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Sample records for goats

  1. Horny Goat Weed

    MedlinePlus

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, joint ...

  2. Interview with Alison Goate.

    PubMed

    Goate, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals. PMID:20477443

  3. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. PMID:27157333

  4. MILK SOMETIC CELLS IN GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) is the basis for abnormal milk control programs. The current legal MSCC limit for bulk tank milk for goats in the United States is 1,000 x 103/ml. Milk somatic cell counts for goats are higher than MSCC for cows and sheep. The MSCC for goats free from intramammar...

  5. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  6. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  7. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  8. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....

  9. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  10. The Goat in the Rug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of

  11. The Goat in the Rug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  12. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  13. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  14. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  15. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...

  16. Advanced reproductive techniques in goats.

    PubMed

    Bretzlaff, K N; Romano, J E

    2001-07-01

    The use of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and reproductive tract evaluation in the goat has become more common in the past decade. Pregnancy-specific hormone assays are commercially available for pregnancy determination in goats. Hormonal methods of synchronization of estrus for artificial insemination have been refined, but a number of factors still make pregnancy results variable. Caprine embryo transfer is widely used commercially. More advanced reproductive techniques such as in-vitro production of embryos and cloning have been accomplished in goats; success rates with these techniques will likely rapidly improve. PMID:11515409

  17. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  18. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

  19. GOATS Image Projection Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  20. Grayanotoxin poisoning in three goats.

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Holstege, D M; Lamberski, N

    2001-02-15

    Six Nubian goats were exposed to an azalea branch (Rhododendron indica) at the Riverbanks Zoological Park in Columbia, South Carolina. The following day, 3 of the 6 goats were referred to the veterinary hospital of the Riverbanks Zoological Park with bloat, profuseregurgitation, and signs of depression, intermittent head pressing, and fine muscle tremors in the hind limbs. The goats were treated with magnesium hydroxide, activated charcoal, and lactated Ringer's solution and recovered within 24 hours. Definitive diagnosis of grayanotoxin exposure was accomplished by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of urine and fecal samples. Rhododendron spp are members of the Ericaceae (Heath) family and may contain grayanotoxins, which exert toxic effects by binding to sodium channels in cell membranes and increasing the permeability of sodium ions in excitable membranes. Rhododendron poisoning should be considered in animals with clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract irritation, cardiac arrhythmias, and neurologic signs. PMID:11229512

  1. GOAT induced ghrelin acylation regulates hedonic feeding.

    PubMed

    Davis, J F; Perello, M; Choi, D L; Magrisso, I J; Kirchner, H; Pfluger, P T; Tschoep, M; Zigman, J M; Benoit, S C

    2012-11-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates homeostatic and reward-related feeding behavior. Recent evidence indicates that acylation of ghrelin by the gut enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is necessary to render ghrelin maximally active within its target tissues. Here we tested the hypothesis that GOAT activity modulates food motivation and food hedonics using behavioral pharmacology and mutant mice deficient for GOAT and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR). We evaluated operant responding following pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin and assessed the necessity of endogenous GOAT activity for operant responding in GOAT and GHSR-null mice. Hedonic-based feeding behavior also was examined in GOAT-KO and GHSR-null mice using a "Dessert Effect" protocol in which the intake of a palatable high fat diet "dessert" was assessed in calorically-sated mice. Pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin augmented operant responding; notably, this effect was dependent on intact GHSR signaling. GOAT-KO mice displayed attenuated operant responding and decreased hedonic feeding relative to controls. These behavioral results correlated with decreased expression of the orexin-1 receptor in reward-related brain regions in GOAT-KO mice. In summary, the ability of ghrelin to stimulate food motivation is dependent on intact GHSR signaling and modified by endogenous GOAT activity. Furthermore, GOAT activity is required for hedonic feeding behavior, an effect potentially mediated by forebrain orexin signaling. These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding. PMID:22982020

  2. GOATS - Orbitology Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the early stage of mission concept development.

  3. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  4. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  5. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  6. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  7. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  8. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  9. Finishing Lambs and Goat Kids on Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing goats and lambs for ethnic markets offers an economic opportunity for small farm producers in the Appalachian Region of the U.S. There are a variety of forages used in goat and sheep production systems. Overall, nutrients available to ruminants depend upon the types and combinations of p...

  10. Progress report – African goat genome and genetic improvement project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of the progress for the Feed the Future funded African Goat Project will be presented. The overview will include progress on producing a goat genome assembly from a San Clemente goat. Additional progress will be reported for phenotype and sample collection from African goat populations a...

  11. Progress report- African goat genome and genetic improvement project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of the progress for the Feed the Future funded African Goat Project will be presented. The overview will include progress on producing a goat genome assembly from a San Clemente goat. Additional progress will be reported for phnotype and sample collection from African goat populations an...

  12. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    PubMed Central

    Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A.; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C.; Dassanayake, Rohana P.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naı¨ve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats. PMID:25888622

  13. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats. PMID:25888622

  14. Transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in goats with paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in 54 goats with confirmed Johne’s disease (JD). Compared with the control group (0.8 ± 0.4 mm thick), the test group presented with mild (2.8 ± 0.2 mm), moderate (4.2 ± 0.4 mm), and severe (6.9 ± 1.1 mm) thickening of the intestinal wall. The most outstanding ultrasonographic findings were pronounced enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 49 goats. In 36 goats, the enlarged lymph nodes showed a hypoechoic cortex and a hyperechoic medulla. In 7 goats, the cortex and medulla were hypoechoic. In 5 goats, the cortex and the medulla could not be differentiated. In the remaining cases, the cortex and medulla contained small hypoechoic lesions. Necropsy findings included enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 goats and thickening of the small intestinal wall in 30 goats. Compared with the postmortem results, the antemortem ultrasound sensitivity in detecting intestinal wall thickness and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes was 80% and 94%, respectively. PMID:23543924

  15. Eimeria species in dairy goats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2012-02-10

    The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil. PMID:21852038

  16. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  17. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management considerations for animal health authorities. Although concerns of vaccine efficacy, safety and issues with diagnosis and administration persist, vaccination is increasingly recognized as providing a robust strategy for managing paratuberculosis, having made important contributions to the health of Australian sheep and the lives of producers with affected properties, and offering a mechanism to reduce risk of infection entering the food chain in ovine and caprine products. PMID:26255556

  18. Control of endoparasitic nematode infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda; de Jesús Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe

    2011-03-01

    In 2007, the world goat population was estimated at 831 million, compared with 1.09 billion sheep, but the goat population is expanding more rapidly. More than 90% of goats are found in developing countries, with the primary commodity being its meat. The commonly used description of the goat as the "cow of the poorest" underlines its importance for small farmers. However, in the developed world (eg, the European Union and much of North America), the value of goats relates to its select ability to produce high yields of milk and the increased returns associated with the dairy products, particularly artisanal cheeses. Therefore, the current success of goats seems to be related to 2 characteristics: (1) its ability to efficiently convert low-quality forages into high-quality protein sources, that is, milk and meat, in developing countries and (2) its ability to produce commodities for valuable niche markets in developed countries. In both systems, parasitism with helminths, and particularly nematodes of the gastrointestinal tract is a major threat for health and production. PMID:21215900

  19. 6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  20. 4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  1. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  2. Admixture and linkage disequilibrium analysis of meat goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the population structure and variation within the genome will assist with efforts to make genetic gains for meat goat production. A recently developed Illumina Goat 50K SNP panel containing 52,295 SNP loci was created primarily from SNPs identified in European dairy goat breeds and Asi...

  3. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....

  4. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  5. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  6. Prion gene (PRNP) haplotype variation in United States goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie eradication efforts cost 18 million dollars annually in the United States and rely heavily upon PRNP genotyping of sheep. Genetic resistance might reduce goat scrapie and limit the risk of goats serving as a scrapie reservoir, so PRNP coding sequences were examined from 446 goats of 10 bree...

  7. Weed management using goats: Effects on water infiltration rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are used increasingly for weed control, fire fuel reduction and ecological restoration. The high stocking rates typical of these applications have been reported to decrease the rate of water infiltration in goat pastures. The hypothesis that annual goat browsing for weed control decreases infi...

  8. GOAT GROWTH MODEL: GENOTYPE X NUTRITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted using three goat populations: the Boer (BR), the Spanish (SP), and the Tennessee Stiff-legged (TS) breeds, maintained at the International Goat Research Center. The goats were fed three levels: 100%, or (ad libitum) 85% and 70% of ad lib, of the same ration containing 18% CP ...

  9. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....

  10. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  11. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  12. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair...

  14. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  15. Definition of prepartum hyperketonemia in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Doré, V; Dubuc, J; Bélanger, A M; Buczinski, S

    2015-07-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted on 1,081 dairy goats from 10 commercial herds in Québec (Canada) to define prepartum hyperketonemia based on optimal blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid threshold values for the early prediction of pregnancy toxemia (PT) and mortality in late-gestation dairy goats. All pregnant goats had blood sampled weekly during the last 5wk of pregnancy. The blood was analyzed directly on the farm for β-hydroxybutyrate acid quantification using a Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Diabetes Care, Saint-Laurent, QC, Canada). Body condition scores on the lumbar region and sternum were noted. Each goat was classified as being at low (n=973) or high risk (n=108) of having PT by producers based on a standardized definition. The optimal threshold for predicting a PT diagnosis or mortality for each week before kidding was determined based on the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity. The association between hyperketonemia and subsequent PT was tested using a multivariable logistic regression model considering hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum, litter size, and body condition score at wk 4 prepartum as covariates, and herd and parturition cohort as random effects. The association between mortality and hyperketonemia was also tested using a logistic regression model accounting for the presence or absence of treatment during the last month of pregnancy. The hyperketonemia definition based on PT varied between ≥0.4 and ≥0.9mmol/L during the last 5wk prepartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum and with a large litter size (≥3 fetuses) had 2.1 and 40.5 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent PT than other goats. Hyperketonemia definitions based on mortality varied between ≥0.6 and ≥1.4mmol/L during the last 4wk prepartum, and was ≥1.7mmol/L during the first week postpartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia and treated by producers had 3.4 and 11.8 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent mortality than did other goats. These results showed that prepartum hyperketonemia could be defined in dairy goats using subsequent risks of PT or mortality during the last month of pregnancy. PMID:25935248

  16. First isolation of Histophilus somni from goats.

    PubMed

    Jánosi, Katalin; Hajtós, István; Makrai, László; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Varga, János; Fodor, László

    2009-02-01

    Histophilus somni (former name: Haemophilus somnus) is a Gram-negative, facultative pathogen bacterium that colonises the mucous membranes of cattle and sheep, however it was also described in American bison and bighorn sheep. It can cause local or generalised diseases and asymptomatic carriers can also occur. The presence and the etiological role of this microorganism have not been confirmed in any other domesticated species yet. The purpose of this study was to prove the presence of H. somni in goats by bacterial isolation. Nasal, vaginal or praeputial swab samples were collected from 205 goats in 10 flocks. H. somni strains were isolated from 2 out of 10 flocks; in one flock 10 H. somni strains were isolated from the genital mucosa of 17 goats, while a single H. somni strain was cultured from a vagina of 26 animals in the other flock. Partial amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of three H. somni strains verified the identification. The comparative examination of carbon source metabolism using the Biolog Microstation ID System (Biolog, Ca) showed a close relationship of the caprine strains, while they were less related to H. somni type strain CCUG-36157 of bovine origin. H. somni strains were isolated only in the oestrus season from goat flocks with sheep contact. This is the first paper on isolation of H. somni from goats. PMID:18774660

  17. Thermosensitivity of the goat's brain.

    PubMed Central

    Heath, M E; Jessen, C

    1988-01-01

    1. Experiments were done in conscious goats to estimate the gain of brain temperature sensors and to evaluate that fraction of the thermosensitivity of the entire brain which can be determined by a thermode located in the hypothalamus. 2. The animals were implanted with local thermodes, carotid loops and intravascular heat exchangers permitting independent control of hypothalamic temperature, extrahypothalamic brain temperature and trunk core temperature. 3. Small and slow ramp-like displacements of hypothalamic temperature generated continuously increasing thermoregulatory responses without any dead band, if a negative feed-back from extrahypothalamic sources was suppressed. 4. The hypothalamic sensitivity determined by the metabolic response to slow ramp-like cooling of the thermode amounted to -1.4 W/(kg degrees C) and equalled approximately 30% of what had been found for total body core sensitivity in another series of experiments. 5. Total brain thermosensitivity was -1.6 W/(kg degrees C), which implies that a large thermode centred in the hypothalamus can detect approximately 85% of the thermosensitivity of the entire brain. PMID:3418538

  18. Pharmacokinetics of metoclopramide in goats.

    PubMed

    Huhn, J C; Koritz, G D; Nelson, D R; Brown, S A

    1992-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a parenteral formulation of metoclopramide (monochloride monohydrate) were determined following single intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) 0.5-mg/kg doses to two groups of 4 goats in a crossover design. Mean serum concentrations of metoclopramide following i.v. administration of 0.5 mg/kg declined rapidly from a peak of 277.5 ng/ml at 3 min post-dosing to 25 ng/ml at 90 min. Serum concentrations were not detectable by 120 min after drug administration. The curve of serum concentrations vs. time was characteristic of a two-compartment open model. Mean parameters from analysis of the individual i.v. data gave a biological half-life of 0.62 h and a volume of distribution of the central compartment of 1.34 l/kg. Serum concentrations of metoclopramide following i.m. administration of 0.5 mg/kg rose rapidly to a peak of 160.9 ng/ml at 15 min post-dosing and then declined in parallel with the elimination phase of the i.v. study. These data were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The mean biological half-life was 1.04 h. There were no adverse reactions associated with metoclopramide at the 0.5-mg/kg dose administered by either route. PMID:1573702

  19. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the

  20. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  1. Goat-nematode interactions: think differently.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Landau, Serge Yan; Jackson, Frank; Beveridge, Ian

    2010-08-01

    Goats (caprine) and sheep (ovine) are infected with the same principal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) species, which provoke similar pathological changes and economic consequences. However, until now, the majority of data on host-parasite interactions have been accumulated from ovine studies. This article aims to emphasize the need for specific caprine studies. It is hypothesized that, owing to divergent evolutionary processes, sheep and goats have developed two different strategies to regulate GIN infections, respectively, based on immune response versus feeding behavior. Generation of additional comparative data should result in a better understanding of the possible trade-offs between these two basic regulatory processes. Goat studies should also help to avoid past errors in the control of GIN species owing to the lack of relevant information. PMID:20488752

  2. Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

  3. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m-2). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m-2, we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m-2, and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m-2 (55 and 45 resp min-1) and 1000 W m-2 (120 and 95 resp min-1, respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm-2 is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the levels of radiation depend on the latitude of the location.

  4. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m(-2)). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m(-2), we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m(-2), and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m(-2) (55 and 45 resp min(-1)) and 1000 W m(-2) (120 and 95 resp min(-1), respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm(-2) is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the levels of radiation depend on the latitude of the location. PMID:25336109

  5. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding. PMID:19083117

  6. Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

    2015-01-15

    The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment. PMID:25465737

  7. Palatability of Forage Chicory Cultivars for Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...

  8. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... prescribed in Veterinary Services Memorandum 552.15. (2) Brucellosis. Dairy and breeding goats shall...

  9. Fatal Melioidosis in Goats in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2014-01-01

    Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand. PMID:24891468

  10. Fatal melioidosis in goats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2014-08-01

    Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand. PMID:24891468

  11. Intravenous anaesthesia in goats: a review.

    PubMed

    Dzikiti, T Brighton

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous anaesthesia is gradually becoming popular in veterinary practice. Traditionally, general anaesthesia is induced with intravenous drugs and then maintained with inhalation agents. Inhalation anaesthetic agents cause more significant dose-dependent cardiorespiratory depression than intravenous anaesthetic drugs, creating a need to use less of the inhalation anaesthetic agents for maintenance of general anaesthesia by supplementing with intravenous anaesthesia drugs. Better still, if anaesthesia is maintained completely with intravenous anaesthetic drugs, autonomic functions remain more stable intra-operatively. Patient recovery from anaesthesia is smoother and there is less pollution of the working environment than happens with inhalation anaesthetic agents. Recently, a number of drugs with profiles (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) suitable for prolonged intravenous anaesthesia have been studied, mostly in humans and, to a certain extent, in dogs and horses. There is currently very little scientific information on total intravenous anaesthesia in goats, although, in the past few years, some scholarly scientific articles on drugs suitable for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats have been published. This review article explored the information available on drugs that have been assessed for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats, with the aim of promoting incorporation of these drugs into total intravenous anaesthesia protocols in clinical practice. That way, balanced anaesthesia, a technique in which drugs are included in anaesthetic protocols for specific desired effects (hypnosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation, autonomic stabilisation) may be utilised in improving the welfare of goats undergoing general anaesthesia. PMID:23718851

  12. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments §...

  13. Louping Ill in Goats, Spain, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Luis J.; Martínez, Claudia Pérez; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Höfle, Úrsula; Polledo, Laura; Marreros, Nelson; Casais, Rosa; Marín, Juan F. García

    2012-01-01

    Although louping ill affects mainly sheep, a 2011 outbreak in northern Spain occurred among goats. Histopathologic lesions and molecular genetics identified a new strain of louping ill virus, 94% identical to the strain from Britain. Surveillance is needed to minimize risk to domestic and wildlife species and humans. PMID:22607689

  14. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jessica R.; Byers, Stacey R.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Worley, Deanna R.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Grossman, Alicia N.; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method. PMID:23956926

  15. Pasture management for sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant producers in Appalachia have many questions about forage management. Forage management decisions need to be keyed to the specific needs of the small ruminant t species to be grazed. Sheep and goats are different from each other and both are very different from cattle. Important con...

  16. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in a goat.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego M; Pimentel, Luciano A; Pessoa, André F; Dantas, Antônio F M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2010-09-01

    Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in sheep. However, this lesion has not been reported in goats. The current paper reports a case of FSE in a goat from the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid region. As reported by the farmer, 30, 4-48-month-old animals from a flock of 150 goats died after showing nervous signs, including blindness and recumbence, for periods varying between 1 and 14 days. The flock was grazing native pasture supplemented with wheat and corn bran. Additionally, lactating goats were supplemented with soybeans. A 4-month-old goat with nervous signs was examined clinically and then necropsied 3 days after the onset of clinical signs. Bilateral, focal, and symmetrical areas of brown discoloration were observed in the internal capsule and thalamus. Histologic lesions in these areas consisted of multifocal, bilateral malacia with a few neutrophils; endothelial cell swelling; perivascular edema; and hemorrhages. The etiology of these lesions was not determined. However, FSE is considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep, and it is speculated that this microorganism was the etiologic agent in the present case. The flock had been vaccinated against type D enterotoxemia only once, approximately 3 months before the beginning of the outbreak. Insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination protocol, low efficacy of the vaccine used, and a diet including large amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates were suspected to be predisposing factors for this outbreak. PMID:20807946

  17. Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25193885

  18. Heavy metal levels in goats from Notasulga, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Forester, D.M.; Thompson, S.J.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Goat meat farming is increasing in popularity in southeastern region of United States. In order to monitor environmental contamination of heavy metals in goat meat, samples of liver, kidney, and muscle were collected from 20 goats on a goat farm in Notasulga, Alabama. These samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The copper concentration was significantly higher in livers than the concentration in kidneys and muscles. Lead, cadmium, and zinc levels did not show any significant differences between liver, kidney, and muscle samples. The concentrations of lead and copper in livers and cadmium in kidneys were significantly different in males when compared to females. However, in muscle, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc showed no significant difference between male and female or between young and old goats. Further, the concentrations of lead in livers and cadmium in kidneys showed a significant difference between young and old goats.

  19. Video tracking analysis of behavioral patterns during estrus in goats

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, Natsumi; RAHAYU, Larasati Puji; ARAKAWA, Toshiya; TANAKA, Tomomi

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a new method for measuring behavioral patterns during estrus in goats based on video tracking analysis. Data were collected from cycling goats, which were in estrus (n = 8) or not in estrus (n = 8). An observation pen (2.5 m × 2.5 m) was set up in the corner of the female paddock with one side adjacent to a male paddock. The positions and movements of goats were tracked every 0.5 sec for 10 min by using a video tracking software, and the trajectory data were used for the analysis. There were no significant differences in the durations of standing and walking or the total length of movement. However, the number of approaches to a male and the duration of staying near the male were higher in goats in estrus than in goats not in estrus. The proposed evaluation method may be suitable for detailed monitoring of behavioral changes during estrus in goats. PMID:26560676

  20. Two Severe Cases of Tungiasis in Goat Kids in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Mencke, Norbert; Feldmeier, Hermann; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Tungiasis ensues from the penetration and burrowing of female sand fleas (Tungaspp.; Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in the skin of mammals. There are few case reports of severe tungiasis in goats and in these cases theTungaspecies were not in most cases clearly identified. Two cases of severe tungiasis caused byTunga penetransin goat kids from tungiasis-endemic rural Uganda are reported. These are the first severe cases of tungiasis in goats reported from outside South America. PMID:27012871

  1. Two Severe Cases of Tungiasis in Goat Kids in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Mencke, Norbert; Feldmeier, Hermann; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Tungiasis ensues from the penetration and burrowing of female sand fleas (Tunga spp.; Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in the skin of mammals. There are few case reports of severe tungiasis in goats and in these cases the Tunga species were not in most cases clearly identified. Two cases of severe tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans in goat kids from tungiasis-endemic rural Uganda are reported. These are the first severe cases of tungiasis in goats reported from outside South America. PMID:27012871

  2. Multiple maternal origins and weak phylogeographic structure in domestic goats

    PubMed Central

    Luikart, Gordon; Gielly, Ludovic; Excoffier, Laurent; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Bouvet, Jean; Taberlet, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Domestic animals have played a key role in human history. Despite their importance, however, the origins of most domestic species remain poorly understood. We assessed the phylogenetic history and population structure of domestic goats by sequencing a hypervariable segment (481 bp) of the mtDNA control region from 406 goats representing 88 breeds distributed across the Old World. Phylogeographic analysis revealed three highly divergent goat lineages (estimated divergence >200,000 years ago), with one lineage occurring only in eastern and southern Asia. A remarkably similar pattern exists in cattle, sheep, and pigs. These results, combined with recent archaeological findings, suggest that goats and other farm animals have multiple maternal origins with a possible center of origin in Asia, as well as in the Fertile Crescent. The pattern of goat mtDNA diversity suggests that all three lineages have undergone population expansions, but that the expansion was relatively recent for two of the lineages (including the Asian lineage). Goat populations are surprisingly less genetically structured than cattle populations. In goats only ≈10% of the mtDNA variation is partitioned among continents. In cattle the amount is ≥50%. This weak structuring suggests extensive intercontinental transportation of goats and has intriguing implications about the importance of goats in historical human migrations and commerce. PMID:11344314

  3. Calcium metabolism in normal and thyro-parathyroidectomized goats

    PubMed Central

    Payne, J. M.; Sansom, B. F.

    1966-01-01

    1. The effects of thyro-parathyroidectomy on calcium metabolism in the goat have been investigated using stable calcium balance techniques and the isotopes 45Ca, 47Ca and 85Sr. 2. Thyro-parathyroidectomized goats, whether receiving supplementary thyroxine or not, are in negative calcium balance, whereas normal or thyroidectomized animals are in positive balance. 3. Gastro-intestinal absorption of 45Ca is less in thyro-parathyroidectomized goats, whether receiving supplementary thyroxine or not, than in either normal goats or thyroidectomized goats receiving thyroxine supplements. 4. The rate of endogenous secretion of calcium into the gastro-intestinal tract is unchanged by either thyroidectomy or thyro-parathyroidectomy. Urinary excretion of calcium is also apparently unchanged. 5. The bone calcium accretion rate is reduced to approximately the same extent in thyroidectomized and thyro-parathyroidectomized goats. Thyroxine supplements restore the bone accretion rate of both groups of animals to normal or greater than normal levels. 6. The bone calcium resorption rate is greater in thyro-parathyroidectomized goats, whether receiving thyroxine supplements or not, than in either normal goats or thyroidectomized goats receiving thyroxine supplements. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5921839

  4. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Mucometra with Persistent Corpus Luteum in Goats

    PubMed Central

    El-Shafey, Samir; Fathalla, M.; Habib, I.; Al-Dahash, S.

    1980-01-01

    Ovaries of two goats with persistent corpus luteum were studied by histochemical methods. Lutein cells showed moderate alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activity associated with strong delta 5-3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and succinic tetrazolium reductase activity. The results are interpreted as an indication that the corpus luteum was functioning. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7427841

  6. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  7. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  8. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM GOATS FROM BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are economically important in many countries and little is known of caprine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 143 goats from 3 Brazilian States, using modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25); 46 (32.2%) tested positive. Samples of brain, heart, ...

  9. [Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].

    PubMed

    Seidel, B

    1991-03-01

    An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats. PMID:2049057

  10. Sarcocystis oreamni n. sp. from the mountain goat (oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of 3 of 7 mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; 1 had ...

  11. Quest for Nutritional and Medicinal Forages for Meat Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appalachian meat goat producers are encountering animal nutritional and health problems for which research-based solutions are limited. Goats prefer to eat weeds and browse, selecting the highest quality herbage available. Foraging on traditional pastures not only limits the variety of plant speci...

  12. Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A

    1999-01-01

    A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

  13. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziru; Mulholland, Michael; Zhang, Weizhen

    2016-03-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), a member of MBOATs family, is essential for octanoylation of ghrelin, which is required for active ghrelin to bind with and activate its receptor. GOAT is expressed mainly in the stomach, pancreas and hypothalamus. Levels of GOAT are altered by energy status. GOAT contains 11 transmembrane helices and one reentrant loop. Its invariant residue His-338 and conserved Asn-307 are located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and cytosol respectively. GOAT contributes to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, as well as glucose and lipids homeostasis. Deletion of GOAT blocks the acylation of ghrelin leading to subsequent impairment in energy homeostasis and survival when mice are challenged with high energy diet or severe caloric restriction. GO-CoA-Tat, a peptide GOAT inhibitor, attenuates acyl-ghrelin production and prevents weight gain induced by a medium-chain triglycerides-rich high fat diet. Further, GO-CoA-Tat increases glucose- induced insulin secretion. Overall, inhibition of GOAT is a novel strategy for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:26732975

  14. The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems analysis approach. (Author/RL)

  15. INTRATRACHEAL INFUSION OF COMMON FEEDYARD FUNGI IN GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the pathology induced by four fungi compared to a saline control. Thirty weanling goats were randomly assigned to 5 groups, 6 goats per group. Four fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Mucor ramosissimus, and Montosporium lanuginosa ) isola...

  16. The resolution of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) occasionally poisons livestock causing myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the resolution of the clinical and pathologic changes of rayless goldenrod poisoning in goats. Eight goats were gava...

  17. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115 Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description....

  18. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....110, the name of the food is “goat's milk frozen custard” or, alternatively, “frozen custard made with... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  19. Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

  20. ADAPTmap: International coordinated data resource for improving goat production effiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats provide vital food and economic security, particularly in developing countries. We created a database that is a nexus for all performance, type, geographic information system (GIS), production environment, and genome information on goats. This resource provides a platform for meta-analysis tha...

  1. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  2. Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems. PMID:23621908

  3. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market. PMID:20163593

  4. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q.; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4–15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as “high” in 142 samples, “moderate” in 45 samples, and “low” in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season. PMID:26819799

  5. Meat quality parameters of descendants by grading hybridization of Boer goat and Guanzhong Dairy goat.

    PubMed

    Ding, W; Kou, L; Cao, B; Wei, Y

    2010-03-01

    Chemical composition, cholesterol levels, fatty acid profile, meat taste, and quality parameters were evaluated in 48 buck kids from goats of the Guanzhong Dairy breed (Group G) and their crosses (Group F1: 1/2 Boermale symbolx1/2 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F2: 3/4 Boermale symbolx1/4 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F3: 7/8 Boermale symbolx1/8 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol) at different ages of slaughter (6, 8 and 10 months). Results indicated that grading hybridization (P<0.05) affected meat nutritive value. The muscle of hybrid goats had lower crude fat and cholesterol, higher crude protein, and greater proportion of C18:2 and C18:3 than that of Group G at each age. Group F1 goats had better (P<0.05) desirable fatty acid (DFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratios and greater (C18:0+C18:1/C16:0) ratios (P<0.01) than those of the other genotypes. Furthermore, the muscles of hybrid goats were tenderer and juicier compared to Group G. In all four groups, cholesterol levels increased (P<0.01), muscle color became redder (P<0.05) and tenderness decreased (P<0.05) with increasing age. The low level of lipids and cholesterol, good meat quality, and the higher ratio of unsaturated to SFA in Group F1 indicate better quality for human consumption. PMID:20374792

  6. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...

  7. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  8. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  9. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  10. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  11. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  12. Anesthesia and analgesia in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Galatos, Apostolos D

    2011-03-01

    Physical or chemical restraint, with or without local anesthesia, has been extensively used to perform diagnostic or minor surgical procedures in small ruminants. However, anesthetic and analgesic techniques are required when specific diagnostic procedures and painful surgery are to be performed. Apart from improving animal welfare standards, anesthesia and analgesia are essential to make the procedures easier and improve both animal and personnel safety. This article provides an overview of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and techniques commonly used in sheep and goats. PMID:21215889

  13. Comparison of the fecal microbiota in feral and domestic goats.

    PubMed

    De Jesús-Laboy, Kassandra M; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Piceno, Yvette M; Tom, Lauren M; Pantoja-Feliciano, Ida G; Rivera-Rivera, Michelle J; Andersen, Gary L; Domínguez-Bello, María G

    2011-01-01

    Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M), tet(S), tet(O), tet(Q) and tet(W)] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats' feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O) and tet(W), but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q). Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota. PMID:24704840

  14. Delayed excretion of 3-methylhistidine in goats

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Calvert, C.C.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) as an index of muscle protein degradation in dairy goats. The criterion for validation was the rapid and quantitative excretion of radiolabeled 3MH. Three adult dry does and four bucks were confined to metabolism cages and injected with 5 ml of L-3-(/sup 14/C)methylhistidine dihydrochloride (4 microCi/mL) diluted in normal saline. The does' urine was collected from catheters and the bucks' urine from stainless steel separators protected with fecal collection bags. The daily urine samples were analyzed for labeled amino acid. Urinary recovery of radioactivity from all does was less than 33% after 3 d and was proceeding at less than 5% d. After 9 d, total recovery was less than 50% of total dose for the does. Elimination rates were slightly higher and more variable for the yearling bucks (25-63% after 4 d). On the basis of these data, 3MH does not appear to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in either male or female dairy goats.

  15. Dairy goat production and the importance of gastrointestinal strongyle parasitism.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Laura; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, demand for goat products has increased in both developing and developed countries. Goat production (particularly dairy), however, is negatively affected by several factors, including infectious and parasitic diseases. Among the latter, gastrointestinal strongyle infection remains one of the main constraints to dairy goat production. In this mini-review, we emphasize the negative influence of these parasites, associated with subclinical production losses and depressive impacts upon long-term animal productivity, as well as the scarcity of studies on this topic. Finally, the necessity of reducing the use of anthelminthics and thus minimizing residues in food and the environment is stressed. PMID:17433822

  16. Dairy goat production and the importance of gastrointestinal strongyle parasitism.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Rinaldi L; Veneziano V; Cringoli G

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, demand for goat products has increased in both developing and developed countries. Goat production (particularly dairy), however, is negatively affected by several factors, including infectious and parasitic diseases. Among the latter, gastrointestinal strongyle infection remains one of the main constraints to dairy goat production. In this mini-review, we emphasize the negative influence of these parasites, associated with subclinical production losses and depressive impacts upon long-term animal productivity, as well as the scarcity of studies on this topic. Finally, the necessity of reducing the use of anthelminthics and thus minimizing residues in food and the environment is stressed.

  17. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639?bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats. PMID:25103439

  19. Ultrasonography of the abomasum in 30 Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Jacquat, D

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the findings of ultrasonographic examination of the abomasum in 30 goats. A 5.0 MHz linear transducer was used to scan the left and right paramedian regions, the linea alba and the right abdominal wall of standing goats. The abomasum appeared as a heterogeneous, moderately echogenic structure with echogenic stippling. The abomasum could be seen from the linea alba in all the goats. The abomasal folds were easily identified in 19 goats and appeared as prominent echogenic bands. The cranial visible limit of the abomasum was -0.3 [2.34]cm from the xyphoid, and the caudal limit was 10.3 [3.08]cm caudal to the xyphoid. The visible length of the abomasum was 10.7 [1.96]cm and the maximum width 30.2 [7.43]cm. The height of the abomasum was 6.7 [1.79]cm. PMID:21497869

  20. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in a goat: case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This report describes the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examination of a 16-year-old goat with extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax. Case presentation The lead clinical signs were abnormal condition and demeanour, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and dilated jugular veins. Ultrasonographic examination of the thorax revealed a precardial mass, measuring 16.4 by 11.4 by 14.2 cm. Computed tomographic examination showed dorsocaudal displacement of the trachea, heart and lungs to the right. A tentative diagnosis of mediastinal or pleural neoplasia was made, and the goat was euthanased and necropsied. A definitive diagnosis was based on histological examination of the mass. Conclusions To our knowledge, this case report is the first description of extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in goats and serves to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of thoracic diseases in this species. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in goats with thoracic tumours. PMID:21929794

  1. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat.

    PubMed

    Quintas, H; Alegria, N; Mendonça, A; Botelho, A; Alves, A; Pires, I

    2014-08-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. PMID:24888466

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of Sicilian goats reveals a new mtDNA lineage.

    PubMed

    Sardina, M T; Ballester, M; Marmi, J; Finocchiaro, R; van Kaam, J B C H M; Portolano, B; Folch, J M

    2006-08-01

    The mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequence of 67 goats belonging to the Girgentana, Maltese and Derivata di Siria breeds was partially sequenced in order to present the first phylogenetic characterization of Sicilian goat breeds. These sequences were compared with published sequences of Indian and Pakistani domestic goats and wild goats. Mitochondrial lineage A was observed in most of the Sicilian goats. However, three Girgentana haplotypes were highly divergent from the Capra hircus clade, indicating that a new mtDNA lineage in domestic goats was found. PMID:16879350

  3. Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

    2006-06-01

    Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

  4. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation. PMID:24248787

  5. Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Pramod K; Joshi, Manjunath B; Mandal, Ajoy; Laloe, D; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2008-01-01

    Background The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones. Results The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.739 in Barbari to 0.783 in Jakhrana goats. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for 5 loci breed combinations. The DA measure of genetic distance between pairs of breeds indicated that the lowest distance was between Marwari and Sirohi (0.135). The highest distance was between Pashmina and Black Bengal. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that 6.59% of variance exists among the Indian goat breeds. Both a phylogenetic tree and Principal Component Analysis showed the distribution of breeds in two major clusters with respect to their geographic distribution. Conclusion Our study concludes that Indian goat populations can be classified into distinct genetic groups or breeds based on the microsatellites as well as mtDNA information. PMID:18226239

  6. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose oral ponazuril in weanling goats.

    PubMed

    Love, D; Gibbons, P; Fajt, V; Jones, M

    2016-06-01

    Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a triazine antiprotozoal agent that targets apicomplexan organisms. Ponazuril may have clinical application in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis due to Eimeria species in goats, along with other protozoal infections. To evaluate the absorption, distribution and elimination characteristics of ponazuril in goats, a sensitive, validated high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy method for ponazuril in caprine plasma was developed. After a single oral dose of ponazuril at 10 mg/kg, plasma samples from seven weanling goats were collected and assayed. Plasma concentrations of ponazuril in the goats peaked at 36 ± 13 h post drug administration at a concentration of 9 ± 2 μg/mL. Concentrations declined to an average of 4.2 ± 0.8 μg/mL after 168 h with an average elimination half-life of 129 ± 72 h post drug administration. This study shows that ponazuril is relatively well absorbed after a single oral dose in goats. Efficacy trials are underway to determine clinical efficacy of ponazuril in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis in goats at 10 mg/kg dosage. PMID:26542450

  7. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    PubMed

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats. PMID:18457178

  8. Border disease of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, P F; Gilray, J A; Russo, P; Dlissi, E

    1998-01-01

    Border disease (BD) is a congenital virus disease of sheep and goats first reported in 1959 from the border region of England and Wales. BD virus (BDV) is a pestivirus in the genus Flaviviridae and is closely related to classical swine fever virus and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV). Nearly all isolates of BDV are non-cytopathogenic (ncp) in cell culture. There are no defined serotypes but pestiviruses isolated from sheep exhibit considerable antigenic diversity and three distinct antigenic groups have been identified. Distribution of the virus is worldwide. Prevalence rates vary in sheep from 5 to 50% between countries and from region-to-region within countries. The disease in goats is rare and characterized by abortion. Clinical signs in sheep include barren ewes, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of small weak lambs. Affected lambs can show tremor, abnormal body conformation and hairy fleeces (so-called 'hairy-shaker' or 'fuzzy' lambs). Vertical transmission plays an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Infection of fetuses can result in the birth of persistently infected (PI) lambs. These PI lambs are viraemic, antibody negative and constantly excrete virus. The virus spreads from sheep to sheep with PI animals being the most potent source of infection. Apparently healthy PI sheep resulting from congenital infection can be identified by direct detection of viral antigen or viral RNA in leukocytes or by isolation of ncp virus from blood or serum in laboratory cell cultures. Isolation of virus is unreliable in lambs younger than 2 months old that have received colostral antibody. The isolation of virus from tissues of aborted or stillborn lambs is difficult but tissues from PI sheep contain easily detectable levels of virus. To detect the growth of virus in cell cultures it is essential to use an immune-labelling method. Acute infection is usually subclinical and viraemia is transient and difficult to detect. Sheep may also be infected following close contact with cattle excreting the closely related BVDV. PMID:9689745

  9. L-lactate utilization by dairy goats

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    Three Toggenberg goats were used to investigate utilization of L-lactate as substrate for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Objectives were: (1) to determine the extent lactate could be used for body and milk fat synthesis; (2) to estimate contribution of lactate to glucose synthesis; (3) to assess differences in these measurements during early lactation, mid-lactation and the dry period; and (4) to observe differences in labeling of glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions in body and milk fat 7 days post-infusion of isotopes. Goats were fed in metabolism crates a 70% concentrate ration in hourly increments to meet individual requirements. After a pulse dose, U-/sup 14/C-lactate (34 uCi/hr) and 6-/sup 3/H-Glucose (100 uCi/hr) was infused via jugular cannula for 8 hours. Blood an milk were sampled hourly beginning 3 and 3.5 hours, respectively, after the pulse dose. Body fat was biopsied after the infusion (Day 0) and one week post-infusion (Day 7). Plasma glucose and lactate concentrations were greater in early 70.4 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively) compared to mid-lactation (50.8 and 5.9 gm/dl). Mid-lactation and dry period values were similar. Glucose turnover differed for early and mid-lactation and the dry period (141, 86, and 70 mmol/hr, respectively). Percentage of glucose derived from lactate tended to decrease through lactation into the dry period (28% vs 10%). Plasma lactate turnover was greater during lactation as opposed to the dry period (124 and 35 mmol/hr). During early lactation a greater proportion of lactate was incorporated into glucose than during either mid-lactation or the dry period.

  10. Use of a toxoid vaccine to protect goats against intradermal challenge exposure to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, C C; Olander, H J; Biberstein, E L; Morse, S M

    1986-05-01

    Two groups of male, 9-week-old goats (5 goats/group) were vaccinated subcutaneously with formalized exotoxin of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, with Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Each goat was given 2 vaccinations, 2 weeks apart. At each vaccination, each group 1 goat was given 0.5 ml of toxoid, and each group 2 goat was given 1 ml of toxoid. Twenty days after the 2nd vaccination, vaccinated goats and 5 nonvaccinated 12-week-old goats (controls) were inoculated intradermally (challenge exposed) with live C pseudotuberculosis, monitored for 13 weeks, and euthanatized. At necropsy, 5 of the 10 vaccinated goats did not have C pseudotuberculosis lesions, 3 had abscesses limited to the inoculation site and draining lymph node, and 2 had disseminated bacterial lesions. Of the 5 nonvaccinated controls, 4 had disseminated abscesses and 1 had a single abscess in an internal node. Serologically, 9 of the 10 vaccinated goats developed positive (greater than or equal to 1:8) antibody titers against the exotoxin within 1 week after inoculation; the 10th goat seroconverted 2 weeks after inoculation, whereas control goats required 3 weeks to develop a positive antibody response. Therefore, early during an infection with C pseudotuberculosis, antibodies against the exotoxin may protect a goat against spread of the organism. All goats were injected intradermally before challenge exposure, 10 days after challenge exposure, and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after challenge exposure with a skin-test reagent composed of fragmented bacterial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3717735

  11. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats. PMID:26662412

  12. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  13. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure.

    PubMed

    Paştiu, Anamaria I; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Györke, Adriana; Şuteu, Ovidiu; Balea, Anamaria; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Domşa, Cristian; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-02-01

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in countries where goats are frequently reared in backyards that are also homes to cats (the definitive host of this parasite) elevates such concern. To date, there has been little attention to either the prevalence or genotypic characteristics of T. gondii isolates in young ruminant food animals in Europe. Here, we estimated the prevalence of T. gondii goat-kids raised in backyards and slaughtered for human consumption during Easter. We collected 181 paired samples of serum and diaphragm. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against T. gondii , and muscle tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect T. gondii DNA. Thirty-two diaphragm samples were also bioassayed in mice, and the isolates were genotyped using microsatellite markers. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in goat-kids was 33.1% (60/181; 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.3-40.5%), and T. gondii DNA was found in 6.1% (11/181; 95% CI 3.1-10.6) of the diaphragm samples. We isolated the parasite from 2 of 32 goat-kids, and the T. gondii strains belonged to genotype II. The results showed that 1/3 of 3-mo-old goats may be infected with T. gondii, and their consumption during Easter (as barbecue) may seriously compromise food safety as a result. PMID:25003793

  14. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    PubMed

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation. PMID:22890482

  15. Assessment of welfare on 24 commercial UK dairy goat farms based on direct observations.

    PubMed

    Anzuino, K; Bell, N J; Bazeley, K J; Nicol, C J

    2010-11-13

    The preliminary findings from an investigation into the health and welfare of goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the UK are described. An assessment protocol involving direct observations of the goats was developed in order to assess their welfare. Twenty-four dairy goat farms in England and Wales were visited and assessed during the period autumn 2004 to summer 2005. The main welfare issues identified were lameness and claw overgrowth, udder and teat lesions, skin lesions and pruritus. PMID:21262609

  16. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  17. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Leizhou goat Capra hircus (Bovidae; Caprinae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Qun; Guo, Gong-Liang; Wu, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Leizhou goat (Capra hircus) is one of the famous native goat breed in China. In this study, the 16,651?bp complete nucleotide sequence of Leizhou goat mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the first time. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes. PMID:25080105

  19. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  20. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  1. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains ...

  3. New cryptic karyotypic differences between cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    De Lorenzi, Lisa; Planas, Jordi; Rossi, Elena; Malagutti, Luca; Parma, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus) belong to the Bovidae family, and they share a common ancestor 19.7-21.5 Ma ago (MYA). The Bovidae family apparently experienced a rapid species radiation in the middle Miocene. The present day cattle and goat possess the same diploid chromosome number (2n = 60) and structurally similar autosomes, except that a small subcentromeric portion of cattle chromosome nine has been translocated to goat chromosome 14. In this study, we adopted a new strategy that involves the use of bioinformatics approach to detect unknown cryptic chromosome divergences between cattle and goat using and subsequent validation using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. We identified two hypothetical discrepancies between the cattle and goat genome assemblies: an inversion in the goat chromosome 13 and a transposition in the goat chromosome 6. The FISH technique allowed clear validation of the existence of a new 7.4 Mb chromosomal inversion in the goat chromosome 13. Regarding the transposition in the goat chromosome six, FISH analyses revealed that the cattle and goat genomes shared the same organization, with the assembly of the goat genome being the correct one. Moreover, we defined, for the first time, the size and orientation of the translocated fragment involved in the evolutionary translocation between cattle chromosomes 9 and goat chromosome 14. Our results suggest that bioinformatics represents an efficient method for detecting cryptic chromosome divergences among species. PMID:25612562

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacan, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...

  5. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  6. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  7. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  8. Molecular cloning, polymorphisms, and expression analysis of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats.

    PubMed

    Sui, M X; Wang, H H; Wang, Z W

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the coding sequence, polymorphisms, and expression of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats. cDNA of RERG, obtained through reverse transcription PCR was analyzed using bioinformatic techniques. Polymorphisms in the exon regions of the RERG gene were identified and their associations with growth traits in three varieties of indigenous Chinese goats were investigated. Expression of the RERG gene in three goat breeds of the same age was detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that the cDNA of RERG, which contained a complete open reading frame of 20-620 bp, was 629 bp in length. The associated accession numbers in GenBank are JN672576, JQ917222, and JN580309 for the QianBei Ma goat, the GuiZhou white goat, and the GuiZhou black goat, respectively. Four consistent SNP sites were found in the exon regions of the RERG gene for the three goat breeds. mRNA expression of the RERG gene differed between different tissues in adult goats of same age. The highest expression was observed in lung and spleen tissues, while the lowest expression was recorded in thymus gland tissue. In addition, the expression of the RERG gene in the muscle of Guizhou white goat, GuiZhou black goat, and QianBei Ma goat decreased sequentially. Our results lay the foundations for further investigation into the role of the RERG gene in goat growth traits. PMID:26634455

  9. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host. PMID:26697224

  10. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4-6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host. PMID:26697224

  11. Suitability of Norwegian short-tail lambs, Norwegian dairy goats and Cashmere goats for meat production - Carcass, meat, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T

    2008-11-01

    Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (P<0.05) proteins and 13% higher (P<0.05) fat content than goat meats. Moreover, m. longissimus dorsi samples from lambs were less red (a(∗)) (P<0.05) and had lower colour intensity (C) and wider hue angle (H) than that from goats. Meat from lambs and Cashmere goats had higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P<0.001), especially stearic acid and lower ones for total unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the meat from Norwegian goats. Sensory panellists scored lamb meat fattier, juicier and more tender than goat meats. Meat from Cashmere goats scored highest (P<0.05) in whiteness, and lowest (P<0.05) in both colour tone and colour intensity. It is concluded that, since C18:0 was the main contributor of SFA in meat from Norwegian lamb and Cashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability. PMID:22063606

  12. [Juvenile goiter in a goat herd in northwest Germany].

    PubMed

    Simon, C; Bostedt, H; Adams, W

    2000-06-01

    A continuous increase in the circumference of the thyroid gland was observed in four goat kids (44.4%) of the breed of White German Goat between the third and fourth month in a herd comprising White German Goats and Coloured German Goats. Clinical, laboratory diagnostic and chemically analytical results have been obtained, illustrated and compared with the equivalent parameters from healthy control herds without pathological findings. The thyroidal secretion rate and the milk iodine content were highly significant reduced in the affected flock in comparison with the control group. The feed which was given to the affected group did not cover the nutritional requirement of pregnant, lactating and growing goats. At 40-50 mg/l, the nitrate content of the water was close to the tolerance of 50 mg/l. It can be deduced from the findings available that the case described above is a synergetic combination of a primary iodine deficiency, based on an inefficient iodine supply and of a secondary iodine deficiency resulting from a super elevated nitrate content of the drinking water. PMID:10892301

  13. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  14. Hepatic encephalopathy in two goat kids with common paternity.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Gregory K; Bera, Monali M; Holt, Timothy N; Callan, Robert J; Pandher, Karamjeet

    2008-11-01

    Two juvenile, intact, female mixed-breed goats from a common sire were presented for periodic neurologic deficits, seizures, and a generalized loss of body condition that occurred over a 4-6-week period. On physical examination, both goats were thin, obtunded, blind, and ataxic. Laboratory diagnostics revealed increased serum bile acids (95 micromol/l; reference interval: 0-50 micromol/l) in one of the goats. Both goats exhibited progressive physical and mental deterioration, and were eventually euthanized. Upon necropsy, no significant macroscopic lesions were noted. Microscopic examination, however, demonstrated hepatocellular atrophy and anomalies in the hepatic microvasculature, including duplication of hepatic arteries, small-to-indistinct portal veins, and oval cell hyperplasia. In addition, spongiform change was microscopically identified throughout the parenchyma of the brain, most notably within the white matter and along the junction of gray and white matter. The diagnosis of congenital portal vein hypoperfusion (suggestive of a portosystemic shunt) with resultant hepatic encephalopathy was proposed in each case based on the characteristic microscopic lesions in conjunction with the signalment and history of the goats. The observation that the affected kids were sired by the same buck suggests a hereditary basis for the condition in these animals as well. PMID:18987235

  15. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter. PMID:18765627

  16. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  17. Kappa casein gene polymorphism in local Tunisian goats.

    PubMed

    Jemmali, B; Ben Gara, A; Selmi, H; Ammari, Z; Bouheni, C; Ben Larbi, M; Hammami, M; Amraoui, M; Kamoun, M; Rouissi, H; Rekik, B

    2013-12-15

    The genetic polymorphism of the goat Kappa casein was investigated in Tunisian goats. Blood samples were collected from local goat breeds. Samples of genomic DNA were obtained from leukocytes of 175 dairy goats and regions of interest in the gene were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and then evaluated in agarose gel. For a better characterization of the single nucleotide polymorphism, a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism was performed employing the endonuclease DNA amplification using 459 bp primers. The PCR products of primers (459 bp) digested by restriction enzyme Alw44I produced two fragments of 459 and 381 bp. The Kappa casein allelic variants in tested animals revealed different genotypes, two of them were homozygous: AA or BB, AC or BC and CC. Genotypic frequencies were 12.5, 60.5 and 27% for AA or BB, CC and AC or BC, respectively. Identification of different variants of the Kappa casein can be used for the improvement and conservation of Tunisian local goats. PMID:24517024

  18. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin following subcutaneous administration in meat goats.

    PubMed

    Young, Gabrielle; Smith, Geof W; Leavens, Teresa L; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Mason, Sharon E; Riviere, Jim E; Tell, Lisa A

    2011-06-01

    Tulathromycin is a triamilide antibiotic that maintains therapeutic concentrations for an extended period of time. The drug is approved for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and swine and is occasionally used in goats. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in meat goats, 10 healthy Boer goats were administered a single 2.5 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of tulathromycin. Plasma concentrations were measured by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) detection. Plasma maximal drug concentration (Cmax) was 633 ± 300 ng/ml (0.40 ± 0.26 h post-subcutaneous injection). The half-life of tulathromycin in goats was 110 ± 19.9 h. Tulathromycin was rapidly absorbed and distributed widely after subcutaneous injection 33 ± 6 L/kg. The mean AUC of the group was 12,500 ± 2020 h ng/mL for plasma. In this study, it was determined that the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin after a single 2.5 mg/kg SC injection in goats were very similar to what has been previously reported in cattle. PMID:20638089

  19. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  20. Low seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Boer goats in Missouri

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Goats are known reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever. However, there has been very little research on the prevalence of C. burnetii exposure and risk in meat goats farmed in the US. Banked serum samples were secondarily tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies. Findings The animal and herd-level seroprevalence estimates for C. burnetii were 1.2% (3/249) and 4.2% (1/24) respectively. Within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 1.2%. Conclusions This study indicates that seroprevalence of C. burnetii in Boer goats raised in Missouri was low, but it does not preclude the existence of a higher level of infection in Missouri’s meat goat herds. This result is inconclusive because this study was disadvantaged by the small number of individual animal and herds tested, which compromised the statistical power of this study to detect a possible higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii in this population, if present. More research is warranted to corroborate the preliminary findings reported here in order to determine the public health significance C. burnetii infection risks associated with contemporary goat production systems in the US. PMID:24994554

  1. Introducing young dairy goats into the adult herd after parturition reduces social stress.

    PubMed

    Szabò, S; Barth, K; Graml, C; Futschik, A; Palme, R; Waiblinger, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare social stress, as measured by social behavior and adrenocortical activity, in young dairy goats during the first week after introduction into a herd of adult goats either during the dry period of the herd (i.e., all goats in the herd being pregnant or dry: PD) or shortly after parturition (i.e., all animals lactating or with their kids: LK). Thirty-two young goats that had had no contact with adult goats from the age of 7 wk were introduced into adult goat groups. Adult goats were kept in 2 groups of 36 animals each. Young goats were introduced (in groups of 4 animals each) into each of these 2 groups either during the PD period (2 repetitions) or during LK (2 repetitions); goats with different rearing experience were balanced over introduction periods. Young goats were more often receivers of agonistic social interactions when introduced during PD than during LK. Irrespective of the period of introduction, young goats had other young goats as neighbors more frequently than expected by chance alone, although this was even more distinct during PD. Cortisol metabolite levels increased markedly from baseline during PD, but not after parturition. Rearing showed an effect only on the nearest neighbors, with mother-reared young goats staying closer together. Our results indicate that young goats experience less social stress when being introduced into a herd of adult dairy goats shortly after parturition and with kids still present rather than during the dry period. Whether this effect is due to the period and lactational stage itself or to the presence of kids needs to be tested in future studies. PMID:23849642

  2. Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from goats and sheep indicating G7 genotype in goats in the Northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Fadakar, Bahman; Tabatabaei, Nasim; Borji, Hassan; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2015-11-30

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been a human public health problem in the Northeast of Iran, molecular data regarding the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats and sheep in these regions are still scarce. In the present study, we determined the genotypes of E. granulosus infecting sheep and goats in northeast of Iran. During April 2013-June 2014, 50 and 30 hydatid cysts were recovered from liver tissue of sheep and goats, respectively,. Protoscoleces or germinal layers were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted, and the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene was amplified by PCR. The results of PCR-RFLP and the sequence analysis showed that all the samples isolated from sheep (n=50) and most of samples in goats (n=24) were G1 strain, the most prevalent strain in livestock ruminants of Iran. Furthermore, six parasites isolated from goats were found to correspond to E. intermedius (G7 genotype), here reported for the first time from Iran. PMID:26483165

  3. Cryptococcal meningitis in a goat – a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus spp. are saprophytic and opportunistic fungal pathogens that are known to cause severe disease in immunocompromised animals. In goats there are reports of clinical cryptococcal pneumonia and mastitis but not of meningitis. Case presentation The following report describes a case of a five year old buck showing severe neurological signs, including paraplegia and strong pain reaction to touch of the hindquarters region. Treatment with antibiotics was unsuccessful and the animal was euthanized for humanitarian reasons. Postmortem examination revealed lumbar meningitis, lung nodules and caseous lymphadenitis lesions. Encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans were identified from the lungs and meninges, showing that cryptococcal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of goats showing paresis and hyperesthesia. The possibility of concurrent immunosuppression due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection is raised. Conclusions Cryptoccocal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis list of goat diseases with ataxia and hyperesthesia. PMID:24708822

  4. Heavy metals in livers and kidneys of goats in Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Datiri, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    The popularity of goat farming is increasing in the southeastern region of the United States. Baseline values of Hg, Pb, and Cd are not available in goat tissues in the United States. These values are needed when monitoring food for heavy metal contamination which may be associated with urbanization and industrialization. Due to human activities or anthropogenic sources of metals in the environment, high concentrations of these metals have been observed in herbage and animal tissues. It has also been reported that toxic heavy metals are concentrated mostly in kidneys and livers of animals. The risk of exposure of humans to heavy metals contained in edible organs of animals has received widespread concern. The objectives of this study were to (i) measure the levels of Hg,Pb, and Cd in livers and kidneys of goats; and (ii) determine whether accumulation of these metals is related to age and/or sex. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Actinomyces hyovaginalis-associated lymphadenitis in a Nubian goat.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Vanessa L; Hinckley, Lynn; Gilbert, Kelly; Risatti, Guillermo R; Londoño, Alfredo Sanchez; Smyth, Joan A

    2009-05-01

    A 6-year-old Nubian goat with a history of progressive weight loss and cough was presented for necropsy. The goat tested negative for antibodies to caseous lymphadenitis and caprine arthritis and encephalitis by hemagglutination inhibition assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Postmortem examination revealed marked enlargement and, with histopathology, a fibrinopurulent necrotizing lymphadenitis of a tracheobronchial lymph node, with an appearance similar to that reported in cases of caseous lymphadenitis. An organism characterized by molecular methods as Actinomyces hyovaginalis was isolated together with Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. from the lesion. No Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was recovered. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first isolation of A. hyovaginalis from a goat. Although the exact contribution of A. hyovaginalis to the lesion remains to be established, this case demonstrates that A. hyovaginalis should be considered in cases of caseous lymphadenitis-type lesions, especially when C. pseudotuberculosis has been excluded. PMID:19407095

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Mao-Liang, Ran; Chen, Bin; Ouyang, Xuxiang; Li, Zhi; Dong, Lian-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus) is a native breed of Hunan province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Xiangdong black goat is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,641 bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 33.53% A, 13.12% G, 27.25% T and 26.09% C, in the order A > T > C > G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes. PMID:25423508

  7. A complete mitochondrial genome of Youzhou black-skin goat.

    PubMed

    E, Guangxin; Chen, Li-Peng; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zeng, Yan; Ma, Yue-Hui; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-09-01

    The Youzhou black-skin goat (Capra hircus), an indigenous breed of Chinese southwest. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome is 16,640 nt in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the local subspecies of Hechuan white goat could provide an important data to further breed improvement and animal genetics resource conservation in China. PMID:26702472

  8. A complete mitochondrial genome of Dazu Black goat.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Narisu; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chen, Li-Peng; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zhao, Yong-Ju

    2016-09-01

    Dazu Black goat is an indigenous goat genetic resource in Southwest of China. Here, we describe its complete mitochondrial genome sequence. The mitogenome is 16,641 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the indigenous goat could provide important data to further explore the taxonomic status of the subspecies and also provide a starting point for further phylogenetic studies. PMID:25731719

  9. Human Infection with Orf Virus from Goats in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Keshan; Liu, Yongjie; Kong, Hanjin; Shang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Orf virus, which belongs to the Parapoxvirus genus, induces a zoonotic infectious disease characterized by acute, highly vascularized cutaneous pustular lesions in sheep and goats. A number of Orf outbreaks have been reported in sheep and goats in recent years, but no reports have described an Orf virus strain from humans in China. In this study, we diagnosed Orf virus infection in two people, a mother and son, in the Gansu province of China. The human Orf virus was isolated and its phylogenetic characterization was analyzed based on a complete B2L gene. The results are useful for developing prospective programs to control Orf virus infections in both goats and humans PMID:24745915

  10. Genetic Diversity of Eight Domestic Goat Populations Raised in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Zafer; Kurar, Ercan; Ozsensoy, Yusuf; Altunok, Vahdettin; Nizamlioglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the intra- and intergenetic diversities of eight different goat populations in Turkey including Hair, Angora, Kilis, Yayladag, Shami, Honamli, Saanen, and Alpine. A total of 244 DNA samples were genotyped using 11 microsatellites loci. The genetic differentiation between breeds was considerable as a result of the statistically significant (P < 0.001) pairwise FST values of each pair of breeds. Exceptionally, FST values calculated for Honamli and Hair breeds were statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05). Heterozygosity values ranged between 0.62 and 0.73. According to the structure and assignment test, Angora and Yayladag goats were assigned to the breed they belong to, while other breeds were assigned to two or more different groups. Because this study for the first time presented genetic data on the Yayladag goat, results of structure analysis and assigned test suggest that further analyses are needed using additional and different molecular markers. PMID:27092309

  11. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

  12. Energy requirements for growth in male and female Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Almeida, A K; Resende, K T; St-Pierre, N; Silva, S P; Soares, D C; Fernandes, M H M R; Souza, A P; Silva, N C D; Lima, A R C; Teixeira, I A M A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the energy requirements of female and intact and castrated male Saanen goats. Animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experiments designed to investigate the energy requirements for maintenance and gain. To determine the maintenance requirements, 85 goats were used (26 intact males, 30 castrated males, and 29 females) with an initial BW of 30.3 0.87 kg. Thirty goats (8 intact males, 9 castrated males, and 13 females) were slaughtered to be used as the baseline group. The remaining goats were assigned in a split-plot design using a 3 3 factorial arrangement (3 sexes-intact males, castrated males, and females-and 3 DMI levels-ad libitum and restricted fed to 75 or 50% of the ad libitum intake). The NE was obtained using 65 goats (20 intact males, 22 castrated males, and 23 females) fed ad libitum in a completely randomized design. Eight intact males, 9 castrated males, and 13 females were slaughtered at 30.5 1.53 kg BW. Seventeen goats (6 intact males, 6 castrated males, and 5 females) were slaughtered at 38.1 0.49 kg BW. The remaining goats were slaughtered at 44.0 0.50 kg BW. The NE did not differ between the sexes ( = 0.59; 258.5 kJ/kg BW), resulting in a ME for maintenance of 412.4 kJ/kg BW. The estimated energy use efficiency for maintenance was 0.627. During the growth phase, NE differed between the sexes ( < 0.001); intact males, castrated males, and females showed an average NE equal to 15.2, 18.6, and 22.7 MJ/kg of empty weight gain, respectively. The energy requirements for growth differed between the sexes. The difference was found to be due to distinct NE and partial efficiency of ME utilization for growth in intact and castrated males and females during the late growth phase. This study may contribute to adjustments in feeding system energy recommendations regarding the NE and NE found for goats during the late growth phase. PMID:26440173

  13. Characteristics of non-cerebral coenurosis in tropical goats.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulos, G; Kassab, A; Theodoropoulos, G

    2015-07-30

    The epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical profile of non-cerebral coenurosis in goats and the morphological characteristics of the responsible metacestodes (cysts) were examined in a cross-sectional survey of slaughtered goats in abattoirs of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) originating from Abu Dhabi and various tropical countries. The age, country of origin, and location of each cyst in the body of goats were recorded. Blood samples collected from infected and matching healthy goats were subjected to biochemical analysis. Data on the morphological characteristics of the cysts as well as the clusters, scoleces, and rostellar hooks in one cyst from each affected carcass were collected. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. A total of 2,284 slaughtered goats were examined and 40 goats were diagnosed as infected with non-cerebral coenurus cysts. The prevalence of non-cerebral coenurosis was 1.75% and the degree of parasite aggregation (k) was 0.003, which is indicative of overdispersion (k<1). The only abnormalities observed in the infected goats were palpation of large single cysts in thigh muscles and higher serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) value. A total of 76 non-cerebral coenurus cysts from 14 different body locations were collected. No cysts were found in the brain or spinal cord. Cysts located in psoas muscles had on average significantly bigger volumes and higher numbers of scoleces and clusters compared to cysts located in other body parts (P-value=0.000). Significant differences in the morphometric measurements of the rostellar hooks were observed between cysts found in goats from different countries of origin (P-value<0.05) perhaps due to initial steps of allopatric speciation by geographic isolation. A significant positive correlation was found between number of scoleces and volume of cysts (b=6.37>5; R-Sq=89.4%; P-value=0.000) and between number of clusters and number of scoleces (b=25.13>1; R-Sq=79.8%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a positive allometric growth as well as between number of clusters and volume of cysts (b=0.25<0.5; R-Sq=69.4%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a negative allometric growth. The biological significance of the observed allometries is not known, but perhaps for evolutionary reasons the parasite is investing its resources more on the growth of scoleces, less on the growth of cyst volume, and even less on the number of clusters. PMID:26073108

  14. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats

    PubMed Central

    Chiejina, Samuel N.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Fakae, Barineme B.

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  15. Genotypic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in Iranian goats

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Reza; Omrani, Vahid Fallah; Spotin, Adel; Esfandiari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and characterize the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) from goats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Methods A total of 120 goats were screened from abattoirs of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Forty out of 120 samples were infected with cystic echinococcosis and 29 out of 40 infected samples were fertile hydatid cysts (containing protoscolices) which were collected from the livers and lungs of infected goats. DNA samples were extracted from the protoscolices and characterized by mitochondrial DNA sequencing of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. Results Sequences analysis of nine fertile hydatid cysts indicated that all isolated samples were infected with the G1 sheep strain and two sequences were belonged to G14 and G1c microvarients of the G1 genotype. Conclusions The results showed that goats act as alternative intermediate hosts for sheep strain. G1 genotype seems to be the main route of transmission and it should be considered in further studies.

  16. Status of genetic diversity of U. S. dairy goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity underpins the livestock breeders’ ability to improve the production potential of their livestock. Therefore, it is important to periodically assess genetic diversity within a breed. Such an analysis was conducted on U.S. dairy goat breeds and this article is an overview of that wo...

  17. USE OF GOATS FOR THE CONTROL OF SALT CEDAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire, flood, herbicide, manual, mechanical and insect biocontrol methods have all been used to remove invasive salt cedar. Each method has advantages and disadvantages in particular circumstances. We used goats to browse replicated 1-3 acre plots in salt cedar near San Acacia and San Marcial along t...

  18. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning

  19. USDA DAIRY GOAT GENETIC EVALUATION PROGRAM - STATUS AND PLANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluations for milk, fat, and protein yields are calculated annually in July and evaluations for type are calculated in December. These evaluations are provided to regional computing centers, the dairy goat association, and the general public through web access. Data flows from the farms through th...

  20. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  1. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  2. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  3. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  4. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  5. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  6. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  7. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  8. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  9. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  10. Status of genetic diversity of U. S. dairy goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity underpins the livestock breeders’ ability to improve the production potential of their livestock. Therefore, it is important to periodically assess genetic diversity within a breed. Such an analysis was conducted on U.S. dairy goat breeds: Alpine, LaMancha, Nigerian Dwarf, Nubian, ...

  11. Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    During 2000–2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

  12. Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

  13. SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Cashmere Goat Skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lele; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhao, Meng; Wang, Ruijun; Su, Rui; Li, Jinquan

    2015-01-01

    The goat Capra hircus is one of several economically important livestock in China. Advances in molecular genetics have led to the identification of several single nucleotide variation markers associated with genes affecting economic traits. Validation of single nucleotide variations in a whole-transcriptome sequencing is critical for understanding the information of molecular genetics. In this paper, we aim to develop a large amount of convinced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Cashmere goat through transcriptome sequencing. In this study, the transcriptomes of Cashmere goat skin at four stages were measured using RNA-sequencing and 90% to 92% unique-mapped-reads were obtained from total-mapped-reads. A total of 56,231 putative SNPs distributed among 10,057 genes were identified. The average minor allele frequency of total SNPs was 18%. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were conducted to analyze the genes containing SNPs. Our follow up biological validation revealed that 64% of SNPs were true SNPs. Our results show that RNA-sequencing is a fast and efficient method for identification of a large number of SNPs. This work provides significant genetic resources for further research on Cashmere goats, especially for the high density linkage map construction and genome-wide association studies. PMID:26323515

  14. What Gets Your Goat? Art across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Features Elayne Goodman's mixed-media sculpture "The Goat Castle in Natchez," which is dedicated to a whodunnit murder mystery in Mississippi. Provides historical background of the murder and information on Goodman's life. Includes activities in history and social science, mathematics, science, language arts, visual arts, and economics and social…

  15. EFFECT OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION ON MILK COMPOSITION OF GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following study was conducted to characterize relationship between subclinical staphylococcal mastitis and experimentally induced clinical S. aureus mastitis on milk constituents of dairy goats. Monthly milk samples (May through September) from udder halves of lactating does were collected to de...

  16. Cellular defense mechanisms in the udder and lactation of goats.

    PubMed

    Paape, M J; Capuco, A V

    1997-02-01

    Migration of neutrophils into mammary tissue provides the first immunological line of defense against bacteria that penetrate the physical barrier of the teat canal. Evasion of neutrophil defenses provides an opportunity for invading bacteria to become established. Depletion of neutrophils results in a dramatic increase in susceptibility to intramammary infection. Numerous cytoplasmic particles are shed from the apical surface of mammary secretory cells during milk secretion in goats. Only those counting methods that are specific for deoxyribonucleic acid can distinguish cell-like particles from somatic cells and thereby give reliable estimates of somatic cell numbers in goat milk. Unlike in milk from dairy cows, the somatic cell count in goat milk is influenced by the presence of nucleated cytoplasmic particles, stage of lactation, parity, and caprine arthritis-encephalitis. Investigations indicate that a dry period is necessary for optimal milk production in dairy cows but may not be necessary in goats. However, in many other respects regulation of bovine and caprine lactation seems to be quite similar. Studies have demonstrated additive galactopoietic effects of growth hormone and frequent milking in both species and a recently isolated chemical feedback inhibitor of lactation seems effective across both species. Increasing lactational performance has the potential for decreasing milk somatic cell counts in late lactation. PMID:9051480

  17. Identification of the secondary follicle cycle of Hexi cashmere goat.

    PubMed

    He, Yanyu; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu

    2012-09-01

    This experiment conducted to identify a periodic change of ultrastructures of secondary follicle characteristics during a whole year, reveal the molecule regulation of growth of cashmere. A total of 10 cashmere goats of 1-year old were studied. The paraffin section and ultrathin slices of skin were made each month in a whole year, observed, photographed, and analyzed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope after stained. Following the development of down fiber, the ultrastructures of secondary follicle of Hexi cashmere goat showed a periodic change within a year. There were five different periods during a down fiber cycle. It was observed that the stage of telogen, proanagen, anagen, procatagen, and catagen was in January and February, March and April, May to August, September and October, and November and December, respectively. The key change observed in secondary follicle under transmission electron microscope was inner root sheath. This study illustrated the five different stage of secondary follicle of Hexi Cashmere goat within a whole growth cycle, and has provided more detailed information about the research field of Hexi cashmere goat. Choosing the suitable time to harvest the cashmere may get the profit maximization. PMID:22753049

  18. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and...

  2. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations. PMID:26315774

  3. Energy requirements for growth of pubertal female Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, F O M; Berchielli, T T; Resende, K T; Gomes, H F B; Almeida, A K; Sakomura, N K; Teixeira, I A M A

    2016-04-01

    Previous research on energy requirements of female Saanen goats, using the factorial approach, has not considered the specific requirements for maintenance and growth during the pubertal phase. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate energy requirements for maintenance (Trial 1) and growth (Trial 2) of non-pregnant and non-lactating female Saanen goats at the pubertal phase from 30 to 45 kg. In Trial 1, the net energy requirements for maintenance (NEm ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats randomly assigned to three levels of intake: ad libitum, and 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. These animals were pair-fed in six slaughter groups, each consisting of one animal for each level of intake. In Trial 2, the net energy requirements for growth (NEg ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats, which were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at targeted BW of 30, 38 and 45 kg. The NEm was 52 kcal/kg(0.75) of BW. The NEg increased from 3.5 to 4.7 Mcal/kg of BW gain as BW increased from 30 to 45 kg. Our results suggest that the guidelines of the major feeding systems for the entire growth phase may not be adequate for females at pubertal phase. PMID:26249003

  4. Fetotoxic Effects of Locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) in Pregnant Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has beena substantial amount of research in sheep given locoweed from 60 to 130 days of gestation. Even so, there has been no research on fetotoxic effects of locoweed during gestation days 30-60, and little has been done to describe the effect of poisoning in pregnant goats. Thus the purpos...

  5. [The goat: approach to an animal model in human chromomycosis].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Eustacia C; Rey Valeirón, Catalina; Yegres, Francisco; Reyes, Rómulo

    2005-06-01

    In Falcon State, Venezuela, human chromomycosis is mainly caused by a dimorphic fungus, Cladophialophora carrionii. Xerophytes plants are common in the State and goat breeding in an extensive system as the main way of living. There are not published reports of chromomycosis in goats, despite the fact of their permanent exposition to fungus by accidental inoculation with infected spines. To evaluate parasitic transformation to sclerotic cells, length of fungus-surviving period and histopathological lesions, goats of five months of age were inoculated with 1 x 10(6) cells of C. carrionii by subcutaneous route in the neck and biopsies at 10, 19, 30 and 60 days from inoculated places were performed. Tissues were analyzed by (a) direct test with KOH 10%; (b) inoculation in Saboraud dextrose culture and (c) histopathological techniques. Hyphae and sclerotic cells were observed on tissues treated with KOH 10%; growing of fungus was detected in specific medium up to four weeks post-inoculation. Tissue pathology showed necrotic foci, mixed polymorphonuclear infiltrate, predominance of mononuclear cells, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, cosinophils and giant cells, hyphae and sclerotic cells in each one of samples. C. carrionii caused cellular reactions in goats as those seen in humans at the first stages of infection; however, animals did not develop the typical macroscopic lesions of the human disease. PMID:16001745

  6. What Gets Your Goat? Art across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Features Elayne Goodman's mixed-media sculpture "The Goat Castle in Natchez," which is dedicated to a whodunnit murder mystery in Mississippi. Provides historical background of the murder and information on Goodman's life. Includes activities in history and social science, mathematics, science, language arts, visual arts, and economics and social

  7. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

  8. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  9. Ultrastructural changes in goat interspecies and intraspecies reconstructed early embryos.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Cheng, Lizi; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Bin; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Yunhai; Fang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2008-05-01

    The low efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer may be related to the ultrastructural deviations of reconstructed embryos. The present study investigated ultrastructural differences between in vivo-produced and cloned goat embryos, including intra- and interspecies embryos. Goat ear fibroblast cells were used as donors, while the enucleated bovine and goat oocytes matured in vitro as recipients. Goat-goat (GG), goat-cattle (GC) and goat in vivo-produced embryos at the 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell and 16-cell stages were compared using transmission electron microscopy. These results showed that the three types of embryos had a similar tendency for mitochondrial change. Nevertheless, changes in GG embryos were more similar to changes in in vivo-produced embryos than were GC embryos, which had more extreme mitochondrial deviation. The results indicate the effects of the cytoplast on mitochondria development. The zona pellucida (ZP) in all three types of embryos became thinner and ZP pores in both GC and GG embryos showed an increased rate of development, especially for GC embryos, while in vivo-produced embryos had smooth ZP. The Golgi apparatus (Gi) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) of the two reconstructed embryos became apparent at the 8-cell stage, as was found for in vivo embryos. The results showed that the excretion of reconstructed embryos was activated on time. Lipid droplets (LD) of GC and GG embryos became bigger, and congregated. In in vivo-produced embryos LD changed little in volume and dispersed gradually from the 4-cell period. The nucleolus of GC and GG embryos changed from electron dense to a fibrillo-granular meshwork at the 16-cell stage, showing that nucleus function in the reconstructed embryos was activated. The broken nuclear envelope and multiple nucleoli in one blastomere illuminated that the nucleus function of reconstructed embryos was partly changed. In addition, at a later stage in GC embryos the nuclear envelope displayed infoldings and the chromatin was concentrated, implying that the blastomeres had an obvious trend towards apoptosis. The gap junctions of the three types of embryos changed differently and GG and GC embryos had bigger perivitelline and intercellular spaces than did in vivo-produced embryos. These results are indicative of normal intercellular communication at an early stage, but this became weaker in later stages in reconstructed embryos. In conclusion, inter- and intraspecies reconstructed embryos have a similar pattern of developmental change to that of in vivo-produced embryos for ZP, rough ER, Gi and nucleolus, but differ for mitochondria, LD, vesicles, nucleus and gap junction development. In particular, the interspecies cloned embryos showed more severe destruction. These ultrastructural deviations might contribute to the compromised developmental potential of reconstructed embryos. PMID:18405430

  10. Welfare effects of a disease eradication programme for dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Muri, K; Leine, N; Valle, P S

    2016-02-01

    The Norwegian dairy goat industry has largely succeeded in controlling caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis through a voluntary disease eradication programme called Healthier Goats (HG). The aim of this study was to apply an on-farm welfare assessment protocol to assess the effects of HG on goat welfare. A total of 30 dairy goat farms were visited, of which 15 had completed disease eradication and 15 had not yet started. Three trained observers assessed the welfare on 10 farms each. The welfare assessment protocol comprised both resource-based and animal-based welfare measures, including a preliminary version of qualitative behavioural assessments with five prefixed terms. A total of 20 goats in each herd were randomly selected for observations of human-animal interactions and physical health. The latter included registering abnormalities of eyes, nostrils, ears, skin, lymph nodes, joints, udder, claws and body condition score. For individual-level data, robust clustered logistic regression analyses with farm as cluster variable were conducted to assess the association with disease eradication. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used for comparisons of herd-level data between the two groups. Goats with swollen joints (indicative of CAE) and enlarged lymph nodes (indicative of CLA) were registered on 53% and 93% of the non-HG farms, respectively, but on none of the HG farms. The only other health variables with significantly lower levels in HG herds were skin lesions (P=0.008) and damaged ears due to torn out ear tags (P<0.001). Goats on HG farms showed less fear of unknown humans (P=0.013), and the qualitative behavioural assessments indicated that the animals in these herds were calmer than in non-HG herds. Significantly more space and lower gas concentrations reflected the upgrading of buildings usually done on HG farms. In conclusion, HG has resulted in some welfare improvements beyond the elimination of infectious diseases. The protocol was considered a useful tool to evaluate the welfare consequences of a disease eradication programme. However, larger sample sizes would increase the reliability of prevalence estimates for less common conditions and increase the power to detect differences between the groups. Despite the obvious link between disease and suffering, this aspect is rarely taken into account in the evaluation of disease control programmes. We therefore propose that welfare assessment protocols should be applied to evaluate the merits of disease control or eradication programmes in terms of animal welfare. PMID:25990702

  11. Prevalence and pathology of coccidiosis in goats in southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Reza; Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Yadegari, Zeinab

    2014-03-01

    Coccidiosis is an economically disease that caused by Eimeria spp. Small and large intestines are target tissues of this protozoan parasite. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coccidial infection and pathology of coccidiosis of goats in Kerman, southeastern Iran, from February 2010 to July 2011. Faecal samples (approximately 3-5 g) were obtained from the rectum of 208 goats. The samples were determined microscopically for the presence of oocysts. Eimeria species were identified following sporulation of faeces in a thin layer of 2.5 % potassium dichromate for one or 2 weeks at 27 °C. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 187 out of 208 analyzed samples (89.91 %). Nine different Eimeria species were identified: E. arloingi (68.26 %), E. christenseni (50.9 %), E. ninakohlyakimovae (41.8 %), E. caprina (31.7 %), E. alijevi (29.8 %), E. jolchijevi (26.92 %), E. apsheronica (22.59 %), E. hirci (11.05 %), and E. pallida (5.2 %). Goats were considered in three age groups (less than 2 years old, 2-3 years old and over 3 years old). Obtained data indicated that coccidiosis was relatively common among the goats in this area. The highest rate of oocyte counts were observed in goats over 3 years old and females were more affected than male. The sex and age of the goat had not significant effects on the prevalence of coccidiosis, as well. There was no significant difference in oocyte per gram during different months. Coccidial lesions occurred in the jejunum and ileum more than other parts of intestine. Grossly, the affected tissues revealed non-pedunculated whitish nodules. Histopathologically, these nodules were characterized as proliferative enteritis with presence of different stages of the Eimeria in the hyperplastic epithelium and mild inflammatory reaction. Parasitological, gross and microscopic examinations revealed Eimeria infection was common in goats of Kerman, southeastern Iran. PMID:24505173

  12. Pharmacokinetics and mammary elimination of imidocarb in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Belloli, C; Lai, O R; Ormas, P; Zizzadoro, C; Sasso, G; Crescenzo, G

    2006-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics and mammary excretion of imidocarb dipropionate, a therapeutic/prophylactic agent against a variety of tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases in domestic animals, have been investigated in sheep and goats. A commercial formulation of imidocarb di-propionate was injected i.m. at a single dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight in 7 mature lactating ewes and 8 lactating does in good health. Blood samples were collected for 48 h after administration and milk samples were collected every 12 h for 10 d. A weak cation-exchange solid-phase procedure was used to remove imidocarb from plasma. A hexane/isoamyl alcohol liquid-liquid procedure was adopted to extract the drug from the milk of sheep. The same method was used for goat milk after exposing the matrices to enzymatic digestion. The extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC. The i.m. disposition kinetics of imidocarb in the 2 species showed significant differences in the rate of elimination (0.0075 +/- 0.002 and 0.025 +/- 0.004 L/h in sheep and goats, respectively), being faster in ewes than in does. Nevertheless, a smaller area under the concentration-time curve (12.21 +/- 0.76 and 9.49 +/- 0.54 microg/mL per h in sheep and goats, respectively), a larger volume of distribution (4.18 +/- 0.44 and 7.68 +/- 0.57 L/kg in sheep and goats, respectively), and a longer mean residence time (9.07 +/- 0.77 and 14.75 +/- 2.20 h in sheep and goats, respectively) were found in goats, suggesting a more rapid and effective drug storage in tissues during the first 48 h after the injection. The concentrations of imidocarb in milk of both species were higher than in plasma. However, a fast passage through the blood-milk barrier and a high storage of imidocarb were observed in the milk of ewes, whereas the drug concentrations were not as high nor was the extent of drug penetration from blood to milk as great in the milk of goats (AUC(milk 0-48)/AUC(plasma 0-48) = 2.5 +/- 0.45 and 1.26 +/- 0.27 in sheep and goat, respectively). Despite the differences in pharmacokinetic behavior, and considering the sensitivity of pathogens to imidocarb, the same dosage regimen can be used for clinical efficacy against Babesia spp. infection in both species. In contrast, the differences in depletion of imidocarb residue in milk and the large variability in mammary drug elimination found in goats suggests that great care should be taken in defining the withdrawal time in small ruminant dairy species. PMID:16772563

  13. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Abu-Basha, Ehab A; Youssef, Salah A H; Amer, Aziza M; Murphy, Patricia A; Hauck, Catherine C; Gehring, Ronette; Hsu, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 μg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

  14. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system. PMID:18975131

  15. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

  16. Chronic atrial fibrillation causes left ventricular dysfunction in dogs but not goats: experience with dogs, goats, and pigs.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, Derek J; Ranjan, Ravi; Higuchi, Koji; Kholmovski, Eugene; Angel, Nathan; Li, Li; Macleod, Rob; Norlund, Layne; Olsen, Aaron; Davies, Christopher J; Marrouche, Nassir F

    2013-09-01

    Structural remodeling in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs over weeks to months. To study the electrophysiological, structural, and functional changes that occur in chronic AF, the selection of the best animal model is critical. AF was induced by rapid atrial pacing (50-Hz stimulation every other second) in pigs (n = 4), dogs (n = 8), and goats (n = 9). Animals underwent MRIs at baseline and 6 mo to evaluate left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). Dogs were given metoprolol (50-100 mg po bid) and digoxin (0.0625-0.125 mg po bid) to limit the ventricular response rate to <180 beats/min and to mitigate the effects of heart failure. The pacing leads in pigs became entirely encapsulated and lost the ability to excite the heart, often before the onset of sustained AF. LV EF in dogs dropped from 54 ± 11% at baseline to 33 ± 7% at 6 mo (P < 0.05), whereas LV EF in goats did not drop significantly (69 ± 8% at baseline vs. 60 ± 9% at 6 mo, P = not significant). After 6 mo of AF, fibrosis levels in dog atria and ventricles increased, whereas only atrial fibrosis levels increased in goats compared with control animals. In our experience, the pig model is not appropriate for chronic rapid atrial pacing-induced AF studies. Rate-controlled chronic AF in the dog model developed HF and LV fibrosis, whereas the goat model developed only atrial fibrosis without ventricular dysfunction and fibrosis. Both the dog and goat models are representative of segments of the patient population with chronic AF. PMID:23812387

  17. Kinetics and role of antibodies against intimin β in colostrum and in serum from goat kids and longitudinal study of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli in goat kids

    PubMed Central

    Orden, José A.; De la Fuente, Ricardo; Yuste, María; Martínez-Pulgarín, Susana; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A.; Horcajo, Pilar; Contreras, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan C.; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The presence of antibodies to the intimin β-binding region (Int280-β) of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) in serum from 20 goat kids from 2 herds, as well as in goat colostrum, was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the onset and subsequent pattern of shedding of AEEC from the same goat kids over a 6-mo period was investigated. All the colostrum and serum samples tested contained antibodies against Int280-β. The association between the antibody titer and the isolation of AEEC suggests that antibodies to intimin β do not prevent colonization of the intestine by AEEC in goat kids. The AEEC were generally shed only transiently. Most AEEC isolated from the kids belonged to serogroup O26. Three isolates belonged to serogroup O157. These data show that goat kids may be a reservoir of AEEC that are potentially pathogenic for humans. PMID:20357960

  18. Characteristics of the mitochondrial genome of four native goats in China (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong-Ju; He, Jian-Ning; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chen, Li-Peng; Qiu, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Yuan-Zhi; Yu, Chang-Hui; Wei, Shu-Ya

    2016-09-01

    Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Jining Gray goat, Fushun black goat, Youzhou black-skin goat, and Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome of those four goats consisted of 16,640 nt, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The complete mitogenome of these four local breeds of Chinese native goats could provide an important data to further breed improvement and animal genetics resource conservation in China. PMID:25693713

  19. Descriptive study of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in goats in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yi, G; Kaiyu, W; Qigui, Y; Zhongqiong, Y; Yingdong, Y; Defang, C; Jinlu, H

    2010-06-01

    This is the first report on enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) in goats (Nanjiang Yellow goats and Jianyang Big-ear Black goats) in southwestern China. The clinical, histological and ultrastructural features of ENA in goats were described. From July 2007 to May 2009, 21 cases of ENA in goats, from 6 months to 8 years old, were diagnosed solely in one big herd. Clinically, the affected goats showed nasal discharge, facial swelling, sneezing, stertorous breathing and weight loss. Tumours that originated from the ethmoid area of the nasal cavity were unilateral (18/21) or bilateral (3/21). All tumours were classified as low grade adenocarcinomas by histopathological examination and were displayed a combination of tubular and papillary growth. No metastases were detected in regional lymph nodes, brain or other organs. Ultrastructurally, virus-like particles with an average diameter between 80 and 110 nm were observed in 5/7 examined tumours. PMID:20180924

  20. Genetic characterization of Meigu goat (Capra hircus) based on the mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Meigu goat (Capra hircus) is one of the indigenous goat breeds in China. Our research findings revealed that the entire mitochondrial genome of Meigu goat was 16,643?bp in length. The contents of A, C, T and G in the mitochondrial genome were 33.59%, 26.05%, 27.31% and 13.05%, respectively. The mitogenome of meigu goat contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. Components of the Meigu goat's mitogenome were similar to those of other Capra hircus in gene arrangement and composition. These results could provide essential information for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of domestic goats. PMID:25185701

  1. Experimental vaginal infection of goats with semen contaminated with the "CPG" strain of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Wanderley, Flaviana Santos; Porto, Wagnner Jos Nascimento; Cmara, Diogo Ribeiro; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Feitosa, Bruna Catarina de Oliveira; Freire, Roberta Lemos; de Moraes, Erica Paes Barreto Xavier; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to characterize the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in goats experimentally infected vaginally with semen contaminated with the CPG strain (genotype III). Ten female goats were randomly allocated into 2 groups (G1 and G2), each with 5 animals, and inseminated during estrus. Goats in G1 were inseminated with semen containing 1 10(5) tachyzoites, whereas those in G2 (control) were inseminated with semen free from tachyzoites (insemination = day 0). In G1, seroconversion (indirect immunofluorescence reaction) and DNA (polymerase chain reaction) in the blood was present in 4/5 and 3/5, respectively, from the 7th day. In G2, all goats were negative in all tests. Embryonic reabsorption occurred in 4 of 5 goats from G1 between days 21 and 49. In conclusion, artificial vaginal insemination with semen containing tachyzoites of T. gondii -infected goats and is a potential transmission route of this parasite through semen. PMID:23391103

  2. Detection of Anaplasma sp. in Korean Native Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) on Jeju Island, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Sung; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular pathogens that can cause tick-borne diseases in mammalian hosts. To date, very few studies of their occurrence in Korean native goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) have been reported. In the present study, we investigated Anaplasma infection of Korean native goats on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, and performed phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Our results showed that Anaplasma infection was found mostly in adult female goats. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the 7 sequences identified in Korean native goats could belong to Anaplasma sp. and were distinct from A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis. The results indicated that the sequences identified to belong to Anaplasma were closely related to sequences isolated from goats in China and were clustered within the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Anaplasma sp. infection in Korean native goats. PMID:26797447

  3. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies and its associated risk factors in indigenous goats of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium and the associated risk factors in goats from five different farming provinces of South Africa. Sera collected from 686 goats of the commercial meat type (n=179), mohair type (n=9), non-descript indigenous goats from Eastern Cape (n=56), KwaZulu-Natal (n=209), Limpopo (n=111), North West (n=61) and Northern Cape (n=11) provinces and a feral Tankwa goat (n=50) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to antigens of E. ruminantium using the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Fifty two percent of these goats had ticks. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to E. ruminantium was 64.87% (445/686) with the highest seroprevalence reported for Limpopo (95.50%) and lowest for Northern Cape (20.29%). Highest seroprevalence for antibodies to E. ruminantium was observed in goats from endemic regions (76.09%), and from smallholder production systems (89.54%). High seroprevalence was also observed in non-descript indigenous goats (85.04%), adult goat (69.62%), in does (67.46%) and goats infested with ticks (85.79%). The logistic model showed a gradient of increasing risk for commercial meat type Savanna (OR=3.681; CI=1.335-10.149) and non-descript indigenous (OR=3.466; CI=1.57-7.645) compared to Boer goats and for goats from the smallholder production system (OR=2.582; CI=1.182-5.639) and those with ticks (OR=3.587; CI=2.105-6.112). Results from this study showed that E. ruminantium infections were prevalent but were widely and unevenly distributed throughout South Africa. Findings from the study facilitate identification and mapping of risk areas for heartwater and its endeminicity in South Africa and should be taken into consideration for future disease control strategies and local goat improvement programs. PMID:26829905

  4. A long term study of goats naturally infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Hanson, J; Hydbring, E; Olsson, K

    1996-01-01

    The caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a big problem in dairy goat industry. Little is known about its characteristics in naturally infected goat herds. The aims of this study were: 1) to study how antibody expression, measured by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT), varied over time in naturally infected, seropositive goats, 2) to observe clinical signs in seropositive adult goats and 3) to follow seroconversion and gamma globulin concentration in goat kids artificially reared on cow milk replacement product only, compared to kids reared on untreated goat milk. The antibody expression pattern to the viral proteins gp135 and p28 varied in the individual goat and intermittent negative reactions were seen in 19 adult animals followed for 30-91 weeks. Four seropositive goats developed clinical symptoms with difficulties to move. However, no correlation between clinical signs and antibody expression pattern was seen. During the first 27 weeks of age no kid in the milk replacement reared group (N = 4) seroconverted, but 5 of the 7 kids fed goat milk occasionally showed a positive antibody reaction. The gamma globulin concentration was significantly higher in the goat milk fed group until the kids had become more than 19 weeks old. The results show that a great variation of the antibody pattern in individual goats occurs, and therefore the AGIDT is only reliable as a herd screening test. Frequent sampling is necessary to get reliable information about spreading of the CAEV in a naturally infected goat herd. Removing kids from their dams immediately after birth combined with segregation and artificial rearing protected them from CAEV infection. However their gamma globulin concentration was initially low. PMID:8659344

  5. [Histologic studies of the postnatal development of the uterus of dwarf goats].

    PubMed

    Michel, G; Rabie, F O

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-four Syrian goats were investigated for postnatal uterus development, from the first day after parturition to the age of six months. Structures were found to undergo conspicuously early differentiation. Full morphological uterus development was established at the age of three to four months. Syrian goat thus is sexually mature at that early age. This is considered to be essential to good suitability of Syrian goat as experimental animal. PMID:1789724

  6. Pre-parturition staphylococcal mastitis in primiparous replacement goats: persistence over lactation and sources of infection.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Iacome S C; Sousa, Francisca G C; De Leon, Candice M G; Spricigo, Denis A; Saraiva, Mauro M S; Givisiez, Patricia E N; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Vieira, Rafael F C; Oliveira, Celso J B

    2014-01-01

    This investigation reported for the first time the occurrence of intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus in primiparous replacement goats before parturition and the persistence of clinical Staphylococcus aureus infection during the lactation period. Subclinical infections, mainly caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), did not persist during lactation. Genotyping analysis indicated that environment seems to play a moderate role as source of intramammary infections to goats before parturition, but causative agents of mastitis in lactating animals are not genotypically related to environmental staphylococci. The occurrence and persistence of intramammary infections in replacement goats demonstrate the need to consider those animals as potential sources of infections in dairy goat herds. PMID:25487513

  7. Prevalence and dynamics of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in kids born from naturally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Alauddin, Md; Hossain, K M Mozaffor; Islam, Md Hemayetul; Kitoh, Katsuya; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domesticated goats intended for human consumption in a rural suburb of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 55.1% (80/145) of the goats tested in our sample. The seroprevalence among goats aged <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and ≥3 years were 36.7%, 66.0%, 59.1% and 100%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age. Among the seropositive goats, a subsample of eight free-ranging female goats with access to male goats was placed under continuous observation. During the observation period, these seropositive female goats delivered 11 kids, all of which were found to be seronegative before suckling colostrum. This finding strongly suggested that trans-placental infection rarely occurs in female goats that have acquired an infection before pregnancy. Our results indicate that infection via ingestion of oocysts plays a more important role than endogenous trans-placental infection in maintaining the endemicity of T. gondii among goats in Bangladesh. PMID:26028431

  8. Serology and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Ha-Young; Byun, Jae-Won; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Daekeun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). A total of 466 native Korean goats from 40 herds (11 to 12 samples per herd) were randomly selected throughout the nation and evaluated by direct palpation, bacterial isolation, ELISA, and PCR. In serological examinations, 267 (57.3 %) of the goats tested were positive against C. pseudotuberculosis. When seroprevalence was analyzed according to age, region, and season, statistically significant differences were observed in relation to all three parameters (P < 0.05). For clinical examination, the superficial lymph nodes of all goats were palpated to diagnose CLA. Pus samples taken from superficial abscesses were used for bacterial isolation. Among the 466 goats tested, 34 (7.3 %) were presumptively diagnosed with CLA, and C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 24 goats (70.6 % of goats with CLA lesions) whose infections were confirmed by PCR. Considering the high seroprevalence and bacterial isolation rate from most of the superficial CLA lesions, it is suspected that many internal CLA lesions exist in this goat population. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widespread in native Korean goats, and appropriate control programs need to be established. PMID:25682104

  9. Bacteriological quality of on-farm manufactured goat cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Tham, W. A.; Hajdu, L. J.; Danielsson-Tham, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of 198 ripened soft or semi-soft goat cheeses obtained from dairy farms and the retail trade was investigated. The cheeses were examined for total counts of aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria (37 and 44 degrees C respectively), enterococci, coagulase positive staphylococci, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. Cheeses obtained from dairy-farms were also determined for pH value. In terms of all tests performed, cheeses made of heat-treated milk with starter culture had the best prospects for fulfilling the criteria for 'fit for consumption'. Cheeses made of raw milk without starter culture made up the most unsatisfactory group from a food-hygiene point of view. Bacteriological guidelines for on-farm manufactured goat cheese are suggested. PMID:2106443

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Boer goat (Bovidae; Caprinae).

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Hu, Jiangtao; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiaoyue; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of Boer goat. The mitogenome was 16,639?bp in length, comprised of 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. Almost all genes were encoded on the H-strand except the ND6 and eight tRNA genes. Most of the genes initiated with ATG, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 started with ATA. The total base composition of the mitogenome was 33.53% for A, 26.05% for C, 13.12% for T and 27.30% for G. These results provide a standard reference sequence for phylogenetic analyses among goats. PMID:25187040

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese tibetan goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-03-01

    The Tibetan goat (Capra hircus), a breed native to China, is adapted to cold and hypoxia. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tibetan goat. The mitochondrial genome is 16,640?bp in length, with a base composition of 33.6% A, 26.0% C, 13.1% G and 27.3% T. It has a typical mitogenome structure, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. This genomic data provides a strating point for future phylogenetics studies. PMID:25010078

  12. Diagnostic pathology in microbial diseases of sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Benavides, J; González, L; Dagleish, M; Pérez, V

    2015-12-14

    Post-mortem examination is a key step in the diagnostic process of infectious diseases in sheep and goats. Diagnostic pathology deals with identification and study of lesions, at the same time providing also significant clues regarding pathogenesis of the diseases. This article reviews the salient pathological findings associated with the most significant infectious diseases of sheep and goats present in countries where small ruminants are a relevant agricultural industry. Lesions are reviewed according to the different organ systems where they occur. Emphasis has been given in the description of the salient lesional patterns than can be identified in each organ and which can be of help in the differential diagnosis of the lesions caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions. Finally, a review of the usefulness of ancillary tests that may be used on various tissue samples for performing an aetiological diagnosis, is included; the application of various techniques, from immunohistochemistry to molecular biology-based tests, is described. PMID:26275854

  13. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  14. Tuberculoid nodular thelitis in a dairy goat flock.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Christophe; Albaric, Olivier; Cesbron, Nora; Despres, Jérôme; Hoogveld, Charlotte; Michelet, Lorraine; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura

    2016-03-01

    An unusual outbreak of teat/udder skin lesions occurred in a dairy goat flock in France. Lesions first appeared as circular, indurated, erythematous areas of skin and progressed to form dark raised haemorrhagic crusts and ulcerative plaques. Histopathological examination revealed marked granulomatous dermatitis with multifocal ulceration. The granulomatous inflammation, with frequent Langhans type multinucleated cells and central caseous necrosis, was indicative of mycobacterial infection. The presence of non-cultivable mycobacteria was confirmed by sequencing PCR products from DNA extracted directly from the lesions and sequences matched a novel mycobacterial pathogen closely related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis and previously identified in cattle thelitis. The association of nodular gross lesions and tuberculoid granulomas on the teat and lower udder, and the presence of mycobacteria DNA support a diagnosis of tuberculoid nodular thelitis in goats due to mycobacterial infection. PMID:26831157

  15. Innate Immune Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Nfon, Charles K.; Marszal, Peter; Zhang, Shunzhen; Weingartl, Hana M.

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a re-emerging mosquito-borne disease of ruminants and man, was endemic in Africa but spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen, meaning it could spread even further. Little is known about innate and cell-mediated immunity to RVF virus (RVFV) in ruminants, which is knowledge required for adequate vaccine trials. We therefore studied these aspects in experimentally infected goats. We also compared RVFV grown in an insect cell-line and that grown in a mammalian cell-line for differences in the course of infection. Goats developed viremia one day post infection (DPI), which lasted three to four days and some goats had transient fever coinciding with peak viremia. Up to 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were positive for RVFV. Monocytes and dendritic cells in PBMCs declined possibly from being directly infected with virus as suggested by in vitro exposure. Infected goats produced serum IFN-γ, IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines but not IFN-α. Despite the lack of IFN-α, innate immunity via the IL-12 to IFN-γ circuit possibly contributed to early protection against RVFV since neutralising antibodies were detected after viremia had cleared. The course of infection with insect cell-derived RVFV (IN-RVFV) appeared to be different from mammalian cell-derived RVFV (MAM-RVFV), with the former attaining peak viremia faster, inducing fever and profoundly affecting specific immune cell subpopulations. This indicated possible differences in infections of ruminants acquired from mosquito bites relative to those due to contact with infectious material from other animals. These differences need to be considered when testing RVF vaccines in laboratory settings. PMID:22545170

  16. Uterine activty and plasma progesterone levels in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E; Kinfton, A

    1977-01-01

    Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels. PMID:841203

  17. Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Rodolakis, A; Laroucau, K

    2015-12-14

    Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease. PMID:26255554

  18. Acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C. L.; Bennett, P. B.

    1973-01-01

    Assessment of the metabolic consequences of exposure to elevated partial pressures of nitrogen and helium under normobaric and hyperbaric conditions in goats. The results include the finding that hyperbaric nitrogen causes and increase in metabolic rate and a general decrease in blood constituent levels which is interpreted as reflecting a shift toward fatty acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrates. A similar but more pronounced pattern was observed with hyperbaric helium.

  19. A kinetic model of phosphorus metabolism in growing goats.

    PubMed

    Vitti, D M; Kebreab, E; Lopes, J B; Abdalla, A L; De Carvalho, F F; De Resende, K T; Crompton, L A; France, J

    2000-10-01

    The effect of increasing phosphorus (P) intake on P utilization was investigated in balance experiments using 12 Saanen goats, 4 to 5 mo of age and weighing 20 to 30 kg. The goats were given similar diets with various concentrations of P, and 32P was injected to trace the movement of P in the body. A P metabolism model with four pools was developed to compute P exchanges in the system. The results showed that P absorption, bone resorption, and excretion of urinary P and endogenous and fecal P all play a part in the homeostatic control of P. Endogenous fecal output was positively correlated to P intake (P < .01). Bone resorption of P was not influenced by intake of P, and P recycling from tissues to the blood pool was lesser for low P intake. Endogenous P loss occurred even in animals fed an inadequate P diet, resulting in a negative P balance. The extrapolated minimum endogenous loss in feces was .067 g of P/d. The minimum P intake for maintenance in Saanen goats was calculated to be .61 g of P/d or .055 g of P/(kg(.75) x d) at 25 kg BW. Model outputs indicate greater P flow from the blood pool to the gut and vice versa as P intake increased. Intake of P did not significantly affect P flow from bone and soft tissue to blood. The kinetic model and regressions could be used to estimate P requirement and the fate of P in goats and could also be extrapolated to both sheep and cattle. PMID:11048937

  20. Lentiviral vector-mediated transduction of goat undifferentiated spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hassan; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Hajian, Mahdi; Nasiri, Zahra; Bahadorani, Mehrnoosh; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies show that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are able to colonize and form mature spermatozoa following transplantation into germ cell depleted testes of recipient males. Therefore, efficient ways for enrichment and gene transfer into SSCs provides a powerful tool for production of transgenic animals. In order to adapt the technique to goats, three issues were addressed: (i) enrichment of the undifferentiated spermatogonia including SSCs using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), (ii) lentiviral vector-mediated transduction of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene into enriched cells, and (iii) transplantation of transduced undifferentiated spermatogonia into the germ cell depleted testes of immune-suppressed mice to assess for migration and colony formation ability. Enriched cells were transduced by lentiviral vectors and subsequently analyzed for expression of THY1, PLZF, VASA, UCHL1 and BCL6B genes. Cells were also analyzed for GFP and PLZF by flow cytometry. Enriched transduced cells were transplanted into germ cell depleted mice testis. Quantitative analysis of transcripts revealed that MACS-enrichment significantly increased the expression of SSC-characteristic genes THY1, PLZF, VASA, UCHL1 and BCL6B compared to non-enriched population (P?0.05). EGFP transduction did not affect the expression levels of SSC-characteristic genes. Flow cytometry revealed that 72% of transduced-enriched cells were positive for EGFP. Finally, transduced-enriched goat SSCs could colonize within the cells into the seminiferous tubules of germ cell depleted recipient mice at higher frequency than non-enriched cells. The results indicated that enrichment of goat undifferentiated spermatogonia by magnetic-activated cell sorting for THY1 antibody combined with lentiviral vector-mediated transduction has the potential to be used for production of transgenic goats. PMID:26481046

  1. Lung Sounds in Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goats

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, R. A.; Viel, L.; McGuirk, S. M.; Radostits, O. M.; Harris, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of pulmonary auscultation for the clinician. It suggests a clarification and simplification of the terminology to be used which would be helpful to veterinary students and allow better communications between veterinarians. The interpretation of these sounds and the relationships to conditions and diseases of the lungs in cattle, horses, sheep and goats are discussed. PMID:17422648

  2. Efficacy of acaricides against chorioptic mange of goats.

    PubMed

    Wright, F C; Guillot, F S; George, J E

    1988-06-01

    Angora goats heavily infested with Chorioptes bovis were dipped one time in either 0.05% amitraz, 0.27% coumaphos, 0.05% fenvalerate, or 0.03% lindane. Control of the mites by the single dips was evaluated for 21 days. Amitraz caused 98% mortality of the mites initially. Both coumaphos and lindane caused greater than 85% mortality at 3 days, but mite numbers increased rapidly thereafter. Only fenvalerate killed all of the mites. PMID:2456707

  3. Experimental Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia in goats.

    PubMed

    Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R

    1998-03-01

    The effects of intraduodenal administration of Clostridium perfringens cultures and culture products in goats were evaluated to develop a reliable experimental model of enterotoxemia in this species. Five conventionally reared, 11-16-week-old Angora goat kids were dosed intraduodenally with whole cultures of C. perfringens type D; five similar animals were dosed with C. perfringens type D filtered culture supernatant; and a third group of five kids was dosed with C. perfringens type D washed cells. Two kids were used as controls and received sterile, nontoxic culture medium intraduodenally. All animals received starch solution into the abomasum. All five kids inoculated with whole culture and three of five dosed with culture supernatant and with washed cells developed central nervous system signs. Diarrhea was observed in two of five kids inoculated with whole culture, in all five of those dosed with culture supernatant, and in three of five of those that received washed cells. The most striking postmortem findings consisted of lung edema, necrotizing pseudomembranous colitis, and cerebral vasogenic edema. The protocol thus provided a reasonable model of naturally occurring enterotoxemia in goats, producing a range of clinical signs and postmortem changes similar to those observed in the natural disease. PMID:9539367

  4. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides from Fermented Goat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goat placenta was fermented by Bacillus subtilis and the optimal fermentation parameters of strongest antioxidant capacity of peptides were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of fermentation time, initial pH value and glucose content on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of the goat peptides were well fitted to a quadric equation with high determination coefficients. According to the data analysis of design expert, the strongest DPPH radical scavenging capacity value was obtained with the following conditions: content of glucose was 2.23%, initial pH value was 7.00 and fermentation time was 32.15 h. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity commonly referring antioxidant activity showed a concentration dependency and increased with increasing peptide concentration. The effects of temperature and pH were assessed to determine the stability of antioxidant peptides prepared from goat placenta. Antioxidant peptides showed good stabilities when temperature was lower than 70℃. However, the antioxidant peptides lost antioxidant activities rapidly under alkaline and excessive acid condition. Ultrafiltration technique was performed to separate fermentation broth with different Mw (molecular weight). It was found that peptides in the range of < 3 KDa mainly accounted for the antioxidant activities. PMID:26761673

  6. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are the major source of Q fever in humans. To investigate the goat’s immune response we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via inhalation with a Dutch outbreak isolate of C. burnetii. All animals were successfully infected. Phase 1 and Phase 2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies were measured. Cellular immune responses were investigated by interferon-gamma, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (IFN-γ Elispot), lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and systemic cytokines. After two weeks post inoculation (wpi), a strong anti-C. burnetii Phase 2 IgM and IgG antibody response was observed while the increase in IgM anti-Phase 1 antibodies was less pronounced. IgG anti-Phase 1 antibodies started to rise at 6 wpi. Cellular immune responses were observed after parturition. Our results demonstrated humoral and cellular immune responses to C. burnetii infection in pregnant goats. Cell-mediated immune responses did not differ enough to distinguish between Coxiella-infected and non-infected pregnant animals, whereas a strong-phase specific antibody response is detected after 2 wpi. This humoral immune response may be useful in the early detection of C. burnetii-infected pregnant goats. PMID:23915213

  7. Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

    1987-05-01

    The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Midventral and Flank Laparotomy Approaches in Goat

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, A. A.; Andeshi, R. A.; Yakubu, A. S.; Lawal, F. M.; Adamu, U.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral). Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of 12 ± 2.1 months, and average weight of 13.4 ± 2 kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (n = 5). Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in erythema at 18–24 hours and 10–14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10–14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes counts were significantly different (P < 0.05) at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems. PMID:26464943

  9. The pattern and manipulation of ovarian follicular growth in goats.

    PubMed

    Rubianes, Edgardo; Menchaca, Alejo

    2003-10-15

    The understanding of the dynamics and regulation of follicle development in the goat has increased in recent years due to the use of ultrasonography. Previous findings observed in other ruminants extend to this species such as: the wavelike pattern of follicular growth with waves emerging every 5-7 days; the presence of follicular dominance, particularly during wave 1 and the ovulatory wave; and the role of progesterone concentrations on follicular wave turnover. However, traditional hormone treatments for oestrus synchronisation and superovulatory programs remain essentially unmodified and without taking into account this new information. The use of long progestogen priming is largely unjustified. Short progestogen priming can be used successfully in both anoestrous and cycling goats (in this case associated with PGF2alpha), and also linked with timed artificial insemination. On the other hand, recent attempts to overcome the deleterious effect of the dominant follicle on superovulatory response using the emergence of the wave 1 have been successful. Overall, using ultrasonography a new field has been opened and surely successful output will be forthcoming in the next years to improve reproductive management of the goat, the fastest growing ruminant population in the world. PMID:12818649

  10. Zeus, Aesculapius, Amalthea and the proteome of goat milk.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Fasoli, Elisa; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Gallina, Serafina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Foti, Salvatore

    2015-10-14

    The goat whey proteome has been explored in depth via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) at three different pH values. A total of 452 unique species have been tabulated, a proteome discovery so far unmatched in any single other investigation of milk from any mammalian species. This massive discovery is probably related to: i) the extraordinary load of proteins onto the CPLL beads (i.e. 2 g for each different pH captures) vs. barely 100 μL of beads; ii) the high resolution/high mass accuracy of mass spectral data; and iii) the use of two complementary tools, Mascot and PEAKS, each one contributing to a set of unique protein IDs. Due to the relative paucity of available protein annotations for goat, only 10% of the identified proteins belong to the capra, whereas 52% are specific of sheep and 37% are homologous to that of bovine milk. This work reports the largest description so far of the goat milk proteome, which has been compared with cow's milk proteome and would thus help to understand the importance of low-abundance proteins with respect to the unique biological properties of this nutrient. PMID:26193489

  11. Study of gastrointestinal nematodes in Sicilian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Torina, A; Dara, S; Marino, A M F; Sparagano, O A E; Vitale, F; Reale, S; Caracappa, S

    2004-10-01

    Parasitic gastroenteritis is one of the major causes of productivity loss in sheep and goats. This report records two studies of the helminth fauna from post-mortem examination. The first study, performed on the digestive tract of 72 sheep from a central part of Sicily in a high hill village (1,360 meters above sea level), between April 1996 and March 1997, showed an infection rate of 78%. The second study targeted goats from the western part of Sicily and showed an infection rate of 90%. For sheep, a total of 23 species of helminths were identified belonging to the family of Trichostrongyloidea, with the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia (Teladorsagia), Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, and Nematodirus; Strongilolidea with the genera Oesophagostomum and Chabertia: Ancylostomidea with Bunostomum; and Tricuridea with Tricuris. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most common in the sheep abomasum, Bunostomum trigonocephalum and Trichostrongylus spp. in the small intestine, and Chabertia ovina and Trichuris ovis in the large intestine. For goats, a total of 12 species were isolated in the abomasum with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus axei the most common species. In the small intestine, five species were isolated and Trichostrongylus capricola was the dominant species. T. ovis and O. venulosum were dominant in large intestine and in the cecum. We also found species belonging to other ruminants such as O. ostertagi (in cattle) and S. kolchida and O. leptospicularis (in wild ruminants). PMID:15604491

  12. Stable silencing of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene by lentivirus-mediated RNAi in goat fetal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shumin; Xiong, Kai; Xie, Zhourui; Nan, Wenting; Liu, Honglin; Chen, Jie

    2012-01-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a dominant allergen in goat milk, is difficult to remove by traditional biochemical methods. Its elimination from goat milk by genetic modification therefore poses a major challenge for modern goat breeders. A shRNA targeting BLG mRNA with high interference efficiency was identified, with which lentiviral vectors were used for mediating stable shRNA interference in goat-fetal fibroblast cells. Apart from high efficiency in the knockdown of BLG expression in these cells, lentivector-mediated RNAi manifested stable integration into the goat genome itself. Consequently, an in vitro model for goat BLG-content control was compiled, and a goat-cell line for accompanying transgenetic goat production created. PMID:23055809

  13. Sodium dodecyl sulfate reduces bacterial contamination in goat colostrum without negative effects on immune passive transfer in goat kids.

    PubMed

    Morales-delaNuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Sánchez-Macías, D; Capote, J; Juste, M C; Castro, N; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Argüello, A

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a biocide on goat colostrum, 2 experiments were performed. In the first, 20 goat colostrum samples were divided into 3 aliquots. A different treatment was performed on each aliquot: pasteurization (56°C, 30 min) or addition of SDS to a final concentration of either 0.1 or 1% (36°C, 10 min). Immunoglobulin G and colony-forming units were evaluated before and after treatment. Both pasteurization and treatment with 1% SDS significantly reduced the colony-forming units in colostrum. Treatment with 0.1% SDS was not effective at reducing the colony-forming units in colostrum. The IgG concentration of pasteurized colostrum was significantly lower than that of untreated colostrum, whereas treatment with 1% SDS did not affect the colostrum IgG concentration. In the second experiment, the effects of SDS colostrum treatment on immune passive transfer were evaluated. Forty goat kids were fed either refrigerated colostrum or colostrum treated with 1% SDS twice daily for 2 d. Blood samples were obtained at birth and every day for 5 d. IgG, IgM, and IgA were measured in blood serum to monitor the passive immune transfer process. Creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, and aspartate transaminase were also monitored to evaluate the health of kids. No differences in serum IgG, IgM, IgA, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, or aspartate transaminase levels were observed between groups. Our findings indicate that SDS is an efficient colostrum biocide that, unlike pasteurization, does not affect immune passive transfer or goat kid health. PMID:21183051

  14. Cardiomyocytes rhythmically beating generated from goat embryonic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Dutta, R; Malakar, D; Jena, M K; Kumar, D; Sahu, S; Prakash, B

    2012-03-15

    The aim of present investigation was isolation, characterization and differentiation into cardiomyocytes of putative goat embryonic stem cells produced from in vitro fertilized goat embryos. Goat blastocysts were produced in vitro by standard methods of in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) techniques. The ICMs isolated from IVF blastocysts were cultured on 10 μl/ml mitomycin-C inactivated fetal fibroblast feeder layer with LIF. The putative ES colonies were characterized for extracellular markers like alkaline phosphatase, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA-1, SSEA-4 by immunocytochemistry and intracellular markers like Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog with reverse-transcription-PCR. The ES cells were successfully subcultured up to 22nd passage with feeder layer and LIF and up to 12th passage without feeder layer with LIF only. They exhibited normal karyotyping (20th passage) and maintained the expression of specific surface markers like alkaline phosphatase, SSEA-4, TRA-1-61, TRA-1-81 and intracellular markers Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. The embryoid bodies (EBs) were generated from goat ES cells of 20th passage and were analyzed with markers like Gata4, BMP4 and Nestin. Differentiation was induced by medium containing 100 ng/ml Activin-A, 10 ng/ml FGF-2 and 100 ng/ml BMP-4. The embryoid bodies were analyzed with markers like Gata4, BMP4 and Nestin. The rhythmic beating of cardiomyocytes was observed after 30 d and the beating was still continuing even after 160 d of culturing. Similarly, 2nd and 3rd batches of EBs were also beating and the beating continues after 75 d and on. The beating cells were observed positive for cardiac specific markers like α Actinin, C-Troponin and α-Myosin heavy chain. Histological studies also revealed morphology similar to cardiomyocytes. Prominent contractions typical of cardiac tissue have been maintained in the differentiated cells up to 160 d and still continuing beating at the rate of 30 beats/min. It could be concluded that ES cells generated from goat embryos were maintained undifferentiated up to 22nd passage on feeder layer and to 12th passage without feed layer using LIF and that the differentiation protocol induced rhythmic beating cells. PMID:22169594

  15. Assessment of safety and interferon gamma responses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in goat kids and milking goats.

    PubMed

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano

    2016-02-10

    Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. PMID:26795364

  16. Sheep and goats as tool to suppress juniper encroachment: Influence of stocking density and mixed grazing during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing trials were conducted to evaluate the use of prescribed grazing by sheep and goats to suppress one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) sapling reinvasion. A 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted with Goats (G) or Goats + Sheep (G+S) at high or low stocking densities (SD). Ten ...

  17. Feeding preferences of experienced and naïve goats and sheep for the toxic plant Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grazing goats and cattle may learn to ingest with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding preferences of experienced and non-experienced (naïve) goats and sheep for I. carnea. The study used 3 groups of 5 goats (Group 1, experi...

  18. Goat Urine and Limestone Affect Nitrogen and Cation Distributions in an Acidic Grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.) to clear overgrown pastures and woodlots of unwanted vegetation may result in high rates of urine deposition where goats congregate. Surface application of limestone to dystrophic acid soils before clearing is known to augment ammonia gas volatilization from ...

  19. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  20. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  1. Effects of CSN1S2 Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats

    PubMed Central

    Yue, X. P.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Mao, C. C.; Lan, X. Y.; Chen, H.; Lei, C. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268) and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440) breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats) and daily milk yield (202 goats) were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05). The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05). PMID:25049867

  2. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE IN RANGE GOATS ASSOCIATED WITH OXYTROPIS SERICEA (LOCOWEED)POISONING AND WATER DEPRIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 200 of 2500 Spanish goats, foraging on the mountain rangelands in western Montana, developed neurologic disease. Affected animals had severe rear limb weakness, knuckling of the rear fetlocks and a hoping gait. Sick goats were of all ages and in good flesh though they often had dull, shaggy ...

  3. Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats. This paper reports the experimental poisoning in goats by dried I. sericophylla and I. riedelii containing 0.05% and 0.01% swainsonine, respectively. Three groups with four animals each were used. Group 1 recei...

  4. Effects of goats on Tamarix spp. and understory vegetation for riparian restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats were used to reduce Tamarix spp. along the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Seventy 0.1-1.6 ha plots at two locations were either browsed by 400-630 goats for 1-3 days annually, or left unbrowsed. After two annual treatments, nearly every available Tamarix plant in mixed vegetation was browsed (100%)...

  5. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. Two studies were completed in which supplemental feeds...

  6. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate, and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into 4 treatment groups: 1) contr...

  7. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied. Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300-10000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoa...

  8. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  9. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  10. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  11. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  12. Generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Domestic Goats - Capra hircus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The creation of genetically modified (GM) goats provides a powerful method for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and ensuring food safety, all of which are high priority goals for animal agriculture. However, GM goats and the GM livestock field in general have l...

  13. Finishing meat goats on birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may contain natural compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production patterns, animal performance, and health when meat goat kids were fin...

  14. SERICEA LESPEDEZA HAY AS A NATURAL DEWORMING AGENT AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION IN GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the United States (US). Due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat GIN, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to i...

  15. EFFECT OF CLINICAL STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS MASTITIS ON EARLY LACTATION DAIRY GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to characterize the effect of induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on physical parameters and milk constituents of first lactation Alpine dairy goats in early lactation (22 d in milk). The right udder half of seven goats was challenged with approximately 120 colony-forming u...

  16. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing... brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such... to conduct pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing when the receiving country does...

  17. Wattles in goats are associated with the FMN1/GREM1 region on chromosome 10.

    PubMed

    Reber, I; Keller, I; Becker, D; Flury, C; Welle, M; Drögemüller, C

    2015-06-01

    The presence of congenital appendages (wattles) on the throat of goats is supposed to be under genetic control with a dominant mode of inheritance. Wattles contain a cartilaginous core covered with normal skin resembling early stages of extremities. To map the dominant caprine wattles (W) locus, we collected samples of 174 goats with wattles and 167 goats without wattles from nine different Swiss goat breeds. The samples were genotyped with the 53k goat SNP chip for a subsequent genome-wide association study. We obtained a single strong association signal on chromosome 10 in a region containing functional candidate genes for limb development and outgrowth. We sequenced the whole genomes of an informative family trio containing an offspring without wattles and its heterozygous parents with wattles. In the associated goat chromosome 10 region, a total of 1055 SNPs and short indels perfectly co-segregate with the W allele. None of the variants were perfectly associated with the phenotype after analyzing the genome sequences of eight additional goats. We speculate that the causative mutation is located in one of the numerous gaps in the current version of the goat reference sequence and/or represents a larger structural variant which influences the expression of the FMN1 and/or GREM1 genes. Also, we cannot rule out possible genetic or allelic heterogeneity. Our genetic findings support earlier assumptions that wattles are rudimentary developed extremities. PMID:25736034

  18. INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...

  19. LEUCAENA AS A SUPPLEMENT FOR GOATS GRAZING BAHIAGRASS IN SOUTH FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats require protein supplementation while grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum natatum Flugge) during summer in Florida. We measured weight gains of Boer x Spanish goats (6-7 mo old) in July- Novembver, 2003 (140 d) while grazing leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)de wit]with bahiagrass (LEUC), compare...

  20. Effect of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of three experiments was to determine the influence of high condensed tannin (CT) grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts (FEC) in goats. Sixteen naturally-infected Boer crossbred mixed sex goats were used at 124 plus minus 2.9 days of age in Experiment 1, 24 mixe...

  1. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue seed on physiological parameters of mature female meat goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the study were to determine if consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue seed would affect thermoregulation and dry matter intake (DMI) in mature female meat goats. During the 4 week study, goats (n = 18) were assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6 per treatment) and f...

  2. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended...

  3. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  4. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  5. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  6. A comparative analysis of acceptance by Japanese females and price of goat milk from different sources.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Takada, Ruriko; Nishitani, Jiro; Fujita, Masaru; Blair, Hugh T

    2010-04-01

    A sensory survey was carried out using 4 different types of whole goat milk among middle-class females to investigate consumer acceptability of goat milk and whether there is an opportunity to expand the sale of goat milk products in Japan. Four different types of whole milk powder (domestic concentrate-fed, domestic pasture-fed, USA commercially canned, and New Zealand commercially canned) were used. Fresh cow milk was served as a control. Thirty-one housewives evaluated the 5 liquid milk samples for smell, taste and overall characteristics on a scale of 1 (low) to 3 (high). Chi-square analyses were carried out to detect significant differences between the milk types in each category. The goat milk from the USA was the most preferred goat milk with respect to smell and overall evaluation. Domestic pasture-fed milk received the lowest grade in the evaluation for its 'grassy and goaty' smell. This result shows us that pasture intake affects the taste and smell of powdered milk which gives the lowest evaluation by the participants. If Japanese goat milk producers want to be successful in the domestic goat milk market and compete against goat milk products from other countries, they should improve production methods and flavor of their products. PMID:20438510

  7. Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

  8. Clinical and Pathological Effects of Short-term Cyanide Repeated Dosing to Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work is to determine and describe the effects of subacute cyanide toxicity to goats. Eight female goats were divided into two groups. The first group of five animals was treated with 8.0mg KCN kg-1 body weight day -1 for seven consecutive days. The second group of three animal...

  9. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  10. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  11. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  12. Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genet...

  13. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932

  14. Acquired resistance against Schistosoma bovis after single or repeated low-level primary infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Monrad, J; Christensen, N O; Nansen, P; Johansen, M V; Lindberg, R

    1995-01-01

    Experimental Schistosoma bovis infections were studied in groups of six goats for 32 weeks. Two types of primary infections, a single exposure to 400 cercariae per goat or repeated (trickle) exposure to 200 cercariae per goat weekly for 10 weeks, were followed by a challenge infection with 2000 cercariae per goat in week 16 of the experiment. Periods of high faecal egg excretion were associated with reduced weight gain, anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and blood eosinophilia; these changes gradually diminished with decreasing faecal egg excretion but never disappeared completely. The pathogenic effects of the trickle exposure exceeded those of the single primary exposure. After the challenge, the goats excreted few or no additional eggs and no additional clinicopathological changes were observed in the group previously exposed to a trickle infection. However, the primary single infection did not provide full protection against the effects of the challenge infection. PMID:7709058

  15. Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder. PMID:26761881

  16. Physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture combined with intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine to provide analgesia in goats.

    PubMed

    Shah, Zahir; Hu, Man L; Qiu, Zheng Y; Zhou, Fei Y; Zeng, Jie; Wan, Juan; Wang, Shao W; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Ming X

    2016-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture and dexmedetomidine administration to goats. ANIMALS 30 healthy adult goats. PROCEDURES Goats were allotted to 5 groups (6 goats/group) and received electroacupuncture, dexmedetomidine (5 or 20 μg/kg, IM), electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM [control treatment]). Pain threshold, cardiorespiratory effects, rectal temperature, and hematologic and biochemical variables were assessed. RESULTS Dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg) increased pain threshold and decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Pain threshold of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) was higher than that of goats receiving electroacupuncture or of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes, but did not differ from that of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Compared with goats administered dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg, goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg had a higher heart rate from 30 to 60 minutes and a higher respiratory rate from 5 to 60 minutes. Electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) did not affect rectal temperature. Serum glucose concentrations of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) were higher than for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes but not for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Creatinine and BUN concentrations, alanine or aspartate aminotransferase activities, and hematologic variables of treated goats did not change. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Electroacupuncture in combination with a low dose of dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM) administered to goats provided antinociception. PMID:26919595

  17. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed. PMID:25285492

  18. Transcriptome analysis of the mammary gland from GH transgenic goats during involution.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Bao, Ze Kun; Zhang, Qiang; Hu, Wei Wei; Yu, Qing Hua; Yang, Qian

    2015-07-10

    Mammary glands are organs for milk production in female mammals. Growth hormone (GH) is known to affect the growth and development of the mammary gland, as well as to increase milk production in dairy goats. This study performed a comprehensive expression profiling of genes expressed in the mammary gland of early involution GH transgenic (n=4) and non-transgenic goats (n=4) by RNA sequencing. RNA was extracted from mammary gland tissues collected at day 3 of involution. Gene expression analysis was conducted by Illumina RNA sequencing and sequence reads were assembled and analyzed using TopHat. FPKM (fragments per kilobase of exon per million) values were analyzed for differentially expressed genes using the Cufflinks package. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes was categorized using agriGO, while KEGG pathway analysis was performed with the online KEGG automatic annotation server. Our results revealed that 75% of NCBI goat annotated genes were expressed during early involution. A total of 18,323 genes were expressed during early involution in GH transgenic goats, compared with 18,196 expressed genes during early involution of non-transgenic goats. In these expressed genes, the majority (17,589) were ubiquitously expressed in GH transgenic and non-transgenic goats. However, there were 745 differentially expressed genes, 421 of which were upregulated and 324 were downregulated in GH transgenic goats. GO and KEGG pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in mammary gland physiology, including cell adhesion molecules, ECM-receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and fat metabolism. Our results demonstrated that the GH receptor was strongly affected in GH transgenic goats, which may activate the IGF-1/Stat3 signaling pathway. Overall, our study provided a global view of the transcriptome during involution of GH transgenic and non-transgenic goats, which increases our understanding of the biology of involution in the goat. PMID:25865296

  19. Depletion of long-acting ampicillin in goat milk following intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, Anna Maria; Trenta, Simona; Mannoni, Veruscka; Rosati, Remo; Coni, Ettore

    2010-12-01

    Although goat milk production represents today a very small percentage of the world milk market, this percentage has been growing continuously during the past 20 years. Goat milk is the basic milk supply in many developing countries and provides tasteful derivative products in developed countries. Goats, as well as all milk-producing animals, can be affected by mastitis, but goats being considered a minor species, few drugs are specifically registered for these animals; most, at least for mastitis treatment, are usually tested and registered for use in cows. This situation leads often to the adoption for goat milk of withdrawal periods defined for cows even if these extrapolations prove almost never valid for goats. In the present study, the elimination of the β-lactam antibacterial agent ampicillin in goat milk was investigated. Ampicillin was chosen because it is one of the most common antibiotics used by goat farmers against mastitis due to the fact that it is well tolerated and has short elimination times in cows. Goats were treated with long-acting ampicillin at 15 mg (kg of body weight)(-1) by double intramuscular injection at 72 h interval. Milk was collected in a 12 h milking scheme. The method used to determine the levels of ampicillin in goat milk was based on a liquid-liquid extraction of this drug from the matrix, successive derivatization with formaldehyde, and final separation by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The results point out a slow depletion of ampicillin and, consequently, a withdrawal period (13 milkings) longer than that extrapolated and authorized for cows and sheep. PMID:21070070

  20. Age-associated changes in gene expression of goat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Min; Gu, Chen-Hao; Zhang, Yan-Li; Sun, Hong-Yan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Zhou, Zheng-Rong; Wan, Yong-Jie; Jia, Ruo-Xin; Wang, Li-Zhong; Wang, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Oocyte aging severely decreases the quality of oocytes, which hampers fertilization and subsequent embryo development. In the present study, age-dependent molecular changes in goat oocytes were investigated. First, the quality of goat oocytes with various in vitro culture times (24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 hours) was evaluated on the basis of developmental rates of parthenogenetically activated embryos and apoptosis of cumulus cells (CCs). Second, relative gene expression of six genes (mitochondrial genes: PGC-1α and NRF-1; epigenetic modification genes: SNRPN and HAT1; mitotic spindle checkpoint protein: SMAD2; and hyaluronan synthase gene: HAS3) were analyzed during oocyte aging. Third, we further studied the changes of seven genes (PGC-1α and NRF-1; apoptotic-related genes: BAX and BCL2; hyaluronan synthase gene: HAS2; metabolism-related gene: STAR; and superoxide dismutase gene: SOD1) in CCs during oocyte aging. In these studies, the blastocyst rate gradually decreased and the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased as the culture time increased (P < 0.05). Moreover, relative gene expressions of PGC-1α, NRF-1 and SMAD2 significantly decreased from 24 to 36 hours (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of HAT1 and HAS3 slowly increased as culture was prolonged. Furthermore, the levels of PGC-1α, BCL2, HAS2 and SOD1 quickly reduced, and BAX significantly increased from 24 to 36 hours in aged CCs (P < 0.05). In conclusion, goat oocytes started to age at 30 hours in vitro culture, and gene expression patterns of oocytes and CCs significantly changed as the oocytes aged. Gene expression pattern changes in CCs may provide a convenient and effective way to detect oocyte aging without compromising oocyte integrity. PMID:23746875

  1. Analysis of weaning-induced stress in Saanen goat kids.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Aufy, A A; Pinotti, L; Rosi, F

    2013-08-01

    In young ruminants' life, weaning often coincides with a period of growth stasis and poor welfare. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of coping with the new diet on behavioural and haematological stress indicators in goat kids subjected to a commonly adopted weaning practice. Immediately after birth, male Saanen goat kids were divided into two groups: MILK and WMIX. All were fed colostrum for the first 3 days and then goat milk to the age of 29 days. After that, MILK kids continued to receive milk, while the WMIX kids underwent weaning and were completely weaned by day 48. Animal behaviour was recorded daily. From day 23-50, blood samples were taken weekly and analysed for indicators of stress and immune function. No abnormal behaviour, such as injurious behaviours or stereotypies, was observed in either of the experimental groups throughout the experimental period. During the last week, fasting plasma cortisol level was significantly lower, whereas plasma activity of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly higher in WMIX kids, in relation to the MILK ones. Anyway, data were within the normal physiological range and no difference was observed neither in plasma haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, albumin and antithrombin III, nor in plasma immunoglobulin A and G, at any time, signalling no stressful condition. Therefore, differences observed in cortisol, ALT and AST could be the consequence of the metabolic changes that occur during the transition from pre-ruminant to ruminant state. The gradual weaning at 48 days of age did not result in any stressful condition and had no negative effect on weight gain. Results suggest that parameters commonly adopted to provide information on animal stress, such as cortisol and aminotransferase activity, can vary in relation to the physiological status of the animals and may bias stress assessment. PMID:22715986

  2. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds☆

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Signe A.; Sörensen, Camilla R. L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark. PMID:25076056

  3. [Efficacy of a flock-specific pseudotuberculosis vaccine in goats].

    PubMed

    Kutschke, L; Ganter, M; Kaba, J

    2000-12-01

    In a flock with 33 adult goats repeated abscesses due to Pseudotuberculosis occurred. For the owners refused a sanitation program based on testing and removing, the goats were vaccinated with a flock specific, whole-cells lysate vaccine of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Partly simultaneously or 14 days later vaccinations against Clostridiosis (Covexin8) and against Erysipelas (Erysorb plus) were performed at different application sites. After a twofold basal vaccination in a 4 week interval the goats were revaccinated in half year intervals. The local (swelling at the injection site) and systemic reactions (temperature elevation, antibody activity) after vaccination and the clinical status of the flock (core body temperature, adspection, abscesses, lymph nodes) were investigated over a period of two years. Due to the vaccination program the rate of new cases of clinical pseudotuberculosis were reduced significantly. In the last 3 months of the investigation no clinical cases occurred. The vaccination with the C. pseudotuberculosis-vaccine induced a significant increase in antibody activities detected by ELISA. Due to interaction of maternal antibodies with the antigen of the vaccine lambs should be vaccinated at the earliest at an age of 9 weeks. Vaccinating the C. pseudotuberculosis-vaccine separately in time to Covexin8 and Erysorb plus induced with increasing numbers of revaccinations higher antibody activities against C. pseudotuberculosis than simultaneous vaccinations with all the 3 vaccines. But this difference does not justify the additional expense of separate vaccinations in time. Despite considerable local and systemic reaction the C. pseudotuberculosis-vaccine is recommended to support sanitation programs. PMID:11155520

  4. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis in the ovaries of two goats identifies differentially expressed genes related to fecundity.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Qin, Xiaoyu

    2016-05-10

    The goats are widely kept as livestock throughout the world. Two excellent domestic breeds in China, the Laiwu Black and Jining Grey goats, have different fecundities and prolificacies. Although the goat genome sequences have been resolved recently, little is known about the gene regulations at the transcriptional level in goat. To understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms related to the fecundities and prolificacies, we performed genome-wide sequencing of the mRNAs from two breeds of goat using the next-generation RNA-Seq technology and used functional annotation to identify pathways of interest. Digital gene expression analysis showed 338 genes were up-regulated in the Jining Grey goats and 404 were up-regulated in the Laiwu Black goats. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the reliability of the RNA-Seq data. This study suggests that multiple genes responsible for various biological functions and signaling pathways are differentially expressed in the two different goat breeds, and these genes might be involved in the regulation of goat fecundity and prolificacy. Taken together, our study provides insight into the transcriptional regulation in the ovaries of 2 species of goats that might serve as a key resource for understanding goat fecundity, prolificacy and genetic diversity between species. PMID:26851539

  5. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats’ cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV. PMID:26671568

  6. Effects of dehydration and rehydration on thermoregulatory sweating in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M A

    1989-01-01

    1. Measurement of rectal temperature (Tr), sweat rate, respiratory frequency (f) and respiratory evaporation (Eresp) were made in one Nubian and four Alpine-Toggenberg goats while they stood for 90 min in a climate chamber at 40 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta). The animals were studied when they were hydrated, when they had been dehydrated by 48 h water deprivation, and when they were rehydrated by voluntary drinking of water or saline or by intraruminal water administration. Plasma osmolality (Posm), plasma protein concentration (PP) and haematocrit (Hct) were measured before every experiment and before and after voluntary drinking. 2. Hydrated animals increased evaporation by panting and sweating during heat exposure and Tr rose about 1 degree C. The rate of sweating was as high or higher than Eresp. Dehydrated animals had lower sweat rates and higher Tr than hydrated animals, but f and Eresp were the same in hydrated and dehydrated animals. 3. When dehydrated goats were allowed to drink after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating began abruptly within 3 min of the start of drinking in every animal whether water or saline was drunk. Sweat rate returned to hydrated levels or higher before any change occurred in Posm, PP or Hct. Respiratory frequency was higher after drinking than in dehydrated animals which were not allowed to drink. 4. When water was administered by rumen tube after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating in the Nubian occurred with a short latency, similar to the onset after drinking. In the other four animals, sweating onset occurred on average at 13 min 42 s after intraruminal water administration. 5. It is concluded that sweating is a significant avenue of evaporative heat loss in these goats when they are hydrated and exposed to high Ta. Sweat rate is markedly reduced after water deprivation but returns to hydrated levels within 3 min after the start of drinking. The rapid recovery of sweating after voluntary drinking is not initiated by changes in Posm or in blood volume and does not appear to depend upon osmoreceptors in the mouth or gastrointestinal tract since it occurs after drinking either water or saline. The arrival of water in the rumen may be sufficient to initiate immediate sweating in some goats, but the act of drinking is necessary in others. PMID:2621603

  7. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (p<0.01). At the overall individual-animal level, 32.5% (714/2195, 95% CI=30.6-34.5) of goats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (p<0.001). A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (p<0.05). Increases in the female herd size (logarithmic scale) were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, while increases in male herd size had a negative association with seropositivity. If other sheep or goat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These results can inform strategies to mitigate exposure to C. burnetii in Ontario. PMID:26231909

  8. Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)

    PubMed Central

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  9. Ghrelin O Acyl Transferase (GOAT) as a Novel Metabolic Regulatory Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Gaidhane, Shilpa; Gaidhane, Abhay M.; Simkhada, Padam; Zahiruddin, Quazi Syed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) presents a growing threat to the global health. Evidences highlight an important role of ghrelin as a key regulator of glucose metabolism. The physiological functions of ghrelin are mediated by enzyme ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) which is capable of generating the active form of this metabolic hormone. However, its exact mechanism of action and influence on energy balance and glucose metabolism is yet to be explored. Objectives: To review the physiological role of GOAT in the regulation of energy balance and glucose metabolism and explore the potential therapeutic avenues of modulators of GOAT to counter the progression of obesity and T2DM. Methods: Publications were sought through electronic searches. The bibliographies of all papers, book, chapters and editorials were scanned and hand searches were also conducted for journals, and conference proceedings. Conclusion: GOAT peptide modulates the insulin secretion as well as insulin sensitivity. Modulators of GOAT signaling like inhibitors of GOAT increases insulin secretion, enhance peripheral insulin sensitivity and thus counters obesity and T2DM. Modulators of GOAT can be a probable therapy for modifying food intake and for countering obesity and T2DM. PMID:25859472

  10. Mange mites of sheep and goats in selected sites of Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu

    2016-03-01

    A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention. PMID:27065612

  11. Expression of androgen receptor and cyclooxygenase-2 in the vesicular glands of castrated and intact goat.

    PubMed

    Emam, Mahmoud Abdelghaffar

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of castration on the structure of vesicular glands of the Egyptian Nubian (Zaraibi) goat. Vesicular glands of castrated (n=4) and intact (n=6) goat were used for histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. In this study, we report the difference in cell specific expression of androgen receptor (AR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the vesicular glands of castrated and intact goats. In both castrated and intact goats, the present study revealed no immunopositive cells for AR or COX-2 in the fibromuscular stroma meanwhile, AR and COX-2 containing immunoreactive cells were restricted only to the epithelium of the secretory acini of the vesicular gland. Such finding suggests androgen and COX-2 as important regulators for the growth and secretory activity of epithelial cells in the vesicular gland of goats. Overall, the vesicular gland of castrated goats showed significantly (P<0.05) lower AR and COX-2 immuno-expression than intact goats indicating that both AR and COX-2 are androgen dependent. PMID:26791785

  12. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  13. Evidence for introgressive hybridization of captive markhor (Capra falconeri) with domestic goat: cautions for reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Sabine E; Schwammer, Harald M; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2008-04-01

    Markhors (Capra falconeri) are among the most endangered mammal species, and several conservation measures, including ex situ breeding, are implemented to prevent their extinction. We studied sequence diversity and differentiation of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region among C. f. heptneri and C. f. megaceros kept in four zoos in relationship to lineages of other wild and domestic goats, to assess for the first time the level of molecular distinctness and variability among those subspecies, and to check for possible introgression by related Capra taxa, such as domestic goats. Levels of differentiation between some Capra falconeri lineages and modern domestic goats were similar to levels between other wild goat species (i.e., Capra aegagrus, Capra ibex) and domestic goats. Among pure markhor lineages, paraphyly was observed for C. f. heptneri, suggesting occurrence of shared ancestral polymorphism among markhor subspecies and/or ancient or recent gene exchange between subspecies. Interestingly, 35.7% of all studied markhors from three zoos are introgressed by the domestic goat. Furthermore, despite relatively small breeding group sizes, markhors have maintained a relatively high proportion of mtDNA variation within zoo groups. In any case, the existence of markhors introgressed with domestic goat DNA in zoos should be considered when selecting markhors for ex situ breeding programs with the aim of building up a stock for later reintroduction into the wild. PMID:18228130

  14. Social modulation of pituitary-adrenal responsiveness and individual differences in behavior of young domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D M; Price, E O; Moberg, G P

    1988-01-01

    The effects of three variables known to influence pituitary-adrenal activity were examined in kid goats who were accompanied by adult goats in standard goat-human encounters. Serum corticosteroid concentrations in bold kids who characteristically spent above average amounts of time closely interacting with the person were never significantly different from control values. Corticosteroids in timid kids who spent little time near the person depended on the adult goat's behavior toward the person and the nature of the social relationship between the kid and the adult goat. When timid kids were accompanied by adult goats (familiar pen-mates or strangers) who behaved as if they were fearful of the person, their corticosteroids were significantly greater than control values. In contrast, bold pen-mates or bold strangers effectively reduced pituitary-adrenal responsiveness in timid kids. Only mothers unconditionally reduced kid pituitary-adrenal responsiveness and systematically affected kid behavior toward the person. The functioning of behavioral and pituitary-adrenal systems in young goats was influenced by consistent individual differences in responsiveness and the differing capacities of social companions to modulate this responsivity. PMID:3194465

  15. Antibody kinetics in goats and conceptuses naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Leonardo P; Nogueira, Clayton I; Costa, Rafael C; Orlando, Débora R; Bruhn, Fábio R P; Lopes, Priscila F R; Nakagaki, Karen Y R; Peconick, Ana P; Seixas, Josilene N; Bezerra, Pedro S; Raymundo, Djeison L; Varaschin, Mary S

    2013-09-23

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan which can cause abortions in caprines. However, information regarding the humoral immune response and the occurrence of reproductive disorders is scarce. This is the first study in which the kinetics of antibodies is studied in pregnant goats naturally infected by N. caninum, as well as their respective conceptuses. The subclasses of IgG (IgG1 and IgG2) were also evaluated in pregnant goats. Reproductive problems related to neosporosis (abortion and stillbirth) occurred in 15.38% of the goats. There was a statistically significant association between the increased titres of maternal IgG in the second half of the gestational period with the occurrence of endogenous transplacental transmission. The rate of congenital transmission was 77%. During the gestational period of the seropositive goats, there was mainly a predominance of the subclass IgG2, although mixed patterns of IgG2-IgG1 and the IgG1 pattern were also observed. These results indicate that N. caninum is responsible for the occurrence of important alterations in the humoral immune response of naturally infected goats, and is also a potential causative agent for reproductive disorders in goats. The high proportion of infected conceptuses reinforces the suggestion that congenital infection is one of the main routes of parasite transmission in goats. PMID:23537945

  16. Antioxidative probiotic fermented goats' milk decreases oxidative stress-mediated atherogenicity in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kullisaar, Tiiu; Songisepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Kersti; Vihalemm, Tiiu; Zilmer, Mihkel

    2003-08-01

    The increasing interest in a healthy diet is stimulating innovative development of novel scientific products in the food industry. The viable lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products, such as yoghurt, have been associated with increased lactose tolerance, a well-balanced intestinal microflora, antimicrobial activity, stimulation of the immune system and antitumoural, anticholesterolaemic and antioxidative properties in human subjects. Recently, we have studied a human Lactobacillus spp. strain that possesses antioxidative activity. The aim of the present pilot study was to develop goats' milk fermented with the human antioxidative lactobacilli strain, Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3, and to test the effect of the fermented probiotic goats' milk on oxidative stress markers (including markers for atherosclerosis) in human blood and urine and on the gut microflora. Twenty-one healthy subjects were assigned to two treatment groups: goats' milk group and fermented goats' milk group (150 g/d) for a period of 21 d. Consumption of fermented goats' milk improved anti-atherogenicity in healthy subjects: it prolonged resistance of the lipoprotein fraction to oxidation, lowered levels of peroxidized lipoproteins, oxidized LDL, 8-isoprostanes and glutathione redox ratio, and enhanced total antioxidative activity. The consumption of fermented goats' milk also altered both the prevalence and proportion of lactic acid bacteria species in the gut microflora of the subjects. We conclude that the goats' milk fermented with our special antioxidative lactobacilli strain Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 exhibits anti-atherogenic effects. PMID:12908907

  17. Serological evidence for a hepatitis e virus-related agent in goats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sanford, B J; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Engle, R E; Dryman, B A; Cecere, T E; Buechner-Maxwell, V; Sponenberg, D P; Meng, X J

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an important public health disease in many developing countries and is also endemic in some industrialized countries. In addition to humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from pig, chicken, rat, mongoose, deer, rabbit and fish. While the genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans, the genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and infect humans and other animal species. As a part of our ongoing efforts to search for potential animal reservoirs for HEV, we tested goats from Virginia for evidence of HEV infection and showed that 16% (13/80) of goat sera from Virginia herds were positive for IgG anti-HEV. Importantly, we demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies to HEV were present in selected IgG anti-HEV positive goat sera. Subsequently, in an attempt to genetically identify the HEV-related agent from goats, we conducted a prospective study in a closed goat herd with known anti-HEV seropositivity and monitored a total of 11 kids from the time of birth until 14 weeks of age for evidence of HEV infection. Seroconversion to IgG anti-HEV was detected in seven of the 11 kids, although repeated attempts to detect HEV RNA by a broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR from the faecal and serum samples of the goats that had seroconverted were unsuccessful. In addition, we also attempted to experimentally infect laboratory goats with three well-characterized mammalian strains of HEV but with no success. The results indicate that a HEV-related agent is circulating and maintained in the goat population in Virginia and that the goat HEV is likely genetically very divergent from the known HEV strains. PMID:22909079

  18. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats

    PubMed Central

    AL-Suwaiegh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  19. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  20. Efficacy of treatment of elevated coccidial oocyst counts in goats using amprolium versus ponazuril.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Philippa; Love, David; Craig, Thomas; Budke, Christine

    2016-03-15

    Coccidiosis is an important disease of young goats leading to weight loss, diarrhea, and death. In the USA, both ionophores and decoquinate are labeled for prevention of coccidia in goats. However, there are no drugs approved for treatment of clinical cases of coccidiosis in this species. Amprolium is labeled for treatment of coccidiosis in calves while ponazuril, a metabolite of toltrazuril, is labeled for treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. In this study, 150 young goats housed on concrete lots had fecal samples collected and McMaster fecal oocyst per gram counts performed at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days post-processing. Goats were randomly assigned to receive either amprolium (50mg/kg once a day for 5 days by mouth) or ponazuril (10mg/kg by mouth once) if they had fecal oocyst counts >5,000 per gram. Fecal samples were obtained and oocyst counts performed at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the cessation of treatment. Goats were weighed on days 0 and 21 post-processing. Seven goats were enrolled into the amprolium group and 8 into the ponazuril group. Both treatments resulted in decreased oocyst counts post-treatment compared to before treatment. There was no significant difference between fecal coccidian oocyst counts between goats in each group. There was no significant difference in body weight between goats in each group. This study showed that both amprolium and ponazuril were effective in decreasing fecal coccidia oocyst counts in this group of goats. Use of both drugs is currently extra-label in the USA. PMID:26872920

  1. Methodological strategies for transgene copy number quantification in goats (Capra hircus) using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ribrio I T P; Luciano, Maria C S; Teixeira, Drcio I A; Freitas, Vicente J F; Melo, Luciana M; Andreeva, Lyudmila E; Serova, Irina A; Serov, Oleg L

    2014-01-01

    Taking into account the importance of goats as transgenic models, as well as the rarity of copy number (CN) studies in farm animals, the present work aimed to evaluate methodological strategies for accurate and precise transgene CN quantification in goats using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mouse and goat lines transgenic for human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were used. After selecting the best genomic DNA extraction method to be applied in mouse and goat samples, intra-assay variations, accuracy and precision of CN quantifications were assessed. The optimized conditions were submitted to mathematical strategies and used to quantify CN in goat lines. The findings were as follows: validation of qPCR conditions is required, and amplification efficiency is the most important. Absolute and relative quantifications are able to produce similar results. For normalized absolute quantification, the same plasmid fragment used to generate goat lines must be mixed with wild-type goat genomic DNA, allowing the choice of an endogenous reference gene for data normalization. For relative quantifications, a resin-based genomic DNA extraction method is strongly recommended when using mouse tail tips as calibrators to avoid tissue-specific inhibitors. Efficient qPCR amplifications (?95%) allow reliable CN measurements with SYBR technology. TaqMan must be used with caution in goats if the nucleotide sequence of the endogenous reference gene is not yet well understood. Adhering to these general guidelines can result in more exact CN determination in goats. Even when working under nonoptimal circumstances, if assays are performed that respect the minimum qPCR requirements, good estimations of transgene CN can be achieved. PMID:25044808

  2. Tannic acid degradation by Klebsiella strains isolated from goat feces

    PubMed Central

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Tabatabaee, Nooroldin; Khalkhali, Hossein; Amini, Imane

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Tannins are toxic polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or condense proteins. The high tannin content of some plants is the preliminary limitation of using them as a ruminant feed. So, the aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of tannic acid degrading bacterial strains from goat feces before and after feeding on Pistachio-Soft Hulls as tannin rich diet (TRD). Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains capable of utilizing tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated and characterized from goat feces before and after feeding on TRD. Tannase activity, maximum tolerable concentration and biodegradation potential were assessed. Results: Four tannase positive isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolated strains showed the maximum tolerable concentration of 64g/L of tannin. The tannic acid degradation percentage at a concentration of 15.0 g/L reached a maximum of 68% after 24 h incubation, and more than 98% after 72 h incubation. The pH of the medium also decreased along with tannic acid utilization. Conclusions: It is obvious that TRD induced adaptive responses. Thus, while the bacteria were able to degrade and detoxify the tannic acids, they had to adapt in the presence of high concentrations of tannic acid. So, these isolates have an amazing potential for application in bioremediation, waste water treatment, also reduction of tannins antinutritional effects in animal feeds. PMID:27092220

  3. The economics of sheep and goat husbandry in Norse Greenland.

    PubMed

    Mainland, Ingrid; Halstead, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Insight into the relative importance of sheep and goat herding and of the economic significance of each species (i.e., milk vs. meat vs. wool) in Medieval Greenland is obtained through the application of Halstead et al.'s (2002) criteria for the identification of adult ovicaprine mandibles to faunal assemblages from three Norse farmsteads: Sandnes, V52a, and 71S. The economic strategies identified are broadly comparable between the two species and the Eastern and Western Settlement sites examined, and are suggestive of the subsistence production of meat and milk. Comparison with farmsteads elsewhere in Greenland indicates that socio-economic status and/or farmstead size interacted with geographical location in determining the economic strategies employed by the Norse farmers. A broader use of resources and a more varied diet are evident at larger farmsteads in Greenland and this paper suggests that such sites would have been better able than their smaller counterparts to withstand environmental deterioration during the early Middle Ages. These analyses have also confirmed that goats were relatively more common in Norse sites in Greenland than in Norse sites in Iceland, Orkney, or Shetland. PMID:21774148

  4. Leptospirosis in sheep and goats under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate management practices and poor reproductive performance have been reported as fundamental factors on reducing the levels of productivity in livestock. Different pathogens have been reported in small ruminants' herds/flocks with reproductive failures. The aim of the present study was to review aspects of leptospirosis in small ruminants, mainly its impact on reproduction and consequently on productivity of the herds/flocks under tropical conditions. Leptospiral infection in goats and sheep is common in several countries, and those species can also act as carriers of leptospires. Severe disease is often associated to young animals and is frequently associated to incidental serovars. In contrast, subclinical infection is mainly characterized by reproductive problems, such as infertility, abortion, occurrence of stillbirths, and weak lambs/goat kids. Moreover, laboratorial tests are essential to achieve an accurate diagnosis of the infection. Microscopic agglutination test is the most common indirect test of leptospirosis, being used worldwide. In small ruminants, PCR consists on a recommendable method for diagnosing animals that carry leptospires. Control of leptospirosis in small ruminants involves measures such as the identification and treatment of the carriers and other sources of infection, quarantine in acquired animals, and systematic immunization with commercial vaccines containing the circulating serovars in the herd/flock. Productivity of small ruminant breeding can dramatically increase with adequate sanitary conditions and control of leptospirosis. Immunization of all the animals combined to the treatment of carriers may successfully control the infection and importantly reduce the economic reproductive hazards that are observed under tropical conditions. PMID:24085419

  5. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Roermund, H J W van; Bergevoet, R H M

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reactive strategies were initiated after PCR positive bulk tank milk or after an abortion storm (abortion percentage in the herd of 5% or more). Preventive vaccination eradicates Q fever in a herd on average within 2 and 7 years (depending on breeding style and vaccination strategy). Economic outcomes reveal that preventive vaccination is always the preferred Q fever control strategy on infected farms and this even holds for a partial analysis if only on-farm costs and benefits are accounted for and human health costs are ignored. Averted human health costs depend to a large extend on the number of infected human cases per infected farm or animal. Much is yet unknown with respect to goat-human transmission rates. When the pathogen is absent in both livestock and farm environment then the "freedom of Q fever disease" is achieved. This would enable a return to non-vaccinated herds but more insight is required with respect to the mechanisms and probability of re-infection. PMID:26164531

  6. Association of Vitamin E with Rapid Thawing on Goat Semen

    PubMed Central

    Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Dias, Júlio César Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100 μM. Semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (−155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (−196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20 μL aliquot of thawed semen to 1 mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm·Kg−1) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process. PMID:24955428

  7. Application of ELISA in the detection of goat pox antigen and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B; Negi, B S; Yadav, M P; Shankar, H; Pandey, A B

    1988-01-01

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized for detection of goat pox virus (GPV) antibodies and antigen using live and inactivated antigens and hyperimmune serum (HIS), convalescent, post-vaccinal, as also post-challenge sera. The ELISA was most sensitive in detection of antibody when compared with agar gel precipitation (AGP) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) tests. There was no complete correlation between the antibody status of vaccinated goats and protective immunity as animals having detectable seroconversion were also solidly immune to virulent challenge. The application of ELISA in pox infections of goats has been discussed. PMID:2897774

  8. Single radial haemolysis for the detection of goat pox virus antigen and antibody.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, A K; Negi, B S

    1996-02-01

    The single radial haemolysis (SRH) test was standardised for the detection of goat pox antigen and antibody. In this test soluble antigens, and serum prepared against soluble antigens were used for coupling sheep erythrocytes to detect goat pox antibody and antigen, respectively. This test was compared with the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) test; the 2 most commonly used tests for goat pox diagnosis. SRH was found to be as sensitive as AGPT and CIE in detecting antigen and antibody (chi 2 = 2.9, P > 0.05). PMID:8815608

  9. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The average interval between treatments was significantly longer in dairy goat herds (4.8 months) than in the beef herds (3.6 months). The most commonly used drugs were macrocyclic lactones (37.7% in dairy and 39.5% in beef herds) and benzimidazoles (48.9% in dairy and 31.5% in beef herds). Goat production in Minas Gerais is still in its infancy, and even though using a control program associated with other health practices, producers still rely heavily on chemicals to get satisfactory results. PMID:21232868

  10. Natural and experimental poisoning of goats with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plant Crotalaria retusa L.

    PubMed

    Maia, Lisanka A; de Lucena, Ricardo B; Nobre, Verônica M da T; Dantas, Antônio F M; Colegate, Steven M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2013-09-01

    Crotalaria retusa L. (rattleweed), estimated to contain about 4.96% monocrotaline (MCT) in the seed, was associated with a natural poisoning outbreak in goats. The poisoning was experimentally reproduced by the administration of C. retusa seeds containing approximately 4.49% of MCT. Thus, 1 of 3 goats given a single dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (bw) of seeds (248 mg MCT/kg bw) and 2 goats given a single dose of 347 mg MCT/kg bw showed acute clinical signs and were euthanized 10-11 days after dosing. Clinical signs and gross and histologic lesions were characteristic of acute centrilobular liver necrosis. PMID:23847092

  11. Nutritive composition of Tarag, the traditional naturally-fermented goat milk in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heping; Wang, Jungguo; Menghebilige; Chen, Yongfu; Yun, Yueying; Sun, Tiansong; Li, Haiping; Guo, Mingruo

    2009-01-01

    Nutritive compositions were analyzed in 10 batches of samples of Tarag (the traditional naturally-fermented goat milk), which were collected in the Mongolian community in China. Results showed that Tarag had richer nutrients than yoghurt. Tarag-2 (from Zang goats) had better chemical nutrient density than Tarag-1 (from Chaidamu goats). Tarag was rich in casein, lactoferrin, serum albumin, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and 3 unknown fractions in certain samples. Microbiological enumeration revealed that Tarag contained large lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Tarag was judged nutritious and indicated the latent value for people's health. PMID:21883074

  12. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. PMID:24387851

  13. Efficacy of halofuginone lactate against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Julie; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe

    2014-05-28

    Preliminary results obtained in calves, lambs and goat kids infected by Cryptosporidium sp. have indicated a partial prophylactic efficacy of halofuginone lactate when administered at 100 μg/kg body weight (BW). In this study, the efficacy of halofuginone lactate was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts per oral route. The trial consisted in 2 replicated experiments carried out successively at 2 months of interval. Twenty-two 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally inoculated once, 2-3 days after the arrival in premises, with 10(6)C. parvum oocysts per oral route and were allocated into 2 groups. Animals of group 1 acted as untreated control whereas animals of group 2 received halofuginone lactate for 10 days from the infection day to day 9 post-infection (DPI) at a daily oral dose rate of 100 μg/kg BW. Individual oocyst shedding was monitored by daily examination of faecal smears stained by carbol fuchsin and scored semi-quantitatively (0-5) until 19 DPI. Daily diarrhoea scores, weight gain and mortality were recorded. In the first experiment, oocyst excretion started 1 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 3.6) and became undetectable from 16-19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 1 day later, showed lower scores compared to control on 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 DPI and vanished from 16 to 19 DPI. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Five kids died in the control group compared to 1 kid in the treated group. In the second (replicated) experiment, oocyst excretion started 2 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 4.5) and became undetectable 18 and 19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 2 days later, peaked on 13 DPI (mean score 2.3) and persisted until the end of the experiment. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Ten kids died in the control group compared to 3 kids in the treated group. The results demonstrated the efficacy of halofuginone lactate when given as a prophylactic treatment at 100 μg/kg BW during 10 days in reducing oocyst shedding, diarrhoea and mortality in goat kid cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24636788

  14. Consumption of Pistacia lentiscus foliage alleviates coccidiosis in young goats.

    PubMed

    Markovics, A; Cohen, I; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Dvash, L; Ungar, E D; Azaizeh, H; Landau, S Y

    2012-05-25

    Coccidiosis near weaning is a major cause of diarrhea, ill-thrift, and impaired performance in small ruminants. A recent survey showed that in villages of the Samaria Hills, Israel, shepherds treat young, weaned goat kids afflicted with diarrhea by cutting and feeding them the foliage of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk) or by tethering them close to lentisk bushes which they browse. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lentisk leaves do indeed have anti-coccidial value, and, if positive, to ascertain the role of tannins in this effect. We monitored for 24 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) days the effect of lentisk feeding on the development of naturally occurring coccidiosis in weaned kids artificially infected with parasitic nematodes. In Experiment 1, kids were infected with nematodes and fed lentisk foliage (PIS) or cereal hay (HAY). Coccidiosis developed at the early stage of the nematode infection, when dietary treatments were initiated. Kids in the PIS group had a lower (P<0.02) concentration of oocysts per gram feces (opg). In Experiment 2, aimed at verifying if tannins are the active component in lentisk foliage, coccidiosis occurred at the peak of the nematode infection, before experimental diets were initiated. Dietary treatments were: cereal hay (HAY), or lentisk foliage consumed without (PIS) or with (PISPEG) a 20-g daily supplement of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 4000), a molecule that impairs tannin-bonding with proteins. Goats fed the PIS diet had lower fecal opg counts than counterparts of the HAY (P<0.001) and PISPEG (P<0.002) treatments. Fecal opg counts for the HAY and PISPEG treatments did not differ, suggesting that the anti-coccidial moiety in lentisk was indeed tannins. Our results strongly suggest that: (i) in agreement with the ethno-veterinary anecdotal evidence, exposure of young, weaned goat kids to lentisk foliage alleviates coccidiosis; and (ii) this positive effect is associated with tannins. As coccidiosis is a major affliction of kids, providing them with tannin-rich browse near weaning could be an environmentally friendly way of improving their welfare and health status, in particular under bio-organic farm management. PMID:22196852

  15. Effect of ultrasound pretreatment on rennet-induced coagulation properties of goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lily; Zhang, Shuwen; Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lu, Jing; Xue, Haixiao; Kong, Fanhua; Lv, Jiaping

    2014-12-15

    The effects of ultrasound (US) pretreatment on goat milk before rennet-induced coagulation were studied in order to improve the milk coagulation properties. Skimmed goat milk was subjected to US at 800 W for different times (0-20 min) and various parameters were evaluated. The particle sizes in US pretreated goat milk under the transmission electron microscopy were smaller than in untreated samples. For US pretreated samples, the degree of whey protein denaturation, contents of soluble calcium and phosphorus increased by 9.57%, 16.90% and 13.68%, respectively. The gel firmness, coagulum strength, final storage modulus, cohesiveness, water holding capacity and cross-linking of gels demonstrated marked increase. The turbiscan stability index (TSI) also confirmed the improvement of goat milk coagulation properties with increasing duration of US pretreatment, whereas the gelation time was prolonged. PMID:25038663

  16. Neurologic disease putatively associated with ingestion of Solanum viarum in goats.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael B; MacKay, Robert J; Uhl, Elizabeth; Platt, Simon R; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2003-08-15

    Several Nubian-cross goats were evaluated because of chronic progressive neurologic disease. Physical and neurologic examination revealed signs consistent with diffuse cerebellar disease. Neurologic signs included generalized hyperresponsiveness, fine head tremors, wide-based posture, dysmetria, weakness, and horizontal nystagmus. No clinical improvement was noted after removing goats from affected enclosures. Histologic examination of cerebellar tissues revealed extensive vacuolation within the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells. The clinical and histologic lesions resembled closely findings that were associated with ingestion of Solanum spp in cattle and goats. Examination of enclosures revealed Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple) that had been heavily consumed by the goat herd. We hypothesized that ingestion of S. viarum caused the neurologic disorder. PMID:12930090

  17. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. PMID:26850444

  18. PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are extensively utilized in disease diagnostics with monoclonal antibodies serving as critical tools within the assay. Detection of scrapie in sheep and goats relies heavily on immunoassays including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In the United States, regulatory tes...

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xinong Saanen dairy goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Cunling; Wei, Zehui

    2016-09-01

    Xinong Saanen dairy goat (Capra hircus), a breed distributed widely and adapted highly in China, has the characteristics of high milk production and high litter size. Our research revealed that the complete mitochondrial genome of Xinong Saanen dairy goat was 16,639 bp in length. The contents of A, C, G and T in the mitochondrial genome were 33.6%, 26.0%, 13.1% and 27.3%, respectively. It had a typical mitogenome structure, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. Most of the PCGs have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. These results provide essential information for phylogeographic history and population genetic structure, genetic diversity of domestic goats and mitochondrial genome editing based on the goat model. PMID:25630737

  20. Toxicity of white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) and chemical extracts of white snakeroot in goats.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Zane; Lee, Stephen T; Collett, Mark G; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Green, Benedict T; Buck, Steven R; Pfister, James A

    2015-02-25

    White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) is a sporadically toxic plant that causes trembles in livestock and milk sickness in humans that drink tainted milk. The putative toxin in white snakeroot is tremetone and possibly other benzofuran ketones, even though it has not been demonstrated in vivo. Toxic white snakeroot was dosed to goats, and they developed clinical signs of poisoning, exercise intolerance, significant increases in serum enzyme activities, and histological changes. Tremetone and the other benzofuran ketones were extracted with hexane; the extracts and residues were analyzed for tremetone and dosed to goats at tremetone and benzofuran ketone concentrations similar to the original plant material. However, none of the dosed goats developed the disease. The results demonstrate for the first time that white snakeroot is a potent myotoxin in goats and that other compound(s), which may be lost or modified during the extraction process, could be involved in causing trembles and milk sickness. PMID:25641641

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Hechuan white goat in China (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    E, Guangxin; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Chen, Li-Peng; Ma, Yue-Hui; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-09-01

    The Hechuan white goat (Capra hircus), an indigenous of China. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome is 16,640 nt in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. Its overall base composition is A: 33.5%, T: 27.3%, C: 26.1% and G: 13.1%. The complete mitogenome of the local subspecies of Hechuan white goat could provide an important data to further explore the breed improvement in Chinese goat. PMID:26704695

  2. Stocking rate effects on the worm burdens of Angora goats and Merino sheep.

    PubMed

    Le Jambre, L F

    1984-09-01

    Worm egg counts of yearling Angora or Merino wethers grazing in mixed flocks at either 4/ha or 8/ha were observed over a 5 month period. Based on faecal egg counts infection levels in the sheep increased for the first 3 months and then decreased as the animals developed resistance. Egg counts in the goats did not decrease during the experiment. Post mortem worm counts indicated that there was a significant host species--stocking rate interaction on worm burdens of Haemonchus contortus adults and Ostertagia circumcincta adults and larvae. Goats had more H. contortus and O. circumcincta adults than sheep at the 8/ha stocking rate. At 4/ha goats had fewer O. circumcincta fourth stage larvae than sheep. There was no stocking rate effect on the numbers of Trichostrongylus axei or T. colubriformis. Sheep had more T. axei and fewer T. colubriformis than goats. PMID:6517775

  3. The complement system of the goat: Haemolytic assays and isolation of major proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to develop a haemolytic assay for the study of the complement system in dairy goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and to characterize the major goat complement system proteins. Results The commonly used sheep erythrocyte sensitized with rabbit antibodies were not sensitive to lysis by goat serum, but the combination of human red blood cells (RBC) plus rabbit antibodies was the best option found for goat complement assay. A buffer based on HEPES instead of the classical veronal (barbitone) was developed. Three proteins were isolated: factor H, C1q and C3 and these were compared with the corresponding human proteins. A novel affinity chromatography technique was developed for isolation of factor H. Conclusions Human RBC plus rabbit antibodies were a suitable option for haemolytic assays. The isolated proteins are similar to the human counterparts. PMID:22734447

  4. Desmoglein 4 diversity and correlation analysis with coat color in goat.

    PubMed

    E, G X; Zhao, Y J; Ma, Y H; Cao, G L; He, J N; Na, R S; Zhao, Z Q; Jiang, C D; Zhang, J H; Arlvd, S; Chen, L P; Qiu, X Y; Hu, W; Huang, Y F

    2016-01-01

    Desmoglein 4 (DSG4) has an important role in the development of wool traits in domestic animals. The full-length DSG4 gene, which contains 3918 bp, a complete open-reading-frame, and encodes a 1040-amino acid protein, was amplified from Liaoning cashmere goat. The sequence was compared with that of DSG4 from other animals and the results show that the DSG4 coding region is consistent with interspecies conservation. Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in a highly variable region of DSG4, and one SNP (M-1, G>T) was significantly correlated with white and black coat color in goat. Haplotype distribution of the highly variable region of DSG4 was assessed in 179 individuals from seven goat breeds to investigate its association with coat color and its differentiation among populations. However, the lack of a signature result indicates DGS4 haplotypes related with the color of goat coat. PMID:26985930

  5. Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections

    PubMed Central

    EIBACH, R.; BOTHE, F.; RUNGE, M.; FISCHER, S. F.; PHILIPP, W.; GANTER, M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other. PMID:22217267

  6. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sheep strains isolated from Cyprus sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

    2015-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358

  7. High forage quality helps maintain resilience to gastrointestinal parasites on sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites (especially the blood feeder Haemonchus contortus) in small ruminants is a problem for sheep and goat producers. Gastrointestinal parasite overloads reduce livestock performance and production efficiency, and can result in increased death losses of animals...

  8. High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in goats in southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari, Ali Asghar; Khalili, Mohammad; Sabahi, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the seroprevalence rate of bluetongue virus (BTV) in goat flocks in southeast of Iran. Methods The blood samples were collected randomly from herds of southeast of Iran. A total of 93 sera samples were collected between 2011 and 2012. Antibodies to BTV in sera were detected by using a commercial competitive ELISA 3 according to manufacturer's instructions. Results The seroprevalence rates were 67.7% for goats. Within a herd, prevalence of BTV seropositive animals ranged from 33.3% to 100.0%. All goat flocks were positive to BTV antibodies. Conclusions This study describes a high seroprevalence rate of BTV in goat flocks in southeast of Iran for the first time. PMID:25183097

  9. Antibiotic persistence and tolerance in the lactating goat following intramammary therapy.

    PubMed

    Buswell, J F; Knight, C H; Barber, D M

    1989-09-01

    Due to the impact of the dairy quota system, the commercial use of goats for the production of milk and associated products is attractive to farmers diversifying their dairy interest. Intensification of milking and the expansion of herds will inevitably increase the incidence of caprine mastitis. The pharmaceutical industry and the veterinary surgeon will be required to provide data and advice upon the performance of currently available bovine intramammary products when used in the goat. This study produced evidence that one available bovine intramammary product, when infused into the glands of milking goats, produced a withholding time approximately double that defined for the cow. Following a course of infusions after three successive milkings, milk was not available for human consumption or for the production of cheese and yoghurt until 112 hours after the final infusion. This situation is likely to be representative of that which will occur for other currently available bovine intramammaries when prescribed in the goat. PMID:2815494

  10. Infection rate of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cashmere, dairy and meat goats in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-Qi; Tian, Ge-Ru; Ren, Guan-Jing; Yu, Zheng-Qing; Lok, James Barron; Zhang, Long-Xian; Wang, Xue-Ting; Song, Jun-Ke; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis contribute significantly to the high burden of zoonotic diarrhea worldwide. Goats constitute an important species in animal agriculture by providing cashmere wool, meat, and dairy products for human consumption. However, zoonotic pathogens with the potential to cause morbidity and to degrade production have been reported frequently in goats recently. The present study examined 629 fecal specimens from goats, including 315 cashmere goats, 170 dairy goats and 144 meat goats, in multiple cities of Shaanxi and Henan provinces, northwestern and central China, to investigate the infection rate and species/assemblages/genotypes of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Of these samples, 274 (43.6%) were positive for three zoonotic pathogens, including 80 (12.7%), 104 (16.5%) and 179 (28.5%) for G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi, respectively. Infections with G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi existed in meat, dairy and cashmere goats, with the highest infection rate of each pathogen being observed in meat goats. DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene from 104 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens revealed existence of Cryptosporidium xiaoi, and the zoonotic parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Genotyping of G. duodenalis based on the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene identified parasites from zoonotic assemblage A in four cashmere goats and the animal-adapted assemblage E in a group of 76 goats that included cashmere, dairy and meat animals. Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer characterized E. bieneusi genotype CHG1 and a novel genotype named as SX1 in both dairy and cashmere goats, genotypes CHS7 and COSI in meat goats, the genotype CHG2 in dairy goats, and the human-pathogenic genotype BEB6 in dairy and meat goats. This is the first detailed study to compare infection rate of the zoonotic protozoan pathogens in cashmere, dairy and meat goats in China. Our research discovered Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi infections, each with zoonotic potential in meat goats, and G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in cashmere goats raising a significant public health concern. PMID:27017915

  11. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at an average rate of 4.9±2.2(SE) percent annually since 2004. We caution that the estimated rate of population growth may be conservative if severe spring weather deterred some mountain goats from reaching the high-elevation survey areas during the 2011 surveys. If the estimated average rate of population growth were to remain constant in the future, then the population would double in approximately 14-15 years.

  12. Genome analysis of orf virus isolates from goats in the Fujian Province of southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xuelin; Zeng, Xiancheng; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Li, Ming; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Yifan; Rock, Daniel L.; Luo, Shuhong; Wang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Orf virus (ORFV), a species of the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae, causes non-systemic, highly contagious, and eruptive disease in sheep, goat, and other wild and domestic ruminants. Our previous work shows orf to be ubiquitous in the Fujian Province of China, a region where there is considerable heterogeneity among ORFVs. In this study, we sequenced full genomes of four Fujian goat ORFV strains (OV-GO, OV-YX, OV-NP, and OV-SJ1). The four strains were 132–139 kb in length, with each containing 124–132 genes and about 64% G+C content. The most notable differences between the four strains were found near the genome termini. OV-NP lacked seven and OV-SJ1 lacked three genes near the right terminus when compared against other ORFVs. We also investigated the skin-virulence of the four Fujian ORFVs in goats. The ORFVs with gene deletions showed low virulence while the ORFVs without gene deletions showed high virulence in goats suggesting gene deletion possibly leads to attenuation of ORFVs. Gene 134 was disrupted in OV-NP genome due to the lack of initial code. The phylogenetic tree based on complete Parapoxviruse genomes showed that sheep originated and goat originated ORFVs formed distinctly separate branches with 100% bootstrap. Based on the single gene phylogenetic tree of 132 genes of ORFVs, 47 genes can be easily distinguished as having originated from sheep or goats. In order to further reveal genetic variation presented in goat ORFVs and sheep ORFVs, we analyzed the deduced amino acid sequences of gene 008, multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of gene 008 from the genome of five goat ORFVs and four sheep ORFVs revealed 33 unique amino acids differentiating it as having sheep or goats as host. The availability of genomic sequences of four Fujian goat ORFVs aids in our understanding of the diversity of orf virus isolates in this region and can assist in distinguishing between orf strains that originate in sheep and goats. PMID:26557108

  13. Role of species diversity and secondary compound complementarity on diet selection of Mediterranean shrubs by goats.

    PubMed

    Rogosic, Jozo; Estell, Richard E; Skobic, Dragan; Martinovic, Anita; Maric, Stanislava

    2006-06-01

    Goats foraging on Mediterranean shrubs containing secondary compounds (toxins) may consume a variety of shrubs that contain different phytotoxins, thereby increasing shrub intake and avoiding toxicosis. We conducted eight experiments to examine whether goats offered different mixtures of shrubs containing different phytotoxins (tannins and saponins) would consume more shrub biomass than goats offered one shrub a single phytotoxin (tannin or saponin). In the first three experiments, goats fed a mixture of three tannin-rich shrubs (Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo, and Pistacia lentiscus) ate more foliage than goats offered only one shrub (23.2 vs. 10.7 g/kg BW; 25.2 vs. 13.4 g/kg BW, and 27.9 vs. 7.9 g/kg BW), regardless of tannin concentration in individual shrub species. Goats also consumed more foliage when offered the same three tannin-rich shrubs than when offered the saponin-rich shrub Hedera helix (25.4 vs. 8.0 g/kg BW). However, goats offered a mixture of the same three tannin-rich shrubs consumed less foliage than goats offered a mixture of two shrubs containing tannins and saponins: Quercus and Hedera (21.6 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), Arbutus and Hedera (21.8 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), and Pistacia and Hedera (19.7 vs. 22.0 g/kg BW). Comparison of intake of shrubs containing only tannins or saponins to intake of shrubs containing both tannins and saponins indicated that goats consumed more total biomass when fed with shrubs with both classes of compounds than with either tannins or saponins alone. Our results suggest that goats can increase intake of Mediterranean shrubs high in secondary compounds by selecting those with different classes of phytotoxins. Simultaneous ingestion of shrubs containing tannins and saponins may promote chemical interactions that inhibit toxic effects of these phytotoxins in the intestinal tract. In addition to complementary interactions between tannins and saponins, biological diversity within Mediterranean maquis vegetation also plays a positive role in increasing shrub intake by goats. PMID:16770718

  14. Design and Characterization of a 52K SNP Chip for Goats

    PubMed Central

    Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cédric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cécile; Eggen, André; Heuven, Henri C. M.; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T.; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R.; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhière, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L.; Tircazes, Aurélie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

    2014-01-01

    The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50–60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years. PMID:24465974

  15. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  16. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  17. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. PMID:25200782

  18. Rare Cryptococus gattii infection in an immunocompetent dairy goat following a cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Villarroel, Aurora; Maggiulli, Tessa R.

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year-old dairy goat was presented seven weeks post cesarean section for incomplete healing of the incision site. Cytology revealed cryptococcal organisms that were confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control as Cryptococcus gattii type VGIIa. Most cryptococcomas were surgically removed, but some penetrated deep in to the muscular layers and likely into peritoneum. The goat was treated daily with oral fluconazole for 6 months, and had a normal life for almost 2 years. PMID:24371749

  19. Genetic diversity and investigation of polledness in divergent goat populations using 52 088 SNPs.

    PubMed

    Kijas, James W; Ortiz, Judit S; McCulloch, Russell; James, Andrew; Brice, Blair; Swain, Ben; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

    2013-06-01

    The recent availability of a genome-wide SNP array for the goat genome dramatically increases the power to investigate aspects of genetic diversity and to conduct genome-wide association studies in this important domestic species. We collected and analysed genotypes from 52 088 SNPs in Boer, Cashmere and Rangeland goats that had both polled and horned individuals. Principal components analysis revealed a clear genetic division between animals for each population, and model-based clustering successfully detected evidence of admixture that matched aspects of their recorded history. For example, shared co-ancestry was detected, suggesting Boer goats have been introgressed into the Rangeland population. Further, allele frequency data successfully tracked the altered genetic profile that has taken place after 40 years of breeding Australian Cashmere goats using the Rangeland animals as the founding population. Genome-wide association mapping of the POLL locus revealed a strong signal on goat chromosome 1. The 769-kb critical interval contained the polled intersex syndrome locus, confirming the genetic basis in non-European animals is the same as identified previously in Saanen goats. Interestingly, analysis of the haplotypes carried by a small set of sex-reversed animals, known to be associated with polledness, revealed some animals carried the wild-type chromosome associated with the presence of horns. This suggests a more complex basis for the relationship between polledness and the intersex condition than initially thought while validating the application of the goat SNP50 BeadChip for fine-mapping traits in goat. PMID:23216229

  20. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in goats across four provincial level areas in China.

    PubMed

    Mi, Rongsheng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Yuxuan; Chen, Yongjun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Zhaoguo

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium in goats from Guangdong Province, Hubei Province, Shandong Province, and Shanghai City of China. Six hundred and four fecal samples were collected from twelve goat farms, and the overall infection rate was 11.4% (69/604). Goats infected with Cryptosporidium were found in eleven farms across four provincial areas, and the infection rate ranged from 2.9% (1/35) to 25.0% (9/36). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified. Cryptosporidium xiaoi (45/69, 65.2%) was the dominant species, followed by C. parvum (14/69, 20.3%) and C. ubiquitum (10/69, 14.5%). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was varied with host age and goat kids were more susceptible to be infected than adult goats. Subtyping C. parvum and C. ubiquitum positive samples revealed C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 and C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa were the most common subtypes. Other C. parvum subtypes were detected as well, such as IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA17G2R1. All of these subtypes have also been detected in humans, suggesting goats may be a potential source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. This was the first report of C. parvum subtypes IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA17G2R1 infecting in goats and the first molecular identification of C. parvum and its subtypes in Chinese goats. PMID:25343501

  1. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  2. Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.

    PubMed

    Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly. PMID:19559583

  3. Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) α in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFNα resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFNα in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFNα levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  4. Experimental Model of Tuberculosis in the Domestic Goat after Endobronchial Infection with Mycobacterium caprae ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Martín, Maite; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Romera, Nadine; Escobar, Manel; Solanes, David; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Caprine tuberculosis (TB) has increased in recent years, highlighting the need to address the problem the infection poses in goats. Moreover, goats may represent a cheaper alternative for testing of prototype vaccines in large ruminants and humans. With this aim, a Mycobacterium caprae infection model has been developed in goats. Eleven 6-month-old goats were infected by the endobronchial route with 1.5 × 103 CFU, and two other goats were kept as noninfected controls. The animals were monitored for clinical and immunological parameters throughout the experiment. After 14 weeks, the goats were euthanized, and detailed postmortem analysis of lung lesions was performed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and direct observation. The respiratory lymph nodes were also evaluated and cultured for bacteriological analysis. All infected animals were positive in a single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test at 12 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) antigen-specific responses were detected from 4 weeks p.i. until the end of the experiment. The humoral response to MPB83 was especially strong at 14 weeks p.i. (13 days after SICCT boost). All infected animals presented severe TB lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. M. caprae was recovered from pulmonary lymph nodes in all inoculated goats. MDCT allowed a precise quantitative measure of TB lesions. Lesions in goats induced by M. caprae appeared to be more severe than those induced in cattle by M. bovis over a similar period of time. The present work proposes a reliable new experimental animal model for a better understanding of caprine tuberculosis and future development of vaccine trials in this and other species. PMID:21880849

  5. Production of goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Baguisi, A; Behboodi, E; Melican, D T; Pollock, J S; Destrempes, M M; Cammuso, C; Williams, J L; Nims, S D; Porter, C A; Midura, P; Palacios, M J; Ayres, S L; Denniston, R S; Hayes, M L; Ziomek, C A; Meade, H M; Godke, R A; Gavin, W G; Overström, E W; Echelard, Y

    1999-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the production of transgenic goats by nuclear transfer of fetal somatic cells. Donor karyoplasts were obtained from a primary fetal somatic cell line derived from a 40-day transgenic female fetus produced by artificial insemination of a nontransgenic adult female with semen from a transgenic male. Live offspring were produced with two nuclear transfer procedures. In one protocol, oocytes at the arrested metaphase II stage were enucleated, electrofused with donor somatic cells, and simultaneously activated. In the second protocol, activated in vivo oocytes were enucleated at the telophase II stage, electrofused with donor somatic cells, and simultaneously activated a second time to induce genome reactivation. Three healthy identical female offspring were born. Genotypic analyses confirmed that all cloned offspring were derived from the donor cell line. Analysis of the milk of one of the transgenic cloned animals showed high-level production of human antithrombin III, similar to the parental transgenic line. PMID:10331804

  6. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon footprint per area of land farmed compared with outdoor farming systems, although the 2 systems were not significantly different when results were expressed per kilogram of FPCM, at 0.81kg CO2e and 1.03kg CO2e per kg of FPCM, respectively. Both systems had footprints less than other reported dairy goat carbon footprints and on par with those for New Zealand dairy cows. The methodology used to determine enteric methane is important for an accurate and meaningful assessment. The choice of manure management system and supplementary feed can substantially affect the carbon footprint. PMID:25981064

  7. Metabolic adaptations in goat mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Wilde, C J; Henderson, A J; Knight, C H

    1986-01-01

    Metabolic adaptations of goat mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactation were monitored in serial biopsies of the tissue. Changes in the synthetic capacity of secretory cells were studied by combining measurements of enzyme activities with short-term culture of mammary explants to measure lactose, casein and total protein synthesis. By these criteria, the main phase of mammary differentiation began in late pregnancy and was essentially complete by Week 5 of lactation, coinciding with the achievement of peak milk yield. While milk yield declined after Week 5, the activities of key enzymes expressed per mg DNA and the rates of lactose and casein synthesis in mammary explants were maintained over a considerable period. The results suggest that changes in the synthetic capacity of epithelial cells may account for much of the rise in milk yield in early lactation, but are not responsible for the declining phase of milk production characteristic of lactation in ruminants. PMID:2868125

  8. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  9. Compensatory responses of goat mothers to their impaired young.

    PubMed

    Klopfer, P; Klopfer, M

    1977-05-01

    The behaviour of a mother goat towards her young normally compensates for differences between them in their vigour at birth. Weakening the first-born with drugs still does not prevent its getting equal access to the udder, though weakening the second-born may render it so much less vigorous that maternal compensation does fail. When the mother is unable to distinguish her kids by sight or smell, she is unable to modulate her responses to the kids and then the more vigorous kid always establishes priority of access to the bladder. We conjecture that this is what normally occurs under harsh environmental conditions where the mother's milk supply is occasionally inadequate for two kids. PMID:889146

  10. Spherulitic rhyolite dike from Goat Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vennum, Walter R.; Eberlein, G. Donald

    1977-01-01

    Spherulites, as much as 4 mm in diameter, locally constitute almost 50 percent by volume of a dark-red rhyolite dike that intrudes porphyritic pyroxene gabbro along the northeast coast of Goat Island, 3.2 km northwest of Hydaburg, southeastern Alaska. The largest spherulites are composed mainly of o-quartz, whereas the smallest consist of a microcrystalline intergrowth of tridymite and alkali feldspar. Textural relations indicate that the radial and concentrically zoned structures are the products.of devitrification of glassy lava. The mineralogy of the dike is similar to that of other spherulitic rhyolites except that quartz occurs to the exclusion of cristobalite. The posteruptive formation of the spherulites has also resulted in alkali transfer, the groundmass of the dike being enriched in both sodium and potassium relative to the spherulites.

  11. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  12. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  13. Effects of condensed tannins on goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Paolini, V; Bergeaud, J P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2003-05-01

    Although the use of tanniferous plants or condensed tannins as an alternative to anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes has been largely documented in sheep, studies remain scarce in goats. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the possible impact of condensed tannins in goats infected with adult Haemonchus contortus. Two groups of cull goats were experimentally infected with 10.000 L3 of H. contortus. After 4 weeks, quebracho extracts, representing 5% of the diet DM, were administered for 8 days to one of the two groups. Goats of the second group remained as controls. One week after the end of quebracho administration, the goats were euthanised. Individual egg excretion and pathophysiological parameters were measured weekly during the study. At the end of the study, worm counts were assessed and histological samples from the abomasa were taken to count the numbers of mucosal mast cells, globule leukocytes and eosinophils. The administration of tannins was associated with a significant decrease in egg excretion, which persisted until the end of experiment. This reduction was not associated with any difference in worm number but with a significant decrease in female fecundity. No significant changes in the mucosal density of the three inflammatory cell types were detected between the two groups. These results indicate that the major consequence of tannin consumption in goats is a reduction in worm fecundity and egg output, which does not seem related to significant changes in the local mucosal response. PMID:12719140

  14. Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Collins, W.F.; Williams, H.L.

    1985-08-01

    Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.

  15. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5°C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. PMID:26874417

  16. Modulating Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Transport-Induced Immunosuppression in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Minka, Ndazo Salka; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of 12 h road transportation on some basic blood cells and the modulating role of ascorbic acid were investigated in 40 adult Red Sokoto goats during the hot dry season. The animals were divided into two groups, GI (experimental; n = 20) and GII (control; n = 20). Group 1 was administered with ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body weight, while GII was given 10 mL of sterile water per goat. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 h. The result obtained in GII goats showed that loading, transportation, high ambient temperature (AT), and relative humidity (RH) encountered during transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia, which can cause immunosuppression. In GI goats, the administration of AA prior to loading and transportation ameliorated the adverse effects of loading and transportation stress on neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and eosinopenia of the goats. PMID:23738106

  17. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26867520

  18. Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research. PMID:23067875

  19. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food. PMID:26869113

  20. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Spi?ic, Silvio; Ra?i? Ivana; Andrijani?, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepani?, Maja; Cvetni?, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus. PMID:26054222

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China. Results Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1%) serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461) and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290) dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location) reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province. PMID:21457538

  2. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  3. Cerebellar Ataxia Suspected to Be Caused by Oxytropis glabra Poisoning in Western Mongolian Goats

    PubMed Central

    TAKEDA, Shuji; TANAKA, Hiroyuki; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito; ISHIHARA, Atsushi; ADILBISH, Altanchimeg; DELGERMAA, Bayarmunkh; GUNGAA, Oyuntsetseg

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the last five years in western Mongolia, a neurological disorder and resultant economic loss have developed in goats, sheep, cattle and horses: association of the disease with ingestion of Oxytropis glabra, a toxic plant, was suggested. Affected goats showed neurological signs, including ataxia, incoordination, hind limb paresis, fine head tremor and nystagmus. Three goats, one with moderate clinical signs and the other two with severe clinical signs, were necropsied and examined to describe and characterize the histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural lesions. Although no gross pathological changes were observed in a variety of organs including the central nervous system of these goats, microscopic examination of the cerebellum demonstrated degenerative changes in all these goats, such as vacuolar changes and loss of Purkinje cells, torpedo formation in the granular layer, increased number of spheroids in the cerebellar medulla, and loss of axons and myelin sheaths of Purkinje cells. The chemical analysis of the dried plant detected 0.02–0.05% (dry weight basis) of swainsonine. This is the first report describing the clinical and pathological findings in Mongolian goats suspected to be affected by O. glabra poisoning. PMID:24572629

  4. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed. PMID:23050494

  5. The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world. PMID:21291550

  6. Camel Milk Is a Safer Choice than Goat Milk for Feeding Children with Cow Milk Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735 cells/μL, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213 cells/μL, IgE 694 ± 921 IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6 KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk. PMID:23724227

  7. Camel milk is a safer choice than goat milk for feeding children with cow milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735 cells/μL, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213 cells/μL, IgE 694 ± 921 IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6 KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk. PMID:23724227

  8. [Sanitary and technologic evaluation of the rural processing of fresh goat cheese in Chile].

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C

    1988-12-01

    A sanitary and technological diagnosis of the goat cheese rural process was carried out. The purpose was to obtain more information for the planning of a program aimed to the improvement of this small agroindustry. Samples of milk, curdle, dry abomasum, rennet, water and cheese of 10% of the small industries of two rural villages in two agricultural seasons, were taken. Moreover, dilutions of the utensils and goat udders were prepared. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis of mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, and detection of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+), Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis. Proximate chemical analysis and determinations of sodium chloride and titratible acidity in milk, cheese, dry abomasum and rennet, were carried out. Goat milk was also subjected to analysis of density. It was found that significant sanitary failures are present during th whole goat cheese process, although the highest bacteria contamination occurred at the milking, curdling and filling stages. These are characterized by excessive handling and absolute lack of hygiene. The pathogen B. melitensis was absent; therefore the causes of poisoning were attributed to the toxin produced by S. aureus and to the significant count of fecal coliforms found in the goat cheese. Even though the goats are fed under a poor feeding system, the milk presented a normal physical and chemical composition. Nevertheless, protein and fat matter losses occur during cheese preparation, as a result of handling practices and lack of process control. PMID:3154301

  9. Generation of Arbas Cashmere Goat Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Through Fibroblast Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Tai, Dapeng; Liu, Pengxia; Gao, Jing; Jin, Muzi; Xu, Teng; Zuo, Yongchun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-08-01

    Various factors affect the process of obtaining stable Arbas cashmere goat embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for example, the difficulty in isolating cells at the appropriate stage of embryonic development, the in vitro culture environment, and passage methods. With the emergence of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, it has become possible to use specific genes to induce somatic cell differentiation in PSCs. We transferred OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC, and KLF4 into Arbas cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts, then induced and cultured them using a drug-inducible system to obtain Arbas goat iPSCs that morphologically resembled mouse iPSCs. After identification, the obtained goat iPSCs expressed ESC markers, had a normal karyotype, could differentiate into embryoid bodies in vitro, and could differentiate into three germ layer cell types and form teratomas in vivo. We used microarray gene expression profile analysis to elucidate the reprogramming process. Our results provide the experimental basis for establishing cashmere goat iPSC lines and for future in-depth studies on molecular mechanism of cashmere goat somatic cell reprogramming. PMID:26731591

  10. A mitochondrial analysis reveals distinct founder effect signatures in Canarian and Balearic goats.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, A; Manunza, A; Jordana, J; Capote, J; Pons, A; Pais, J; Delgado, T; Atoche, P; Cabrera, B; Martínez, A; Landi, V; Delgado, J V; Argüello, A; Vidal, O; Lalueza-Fox, C; Ramírez, O; Amills, M

    2015-08-01

    In the course of human migrations, domestic animals often have been translocated to islands with the aim of assuring food availability. These founder events are expected to leave a genetic footprint that may be recognised nowadays. Herewith, we have examined the mitochondrial diversity of goat populations living in the Canarian and Balearic archipelagos. Median-joining network analysis produced very distinct network topologies for these two populations. Indeed, a majority of Canarian goats shared a single ancestral haplotype that segregated in all sampled islands, suggesting a single founder effect followed by a stepping-stone pattern of diffusion. This haplotype also was present in samples collected from archaeological assemblies at Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, making evident its widespread distribution in ancient times. In stark contrast, goats from Majorca and Ibiza did not share any mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating the occurrence of two independent founder events. Furthermore, in Majorcan goats, we detected the segregation of the mitochondrial G haplogroup that has only been identified in goats from Egypt, Iran and Turkey. This finding suggests the translocation of Asian and/or African goats to Majorca, possibly as a consequence of the Phoenician and Carthaginian colonisations of this island. PMID:26153924

  11. The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-12-10

    Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ≥ 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk. PMID:25405703

  12. Genetic diversity and molecular phylogeography of Chinese domestic goats by large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongju; Zhao, Runze; Zhao, Zhongquan; Xu, Huizhong; Zhao, Erhu; Zhang, Jiahua

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of 666 individuals (including 109 new individuals, 557 individuals retrieved from GenBank) from 33 Chinese domestic goat breeds throughout China were used to investigate their mtDNA variability and molecular phylogeography. The results showed that all goat breeds in this study proved to be extremely diverse, and the average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.990 ± 0.001 and 0.032 ± 0.001, respectively. The 666 sequences gave 326 different haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that there were 4 mtDNA haplogroups identified in Chinese domestic goats, in which haplogroup A was predominant and widely distributed. Our finding was consistent with archaeological data and other genetic diversity studies. Amova analysis showed there was significant geographical structuring. Almost 84.31% of genetic variation was included in the within-breed variance component and only 4.69% was observed among the geographic distributions. This genetic diversity results further supported the previous view of multiple maternal origins of Chinese domestic goats, and the results on the phylogenetic relationship contributed to a better understanding of the history of goat domestication and modern production of domestic goats. PMID:24532161

  13. Antibody preparation and identification of the Cashmere goat c-kit protein in the testes.

    PubMed

    Wu, S C L; Luo, F H; Kong, Q F; Wu, Y J

    2014-01-01

    The c-kit protein plays a major role in the regulation of germ cell development. Its expression and distribution in rodent testes have been widely reported. However, research regarding c-kit expression in domestic animals is scarce, and the expression pattern and distribution of c-kit in germ cells have not been clearly defined. In this study, a specific antigenic region for goat c-kit was designed, and a c-kit polyclonal antibody was prepared. This antibody was then applied in a study evaluating c-kit expression in Cashmere goat tissues. A Western blot analysis showed that three forms of c-kit were expressed in goat testes: precursor, mature, and soluble c-kit. Fluorescent immunohistochemical analyses showed that c-kit was primarily expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of goat testes. These results not only clarify the expression and localization of c-kit in the goat testis, but also accelerate further research regarding the function of c-kit in goat spermatogenesis. PMID:25062419

  14. Molecular Characterization of Heat Shock Protein 70-1 Gene of Goat (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Nitin; Mahapatra, R. K.; Sonawane, Arvind; Singh, V. K.; Doreswamy, Ramesh; Saini, Mohini

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) plays a vital role by bestowing cytoprotection against diverse kinds of stresses. The ubiquitous HSP 70 proteins are the most abundant and temperature sensitive among all the HSPs. The present paper has characterized HSP70-1 cDNA in goat (Capra hircus). Total RNA isolated from goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reverse transcribed to cDNA that was used for amplification of HSP 70-1 gene. PCR product (1926 bp) was cloned in pGEM-T easy vector and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed 1926-bp-long open reading frame of HSP 70-1 gene encoding 641 amino acids in goat, as reported in cattle. At nucleotide level, goat HSP 70-1 was found to be 96–99% similar to that of sheep (partial), cattle, and buffalo whereas the similarity at amino acid level was 95–100%. Nonsynonymous substitutions exceeding synonymous substitutions indicate the evolution of this protein through positive selection among domestic animals. Goat and sheep appear to have diverged from a common ancestor in phylogenetic analysis. Predicted protein structures of goat HSP 70 protein obtained from deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the functional amino acids involved in chaperoning through ATPase hydrolytic cycle and in uncoating of clathrin coated vesicles are highly conserved. PMID:22110953

  15. Genetic variability of ten Chinese indigenous goats using MHC-linked microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Ma, Yue-Hui; Na, Ri-Su; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Wu, Xin

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the genetic variability of Chinese indigenous goat breeds (Capra hircus) was analyzed using the MHC-associated microsatellite markers BF1, BM1818, BM1258, and DYMS1. To examine genetic variability, the levels of heterozigosity, degrees of inbreeding, and genetic differences among the breeds were analyzed. The mean number of alleles ranged from 5.50±3.70 in Enshi black goats (EB) to 11.50±3.70 in the Jianyang big ear (JE) breed. The mean observed heterozygosity and mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.25±0.04 in Jining Qing goats (JQ) to 0.54±0.05 in Chuannan black goats (CN) and from 0.49±0.18 in Hechuan white goats (HW) to 0.78±0.05 in JE, respectively. The mean FIS values ranged from 0.23 in HW to 0.51 in JQ. In addition, the genetic variation among populations and geographic location did indicate a correlation of genetic differences with geographic distance, which was revealed by the phylogenetic network. In conclusion, the high variability and population structure among Chinese native goats in the Major Histocompatibility Complex would be caused by co-evolution between MHC alleles and the epidemic history or pathogens in different agro-ecological zones. PMID:26257111

  16. Hematological shift in goat kids naturally devoid of prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Reiten, Malin R.; Bakkebø, Maren K.; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Lewandowska-Sabat, Anna M.; Olsaker, Ingrid; Tranulis, Michael A.; Espenes, Arild; Boysen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) is incompletely understood. The expression of PrPC in hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells suggests a role in the development of these cells, and in PrPC knockout animals altered immune cell proliferation and phagocytic function have been observed. Recently, a spontaneous nonsense mutation at codon 32 in the PRNP gene in goats of the Norwegian Dairy breed was discovered, rendering homozygous animals devoid of PrPC. Here we report hematological and immunological analyses of homozygous goat kids lacking PrPC (PRNPTer/Ter) compared to heterozygous (PRNP+/Ter) and normal (PRNP+/+) kids. Levels of cell surface PrPC and PRNP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) correlated well and were very low in PRNPTer/Ter, intermediate in PRNP+/Ter and high in PRNP+/+ kids. The PRNPTer/Ter animals had a shift in blood cell composition with an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and a tendency toward a smaller mean RBC volume (P = 0.08) and an increased number of neutrophils (P = 0.068), all values within the reference ranges. Morphological investigations of blood smears and bone marrow imprints did not reveal irregularities. Studies of relative composition of PBMCs, phagocytic ability of monocytes and T-cell proliferation revealed no significant differences between the genotypes. Our data suggest that PrPC has a role in bone marrow physiology and warrant further studies of PrPC in erythroid and immune cell progenitors as well as differentiated effector cells also under stressful conditions. Altogether, this genetically unmanipulated PrPC-free animal model represents a unique opportunity to unveil the enigmatic physiology and function of PrPC. PMID:26217662

  17. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. PMID:20113446

  18. Carcass conformation and cut composition of Creole goat from Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lticia; Bocage, Bruno; Arquet, Rmy; Mahieu, Maurice; Alexandre, Gisele

    2010-03-01

    Carcass data base of 164 Creole male goats was used in order to provide factual data on the carcass conformation. Standardised procedures of carcass measuring and cutting were followed. The European official grid of light lamb is implemented for meat goat in the French West Indies and included five levels. Weights of carcass, cuts and tissues, quality scores and linear measurements were analysed. Feeding system, age at slaughter and weight were taken into account for statistical analysis. There were significant differences among carcass conformation classes (CC) for many traits except for the fat score, leg length and compactness ratio (carcass width on length): 2.2, 34.5 cm and 0.30 on average, respectively. The values of chilled carcass weight and yield and the carcass linear measurements steadily increased until conformation class 4 or 5: 6.7 to 11.2 kg, 49% to 55% and 52.4 to 58.0 cm carcass length. For the weights of carcass cuts, significant differences appeared between two groups: classes 1 and 2 vs. classes 3, 4 and 5. Regardless of the carcass weight, the distribution of prime cuts remained similar. The indices calculated on a weight basis (kg/cm), either for the carcass or the leg, increased significantly (P<0.01): with 54% and 63% difference between the two extreme classes, respectively. The muscle, bone and fat proportions in the shoulder did not vary between CC with 0.72, 0.22 and 0.06, respectively. Corresponding traits in leg were 0.74, 0.23 and 0.03; the last two were different (P<0.05) from class 1 to class 5. The muscle/bone ratios calculated either in shoulder or in leg ranged from 3.1 to 3.6 (P>0.05). PMID:19731061

  19. Hematological shift in goat kids naturally devoid of prion protein.

    PubMed

    Reiten, Malin R; Bakkebø, Maren K; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Lewandowska-Sabat, Anna M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Tranulis, Michael A; Espenes, Arild; Boysen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is incompletely understood. The expression of PrP(C) in hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells suggests a role in the development of these cells, and in PrP(C) knockout animals altered immune cell proliferation and phagocytic function have been observed. Recently, a spontaneous nonsense mutation at codon 32 in the PRNP gene in goats of the Norwegian Dairy breed was discovered, rendering homozygous animals devoid of PrP(C). Here we report hematological and immunological analyses of homozygous goat kids lacking PrP(C) (PRNP(Ter/Ter) ) compared to heterozygous (PRNP (+/Ter)) and normal (PRNP (+/+)) kids. Levels of cell surface PrP(C) and PRNP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) correlated well and were very low in PRNP (Ter/Ter), intermediate in PRNP (+/Ter) and high in PRNP (+/+) kids. The PRNP (Ter/Ter) animals had a shift in blood cell composition with an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and a tendency toward a smaller mean RBC volume (P = 0.08) and an increased number of neutrophils (P = 0.068), all values within the reference ranges. Morphological investigations of blood smears and bone marrow imprints did not reveal irregularities. Studies of relative composition of PBMCs, phagocytic ability of monocytes and T-cell proliferation revealed no significant differences between the genotypes. Our data suggest that PrP(C) has a role in bone marrow physiology and warrant further studies of PrP(C) in erythroid and immune cell progenitors as well as differentiated effector cells also under stressful conditions. Altogether, this genetically unmanipulated PrP(C)-free animal model represents a unique opportunity to unveil the enigmatic physiology and function of PrP(C). PMID:26217662

  20. Factors affecting survivability of local Rohilkhand goats under organized farm

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, D.; Patel, B. H. M.; Sahu, S.; Gaur, G. K.; Singh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the pattern of mortality as affected by age, season and various diseases in local goats of Rohilkhand region maintained at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly. Materials and Methods: Post-mortem records of 12 years (2000-01 to 2011-12) were used, and total 243 mortality data were collected and analyzed. The causes of mortality were classified into seven major classes viz. digestive disorders, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorder, parasitic disorders, mixed disorders (combination of digestive, respiratory, parasitic, and cardiovascular disorders) and miscellaneous disorders (cold, hypoglycemia, emaciation, endometritis, traumatic injury, etc.). Results: The average mortality was 10.93%. The overall mortality was more during rainy season followed by winter and summer season. The mortality in 4-6 months of age was high (2.52%) followed by 0-1 month (2.34%) and 2-3 months (1.35%). The average mortality among adult age groups (>12 months) was 3.42%. The mortality showed declining trend with the advancement of age up to 3 months and then again increased in 4-6 months age group. The digestive diseases (3.51%) followed by respiratory diseases (1.89%) and parasitic diseases (1.48%) contributed major share to the total mortality occurred and the remaining disorders were of lesser significance in causing death in goats. There is significant (p<0.01; χ2=55.62) association between year with season and age with the season (p<0.05, χ2=16.083) found in the present study. Conclusion: This study confirms that overall mortality rate averaged 10.93% (ranged between 1.10% and 25.56%) over 12 years under semi-intensive farm condition. It was generally higher in rainy season. The mortality remains higher in kids particularly under 1 month of age. The digestive diseases contributed major share to overall mortality. PMID:27047020

  1. 'Goats that stare at men'-revisited: do dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to eye visibility and head direction of a human?

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Being able to recognise when one is being observed by someone else is thought to be adaptive during cooperative or competitive events. In particular for prey species, this ability should be of use in the context of predation. A previous study reported that goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) alter their behaviour according to the body and head orientation of a human experimenter. During a food anticipation task, an experimenter remained in a particular posture for 30 s before delivering a reward, and the goats' active anticipation and standing alert behaviour were analysed. To further evaluate the specific mechanisms at work, we here present two additional test conditions. In particular, we investigated the effects of the eye visibility and head orientation of a human experimenter on the behaviour of the goats (N = 7). We found that the level of the subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the conditions where the experimenter was directing his head and body towards the goat ('Control' and 'Eyes closed' conditions), but the anticipatory behaviour was significantly decreased when the body ('Head only') or the head and body of the experimenter were directed away from the subject ('Back' condition). For standing alert, we found no significant differences between the three conditions in which the experimenter was directing his head towards the subject ('Control', 'Eyes closed' and 'Head only'). This lack of differences in the expression of standing alert suggests that goats evaluate the direction of a human's head as an important cue in their anticipatory behaviour. However, goats did not respond to the visibility of the experimenter's eyes alone. PMID:26820558

  2. Comparison of the nutritional regulation of milk fat secretion and composition in cows and goats.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Chilliard, Y; Rouel, J; Leskinen, H; Shingfield, K J; Bernard, L

    2015-10-01

    A study with 2 ruminant species (goats and cows) with inherent differences in lipid metabolism was performed to test the hypothesis that milk fat depression (MFD) due to marine lipid supplements or diets containing high amounts of starch and plant oil is caused by different mechanisms and that each ruminant species responds differently. Cows and goats were allocated to 1 of 3 groups (4 cows and 5 goats per group) and fed diets containing no additional oil (control) or supplemented with fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil and wheat starch (SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 26-d experimental periods. In cows, milk fat content was lowered by FO and SOS (-31%), whereas only FO decreased milk fat content in goats (-21%) compared with the control. Furthermore, FO and SOS decreased milk fat yield in cows, but not in goats. In both species, FO and SOS decreased the secretion of C16 FA output. However, SOS increased milk secretion of >C16 FA in goats. Compared with the control, SOS resulted in similar increases in milk trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in both species, but caused a 2-fold larger increase in trans-10 18:1 concentration in cows than for goats. Relative to the control, responses to FO in both species were characterized by a marked decrease in milk concentration of 18:0 (-74%) and cis-9 18:1 (-62%), together with a ~5-fold increase in total trans 18:1, but the proportionate changes in trans-10 18:1 were lower for goats. Direct comparison of animal performance and milk FA responses to FO and SOS treatments demonstrated interspecies differences in mammary lipogenesis, suggesting a lower sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in goats and that ruminal biohydrogenation pathways are more stable and less prone to diet-induced shifts toward the formation of trans-10-containing intermediates in goats compared with cows. Even though a direct cause and effect could not be established, results suggest that regulation of milk fat synthesis during FO-induced MFD may be related to a shortage of 18:0 for endogenous mammary cis-9 18:1 synthesis, increase in the incorporation of trans FA in milk triacylglycerols, and limitations in the synthesis of FA de novo to maintain milk fat melting point. However, the possible contribution of biohydrogenation intermediates with putative antilipogenic effects in the mammary gland, including trans-9,cis-11 CLA, trans-10 18:1, or cis-11 18:1 to FO-induced MFD cannot be excluded. PMID:26233463

  3. The potential to control Haemonchus contortus in indigenous South African goats with copper oxide wire particles

    PubMed Central

    Vatta, A.F.; Waller, P.J.; Githiori, J.B.; Medley, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The high prevalence of resistance of Haemonchus contortus to all major anthelmintic groups has prompted investigations into alternative control methods in South Africa, including the use of copper oxide wire particle (COWP) boluses. To assess the efficacy of COWP against H. contortus in indigenous South African goats, 18 male faecal egg-count-negative goats were each given ca.1200 infective larvae of H. contortus three times per week during weeks 1 and 2 of the experiment. These animals made up an “established” infection group (ESTGRP). At the start of week 7, six goats were each given a 2-g COWP bolus orally; six goats received a 4-g COWP bolus each and six animals were not treated. A further 20 goats constituted a “developing” infection group (DEVGRP). At the beginning of week 1, seven of the DEVGRP goats were given a 2-g COWP bolus each; seven goats were treated with a 4-g COWP bolus each and no bolus was given to a further six animals. During weeks 1–6, each of these DEVGRP goats was given ca. 400 H. contortus larvae three times per week. All 38 goats were euthanized for worm recovery from the abomasa and small intestines in week 11. In the ESTGRP, the 2-g and 4-g COWP boluses reduced the worm burdens by 95% and 93%, respectively compared to controls (mean burden ± standard deviation, SD: 23 ± 33, 30 ± 56 and 442 ± 518 worms, P = 0.02). However, in the DEVGRP goats, both the 2-g and 4-g COWP treatments were ineffective in reducing the worm burdens relative to the controls (mean burdens ± SD: 1102 ± 841, 649 ± 855, 1051 ± 661 worms, P = 0.16). Mean liver copper levels did not differ between the ESTGRP goats treated with 2-g COWP, 4-g COWP or no COWP (mean ± standard error of the mean, SEM, in ppm: 93.7 ± 8.3; 101.5 ± 8.3; 71.8 ± 8.3, P = 0.07) nor did they differ between the DEVGRP goats (mean ± SEM, in ppm: 74.1 ± 9.1; 75.4 ± 9.1; 74.9 ± 10.0, P > 0.99). The copper values were considered adequate, but not high, for goats. The COWP boluses have the potential to be used in the place of conventional anthelmintics for the control of established H. contortus infections in indigenous South African goats, but their use as part of an integrated approach to control H. contortus in the field must be fully investigated. PMID:19346076

  4. Early Weight Development of Goats Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Alyssa N.; Fletcher, Darcy M.; Vogt, Megan B.; Meyer, Stephen K.; Hess, Ann M.; Eckstein, Torsten M.

    2013-01-01

    Johne’s disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne’s disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne’s disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne’s disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne’s disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne’s disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age. PMID:24349564

  5. Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

    2014-01-01

    Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of αs1-casein and also of κ-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of β-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, αs2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of αs2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. PMID:24704223

  6. Technical note: validation of data loggers for recording lying behavior in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Zobel, G; Weary, D M; Leslie, K; Chapinal, N; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2015-02-01

    Changes in standing and lying behavior are frequently used in farm animals as indictors of comfort and health. In dairy goats, these behaviors have primarily been measured using labor-intensive video and live observation methodologies. The aim of this study was to validate accelerometer-based data loggers for use in goats. Two commercial dairy goat farms in Ontario were enrolled; goats were fitted with data loggers on their rear left legs and the pens were equipped with video. Data loggers compared well with video in identifying lying and standing events on both farms (farm 1 and 2, respectively: sensitivity=99.7 and 99.8%, specificity=99.5 and 99.4%, false readings=0.43 and 0.36%). The loggers were also able to record if the goat was lying on her left or right side (farm 1 only: sensitivity=99.9%, specificity=99.3%, false readings=0.38%), but these measures were only accurate if the loggers were attached with sufficient tension to prevent logger rotation. The mature does enrolled on farm 1 spent 14.5±1.0h/d lying down and frequently changed lying side even within a single lying bout (24±5 shifts/d between left and right sides and 16±5 lying bouts/d). The young goats on the second farm averaged just 8.5±3.2h/d in lying time, and spread this time over 8±4 bouts/d. Data loggers accurately measured lying time and lying bouts in mature does and younger goats on both farms, and lying laterality (e.g., left and right lying sides) in mature does on farm 1. PMID:25497810

  7. Vasoconstrictive Responses by the Carotid and Auricular Arteries in goats to Ergot Alkaloid Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, Glen; Flythe, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E-) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E- and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E- seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 µg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E- treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation.

  8. Short communication: Determination of withdrawal time for oxytetracycline in different types of goats for milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela; Woldesenbet, Sela

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry and the presence of antibiotics in milk is a health hazard. The objective of this study was to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in fresh, aged, and pasteurized milk of 3 breeds of goats using HPLC analysis. It was also essential to determine the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats. The quantitative results obtained using the HPLC system were compared with the tolerance limit of oxytetracycline in milk in the United States. Fifteen milking does, 5 Nubians, 5 Alpines, and 5 LaManchas were randomly selected from the milking herd at the International Goat Research Center at Prairie View A&M University. A simple sample preparation and isocratic HPLC method using ultraviolet detection was used for analysis of milk samples. The HPLC results indicated that the withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in treated Alpine does was 82h (7 milking), whereas for Nubian does the period was 58h (5 milking), and for LaManchas the period was 72h (6 milking) after drug administration. The overall withdrawal period for all the treated goats of 3 breeds was 72h. Although these results indicated that the depletion rate of this antibiotic was faster in goats than the reported data for cows, the 96-h withdrawal period that is currently used for lactating cows is still necessary for these 3 breeds of goats. Additionally, our results indicated that oxytetracycline is not stable in goat milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and will decrease significantly. PMID:25958275

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Dairy Goats: Genotypic and Phenotypic Comparison of Intramammary and Environmental Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Scaccabarozzi, Licia; Leoni, Livia; Ballarini, Annalisa; Barberio, Antonio; Locatelli, Clara; Casula, Antonio; Bronzo, Valerio; Pisoni, Giuliano; Jousson, Olivier; Morandi, Stefano; Rapetti, Luca; García-Fernández, Aurora; Moroni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Following the identification of a case of severe clinical mastitis in a Saanen dairy goat (goat A), an average of 26 lactating goats in the herd was monitored over a period of 11 months. Milk microbiological analysis revealed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 7 of the goats. Among these 7 does, only goat A showed clinical signs of mastitis. The 7 P. aeruginosa isolates from the goat milk and 26 P. aeruginosa isolates from environmental samples were clustered by RAPD-PCR and PFGE analyses in 3 genotypes (G1, G2, G3) and 4 clusters (A, B, C, D), respectively. PFGE clusters A and B correlated with the G1 genotype and included the 7 milk isolates. Although it was not possible to identify the infection source, these results strongly suggest a spreading of the infection from goat A. Clusters C and D overlapped with genotypes G2 and G3, respectively, and included only environmental isolates. The outcome of the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed on the isolates revealed 2 main patterns of multiple resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides. Virulence related phenotypes were analyzed, such as swarming and swimming motility, production of biofilm and production of secreted virulence factors. The isolates had distinct phenotypic profiles, corresponding to genotypes G1, G2 and G3. Overall, correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between sampling source, RAPD genotype, PFGE clusters, and phenotypic clusters. The comparison of the levels of virulence related phenotypes did not indicate a higher pathogenic potential in the milk isolates as compared to the environmental isolates. PMID:26606430

  10. Depletion of endogenous germ cells in male pigs and goats in preparation for germ cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Honaramooz, Ali; Behboodi, Esmail; Hausler, Carl L; Blash, Stephen; Ayres, Sandra; Azuma, Chieko; Echelard, Yann; Dobrinski, Ina

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of germ cell transplantation, the procedure of transferring germ cells from a donor male into the testes of recipient males, can be greatly increased by reduction of endogenous germ cells in recipient animals. To develop effective methods for suppression of endogenous spermatogenesis in potential pig and goat recipients, we either administered busulfan to pregnant sows or irradiated the testes of immature goats. Piglets from sows treated twice with busulfan (7.5 mg/kg) at days 98 and 108 of gestation showed reduced gonocyte numbers at 2, 4, and 8 weeks of age and reduced initiation of spermatogenesis at 16 weeks of age. For goats, groups of 3 kids at 1, 5, or 9.5 weeks of age received fractionated irradiation of the testes with 3 doses of 2 Gy on 3 consecutive days. At 2 months after irradiation, 5%-10% of seminiferous tubule cross sections contained pachytene spermatocytes, compared with 50%-100% in controls. At 3 months after irradiation, spermatozoa appeared in 20% of tubule cross sections in all treated goats and in 100% of tubules in control goats. By 6 months after irradiation, spermatogenesis had recovered in 60% of tubules in goats treated at 5 or 9.5 weeks of age but in only 29% of tubules after treatment at 1 week of age. Therefore, late gestation in utero treatment of pigs with low doses of busulfan and testicular irradiation of goats at 1 week of age will result in a reduction in the endogenous germ cell population that could facilitate donor cell colonization after germ cell transplantation. PMID:16291964

  11. Diagnosis of footrot in goats: application of ELISA tests for response to antigens of Dichelobacter nodosus.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, S C; Whittington, R J; Dhungyel, O P; Joshi, H D; Egerton, J R

    2002-07-01

    Goats are an important natural host for footrot and are infected with Dichelobacter nodosus that have virulence characteristics similar to those of sheep strains. However, the humoral response of goats to D. nodosus antigens and the possibility of a serological diagnosis of footrot in goats have not been studied. With the aim of evaluating a diagnostic ELISA test, we investigated the primary immune response of goats to experimental and natural infection, the memory response in recovered animals, and the transfer and persistence of colostral antibodies in kids. Footrot stimulated the goat's immune system and, as in sheep, under-running lesions were the primary stimulus for production of anti-D. nodosus antibodies. The immune response could be detected in ELISA using either fimbrial or outer membrane protein (KSCN) antigens of D. nodosus. Antibody titres resulting from infection declined quickly after recovery and reached pre-infection levels within 3-4 months. Previously affected animals, however, mounted a memory response when injected with purified D. nodosus antigens. Antibody levels attained after anamnestic challenge were correlated with the maximum levels attained during infection, and were therefore indicative of the infection status. Anti-D. nodosus antibodies were also transferred to kids via colostrum, but these antibodies did not persist and therefore were unlikely to interfere with the diagnostic ELISA after 3 months of age. Though these ELISA tests were highly specific, their sensitivity was rather low. Therefore, they are only suitable for a herd diagnosis of footrot in goats and are dependent on the development of advanced under-running infections in a proportion of affected goats. PMID:12052334

  12. Evaluation of serological tests for diagnosis of Brucella melitensis infection of goats.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Aparicio, E; Marín, C; Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Aragón, V; Pérez-Ortiz, S; Pardo, M; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1994-01-01

    Five serological assays were evaluated for the diagnosis of brucellosis in goats: the rose bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT), radial immunodiffusion (RID) with Brucella and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 polysaccharides, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) with cytosol, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with polyclonal and protein G conjugates and smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), native hapten polysaccharide (NH), or cytosol antigens. For optimal sensitivity, RBT had to be used with sera-antigen at a 3:1 dilution. In the RID test, Brucella melitensis biotype 1 NH could not be replaced by Brucella abortus biotype 1 or Y. enterocolitica 0:9 polysaccharides. In the ELISA, S-LPS and NH gave similar results and the protein G conjugate increased the specificity. With the sera from 55 B. melitensis culture-positive goats, the sensitivity was 100% for RBT, CFT (titer > or = 4), and ELISA with S-LPS or NH; 94% for RID; and 93% for CIEP. All tests were negative (100% specific) when testing the sera from 127 brucella-free goats. Larger discrepancies among the results of the serological tests were obtained with sera from goats of areas where brucellosis is endemic. When the sera of 20 young goats vaccinated subcutaneously (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) and bled 6 months later were examined, the specificities were as follows: NH ELISA, 60%; CFT and S-LPS ELISA, 75%; RBT, 80%; CIEP, 90%; and RID, 94%. With the sera from 10 young goats vaccinated conjunctivally (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) all tests were 100% specific 4 months after vaccination. The proportion of goats giving a positive reaction after vaccination decreased faster in RID than in other tests. PMID:8051240

  13. Vasoconstrictive responses by the carotid and auricular arteries in goats to ergot alkaloid exposure1

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Glen E.; Flythe, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of “Kentucky 31” tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E−) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E− and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E− seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 μg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E− treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation. PMID:25478559

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics of levamisole-oxyclozanide combination in sheep and goats following per os administration

    PubMed Central

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Aksit, Dilek; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Since there is no registered anthelmintic drug available for use in goats, extra-label use of drugs is a common practice in most countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic disposition of levamisole (LVM)-oxyclozanide (OXZ) combination in sheep and goats following per os administration. Goats (n = 8) and sheep (n = 8) 12- to 16-months-old were used for this study. The animals received tablet formulation of LVM and OXZ combination orally at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Blood samples were collected by jugular vein at different times between 5 min and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of LVM and OXZ were analyzed by HPLC following liquid-liquid phase extraction procedures. The plasma concentrations and systemic availabilities of both LVM and OXZ in goats were lower and the plasma persistence of LVM was shorter compared with those observed in sheep. Terminal half-lives (t1/2λz) of both molecules are shorter in goats compared with those in sheep. Goats treated with LVM-OXZ combination at the recommended dose for sheep may result in a reduced efficacy, because of under-dosing, which may increase the risk of drug resistance in parasites. Increased or repeated dose could be a strategy to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to improve the efficacy against the target parasites in goats compared with sheep. However, some adverse reactions may occur since LVM has relatively very narrow therapeutic index due to its nicotine-like structure and effect. PMID:25356001

  15. Economic contribution and viability of dairy goats: implications for a breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Ogola, T D O; Nguyo, W K; Kosgey, I S

    2010-06-01

    To augment the incomes of smallholder farmers in Kenya and consequently improve their nutrition and income, many development organisations and policy makers are increasingly promoting dairy goat farming. Among the key organisations supporting the initiative is Heifer Project International-Kenya (HPIK). However, the economic contribution and viability of dairy goats under the HPIK project have not been studied so far. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of dairy goats to household income and the performance of the dairy goat enterprise using gross and net margins from dairy goat farming as an indicator of economic viability. A survey covering 71 farmers was carried out in the Coast, Nyanza, and the Rift Valley provinces of Kenya using a set of pre-tested structured and semi-structured questionnaires. Results showed that, on average, the dairy goat enterprise contributed, correspondingly, about 15.2% and 4.8% to the total livestock and overall household income and was viable. Differences in gross and net margins across agroecological zones were attributed to milk prices. Despite the existence of non-viable enterprises in two of the provinces, the few present suggest the possibility of obtaining reliable incomes from the enterprise. Redoubling of effort or re-orientation of production to match the local and external requirements would, however, be necessary. Costs and revenues were similar across the agroecological zones. Farmers with positive gross margins had better milk and stock sales and vice versa. The success of a dairy goat enterprise is attributed to location and good management. Besides, farmers' awareness of the market demands within and outside the community is important in establishing production goals and may be crucial to achieving a positive gross margin. PMID:19937381

  16. Introgression from Domestic Goat Generated Variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex of Alpine Ibex

    PubMed Central

    Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

  17. Diagnostic testing patterns of natural Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in pygmy goats

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Elizabeth J.B.; Steinberg, Howard; Krebs, Vernon; Collins, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen pygmy goats (Capra hircus) from a herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MPTB) were monitored with 4 diagnostic assays for 2 to 15 mo. Cellular and humoral immune responses to the infection were assessed with assays of gamma interferon (IFNγ), serum antibody [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agar gel diffusion (AGID)], and radiometric fecal culture. Microscopic examination and radiometric culture of tissue from 12 sites were performed at necropsy. Goats were considered infected if MPTB was isolated from any tissue sample collected at necropsy. Mycobacterial isolates were confirmed as MPTB with an IS900 polymerase chain reaction assay. Ten goats whose antemortem tests indicated infection carried heavy organism burdens at necropsy, both within and beyond the gastrointestinal system. False-negative ELISA, AGID, and/or culture results were obtained in 5 of the 10 confirmed cases during the study period. In 3 goats with sporadic fecal shedding of MPTB or detectable IFNγ response, or both, no abnormalities were detected at necropsy and no MPTB was isolated from the tissue samples; the antemortem fecal-culture and IFNγ results were thus considered false-positive. Diagnosticians should be alert to the possibility of both false-positive and false-negative test results for Johne's disease in goats. False-positive fecal-culture results may occur when a high prevalence of infection exists in the herd and the premises are likely to be heavily contaminated. The diverse antemortem testing patterns seen in these goats underscore the importance of using varied diagnostic assays serially or in parallel to increase the likelihood of identifying all infected goats. PMID:12889728

  18. Experimental studies on the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini for the respiratory tract of goats.

    PubMed Central

    Goltz, J P; Rosendal, S; McCraw, B M; Ruhnke, H L

    1986-01-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were the species of Mollicutes most commonly isolated from 175 goats with respiratory disease in Ontario. The pathogenicity of M. ovipneumoniae, strain B321B and M. arginini, strain D53e, was assessed in goats following endobronchial inoculation. One out of three two year old goats developed fever after inoculation with a pure culture of strain B321B, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis when necropsied three weeks later. Neither of the remaining goats had lesions in the respiratory tract. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was recovered from one of the animals four days after inoculation, but not at necropsy from any of the goats, at which time a marked humoral immune response with growth inhibiting antibodies was detected. In a second experiment three four to five week old goats were inoculated with the same strain and three other goats were given placebo treatment. One experimental goat developed fever and coughing, and it had extensive subacute fibrinous pleuritis in the right side and pneumonia. Another goat had focal pneumonia in the left diaphragmatic lobe. Microscopically there was subacute hyperplastic suppurative bronchiolitis, atelectasis and nonsuppurative alveolitis. The infected animals did not clear the mycoplasma and not all of them produced antibodies. Mycoplasma arginini, strain D53e, did not induce lesions in any of four goat kids within 14 days after inoculation but did cause transient elevations in rectal temperature, circulating monocytes, circulating neutrophils and blood fibrinogen. Mycoplasma arginini was infective and immunogenic for all inoculated animals and showed a particular affinity for the tonsil. Thus, this study provides the first evidence that M. ovipneumoniae is pathogenic for goats causing pneumonia and pleuritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3742358

  19. Hematobiochemical profile in Surti goats during post-partum period

    PubMed Central

    Manat, Tanvi D.; Chaudhary, Sandhya S.; Singh, Virendra Kumar; Patel, Sanjay B.; Puri, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the changes in hematobiochemical profile in post-partum Surti goats. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 Surti goats out of which 20 goats who had undergone recent parturition acted as treatment group and 20 non-pregnant animals comprised control group. Blood samples were collected from the treatment group on 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45 days post kidding and once from the control group. Blood samples were analyzed for hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical metabolites such as total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose, and urea. Results: Hb level was the highest on the 45th day and lowest on the day of parturition. Significantly low level of Hb, PCV, and lymphocyte was found on 0 day and significantly high level was found on the 45th day. TEC was also low on the 0 day and high on the 45th day post kidding, but the difference was non-significant. Mid-sized cells and granulocyte percentage decreased significantly from 0 to 45th day post-partum. TP, albumin, and urea were found to be lowest on 0 day and highest on 45th day post-partum. Urea concentration increased parallel to TP indicating an increase in urea production with catabolism of protein. The globulin concentration also increased from 0 to 45th day post-partum, but the difference was non-significant. TC, TG, and NEFA were the highest on 0 day and lowest on the 45th day post-partum. Decrease in TC and TG from 0 to 45th day post-partum indicates that the animals utilized the lipids for the supply of energy for milk production. High level of NEFA acts as an indicator of negative energy status but in the present study, the high glucose level on 0 day indicates that the animals were in positive energy status. The glucose concentration decreased up to 14th day post-partum and then started increasing from 21st day onward. Conclusion: Hematobiochemical parameters are indicative of health status of animals. Significantly low values of Hb, PCV, and TLC during first 2 weeks post-partum are indicative of stress. Catabolism of protein occurred during 2 weeks post-partum, as observed from increase in urea concentration. Decrease TGs and high level of NEFA during the transition period are suggestive of utilization of lipids for the supply of energy. High glucose level on 0 day indicates that the animals were in positive energy status. PMID:27051179

  20. High prevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from goats from a retail meat store destined for human consumption in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available concerning the presence of viable Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of goats worldwide. In the present study, the prevalence of T. gondii was determined in 234 goats from Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania, USA. Hearts of 234 goats were obtained from a local grocery store...

  1. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats' rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p<0.01). HS reduced plasma flux rate of milk goats (p<0.01), but the plasma flux rate increased when the animal was under the conditions of the thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). The VE supplementation lowered dairy goats' rectum temperature during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed between the control and YC treatment in rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p>0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats' endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (p<0.01). However, the endotoxin concentration of the YC treatment was higher than that of the VE treatment (p<0.01). Both VE and YC supplementation decreased heat stressed dairy goats' absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01). The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01). The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats' superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01). The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats' malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05). The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0.01). The addition of YC increased TAP concentration only during HS period (p<0.01). It is concluded that both VE and YC are useful in alleviating HS of dairy goats by weakening endotoxin absorption and promoting antioxidant capacity. Compared with YC, VE is much more powerful in easing dairy goats HS. PMID:26954167

  2. Birth of kids after artificial insemination with sex-sorted, frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bathgate, R; Mace, N; Heasman, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; de Graaf, S P

    2013-12-01

    Successful sex-sorting of goat spermatozoa and subsequent birth of pre-sexed kids have yet to be reported. As such, a series of experiments were conducted to develop protocols for sperm-sorting (using a modified flow cytometer, MoFlo SX(®) ) and cryopreservation of goat spermatozoa. Saanen goat spermatozoa (n = 2 males) were (i) collected into Salamon's or Tris catch media post-sorting and (ii) frozen in Tris-citrate-glucose media supplemented with 5, 10 or 20% egg yolk in (iii) 0.25 ml pellets on dry ice or 0.25 ml straws in a controlled-rate freezer. Post-sort and post-thaw sperm quality were assessed by motility (CASA), viability and acrosome integrity (PI/FITC-PNA). Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa frozen in pellets displayed significantly higher post-thaw motility and viability than spermatozoa frozen in straws. Catch media and differing egg yolk concentration had no effect on the sperm parameters tested. The in vitro and in vivo fertility of sex-sorted goat spermatozoa produced with this optimum protocol were then tested by means of a heterologous ova binding assay and intrauterine artificial insemination of Saanen goat does, respectively. Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa bound to sheep ova zona pellucidae in similar numbers (p > 0.05) to non-sorted goat spermatozoa, non-sorted ram spermatozoa and sex-sorted ram spermatozoa. Following intrauterine artificial insemination with sex-sorted spermatozoa, 38% (5/13) of does kidded with 83% (3/5) of kids being of the expected sex. Does inseminated with non-sorted spermatozoa achieved a 50% (3/6) kidding rate and a sex ratio of 3 : 1 (F : M). This study demonstrates for the first time that goat spermatozoa can be sex-sorted by flow cytometry, successfully frozen and used to produce pre-sexed kids. PMID:23701168

  3. Efficiency of the male effect with photostimulated bucks does not depend on their familiarity with goats.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A L; Bedos, M; Aroña, R M; Flores, J A; Hernández, H; Moussu, C; Briefer, E F; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-05-01

    In ewes, the ovulatory response of females exposed to familiar rams is lower than the response of those exposed to novel ones. In goats, males rendered sexually active by exposure to long days are more efficient to induce ovulation in seasonal anestrous females than untreated males. Two experiments were conducted to determine 1) whether male goats remain familiar to females after 45days of separation; and 2) whether photostimulated males are able to stimulate the sexual activity of females, independently of their familiarity with them. In Experiment 1, three groups of goats (n=10 goats per group) were put in contact with males (n=2 per group) during 10days in November (familiarization period). These males were called familiar males. After 15, 30 and 45days of separation from the males, females of each group were exposed to familiar or novel males during 10min. In each test, goats in contact with novel males displayed more distress bleats, escapes, head butts, and sniffing than those in contact with familiar males (P<0.05). In Experiment 2, we used sexually inactive (n=4 control males), and sexually active males (n=4 photostimulated males). In February, two groups of goats (n=50 each) were put in contact with control or photostimulated males (n=2 each) during 10days ("familiar" control or photostimulated male, respectively). After 45days of separation from the males, both groups of females were further divided into two groups (n=25 goats per group). In April, two groups were re-exposed to "familiar" control or "familiar" photostimulated males (n=2 per group), whereas the other two groups were exposed to "novel" control or "novel" photostimulated males (n=2 per group). The photostimulated males displayed a higher level of sexual behavior than the controls. The proportion of goats that ovulated and displayed estrus was higher when exposed to the photostimulated males than when exposed to control ones (≥80% vs. 0%; P<0.05). These proportions did not differ between groups exposed to familiar or novel photostimulated males (P>0.05). We concluded that after 45days of separation, males are still familiar to females. The photostimulated males are able to induce the sexual activity of seasonally anestrous goats independently of their familiarity with them. PMID:26948162

  4. The Garfagnina goat: a zootechnical overview of a local dairy population.

    PubMed

    Martini, M; Salari, F; Altomonte, I; Rignanese, D; Chessa, S; Gigliotti, C; Caroli, A

    2010-10-01

    Domestic livestock with a limited distribution are increasingly recognized in the action plans of the European Union as a reason for protecting rural land. The preservation and enhancement of the native germplasm and traits selected through the ages in different areas of farming is the first step in increasing typical products at a time when high quality products are increasingly in demand. This is the first time that a zootechnical overview has been performed on the Italian native goat population named "Garfagnina," which is registered on the Tuscan regional repertory of genetic resources at risk of extinction. The aim of the study was to give added value to this population by focusing on particular traits that could be used for promoting typical products. Data on the size of the local goats, zoometric measures, breeding system, milk quality, and genetic polymorphisms were collected to get insight into the current state of the population of this type of goat. The native goat population is reared in Tuscany in central Italy, mostly for its milk. The local goat farms considered in our study are located in the hills and mountains of the northwestern Tuscan Apennine area. For every farm we measured at least 10% of the reproductive females (273), randomly chosen, and all reproductive males (47) for a total of 320 subjects. Regarding the management of the animals and the feeding system, semi-extensive farming is practiced in all the flocks. From a morphological point of view the animals are relatively homogeneous, especially in terms of zoometric data, whereas they show a wider variability regarding coat. Milk gross and fatty acid composition were similar to that reported in the literature for bulk goat milk. Moreover, the average of somatic cell count and standard plate count found in Garfagnina goat milk indicated good hygienic farm management and correct milking practices, although milking is mainly manual. The average number of globules per milliliter found in Garfagnina goat milk was almost double compared with the literature, whereas the average diameter was lower. Milk coagulation properties were scarce, thus indicating poor cheesemaking aptitude of Garfagnina milk. Selecting haplotypes carrying alleles associated with a higher expression of the specific casein could help improve milk cheesemaking aptitude. Moreover, the rather high frequency of the faint CSN1S1*F allele and the occurrence of CSN2*0 might suggest that Garfagnina goat milk could be used, after an appropriate selection, for direct consumption of milk at low casein content for intolerant human subjects. PMID:20855000

  5. Bacterial subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in low-input dairy goat herds.

    PubMed

    Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for the establishment of effective preventive measures against SCM and for the assessment of the sustainability of production in low-input dairy goat herds. PMID:26898280

  6. Diet choice by goats as effect of milk production level during late lactation.

    PubMed

    Avondo, M; Pagano, R I; De Angelis, A; Pennisi, P

    2013-07-01

    The diet self-regulation ability of goats during late lactation has been studied with regard to their production level. Two groups of seven Girgentana goats producing 1100 ± 157 g/day (H group) and 613 ± 138 g/day (L group) were housed in individual pens and were given alfalfa pelleted hay (1.5 kg), whole grains of maize (0.5 kg), barley (0.5 kg), faba bean (0.5 kg) and pelleted sunflower cake (0.5 kg) on a daily basis. During a 7-day pre-experimental period, goats received a mixed ration based on the same feeds used during the experimental period (1.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of each concentrate). Individual choice of feeds was continuously recorded for 7 days using a 24-h IR video surveillance system equipped with four video cameras. The nutrient intake in both groups was much higher than needed. Goats in the H group ate more (2016.3 v. 1744.3 g dry matter (DM)/day) and selected less hay (26.9% v. 34.6% DM), more high-protein feeds (faba bean and sunflower cake: 14.0% and 15.9% v. 8.8% and 7.9% DM, respectively) and less maize (21.5% v. 25.0% DM), reaching a higher CP concentration in the diet (17.3% v. 15.0% DM) compared with the goats in the L group. During the 24-h trial period, hay was more constantly selected (on average never reaching <20% of the total hourly basis feeding time, apart from the first hour after feed administration) compared with concentrate feeds. This feeding behaviour has probably exercised a 'curative' effect that enabled the goats to continue to take in very high levels of starch and protein, without manifesting any symptom of metabolic disease. Shifting goats from the pre-experimental diet, based on a mixture of the same feeds used during the experimental period, to the free-choice feeding caused more than 20% increase in milk production in both groups. From the results of the intake, we are unable to conclude that the goats can select their diet to meet their requirements, as goats consumed much more than needed. However, when free to choose their diet, the animals improved milk performance, despite the late-lactation stage. PMID:23473071

  7. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L*a*b*) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699

  8. Productivity of Angora goats in the communal rangelands of Molimo-Nthuse area in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Matebesi, P A; Khitsane, L

    2006-01-01

    Production parameters were determined for kidding, offtake and mortality rates, and milk production and composition of Angora goats in two communal agro-ecological zones, Mountains and Lowlands, of Molimo-nthuse area in Lesotho. True incidence rates and risk rates as used in dynamic populations were used to calculate the different production parameters. A completely randomized design was used to compare the differences between the two agro-ecological zones. Angora goats in the two agro-ecological zones produced milk similarly (p > 0.05) in amounts and composition. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in annual kidding, mortality and offtake rates between Angora goats kept in the Lowlands and those in the Mountains. However, high mortality rates and mortality risk rates were observed in both zones. Thus, the risk rates that suckling Angora goats would die within their first 6 months after birth were 28% and 34% for the Mountains and Lowlands, respectively. It is suggested that future emphasis should be on reducing kid mortality through better herding of the goats and improvement of pre- and post-partum nutrition of the doe in this communal livestock farming system. PMID:17265776

  9. Genes regulating lipid and protein metabolism are highly expressed in mammary gland of lactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hengbo; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Luo, Jun; Cao, Wenting; Shi, Huaiping; Yao, Dawei; Li, Jun; Sun, Yuting; Xu, Huifen; Yu, Kang; Loor, Juan J

    2015-05-01

    Dairy goats serve as an important source of milk and also fulfill agricultural and economic roles in developing countries. Understanding the genetic background of goat mammary gland is important for research on the regulatory mechanisms controlling tissue function and the synthesis of milk components. We collected tissue at four different stages of goat mammary gland development and generated approximately 25 GB of data from Illumina de novo RNA sequencing. The combined reads were assembled into 51,361 unigenes, and approximately 60.07 % of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database (NR). Functional classification through eukaryotic Ortholog Groups of Protein (KOG), gene ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that the unigenes from goat mammary glands are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism and lactose metabolism. The results of qPCR revealed that genes encoding FABP3, FASN, SCD, PLIN2, whey proteins (LALBA and BLG), and caseins (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2 and CSN3) at 100 and 310 days postpartum increased significantly compared with the non-lactating period. In addition to their role in lipid and protein synthesis, the higher expression at 310 days postpartum could contribute to mammary cell turnover during pregnancy. In conclusion, this is the first study to characterize the complete transcriptome of goat mammary glands and constitutes a comprehensive genomic resource available for further studies of ruminant lactation. PMID:25433708

  10. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all). PMID:25499464

  11. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Bawm, Saw; Maung, Wint Yi; Win, Myat Yee; Thu, May June; Chel, Hla Myet; Khaing, Tin Aye; Wai, Soe Soe; Htun, Lat Lat; Myaing, Tin Tin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Igarashi, Makoto; Katakura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. PMID:26904362

  12. Serosurvey of Schmallenberg Virus Infection in the Highest Goat-Specialized Region of France.

    PubMed

    Valas, S; Baudry, C; Ehrhardt, N; LeVen, A; Thirion, M; Aubert, C; Vialard, J

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring of both the spread and clinical impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection within its full host range is important for the control of the epidemic and potential new outbreaks. In France, a national surveillance plan based on voluntary notifications of congenital malformations in newborn ruminants revealed that goats were the less affected host species. However, seroprevalence studies only targeted sheep and cattle, preventing accurate estimations of the real impact of SBV infection in goats. Here, a serological survey was conducted in the highest goat-specialized region of France between June 2012 and January 2013. A total of 1490 goat sera from 50 herds were analysed by ELISA. The between-herd and within-herd prevalences were estimated at 62% and 13.1%, respectively. Seroprevalence was not uniformly distributed throughout the territory and markedly differed between intensive and extensive herds. The low within-herd seroprevalence demonstrates that a large fraction of the French goat population remains susceptible to SBV infection. PMID:24467819

  13. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat.

    PubMed

    Abba, Y; Abdullah, F F J; Daud, N H Bin Abu; Shaari, R Bin; Tijjani, A; Sadiq, M A; Mohammed, K; Adamu, L; Mohd, A M L

    2015-01-01

    A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen) and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine(®)24) 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit. PMID:26623360

  14. Short communication: incorporation of inulin and transglutaminase in fermented goat milk containing probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mituniewicz-Małek, A; Ziarno, M; Dmytrów, I

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is a good carrier for probiotic bacteria; however, it is difficult to produce fermented goat milk with a consistency comparable to that of fermented cow milks. It can be improved by the addition of functional stabilizers, such as inulin, or treatment with transglutaminase. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cold storage of inulin and microbial transglutaminase on the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 in fermented goat milk. Microbiological analysis included the determination of the probiotic bacteria cell count in fermented milk samples, whereas physico-chemical analysis included the analysis of fat content, titratable acidity, and pH of raw, pasteurized, and fermented goat milk samples. No positive influence of inulin or microbial transglutaminase on the viability of probiotics in fermented goat's milk samples was observed. Nevertheless, the population of probiotics remained above 6 log cfu/g after 8 wk of storage at 5 °C. PMID:24704222

  15. Hydrology of Goat Lake watershed, Snohomish County, Washington, 1982-87

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, N.P.; Ebbert, J.C.; Poole, J.E.; Peck, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Goat Lake watershed functions as an experimental watershed for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the US Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs, the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. 36 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Bawm, Saw; Maung, Wint Yi; Win, Myat Yee; Thu, May June; Chel, Hla Myet; Khaing, Tin Aye; Wai, Soe Soe; Htun, Lat Lat; Myaing, Tin Tin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Igarashi, Makoto; Katakura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03-21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57-11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06-0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. PMID:26904362

  17. The value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets for Thai goats.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak

    2010-12-01

    The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity. PMID:20563643

  18. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Y.; Abdullah, F.F.J.; Daud, N.H. Bin Abu; Shaari, R. Bin; Tijjani, A.; Sadiq, M.A.; Mohammed, K.; Adamu, L.; Mohd, A.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen) and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine®24) 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit. PMID:26623360

  19. Hydrology of the Goat Lake watershed, Snohomish County, Washington, 1982-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Ebbert, J.C.; Poole, J.E.; Peck, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Goat Lake watershed in Snohomish County, Washington, functions as an ' experimental watershed ' for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs , the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. (USGS)

  20. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes. PMID:18551378

  1. DNA vaccine encoding Haemonchus contortus actin induces partial protection in goats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ruofeng; Wang, Jingjing; Xu, Lixin; Song, Xiaokai; Li, Xiangrui

    2014-10-01

    Actin is a globular multi-functional protein that forms microfilaments, and participates in many important cellular processes. Previous study found that Haemonchus contortus actin could be recognized by the serum of goats infected with the homology parasite. This indicated that H. contortus actin could be a potential candidate for vaccine. In this study, DNA vaccine encoding H. contortus actin was tested for protection against experimental H. contortus infections in goats. Fifteen goats were allocated into three trial groups. The animals of Actin group were vaccinated with the DNA vaccine on day 0 and 14, and challenged with 5000 infective H. contortus third stage larval (L3) on day 28. An unvaccinated positive control group was challenged with L3 at the same time. An unvaccinated negative control group was not challenged with L3. The results showed that DNA vaccine were transcribed at local injection sites and expressed in vivo post immunizations respectively. For goats in Actin vaccinated group, higher levels of serum IgG, serum IgA and mucosal IgA were produced, the percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes and the concentrations of TGF-? were increased significantly (P<0.05). Following L3 challenge, the mean eggs per gram feces (EPG) and worm burdens of Actin group were reduced by 34.4% and 33.1%, respectively. This study suggest that recombinant H. contortus Actin DNA vaccine induced partial immune response and has protective potential against goat haemonchosis. PMID:25236283

  2. Management of goat reproduction and insemination for genetic improvement in France.

    PubMed

    Leboeuf, B; Delgadillo, J A; Manfredi, E; Piacre, A; Clment, V; Martin, P; Pellicer, M; Bou, P; de Cremoux, R

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive seasonality observed in all breeds of goats originating from temperate latitudes and in some breeds from subtropical latitudes can now be controlled by artificial changes in photoperiod. Short days stimulate sexual activity, while long days inhibit it. This knowledge has allowed the development of photoperiodic treatments to control sexual activity in goats, for both the buck and doe. In the French intensive milk production system, goat AI plays an important role to control reproduction and, in conjunction with progeny testing, to improve milk production. Most dairy goats are inseminated out of the breeding season with deep frozen semen, after induction of oestrus and ovulation by hormonal treatments. This protocol provides a kidding rate of approximately 65%. New breeding strategies have been developed, based on the buck effect associated with AI, to reduce the use of hormones. With the development of insemination with frozen semen, a classical selection programme was set up, including planned mating, progeny testing and the diffusion of proved sires by inseminations in herds. Functional traits have become important for efficient breeding schemes in the dairy goat industries. Based on knowledge gained over the past decade, the emphasis in selective breeding has been placed on functional traits related to udder morphology and health. New windows have been opened based on new molecular tools, allowing the detection and mapping of genes of economic importance. PMID:18638150

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Bressani, F A; Tizioto, P C; Giglioti, R; Meirelles, S L C; Coutinho, R; Benvenuti, C L; Malagó-Jr, W; Mudadu, M A; Vieira, L S; Zaros, L G; Carrilho, E; Regitano, L C A

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are small cell-signaling proteins that play an important role in the immune system, participating in intracellular communication. Four candidate genes of the cytokine family (IL2, IL4, IL13, and IFNG) were selected to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that might be associated with resistance to gastrointestinal endoparasites in goats. A population of 229 goats, F2 offspring from an F1 intercross was produced by crossing pure Saanen goats, considered as susceptible to gastrointestinal endoparasites, with pure Anglo-Nubian goats, considered resistant. Blood was collected for DNA extraction and fecal samples were also collected for parasite egg count. Polymorphisms were prospected by sequencing animals with extreme phenotype for fecal egg count (FEC) distribution. The association between SNPs and phenotype was determined by using the Fisher exact test with correction for multiple tests. Three of the 10 SNPs were identified as significant (P ≤ 0.03). They were found in intron 1 of IL2 (ENSBTA00000020883), intron 3 of IL13 (ENSBTA00000015953) and exon 3 of IFNG (ENSBTA00000012529), suggesting an association between them and gastrointestinal endoparasite resistance. Further studies will help describe the effects of these markers accurately before implementing them in marker assisted selection. This study is the pioneer in describing such associations in goats. PMID:25366747

  4. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L∗, a∗, b∗) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699

  5. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    PubMed

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control. PMID:26493615

  6. Isolation and characterization of SSEA3(+) stem cells derived from goat skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongcai; Liu, Jun; Liu, Hongliang; Qiu, Mingning; Liu, Qingqing; Zheng, Liming; Pang, Meijun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Novel stem cells expressing stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA-3) reside among human dermal fibroblasts and are known as multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells. They enhance the generation efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells. However, Muse cells have only been found in humans. We aimed to isolate SSEA3-positive cells from terminally differentiated skin fibroblasts of adult goat and determine their pluripotency. Cell clusters from SSEA3(+) populations possessed stem cell-like morphological features and normal karyotypes, were consistently positive for alkaline phosphatase, and expressed stem cell pluripotency markers. These SSEA3(+) cells remained undifferentiated over eight passages in suspension culture and were able to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Our combined findings suggest that a subset of adult stem cells expressing SSEA3 also exist among adult goat skin fibroblasts. We are the first to report that multipotent adult goat cells exist among terminally differentiated goat skin in suspension culture. Our results also provide a promising platform for generation of a transgenic goat, because the undifferentiated state of stem cells was thought to be more efficient as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:23668861

  7. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  8. Analysis of POU1F1 gene DdeI polymorphism in Chinese goats.

    PubMed

    Li, M J; Zhang, C M; Lan, X Y; Fang, X T; Lei, C Z; Chen, H

    2016-01-01

    As a member of the POU-domain family, the POU1F1 is a positive regulator for growth hormone, prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone b, by binding to target DNA promoters as a dimer in mammals. This study described the polymorphisms at the goat POU1F1-DdeI locus and analyzed the distribution of alleles in 15 indigenous Chinese goat breeds. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed a predominance of the D1D1 genotype and the D1 allele, with average frequencies of 0.550 and 0.790, respectively, irrespective of goat utility type. The D1D2 genotype was the second most frequent, with a mean frequency of 0.371. The distributions of genotypic and allelic frequencies at this locus were found to be significantly different among populations based on a Chi square test (P < 0.001), suggesting that the breed factor significantly affected the molecular genetic character of the POU1F1 gene. The genetic diversity analysis revealed that Chinese indigenous populations had a wide spectrum of genetic diversity at the goat POU1F1-DdeI locus. However, an ANOVA analysis revealed no significant differences in gene homozygosity, gene heterozygosity, effective allele numbers, or polymorphism information content among meat, dairy, and cashmere utility types (P > 0.05). This suggests that the goat utility types had no significant effect on the spectrum of genetic diversity. PMID:26985963

  9. Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task

    PubMed Central

    Baciadonna, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could be the most efficient way to find patchily distributed resources in highly variable environments. Studies testing specific assumptions regarding the use of different sources of information can extend our understanding of decision making, including observed patterns of social learning. PMID:24109556

  10. Molecular cloning, sequence, and phylogenetic analysis of T helper 1 cytokines of Pashmina goats.

    PubMed

    Shebannavar, Sunil; Rasool, Thaha

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines play an important role in regulation of immune responses either in health or disease. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding mature Interleukin (IL)-2, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IL-12 p35 and p40 of Pashmina goat were cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence was deduced from nucleotide sequence and compared with those available in GeneBank. Mature forms of goat IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12 p35, and IL-12 p40 composed of 135, 143, 196, and 305 amino acid residues, respectively. Comparison of amino acid sequence of goat IL-2 with sheep, buffalo, cattle, pig, camel, cat, and human sequences showed homology percentages of 100, 97.8, 96.3, 72.4, 72.4, 67.2, and 64.7, respectively. Amino acid sequence of goat IFN-γ showed 98.6, 95.8, 81.1, 81.8, 80.4, and 62.9 percent homology with sheep, bovine, pig, horse, dog, and humans, respectively. Homology ranging from 81.6 to 99% for IL-12 p35 sequences and 85.6 to 100% for IL-12 p40 sequences at amino acid level were observed across these species. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of goat cytokines revealed close relationship with sheep sequence. PMID:25380464

  11. Milk production in dairy goats supplemented with different levels of ruminally protected methionine.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Mélendez, Erick; Mendoza, Germán D; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco A; Ducoing-Watty, Andrés E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate graded levels of ruminally protected methionine (RPM) in dairy goat rations on milk production and live weight changes during 155 d of lactation. Twenty-five primiparous dairy goats (crosses of Toggenburg, French Alpine and Saanen; 45·4 ± 1·0 kg BW) were fed a basal diet (10·10% CP, 6·13 DP and 2·34 Mcal/kg ME) of corn silage, oat hay, alfalfa hay and concentrate (80% forage, 20% concentrate). After kidding, the treatments, which consisted of four oral doses of ruminally protected methionine (RPM) at 0, 1, 2 and 3 g/d, were randomly assigned to the goats. The experiment was conducted for 110 d with measurements of milk production and composition, body weight and dry matter intake. No treatment effects were detected in milk production and composition. However, goats with RPM showed a positive live weight changes during lactation which were improved as dose was increased (linear P < 0·01) whereas goats without RPM showed weight loss during the experiment. PMID:27048778

  12. Development and application of a crossbreeding simulation model for goat production systems in tropical regions.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Y; Oishi, K; Hirooka, H

    2011-12-01

    A deterministic simulation model was developed to estimate biological production efficiency and to evaluate goat crossbreeding systems under tropical conditions. The model involves 5 production systems: pure indigenous, first filial generations (F1), backcross (BC), composite breeds of F1 (CMP(F1)), and BC (CMP(BC)). The model first simulates growth, reproduction, lactation, and energy intakes of a doe and a kid on a 1-d time step at the individual level and thereafter the outputs are integrated into the herd dynamics program. The ability of the model to simulate individual performances was tested under a base situation. The simulation results represented daily BW changes, ME requirements, and milk yield and the estimates were within the range of published data. Two conventional goat production scenarios (an intensive milk production scenario and an integrated goat and oil palm production scenario) in Malaysia were examined. The simulation results of the intensive milk production scenario showed the greater production efficiency of the CMP(BC) and CMP(F1) systems and decreased production efficiency of the F1 and BC systems. The results of the integrated goat and oil palm production scenario showed that the production efficiency and stocking rate were greater for the indigenous goats than for the crossbreeding systems. PMID:21705639

  13. Epidemiological, bacteriological and molecular studies on caseous lymphadenitis in Sirohi goats of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jyoti; Singh, Fateh; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Kumar, Rajiv; Dixit, Shivendra Kumar; Sonawane, Ganesh Gangaram

    2012-10-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CL), a chronic debilitating disease of goats. In the present study, a total of 575 goats of Sirohi breed on an organized farm situated in the semi-arid tropical region of Rajasthan, India were clinically examined. Pus samples from superficial lymph nodes of 27 (4.7%) adult goats presenting clinical lesions suggestive of CL were collected for bacteriological and molecular analyses. Of these goats, 51.9% yielded C. pseudotuberculosis on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting proline iminopeptidase gene specific to C. pseudotuberculosis was developed that confirmed all 14 bacterial isolates. The specificity of the PCR product was confirmed by sequencing of the 551-bp amplicon in both senses, showing 98-100% homology with published sequences. Thus, overall prevalence rate based on clinical, bacterial culture and PCR assay were found to be 4.7%, 2.4% and 2.4%, respectively. The PCR assay developed in this study was found to be specific and rapid, and could be used for confirmation of CL in goats as an alternative method to generally cumbersome, time-consuming and less reliable conventional methods. PMID:22371102

  14. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus from goat isolates in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rajabloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Jalousian, Fatemeh

    2012-08-01

    Hydatidosis is considered to be an important economic and human public health problem in Iran, where a variety of animals act as intermediate hosts. There is limited information about the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats. In this study, 20 isolates of E. granulosus obtained from goats were characterised by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and morphology of the metacestode. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences were evaluated, and the sequence analysis indicated two genotypes within the isolates. 17 samples were identified as G1 strain, and 3 isolates were identified as G6 strain. The results of the morphological studies support the findings of the molecular studies. Two types of rostellar hooks were observed in the goat isolates, in agreement with the strain identification. Type 1 hooks were morphologically similar to those of the common sheep strains, whereas the dimensions of the hooks in type 2 were similar to those normally found in the camel strain. The morphological results suggest that Echinococcus of goat origin is phenotypically similar to either the sheep (G1) or the camel (G6) strains. Further, these results suggest that the transmission of the G1 genotype between sheep and goats seems to be the predominant mode of transmission, but further work is required to verify this. PMID:22484229

  15. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, W.; Stewart, P.; Konold, T.; Street, S.; Langeveld, J.; Windl, O.; Ortiz-Pelaez, A.

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level. PMID:26755614

  16. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in 2009-2010 to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n = 72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final body we...

  17. Performance and carcass parameters when meat goats were finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the eastern U.S., particularly on small farms, to supply ethnic market demands. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters were determined when meat goat kids were finished on pastures of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC), bird...

  18. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  19. The role of bioactive tannins in the postpartum energy retention and productive performance of goats browsed in a natural rangeland.

    PubMed

    Kabasa, J D; Opuda-Asibo, J; Thinggaard, G; ter Meulen, U

    2004-08-01

    The role of bioactive tannins in browse in the postpartum performance of goats grazed under natural range conditions was studied using 40 yearling Mubende goats (20+/-0.32 kg). In a completely randomized design, goats of one group (n = 20) received a daily drench of 50 g per goat of polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 4000 given as a condensed tannin (CT) deactivator, and goats of the other group (n = 20) acted as the control (no PEG). Mean birth weights, live weight gains, abortion and twinning rates, litter size and tissue energy retention were measured. The PEG drench resulted in lower postpartum weight gains and tissue energy retention (p < 0.05). Postpartum weekly weight loss per doe was 0.65 kg in the PEG group and 0.46 kg in the control group, while tissue energy loss was 17.7 MJ per goat in the PEG group and 10.23 MJ per goat in the control group in the first 8 weeks. Net weight gain was observed in the control group at the 11 th week but was delayed in the PEG group (15th week). The PEG group had lower birth weights and higher kids mortalities (p <0.05). Selective feeding in the Ankole rangeland exposes goats to beneficial concentrations of dietary CT with apparent cumulative effects leading to improved postpartum performance of does and kids. PMID:15560517

  20. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276

  1. Phenotypic alteration of blood and milk leukocytes in goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes a persistent and slow progressive infection in goats, characterized by chronic proliferative sinovitis, arthritis and, less frequently, pneumonia. Infected goats could also be affected by interstitial mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...

  2. Effects of inhaled fine dust on lung tissue changes and antibody response induced by spores of opportunistic fungi in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the immunity and pathology induced by spores of Mucor ramosissimus and Trichoderma viride given by intratracheal inoculation of goats following exposure to sterile fine dust aerosol. Thirty-six weanling Boer-Spanish goats were used. A prospective randomize...

  3. Contractile properties of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenital cleft palates and normal palates of Spanish goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A goat model in which cleft palate is induced by the plant alkaloid, anabasine was used to determine muscle fiber integrity of the levator veli palatine muscle. It was determined that the muscle fibers of the cleft palate-induced goats were primarily of the type 2 (fast fibers) which fatigue easil...

  4. Growth and carcass characteristics in goat kids fed grass and alfalfa hay-based diets with limited concentrate supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding legume hay (alfalfa; Medicago sativa L.) or mixed grass hay on ADG and carcass characteristics of growing goats. In Experiment 1, 24 Spanish kids, equally representing intact male, female, and wether goats, were pen-fed ad libitum eit...

  5. Goat breeding in the tropics: development and application of the genomic tools in a USAID "Feed the Future" program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food production systems in Africa depend heavily on the use of locally adapted animals. These animals are of agricultural, cultural, and economic importance. Goats, in particular, are critical to the small-scale farmer as they are easier to acquire and maintain. Goats act as scavengers in sparse p...

  6. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with...

  7. Divergent mtDNA lineages of goats in an Early Neolithic site, far from the initial domestication areas.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Helena; Hughes, Sandrine; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Helmer, Daniel; Hodgins, Greg; Miquel, Christian; Hänni, Catherine; Luikart, Gordon; Taberlet, Pierre

    2006-10-17

    Goats were among the first farm animals domesticated, approximately 10,500 years ago, contributing to the rise of the "Neolithic revolution." Previous genetic studies have revealed that contemporary domestic goats (Capra hircus) show far weaker intercontinental population structuring than other livestock species, suggesting that goats have been transported more extensively. However, the timing of these extensive movements in goats remains unknown. To address this question, we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 19 ancient goat bones (7,300-6,900 years old) from one of the earliest Neolithic sites in southwestern Europe. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two highly divergent goat lineages coexisted in each of the two Early Neolithic layers of this site. This finding indicates that high mtDNA diversity was already present >7,000 years ago in European goats, far from their areas of initial domestication in the Near East. These results argue for substantial gene flow among goat populations dating back to the early neolithisation of Europe and for a dual domestication scenario in the Near East, with two independent but essentially contemporary origins (of both A and C domestic lineages) and several more remote and/or later origins. PMID:17030824

  8. Histomorphometric study of the goat stomach during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Angela; Rodriguez, Pedro; Masot, Javier; Franco, Antonio; Redondo, Eloy

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a morphometric analysis of the different structural tissue layers of the goat stomach to study their prenatal growth from mathematical models fitted to these morphometric data. A total of 90 embryos and fetuses were used, from the early stages of prenatal life until birth. The growth rate of the gastric wall was slower than that of body length; rumen was the stomach compartment displaying slowest growth. In the three non-glandular compartments, the epithelial layer grew faster than the gastric wall itself, while the growth rate of the abomasal epithelium declined in the early stages of development. A decline in growth rate was also observed for the lamina propria and submucosa in rumen and reticulum from the early embryonic stages, whereas in omasum and abomasum these layers continued to grow as gestation progressed. The tunica muscularis displayed consistent growth in all compartments, growing faster than the gastric wall. Serosa thickness increased as gestation progressed, displaying a decline in growth-rate only in the omasum. In conclusion, the dynamics of gastric wall growth were governed by the growth rate of each of the component tissue layers. PMID:25041258

  9. 3-methylindole-induced pulmonary injury in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, T. W.; Carlson, J. R.; Bray, T. M.; Bradley, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Ruminal administration of 3-methylindole in goats severe pulmonary edema and respiratory distress. Electron microscopic studies of lungs reveal extensive degeneration and necrosis of alveolar membranous pneumocytes and bronchiolar epithelium. The necrosis of the pneumocytes is followed by proliferation of granular pneumocytes, which repopulate the alveolar basal lamina scaffold. 3-Methylindole may also induce proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the remaining membranous pneumocytes and nonciliated columnar cells, indicating that these two cell types are involved in the xenobiotic function of the lung. The results suggest that 3-methylindole in cigarette smoke may play an important role in the pathogenesis of small airway disease and emphysema, and that patients with severe liver diseases or portocaval shunt may be predisposed to diffuse alveolar damage by 3-methylindole produced in the intestinal tract. Images Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:869017

  10. Radioimmunocytochemistry using a tritiated goat anti-rabbit second antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, E.J.; Ramachandran, J.; Basbaum, A.I.

    1984-07-01

    Affinity-purified goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (GAR) was conjugated with (/sup 3/H)-propionyl succinimidate and used to localize substance P (SP), enkephalin (ENK), and serotonin immunoreactive sites in the spinal dorsal horn and medulla of the rat and cat. Autoradiographic localization was demonstrated on paraffin, frozen, Vibratome, and 2 micron plastic sections. The latter were obtained from radiolabeled Vibratome sections that were embedded in epoxy resin. The distribution of SP, ENK, and serotonin demonstrated by radioimmunocytochemistry was comparable to that observed on semiadjacent sections using peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunocytochemistry. The autoradiograms, however, were generated using primary antibody concentrations up to five times more dilute than concentrations used for the PAP procedure. Indirect radioimmunocytochemistry using a (3H) anti-immunoglobulin G second antibody can be used to localize a variety of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera. It is quantifiable at the light microscopic level and can be potentially used with peroxidase histochemistry to double label immunoreactive structures at the ultrastructural level.

  11. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for mountain goat surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, whereas generally greater than 80 and greater than 60 percent of locations were within sampling units delineated in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks, respectively. Presence of GPS-collared mountain goats within the sampling frame of Olympic National Park varied by diurnal period (midday versus crepuscular), survey season (July versus September), and the interaction of diurnal period and survey season. Aerial surveys conducted in developing a sightability model for mountain goat aerial surveys indicated mean detection probabilities of 0.69, 0.76, and 0.87 in North Cascades, Olympic, and Mount Rainier National Parks, respectively. Higher detection probabilities in Mount Rainier likely reflected larger group sizes and more open habitat conditions than in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks. Use of sightability models will reduce biases of population estimates in each park, but resulting population estimates must still be considered minimum population estimates in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks because the current sampling frames do not encompass those populations completely. Because mountain goats were reliably present within the sampling frame in Mount Rainier National Park, we found no compelling need to adjust mountain goat survey boundaries in that park. Expanding survey coverage in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks to more reliably encompass the altitudinal distribution of mountain goats during summer would enhance population estimation accuracy in the future. Lowering the altitude boundary of mountain goat survey units by as little as 100 meters to 1,425 meters in Olympic National Park would increase mountain goat presence within the survey and reduce variation in counts related to movements of mountain goats outside the survey boundaries.

  12. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats. PMID:26462199

  13. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats. PMID:26462199

  14. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  15. Oral pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen to evaluate gastric emptying profiles of Shiba goats

    PubMed Central

    ELBADAWY, Mohamed; SASAKI, Kazuaki; MIYAZAKI, Yuji; ABOUBAKR, Mohamed; KHALIL, Waleed Fathy; SHIMODA, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen was investigated following oral dosing to Shiba goats in order to evaluate the properties of gastric emptying. Acetaminophen was intravenously and orally administered at 30 mg/kg body weight to goats using a crossover design with a 3-week washout period. The stability of acetaminophen in rumen juice was also assessed. Acetaminophen concentrations were measured by HPLC. Since acetaminophen was stable in rumen juice for 24 hr, the extremely low bioavailability (16%) was attributed to its hepatic extensive first-pass effect. The mean absorption time and absorption half-life were unexpectedly short (4.93 and 3.35 hr, respectively), indicating its marked absorption from the forestomach, which may have been due to its smaller molecular weight. Therefore, acetaminophen was considered to be unsuitable for evaluating gastric emptying in Shiba goats. PMID:26018358

  16. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the milk fat fatty acid profile of goats.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples. PMID:26212967

  17. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane in goat colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Liu, Lu; Pang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shuwen; Jia, Zhenhu; Ma, Changlu; Zhao, Lili; Lv, Jiaping

    2016-10-15

    As an important nutrient source in large area of world, the composition and nutritional value of goat milk are not well deliberated. Detailed annotation of protein composition is essential to address the physiological and nutritional value of goat milk. In the present study, 423 colostrum and mature goat milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins were identified. The abundance of 189 proteins was significantly different between colostrums and mature milk MFGM. The acute phase proteins were higher in colostrums MFGM than those in mature milk MFGM which protected newborns at the beginning of life. Proteins related to synthesis and secretion were conserved through lactation to ensure the milk production. Of note, long term depression (LTD) proteins were observed in colostrum and mature milk MFGM. Milk LTD proteins could be potential biomarkers for diagnosis of lactation related depressive syndromes and should be taken into considerations of their effects on newborns. PMID:27173528

  18. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-β-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

  19. Moxidectin Efficacy in a Goat Herd with Chronic and Generalized Sarcoptic Mange

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Farmaki, Rania; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Elias; Karatzias, Harilaos; Koutinas, Alexander F.

    2011-01-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange affecting almost all the animals of a dairy goat herd is described. This pruritic skin disease led progressively to high mortality and dramatic drop of milk yield. The lesions of the affected goats were typical of a chronic and generalized-diffuse sarcoptic mange. Diagnosis was confirmed by skin scrapings and histopathology in which many mites were demonstrated. All surviving goats were treated with injectable moxidectin solution 1% (CYDECTIN-Fort Dodge) at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg, applied every 15 days for four times, subcutaneously. Although pruritus had decreased soon after the first treatment, a satisfactory healing of cutaneous lesions was witnessed 6 weeks after the beginning of moxidectin trial. Parasitological cure was achieved in all affected animals by the end of the trial. In the four monthly followups, no evidence of sarcoptic mange could be found. PMID:21776348

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Liaoning cashmere goat from northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Li, Xia; Guo, Ling; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun; Yu, Di; Zhao, Quan; Liu, Xiao-Gang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, serum samples from 650 goats were collected from five counties between May and June 2012 and antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected by indirect haemagglutination assay; 58 (9%) had antibodies to T. gondii with antibody titres of 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive samples were distributed in all five counties: seroprevalences in Kuandian county (15%, 21/139, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9–21%) were statistically different from the four other counties (Gaizhou, Huanren, Xiuyan and Liaoyang), and the seroprevalence difference between Xiuyan county (12%, 15/127, 95% CI 6–17%) and two other counties (Huanren, Liaoyang) was significantly different (P < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the seroprevalence of T. gondii exposure in Liaoning cashmere goat in China. Our results indicated that Liaoning cashmere goat could be a potential reservoir for the transmission of T. gondii in Liaoning Province. PMID:24845552

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Liaoning cashmere goat from northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Li, Xia; Guo, Ling; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun; Yu, Di; Zhao, Quan; Liu, Xiao-Gang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, serum samples from 650 goats were collected from five counties between May and June 2012 and antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected by indirect haemagglutination assay; 58 (9%) had antibodies to T. gondii with antibody titres of 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive samples were distributed in all five counties: seroprevalences in Kuandian county (15%, 21/139, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9-21%) were statistically different from the four other counties (Gaizhou, Huanren, Xiuyan and Liaoyang), and the seroprevalence difference between Xiuyan county (12%, 15/127, 95% CI 6-17%) and two other counties (Huanren, Liaoyang) was significantly different (P < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the seroprevalence of T. gondii exposure in Liaoning cashmere goat in China. Our results indicated that Liaoning cashmere goat could be a potential reservoir for the transmission of T. gondii in Liaoning Province. PMID:24845552

  2. Efficient Gene Knockout in Goats Using CRISPR/Cas9 System

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Wei; Qiao, Jun; Hu, Shengwei; Zhao, Xinxia; Regouski, Misha; Yang, Min; Polejaeva, Irina A.; Chen, Chuangfu

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been adapted as an efficient genome editing tool in laboratory animals such as mice, rats, zebrafish and pigs. Here, we report that CRISPR/Cas9 mediated approach can efficiently induce monoallelic and biallelic gene knockout in goat primary fibroblasts. Four genes were disrupted simultaneously in goat fibroblasts by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. The single-gene knockout fibroblasts were successfully used for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and resulted in live-born goats harboring biallelic mutations. The CRISPR/Cas9 system represents a highly effective and facile platform for targeted editing of large animal genomes, which can be broadly applied to both biomedical and agricultural applications. PMID:25188313

  3. The prevalence and distribution of Brucella melitensis in goats in Malaysia from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, P H; Hassan, L; Khairani-Bejo, S; ZainalAbidin, M; Ramlan, M; Adzhar, A; Abdullah, N; Hamidah, N H M; Norsuhanna, M M; Hashim, S N

    2015-05-01

    A study was conducted to describe the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic Brucella melitensis in goats in Peninsular Malaysia. Using serosurveillance data of the last decade (2000-2009) involving 119,799 goats and 3555 farms, the seroprevalence of brucellosis among goats was 0.91% (95% CI=0.86-0.96) and among farms was 7.09% (95% CI=6.27-7.98). The odds of brucellosis was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the later part of the decade, in larger herd size and among the states located in the peninsula as compared to eastern Malaysia. The infection was detected throughout Malaysia but at generally low seroprevalences with states like Perlis that border neighbouring countries having higher seroprevalence of brucellosis than other non-border states. PMID:25746928

  4. Clinico-biochemical studies on acute toxic nephropathy in goats due to uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, P.K.; Joshi, H.C.

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxic nephropathy was produced in 6 healthy goats by injecting intravenously 1% uranyl nitrate (UN) (15 mg/kg body weight). The early painful clinical signs simulating shock progressed with subnormal temperature, slow-shallow respiration and arrhythmic pulse followed by death due to respiratory failure within 96 to 120 hr. All the affected goats had normocytic normochromic anemia, leucocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift eosinopenia, decreased monocytes and presence of 1-2% reticulocytes in the peripheral blood smears. On blood chemical analysis, a uniform and continuous rise was seen in serum creatinine with a concomitant daily increase of serum urea and uric acid. Simultaneous analysis of urine indicated polyuria leading to oliguria, acidic pH, albuminuria, glycosuria with presence of neutrophils, RBC's, epithelial and fatty casts, increase of triple phosphate, and cystine crystals reflecting acute damage of kidneys in the affected goats.

  5. Assessing admixture by multivariate analyses of phenotypic differentiation in the Algerian goat livestock.

    PubMed

    Ouchene-Khelifi, Nadjet-Amina; Ouchene, Nassim; Maftah, Abderrahman; Da Silva, Anne Blondeau; Lafri, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    In Algeria, goat research has been largely neglected, in spite of the economic importance of this domestic species for rural livelihoods. Goat farming is traditional and cross-breeding practices are current. The phenotypic variability of the four main native breeds (Arabia, Makatia, M'zabite and Kabyle), and of two exotic breeds (Alpine and Saanen), was investigated for the first time, using multivariate discriminant analysis. A total of 892 females were sampled in a large area, including the cradle of the native breeds, and phenotyped with 23 quantitative measures and 10 qualitative traits. Our results suggested that cross-breeding practices have ever led to critical consequences, particularly for Makatia and M'zabite. The information reported in this study has to be carefully considered in order to establish governmental plan able to prevent the genetic dilution of the Algerian goat livestock. PMID:26077115

  6. The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-02-15

    GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABAρ receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABAρ1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABAρ receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen. PMID:24128504

  7. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

  8. Lack of interference with diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in goats experimentally exposed to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bezos, Javier; Casal, Carmen; Romero, Beatriz; Liandris, Emmanouil; Sánchez, Natalia; Vigo, Virginia; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-07-01

    It has been suggested that infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the pathogen responsible for caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), might interfere with diagnostic testing for tuberculosis (TB), due to antigenic similarities between this particular type of bacterium and those expressed by mycobacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether experimental infection with C. pseudotuberculosis in goats impacted on TB testing, using single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and SCIT respectively) tests and interferon (IFN)-γ assay. No positive reactors were detected among the CLA-affected goats using the SIT/SCIT tests or the interferon IFN-γ assay. A proportion of goats showed inconclusive results to the SIT test and reactions to Mycobacterium avium. There was no evidence that infection with C. pseudotuberculosis interferes with diagnostic testing for TB using standard interpretation of the SIT, SCIT and IFN-γ tests. PMID:25975852

  9. Comparative utilization of warm- and cool-season forages by cattle, sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Reid, R L; Jung, G A; Cox-Ganser, J M; Rybeck, B F; Townsend, E C

    1990-09-01

    The quality of different classes of forage hay (C3, C4 grasses and legumes) was determined in intake and digestibility trials with mature cattle, sheep and goats. For all nine hays, DM and NDF digestibility by cattle and goats was higher (P less than .05) than by sheep, with no differences due to forage class. Cattle had a higher (P less than .01) DM intake than sheep or goats averaged across forage (92.6 vs 65.8 and 68.6 g/kg BW.75); hay intake was highest on legume, with no difference between C3 and C4 grasses. Mean NDF intake by cattle was greater than by sheep or goats (58.7 vs 39.6 and 42.6 g/kg BW.75); NDF intake for all animal species decreased in the order C4 grass greater than C3 grass greater than legume. Particle passage rates did not differ (P greater than .05) with forage class but were higher (P less than .02) for sheep and goats than for cattle. Prefeeding ruminal DM fill values, determined by emptying, were 10.6, 15.0 and 19.9 g/kg BW1.0 for alfalfa, orchardgrass and switchgrass hays fed to cattle, and 11.2, 11.3 and 16.5 g/kg BW1.0 for the same hays fed to sheep. Estimated turnover times for DM and NDF were shorter (P less than .05) for sheep than for cattle; DM turnover was longer for switchgrass than for alfalfa and orchardgrass, with no forage differences in NDF turnover between these two animal species. Results show that goats were superior to sheep in NDF digestion. PMID:2211426

  10. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show (P < 0.05) higher heat tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested (P < 0.05) higher production performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  11. The 'Toolbox' of strategies for managing Haemonchus contortus in goats: What's in and what's out.

    PubMed

    Kearney, P E; Murray, P J; Hoy, J M; Hohenhaus, M; Kotze, A

    2016-04-15

    A dynamic and innovative approach to managing the blood-consuming nematode Haemonchus contortus in goats is critical to crack dependence on veterinary anthelmintics. H. contortus management strategies have been the subject of intense research for decades, and must be selected to create a tailored, individualized program for goat farms. Through the selection and combination of strategies from the Toolbox, an effective management program for H. contortus can be designed according to the unique conditions of each particular farm. This Toolbox investigates strategies including vaccines, bioactive forages, pasture/grazing management, behavioural management, natural immunity, FAMACHA, Refugia and strategic drenching, mineral/vitamin supplementation, copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWPs), breeding and selection/selecting resistant and resilient individuals, biological control and anthelmintic drugs. Barbervax(®), the ground-breaking Haemonchus vaccine developed and currently commercially available on a pilot scale for sheep, is prime for trialling in goats and would be an invaluable inclusion to this Toolbox. The specialised behaviours of goats, specifically their preferences to browse a variety of plants and accompanying physiological adaptations to the consumption of secondary compounds contained in browse, have long been unappreciated and thus overlooked as a valuable, sustainable strategy for Haemonchus management. These strategies are discussed in this review as to their value for inclusion into the 'Toolbox' currently, and the future implications of ongoing research for goat producers. Combining and manipulating strategies such as browsing behaviour, pasture management, bioactive forages and identifying and treating individual animals for haemonchosis, in addition to continuous evaluation of strategy effectiveness, is conducted using a model farm scenario. Selecting strategies from the Toolbox, with regard to their current availability, feasibility, economical cost and potential ease of implementation depending on the systems of production and their complementary nature, is the future of managing H. contortus in farmed goats internationally and maintaining the remaining efficacy of veterinary anthelmintics. PMID:26995728

  12. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Chamorro, Manuel F; Neill, John D; Brodersen, Bruce W; Walz, Heather L; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Walz, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25-35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam's acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  13. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25–35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam’s acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  14. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Slverd, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. PMID:24819129

  15. In vitro effects of fatty acids on goat, calf and guinea pig hepatic gluconeogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, R.J.; Armentano, L.E.

    1986-03-05

    Isolated hepatocytes from male guinea pigs, ruminating goats and bull calves were incubated at 39 C for 1h. Fatty acids C18:1, C16, and C8 (.5, 1, 2 mM) were added as albumin complexes (3:1 molar ratio), C2 and C4 (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mM) were added as Na salts. In ruminant cells C2 had no effect on (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate (PROP) (2.5 mM) or (U-/sup 14/C)-L-lactate (LACT) (2.5 mM) metabolism. C4 (2.5 or 5 mM) decreased (/sup 14/C)-glucose (GLU) (P < .01) from PROP (48% goats, 68% calves) and decreased LACT conversion to GLU, (27% goats, 50% calves), C8, C16 and C18:1 effects depended on gluconeogenic substrate and species. In goat cells conversion of PROP to GLU was increased (P < .01) by C18:1 (30%) and C8 (52%) with C16 showing a similar trend. There were no interactions between the effects of fatty acids and lactation state (lactating does vs wethers). In goat cells C8 increased PROP conversion to GLU relative to oxidation, other fatty acids did not change relative rates. In calf cells C18:1, C16 and C8 had no effect on PROP metabolism. C8 inhibited gluconeogenesis from LACT in goats (24%) (P < .07) and calves (47%) (P < .01). In contrast fatty acids decreased (P < .01) GLU production from PROP (C18:1 90%, C8 80%) and LACT (C18:1 75%, C8 75%) in cells from guinea pigs. They have established a clear difference in the regulation of gluconeogenesis among species which contain similar intracellular distribution of P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase.

  16. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

    2015-01-15

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91 kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work suggests that a possible mechanism of action of SL against female H. contortus in the animal's abomasum is a direct action of CT on the cuticle of the worm. PMID:25465738

  17. Large animal models of human cauda equina injury and repair: evaluation of a novel goat model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Tao; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Xue, Feng; Yin, Xiao-Feng; Qi, Cao-Yuan; Ma, Jun; Chen, Bo; Yu, You-Lai; Deng, Jiu-Xu; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies of cauda equina injury have primarily used rat models, which display significant differences from humans. Furthermore, most studies have focused on electrophysiological examination. To better mimic the outcome after surgical repair of cauda equina injury, a novel animal model was established in the goat. Electrophysiological, histological and magnetic resonance imaging methods were used to evaluate the morphological and functional outcome after cauda equina injury and end-to-end suture. Our results demonstrate successful establishment of the goat experimental model of cauda equina injury. This novel model can provide detailed information on the nerve regenerative process following surgical repair of cauda equina injury. PMID:25788921

  18. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Marwari breed of Indian goat

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anoop Singh; Gahlot, Kritika; Gahlot, Gyan Chand; Asraf, Mohd; Yadav, Mohan Lal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To estimate existing within-breed genetic variability in Marwari goats under field conditions and the generated data that can be used to determine genetic relationships with other breed of goats. Materials and Methods: A total of 146 blood samples of goats of Marwari breed were randomly collected from genetically unrelated animals from different villages of Bikaner Districts of Rajasthan, India. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood using proteinase K-digestion followed by standard phenol–chloroform extraction procedure at room temperature and confirmed through horizontal electrophoresis on 0.8% agarose gel containing ethidium bromide. Fifteen caprine microsatellite markers were used to estimate genetic variability among the goats of Marwari breed in terms of allelic and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and polymorphism information content (PIC) value. Results: A total of 74 alleles were contributed by Marwari goat across all 15 microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from two (ILSTS-087) to 9 (ILSTS-058) alleles, with a mean of 4.93 whereas the effective number of allele varied from 1.35 (ILSTS-005) to 3.129 (ILSTS011) with a mean of 2.36. The effective number of allele is lesser than observed number at all the loci. Allelic sizes ranged from 125 bp (ILSTS-028 and ILSTS-033) to 650 bp (ILSTS-011 and ILSTS-019). The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.240 (locus ILSTS-005) to 0.681 (locus ILSTS-011), with an average value of 0.544. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.1428 (locus ILSTS-087) to 0.9285 (locus ILSTS-034), with an average value of 0.5485 indicates substantial and very good number of heterozygotes, in the population. The highest PIC value (1.1886) was observed at ILSTS-044 locus and least (0.0768) at ILSTS-065 locus for Marwari goat. Conclusion: Microsatellite analysis revealed a high level of polymorphism across studied microsatellite markers and informativeness of the markers for genetic diversity analysis studies in Marwari goats. This high level of polymorphism can be utilized to plan future biodiversity studies to exploit the uniqueness and adaptability of this breed to Western Rajasthan. Most studied microsatellite markers proving to be good candidates for genetic characterization and diversity analysis of this breed of goat.

  19. Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The computational demands of sociality (maintaining group cohesion, reducing conflict) and ecological problems (extractive foraging, memorizing resource locations) are the main drivers proposed to explain the evolution cognition. Different predictions follow, about whether animals would preferentially learn new tasks socially or not, but the prevalent view today is that intelligent species should excel at social learning. However, the predictions were originally used to explain primate cognition, and studies of species with relatively smaller brains are rare. By contrast, domestication has often led to a decrease in brain size, which could affect cognition. In domestic animals, the relaxed selection pressures compared to a wild environment could have led to reduced social and physical cognition. Goats possess several features commonly associated with advanced cognition, such as successful colonization of new environments and complex fission-fusion societies. Here, we assessed goat social and physical cognition as well as long-term memory of a complex two-step foraging task (food box cognitive challenge), in order to investigate some of the main selection pressures thought to affect the evolution of ungulate cognition. Results The majority of trained goats (9/12) successfully learned the task quickly; on average, within 12 trials. After intervals of up to 10 months, they solved the task within two minutes, indicating excellent long-term memory. The goats did not learn the task faster after observing a demonstrator than if they did not have that opportunity. This indicates that they learned through individual rather than social learning. Conclusions The individual learning abilities and long-term memory of goats highlighted in our study suggest that domestication has not affected goat physical cognition. However, these cognitive abilities contrast with the apparent lack of social learning, suggesting that relatively intelligent species do not always preferentially learn socially. We propose that goat cognition, and maybe more generally ungulate cognition, is mainly driven by the need to forage efficiently in harsh environments and feed on plants that are difficult to access and to process, more than by the computational demands of sociality. Our results could also explain why goats are so successful at colonizing new environments. PMID:24666734

  20. Anthelmintic effect of heather in goats experimentally infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Gonzalo, J; Osoro, K; Garca, U; Frutos, P; Celaya, R; Ferreira, L M M; Ortega-Mora, L M; Ferre, I

    2014-02-01

    The effects of heather (composed primarily of Calluna vulgaris with a smaller content of Erica umbellata and Erica cinerea) consumption on the establishment of incoming infective larvae (experiment 1, preventive treatment) and an adult worm population (experiment 2, curative treatment) were investigated in Cashmere goats experimentally infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. In experiment 1, 12 castrated male goats were divided into two groups: heather-supplemented vs. non-supplemented animals. After 2 weeks of adaptation to the diet, all goats were experimentally infected per os with 6,000 T. colubriformis third-stage larvae. Three weeks post-infection, the goats were slaughtered, and worm counts as well as female worm fecundity and development were determined. Heather consumption was associated with a close to significant (P=0.092) reduction (mean 14 %) in larvae establishment. No effect on fecundity was observed, but the length of female worms in supplemented goats was greater (P<0.001). In experiment 2, 15 non-lactating does were experimentally infected with 6,000 T. colubriformis third-stage larvae. At 6 weeks post-infection, three groups were established: control, heather-supplemented and heather-supplemented with polyethylene glycol. Individual faecal nematode egg output was measured twice weekly to assess gastrointestinal nematode egg excretion. The goats were slaughtered 5 weeks after heather administration (11 weeks post-infection), and worm counts as well as female worm fecundity and development were subsequently determined. Heather administration was associated with a significant (P<0.001) decrease (between 47 and 66 % compared with control group) in egg excretion from 45 to 76 days post-infection. Although worm counts and female fecundity were lower in supplemented goats, no significant differences were observed. Overall, the results showed a reduction in T. colubriformis larvae establishment and a decrease in nematode egg excretion when heather was administered in experimentally infected goats. The heather plus polyethylene glycol treatment reduced nematode egg excretion levels at the same proportion as heather, thereby suggesting that the threshold of tannins required for an anthelmintic effect is most likely quite low. PMID:24271153