogen intake in growing goats.  

PubMed

In goats, the combination of dietary N and Ca reduction caused hypocalcaemia and further changes in Ca homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N reduction under normocalcaemia on mineral and bone metabolism in young goats. Young male goats of the Saanen breed were fed a diet reduced in N (8 %) for about 7 weeks (ten animals per group) and were compared with goats fed with an adequate N (14 %) diet. When N intake was reduced in young goats, plasma urea concentrations as well as renal elimination of urea were reduced. This was inversely related to creatinine in plasma and urine, which increased during a dietary N reduction as a function of reduced renal activity to save urea during N scarcity. During this decrease in renal function, associated with declined insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations, a reduction in calcidiol and calcitriol concentrations could be observed. Meanwhile, carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen values and activity of total alkaline phosphatase were both elevated, indicating some bone remodelling processes taking place during a reduced N diet in young goats. The concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and total Ca were changed in several body fluids, indicating that Pi and Ca homeostasis was perturbed in goats fed a reduced N diet. Therefore, more research is needed to find the balance between reduction of environmental N pollution by reducing dietary N in ruminant feeding and maintaining the animal's health. PMID:21443813

Muscher, Alexandra S; Piechotta, Marion; Breves, Gerhard; Huber, Korinna

2011-06-01

274

Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

2009-01-01

275

Recovery of Mycoplasma agalactiae from the ears of goats experimentally infected by the intramammary route.  

PubMed

The role of inapparent carriers of Mycoplasma agalactiae and the strategies used to colonise the external ear canal in goats remain unclear. This study examined the ability of M. agalactiae to colonise the ears of goats infected experimentally by the intramammary route. The right mammary glands of 15 lactating goats were inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units (cfu) of M. agalactiae. The goats were randomly assigned to three groups of five animals each and sampled at slaughter at 5, 15 or 45 days post-infection (dpi). A further four goats served as uninfected controls. Right and left ear swabs were collected for detection of M. agalactiae by culture before and after sacrifice. M. agalactiae was detected in 19/20 (95%) ear swabs from goats sampled at 15 and 45dpi, whereas all ear swabs collected before inoculation, ear swabs collected from the group sampled at 5dpi and ear swabs from control goats at the time of sacrifice were negative for M. agalactiae. Blood samples collected at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h post-infection for detection of M. agalactiae by culture were also negative. There were differences in the antigenic profiles of isolates recovered from the ears compared to the 7MAG strain used to inoculate the animals and most isolates from the mammary gland, milk and supramammary lymph nodes. PMID:20961778

de la Fe, Christian; Castro-Alonso, A; Herráez, P; Poveda, José B

2011-10-01

276

High excretion of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum by peri-parturient goats in one flock in western France.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium spp. is an important agent of neonatal diarrhoea in goat kids. Little is known about its molecular characterization in adult goats. A longitudinal study was set up to identify the species excreted by adult goats around parturition. Individual faecal samples were collected from 20 pregnant adult goats between 1 and 5 years old in one flock. Samplings began 3 weeks before the estimated kidding date and were done weekly until kidding and for 2 weeks after kidding. Cryptosporidium oocysts were concentrated from 15 g of faeces using a caesium chloride (CsCl) method. Oocyst output was determined using a direct immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Genomic DNA was extracted from each CsCl-concentrated faecal sample positive by IFAT and submitted to a nested PCR-RFLP on the SSU rDNA gene followed by sequencing to identify the isolates at species level. According to their kidding date, goats were sampled between 4 and 8 times. Sixteen goats, out of the eighteen which kidded, were found positive at least at one sampling date. Infection was asymptomatic. Prevalence of excretion was maximal 14 days before kidding with half of the goats excreting oocysts at this date. Excretion was higher before kidding than after kidding. Unexpected levels of excretion were observed with individual oocyst excretion ranging from 6 to 2.5 × 10(5) oocysts per gram of faeces. All isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. PMID:24746237

Paraud, C; Pors, I; Rieux, A; Brunet, S

2014-05-28

277

Dietary Pseudopurpurin Improves Bone Geometry Architecture and Metabolism in Red-Bone Guishan Goats  

PubMed Central

Red-colored bones were found initially in some Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were designated red-boned goats. However, it is not understood what causes the red color in the bone, or whether the red material changes the bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism of red-boned goats. Pseudopurpurin was identified in the red-colored material of the bone in red-boned goats by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spetrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Pseudopurpurin is one of the main constituents of Rubia cordifolia L, which is eaten by the goats. The assessment of the mechanical properties and micro-computed tomography showed that the red-boned goats displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and the number of trabeculae in the distal femur. The mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femoral diaphysis were also increased. In addition, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, but the bone mineral density of the whole femur and the mechanical properties of the femoral diaphysis were enhanced in the red-boned goats. Meanwhile, expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin mRNA was higher, and the ratio of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin was markedly lower in the bone marrow of the red-boned goats compared with common goats. To confirm further the effect of pseudopurpurin on bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism, Wistar rats were fed diets to which pseudopurpurin was added for 5 months. Similar changes were observed in the femurs of the treated rats. The above results demonstrate that pseudopurpurin has a close affinity with the mineral salts of bone, and consequently a high level of mineral salts in the bone cause an improvement in bone strength and an enhancement in the structure and metabolic functions of the bone.

Han, TieSuo; Li, Peng; Wang, JianGuo; Liu, GuoWen; Wang, Zhe; Ge, ChangRong; Gao, ShiZheng

2012-01-01

278

Serological evidence for a hepatitis e virus-related agent in goats in the United States.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an important public health disease in many developing countries and is also endemic in some industrialized countries. In addition to humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from pig, chicken, rat, mongoose, deer, rabbit and fish. While the genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans, the genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and infect humans and other animal species. As a part of our ongoing efforts to search for potential animal reservoirs for HEV, we tested goats from Virginia for evidence of HEV infection and showed that 16% (13/80) of goat sera from Virginia herds were positive for IgG anti-HEV. Importantly, we demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies to HEV were present in selected IgG anti-HEV positive goat sera. Subsequently, in an attempt to genetically identify the HEV-related agent from goats, we conducted a prospective study in a closed goat herd with known anti-HEV seropositivity and monitored a total of 11 kids from the time of birth until 14 weeks of age for evidence of HEV infection. Seroconversion to IgG anti-HEV was detected in seven of the 11 kids, although repeated attempts to detect HEV RNA by a broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR from the faecal and serum samples of the goats that had seroconverted were unsuccessful. In addition, we also attempted to experimentally infect laboratory goats with three well-characterized mammalian strains of HEV but with no success. The results indicate that a HEV-related agent is circulating and maintained in the goat population in Virginia and that the goat HEV is likely genetically very divergent from the known HEV strains. PMID:22909079

Sanford, B J; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Engle, R E; Dryman, B A; Cecere, T E; Buechner-Maxwell, V; Sponenberg, D P; Meng, X J

2013-12-01

279

Characterization of Liaoning Cashmere Goat Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Functional Annotation and Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology. Results Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51%) unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17%) unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes. Conclusion The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses.

Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Jinke; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

2013-01-01

280

Trend analysis of plasma insulin level around parturition in relation to parity in Saanen goats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of parity on plasma insulin level around parturition in Saanen goats. On d -14, -7, 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 from parturition, plasma glucose, NEFA, free AA, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were analyzed in 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous goats. At parturition, BW of primiparous goats was about 75% of that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001) and then their milk production was lower than that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001). At parturition, glucose increased (P < 0.01) in both primiparous and multiparous goats and then decreased (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation, remaining higher (P < 0.01) in primiparous than multiparous goats until the end of the study period. In both groups, free AA decreased (P < 0.01) at parturition, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation without difference between groups. Only in multiparous goats, plasma NEFA increased at parturition (P < 0.01), returning to prepartum levels on d 14 (P < 0.01). Changes in glucose and AA could have been caused by cortisol, which increased (P < 0.01) at parturition in both primiparous and multiparous goats, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 7 of lactation, without difference between the parity groups. In multiparous goats, insulin decreased soon after parturition (P < 0.05), remaining at low levels until the end of the study period, whereas in primiparous goats, insulin did not vary until d 14 of lactation, when it decreased (P < 0.05) also in this group. Therefore, between d 3 and 14 of lactation, insulin was higher in primiparous than multiparous goats (P < 0.05). Only in primiparous goats, at kidding, insulin was negatively correlated to BW (P < 0.01), and after parturition it was negatively correlated with milk yield (P < 0.05) and plasma NEFA (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that higher insulin levels in primiparous Saanen goats, which are still immature at their first breeding season, acted to limit both the mobilization of bodily reserves and the capture of nutrients by the lactating mammary gland, thus providing nutrients for their own physical and physiological development. PMID:24778336

Magistrelli, D; Rosi, F

2014-06-01

281

Survey of aflatoxin M(1) in cow, goat, buffalo and camel milks in Ismailia-Egypt.  

PubMed

Milk from buffalo, cow, goat and camel species was collected in Ismailia in Egypt. Aflatoxin (AFM(1)) levels were lower than previous surveys, and were influenced by feeding practices. Cows and buffaloes are fed prepared rations and had highest incidence of AFM(1). Camels forage freely on available pasture and had lowest AFM(1) in their milk. Goats are fed a combination of prepared ration as a supplement to pasture grazing. Most milks (80%, 74%, 66% and 52% of the camel, goat, cow and buffalo milks, respectively) were below the European Union maximum of AFM(1) <50 ng/L and all milk samples were <500 ng/L. PMID:19710995

Motawee, Mahmoud M; Bauer, Johann; McMahon, Donald J

2009-11-01

282

Comparison of manual versus semiautomatic milk recording systems in dairy goats.  

PubMed

A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 x 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic ear tags, on-paper data recording, and data manually uploaded to a computer. The SA system used electronic ID, automatic ID, manual data recording on reader keyboard, and automatic data uploading to computer by Bluetooth connection. Data were collected for groups of 2 x 12 goats for 15 test days of each system during a period of 70 d. Time data were converted to a decimal scale. No difference in milk recording time between M and SA (1.32 +/- 0.03 and 1.34 +/- 0.03 min/goat, respectively) was observed. Time needed for transferring data to the computer was greater for M when compared with SA (0.20 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 min/goat). Overall milk recording time was greater in M than in SA (1.52 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.39 +/- 0.04 min/goat), the latter decreasing with operator training. Time for transferring milk recording data to the computer was 4.81 +/- 0.34 and 1.09 +/- 0.10 min for M and SA groups of 24 goats, respectively, but only increased by 0.19 min in SA for each additional 24 goats. No difference in errors of data acquisition was detected between M and SA systems during milk recording (0.6%), but an additional 1.1% error was found in the M system during data uploading. Predicted differences between M and SA increased with the number of goats processed on the test-day. Reduction in labor time cost ranged from euro0.5 to 12.9 (US$0.7 to 17.4) per milk recording, according to number of goats from 24 to 480 goats and accounted for 40% of the electronic ID costs. In conclusion, electronic ID was more efficient for labor costs and resulted in fewer data errors, the benefit being greater with trained operators and larger goat herds. PMID:18349236

Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Ghirardi, J J

2008-04-01

283

Single radial haemolysis for the detection of goat pox virus antigen and antibody.  

PubMed

The single radial haemolysis (SRH) test was standardised for the detection of goat pox antigen and antibody. In this test soluble antigens, and serum prepared against soluble antigens were used for coupling sheep erythrocytes to detect goat pox antibody and antigen, respectively. This test was compared with the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) test; the 2 most commonly used tests for goat pox diagnosis. SRH was found to be as sensitive as AGPT and CIE in detecting antigen and antibody (chi 2 = 2.9, P > 0.05). PMID:8815608

Tiwari, A K; Negi, B S

1996-02-01

284

Control and eradication of Brucella melitensis infection in sheep and goats.  

PubMed

Brucella melitensis is the main etiological agent of brucellosis in sheep and goats, and is also the main agent responsible for human brucellosis, a predominantly occupational disease related to professions in direct contact with livestock. As there is currently no viable method of preventing human brucellosis to safeguard people attention must be directed toward effectively controlling the disease in sheep and goats. This review focuses on the different strategies in different socioeconomic and epidemiologic situations that can be applied to either control or eradicate brucellosis in sheep and goats. PMID:21215893

Blasco, José M; Molina-Flores, Baldomero

2011-03-01

285

Goat serum, a substitute of bovine serum in cultivation of Babesia bovis.  

PubMed

Babesia bovis (a Mexican isolate) was cultivated in MASP culture system using goat serum in various concentrations as substitute of bovine serum. It was observed that 20% goat serum + 20% bovine serum + 60% Parker's medium 199 supported the growth of the parasite, which was maintained in this medium through 8 subcultures. The soluble exoantigen (vaccine) present in the culture supernatant is to be quantified and tested in vitro. Goat serum from slaughterhouses may be utilized for in vitro cultivation of the parasite and, expectedly, production of vaccine. This study may prove to be useful in reducing the cost of vaccine at least in tropical countries. PMID:1750362

Mishra, A K; Clabaugh, G; Kakoma, I; Ristic, M

1991-01-01

286

Composting of goat manure and wheat straw using pine cones as a bulking agent.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of pine cones, goat manure and wheat straw and obtained optimal Free Air Space (FAS) values for composting. For this aim, pine cones were added at different ratios into goat manure and wheat straw mixtures. So, the FAS value of mixtures was fixed at four different levels. According to the results, the highest organic matter degradation and temperature value were obtained at the mixture ratio of 10% pine cones, 45% goat manure and 45% wheat straw. FAS value of this mixture was 32.8. PMID:17092713

Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

2007-10-01

287

Sheep and Goats in Humid West Africa. Proceedings of the Workshop on Small Ruminant Production Systems in the Humid Zone of West Africa, Held in Ibadan, Nigeria, 23-26 January 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Sheep and goats in humid West Africa; Animal health; (Disease profiles of sheep and goats in two groups of villages in southwest Nigeria, Serological survey of some viral infections in goats in southern Nigeria); Potential productivity; (Growth ...

J. E. Sumberg K. Cassaday

1985-01-01

288

Importancia de los Caprinos en el Ecosistema y en la Economia Campesina del Despoblado de Piura (Importance of Goats in the Ecosystem and Rural Economy of the Piura Desert).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Goat population has diminished in recent years while cattle is raising. Goat effects on the ecosystem are stereotyped, because the disturbances caused by other livestock were alike to those related to goats. It is stressed that Piura deserts are character...

H. Cordova Aguilar N. Bermex de Falen

1984-01-01

289

Some Immunohormonal Changes in Experimentally Pregnant Toxemic Goats  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy toxemia was induced in nine pregnant goat does with twins by the stress of fasting with access to water in late pregnancy to investigate the effect of pregnancy toxemia on immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG), cortisol, insulin, thyroid, and growth hormones and their correlations with the plasma levels of glucose and ?-Hydroxybutyrate. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after induction of pregnancy toxemia. The result revealed that experimental animals developed neurological findings with convulsions and acetone odor from the mouth with recumbency after 72 hours. Laboratory findings showed a significant increase in ?-Hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while there were significant decreases in glucose, thyroid, and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG). Plasma glucose concentrations had significant negative correlations with ?-hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while the correlations were significantly positive with immunoglobulins and thyroid hormone. Plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration was significantly positively correlated with cortisol and negatively correlated with immunoglobulins, insulin, and thyroid hormone. From this study we can conclude that pregnancy toxemia might affect humoral immune responses as well as insulin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Moreover, insulin might have a compensatory role to increase suppressive effect on ketogenesis in experimentally pregnant toxemic goats.

Hefnawy, Abd-Elghany; Youssef, Seham; Shousha, Saad

2010-01-01

290

Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls  

PubMed Central

Parent–offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids’ calls 7–13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers’ responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11–17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance.

Briefer, Elodie F.; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G.

2012-01-01

291

Preliminary assays for the development of a probiotic for goats.  

PubMed

In order to determine probiotic properties, 137 strains of lactic acid bacteria from the feces of Creole goats were screened, only six were resistant to pH 2.0 and bile salts (0.3%). Three strains identified as Lactobacillus and two as Enterococcus showed agglutination with the treated yeast. Between them, Lactobacillus DDL17, DDL19, DDL48 and Enterococcus DDE39 demonstrated high specificity in this test because the correspondent agglutination was inhibited by one sugar, suggesting the presence of a lectin-like structure in their cell walls, which could be due to adhesion ability. Another Enterococcus strain (DDE55) showed low affinity because five sugars inhibited the agglutination of the treated yeasts. The results of hydrophobic properties showed that the strains who were able to agglutinate yeasts presented similar hydrophobic characteristics as hexadecane, xylene and toluene, but high specificity was not related to a high hydrophobicity. Only two strains (Lactobacillus DDL19 and DDL48) showed aggregation with the lowest concentration of ammonium sulfate, complementing the hydrophobicity assay. Only one strain, Lactobacillus DDL48, showed an inhibition against an enteric indicator strain (Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O111). This inhibitory action was not affected by the addition of catalase and no inhibition was detected after neutralizing the supernatant culture fluid. These strains could be pre-selected in order to complete studies focused on designing a probiotic for use in goat feed. PMID:15636159

Draksler, Diana; Gonzáles, Silvia; Oliver, Guillermo

2004-01-01

292

Immunohistochemical evaluation of the goat forestomach during prenatal development  

PubMed Central

Here we report the detection and distribution of synaptophysin (SPY), non-neuronal enolase (NNE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin (VIM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression in the goat forestomach during prenatal development. A total of 140 embryos and fetuses were examined to evaluate protein expression from the first stage of prenatal life until birth. In all cases, SPY immunoreactivity was detected at 53 days gestation in the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis, serosa, and myenteric plexuses. Immunoreactivity to NNE was observed at 64 days gestation in the same locations as well as the epithelial layer. Glial cells were found at 64 days as indicated by signals corresponding to GFAP and VIM at 39 days. Positive staining for NPY and VIP was observed at 113, 75, and 95 days in the rumen, reticulum, and omasum, respectively, in the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis, and myenteric plexuses of each of these gastric compartments. These findings indicate possible preparation of the fetal goat forestomach for postnatal function. Compared to other ruminant species, neuroendocrine cells, glial cells and peptidergic innervations markers were detected earlier compared to sheep but at around the same stage as in deer.

Garcia, Angela; Masot, Javier; Franco, Antonio; Gazquez, Antonio

2014-01-01

293

Residues of endosulfan in the tissues of lactating goats.  

PubMed

The sites of tissue accumulation in lactating goats of the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan were studied. Twelve lactating goats were dosed orally with endosulfan (1 mg/kg body weight per day) for 28 days. Groups of 3 animals were killed on days 1, 8, 15, and 21 after endosulfan treatment ended and their tissues examined for the presence of endosulfan. Total residues of alpha and beta endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate (mg/kg) were detected in kidney (0.29), gastro-intestinal tract (0.20), liver (0.12), brain (0.06), muscle and spleen (0.04), lung and heart (0.01) and milk (0.02) on the first sampling day but within 15 days, concentrations had fallen to < 0.01 mg/kg in all tissues except kidney (0.20). Endosulfan could not be detected in animals 21 days after dosing had ceased. The residue in milk could only be detected on day 1 of sampling. This study indicates that kidney rather than fatty tissue should be used to monitor the presence of endosulfan in animals intended for human consumption. PMID:8457174

Indraningsih; McSweeney, C S; Ladds, P W

1993-02-01

294

The economics of sheep and goat husbandry in Norse Greenland.  

PubMed

Insight into the relative importance of sheep and goat herding and of the economic significance of each species (i.e., milk vs. meat vs. wool) in Medieval Greenland is obtained through the application of Halstead et al.'s (2002) criteria for the identification of adult ovicaprine mandibles to faunal assemblages from three Norse farmsteads: Sandnes, V52a, and Ø71S. The economic strategies identified are broadly comparable between the two species and the Eastern and Western Settlement sites examined, and are suggestive of the subsistence production of meat and milk. Comparison with farmsteads elsewhere in Greenland indicates that socio-economic status and/or farmstead size interacted with geographical location in determining the economic strategies employed by the Norse farmers. A broader use of resources and a more varied diet are evident at larger farmsteads in Greenland and this paper suggests that such sites would have been better able than their smaller counterparts to withstand environmental deterioration during the early Middle Ages. These analyses have also confirmed that goats were relatively more common in Norse sites in Greenland than in Norse sites in Iceland, Orkney, or Shetland. PMID:21774148

Mainland, Ingrid; Halstead, Paul

2005-01-01

295

Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in the goat. II. Pathology.  

PubMed

Infection of male goats aged 8-10 months with 5000 or 50 000 organisms of a Mindanao strain of Trypanosoma evansi was observed over a period of 90 days. The infection induced clinical disease which was lethal, especially at the higher dose rate. Lesions were more acute in goats that received the higher dose. Gross and microscopical changes were not pathognomonic, except in the presence of demonstrable trypanosomes. At necropsy, a combination of lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, testicular enlargement, anaemic signs and consolidation of the anterior lobes of the lungs was suggestive of surra. Testicular changes, especially aspermia, indicated probable infertility. The cytopathology of the lungs, liver, intestine, kidneys, testes, bone marrow, brain and other organs was immunological in nature, characterized by mononuclear infiltration of interstitial tissues, with minor cellular damage and the presence of trypanosomes. B- and T- cell responses were observed in the lymphatic system, but the findings indicated immunosuppression in the lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow during the third month after infection. Exudative inflammatory changes were mild. It is suggested that the cytopathology of most haemophilic trypanosomal infections is predominantly an immunological process. PMID:16213516

Dargantes, A P; Campbell, R S F; Copeman, D B; Reid, S A

2005-11-01

296

Endogenous opioids and ventilatory adaptation to prolonged hypoxia in goats.  

PubMed

To investigate whether endogenous opioid peptides mediate time-dependent changes in ventilatory control during prolonged hypoxia, we studied four adult goats at rest during 14 days at simulated high altitude in a hypobaric chamber (PB approximately 450 Torr). Arterial PCO2 fell during the first several hours of hypoxia, remained stable over the next 7 days, and then rose slightly (but without statistical significance) by day 14. Ventilatory responsiveness to CO2 increased during the first week of hypoxia. By day 14, while still greater than control, the ventilatory response to CO2 was less than that observed on day 7. Immunoactive beta-endorphin levels in plasma and CSF did not change during the 14-day period. Administration of naloxone on day 14 did not restore the ventilatory response to CO2 to the level observed during the first week of acclimatization. We conclude that in adult goats, time-dependent changes in ventilatory response to CO2 during acclimatization to prolonged hypoxia are not primarily attributable to alterations in endogenous opioid peptide activity. PMID:2949130

Weinberger, S E; Steinbrook, R A; Carr, D B; Fencl, V; Gabel, R A; Leith, D E; Fisher, J E; Harris, R; Rosenblatt, M

1987-02-16

297

A case of xanthoma in a Saanen goat.  

PubMed

This report describes a case of a subcutaneous xanthoma of the sacral region in a 2-year-old female Saanen goat. The tan-coloured mass was 8.5 cm × 4.0 cm × 0.5 cm in size. Yellow-white areas were present across the cut surface. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of foamy macrophages, numerous giant cells, abundant lipid material and cholesterol clefts. The structure consisted of lobular areas surrounded by a stroma. Tissue sections were negative for bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria. Frozen tissue from the mass stained positively with Oil Red O, confirming lipid accumulation in both the extracellular spaces and the large foamy macrophages. Immunohistochemically, the mass was positive for vimentin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and CD68, but negative for smooth muscle actin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100 protein antibodies. As the animal was presented dead, it was not possible to analyse blood lipid levels. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a xanthoma in a goat. PMID:21883545

Ozmen, Ozlem; Haligur, Mehmet

2012-04-01

298

Association of Vitamin E with Rapid Thawing on Goat Semen  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100??M. Semen was packaged into 0.25?mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (?155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (?196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20??L aliquot of thawed semen to 1?mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm·Kg?1) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process.

Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabricio Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Dias, Julio Cesar Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

2014-01-01

299

Metabolism of [(14)c]chlorantraniliprole in the lactating goat.  

PubMed

Metabolism of [(14)C]chlorantraniliprole {3-bromo-N-[4-chloro-2-methyl-6-[(methylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]-1- (3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide} was investigated in a lactating goat following seven consecutive daily single oral doses. Each dose was equivalent to 10.4 mg/kg of feed. There was no significant transfer of residues of either chlorantraniliprole or its metabolites into fat, meat, or milk. Chlorantraniliprole and its metabolites accounted for 93.57% of the administered dose and were eliminated primarily in the excreta. Residues in meat, milk, liver, and kidney together accounted for ca. 1.5% of the administered radioactivity. A total of 19 metabolites including 3 glucuronide conjugates and intact chlorantraniliprole were identified in the feces, urine, or tissues by comparison of their HPLC retention times, mass spectral fragments (LC-MS/MS), or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions to authentic synthesized standards. The major metabolic pathways of [(14)C]chlorantraniliprole in the goat were N-demethylation, methylphenyl hydroxylation, and further oxidation to the carboxylic acid; loss of water from the N-hydroxymethyl group to yield various cyclic metabolites; and hydrolysis of N-methyl amides to form benzoic acid derivatives. Minor metabolic reactions involved cleavage of the amide bridge between the phenyl and heterocyclic rings of chlorantraniliprole. PMID:21222458

Gaddamidi, Venkat; Scott, Martin T; Swain, R Scott; Macpherson, David; Lowrie, Chris

2011-02-23

300

Detection of mycoplasmas in goat milk by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The detection of mycoplasma in milk can be performed by either culture techniques or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Although PCR can reduce the average diagnostic time to 5 h in comparison with the several days for the isolation of the agent, there is still a need to develop methods, which could give earlier results. For this purpose, we tested the ability of flow cytometry (FC) to detect mycoplasmas in milk samples. Milk samples inoculated with four different mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capricolum, or Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type, known to cause contagious agalactia in goats, were stained with the DNA stain SYBR Green I and analyzed by FC. Three goat milk samples, from which mycoplasmas have been isolated in broth medium were also analyzed. All mycoplasmas were easily distinguished from debris of milk samples, but it was not possible to distinguish between the different mycoplasma species. In our conditions, the detection limit of the technique was of the order of 10(3)-10(4) cells ml(-1). Furthermore, mycoplasmas were also distinguished from Staphylococcus aureus. FC together with SYBR Green I was able to distinguish between mycoplasma cells and debris present in milk samples and gave results in 20-30 min. This is an important first step in developing a robust, routine flow cytometric method for the detection of mycoplasmas in milk samples. PMID:17972304

Assunção, Patricia; Davey, Hazel M; Rosales, Ruben S; Antunes, Nuno T; de la Fe, Christian; Ramirez, Ana S; de Galarreta, Carlos M Ruiz; Poveda, Jose B

2007-12-01

301

Transfer of Orally Administered Terpenes in Goat Milk and Cheese  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between terpenes’ intake and their presence in animal tissues (blood and milk) as well as in the final product (cheese). Eight dairy goats were divided in two balanced groups, representing control (C) and treatment (T) group. In T group oral administration of a mixture of terpenes (?-pinene, limonene and ?-caryophyllene) was applied over a period of 18 d. Cheese was produced, from C and T groups separately, on three time points, twice during the period of terpenes’ oral administration and once after the end of experiment. Terpenes were identified in blood by extraction using petroleum ether and in milk and cheese by the use of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) method, followed by GC-MS analysis. Chemical properties of the milk and the produced cheeses were analyzed and found not differing between the two groups. Limonene and ?-pinene were found in all blood and milk samples of the T group after a lag-phase of 3 d, while ?-caryophyllene was determined only in few milk samples. Moreover, none of the terpenes were traced in blood and milk of C animals. In cheese, terpenes’ concentrations presented a more complicated pattern implying that terpenes may not be reliable feed tracers. We concluded that monoterpenes can be regarded as potential feed tracers for authentification of goat milk, but further research is required on factors affecting their transfer.

Poulopoulou, I.; Zoidis, E.; Massouras, T.; Hadjigeorgiou, I.

2012-01-01

302

Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in Zimbabwean goats and sheep.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (MO) in three Communal Lands flocks of goats on the outskirts of Harare is described. In a single sampling of nasal swabs from 172 randomly selected, apparently healthy goats, 112 animals were identified as carriers of MO. The three flocks had a history of occasional deaths, following chronic and subacute pneumonia associated with isolation of MO as the only identifiable pathogen. Attempts to induce clinical pneumonia in groups of 6 to 8-week-old kids and lambs with local isolates of MO were not successful. However, MO was consistently cultured from the trachea, lungs, lymph node and thymus of some test animals. Cuffing interstitial pneumonia was also observed in these animals. Infection of the thymus occurred; this has not previously been reported with any Mycoplasma sp. The animals did not produce detectable serum antibodies to MO nor were they reactive to MO antigen in a tuberculin-type hypersensitivity test. The possibility that a state of immunotolerance may have been responsible for failure to develop clinical pneumonia is discussed. PMID:1430348

Mohan, K; Obwolo, M J; Hill, F W

1992-07-01

303

An epizootic of besnoitiosis in goats in Fars province of Iran.  

PubMed

Over 100,000 goats were grazing freely in isolated herds of 100 to 600 goats in a mountainous area of more than 2000 km2 to the north-east of Darab City in Fars Province in southern Iran. Twenty to fifty percent of the goats in this area were infected with besnoitiosis. Sheep, cattle and donkeys grazing in the same area showed no clinical manifestations of the infection. The diagnosis of the infection in the clinically suspected animals was confirmed by histological studies on skin biopsies from the ear tips and carpal and tarsal regions, and the distribution of this protozoon in the tissues and organs of this intermediate host was studied by post-mortem and histological examinations. Skin biopsies from the carpal and tarsal areas of 12% of clinically normal goats from the infected area were also lightly infected with besnoitia cysts. PMID:9444079

Oryan, A; Sadeghi, M J

1997-11-01

304

Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos fibres in the lungs and parietal pleura of Corsican goats  

PubMed Central

Methods: Ten goats from areas with asbestos outcrops and two from other areas were slaughtered. Fibre content of lung and parietal pleural samples was determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Results: Both chrysotile and tremolite fibres were detected. In the exposed goats, the geometric mean concentrations of asbestos fibres longer than 1 µm were 0.27 x 106 fibres/g dry lung tissue and 1.8 x 106 fibres/g dry pleural tissue. Asbestos fibres were not detected in the lungs of the two control goats. Chrysotile fibres shorter than 5 µm were predominant in the parietal pleura. Tremolite fibres accounted for 78% and 86% of the fibres longer than 5 µm in lung and parietal pleural samples, respectively. Conclusions: Environmental exposure in northeast Corsica results in detectable chrysotile and tremolite fibre loads in the lung and parietal pleura of adult goats. Tremolite fibres of dimensions with a high carcinogenic potency are detected in the parietal pleura.

Dumortier, P; Rey, F; Viallat, J; Broucke, I; Boutin, C; De Vuyst, P

2002-01-01

305

Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck ...

A. Jubara

1996-01-01

306

Ruminants, Cattle, Sheep, and Goats: Guidelines for the Breeding, Care, and Management of Laboratory Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report furnishes practical guidelines for the care and maintenance of cattle, sheep, and goats under a variety of research situations. Highlighting the increasing use of ruminants as animal models in biomedical research and comparative medicine, the r...

1974-01-01

307

75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding...

2010-09-17

308

Agreement between ELISA and complement fixation test used for diagnosing of paratuberculosis in goats.  

PubMed

An ELISA with a lipoarabinomannan as an antigen, developed for diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis, has been adapted for use in goats, and compared with complement fixation test. Kappa value of 0.62 indicated good agreement between CFT and the adapted ELISA and proved that the investigated ELISA may be helpful in diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in goats. The ELISA has been used to screen a randomly selected representative sample of Polish breeding goat population (21.78% of herds, 21.33% of goats). It has been demonstrated that only 2.42% of animals coming from 15.79% of herds were seropositive. Within-herd seroprevalence varied from 1.69% to 38.10%. Most of the infected animals (67.07%) were 3- 4-years-old. No seropositive cases were found in group up to 1-year-old animals. PMID:18942542

Kaba, J; Gerlach, G F; Nowicki, M; Rypu?a, K

2008-01-01

309

Detection of Caprine-specific Nucleic Acid Sequences in Goat Milk Using Polymerase Chain Reaction  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction This study was carried out to evaluate PCR-based method for detection of DNA in goat milk. It utilized primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome –b (mtcyt-b) gene, which was used as a target DNA for PCR amplification. Methods For the specific identification of goat mtcyt-b gene, pair of primers (GSL1, GSR2), were used, which produced a 428 base pair (bp) PCR product from milk samples as well as from peripheral blood. Amplification products were visualized on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. Results and Discussion Amplification products were not detected when the PCR was applied to DNA from animal species including cattle, sheep, swine, camel, deer, horse, donkey, and human, which indicates that the 2 pairs of primers are specific for goat. Conclusion DNA can be extracted from goat milk and would be advantageous in the variety of application such as species identification in milk and milk.

Osman, Asim A.; Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Musa, Omer A.

2013-01-01

310

Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other.

EIBACH, R.; BOTHE, F.; RUNGE, M.; FISCHER, S. F.; PHILIPP, W.; GANTER, M.

2012-01-01

311

Effect of ultrasound pretreatment on rennet-induced coagulation properties of goat's milk.  

PubMed

The effects of ultrasound (US) pretreatment on goat milk before rennet-induced coagulation were studied in order to improve the milk coagulation properties. Skimmed goat milk was subjected to US at 800W for different times (0-20min) and various parameters were evaluated. The particle sizes in US pretreated goat milk under the transmission electron microscopy were smaller than in untreated samples. For US pretreated samples, the degree of whey protein denaturation, contents of soluble calcium and phosphorus increased by 9.57%, 16.90% and 13.68%, respectively. The gel firmness, coagulum strength, final storage modulus, cohesiveness, water holding capacity and cross-linking of gels demonstrated marked increase. The turbiscan stability index (TSI) also confirmed the improvement of goat milk coagulation properties with increasing duration of US pretreatment, whereas the gelation time was prolonged. PMID:25038663

Zhao, Lily; Zhang, Shuwen; Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lu, Jing; Xue, Haixiao; Kong, Fanhua; Lv, Jiaping

2014-12-15

312

The complement system of the goat: Haemolytic assays and isolation of major proteins  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study was to develop a haemolytic assay for the study of the complement system in dairy goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and to characterize the major goat complement system proteins. Results The commonly used sheep erythrocyte sensitized with rabbit antibodies were not sensitive to lysis by goat serum, but the combination of human red blood cells (RBC) plus rabbit antibodies was the best option found for goat complement assay. A buffer based on HEPES instead of the classical veronal (barbitone) was developed. Three proteins were isolated: factor H, C1q and C3 and these were compared with the corresponding human proteins. A novel affinity chromatography technique was developed for isolation of factor H. Conclusions Human RBC plus rabbit antibodies were a suitable option for haemolytic assays. The isolated proteins are similar to the human counterparts.

2012-01-01

313

Effects of immunization against an autocrine inhibitor of milk secretion in lactating goats.  

PubMed Central

1. Lactating goats were immunized against the goat's milk protein identified as a feedback inhibitor of lactation (FIL). Immunization was by three treatments during the declining stage of lactation. 2. When antibodies to FIL were consistently detected in milk (in response to the third treatment), the rate of decline in milk secretion was significantly reduced compared with sham-immunized controls. Such a response was not apparent with the first two treatments when serum but not milk titres of anti-FIL were raised. 3. When one gland of immunized goats was switched (after the third immunization) from twice- to once-daily milking, the ipsilateral decrease in the rate of milk secretion was reduced significantly compared with sham-immunized goats. 4. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that the autocrine agent FIL acts during milk accumulation as an inhibitor of milk secretion.

Wilde, C J; Addey, C V; Peaker, M

1996-01-01

314

High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in goats in southeast Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the seroprevalence rate of bluetongue virus (BTV) in goat flocks in southeast of Iran. Methods The blood samples were collected randomly from herds of southeast of Iran. A total of 93 sera samples were collected between 2011 and 2012. Antibodies to BTV in sera were detected by using a commercial competitive ELISA 3 according to manufacturer's instructions. Results The seroprevalence rates were 67.7% for goats. Within a herd, prevalence of BTV seropositive animals ranged from 33.3% to 100.0%. All goat flocks were positive to BTV antibodies. Conclusions This study describes a high seroprevalence rate of BTV in goat flocks in southeast of Iran for the first time.

Mozaffari, Ali Asghar; Khalili, Mohammad; Sabahi, Sina

2014-01-01

315

Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at an average rate of 4.9±2.2(SE) percent annually since 2004. We caution that the estimated rate of population growth may be conservative if severe spring weather deterred some mountain goats from reaching the high-elevation survey areas during the 2011 surveys. If the estimated average rate of population growth were to remain constant in the future, then the population would double in approximately 14-15 years.

Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

2011-01-01

316

Gender-specific effects of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and stress physiology of goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on the emotional reactivity, the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system of goat offspring according to their gender, and to investigate the role of maternal cortisol in prenatal stress effects. Goats were exposed to ten transports in isolation or ten ACTH injections (0.125

S. Roussel; A. Boissy; D. Montigny; P. H. Hemsworth; C. Duvaux-Ponter

2005-01-01

317

Design and characterization of a 52K SNP chip for goats.  

PubMed

The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50-60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years. PMID:24465974

Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cédric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cécile; Eggen, André; Heuven, Henri C M; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhière, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L; Tircazes, Aurélie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

2014-01-01

318

Experimental model of tuberculosis in the domestic goat after endobronchial infection with Mycobacterium caprae.  

PubMed

Caprine tuberculosis (TB) has increased in recent years, highlighting the need to address the problem the infection poses in goats. Moreover, goats may represent a cheaper alternative for testing of prototype vaccines in large ruminants and humans. With this aim, a Mycobacterium caprae infection model has been developed in goats. Eleven 6-month-old goats were infected by the endobronchial route with 1.5 × 10(3) CFU, and two other goats were kept as noninfected controls. The animals were monitored for clinical and immunological parameters throughout the experiment. After 14 weeks, the goats were euthanized, and detailed postmortem analysis of lung lesions was performed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and direct observation. The respiratory lymph nodes were also evaluated and cultured for bacteriological analysis. All infected animals were positive in a single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test at 12 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Gamma interferon (IFN-?) antigen-specific responses were detected from 4 weeks p.i. until the end of the experiment. The humoral response to MPB83 was especially strong at 14 weeks p.i. (13 days after SICCT boost). All infected animals presented severe TB lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. M. caprae was recovered from pulmonary lymph nodes in all inoculated goats. MDCT allowed a precise quantitative measure of TB lesions. Lesions in goats induced by M. caprae appeared to be more severe than those induced in cattle by M. bovis over a similar period of time. The present work proposes a reliable new experimental animal model for a better understanding of caprine tuberculosis and future development of vaccine trials in this and other species. PMID:21880849

de Val Pérez, Bernat; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Martín, Maite; Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Romera, Nadine; Escobar, Manel; Solanes, David; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Domingo, Mariano

2011-11-01

319

Prevalence of multiple anthelmintic resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy goats in a desolated tract (Pakistan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first report of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in dairy goats in a desert (Pakistan). Three breeds of\\u000a dairy goats, i.e. Dera Din Panah, Pak Angora and Beetal, kept at Government Livestock Farm, Rakh Khairewala, district Jhang\\/Layya,\\u000a Pakistan, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) resistant to commonly used three anthelmintics, i.e. benzimidazole,\\u000a levamisole and ivermectin. Sixty animals of

Abdul Jabbar; Zafar Iqbal; Hafiz Abubaker Saddiqi; Wasim Babar; Muhammad Saeed

2008-01-01

320

First-time detection of mycobacterium species from goats in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important zoonosis affecting a wide range of hosts. An abattoir study was conducted on 1,536 randomly\\u000a selected male goats slaughtered at Modjo Modern Export Abattoir to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in slaughtered\\u000a goats. Carcasses and organs of all the study animals were first examined by routine meat inspection followed by detailed meat\\u000a inspection. Samples from

Adem Hiko; Getahun Ejeta Agga

2011-01-01

321

Efficacy of amprolium for the treatment of pathogenic Eimeria species in Boer goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of two different doses of amprolium in goats heavily infected with pathogenic Eimeria species. Forty Boer goat kids ranging from 3 to 5 months of age with naturally occurring coccidiosis were randomly divided into 2 groups and treated orally with amprolium at doses of 10mg\\/kg daily for 5 days (n=20) or 50mg\\/kg daily for 5

Gabrielle Young; Mark L. Alley; Derek M. Foster; Geof W. Smith

2011-01-01

322

Effect of subclinical Eimeria species infections in tropical goats subsequently challenged with caprine Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

Fourteen goat kids of the local indigenous breed naturally infected with Eimeria species were divided into two equal groups. The first group was superinfected with 500,000 Eimeria species oocysts and the second group was treated with amprolium. Sixty days later both groups were infected with 5000 third-stage caprine Haemonchus contortus larvae. The goats experimentally superinfected with eimeria shed more H contortus eggs and gained weight more slowly. PMID:8197681

Rahman, W A

1994-03-01

323

Duration of bluetongue viraemia and serological responses in experimentally infected European breeds of sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duration of viraemia and the serological responses were studied in two breeds of sheep and two breeds of goats, experimentally infected with bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 4. Viraemia, detectable by cell culture and embryonated chicken egg inoculation, lasted from the third to sixth day until the 27th–54th day post infection (p.i.). Significant differences between sheep and goats were not

M Koumbati; O Mangana; K Nomikou; P. S Mellor; O Papadopoulos

1999-01-01

324

Purification and Characterization of High Molecular Mass and Low Molecular Mass Cystatin from Goat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystatin are thiol proteinase inhibitors ubiquitously present in mammalian body and serve various important physiological functions. In the present study two cystatins were isolated from goat brain using alkaline treatment, ammonium sulphate fractionation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The high molecular mass cystatin of 70.8 kDa was named as HM-GBC (high molecular mass goat brain cystatin) and the low molecular

Sadia Sumbul; Bilqees Bano

2006-01-01

325

Rare Cryptococus gattii infection in an immunocompetent dairy goat following a cesarean section  

PubMed Central

A 5-year-old dairy goat was presented seven weeks post cesarean section for incomplete healing of the incision site. Cytology revealed cryptococcal organisms that were confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control as Cryptococcus gattii type VGIIa. Most cryptococcomas were surgically removed, but some penetrated deep in to the muscular layers and likely into peritoneum. The goat was treated daily with oral fluconazole for 6 months, and had a normal life for almost 2 years.

Villarroel, Aurora; Maggiulli, Tessa R.

2012-01-01

326

MEAT-GOAT MARKET ANALYSIS: A PILOT STUDY OF THE SOMALI MARKET IN COLUMBUS, OH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study focuses on meat goat marketing involving one distinct immigrant group residing in one area of Columbus, Ohio: the Somalis. There are about 20,000-25,000 Somalis living in Columbus, the second largest concentration of Somalian immigrants in the U.S. after Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. It is estimated that Columbus Somalis consume the meat from about 14,000 goats each year. The

C. Thomas Worley; John Ellerman; Dave Mangione; Travis West; Y. Yang

2004-01-01

327

Associations of mature live weight of Australian cashmere goats with farm of origin and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in live weight and mature size associated with farm of origin, age and sex were quantified for commercial Australian cashmere goats. Goats from 11 farms in four Australian states, consisting of 1367 does and 98 wethers aged 1–13-year-old were monitored between December and June (early summer to mid winter). We used the live weight for May, as this was

B. A. McGregor; K. L. Butler

2010-01-01

328

Oestrus induction and synchronisation during anoestrus in cashmere goats using hormonal treatment in association with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY During the anoestrous period, induction and synchronisation of oestrous was obtained in 30 cashmere goats at 54±5 days after kidding. A treatment for 11 days with vaginal sponges containing FGA (Fluorogestone-acetate) 45 mg and an injection of 400 I.U. of PMSG and 125 mg of PGF 2a i.m. two days before sponge removal, was used. Goats were equally divided

Fiorella Carnevali; Gabriele Schino; Silvana Diverio; Sandro Misiti

329

Design and Characterization of a 52K SNP Chip for Goats  

PubMed Central

The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50–60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years.

Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cedric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cecile; Eggen, Andre; Heuven, Henri C. M.; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T.; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R.; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhiere, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L.; Tircazes, Aurelie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

2014-01-01

330

Effects of dietary zinc on performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma zinc status in Cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six 1.0-year-old Liao Ning Cashmere goat wethers (BW=22.01±0.59kg) were used to determine the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) level on the performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma Zn status during the cashmere fiber growing period. The goats were randomly divided into four groups that were fed a basal diet containing 22.3mg Zn\\/kg dry matter (DM) with 0, 15, 30 or 45mg

Wenbin Jia; Zhihai Jia; Wei Zhang; Runlian Wang; Shiwei Zhang; Xiaoping Zhu

2008-01-01

331

Genetic diversity and investigation of polledness in divergent goat populations using 52 088 SNPs.  

PubMed

The recent availability of a genome-wide SNP array for the goat genome dramatically increases the power to investigate aspects of genetic diversity and to conduct genome-wide association studies in this important domestic species. We collected and analysed genotypes from 52 088 SNPs in Boer, Cashmere and Rangeland goats that had both polled and horned individuals. Principal components analysis revealed a clear genetic division between animals for each population, and model-based clustering successfully detected evidence of admixture that matched aspects of their recorded history. For example, shared co-ancestry was detected, suggesting Boer goats have been introgressed into the Rangeland population. Further, allele frequency data successfully tracked the altered genetic profile that has taken place after 40 years of breeding Australian Cashmere goats using the Rangeland animals as the founding population. Genome-wide association mapping of the POLL locus revealed a strong signal on goat chromosome 1. The 769-kb critical interval contained the polled intersex syndrome locus, confirming the genetic basis in non-European animals is the same as identified previously in Saanen goats. Interestingly, analysis of the haplotypes carried by a small set of sex-reversed animals, known to be associated with polledness, revealed some animals carried the wild-type chromosome associated with the presence of horns. This suggests a more complex basis for the relationship between polledness and the intersex condition than initially thought while validating the application of the goat SNP50 BeadChip for fine-mapping traits in goat. PMID:23216229

Kijas, James W; Ortiz, Judit S; McCulloch, Russell; James, Andrew; Brice, Blair; Swain, Ben; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

2013-06-01

332

The inheritance of fibre traits in a crossbred population of cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Genetic parameters were calculated for fibre traits measured on patch samples taken at 5 months of age on a crossbred population of cashmere goats, comprising goats of Scottish feral, Icelandic, Tasmanian, New Zealand and Siberian origin. Within-strain heritabilities, fitting genetic origin as a covariable, were: live weight, 0.71 (s.e. 0.08), fibre diameter, 0.63 (0.07), diameter standard deviation 0.43 (0.08),

S. C. Bishop; A. J. F. Russel

1997-01-01

333

A reusable adapter for collection of cerebrospinal fluid in chronically cannulated goats.  

PubMed

A lightweight, adjustable adapter has been designed for chronic cannulation of goats (Capra hircus) which provides an accurate, safe means of sampling cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This cisternal cannula has been used for continuous perfusion of synthetic CSF into the fourth ventricle in unanesthetized goats. This method also has been used for examining changes in ionic composition of the CSF and cerebral interstitial fluid (ISF) during physiologic adaptations to high altitude (2-5). PMID:2811283

Forte, V A; Devine, J A; Cymerman, A

1989-09-01

334

Polymorphisms of caprine GDF 9 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exons 1, 2 and flanking region of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene in five randomly selected does of Jining Grey, Boer and Liaoning Cashmere goats were amplified and analyzed. Thirteen\\u000a nucleotide differences were identified in GDF9 gene between sheep (AF078545) and goats. Four SNPs (G3288A in intron 1, G423A, A959C [Gln320Pro] and G1189A [Val397Ile]\\u000a in exon 2) were

T. Feng; C. X. Geng; X. Z. Lang; M. X. Chu; G. L. Cao; R. Di; L. Fang; H. Q. Chen; X. L. Liu; N. Li

335

Ovine and caprine toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma gondii ) in aborted animals in Jordanian goat and sheep flocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and fifty-five biological samples (106 aborted foetal tissue samples and 149 blood samples from aborted sheep\\u000a and goats) were collected from 188 animals during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region\\u000a of Jordan. The sampled animals belonged to 93 goat and sheep flocks that had cases of abortion. A total of 169

Mohamad Abed-alhaleem Abu-Dalbouh; Mustafa M. Ababneh; Nektarios D. Giadinis; Shawkat Q. Lafi

336

Genetic Differentiation Among Goats Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anbarasan, K., Sharma, A.K., Singh, R.K., Deb, S.M. and Sharma, D. 2001. Genetic differentiation among goats using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 83–88.To develop population specific markers using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA—ploymerase chain reaction (RAPD—PCR) in meat (Black Bengal and Non-descript Rohilkhand Local), milk (Barbari) and pashmina (Chegu) producing goats, a total of 35

K. Anbarasan; A. K. Sharma; R. K. Singh; S. M. Deb; D. Sharma

2001-01-01

337

Prevalence of dicrocoeliosis in sheep and goats in Himachal Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey incorporating field and abattoir studies was carried out on the prevalence of Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep and goats in the Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh (India). Coprological studies on these migratory animals revealed that 8.1% of sheep and 4.1% of goats were positive for dicrocoeliosis, with a mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) of 702.1

K. P. Jithendran; T. K. Bhat

1996-01-01

338

Validation of Test-Day Models for Genetic Evaluation of Dairy Goats in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test-day data for daily milk yield and fat, protein, and lactose content were sampled from the years 1988 to 2003 in 17 flocks belonging to 2 genetically well- tied buck circles. In total, records from 2,111 to 2,215 goats for content traits and 2,371 goats for daily milk yield were included in the analysis, averaging 2.6 and 4.8 observations per

S. Andonov; J. Ødegård; I. A. Boman; M. Svendsen; I. J. Holme; T. Ådnøy; V. Vukovic; G. Klemetsdal

2007-01-01

339

Efficacy of halofuginone lactate against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates.  

PubMed

Preliminary results obtained in calves, lambs and goat kids infected by Cryptosporidium sp. have indicated a partial prophylactic efficacy of halofuginone lactate when administered at 100 ?g/kg body weight (BW). In this study, the efficacy of halofuginone lactate was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts per oral route. The trial consisted in 2 replicated experiments carried out successively at 2 months of interval. Twenty-two 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally inoculated once, 2-3 days after the arrival in premises, with 10(6)C. parvum oocysts per oral route and were allocated into 2 groups. Animals of group 1 acted as untreated control whereas animals of group 2 received halofuginone lactate for 10 days from the infection day to day 9 post-infection (DPI) at a daily oral dose rate of 100 ?g/kg BW. Individual oocyst shedding was monitored by daily examination of faecal smears stained by carbol fuchsin and scored semi-quantitatively (0-5) until 19 DPI. Daily diarrhoea scores, weight gain and mortality were recorded. In the first experiment, oocyst excretion started 1 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 3.6) and became undetectable from 16-19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 1 day later, showed lower scores compared to control on 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 DPI and vanished from 16 to 19 DPI. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Five kids died in the control group compared to 1 kid in the treated group. In the second (replicated) experiment, oocyst excretion started 2 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 4.5) and became undetectable 18 and 19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 2 days later, peaked on 13 DPI (mean score 2.3) and persisted until the end of the experiment. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Ten kids died in the control group compared to 3 kids in the treated group. The results demonstrated the efficacy of halofuginone lactate when given as a prophylactic treatment at 100 ?g/kg BW during 10 days in reducing oocyst shedding, diarrhoea and mortality in goat kid cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24636788

Petermann, Julie; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe

2014-05-28

340

Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in goats.  

PubMed

A surgical procedure was developed for the implantation of an anatomical, two-banded anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) prosthesis. Prostheses were fabricated of braided long-chain polyethylene fibers. The left ACL of adult male goats was surgically excised and replaced with either an anatomical reconstruction (5 goats) or a conventional reconstruction (5 goats). The anatomical reconstruction required drilling four bone tunnels, two each in the femur and tibia. Each band of the prosthesis was placed through one tunnel in the femur and the corresponding tunnel in the tibia, recreating the anteromedial and posterolateral bands. The two bands were tensioned independently and stapled in place. In the conventional procedure, the prosthesis was doubled and placed through two larger tunnels, one in the femur and one in the tibia, tensioned and stapled together. All animals were terminated 3 months after surgery. Clinical evaluation of passive range of motion, antero-posterior laxity and the appearance of the joint space showed little or no difference between the reconstruction methods. The ultimate failure load for the natural (unoperated) ACL was 1691 +/- 210 N, while the anatomical and conventional reconstruction groups had mean ultimate failure loads of 1233 +/- 732 and 1012 +/- 220 N, respectively. The elongation to failure of all groups was similar: the natural ACL group = 7.1 +/- 2.8 mm, the anatomical group = 7.2 +/- 2.9 mm, and the conventional group = 7.7 +/- 3.9 mm. The slope of the load-deformation curve, or stiffness, was significantly higher for the natural ACL (4.53 +/- 1.24 x 10(5) N/m) than for either of the reconstruction methods (2.75 +/- 1.59 x 10(5) N/m for the anatomical and 2.34 +/- 0.60 x 10(5) N/m for the conventional). The energy to failure, or area under the load-deformation curve, showed no significant difference between groups. In conclusion, both types of reconstructions were less strong, stiff, and tough than the natural ACL. There was no significant difference observed between the anatomical and conventional reconstruction methods over the 3-month implantation time in either clinical evaluation or mechanical testing. Therefore, at 3 months postsurgery, the anatomical reconstruction technique was considered no better and no worse than the conventional reconstruction technique. PMID:2069929

Powers, D L; Jacob, P A; Drews, M J

1991-01-01

341

Variation of 423G>T in the Agouti Gene Exon 4 in Indigenous Chinese Goat Breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agouti gene plays an important role in pigment synthesis in domestic animals. A transversion of 423G>T recognized by BanII was found after a fragment (178 bp) of the goat Agouti gene exon 4 was amplified and sequenced. To investigate its genetic effect and diversity, 677 individuals from 12 indigenous\\u000a Chinese goat breeds and one imported goat breed from South Africa

Chun-Juan Tang; Rong-Yan Zhou; Xiang-Long Li; Jing-Wen Zhao; Lan-Hui Li; Fu-Jun Feng; Dong-Feng Li; Jian-Tao Wang; Xiu-Li Guo; Jing-Fen Keng

2008-01-01

342

Effects of Dietary Iodine and Selenium on Nutrient Digestibility, Serum Thyroid Hormones, and Antioxidant Status of Liaoning Cashmere Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight 2-year-old Liaoning Cashmere goats (body weight?=?38.0?±?2.94 kg) were used to investigate the effects of dietary\\u000a iodine (I) and selenium (Se) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, serum thyroid hormones, and antioxidant status during\\u000a the cashmere telogen period to learn more about the effects of dietary I and Se on nutrition or health status of Cashmere\\u000a goats. The goats were equally divided into

Feng Qin; Xiaoping Zhu; Wei Zhang; Jiaping Zhou; Shiwei Zhang; Zhihai Jia

343

Characterization of microRNAs from goat (Capra hircus) by Solexa deep-sequencing technology.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of small noncoding RNAs that are highly conserved in plants and animals. Many miRNAs are known to mediate a myriad of cell processes, including proliferation and differentiation, via the regulation of some transcription and signaling factors, which are closely related to muscle development and disease. In this study, small RNA cDNA libraries of Boer goats were constructed. In addition, we obtained the goat muscle miRNAs by using Solexa deep-sequencing technology and analyzed these miRNA characteristics by combining it with the bioinformatics technology. Based on Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, 562 species-conserved and 5 goat genome-specific miRNAs were identified, 322 of which exceeded 100 in the expression levels. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction from 8 randomly selected miRNAs showed that the 8 miRNAs were expressed in goat muscle, and the expression patterns were consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. The identification and characterization of miRNAs in goat muscle provide important information on the role of miRNA regulation in muscle growth and development. These data will help to facilitate studies on the regulatory roles played by miRNAs during goat growth and development. PMID:23913378

Ling, Y H; Ding, J P; Zhang, X D; Wang, L J; Zhang, Y H; Li, Y S; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, X R

2013-01-01

344

Genetic diversity and molecular phylogeography of Chinese domestic goats by large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of 666 individuals (including 109 new individuals, 557 individuals retrieved from GenBank) from 33 Chinese domestic goat breeds throughout China were used to investigate their mtDNA variability and molecular phylogeography. The results showed that all goat breeds in this study proved to be extremely diverse, and the average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.990 ± 0.001 and 0.032 ± 0.001, respectively. The 666 sequences gave 326 different haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that there were 4 mtDNA haplogroups identified in Chinese domestic goats, in which haplogroup A was predominant and widely distributed. Our finding was consistent with archaeological data and other genetic diversity studies. Amova analysis showed there was significant geographical structuring. Almost 84.31 % of genetic variation was included in the within-breed variance component and only 4.69 % was observed among the geographic distributions. This genetic diversity results further supported the previous view of multiple maternal origins of Chinese domestic goats, and the results on the phylogenetic relationship contributed to a better understanding of the history of goat domestication and modern production of domestic goats. PMID:24532161

Zhao, Yongju; Zhao, Runze; Zhao, Zhongquan; Xu, Huizhong; Zhao, Erhu; Zhang, Jiahua

2014-06-01

345

Antibody preparation and identification of the Cashmere goat c-kit protein in the testes.  

PubMed

The c-kit protein plays a major role in the regulation of germ cell development. Its expression and distribution in rodent testes have been widely reported. However, research regarding c-kit expression in domestic animals is scarce, and the expression pattern and distribution of c-kit in germ cells have not been clearly defined. In this study, a specific antigenic region for goat c-kit was designed, and a c-kit polyclonal antibody was prepared. This antibody was then applied in a study evaluating c-kit expression in Cashmere goat tissues. A Western blot analysis showed that three forms of c-kit were expressed in goat testes: precursor, mature, and soluble c-kit. Fluorescent immunohistochemical analyses showed that c-kit was primarily expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of goat testes. These results not only clarify the expression and localization of c-kit in the goat testis, but also accelerate further research regarding the function of c-kit in goat spermatogenesis. PMID:25062419

Wu, S C L; Luo, F H; Kong, Q F; Wu, Y J

2014-01-01

346

Camel Milk Is a Safer Choice than Goat Milk for Feeding Children with Cow Milk Allergy  

PubMed Central

Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735?cells/?L, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213?cells/?L, IgE 694 ± 921?IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6?KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk.

Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima

2011-01-01

347

Camel milk is a safer choice than goat milk for feeding children with cow milk allergy.  

PubMed

Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735?cells/?L, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213?cells/?L, IgE 694 ± 921?IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6?KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk. PMID:23724227

Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima

2011-01-01

348

Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

2012-01-01

349

Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats  

PubMed Central

Background Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research.

2012-01-01

350

The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections  

PubMed Central

Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world.

2011-01-01

351

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China. Results Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1%) serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461) and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290) dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location) reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province.

2011-01-01

352

Efficacy Study of Novel Diamidine Compounds in a Trypanosoma evansi Goat Model  

PubMed Central

Three diamidines (DB 75, DB 867 and DB 1192) were selected and their ability to cure T. evansi experimentally infected goats was investigated. A toxicity assessment and pharmacokinetic analysis of these compounds were additionally carried out. Goats demonstrated no signs of acute toxicity, when treated with four doses of 1 mg/kg/day (total dose 4 mg/kg). Complete curative efficacy of experimentally infected goats was seen in the positive control group treated with diminazene at 5 mg/kg and in the DB 75 and DB 867 groups treated at 2.5 mg/kg. Drug treatment was administered once every second day for a total of seven days. Complete cure was also seen in the group of goats treated with DB 75 at 1.25 mg/kg. DB 1192 was incapable of curing goats at either four-times 2.5 mg/kg or 1.25 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the treatment failures of DB 1192 were due to sub-therapeutic compound levels in goat plasma, whilst compound levels for DB 75 and DB 867 remained well within the therapeutic window. In conclusion, two diamidine compounds (DB 75 and DB 867) presented comparable efficacy at lower doses than the standard drug diminazene and could be considered as potential clinical candidates against T. evansi infection.

Gillingwater, Kirsten; Gutierrez, Carlos; Bridges, Arlene; Wu, Huali; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Ali Ekangu, Rosine; Kumar, Arvind; Ismail, Mohamed; Boykin, David; Brun, Reto

2011-01-01

353

Efficacy study of novel diamidine compounds in a Trypanosoma evansi goat model.  

PubMed

Three diamidines (DB 75, DB 867 and DB 1192) were selected and their ability to cure T. evansi experimentally infected goats was investigated. A toxicity assessment and pharmacokinetic analysis of these compounds were additionally carried out. Goats demonstrated no signs of acute toxicity, when treated with four doses of 1 mg/kg/day (total dose 4 mg/kg). Complete curative efficacy of experimentally infected goats was seen in the positive control group treated with diminazene at 5 mg/kg and in the DB 75 and DB 867 groups treated at 2.5 mg/kg. Drug treatment was administered once every second day for a total of seven days. Complete cure was also seen in the group of goats treated with DB 75 at 1.25 mg/kg. DB 1192 was incapable of curing goats at either four-times 2.5 mg/kg or 1.25 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the treatment failures of DB 1192 were due to sub-therapeutic compound levels in goat plasma, whilst compound levels for DB 75 and DB 867 remained well within the therapeutic window. In conclusion, two diamidine compounds (DB 75 and DB 867) presented comparable efficacy at lower doses than the standard drug diminazene and could be considered as potential clinical candidates against T. evansi infection. PMID:21698106

Gillingwater, Kirsten; Gutierrez, Carlos; Bridges, Arlene; Wu, Huali; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Ekangu, Rosine Ali; Kumar, Arvind; Ismail, Mohamed; Boykin, David; Brun, Reto

2011-01-01

354

Cloning, sequence and functional analysis of goat ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2).  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) gene encodes a protein that has a wide variety of substrates and is responsible for the active secretion of clinically and toxicologically important molecules into milk. Although known in many species, this marks the first time this gene product has been reported in goats. In this study, we cloned and sequenced goat ABCG2 gene complete coding sequence and predicted its putative translated protein structure with implicative functional domains. One six-transmembrane span on C-terminal region and at least one coiled-coil domain on N-terminal were predicted and compared primarily with those of other closely related species. In addition, three conserved cysteines (in positions 595, 606, and 611) were determined toward the C-terminal of goat's ABCG2. Two known functional motifs were identified in goat's protein through comparative studies with other species. The goat ABCG2 relative expression profile revealed that the gene expression was a function of lactation stage and parallel to goat lactation curve. PMID:18256940

Wu, Hui Juan; Luo, Jun; Wu, Ning; Matand, Kanyand; Zhang, Li Juan; Han, Xue Feng; Yang, Bao Jin

2008-05-01

355

Swainsonine Induces Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathway and Caspase Activation in Goat Trophoblasts  

PubMed Central

The indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine (SW) has been reported to impair placentae and ultimately cause abortion in pregnant goats. Up to now, however, the precise effects of SW on goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) are still unclear. In this study, the cytotoxicity effects of SW on GTCs were detected and evaluated by MTT assay, AO/EB double staining, DNA fragmentation assay and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that SW treatment significantly suppressed GTCs viability and induced typical apoptotic features in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. SW treatment increased Bax protein levels, reduced Bcl-2 protein levels, induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, which in turn activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, resulting in GTCs apoptosis. However, caspase-8 activity and the level of Bid did not exhibit significant changes in the process of SW-induced apoptosis. In addition, TUNEL assay suggested that SW induced GTCs apoptosis but not other cells in goat placenta cotyledons. Taken together, these data suggest that SW selectively induces GTCs apoptosis via the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in goat placenta cotyledons, which might contribute to placentae impairment and abortion in pregnant goats fed with SW-containing plants. These findings may provide new insights to understand the mechanisms involved in SW-caused goat's abortion.

Huang, Yong; Dong, Feng; Du, Qian; Zhang, Hongling; Luo, Xiaomao; Song, Xiangjun; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

2014-01-01

356

Genetic phylogeography and maternal lineages of 18 Chinese black goat breeds.  

PubMed

To understand the origin and genetic phylogeography of Chinese black goats, variations of mitochondrial DNA were characterised with 394 goats from 18 breeds, including 91 new individuals from regions poorly studied until now. Comparison of a 481-bp segment revealed a total of 192 haplotypes with 141 variable sites. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.782?±?0.079 to 1.000?±?0.020 and from 0.009?±?0.001 to 0.045?±?0.006, respectively, indicating a relatively high genetic diversity in Chinese black goats. Phylogenetic analyses identified five haplogroups (A, B1, B2, C and D). The dominant haplogroups A, B1 and B2 were distributed in most of breeds, while the haplogroups C and D were only presented in the breeds located in north or northwest of China. Analysis of molecular variance and multidimensional scaling plot of F ST analyses indicated no obvious geographic structure among breeds. Furthermore, the migration rates revealed that a wide range of gene flow or gene exchange occurred among breeds, which may result in the weak geographic structure of Chinese black goats. Population expansion analysis based on mismatch distribution indicated that two expansion events in Chinese black goats occurred at 10 and 28 mutational time units. Finally, our findings indicate the multiple maternal origins of Chinese black goats and more gene flow (female-mediated) which occurred during their domestic and breeding histories. PMID:23780786

Zhong, Tao; Zhao, Qian Jun; Niu, Li Li; Wang, Jie; Jin, Peng Fei; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lin Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hong Ping; Ma, Yue Hui

2013-11-01

357

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dairy goats from Romania.  

PubMed

Little information is available about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goats in Romania and even in Europe. During 2007-2010, 735 serum samples were collected from dairy goats located in 4 historical regions (Cri?ana, Maramure?, Transylvania and Muntenia) of Romania. Sera were analyzed for T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies (IgG type) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two commercial kits (Chekit Toxotest Antibody ELISA and Chekit Neospora caninum Antibody ELISA; Idexx-Bommeli, Switzerland). Three hundred and eighty-eight out of 735 (52.8%) goats presented T. gondii antibodies and 12 out of 512 (2.3%) goats had N. caninum antibodies. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests that infection with this parasite is common in dairy goats in Romania, and less common the infection with N. caninum. This is the first time that infection with N. caninum in goats has been reported in Romania and the first extended study on seroepidemiology of T. gondii. PMID:22177331

Iovu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Gavrea, Raluca; Cozma, Vasile

2012-05-25

358

Lactation curves of Sarda breed goats estimated with test day models.  

PubMed

Test day records of milk yield (38,765), fat and protein contents (11,357) of Sarda goats (the most numerous Italian goat breed) were analysed with mixed linear models in order to estimate the effects of test date (month and year of kidding for fat and protein contents) parity, number of kids born, altitude of location of flocks (<200 m asl, 200-500 m asl, >500 m asl), flocks within altitude and lactation stage (eight days-in-milk intervals of 30 d each) on milk production. All factors considered in the models affected milk traits significantly. Milk yield was lower in first parity goats than in higher parities whereas fat and protein contents showed an opposite trend. Goats with two kids at parturition had a higher milk yield than goats with one kid and tended to have lower fat and protein percentages. Repeatability between test days within lactation was 0.34, 0.17 and 0.45 for milk yield, fat content and protein content, respectively. Lactation curves of goats farmed at different altitudes were clearly separated, especially for milk yield. Results of the present study highlight differences in milk production traits among the three subpopulations that have been previously identified within the Sarda breed on the basis of the morphological structure of animals and altitude of location of flocks. PMID:16223463

Macciotta, Nicolò P P; Fresi, Pancrazio; Usai, Graziano; Cappio-Borlino, Aldo

2005-11-01

359

Chromosomal localisation and genetic variation of the SLC11A1 gene in goats (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

The solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1) gene is associated with resistance to infectious diseases. Chromosomal localisation, genomic regions corresponding to functional domains and the genetic variability of microsatellites in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of this gene were investigated in 427 goats (Capra hircus) of six breeds. Using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation, SLC11A1 was localised to goat chromosome 2. Single strand conformation polymorphism was used to screen for polymorphisms in SLC11A1 exons 2, 10 and 15. There was no variation among goat breeds in the sarcoma homology 3 (SH3) binding motif, the protein kinase C phosphorylation site or the two N-linked glycosylation sites. Exon 15 exhibited variability due to the presence of two polymorphic microsatellites. Genotyping of the upstream guanine-thymine repeat (GTn) at 3'-UTR revealed eight alleles (GT11, GT12, GT14-GT19) in goats, whereas GT13 (present in cattle) was absent. Most goats carried the GT16 allele and no allele was found to be exclusive to only one breed. The coefficient of genetic differentiation value (G(ST)) was 0.084. This microsatellite appears to be an informative DNA marker for genetic linkage analysis in goats. PMID:21071245

Vacca, G M; Pazzola, M; Pisano, C; Carcangiu, V; Diaz, M L; Nieddu, M; Robledo, R; Mezzanotte, R; Dettori, M L

2011-10-01

360

Cerebellar Ataxia Suspected to Be Caused by Oxytropis glabra Poisoning in Western Mongolian Goats  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In the last five years in western Mongolia, a neurological disorder and resultant economic loss have developed in goats, sheep, cattle and horses: association of the disease with ingestion of Oxytropis glabra, a toxic plant, was suggested. Affected goats showed neurological signs, including ataxia, incoordination, hind limb paresis, fine head tremor and nystagmus. Three goats, one with moderate clinical signs and the other two with severe clinical signs, were necropsied and examined to describe and characterize the histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural lesions. Although no gross pathological changes were observed in a variety of organs including the central nervous system of these goats, microscopic examination of the cerebellum demonstrated degenerative changes in all these goats, such as vacuolar changes and loss of Purkinje cells, torpedo formation in the granular layer, increased number of spheroids in the cerebellar medulla, and loss of axons and myelin sheaths of Purkinje cells. The chemical analysis of the dried plant detected 0.02–0.05% (dry weight basis) of swainsonine. This is the first report describing the clinical and pathological findings in Mongolian goats suspected to be affected by O. glabra poisoning.

TAKEDA, Shuji; TANAKA, Hiroyuki; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito; ISHIHARA, Atsushi; ADILBISH, Altanchimeg; DELGERMAA, Bayarmunkh; GUNGAA, Oyuntsetseg

2014-01-01

361

Cerebellar Ataxia Suspected to Be Caused by Oxytropis glabra Poisoning in Western Mongolian Goats.  

PubMed

In the last five years in western Mongolia, a neurological disorder and resultant economic loss have developed in goats, sheep, cattle and horses: association of the disease with ingestion of Oxytropis glabra, a toxic plant, was suggested. Affected goats showed neurological signs, including ataxia, incoordination, hind limb paresis, fine head tremor and nystagmus. Three goats, one with moderate clinical signs and the other two with severe clinical signs, were necropsied and examined to describe and characterize the histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural lesions. Although no gross pathological changes were observed in a variety of organs including the central nervous system of these goats, microscopic examination of the cerebellum demonstrated degenerative changes in all these goats, such as vacuolar changes and loss of Purkinje cells, torpedo formation in the granular layer, increased number of spheroids in the cerebellar medulla, and loss of axons and myelin sheaths of Purkinje cells. The chemical analysis of the dried plant detected 0.02-0.05% (dry weight basis) of swainsonine. This is the first report describing the clinical and pathological findings in Mongolian goats suspected to be affected by O. glabra poisoning. PMID:24572629

Takeda, Shuji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Akinori; Morita, Takehito; Ishihara, Atsushi; Adilbish, Altanchimeg; Delgermaa, Bayarmunkh; Gungaa, Oyuntsetseg

2014-07-01

362

Neuromuscular function of the latissimus dorsi muscle in goats after dynamic cardiomyoplasty.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle deterioration is emerging as a limitation to long-term cardiac assist by dynamic cardiomyoplasty. Chronic electrical stimulation of in situ skeletal muscle showed that ischemia, decreased muscle preload, muscle overuse, and chronic electrical stimulation are factors for muscle deterioration. Transposition around the heart has been associated with signs of muscle denervation after chronic electrical stimulation. To evaluate latissimus dorsi muscle neuromuscular function after longterm dynamic cardiomyoplasty, we performed neuromuscular functional analysis and histology on the latissimus dorsi muscle and thoracodorsal nerve of six normal goats and six goats after 6 months of dynamic cardiomyoplasty. Electromyographic analysis showed positive sharp waves and fibrillation potentials in the latissimus dorsi of three goats from the dynamic cardiomyoplasty group. Conduction velocity of the thoracodorsal nerve of goats from the dynamic cardiomyoplasty group (58.32+/-9.80 m/s) was reduced compared to the goats from the control group (71.48+/-5.71 m/s, P = 0.02). Histologic changes in skeletal muscle were compatible with denervation. Loss of myelin sheaths, collapse of endoneurial connective tissue, and solitary foci of axonophagia and myelinophagia further documented severe injury to the thoracodorsal nerve in goats from the dynamic cardiomyoplasty group. The latissimus dorsi muscle wrap was denervated after long-term dynamic cardiomyoplasty. Traction on the neurovascular pedicle at each contraction of the transposed muscle may induce afferent axonal injury of the thoracodorsal nerve resulting in diminished muscular function. PMID:10598966

Monnet, E; Orton, E C; Child, G; Getzy, D; Jacobs, G; Metelman, L

1999-11-01

363

Chromosomal evolution in bovids: a comparison of cattle, sheep and goat G- and R-banded chromosomes and cytogenetic divergences among cattle, goat and river buffalo sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

A G- and R-banding comparison of cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60), goat (Capra hircus, 2n = 60) and sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54) chromosomes at the 450 band level was made. The study revealed a large number of banding homologies among the autosomes of the three species and resolved some ambiguities in arranging some of their small disputed acrocentrics by direct and indirect comparisons with some bovid marker chromosomes. A loss of the subcentromeric G-positive band in sheep chromosome 2g was observed when the G-banding patterns of sheep 2q and homologous cattle and goat chromosome 2 were compared. The chromosomal divergences among cattle, goat and river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50) sex chromosomes are shown to have occurred by pericentric and paracentric inversions with a loss (or acquisition of constitutive heterochromatin. PMID:7551543

Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G P

1995-08-01

364

Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

2013-06-01

365

Histomorphology of the urethral process of the goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

The urethral process of the goat was an extension of the pars spongiosa of the male urethra. The erectile (cavernous) tissue of the urethral process was a continuation of the corpus spongiosum penis. The epithelium lining the urethra was stratified transitional. Two compact fibrocartilaginous strands were embedded in the erectile tissue, which were absent towards the tip of the urethral process. Smooth muscle was absent in the tunica mucosa-submucosa of the urethral process. The tunica mucosa-submucosa was richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves and it may be assumed that the urethral process is a sensory structure. Large cavernous sinuses, within the erectile tissue, were lined by endothelial cells. There was a circular fibroelastic layer enclosing the entire corpus spongiosum penis to withstand expansion of the erectile tissue during erection and copulation. The surface epithelium lining the urethral process was stratified squamous. A few connective tissue papillae were observed evaginating into the surface epithelium. PMID:941673

Ghoshal, N G; Bal, H S

1976-01-01

366

GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

Church, S. E.; Close, T. J.

1984-01-01

367

A method for quantifying mixed goat cashmere and sheep wool.  

PubMed

Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets. PMID:21190801

Ji, Wan; Bai, Li; Ji, Ming; Yang, Xue

2011-05-20

368

Acclimatization to high altitude in goats with ablated carotid bodies.  

PubMed

In awake goats with ablated carotid bodies, we studied resting pulmonary ventilation, CO2 production, composition of arterial blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and ventilatory responsiveness to hyperoxic CO2 rebreathing at sea level (SL) and after 3 days at simulated high altitude (HA) (PB 446 +/- 5 Torr, equivalent to 4,300 m). At HA, resting pulmonary ventilation was increased, resulting in marked hypocapnia with appropriate base deficit in blood plasma; CSF became more alkaline; CO2-response curves were shifted to lower PCO2 levels, and their slopes were steeper than at SL. Although these changes in regulation of respiration were not demonstrably different from those seen after normal acclimatization to HA with carotid bodies intact, the mechanisms of their initiation and development are probably different. PMID:6411664

Steinbrook, R A; Donovan, J C; Gabel, R A; Leith, D E; Fencl, V

1983-07-01

369

Mycoplasma adleri sp. nov., an isolate from a goat.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma sp. strain G145T (T = type strain) was isolated from a goat's abscessed ankle. Strain G145T required cholesterol or serum for growth and possessed characteristics similar to those of other members of the genus Mycoplasma. This strain was serologically distinct from previously described Mycoplasma species and from a group of currently unnamed strains thought to belong to the genus Mycoplasma. Strain G145T hydrolyzed arginine, but did not hydrolyze urea or ferment glucose. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA was 29.6 mol%. We propose that strain G145 (= ATCC 27948) is the type strain of a new species, for which we propose the name Mycoplasma adleri. PMID:7857804

Del Giudice, R A; Rose, D L; Tully, J G

1995-01-01

370

Validation of an electrometric blood cholinesterase measurement in goats.  

PubMed

A modified electrometric method was described and validated for measurement of plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities in 6-18 months old goats. The enzymatic reaction mixture contained 3 ml distilled water, 3 ml barbital-phosphate buffer (pH 8.1), 0.2 ml plasma or erythrocytes and 0.1 ml acetylthiocholine iodide (7.5%) as a substrate. The mixture was incubated at 37 degrees C for 40 minutes. The pH of the reaction mixture was determined by a pH meter before and after the incubation. The initial pH was measured before the substrate addition. The enzyme activity was expressed as DeltapH/40 min. The coefficients of variation of the described method in measuring plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities were 4 and 2%, respectively. Preliminary reference values (n = 14) of the mean cholinesterase activity (DeltapH/40 min) and 95% confidence interval in the plasma were 0.194 and 0.184-0.204, respectively, and those of the erythrocytes were 0.416 and 0.396-0.436, respectively. The pseudocholinesterase activity of the plasma cholinesterase was 63.5% as determined by quinidine sulfate inhibition. The organophosphorus insecticides dichlorvos and diazinon at 0.5-4 microM and the carbamate insecticide carbaryl at 5-20 microM in the reaction mixture significantly inhibited plasma (13.7-85.5%) and erythrocyte (16.4-71.9%) cholinesterases in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggest that the described electrometric method is simple, precise and efficient in measuring blood cholinesterase activity in goats. PMID:16293993

Al-Jobory, M M H; Mohammad, F K

2005-12-01

371

Prevalence, associated determinants, and in vivo chemotherapeutic control of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic goats ( Capra hircus ) of lower Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 800 goats of various breeds, age, and sex were randomly selected from Muzaffargarh (M. garh) and Layyah districts\\u000a of lower Punjab, Pakistan. The selected goats were visited twice a month to collect information about determinants influencing\\u000a goat tick infestation prevalence. For acaricidal efficacy, 360 tick-infested adult goats were subjected to an acaricidal treatment\\u000a and post-treatment quantitative assessment

Muhammad Sohail Sajid; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Nisar Khan; Ghulam Muhammad; Glen Needham; Muhammad Kasib Khan

2011-01-01

372

Diagnostic testing patterns of natural Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in pygmy goats  

PubMed Central

Thirteen pygmy goats (Capra hircus) from a herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MPTB) were monitored with 4 diagnostic assays for 2 to 15 mo. Cellular and humoral immune responses to the infection were assessed with assays of gamma interferon (IFN?), serum antibody [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel diffusion (AGID)], and radiometric fecal culture. Microscopic examination and radiometric culture of tissue from 12 sites were performed at necropsy. Goats were considered infected if MPTB was isolated from any tissue sample collected at necropsy. Mycobacterial isolates were confirmed as MPTB with an IS900 polymerase chain reaction assay. Ten goats whose antemortem tests indicated infection carried heavy organism burdens at necropsy, both within and beyond the gastrointestinal system. False-negative ELISA, AGID, and/or culture results were obtained in 5 of the 10 confirmed cases during the study period. In 3 goats with sporadic fecal shedding of MPTB or detectable IFN? response, or both, no abnormalities were detected at necropsy and no MPTB was isolated from the tissue samples; the antemortem fecal-culture and IFN? results were thus considered false-positive. Diagnosticians should be alert to the possibility of both false-positive and false-negative test results for Johne's disease in goats. False-positive fecal-culture results may occur when a high prevalence of infection exists in the herd and the premises are likely to be heavily contaminated. The diverse antemortem testing patterns seen in these goats underscore the importance of using varied diagnostic assays serially or in parallel to increase the likelihood of identifying all infected goats.

Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Steinberg, Howard; Krebs, Vernon; Collins, Michael T.

2003-01-01

373

Diagnostic testing patterns of natural Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in pygmy goats.  

PubMed

Thirteen pygmy goats (Capra hircus) from a herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MPTB) were monitored with 4 diagnostic assays for 2 to 15 mo. Cellular and humoral immune responses to the infection were assessed with assays of gamma interferon (IFNgamma), serum antibody [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel diffusion (AGID)], and radiometric fecal culture. Microscopic examination and radiometric culture of tissue from 12 sites were performed at necropsy. Goats were considered infected if MPTB was isolated from any tissue sample collected at necropsy. Mycobacterial isolates were confirmed as MPTB with an IS900 polymerase chain reaction assay. Ten goats whose antemortem tests indicated infection carried heavy organism burdens at necropsy, both within and beyond the gastrointestinal system. False-negative ELISA, AGID, and/or culture results were obtained in 5 of the 10 confirmed cases during the study period. In 3 goats with sporadic fecal shedding of MPTB or detectable IFNgamma response, or both, no abnormalities were detected at necropsy and no MPTB was isolated from the tissue samples; the antemortem fecal-culture and IFNgamma results were thus considered false-positive. Diagnosticians should be alert to the possibility of both false-positive and false-negative test results for Johne's disease in goats. False-positive fecal-culture results may occur when a high prevalence of infection exists in the herd and the premises are likely to be heavily contaminated. The diverse antemortem testing patterns seen in these goats underscore the importance of using varied diagnostic assays serially or in parallel to increase the likelihood of identifying all infected goats. PMID:12889728

Manning, Elizabeth J B; Steinberg, Howard; Krebs, Vernon; Collins, Michael T

2003-07-01

374

Economic contribution and viability of dairy goats: implications for a breeding programme.  

PubMed

To augment the incomes of smallholder farmers in Kenya and consequently improve their nutrition and income, many development organisations and policy makers are increasingly promoting dairy goat farming. Among the key organisations supporting the initiative is Heifer Project International-Kenya (HPIK). However, the economic contribution and viability of dairy goats under the HPIK project have not been studied so far. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of dairy goats to household income and the performance of the dairy goat enterprise using gross and net margins from dairy goat farming as an indicator of economic viability. A survey covering 71 farmers was carried out in the Coast, Nyanza, and the Rift Valley provinces of Kenya using a set of pre-tested structured and semi-structured questionnaires. Results showed that, on average, the dairy goat enterprise contributed, correspondingly, about 15.2% and 4.8% to the total livestock and overall household income and was viable. Differences in gross and net margins across agroecological zones were attributed to milk prices. Despite the existence of non-viable enterprises in two of the provinces, the few present suggest the possibility of obtaining reliable incomes from the enterprise. Redoubling of effort or re-orientation of production to match the local and external requirements would, however, be necessary. Costs and revenues were similar across the agroecological zones. Farmers with positive gross margins had better milk and stock sales and vice versa. The success of a dairy goat enterprise is attributed to location and good management. Besides, farmers' awareness of the market demands within and outside the community is important in establishing production goals and may be crucial to achieving a positive gross margin. PMID:19937381

Ogola, T D O; Nguyo, W K; Kosgey, I S

2010-06-01

375

Introgression from Domestic Goat Generated Variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex of Alpine Ibex  

PubMed Central

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection.

Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

2014-01-01

376

Peripartal hormonal changes in Alpine goats: a comparison between physiological and pathological parturition.  

PubMed

In this study, 31 pregnant Alpine does were used to investigate the peripartal plasma profiles of progesterone, estradiol-17?, 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2?) and cortisol, assessing differences between goats with physiological and pathological parturition. The goats were observed around the time of parturition; all peripartum abnormalities were recorded, and veterinary assistance was provided if necessary. Blood samples were collected every 12 h from 7 days before to 7 days after delivery, and plasma used for hormonal analysis by radioimmunoassay. Two animals died during the study, and their data were excluded from the study. Of the remaining 29 animals, 23 goats had a spontaneous and physiological delivery, while six goats showed pathological parturition, including dystocia and retained placenta. The 65 alive kids were viable at birth and at 7 days of age. The results concerning the hormonal concentrations in the normal parturition confirm and define more precisely the patterns already described in the goat, while the comparison between physiological and pathological parturition has never been previously reported in this species. Highest peripartum levels of cortisol were found in the pathological group at delivery (30.6 vs 15.9 ng/ml) (p<0.01) and 12 h later (26.2 vs 11.1 ng/ml) (p<0.05); the greater cortisol concentrations found in goats with dystocia and retained placenta could suggest a higher level of stress. No significant differences between the two groups were found with respect to the circulating values of the other hormones, but the individual variability and the small number of goats enrolled in the pathological delivery group could have masked possible differences. PMID:21395842

Probo, M; Cairoli, F; Kindahl, H; Faustini, M; Galeati, G; Veronesi, M C

2011-12-01

377

In vitro maturation and fertilization of prepubertal and pubertal black Bengal goat oocytes  

PubMed Central

Oocytes retrieval, in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) efficiency are inevitable steps towards in vitro production of embryos. In the present study, these parameters were investigated in the ovaries of prepubertal (n = 31) and pubertal (n = 61) black Bengal goats obtained from a slaughterhouse. Nuclear maturation was evaluated upon aspiration and following IVM in TCM-199 (Earle's salt with L-glutamine and sodium bicarbonate) for 27 h at 39? under 5% CO2 in humidified air. The oocytes retrieval and efficiency (mean ± SD) per prepubertal and pubertal goats were 5.2 ± 0.6 and 6.8 ± 0.6, and 77.3 ± 0.1% and 80.5 ± 0.6%, respectively. Anaphase I - telophase I stages differed significantly (7.3 ± 0.8 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.05) between the two groups of goats. After IVM, the percentages of metaphase II were significantly higher (66.3 vs. 60.3, p < 0.05) in pubertal goats than in their prepubertal counterparts. The percentages of normal in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Fert-Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate of pubertal goat oocytes did not differ between Percoll and swim-up sperm separation methods (36.7 ± 0.9% vs. 32.7 ± 1.3%, p > 0.05). Furthermore, sperm capacitation by heparin alone or in combination with ionomycin did not lead to a significant increase in the normal fertilization rate (34.8 ± 1.7 vs. 32.2 ± 1.5%, respectively) in the oocytes of pubertal goats. In conclusion, the ovaries of pubertal black Bengal goats obtained from the slaughterhouse could be used for in vitro embryo production. However, further optimization of the IVM and IVF techniques are necessary for satisfactory in vitro embryo production.

Khatun, Momena; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Musharraf Uddin; Ahmed, Jalal Uddin; Haque, Aminul; Shamsuddin, Mohammed

2011-01-01

378

Goat milk allergenicity as a function of ?s?-casein genetic polymorphism.  

PubMed

Cow milk allergy is the most frequent allergy in the first years of life. Milk from other mammalian species has been suggested as a possible nutritional alternative to cow milk, but in several cases, the clinical studies showed a high risk of cross-reactivity with cow milk. In the goat species, ?S?-casein (?S?-CN), coded by the CSN1S1 gene, is characterized by extensive qualitative and quantitative polymorphisms. Some alleles are associated with null (i.e., CSN1S1 0(1)) or reduced (i.e., CSN1S1 F) expression of the specific protein. The aim of this work was to obtain new information on goat milk and to evaluate its suitability for allergic subjects, depending on the genetic variation at ?s?-CN. Individual milk samples from 25 goats with different CSN1S1 genotypes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and immunoblotting, using monoclonal antibodies specific for bovine ?-CN and sera from children allergic to cow milk. A lower reaction was observed to 2 goat milk samples characterized by the CSN1S1 0(1)0(1) and 0(1)F genotypes. Moreover, a fresh food skin prick test, carried out on 6 allergic children, showed the lack of positive reaction to the 0(1)0(1) milk sample and only one weak reactivity to the 0(1)F sample. The risk of cross-reactivity between cow and goat milk proteins suggests the need for caution before using goat milk for infant formulas. However, we hypothesize that it can be used successfully in the preparation of modified formulas for selected groups of allergic patients. The importance of taking the individual goat CN genetic variation into account in further experimental studies is evident from the results of the present work. PMID:21257068

Ballabio, C; Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Gigliotti, C; Pagnacco, G; Terracciano, L; Fiocchi, A; Restani, P; Caroli, A M

2011-02-01

379

Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in cashmere goat skin by deep sequencing.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that play significant roles in regulating the expression of the post-transcriptional skin and hair follicle gene. In recent years, extensive studies on these microRNAs have been carried out in mammals such as mice, rats, pigs and cattle. By comparison, the number of microRNAs that have been identified in goats is relatively low; and in particular, the miRNAs associated with the processes of skin and hair follicle development remain largely unknown. In this study, areas of skin where the cashmere grows in anagen were sampled. A total of 10,943,292 reads were obtained using Solexa sequencing, a high-throughput sequencing technology. From 10,644,467 reads, we identified 3,381 distinct reads and after applying the classification statistics we obtained 316 miRNAs. Among them, using conservative identification, we found that 68 miRNAs (55 of these are confirmed to match known sheep and goat miRNAs in miRBase ) are conserved in goat and have been reported in NCBI; the remaining 248 miRNA were conserved in other species but have not been reported in goat. Furthermore, we identified 22 novel miRNAs. Both the known and novel miRNAs were confirmed by a second sequencing using the same method as was used in the first. This study confirmed the authenticity of 316 known miRNAs and the discovery of 22 novel miRNAs in goat. We found that the miRNAs that were co-expressed in goat and sheep were located in the same region of the respective chromosomes and may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. Identificaton of novel miRNAs resulted in significant enrichment of the repertoire of goat miRNAs. PMID:23236360

Liu, Zhihong; Xiao, Hongmei; Li, Huipeng; Zhao, Yanhong; Lai, Shuangying; Yu, Xinlei; Cai, Ting; Du, Chenguang; Zhang, Wenguang; Li, Jinquan

2012-01-01

380

Identification of Conserved and Novel microRNAs in Cashmere Goat Skin by Deep Sequencing  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that play significant roles in regulating the expression of the post-transcriptional skin and hair follicle gene. In recent years, extensive studies on these microRNAs have been carried out in mammals such as mice, rats, pigs and cattle. By comparison, the number of microRNAs that have been identified in goats is relatively low; and in particular, the miRNAs associated with the processes of skin and hair follicle development remain largely unknown. In this study, areas of skin where the cashmere grows in anagen were sampled. A total of 10,943,292 reads were obtained using Solexa sequencing, a high-throughput sequencing technology. From 10,644,467 reads, we identified 3,381 distinct reads and after applying the classification statistics we obtained 316 miRNAs. Among them, using conservative identification, we found that 68 miRNAs (55 of these are confirmed to match known sheep and goat miRNAs in miRBase ) are conserved in goat and have been reported in NCBI; the remaining 248 miRNA were conserved in other species but have not been reported in goat. Furthermore, we identified 22 novel miRNAs. Both the known and novel miRNAs were confirmed by a second sequencing using the same method as was used in the first. This study confirmed the authenticity of 316 known miRNAs and the discovery of 22 novel miRNAs in goat. We found that the miRNAs that were co-expressed in goat and sheep were located in the same region of the respective chromosomes and may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. Identificaton of novel miRNAs resulted in significant enrichment of the repertoire of goat miRNAs.

Lai, Shuangying; Yu, Xinlei; Cai, Ting; Du, Chenguang; Zhang, Wenguang; Li, Jinquan

2012-01-01

381

Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.  

PubMed

Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of ?s1-casein and also of ?-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of ?-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, ?s2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of ?s2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. PMID:24704223

Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

2014-06-01

382

The isolation and characterization of a telomerase immortalized goat trophoblast cell line.  

PubMed

Trophoblast cells play vital roles in the processes of embryonic implantation and placentation. Many toxicological compounds can induce the malfunction of trophoblast cells, resulting in implantation failure or early embryonic loss. The finite lifespan of primary trophoblast cells limits investigation of the long-term effects of some toxicological compounds on trophoblast cells in vitro. In this study, primary goat trophoblast cells were purified by density gradient centrifugation and specific immuno-affinity purification. Then, the purified cells were immortalized through transfection of a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. hTERT-transfected goat trophoblast cells (hTERT-GTCs) could steadily express hTERT gene and exhibit higher telomerase activity, and persistently proliferate without any signs of senescence up to 50 passages. The immortalized goat trophoblast cells still possessed the basic and key properties of normal primary goat trophoblast cells to express the specific intracellular marker cytokeratin 7 (CK-7) and secrete chorionic gonadotrophin ?-subunit (CG-?) and placental lactogen (PL). Further studies showed that the immortalized goat trophoblast cells expressed vimentin and non-classical MHC class I antigen and exhibited invasive phenotype, suggesting that the immortalized goat trophoblasts resembled human extravillous trophoblasts. In addition, this cell line did not show neoplastic transformation either in vivo or in vitro. We concluded the immortalized goat trophoblast cells by hTERT transfection retained the basic and key characteristics of primary trophoblast cells and may provide a useful model to study the effects of some toxicological compounds on trophoblast cells. PMID:24112823

Dong, F; Huang, Y; Li, W; Zhao, X; Zhang, W; Du, Q; Zhang, H; Song, X; Tong, D

2013-12-01

383

Ultrasonographic examination of the small intestine, large intestine and greater omentum in 30 Saanen goats.  

PubMed

The small and large intestine of 30 healthy Saanen goats were examined ultrasonographically using a 5.0 MHz-linear transducer. The goats were examined on the right side, from the eighth rib to the caudal aspect of the flank. The small and large intestine could be easily differentiated. The descending duodenum could be imaged in 19 goats, and the jejunum and ileum seen in all goats. The jejunum and ileum were most often seen in cross-section and rarely in longitudinal section in the ventral region of the right flank. The intestinal contents were usually homogenously echoic, and active motility was observed in all the goats. The diameter of the small intestine was 0.8-2.7 cm (1.6 [0.33] cm). The spiral ansa of the colon was imaged in all the goats, and in 21 the caecum was also seen. Both these sections of large intestine were most commonly seen in the dorsal region of the right flank. The spiral ansa of the colon was easily identified by its spiral arrangement of centripetal and centrifugal gyri, which had a garland-like appearance. Because of intraluminal gas, only the wall of the colon closest to the transducer could be imaged. The diameter of the spiral colon ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 cm (1.1 [0.24] cm). Usually only the wall of the caecum closest to the transducer could be imaged and it appeared as a thick, echoic, slightly undulating line. The greater omentum could be seen in all the goats. PMID:20826096

Braun, U; Steininger, K; Tschuor, A; Hässig, M

2011-09-01

384

Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of alpine ibex.  

PubMed

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

2014-06-01

385

Comparative diagnostic potential of three serological tests for abortive Q fever in goat herds.  

PubMed

Performances of an ELISA, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a complement fixation test (CFT) were assessed for detecting antibodies against Coxiella burnetii after Q fever abortions in naturally infected goats. The goal of the study was to provide information useful for veterinary serodiagnosis in regard to categories of goats either experiencing Q fever abortion or not, blood sampling times and recommended cut-offs. The study was conducted on eight goat herds with evidence of C. burnetii abortions. In each herd, at least 5 goats that had aborted and 10 goats prior to parturition or at term were monitored 15, 30 and 60 days (D15, D30, D60) after the onset of Q fever abortion. The overall CFT results distribution did not differ between the two groups of goats and showed poor agreement with the ELISA results. In contrast, the ELISA and IFA results revealed comparable significant differences, but overall the ELISA test was slightly more sensitive than the IFA test. Seroprevalence, according to ELISA and IFA respectively, was higher in the aborting (88% and 82%) than in the non-aborting group (60% and 50%). High levels of serum antibodies were detected in goats post-abortion with an average of 114 %OD using ELISA and a log10(titer) of 2.4 using IFA. Strongly positive ELISA (%OD>80) and positive IFA results (log10(titers)>1.9) were significantly associated with abortion. Sampling on D15 gave the best association with ORs of 10 for ELISA and 6 for IFA. The practical interest of these results is discussed. PMID:17532581

Rousset, Elodie; Durand, Benoit; Berri, Mustapha; Dufour, Philippe; Prigent, Myriam; Russo, Pierre; Delcroix, Thibault; Touratier, Anne; Rodolakis, Annie; Aubert, Michel

2007-10-01

386

Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats.  

PubMed

Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. A study was completed in which supplemental feeds (75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets and a commercial pellet, all fed at 0.91 kg/head/day) were offered to thirty growing male Spanish goats (9 months old, 20.6 ± 2.8 kg, 10/treatment) grazing perennial warm-season grass pastures in Fort Valley, GA, from September to November, 2010. Fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals weekly to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, and animal weights were recorded at the start and end of the trial. After 11 weeks grazing, animals were slaughtered for recovery, counting, and speciation of adult GIN from the abomasum and small intestines. There was no difference in FEC between goats fed the 75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets, but both groups had lower (P<0.05) FEC than the goats fed the commercial pellets from days 35 to 77. The PCV values were not affected by the dietary treatments. Animal gain per day averaged 102.0, 77.2, and 53.3g for goats fed 95% SL, commercial, and 75% SL pellets, respectively (P<0.05). The 95% SL leaf meal pellet goats had 93.0 and 47.3% fewer (P<0.05) total (male+female) adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, respectively, than control animals, while only male H. contortus were lower (47.6%; P<0.05) in 75% SL-fed goats compared with commercial pellet-fed animals. Feeding supplemental SL leaf meal pellets improved animal performance (95% SL pellets) and reduced worm burdens (75 and 95% SL pellets) in young grazing goats and is a useful tool for natural GIN control in small ruminants. PMID:22985929

Gujja, S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Shaik, S A; Lambert, B D; Cherry, N M; Burke, J M

2013-01-16

387

Role of the goat K222-PrP(C) polymorphic variant in prion infection resistance.  

PubMed

The prion protein-encoding gene (prnp) strongly influences the susceptibility of small ruminants to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Hence, selective breeding programs have been implemented to increase sheep resistance to scrapie. For goats, epidemiological and experimental studies have provided some association between certain polymorphisms of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) and resistance to TSEs. Among them, the Q/K polymorphism at PrP(C) codon 222 (Q/K222) yielded the most promising results. In this work, we investigated the individual effects of the K222-PrP(C) variant on the resistance/susceptibility of goats to TSEs. For that purpose, we generated two transgenic mouse lines, expressing either the Q222 (wild type) or K222 variant of goat PrP(C). Both mouse lines were challenged intracerebrally with a panel of TSE isolates. Transgenic mice expressing the wild-type (Q222) allele were fully susceptible to infection with all tested isolates, whereas transgenic mice expressing similar levels of the K222 allele were resistant to all goat scrapie and cattle BSE isolates but not to goat BSE isolates. Finally, heterozygous K/Q222 mice displayed a reduced susceptibility to the tested panel of scrapie isolates. These results demonstrate a highly protective effect of the K222 variant against a broad panel of different prion isolates and further reinforce the argument supporting the use of this variant in breeding programs to control TSEs in goat herds. Importance: The objective of this study was to determine the role of the K222 variant of the prion protein (PrP) in the susceptibility/resistance of goats to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Results showed that transgenic mice expressing the goat K222-PrP polymorphic variant are resistant to scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents. This protective effect was also observed in heterozygous Q/K222 animals. Therefore, the single amino acid exchange from Q to K at codon 222 of the cellular prion protein provides resistance against TSEs. All the results presented here support the view that the K222 polymorphic variant is a good candidate for selective breeding programs to control and eradicate scrapie in goat herds. PMID:24352451

Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Alamillo, Elia; Miranda, Alberto; Prieto, Irene; Bossers, Alex; Andreoletti, Olivier; Torres, Juan María

2014-03-01

388

Association analysis between variants in KISS1 gene and litter size in goats  

PubMed Central

Background Kisspeptins are the peptide products of KISS1 gene, which operate via the G - protein-coupled receptor GPR54. These peptides have emerged as essential upstream regulators of neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the major hypothalamic node for the stimulatory control of the hypothalamic–pituitary– gonadal (HPG) axis. The present study detected the polymorphisms of caprine KISS1 gene in three goat breeds and investigated the associations between these genetic markers and litter size. Results Three goat breeds (n = 680) were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions with their intron–exon boundaries and the proximal flanking regions of KISS1 gene by DNA sequencing and PCR–RFLP. Eleven novel SNPs (g.384G>A, g.1147T>C, g.1417G>A, g.1428_1429delG, g.2124C>T, g.2270C>T, g.2489T>C, g.2510G>A, g.2540C>T, g.3864_3865delCA and g.3885_3886insACCCC) were identified. It was shown that Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong goat breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium at g.384G>A locus (P < 0.05). Both g.2510G>A and g.2540C>T loci were closely linked in Xinong Saanen (SN), Guanzhong (GZ) and Boer (BG) goat breeds (r2 > 0.33). The g.384G>A, g.2489T>C, g.2510G>A and g.2540C>T SNPs were associated with litter size (P<0.05). Individuals with AATTAATT combinative genotype of SN breed (SC) and TTAATT combinative genotype of BG breed (BC) had higher litter size than those with other combinative genotypes in average parity. The results extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the caprine KISS1 gene, which might contribute to goat genetic resources and breeding. Conclusions This study explored the genetic polymorphism of KISS1 gene, and indicated that four SNPs may play an important role in litter size. Their genetic mechanism of reproduction in goat breeds should be further investigated. The female goats with SC1 (AATTAATT) and BC7 (TTAATT) had higher litter size than those with other combinative genotypes in average parity and could be used for the development of new breeds of prolific goats. Further research on a large number of animals is required to confirm the link with increased prolificacy in goats.

2013-01-01

389

Genetic variability and bottleneck studies in Zalawadi, Gohilwadi and Surti goat breeds of Gujarat (India) using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian goat breeds are recognized as an invaluable component of the world's goat genetic resources. Microsatellite pairs were chosen from the list suggested by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) and amplified in two multiplexes (Set-I: 7 microsatellites and Set-II: 11 microsatellites) for automated fluorescence genotyping to assess bottleneck and analyze genetic variability and genetic distances within and between three

Shadma Fatima; C. D. Bhong; D. N. Rank; C. G. Joshi

2008-01-01

390

Effect of antioxidants on microscopic semen parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities in Angora goat semen following cryopreservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the antioxidants glutamine and hyaluronan and the inclusion of different levels on microscopic semen parameters, lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant activities following the freeze–thawing of Angora goat semen. Ejaculates collected from three Angora goat bucks, were evaluated and pooled at 37°C. The semen samples which were diluted with a

Mustafa Numan Bucak; Serpil Sar?özkan; Pürhan Barbaros Tuncer; P?nar Alk?m Uluta?; Halil ?brahim Akçada?

2009-01-01

391

The effect of antioxidants on post-thawed Angora goat ( Capra hircus ancryrensis) sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the antioxidants curcumin, inositol and carnitine on microscopic seminal parameters, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant activities of sperm, following the freeze-thawing of Angora goat semen. Ejaculates were collected via artificial vagina from three Angora goats and microscopically evaluated and pooled at 37°C. The pooled semen samples were diluted

Mustafa Numan Bucak; Serpil Sar?özkan; Pürhan Barbaros Tuncer; Fatih Sakin; Ahmet Ate??ahin; Recai Kulaks?z; Mesut Çevik

2010-01-01

392

Divergent mtDNA lineages of goats in an Early Neolithic site, far from the initial domestication areas  

PubMed Central

Goats were among the first farm animals domesticated, ?10,500 years ago, contributing to the rise of the “Neolithic revolution.” Previous genetic studies have revealed that contemporary domestic goats (Capra hircus) show far weaker intercontinental population structuring than other livestock species, suggesting that goats have been transported more extensively. However, the timing of these extensive movements in goats remains unknown. To address this question, we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 19 ancient goat bones (7,300–6,900 years old) from one of the earliest Neolithic sites in southwestern Europe. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two highly divergent goat lineages coexisted in each of the two Early Neolithic layers of this site. This finding indicates that high mtDNA diversity was already present >7,000 years ago in European goats, far from their areas of initial domestication in the Near East. These results argue for substantial gene flow among goat populations dating back to the early neolithisation of Europe and for a dual domestication scenario in the Near East, with two independent but essentially contemporary origins (of both A and C domestic lineages) and several more remote and/or later origins.

Fernandez, Helena; Hughes, Sandrine; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Helmer, Daniel; Hodgins, Greg; Miquel, Christian; Hanni, Catherine; Luikart, Gordon; Taberlet, Pierre

2006-01-01

393

SEASONAL AND ALTITUDINAL VARIATIONS ON ADAPTATION, GROWTH AND TESTICULAR ACTIVITY OF BALADI GOATS WITH VERTICAL TRANSHUMANCE IN EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of transhumance on body growth and adaptation parameters in the Baladi goat, and testicular activity in bucks were studied over a period of one year. Thirty two animals were allocated to 4 similar groups according to age (100 days for 8 male and 8 female kids, and 3-4 years for 8 bucks and 8 does) and sex. Goats

S. Abi Saab; E. Hajj; B. Abi Salloum; E. Rahme

394

Physiopathological Effects of the Administration of Chronic Cyanide to Growing Goats – A Model for Ingestion of Cyanogenic Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of cyanogenic plants, such as cassava and sorghum, has been associated with goitre and tropical pancreatic diabetes in both humans and animals. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the toxic effects on the thyroid and pancreas in growing goats of prolonged exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN). Thirty-four male goats were divided into five groups dosed

B. Soto-Blanco; S. L. Górniak; E. T. Kimura

2001-01-01

395

Concentrations of sulfadoxine and trimethoprim in plasma, lymph fluids and some tissues 24 h after intramuscular administration to angora goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of sulfadoxine and trimethoprim in plasma, lymph, and some tissues in goats after administration of a single recommended therapeutic dose. Five healthy, adult Angora goats were used. The drug combination, containing 200 mg sulfadoxine and 40 mg trimethoprim per millilitre, was given as a single IM injection at the recommended dose

B. Tra?; M. Elmas; E. Yazar; A. L. Ba?; E. Keskin; Z. Da?ci

1998-01-01

396

Subclinical Mastitis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus caprae and Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolated from Two Italian Goat Herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 156 goats from 2 commercial dairy goat farms were monitored for intramammary infections during an entire lactation. Most of the infections (80.7%) observed were due to coagulase-negative staph- ylococci (CNS) species. In herd 1, nearly all of the infec- tions (96%) were due to CNS species, with Staphylococ- cus caprae (SCAP) being the most common specific pathogen

P. Moroni; G. Pisoni; M. Antonini; G. Ruffo; S. Carli; G. Varisco; P. Boettcher

2005-01-01

397

A Dig into the Past Mitochondrial Diversity of Corsican Goats Reveals the Influence of Secular Herding Practices  

PubMed Central

The goat (Capra hircus) is one of the earliest domesticated species ca. 10,500 years ago in the Middle-East where its wild ancestor, the bezoar (Capra aegagrus), still occurs. During the Neolithic dispersal, the domestic goat was then introduced in Europe, including the main Mediterranean islands. Islands are interesting models as they maintain traces of ancient colonization, historical exchanges or of peculiar systems of husbandry. Here, we compare the mitochondrial genetic diversity of both medieval and extant goats in the Island of Corsica that presents an original and ancient model of breeding with free-ranging animals. We amplified a fragment of the Control Region for 21 medieval and 28 current goats. Most of them belonged to the A haplogroup, the most worldwide spread and frequent today, but the C haplogroup is also detected at low frequency in the current population. Present Corsican goats appeared more similar to medieval goats than to other European goat populations. Moreover, 16 out of the 26 haplotypes observed were endemic to Corsica and the inferred demographic history suggests that the population has remained constant since the Middle Ages. Implications of these results on management and conservation of endangered Corsican goats currently decimated by a disease are addressed.

Hughes, Sandrine; Fernandez, Helena; Cucchi, Thomas; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Casabianca, Francois; Istria, Daniel; Pompanon, Francois; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hanni, Catherine; Taberlet, Pierre

2012-01-01

398

Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7°C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276

Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

2014-08-01

399

Evaluation of the efficacy of moxidectin in a herd of goats after long-standing consistent use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were carried out in a herd of goats, where moxidectin had been consistently used for a long-standing period, in order to monitor its field efficacy. Trial I was carried out after the drug had been used for 4 years\\/13 times and trial II after it had been used for 7 years\\/23 times. In each trial, 90 goats naturally

E. Papadopoulos; V. S. Mavrogianni; S. Ptochos; S. Tsakalidis; G. C. Fthenakis

2005-01-01

400

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and Mannheimia haemolytica-associated acute respiratory disease of goats and sheep in Afar Region, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In April 2002, an investigation into an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in goats and sheep in Milae (Afar), Ethiopia was conducted. The investigation involved 4 flocks (722 sheep and 750 goats in total) and comprised the disease history, clinical and post-mortem examination, and microbiological analysis of nasal swabs, lung lesions, and pleural fluid samples. Clinically diseased animals exhibited

G. Shiferaw; S. Tariku; G. Ayelet; Z. Abebe

401

Morphological and molecular characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus from goat isolates in Iran.  

PubMed

Hydatidosis is considered to be an important economic and human public health problem in Iran, where a variety of animals act as intermediate hosts. There is limited information about the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats. In this study, 20 isolates of E. granulosus obtained from goats were characterised by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and morphology of the metacestode. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences were evaluated, and the sequence analysis indicated two genotypes within the isolates. 17 samples were identified as G1 strain, and 3 isolates were identified as G6 strain. The results of the morphological studies support the findings of the molecular studies. Two types of rostellar hooks were observed in the goat isolates, in agreement with the strain identification. Type 1 hooks were morphologically similar to those of the common sheep strains, whereas the dimensions of the hooks in type 2 were similar to those normally found in the camel strain. The morphological results suggest that Echinococcus of goat origin is phenotypically similar to either the sheep (G1) or the camel (G6) strains. Further, these results suggest that the transmission of the G1 genotype between sheep and goats seems to be the predominant mode of transmission, but further work is required to verify this. PMID:22484229

Rajabloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Jalousian, Fatemeh

2012-08-01

402

Short communication: Incorporation of inulin and transglutaminase in fermented goat milk containing probiotic bacteria.  

PubMed

Goat milk is a good carrier for probiotic bacteria; however, it is difficult to produce fermented goat milk with a consistency comparable to that of fermented cow milks. It can be improved by the addition of functional stabilizers, such as inulin, or treatment with transglutaminase. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cold storage of inulin and microbial transglutaminase on the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 in fermented goat milk. Microbiological analysis included the determination of the probiotic bacteria cell count in fermented milk samples, whereas physico-chemical analysis included the analysis of fat content, titratable acidity, and pH of raw, pasteurized, and fermented goat milk samples. No positive influence of inulin or microbial transglutaminase on the viability of probiotics in fermented goat's milk samples was observed. Nevertheless, the population of probiotics remained above 6 log cfu/g after 8 wk of storage at 5°C. PMID:24704222

Mituniewicz-Ma?ek, A; Ziarno, M; Dmytrów, I

2014-06-01

403

The combined toxicity of Aristolochia bracteata and Cadaba rotundifolia to goats.  

PubMed

The sequential development of the clinical signs and lesions in the organs of Nubian goats fed on Aristolochia bracteata (Um Galagel) and Cadaba rotundifolia (Kurmut) and their mixture in certain proportions was studied. Kidney and liver function was tested and the results correlated with pathological and clinical changes. Diarrhea, dyspnea, tympany, arching of the back, and loss of condition and hair from the back were the prominent signs of Aristolochia poisoning in goats. The main pathological changes were hemorrhages in the lungs, heart and kidneys, fatty change and congestion in the liver, catarrhal abomasitis and enteritis, and straw-colored fluid in serous cavities. An increase in GOT activity and ammonia and urea concentrations, and a decrease in the concentrations of total protein and magnesium were detected in the serum of Aristolochia-poisoned goats. The clinical signs in goats fed with C rotundifolia were pronounced depression, diarrhea, frothing at the mouth, dyspnea, ataxia, loss of condition and recumbency. The lesions consisted of diffuse hemorrhage in the abomasum, heart and lungs, catarrhal enteritis, erosions on the intestinal mucous membrane, degeneration and/or necrosis of the cells of the renal tubules, and fatty change and necrosis in the liver. These changes were correlated with those in the serum constituents and blood cells. The effects of A bracteata and C rotundifolia were additive in goats. PMID:3576945

el Dirdiri, N I; Barakat, S E; Adam, S E

1987-04-01

404

Hydrology of the Goat Lake watershed, Snohomish County, Washington, 1982-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Goat Lake watershed in Snohomish County, Washington, functions as an ' experimental watershed ' for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs , the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. (USGS)

Dion, N. P.; Ebbert, J. C.; Poole, J. E.; Peck, B. S.

1989-01-01

405

Relative roles of photoperiodic and nutritional cues in modulating ovarian activity in goats.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of nutrition and its interaction with the photoperiod on the ovarian activity of Criollo goats. In early February (22 degrees NL, anestrous season) goats were randomly assigned to the two experimental groups: high (HN; n=10) and low (LN; n=10) nutrition goats. The HN group was fed in mixed prairies with grass and clover (17.3-/+7.5% of crude protein, CP; 66.3-/+5.7% dry organic matter, DOM) and received 150 g of concentrate (12% CP) per goat and day. The LN group received only corn stubble (6.2-/+0.7% CP, 53.7-/+1.9% DOM). Serum progesterone (P(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations were measured (RIA) at three selected periods of seasonal anestrous: early (8-24(th) March), mid (13(th) April - 3(rd) May) and late (26(th) May - 14(th) June) anestrous. Body weight, body condition and body condition index were determined at the beginning of the study and every 14 days. Body weight was positively correlated with serum T(3) (r=0.704; p<0.05). The percentage of cycling does during the three examined periods was higher (p<0.05) in the HN group than in the LN group (80 vs. 30%, 80 vs. 20%, and 60 vs. 10%, respectively). The high nutrition level increased reproductive activity of Criollo goats during all three periods of the anestrous season including deep anestrous. PMID:19997480

Urrutia-Morales, Jorge; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Escobar-Medina, Francisco J; Gamez-Vazquez, Hector G; Ramirez-Andrade, Bertha M; Diaz-Gomez, Marta O; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

2009-11-01

406

Expression profile of HSP genes during different seasons in goats (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

The present study has demonstrated the expression of HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and UBQ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in three different age groups (Groups I, II, and III with age of 0-2, 2-5, and >5 years, respectively) of goats of tropical and temperate regions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to investigate mRNA expression of examined factors. Specificity of the desired products was documented using analysis of the melting temperature and high-resolution gel electrophoresis to verify that the transcripts are of the exact molecular size predicted. The mRNA expression of HSP60, HSP90, and UBQ was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in all age groups during peak summer season as compared with peak winter season in both tropical and temperate region goats. HSP70 mRNA expression was significantly higher (P < 0.05) during summer season as compared with winter season in tropical region goats. However, in the temperate region, in goats from all the three age groups studied, a non-significant difference of HSP70 expression between summer and winter seasons was noticed. In conclusion, results demonstrate that (1) HSP genes are expressed in caprine PBMCs and (2) higher expression of HSPs during thermal stress suggest possible involvement of them to ameliorate deleterious effect of thermal stress so as to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis in goats. PMID:22535151

Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Maurya, Divakar; Yadav, Vijay Prakash; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Singh, Gyanendra; Mohan, Nitai Haridas; Bhure, Sanjeev Kumar; Das, Bikash Chandra; Bag, Sadhan; Mahapatra, Ramkrishna; Taru Sharma, Guttalu; Sarkar, Mihir

2012-12-01

407

Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in the goat. I. Clinical signs and clinical pathology.  

PubMed

A strain of Trypanosoma evansi isolated from an equine case of surra in Mindanao, Philippines was used to infect intravenously two groups (A and B) of five male goats aged 8-10 months. Animals of groups A and B received 5000 and 50 000 trypanosomes, respectively, and five further animals (group C) served as uninfected controls. Four of the 10 infected goats died 8-78 days after inoculation. Group C goats gained weight (mean 22.8 g/day) while infected goats in groups A and B lost weight (means of 21.4 and 45.0 g/day, respectively). Parasitaemia fluctuated regularly between peaks and troughs, with repeated periods of about 6 days during which no trypanosomes were detected in the blood. Clinical signs and clinico-pathological changes in infected goats were not pathognomonic in the absence of parasites in the blood, and leucocytosis was not a reliable indicator of infection. It was concluded that in endemic areas fluctuating fever, progressive emaciation, anaemia, coughing, testicular enlargement and diarrhoea are suggestive of surra; confirmation, however, may necessitate examination of blood every few days for trypanosomes, and possibly other diagnostic tests. PMID:16213515

Dargantes, A P; Reid, S A; Copeman, D B

2005-11-01

408

Association between sexual precocity and alleles of KISS-1 and GPR54 genes in goats.  

PubMed

KISS-1 and GPR54 were regarded as key regulators for the puberty onset and fundamental gatekeepers of sexual maturation in mammals. To explore the possible association between variations in KISS-1 and GPR54 with sexual precocity, mutation screening of exon 1 of KISS-1 and exon 1, exon 3, and partial exon 5 of GPR54 was performed in a sexual precocious breed (Jining Grey goats) and sexual late-maturing breeds (Inner Mongolia Cashmere, Angora, and Boer goats) by PCR-SSCP. The results showed that five novel mutations were identified in exon 1 and partial exon 5 of GPR54 including C96 T, T173C, G176A, G825A, and C981 T. The Jining Grey goats with genotype BB or AB had 1.07 (P < 0.05) or 0.40 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with AA. The Jining Grey goats with genotype DD or CD had 1.80 (P < 0.05) or 0.55 (P < 0.05) kids more than CC, respectively. The present study preliminarily showed an association between alleles B and D of GPR54 with high litter size and sexual precocity in Jining Grey goats. PMID:19544215

Feng, T; Zhao, Y Z; Chu, M X; Zhang, Y J; Fang, L; Di, R; Cao, G L; Li, N

2009-01-01

409

PiggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer in Cashmere goat fetal fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

PiggyBac (PB) has recently been found to be functional in various organisms. To verify and exploit its application in the cashmere goat, a PB transposon system including donor and helper vector of was developed, in which the EGFP gene in donor of vector was used as reporter. Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts cells (GFFs) were transfected with the PB transposon system and the efficiency of gene transfer was determined. Compared with random integration, PB-mediated EGFP expression levels increased 7.78-fold in the GFFs, confirming that the PB transposon system constructed successfully mediated efficient foreign gene integration in the GFFs. To further investigate the characteristics of PB-mediated integration instance, PB integration site distribution in the goat genome was examined. The results showed that PB had a preference for AT rich regions of the goat genome. Thus this study confirms the function of PB transposon in GFFs and provides a potential genetic tool for producing transgenic goats. PMID:22738962

Bai, Ding-Ping; Yang, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yu-Lin

2012-01-01

410

Investigation of individual heterozygosity correlated to growth traits in Tongshan Black-boned goat.  

PubMed

Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms were used for genotyping of 176 Tongshan Black-boned goats, which are Chinese indigenous goat colony for meat production. The average individual heterozygosity was 0.292. To assess the correlations between individual heterozygosity and growth in Tongshan Black-boned goat individuals, and the potential of using individual heterozygosity as an indicator of growth, the data of growth traits, including body weight, height at withers, body length, chest girth and cannon circumference, were collected. Significant correlations were observed between individual heterozygosity and body weight, height at withers, body length, heart girth, cannon circumference (P < 0.05). All the significant regression showed positive slope with R square values ranged from 0.0251 to 0.0368. These data suggests that individual heterozygosity is positively correlated with growth traits in Tongshan Black-boned goat individuals and associative overdominance may affect Tongshan Black-boned goat growth significantly. Therefore it is possible to use individual heterozygosity as an indicator of growth. Our results also provide a strong support to the overdominance hypothesis. PMID:24057243

Han, Yan Guo; Liu, Gui Qiong; Jiang, Xun Ping; Liang, Guo Ming; He, Chun Bo; Wang, Dang Wei; Wu, Yan; Xiang, Xing Long; Hu, Jie; Peng, Yu Qin

2013-11-01

411

Forage to concentrate ratio in Jonica breed goats: influence on lactation curve and milk composition.  

PubMed

The aim of the work is to evaluate the effects of different forage to concentrate rations on milk yield, composition and renneting properties of milk of Jonica breed goats. Twenty-four Jonica goats received diets with forage to concentrate ratio of 35/65, 50/50 or 65/35, providing respectively a low, medium and high energy level. Goats were divided into three homogenous groups and confined in individual pens for 152 days to assess the daily feed intake and milk yield and composition. The main conclusions show that animal body weight did not change significantly with the increasing levels of forage, whereas significant differences (P<0.05) for daily dry matter intake were observed in relation to the evolution of lactation. Milk production was influenced (P<0.05) by dietary treatments and was higher in the diet with the greatest energy level. Forage to concentrate ratios did not significantly affect milk characteristics, milk renneting properties, initial production, rate of increase until reaching the peak and rate of decline after peak production. However, the day of peak production and peak production of goats were linearly reduced when the level of forage increased within the diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that both forage to concentrate ratio and energy level improve goat's production without influencing the milk composition. PMID:19152715

Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Dario, Marco; Laudadio, Vito

2009-02-01

412

Genetic structuring of nine Indian domestic goat breeds based on SNPs identified in IGF-1 gene.  

PubMed

The caprine Insulin like Growth Factor1 (IGF1) gene was analyzed for identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genetic structuring of Indian goat breeds. A panel of 80 samples belonging to nine Indian goat breeds (Capra hircus) including three large sized breeds (Jamunapari, Beetal and Jakhrana); three medium sized breeds (Sirohi, Barbari, and Osmanabadi) and three small sized breeds (Black Bengal, Changthangi, and Gaddi) were screened for SNP identification and diversity analysis. The comparative gene sequence analysis of all the nine goat breeds studied revealed a total of 18 SNPs in IGF1 gene. All the nucleotide changes were found to be synonymous. The mean observed heterozygosity was found to be maximum (0.074) in Sirohi, Beetal, Osmanabadi, and Gaddi breeds of goat, whereas it is found to be minimum (0.019) in Black Bengal breed of goat. The rest of the breeds were intermediate in terms of heterozygosity. The same has been confirmed by allele frequency distribution across the studied loci. Barbari and Gaddi were found to be more differentiated (0.0123), Changthangi and Jamunapari were least differentiated (0.00110) based on Nei's genetic distance. PMID:23534960

Sharma, Anurodh; Dutt, Gautam; Jayakumar, S; Saroha, Vinita; Verma, N K; Dixit, S P

2013-01-01

413

A prospective study on histochemical observation of thyroid gland at prepubertal Black Bengal goat.  

PubMed

In the present study, Period Acid Schiff (PAS), Verhoeff's and Van Gieson stains were used in the Department of Anatomy and Histology to observe the histochemical architecture of thyroid gland at prepubertal Black Bengal goat. Thyroid follicular cells were cuboidal in prepubertal goats. These cells showed moderate PAS-positive reaction in prepubertal group. PAS activity in the basement membrane of the thyroid follicles was mild in prepubertal Black Bengal goats. The lumen of the thyroid follicles contained homogenous intense PAS positive colloid materials in prepubertal goats. Parafollicular cells showed intense PAS positive reaction for glycogen in prepubertal goats. Capsule, connective tissue septa, interfollicular connective tissue of the thyroid gland mainly composed of collagen fiber. The wall of blood vessels in the capsule and interfollicular blood capillaries was composed of collagen fiber and elastic fiber. Elastic fiber formed the inner layer of the blood vessels showed blue black to black color. Inner layer of the capsule penetrated the gland parenchyma divided the gland into indistinct lobe and lobules. Collagen fiber distributed around the thyroid follicle formed the interfollicular stroma of the thyroid gland. The results of the present study can also be used to compare with that of human specially in AutoImmune Thyroiditis (AIT). PMID:12894043

Adhikary, G N; Quasem, M A; Das, S K; Khalil, M

2003-07-01

414

Phylogenetic analysis of Croatian orf viruses isolated from sheep and goats  

PubMed Central

Background The Orf virus (ORFV) is the prototype of the parapoxvirus genus and it primarily causes contagious ecthyma in goats, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. In this paper, we described the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the B2L gene of ORFV from two natural outbreaks: i) in autochthonous Croatian Cres-breed sheep and ii) on small family goat farm. Results Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the ORFV B2L gene showed that the Cro-Cres-12446/09 and Cro-Goat-11727/10 were not clustered together. Cro-Cres-12446/09 shared the highest similarity with ORFV NZ2 from New Zealand, and Ena from Japan; Cro-Goat-11727/10 was closest to the HuB from China and Taiping and Hoping from Taiwan. Conclusion Distinct ORFV strains are circulating in Croatia. Although ORFV infections are found ubiquitously wherever sheep and goats are farmed in Croatia, this is the first information on genetic relatedness of any Croatian ORFV with other isolates around the world.

2010-01-01

415

Effect of three anthelmentics on disposition kinetics of florfenicol in goats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic aspects of florfenicol (FLO) were investigated via intravenous (I.V.) and intramuscular (I.M.) injections in five goats at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) b.wt. Animals were pre-treated with albendazole orally in a dose of 2.5 mg kg(-1) b.wt, ivermectin or rafoxanide subcutaneously in a dose 0.2 and 7.5 mg kg(-1) b.wt, respectively. Florfenicol was injected intramuscularly two hours following anthelmentic administration and blood samples were taken by jugular venapuncture at standardized intervals. The concentrations of florfenicol (FLO) in serum were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The obtained results revealed that ivermectin administration did not induce a significant difference in serum florfenicol concentration between anthelmentic-treated and non-treated goats. On the other hand, goats pre-treated with rafoxanide or albendazole showed a significant decrease in serum florfenicol level as compared to non-anthementic treated goats. The absorption half-life (t(½ab)), C(max), AUMC, AUC and systemic bioavailability (F%) are significantly decreased, whereas elimination half-life (t(½el)) and MRT are increased in goats pre-treated by the three tested anthementics. PMID:20863870

Atef, M; El-Gendi, A Y I; Amer, Aziza M; Abd El-Aty, A M

2010-12-01

416

Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality  

PubMed Central

Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg) and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance) effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection) in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance) effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population.

2011-01-01

417

Smallholders' perceptions of goat farming in southern Benin and opportunities for improvement.  

PubMed

To be successful, initiatives to improve smallholder's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. This paper identifies the objectives, constraints and needs of goat farmers in southern Benin and discusses their relevance to the development of improvement programmes. Between November and December 2005, structured questionnaires, focus group discussions and participant observation were used to collect information from 38 goat farmers in two selected locations. Goats were kept mainly for sale whenever cash was needed. Traits related to reproduction, to behaviour, to health and to meat production were considered equally important and were ranked very highly by goat keepers. Increased net income per flock through increased number of marketable animals is the derived breeding objective from the trait analysis. Disease outbreaks resulting in high mortality, poor housing, and feed shortages were, in descending order, the most important problems. It was concluded that the development of initiatives to improve management practices is an overriding priority. It will lead to increases in productivity in the short term and foster farmers' participation in the development of long-term improvement strategies, which should include selection and controlled mating. PMID:17941487

Dossa, L H; Wollny, C; Gauly, M

2007-01-01

418

Mammary remodeling in primiparous and multiparous dairy goats during lactation.  

PubMed

Milk production is generally lower but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than in multiparous (MP) goats. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study aimed to elucidate whether differences in lactational performance between PP and MP mammary glands are related to the time course of development and maintenance, not only of the mammary epithelial cell (MEC) population, but also of the mammary vasculature that sustains synthetic activity. Mammary biopsies were obtained from both mammary glands of 3 PP and 6 MP (>or=2 parity) dairy goats at parturition (d 1), d 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Gene transcription relating to MEC turnover and vascular function was quantified by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, mammary morphology was characterized (quantitative histology), and cell turnover was determined (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and Ki-67). Primiparous glands showed higher expression for the genes involved in angiogenesis; namely, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and angiopoietin 1 and 2 and their receptor, a few days after parturition (d 10). Primiparous glands also had higher rates of MEC proliferation in early lactation. It therefore appears that initiation of lactation is associated with development and growth of the mammary gland into early lactation, which continues for a longer period in PP compared with MP glands. In addition, MEC survival was found to be higher in PP glands throughout lactation, and MEC in PP glands underwent more extensive differentiation. This could explain the reported flatter lactation curve and higher lactation persistency in PP glands. Although some of the genes included in this study were differentially expressed in PP and MP glands during the course of lactation, it was not possible to identify any specific genomic factor(s) that could account for the differences between PP and MP glands with respect to mammary development and MEC survival during lactation. It remains to be established why parity number affects MEC and vascular development and survival during lactation, and, in particular, which regulatory mechanisms are involved. PMID:20338425

Safayi, S; Theil, P K; Elbrønd, V S; Hou, L; Engbaek, M; Nørgaard, J V; Sejrsen, K; Nielsen, M O

2010-04-01

419

Toxicokinetics, recovery, and metabolism of metamitron in goat.  

PubMed

Toxicokinetic behavior and metabolism studies of metamitron and its effect on the cytochrome P(450) content of liver microsomal pellet were carried out in black Bengal goats after a single oral administration at 278 mg kg(-1) and consecutive oral administration of 30 mg kg(-1) for 7 days. Metamitron was detected in the blood sample at 0.08 h (12.0 +/- 0.87 microg mL(-1)), maximum at 4 h (84.3 +/- 8.60 microg mL(-1)) and minimum (14.6 +/- 1.67 microg mL(-1)) at 36 h blood sample after a single oral administration. The absorption rate constant was 0.69 +/- 0.09 h(-1). The Vd(area) (2.00 +/- 0.08 L kg(-1)) and t(1/2)beta (8.98 +/- 0.70 h) values suggested wide distribution and long persistence of the compound in the body. The values of T approximately B (0.80 +/- 0.04), F(c) (0.55 +/- 0.01), Cl(B) (0.15 +/- 0.00 L kg(-1) h(-1)), and K(21) (0.41 +/- 0.03 h(-1)) suggested that metamitron retained in the blood compared to that in the tissue. Maximum concentration of metamitron residue was found in the adrenal gland followed by bile on day 4 of single oral administration. The higher Cl(R) compared to Cl(H) value indicated the excretion of the major portion (34-40%) through urine compared to feces (20-26%). Maximum concentrations of metamitron and its metabolite, deaminometamitron, were excreted through urine and feces at 48 and 24 h samples, respectively. The recovery of metamitron including its metabolite in terms of parent compound varied from 69.3 to 80.1%, of which contribution of metabolite in terms of parent compound varied from 53.1 to 63.0%. Repeated oral administration of metamitron at 30 mg kg(-1) for 7 days caused induction of the cytochrome P(450) content of liver microsomal pellet of goat, suggesting oxidative deamination of metamitron. PMID:13129305

Debnath, Shiben C; Kundu, Arindam; Das, Shyamal K; Mandal, Tapan K; Bhattacharyya, Anjan; Choudhury, Ashim; Chakraborty, Animesh K

2003-09-24

420

Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for mountain goat surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, whereas generally greater than 80 and greater than 60 percent of locations were within sampling units delineated in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks, respectively. Presence of GPS-collared mountain goats within the sampling frame of Olympic National Park varied by diurnal period (midday versus crepuscular), survey season (July versus September), and the interaction of diurnal period and survey season. Aerial surveys conducted in developing a sightability model for mountain goat aerial surveys indicated mean detection probabilities of 0.69, 0.76, and 0.87 in North Cascades, Olympic, and Mount Rainier National Parks, respectively. Higher detection probabilities in Mount Rainier likely reflected larger group sizes and more open habitat conditions than in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks. Use of sightability models will reduce biases of population estimates in each park, but resulting population estimates must still be considered minimum population estimates in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks because the current sampling frames do not encompass those populations completely. Because mountain goats were reliably present within the sampling frame in Mount Rainier National Park, we found no compelling need to adjust mountain goat survey boundaries in that park. Expanding survey coverage in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks to more reliably encompass the altitudinal distribution of mountain goats during summer would enhance population estimation accuracy in the future. Lowering the altitude boundary of mountain goat survey units by as little as 100 meters to 1,425 meters in Olympic National Park would increase mountain goat presence within the survey and reduce variation in counts related to movements of mountain goats outside the survey boundaries.

Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

2011-01-01

421

Efficiency of oestrous synchronization by GnRH, prostaglandins and socio-sexual cues in the north african maure goats.  

PubMed

This study aims to develop at different seasons, for local North African Maure goats, synchronizing protocols simultaneously to the standard 'S' protocol using progestagens in association with prostaglandins and gonadotropin. In late May, 40 goats were assigned to either the 'S' protocol or to a protocol where oestrus and ovulation were induced by the buck effect in single-injection progesterone-treated goats and provoking early luteolysis using prostaglandin 9 days after exposure to bucks 'B'. During the 72 h after the treatments ended, 15 and 5 goats expressed oestrus in the 'S' and 'B' protocols (p < 0.01). Mean time to oestrus was shorter for 'S' than for 'B' goats. Ovulation rate averaged 2.1 ± 0.22 and 1.60 ± 0.35 for, respectively, 'S' and 'B' goats (p > 0.05). During mid-September, 60 goats were assigned to either 'S' treatment, 'PGF' treatment where oestrus and ovulation were synchronized using two injections of prostaglandin 11 days apart or to 'GnRH' treatment where the goats had their oestrus and ovulation synchronized with a GnRH (day 0)-prostaglandin (day 6)-GnRH (day 9) sequence. More 'S' goats were detected in oestrus over the 96-h period after the end of the treatments (88.8, 73.7 and 55% in 'S', 'PGF' and 'GnRH' treatments, respectively; p < 0.05). Mean ovulation rates were 2.3 ± 0.27, 1.33 ± 0.27 and 1.33 ± 0.27 for, respectively, 'S', 'PGF' and 'GnRH' goats (p < 0.001). Despite a similar ovulatory response to 'S' protocol, efficiency of prostaglandin and GnRH-based treatments should be tested in mid-breeding season. PMID:24731229

Rekik, M; Ben Othmane, H; Lassoued, N; Sakly, C

2014-06-01

422

Polymorphism of bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene and its relationship with litter size of Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

Two pairs of primers (P1 and P2) were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of exon 2 and intron 2 of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) gene in both high fecundity breed (Jining Grey goat) and low fecundity breeds (Boer, Angora and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats) by single strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that no polymorphism was detected for exon 2 (primer P1) of BMP4 gene in four goat breeds. For intron 2 (primer P2), three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in Jining Grey and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats, two genotypes (AB and BB) in Angora goats, and only one genotype (AA) in Boer goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (2203G>A) of BMP4 gene in the genotype BB in comparison to the genotype AA. The differences of litter size between AA, AB and BB genotypes were not significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. A pair of primer (P3) was designed to detect polymorphism in the 3' flanking region of BMP4 gene that contained dinucleotide repeated sequence (CA) in the four goat breeds by microsatellite analysis. For primer P3, three genotypes (CC, CD and DD) were detected in four goat breeds. Sequencing revealed one more CA dinucleotide in genotype DD than in genotype CC. The Jining Grey does with genotype CC had 0.55 (P < 0.05) or 0.72 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with genotype CD or DD. These results preliminarily indicated that allele C of BMP4 gene is a potential DNA marker for improving litter size in goats. PMID:21140226

Chu, M X; Lu, L; Feng, T; Di, R; Cao, G L; Wang, P Q; Fang, L; Ma, Y H; Li, K

2011-10-01

423

Resistance to classical scrapie in experimentally challenged goats carrying mutation K222 of the prion protein gene  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type) and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002). Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats.

2012-01-01

424

Tracing the history of goat pastoralism: new clues from mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA in North Africa.  

PubMed

Valuable insights into the history of human populations have been obtained by studying the genetic composition of their domesticated species. Here we address some of the long-standing questions about the origin and subsequent movements of goat pastoralism in Northern Africa. We present the first study combining results from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome loci for the genetic characterization of a domestic goat population. Our analyses indicate a remarkably high diversity of maternal and paternal lineages in a sample of indigenous goats from the northwestern fringe of the African continent. Median-joining networks and a multidimensional scaling of ours and almost 2000 published mtDNA sequences revealed a considerable genetic affinity between goat populations from the Maghreb (Northwest Africa) and the Near East. It has been previously shown that goats have a weak phylogeographic structure compatible with high levels of gene flow, as demonstrated by the worldwide dispersal of the predominant mtDNA haplogroup A. In contrast, our results revealed a strong correlation between genetic and geographical distances in 20 populations from different regions of the world. The distribution of Y chromosome haplotypes in Maghrebi goats indicates a common origin for goat patrilines in both Mediterranean coastal regions. Taken together, these results suggest that the colonization and subsequent dispersal of domestic goats in Northern Africa was influenced by the maritime diffusion throughout the Mediterranean Sea and its coastal regions of pastoralist societies whose economy included goat herding. Finally, we also detected traces of gene flow between goat populations from the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula corroborating evidence of past cultural and commercial contacts across the Strait of Gibraltar. PMID:19729424

Pereira, Filipe; Queirós, Sara; Gusmão, Leonor; Nijman, Isäac J; Cuppen, Edwin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Davis, Simon J M; Nejmeddine, Fouad; Amorim, António

2009-12-01

425

Extensive female-mediated gene flow and low phylogeography among seventeen goat breeds in southwest china.  

PubMed

Indigenous Chinese goat mtDNA is highly diverse but lacks geographic specificity; however, whether gene flow or gene exchange contributed to this remains unknown. We reanalyzed a consensus fragment of 481 bp in the D-loop region from 339 individuals. The network and neighbor-joining tree revealed three divergent maternal haplogroups (A, B1, and B2) in 17 local breeds. Although high polymorphism resulting in 198 different haplotypes was observed (h = 0.984 ± 0.002; ? = 0.0336 ± 0.0008), neither the distribution of haplotypes nor PCA analysis revealed any obvious geographic structure in the local breeds. Extensive gene flow was widely detected among breeds from southwest China. High levels of gene exchange were detected between Qianbei Brown goats and the other breeds, indicating either more contribution or introgression to their gene pools. This study will be helpful in understanding the phylogeography and gene flow among the goat breeds of southwest China. PMID:24777493

Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Lin Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hong Ping

2014-08-01

426

Hydatidosis of sheep and goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir: prevalence and risk factors.  

PubMed

Abattoir survey was conducted on 1,053 sheep and 639 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia, between October 2007 and May 2008, with the objective to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis and assess the associated risk factors. Routine meat inspection procedure was employed to detect the presence of the cyst in visceral organs (lung, liver, and omentum). Hydatid cysts were found in 206 (19.94%) and 102 (16%) of the sheep and goats inspected, respectively. Statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the two species. Likewise, there was significant difference in infection rates between the two sexes and different age groups in both sheep and goats (P < 0.5). The study showed that hydatidosis is prevalent in Ethiopia. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures to minimize the rate of infection and reduce the ensuing economic losses. PMID:19911295

Erbeto, Kebebe; Zewde, Girma; Kumsa, Bersissa

2010-06-01

427

PrP-associated resistance to scrapie in five highly infected goat herds.  

PubMed

The PrP gene polymorphisms at codons 142 (I/M), 154 (R/H), 211 (R/Q), 222 (Q/K) and 240 (S/P) and their association with susceptibility to classical scrapie infection were investigated in five French goat herds displaying a high disease prevalence (>10%). On the basis of PrP(Sc) detection in the central nervous system and in various lymphoid tissues, 301 of 1343 goats were found to be scrapie infe