Science.gov

Sample records for goats

  1. car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat

    E-print Network

    McCann, Robert J.

    car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat One of the most successful problems I have used with high school kids is the now notorious "car and two goats" problem. Its fascinating history certainly accounts, in some measure by the (male) host. Behind one of these there is a car, and behind each of the other two there is a goat. She

  2. car goat goat 11/13/2007 1 Car Goat Goat

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Peter

    car goat goat 11/13/2007 1 Car Goat Goat One of the most successful problems I have used with high school kids is the now notorious "car and two goats" problem. Its fascinating history certainly accounts there is a goat. She chooses one of the doors (hoping, of course, to get the car) and then, before it is opened

  3. New Hampshire Dairy Goat Seminar Goat Nutrition

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    New Hampshire Dairy Goat Seminar Goat Nutrition NH Farm and Forest Exposition Saturday-February 7 - Manchester, NH Feeding goats is more than offering them a lot of feedstuffs, but it is giving them. This session will cover the basics of how a goat's digestive system works, nutrient requirements, understanding

  4. Marketing Texas Goats

    E-print Network

    McNeely, John G.; Tieken, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    cabrito to the lean, old goat. The cabrito, a young, fat, suckling kid, usually weighs 10 to 25 pounds. Old goats are preferred by packers because they usually have less fat content in the meat. The dressing percentage of all goats averages about 37.... 1 "Other" goats and kids represented 5.9 per. cent of the total goat population both in 19211 and 1940. In 1955, 10.6 percent of the Tesa, 1 goat population were goats other than Angora. I The major goat-producing area in 1955 wa...

  5. Texas Angora Goat Production. 

    E-print Network

    Gray, James A.; Groff, Jack L.

    1970-01-01

    two ways. More skin exposed when the fleece is parted indicates less density. Grab a handful of mohair on each side of the animal and lift. Fuller handfuls and heavier weight indicate more mohair. Tight fences are necessary. Angora goats... daily. Live oak brush often is cut for goats. It usually is cut leaving a stump about 3 feet high, which will sprout and provide additional browse under favorable conditions. Goats also eat singed pricklypear and tasaiillo. Some animals become...

  6. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted goat of skeletal origin...

  7. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted goat of skeletal origin...

  8. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted goat of skeletal origin...

  9. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted goat of skeletal origin...

  10. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted goat of skeletal origin...

  11. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  12. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

  13. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

  14. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

  15. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

  16. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

  17. Helminths of goats in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Sharkhuu, T

    2001-11-01

    Post-mortem examinations of 236 goats from all provinces in Mongolia were performed for the study of helminths in goats. Thirty-nine helminth species belonging to three classes, 14 families and 23 genera were found. Trichocephalus spiralis and Avitellina centripunctata are reported for the first time in goats in Mongolia. The prevalence and intensity of helminth infections are reported for three age groups of goats in four seasons and three geographic zones in Mongolia. Common helminth infections of goats in all zones of Mongolia were infections of Ostertagia, Marshallagia and Nematodirus. In addition, fecal samples of 15 kids, 15 yearlings and 15 adult goats were examined monthly for eggs. The highest number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces was counted in March (average 1335.3+/-405.3) and the lowest count was in November (54+/-18.6). PMID:11587845

  18. 4-H Meat Goat Guide 

    E-print Network

    Craddock, Frank; Stultz, Ross

    2006-10-30

    of frame size and growth (length of head, neck, cannon bone and body) and determine at what weight a goat will be cor- rectly finished. If you know the approximate weight of a goat at the time of purchase and the length of time until a show, you can... its head erect and the neck should extend out of the top of the shoulders. A goat should travel and stand wide and straight on both front and rear legs, and the legs should be placed squarely under the body. A goat should have a strong level top...

  19. The Goat in the Rug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  20. Trypanosomosis in goats: current status.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Carlos; Corbera, Juan A; Morales, Manuel; Büscher, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    Trypanosomosis is a major constraint on ruminant livestock production in Africa, Asia, and South America. The principal host species affected varies geographically, but buffalo, cattle, camels, and horses are particularly sensitive. Natural infections with Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax, T. brucei, and T. evansi have been described in goats. Trypanosomosis in goats produces acute, subacute, chronic, or subclinical forms, being T. vivax, T. congolense, and T. evansi, the most invasive trypanosomes for goats. However, the role of goats in the epidemiology of trypanosomosis is largely discussed and not well understood. Thus, it has commonly been assumed that trypanosomosis presents a subclinical course and that goats do not play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. This can partially be due to parasitemia caused by trypanosomes which has been considered low in goats. However, this assumption is currently undergoing a critical reappraisal because of goats may also serve as a reservoir of trypanosome infection for other species, including the human beings in the case of T. brucei rhodesiense. The present article describes the current status of trypanosomosis in goats in Africa, Asia, and South America. Pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of the different trypanosomes are also described. The possible role in the epidemiology of the disease in the different areas is also discussed. PMID:17135529

  1. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  2. Coccidiosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1987-01-01

    Coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of sheep and goats in the United States because of its effect of productivity, especially in the growing of lambs and kids. Control of coccidiosis is dependent on management techniques to reduce overcrowding, fecal contamination and stress, and on proper use of effective coccidiostats, such as lasalocid and decoquinate, to prevent clinical disease. The sheep and goat industries need two unrelated effective coccidiostats approved for use in these species. PMID:3303645

  3. GOATS Image Projection Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  4. your dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goat The Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy Goat

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    produces milk of the highest quality, if you give her the right care. She needs a good clean home, high not have a bad odor. The milk has a pleasant flavor if you handle it properly. It contains smaller droplets of goats. Goat meat, "chevon," which is primarily from milk-fed young goats, is highly tasty when barbecued

  5. RUNNING HEAD: RADIOSTRONTIUM IN DAIRY GOATS A Model of Radiostrontium Transfer in Dairy Goats

    E-print Network

    Crout, Neil

    1 RUNNING HEAD: RADIOSTRONTIUM IN DAIRY GOATS A Model of Radiostrontium Transfer in Dairy Goats _________________ Received November 12, 1996 #12;2 ABSTRACT1 A model of radiostrontium transfer in dairy goats is presented obtained by fitting the model to data from a study of7 radiostrontium and Ca transfer in goats. The model

  6. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (1) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age...5) of this section. (ii) Tuberculosis testing is not required for goats...the United States to be tested for tuberculosis as described in paragraph...

  7. Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introduccin a

    E-print Network

    Cabalar, Pedro

    Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introducción a Scrum Mike Cohen Traducido: Ernesto Grafeuille Revisado y modificado: Pedro Cabalar Noviembre 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Software, LLC Estamos perdiendo la hacia atrás -pueden servir mejor a los actuales requisitos competitivos". #12;Mountain Goat Software

  8. A Folk Tale of a Goat

    E-print Network

    Bkra shis bzang po

    2009-11-17

    Folk Tale of a Goat Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshe 'dzin tells folk tale about a goat who's mother was killed by a sheep. The sheep and her daughter then always bullied the goat daughter, but in the end...

  9. GOATS - Orbitology Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the early stage of mission concept development.

  10. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  11. Aerial of Sheep & Goat Center 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    when predator management may be appropriate. Predator management is often necessary in livestock enterprises?especially those involving sheep and goats? to sustain profitability. With the growing economic impor- tance of wildlife (for example, hunting... this raccoon raiding a simulated quail nest. Figure 7. Spacings of canine teeth for (from left) mountain lion, coyote, bobcat and gray fox. 4 during fall helicopter counts (Fig. 10): If more coyotes are observed than deer fawns, controlling coyotes may...

  12. Reproductive Efficiency in Angora Goats

    E-print Network

    Shelton, Maurice; Groff, Jack L.

    1974-01-01

    multiple births. Failure of conception and abortion apparently have complex physioIogica1 explanation\\ Angora males normally act to terminate anestrus iil the female. This phenomenon can be used to irnpro\\i reproductive efficiency by synchronizing... reproductively active-does start ovulating and are capable of becoming pregnant; males are capable of ,siring offspring. Angora goats are highly seasonal, and they reach puberty either during their first season at 6 to 8 months or 1 year later...

  13. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  14. Basic Goat Production 5-Day Workshop

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    information about raising goats for meat or milk in New Hampshire; behavior, ease of handling, selection, age family have been raising meat for over 26 years, including meat and dairy goats. She is a strong advocate and kidding management, the birth process, possible problems, post-partum care. Class V - March 11, 2014: Milk

  15. Finishing Lambs and Goat Kids on Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing goats and lambs for ethnic markets offers an economic opportunity for small farm producers in the Appalachian Region of the U.S. There are a variety of forages used in goat and sheep production systems. Overall, nutrients available to ruminants depend upon the types and combinations of p...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  17. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  18. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  19. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  20. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  1. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats. PMID:25888622

  2. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    PubMed Central

    Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A.; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C.; Dassanayake, Rohana P.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-na?¨ve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats. PMID:25888622

  3. 4-H Meat Goat Guide Frank Craddock and Ross Stultz*

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    4-H Meat Goat Guide AS 3-4.060 10/06 H H H H 18USC707 #12;#12; 4-H Meat Goat Guide Frank Craddock of year they should be purchased. Many shows require that goats have their milk teeth. Goats usually hold their milk teeth until they are 10 to 12 months of age. After this time, it is probable that a goat will lose

  4. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal. PMID:25054515

  5. Eimeria species in dairy goats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2012-02-10

    The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil. PMID:21852038

  6. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  7. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management considerations for animal health authorities. Although concerns of vaccine efficacy, safety and issues with diagnosis and administration persist, vaccination is increasingly recognized as providing a robust strategy for managing paratuberculosis, having made important contributions to the health of Australian sheep and the lives of producers with affected properties, and offering a mechanism to reduce risk of infection entering the food chain in ovine and caprine products. PMID:26255556

  8. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...except that goats for export to Canada or Mexico for immediate slaughter may be identified by flock brands. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0020) [45 FR 86412, Dec. 31, 1980, as amended...

  9. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    E-print Network

    Tinner, Willy

    Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus Frido Welker a,b, , Elza. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae

  10. 4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  11. 6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  12. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner prescribed in § 135.110 for ice cream, and complies with all the provisions of § 135.110, except that...

  13. Design a poster on dairy goat Teach others about

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Design a poster on dairy goat breeds Teach others about showmanship techniques Give a speech on the importance of the dairy industry Acquire skills in dairy goat production through ownership and care of dairy goats. Learn marketing, processing, distribution, consumption, and use of dairy products. Discover

  14. NEW YORK STATE 4-H DAIRY GOAT PROJECT

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    NEW YORK STATE 4-H DAIRY GOAT PROJECT FACT SHEET #1 By Dr. E. A. B. Oltenacu Revised April 1999 by Dr. tatiana Stanton Cornell University, Ithaca , NY 14853 WHY DO I WANT TO OWN A GOAT? Have you asked yourself this question? Do you think that baby goats are cute and might be sort of fun to own? Have you

  15. Prion gene (PRNP) haplotype variation in United States goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie eradication efforts cost 18 million dollars annually in the United States and rely heavily upon PRNP genotyping of sheep. Genetic resistance might reduce goat scrapie and limit the risk of goats serving as a scrapie reservoir, so PRNP coding sequences were examined from 446 goats of 10 bree...

  16. Evaluating demographic models for goat domestication using mtdna sequences

    E-print Network

    Evaluating demographic models for goat domestication using mtdna sequences Pascale GErbault demographic models for goat domestication using mtDNa sequences. Anthropozoologica 47.2 : 65-78. Routes. Notably, domestic goat (Capra hircus) did not have any wild progenitors (Capra aegagrus) in Europe before

  17. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

  19. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

  20. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

  1. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

  4. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

  5. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  6. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...

  9. TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat!

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat! TUDelftLibrary `Goat' to repository in Bangladesh. #12;TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat! TU Delft scientific output available. The benefits are so great, that we want to give something back to the world: for every 1000th publication

  10. Admixture and linkage disequilibrium analysis of meat goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the population structure and variation within the genome will assist with efforts to make genetic gains for meat goat production. A recently developed Illumina Goat 50K SNP panel containing 52,295 SNP loci was created primarily from SNPs identified in European dairy goat breeds and Asi...

  11. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  12. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner prescribed in § 135.110 for ice cream, and complies with all the provisions of § 135.110, except that...

  13. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner prescribed in § 135.110 for ice cream, and complies with all the provisions of § 135.110, except that...

  14. Definition of prepartum hyperketonemia in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Doré, V; Dubuc, J; Bélanger, A M; Buczinski, S

    2015-07-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted on 1,081 dairy goats from 10 commercial herds in Québec (Canada) to define prepartum hyperketonemia based on optimal blood ?-hydroxybutyrate acid threshold values for the early prediction of pregnancy toxemia (PT) and mortality in late-gestation dairy goats. All pregnant goats had blood sampled weekly during the last 5wk of pregnancy. The blood was analyzed directly on the farm for ?-hydroxybutyrate acid quantification using a Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Diabetes Care, Saint-Laurent, QC, Canada). Body condition scores on the lumbar region and sternum were noted. Each goat was classified as being at low (n=973) or high risk (n=108) of having PT by producers based on a standardized definition. The optimal threshold for predicting a PT diagnosis or mortality for each week before kidding was determined based on the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity. The association between hyperketonemia and subsequent PT was tested using a multivariable logistic regression model considering hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum, litter size, and body condition score at wk 4 prepartum as covariates, and herd and parturition cohort as random effects. The association between mortality and hyperketonemia was also tested using a logistic regression model accounting for the presence or absence of treatment during the last month of pregnancy. The hyperketonemia definition based on PT varied between ?0.4 and ?0.9mmol/L during the last 5wk prepartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum and with a large litter size (?3 fetuses) had 2.1 and 40.5 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent PT than other goats. Hyperketonemia definitions based on mortality varied between ?0.6 and ?1.4mmol/L during the last 4wk prepartum, and was ?1.7mmol/L during the first week postpartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia and treated by producers had 3.4 and 11.8 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent mortality than did other goats. These results showed that prepartum hyperketonemia could be defined in dairy goats using subsequent risks of PT or mortality during the last month of pregnancy. PMID:25935248

  15. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  16. Nasal Oestrosis in a Jamunapari goat.

    PubMed

    Madhu, D N; Sudhakar, N R; Maurya, P S; Manjunathachar, H V; Sahu, Shivani; Pawde, A M

    2014-12-01

    Oestrus ovis is a well-known parasite of the nasal cavities and adjoining sinuses in sheep and goats. A 3-year-old female Jamunapari goat was presented with a history of anorexia, weight loss, in-coordinated movements, nasal discharge since 10 days and two nasal bots expelled during sneezing 3 days back. Upon clinical examination the animal was dull, dysphonic, unsteady gait and having blocked nostrils with thick mucoid discharge along with an increased respiratory rate. Parasitiological examination revealed it as an O. ovis (nasal bots). The occurrence of nasal bots in a goat and its successful therapeutic management and public health significance have been reported and discussed in the present communication. PMID:25320491

  17. Subpleural lymph nodes in goat lungs.

    PubMed

    Valero, G; Alley, M R; Manktelow, B W

    1993-06-01

    Subpleural lymph nodes were found in more than 4% of 3245 goat lungs during a slaughterhouse survey of respiratory disease. Their frequency varied between flocks from 2% to as much as 27%. They were more common in feral goats than in crossbreds or Angoras. Their numbers were positively associated with carcass weight and the number of nodular muellerius lesions on the lung surface. Their distribution and architecture were different from the pulmonary lymphoid nodules described in cattle with dictyocaulus re-infection syndrome. PMID:16031697

  18. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m-2). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m-2, we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m-2, and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m-2 (55 and 45 resp min-1) and 1000 W m-2 (120 and 95 resp min-1, respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm-2 is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the levels of radiation depend on the latitude of the location.

  19. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m(-2)). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m(-2), we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m(-2), and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m(-2) (55 and 45 resp min(-1)) and 1000 W m(-2) (120 and 95 resp min(-1), respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm(-2) is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the levels of radiation depend on the latitude of the location. PMID:25336109

  20. Studies on coccidiosis in goats in Poland.

    PubMed

    Balicka-Ramisz, A

    1999-03-15

    The study was carried out in a flock consisting of 110 goats. Nine species of coccidia were found: Eimeria christenseni, E. arloingi, E. jolchijev, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. alijevi, E. apsheronica, E. caprina, E. caprovina and E. hirci. Eighty-one percent of adults and 100% of kids were infected. Number of oocysts per gram of feces in kids ranged form 1200 to 202000. Clinical symptoms in about 50% of kids were observed. Toltrazuril (Baycox, Bayer), 20 mg/kg of body weight was highly efficacious in therapy of goat coccidiosis. PMID:10206107

  1. Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

    2008-08-25

    Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks. PMID:18328644

  2. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep... each sheep or goat is identified in accordance with this section. (1) The sheep or goat must...

  3. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep... each sheep or goat is identified in accordance with this section. (1) The sheep or goat must...

  4. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep... each sheep or goat is identified in accordance with this section. (1) The sheep or goat must...

  5. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep... each sheep or goat is identified in accordance with this section. (1) The sheep or goat must...

  6. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep... each sheep or goat is identified in accordance with this section. (1) The sheep or goat must...

  7. In vitro development of goat-sheep and goat-goat zona-free cloned embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Bhat, M H; Yaqoob, S H; Waheed, S M; Naykoo, N A; Athar, H; Khan, H M; Fazili, M R; Ganai, N A; Singla, S K; Shah, R A

    2014-02-01

    The gradual decline in the genetic diversity of farm animals has threatened their survival and risk of their extinction has increased many fold in the recent past. Endangered species could be rescued using interspecies embryo production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three different culture media on the development of Handmade cloned intraspecies (goat-goat) and interspecies (goat-sheep) embryo reconstructs. Research vitro cleave media (RVCL) yielded higher cleavage and morula-blastocyst development in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer groups compared with G1.G2 and modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOFaaci). Cleavage frequency of intraspecies cloned embryos in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 did not differ significantly (87.12%, 82.45%, and 92.52%, respectively). However, the morula/blastocyst frequency in RVCL was greater in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (51.18% vs. 38.28% vs. 36.50%, respectively). Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in interspecies cloned embryos was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (76.14% and 42.3% vs. 65.9% and 38.3% vs. 58.56% and 33.1%, respectively). Goat oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 and kept as control. Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in this group was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (89.66% and 65.26% vs. 85.44% and 48.05% vs. 86.58% and 42.06%, respectively). Conclusively, the results suggest that not only can the interspecies embryos of goat be produced using sheep oocytes as donor cytoplast but also the percentages can be improved by using RVCL media for culturing of the embryos. PMID:24210966

  8. Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

    2015-01-15

    The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment. PMID:25465737

  9. Palatability of Forage Chicory Cultivars for Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...

  10. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using...

  11. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using...

  12. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using...

  13. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) of this section. (5) All goats intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos...

  14. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54...) of this section. (5) All goats intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos...

  15. New Hampshire Guide 4-H Goat Program

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    clothes to show their animals, including proper footwear. 4-H members must wear close-toe shoes during any 180 Main Street Durham, NH 03824 Updated February 2015 http://extension.unh.edu/4-HYouth-Family/Animal and their communities. Learn about goat breeds and identifying a sound animal that will be a good producer

  16. Viable transgenic goats derived from skin cells.

    PubMed

    Behboodi, Esmail; Memili, Erdogan; Melican, David T; Destrempes, Margaret M; Overton, Susan A; Williams, Jennifer L; Flanagan, Peter A; Butler, Robin E; Liem, Hetty; Chen, Li How; Meade, Harry M; Gavin, William G; Echelard, Yann

    2004-06-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors were enucleated, karyoplast-cytoplast couplets were constructed, and then fused and activated simultaneously by a single electrical pulse. Fused couplets were either co-cultured with oviductal cells in TCM-199 medium (in vitro culture) or transferred to intermediate recipient goat oviducts (in vivo culture) until final transfer. The resulting morulae and blastocysts were transferred to the final recipients. Pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography 25-30 days after embryo transfer. In vitro cultured NT embryos developed to morulae and blastocyst stages but did not produce any pregnancies while 30% (6/20) of the in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts produced pregnancies. Two of these pregnancies were resorbed early in gestation. Of the four recipients that maintained pregnancies to term, two delivered dead fetuses 2-3 days after their due dates, and two recipients gave birth to healthy kids at term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed that both kids were transgenic and had integration sites consistent with those observed in the adult cell line. PMID:15359599

  17. Louping Ill in Goats, Spain, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Luis J.; Martínez, Claudia Pérez; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Höfle, Úrsula; Polledo, Laura; Marreros, Nelson; Casais, Rosa; Marín, Juan F. García

    2012-01-01

    Although louping ill affects mainly sheep, a 2011 outbreak in northern Spain occurred among goats. Histopathologic lesions and molecular genetics identified a new strain of louping ill virus, 94% identical to the strain from Britain. Surveillance is needed to minimize risk to domestic and wildlife species and humans. PMID:22607689

  18. [Helminth species of goats in Germany].

    PubMed

    Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Winter, R

    1998-01-01

    The helminth fauna of the gastrointestinal tract of 25 and the respiratory organs and the livers of 6 German goats was qualitatively and quantitatively examined. One trematode species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum), 2 species of cestodes (Moniezia expansa and metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena) and 28 species of nematodes (24 in the gastrointestinal tract and 4 in the lungs) were recorded. Two goats were infested with Oestrus ovis larvae. The most prevalent species were Ostertagia circumcincta and Chabertia ovina (84% each), Ostertagia trifurcata and Oesophagostomum venulosum (76% each), Ostertagia pinnata and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (64% each), Trichuris ovis (60%) and Skrjabinema ovis and Trichuris globulosa (56% each). The highest mean worm counts were seen in goats infected with Skjabinema ovis (4003), Ostertagia circumcincta (2501), Trichostrongylus axei (1825), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (1578) and Nematodirus battus (1050). Totally, the goats did harbour more nematodes in the abomasum (3734) than in the small intestine (1707) or the large intestine (2343). The lungs were parasitized by Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris, Neostrongylus linearis and Protostrongylus rufescens. PMID:9880938

  19. Cloning and functional analysis of goat SWEET1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Bao, Z K; Hu, W W; Lin, J; Yang, Q; Yu, Q H

    2015-01-01

    SWEETs are a recently discovered class of sugar transporters that mediate glucose uptake in the intestine and mammary glands. Our objectives were to clone goat SWEET1 and conduct a functional analysis of its effect on glucose efflux in goat mammary gland epithelial cells. We cloned and sequenced the goat SWEET1 gene from goat mammary glands, then conducted an analysis of the structure of goat SWEET1, including a prediction of the transmembrane helices and potential N-glycosylation sites. To investigate the biological function of goat SWEET1, we also generated goat SWEET1-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells using the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-gSWEET1. Goat SWEET1 overexpression can reduce glucose absorption in mammary gland epithelial cells with increasing expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, and GLUT12, which may be attributed to glucose efflux arising from the leading role played by goat SWEET1. This study will improve our understanding of the glucose balance in mammary glands and the level of glucose in milk. PMID:26681059

  20. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  1. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  2. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  3. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  4. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  5. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  6. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  7. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  8. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  9. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  10. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  11. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  12. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  13. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  14. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  15. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats. PMID:25917305

  16. Heavy metal levels in goats from Notasulga, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Forester, D.M.; Thompson, S.J.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Goat meat farming is increasing in popularity in southeastern region of United States. In order to monitor environmental contamination of heavy metals in goat meat, samples of liver, kidney, and muscle were collected from 20 goats on a goat farm in Notasulga, Alabama. These samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The copper concentration was significantly higher in livers than the concentration in kidneys and muscles. Lead, cadmium, and zinc levels did not show any significant differences between liver, kidney, and muscle samples. The concentrations of lead and copper in livers and cadmium in kidneys were significantly different in males when compared to females. However, in muscle, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc showed no significant difference between male and female or between young and old goats. Further, the concentrations of lead in livers and cadmium in kidneys showed a significant difference between young and old goats.

  17. Problems encountered in the control of heartwater in Angora goats.

    PubMed

    Gruss, B

    1987-09-01

    This preliminary investigation confirmed that when Angora goats were immunized against heartwater, either when kids or young goats, they still had an immunity to heartwater a year later when they were challenged with a vaccine containing Cowdria ruminantium. An overwhelming majority of the uninoculated animals which were challenged at the same time were susceptible to clinical heartwater. Strategic immunization to obtain enzootic stability to heartwater is suggested. In these experiments the immunization of Angora goats was not accompanied by severe losses. PMID:3448581

  18. A Genetic Linkage Map of the Male Goat Genome

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, D.; Schibler, L.; Bourgeois, F.; Oustry, A.; Amigues, Y.; Cribiu, E. P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a first genetic linkage map of the goat genome. Primers derived from the flanking sequences of 612 bovine, ovine and goat microsatellite markers were gathered and tested for amplification with goat DNA under standardized PCR conditions. This screen made it possible to choose a set of 55 polymorphic markers that can be used in the three species and to define a panel of 223 microsatellites suitable for the goat. Twelve half-sib paternal goat families were then used to build a linkage map of the goat genome. The linkage analysis made it possible to construct a meiotic map covering 2300 cM, i.e., >80% of the total estimated length of the goat genome. Moreover, eight cosmids containing microsatellites were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization in goat and sheep. Together with 11 microsatellite-containing cosmids previously mapped in cattle (and supposing conservation of the banding pattern between this species and the goat) and data from the sheep map, these results made the orientation of 15 linkage groups possible. Furthermore, 12 coding sequences were mapped either genetically or physically, providing useful data for comparative mapping. PMID:8878693

  19. Vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    2003-01-01

    Sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease (Neethling) are diseases of sheep, goats and cattle respectively, caused by strains of poxvirus, within the genus Capripoxvirus. Strains affecting sheep and goats are not totally host-specific; some cause disease in both sheep and goats while others may cause disease in only one species. Those causing disease in cattle appear to be specific for cattle, and this is reflected in the different geographical distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and sheep pox and goat pox (sheep and goat pox); LSD is confined to Africa, while sheep and goat pox are present in Africa north of the equator, and throughout West Asia and India, as far East as China and Bangladesh. Occasionally sheep and goat pox spreads from Turkey into Greece. All strains of capripoxvirus so far examined are antigenically indistinguishable, and recovery from infection with one strain provides immunity against all other strains. Because of this antigenic homology among all strains, there is the potential to use a single vaccine strain to protect cattle, sheep and goats. PMID:14677686

  20. Prevention and control of coccidiosis in goats with decoquinate.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J; Hancock, D; Wescott, R B

    1986-02-01

    Decoquinate was evaluated as a coccidiostat in domestic goats. Fifty goats less than 4 months of age were assigned to 5 groups (pens) of 10 goats each and were treated for 87 days with 0 (control), 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, or 4.0 mg of decoquinate in feed/kg of body weight. Goats were inoculated orally weight. Goats were inoculated orally with 30,000 oocysts, mainly Eimeria christenseni (74%) and E ninakohlyakimovae (20%) on day 19. Nontreated goats developed profuse watery diarrhea and tenesmus and gained weight poorly; 2 died. Treated goats did not develop clinical coccidiosis and gained significantly more weight (P less than 0.05), regardless of the dose used. Treated goats also had significantly fewer (P less than 0.05) oocysts in feces than did nontreated controls. Oocyst numbers were inversely related to dose; a more rapid decrease in oocyst numbers occurred as the dose was increased. At the doses used, decoquinate was safe in goats and was an effective drug for the prevention of clinical coccidiosis. PMID:3954215

  1. Multiple maternal origins and weak phylogeographic structure in domestic goats

    PubMed Central

    Luikart, Gordon; Gielly, Ludovic; Excoffier, Laurent; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Bouvet, Jean; Taberlet, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Domestic animals have played a key role in human history. Despite their importance, however, the origins of most domestic species remain poorly understood. We assessed the phylogenetic history and population structure of domestic goats by sequencing a hypervariable segment (481 bp) of the mtDNA control region from 406 goats representing 88 breeds distributed across the Old World. Phylogeographic analysis revealed three highly divergent goat lineages (estimated divergence >200,000 years ago), with one lineage occurring only in eastern and southern Asia. A remarkably similar pattern exists in cattle, sheep, and pigs. These results, combined with recent archaeological findings, suggest that goats and other farm animals have multiple maternal origins with a possible center of origin in Asia, as well as in the Fertile Crescent. The pattern of goat mtDNA diversity suggests that all three lineages have undergone population expansions, but that the expansion was relatively recent for two of the lineages (including the Asian lineage). Goat populations are surprisingly less genetically structured than cattle populations. In goats only ?10% of the mtDNA variation is partitioned among continents. In cattle the amount is ?50%. This weak structuring suggests extensive intercontinental transportation of goats and has intriguing implications about the importance of goats in historical human migrations and commerce. PMID:11344314

  2. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1

    E-print Network

    Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1 O. D. Knipe2 1 Presented, California. 2 Range Scientist, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station of the Environmental Protection Agency and be registered for the intended use. Abstract: Use of goats to convert

  4. The resolution of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) occasionally poisons livestock causing myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the resolution of the clinical and pathologic changes of rayless goldenrod poisoning in goats. Eight goats were gava...

  5. Sensory and chemical characteristics of ground goat meat products 

    E-print Network

    Myers, Cheri Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Ground goat meat and beef with 15% target fat content were produced using primal cuts of goat meat and beef chuck roasts obtained at 24 hours and ~7 days postmortem, respectively, and analyzed for total fat, moistures total and nowhere irons 2...

  6. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  7. Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

  8. The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems analysis approach. (Author/RL)

  9. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  10. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  11. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  12. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  13. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  14. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM GOATS FROM BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are economically important in many countries and little is known of caprine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 143 goats from 3 Brazilian States, using modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25); 46 (32.2%) tested positive. Samples of brain, heart, ...

  15. ADAPTmap: International coordinated data resource for improving goat production effiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats provide vital food and economic security, particularly in developing countries. We created a database that is a nexus for all performance, type, geographic information system (GIS), production environment, and genome information on goats. This resource provides a platform for meta-analysis tha...

  16. INTRATRACHEAL INFUSION OF COMMON FEEDYARD FUNGI IN GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to compare the pathology induced by four fungi compared to a saline control. Thirty weanling goats were randomly assigned to 5 groups, 6 goats per group. Four fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Mucor ramosissimus, and Montosporium lanuginosa ) isola...

  17. Quest for Nutritional and Medicinal Forages for Meat Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appalachian meat goat producers are encountering animal nutritional and health problems for which research-based solutions are limited. Goats prefer to eat weeds and browse, selecting the highest quality herbage available. Foraging on traditional pastures not only limits the variety of plant speci...

  18. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market. PMID:20163593

  19. Molecular phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Lin, B Z; Odahara, S; Ishida, M; Kato, T; Sasazaki, S; Nozawa, K; Mannen, H

    2013-02-01

    The domestic goat is one of the most important livestock species, but its origins and genetic diversity still remain uncertain. Multiple highly divergent maternal lineages of goat have been reported in previous studies. Although one of the mitochondrial DNA lineages, lineage B, was detected only in eastern and southern Asia, the geographic distribution of these lineages was previously unclear. Here, we examine the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Asian goats by mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. The analyses of a total of 1661 Asian goats from 12 countries revealed a high frequency of lineage B in Southeast Asia. The frequency of this lineage tended to be higher in mountain areas than in plain areas in Southeast Asian countries, and there was a significant correlation between its frequency and morphological traits. The results suggest an original predominance of lineage B in Southeast Asia and the recent infiltration of lineage A into Southeast Asian goats. PMID:22524237

  20. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...

  1. MEAT GOAT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS PARAMETERS WHEN FINISHED ON ORCHARDGRASS, RED CLOVER, OR ALFALFA PASTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the U.S., particularly on small farms. There are a diversity of forage types and qualities used in meat goat production systems. Seventy-two Boer goats were used to evaluate weight gain and carcass parameters when growing goats were finished on alfalfa ...

  2. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  3. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  4. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  5. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  6. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  7. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  8. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  9. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  10. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  11. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  12. Coccidiosis and cryptosporidiosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1990-11-01

    The protozoan diseases, coccidiosis and cryptosporidiosis, are important enteric diseases of sheep and goats, resulting in diarrhea, inefficient weight gains, and occasionally death. Coccidiosis is a widespread, serious economic disease affecting animals who are preweaned, recently weaned, or in unsanitary, stressful, or crowded conditions, as well as after entering feedlots. The Eimeria species in sheep and goats are relatively host specific. Control is accomplished through sanitation and by incorporating one of the modern coccidiostats, such as lasalocid or decoquinate, in feed or salt to ensure an intake of approximately 1 mg of drug per kg of body weight per day for at least 30 consecutive days. Prevention and control of coccidiosis results in significantly greater weight gains and production, whereas disease with or without treatment is likely to result in inefficient production and economic loss to the producer. Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, is primarily a disease of lambs and kids less than 30 days of age and is usually a milder disease than coccidiosis. Infective oocysts are passed in feces and are transmitted by oral ingestion. Oocysts readily infect a variety of animals, including humans. Cryptosporidiosis is a prevalent disease in neonatal ruminants and in humans. Effective treatments are not available, but because the disease is usually mild and self-limited, supportive care, primarily hydration, is important. Control is strict sanitation and quarantine of sick animals. Disinfection of contaminated housing with ammonia or formalin will kill the oocysts. The cyst-forming coccidia diseases, toxoplasmosis and sarcocystosis, utilize two hosts in their life cycles: sheep or goats and carnivores. Abortions and reproductive failures are major manifestations of disease. Control is through elimination of carnivore feces from the premises through management. PMID:2245367

  13. Improving Reproductive Efficiency in Angora Goats

    E-print Network

    Shelton, Maurice; Groff, Jack

    1984-01-01

    if they are not bred. Angora goats have not been widely studied in this respect, but many other species including sheep have been, and it 3 "" ,--.., o '-' if) Q Z ~ o 0... Z ...... 0... ...... .....J U .....J < ~ z z < ~ o < ~ W ~ 8... of America. ,--..,

  14. Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

    2014-06-01

    Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection. PMID:24703974

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75%) had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17%) of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period. PMID:23259528

  16. Delayed excretion of 3-methylhistidine in goats

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Calvert, C.C.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) as an index of muscle protein degradation in dairy goats. The criterion for validation was the rapid and quantitative excretion of radiolabeled 3MH. Three adult dry does and four bucks were confined to metabolism cages and injected with 5 ml of L-3-(/sup 14/C)methylhistidine dihydrochloride (4 microCi/mL) diluted in normal saline. The does' urine was collected from catheters and the bucks' urine from stainless steel separators protected with fecal collection bags. The daily urine samples were analyzed for labeled amino acid. Urinary recovery of radioactivity from all does was less than 33% after 3 d and was proceeding at less than 5% d. After 9 d, total recovery was less than 50% of total dose for the does. Elimination rates were slightly higher and more variable for the yearling bucks (25-63% after 4 d). On the basis of these data, 3MH does not appear to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in either male or female dairy goats.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Yunnan black goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Xia; Liu, Fang; Tang, Hong-Xia; Yang, Shao-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Yunnan black goat (Capra hircus) is one of the famous native goat breed in China. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of Yunnan black goat mitochondrial genome was determined for the first time. Sequence analysis showed that the genome structure was in typical with other vertebra animals. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The base composition was A (33.6%), G (13.1%), C (26.0%) and T (27.3%), so the percentage of A and T (60.9%) was higher than that of G and C. PMID:24495140

  18. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639?bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats. PMID:25103439

  20. Management Tips for Internal Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats 

    E-print Network

    Craddock, Frank; Machen, Richard V.; Craig, Tom

    2003-02-20

    The primary control strategy for internal parasites in sheep and goats has been the use of anthelmintics. Because overuse has caused the development of resistant strains, new strategies must be used. This publication lists available anthelmintics...

  1. Inflammatory Gene Expression in Goats in Response to Transport 

    E-print Network

    Carter, Mark

    2012-10-19

    Transport, a common cause of stress in livestock, has been documented to increase cortisol, and epinephrine in goats. However, little is known about the timing of changes in the immune system in these stressed animals. The objective of this study...

  2. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in a goat: case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This report describes the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examination of a 16-year-old goat with extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax. Case presentation The lead clinical signs were abnormal condition and demeanour, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and dilated jugular veins. Ultrasonographic examination of the thorax revealed a precardial mass, measuring 16.4 by 11.4 by 14.2 cm. Computed tomographic examination showed dorsocaudal displacement of the trachea, heart and lungs to the right. A tentative diagnosis of mediastinal or pleural neoplasia was made, and the goat was euthanased and necropsied. A definitive diagnosis was based on histological examination of the mass. Conclusions To our knowledge, this case report is the first description of extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in goats and serves to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of thoracic diseases in this species. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in goats with thoracic tumours. PMID:21929794

  3. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats...immediately preceding shipment to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  4. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats...immediately preceding shipment to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  5. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats...immediately preceding shipment to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  6. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2014-05-01

    A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not. PMID:24893025

  7. Orf virus infection in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, V; Valiakos, G

    2015-12-14

    Orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma ('Orf'). It is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, causing significant financial losses in livestock production. The disease mainly affects sheep and goats, but various other ruminants and mammals have been reported to be infected as well. It is also a zoonotic disease, affecting mainly people who come in direct or indirect contact with infected animals (e.g. farmers, veterinarians). The disease is usually benign and self-limiting, although in many cases, especially in young animals, it can be persistent and even fatal. Production losses caused by Orf virus are believed to be underestimated, as it is not a notifiable disease. This review of literature presents all latest information regarding the virus; considerations regarding treatment and prevention will be also discussed. PMID:26315771

  8. Use of cymelarsan in goats chronically infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, C; Corbera, J A; Bayou, K; van Gool, F

    2008-12-01

    Toxicity and therapeutic trials using Cymelarsan (an arsenical compound) against Trypanosoma evansi infection were carried out using chronically infected goats. For the toxicity trial, 40 goats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each; the first three groups received s.c. injections of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg bw of Cymelarsan, respectively, and the last one served as control. No systemic reaction was observed in any goat throughout the experiment. For the therapeutic trial, 15 adult female goats were inoculated intravenously with at least 1 x 10(5)T. evansi isolated in the Canary Islands. Six months after inoculation, the animals were treated with Cymelarsan at single dose of 0.3 mg/kg (5 animals), 0.5 mg/kg (5 animals), and 0.625 mg/kg (5 animals). At 4 and 6 weeks after treatment, two goats belonging to 0.3 mg/kg group showed recurrence of trypanosomes. Parasitemia, however, was negative in all animals belonging to 0.5 and 0.625 mg/kg groups until the end of the experiment (6 months after treatment). Thus, it can be concluded that Cymelarsan is a safe trypanocidal drug for goats and that the curative dose is 0.5 mg/kg or above. PMID:19120242

  9. L-lactate utilization by dairy goats

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    Three Toggenberg goats were used to investigate utilization of L-lactate as substrate for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Objectives were: (1) to determine the extent lactate could be used for body and milk fat synthesis; (2) to estimate contribution of lactate to glucose synthesis; (3) to assess differences in these measurements during early lactation, mid-lactation and the dry period; and (4) to observe differences in labeling of glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions in body and milk fat 7 days post-infusion of isotopes. Goats were fed in metabolism crates a 70% concentrate ration in hourly increments to meet individual requirements. After a pulse dose, U-/sup 14/C-lactate (34 uCi/hr) and 6-/sup 3/H-Glucose (100 uCi/hr) was infused via jugular cannula for 8 hours. Blood an milk were sampled hourly beginning 3 and 3.5 hours, respectively, after the pulse dose. Body fat was biopsied after the infusion (Day 0) and one week post-infusion (Day 7). Plasma glucose and lactate concentrations were greater in early 70.4 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively) compared to mid-lactation (50.8 and 5.9 gm/dl). Mid-lactation and dry period values were similar. Glucose turnover differed for early and mid-lactation and the dry period (141, 86, and 70 mmol/hr, respectively). Percentage of glucose derived from lactate tended to decrease through lactation into the dry period (28% vs 10%). Plasma lactate turnover was greater during lactation as opposed to the dry period (124 and 35 mmol/hr). During early lactation a greater proportion of lactate was incorporated into glucose than during either mid-lactation or the dry period.

  10. Haematological studies on Indian pashmina goats.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, R; Biswas, J C; Sharma, B; Koul, G L

    1987-01-01

    Haematological studies were conducted on 61 clinically normal pashmina producing goats of the Cheghu breed, acclimatised to the temperate, humid climatic condition of Mukteswar, about 2400 m above sea level. The experimental goats comprised four age groups (birth to one month, six to nine months, three to five years and six to 10 years) of both sexes. The overall values, irrespective of age and sex, for the parameters examined were: red blood cells, 14.17 +/- 1.96 X 10(12) litre-1; haemoglobin, 7.46 +/- 0.79 g dl-1; packed cell volume, 0.31 +/- 0.04 litres litre-1; mean corpuscular volume, 21.62 +/- 2.46 fl; mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, 23.72 +/- 1.80 g dl-1; mean corpuscular haemoglobin, 5.11 +/- 0.67 pg; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 0.00 mm at one hour; plasma protein 6.58 +/- 0.78 g dl-1; icterus index, 9.15 +/- 2.92 units; white blood cells 12.26 +/- 2.66 X 10(9) litre-1; absolute count of lymphocytes, 4.62 +/- 1.40; neutrophils, 5.91 +/- 2.84; monocytes, 0.38 +/- 0.15; eosinophils, 0.32 +/- 0.17 and basophils, 0.05 +/- 0.05 (X 10(9) litre-1). The sex of the animal did not affect the haematological parameters but the effect of age was evident. In newborn kids the haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and packed cell volume values were higher and the total leucocyte count was lower than in other age groups. As the kids grew older lymphocyte numbers decreased while neutrophils increased. PMID:3823626

  11. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats. PMID:26662412

  12. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  13. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep...

  14. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep...

  15. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep...

  16. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep...

  17. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep...

  18. Prevalence and pathology of coccidiosis in goats in southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Reza; Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Yadegari, Zeinab

    2014-03-01

    Coccidiosis is an economically disease that caused by Eimeria spp. Small and large intestines are target tissues of this protozoan parasite. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coccidial infection and pathology of coccidiosis of goats in Kerman, southeastern Iran, from February 2010 to July 2011. Faecal samples (approximately 3-5 g) were obtained from the rectum of 208 goats. The samples were determined microscopically for the presence of oocysts. Eimeria species were identified following sporulation of faeces in a thin layer of 2.5 % potassium dichromate for one or 2 weeks at 27 °C. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 187 out of 208 analyzed samples (89.91 %). Nine different Eimeria species were identified: E. arloingi (68.26 %), E. christenseni (50.9 %), E. ninakohlyakimovae (41.8 %), E. caprina (31.7 %), E. alijevi (29.8 %), E. jolchijevi (26.92 %), E. apsheronica (22.59 %), E. hirci (11.05 %), and E. pallida (5.2 %). Goats were considered in three age groups (less than 2 years old, 2-3 years old and over 3 years old). Obtained data indicated that coccidiosis was relatively common among the goats in this area. The highest rate of oocyte counts were observed in goats over 3 years old and females were more affected than male. The sex and age of the goat had not significant effects on the prevalence of coccidiosis, as well. There was no significant difference in oocyte per gram during different months. Coccidial lesions occurred in the jejunum and ileum more than other parts of intestine. Grossly, the affected tissues revealed non-pedunculated whitish nodules. Histopathologically, these nodules were characterized as proliferative enteritis with presence of different stages of the Eimeria in the hyperplastic epithelium and mild inflammatory reaction. Parasitological, gross and microscopic examinations revealed Eimeria infection was common in goats of Kerman, southeastern Iran. PMID:24505173

  19. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure.

    PubMed

    Pa?tiu, Anamaria I; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Györke, Adriana; ?uteu, Ovidiu; Balea, Anamaria; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Dom?a, Cristian; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-02-01

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in countries where goats are frequently reared in backyards that are also homes to cats (the definitive host of this parasite) elevates such concern. To date, there has been little attention to either the prevalence or genotypic characteristics of T. gondii isolates in young ruminant food animals in Europe. Here, we estimated the prevalence of T. gondii goat-kids raised in backyards and slaughtered for human consumption during Easter. We collected 181 paired samples of serum and diaphragm. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against T. gondii , and muscle tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect T. gondii DNA. Thirty-two diaphragm samples were also bioassayed in mice, and the isolates were genotyped using microsatellite markers. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in goat-kids was 33.1% (60/181; 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.3-40.5%), and T. gondii DNA was found in 6.1% (11/181; 95% CI 3.1-10.6) of the diaphragm samples. We isolated the parasite from 2 of 32 goat-kids, and the T. gondii strains belonged to genotype II. The results showed that 1/3 of 3-mo-old goats may be infected with T. gondii, and their consumption during Easter (as barbecue) may seriously compromise food safety as a result. PMID:25003793

  20. How to prep & show your GOAT May 2, 2015 forNovice4H'ers

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    How to prep & show your GOAT May 2, 2015 forNovice4H'ers What: This one day workshop will teach the novice 4-H'er how to groom and prepare a goat for show and how to properly handle a goat while in the show ring. Who: 4H'ers new to the goat project When: Saturday, May 2, 2015 Where: 75 Critchett Road

  1. 213 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos

    E-print Network

    Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2003-01-01

    213© WILDLIFE BIOLOGY · 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos americanus and unhunted mountain goat Oreamnos americanus populations Alejandro Gonzalez Voyer, Kirby G. Smith & Marco and unhunted mountain goat Oreamnos americanus populations. - Wildl. Biol. 9: 213-218. Native populations

  2. Mountain Goat Genetic Diversity and Population Connectivity in Washington and Southern British Columbia

    E-print Network

    Wallin, David O.

    Mountain Goat Genetic Diversity and Population Connectivity in Washington and Southern British, is not allowed without my written permission. Leslie C. Parks February 14, 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Genetic by resistance (IBR), that are driving genetic isolation. Although the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

  3. Habitat Modeling Using Path Analysis: Delineating Mountain Goat Habitat in the Washington Cascades

    E-print Network

    Wallin, David O.

    Habitat Modeling Using Path Analysis: Delineating Mountain Goat Habitat in the Washington Cascades: ______________________________________ #12;HABITAT MODELING USING PATH ANALYSIS: DELINEATING MOUNTAIN GOAT HABITAT IN THE WASHINGTON CASCADES in mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations in Washington State over the past few decades has spurred

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacan, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Leizhou goat Capra hircus (Bovidae; Caprinae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Qun; Guo, Gong-Liang; Wu, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Leizhou goat (Capra hircus) is one of the famous native goat breed in China. In this study, the 16,651?bp complete nucleotide sequence of Leizhou goat mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the first time. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes. PMID:25080105

  6. 1B Hatsuma: Billy the goat O. Knill, 7/24/2003 Dear 1b students,

    E-print Network

    Knill, Oliver

    1B Hatsuma: Billy the goat O. Knill, 7/24/2003 Dear 1b students, note that this problem is likely the problem. Here it is: Billy the goat is attached with a rope of length to a point at a circular silo problem called "Goat problem" or "Bull thethering problem". (M.E. Hoffman, "An application of Curvature

  7. 76 FR 51025 - Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Commission [Project No. 14229-000] Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary...Competing Applications On July 15, 2011, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc., filed an application...Robert S. Grimm, CEO/President, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc., c/o Alaska...

  8. 76 FR 69721 - Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...Commission [Project No. 14229-000] Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary...Competing Applications On July 15, 2011, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc. filed an application...Robert S. Grimm, CEO/President, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc., c/o Alaska...

  9. Effectof Exerciseon the PlasmaNonesterified FattyAcid Composition of Dogsand Goats:Specieswith Different

    E-print Network

    McClelland, Grant B.

    Effectof Exerciseon the PlasmaNonesterified FattyAcid Composition of Dogsand Goats as tracers for turnover studies. Individual NEFA were measured in trained dogs and goats (VO2max dog/VO2max goat = 2.2; where VO2max = max- imal oxygen consumption) during treadmill exercise at 40 and 60% VO2max

  10. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  11. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  12. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  13. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  14. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  15. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  16. Molecular cloning, polymorphisms, and expression analysis of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats.

    PubMed

    Sui, M X; Wang, H H; Wang, Z W

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the coding sequence, polymorphisms, and expression of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats. cDNA of RERG, obtained through reverse transcription PCR was analyzed using bioinformatic techniques. Polymorphisms in the exon regions of the RERG gene were identified and their associations with growth traits in three varieties of indigenous Chinese goats were investigated. Expression of the RERG gene in three goat breeds of the same age was detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that the cDNA of RERG, which contained a complete open reading frame of 20-620 bp, was 629 bp in length. The associated accession numbers in GenBank are JN672576, JQ917222, and JN580309 for the QianBei Ma goat, the GuiZhou white goat, and the GuiZhou black goat, respectively. Four consistent SNP sites were found in the exon regions of the RERG gene for the three goat breeds. mRNA expression of the RERG gene differed between different tissues in adult goats of same age. The highest expression was observed in lung and spleen tissues, while the lowest expression was recorded in thymus gland tissue. In addition, the expression of the RERG gene in the muscle of Guizhou white goat, GuiZhou black goat, and QianBei Ma goat decreased sequentially. Our results lay the foundations for further investigation into the role of the RERG gene in goat growth traits. PMID:26634455

  17. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  18. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  19. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  20. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  1. Transplantation of goat bone marrow stromal cells to the degenerating intervertebral disc in a goat disc-injury model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yejia; Drapeau, Susan; An, Howard S.; Thonar, Eugene J-M.A.; Anderson, D. Greg

    2010-01-01

    Study Design In vivo randomized controlled study in the goat intervertebral disc (IVD) injury model. Objective To define the effects of allogeneic bone marrow-derived stromal cell injected into the degenerating goat IVDs. Summary of Background Data Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells to the degenerating disc has been suggested as a means to correct the biologic incompetence of the disc. However, large animal models with IVDs similar in shape and size to those of humans are needed to define the efficacy and safety of this approach. Methods Goat IVD degeneration was induced by stabbing with a #15 blade. One month after disc injury, the injured discs were randomly selected to receive goat bone marrow-derived stromal cell (suspended in hydrogel), saline (control), or hydrogel (control) injections. Three and 6 months after stem cell transplantation, goats were euthanized and the IVD were examined for biochemical content and tissue morphology. MR images at 3- and 6-month time points were also examined. Results The goat large animal model shows early degenerative changes following disc injury. Degenerating IVDs injected with bone marrow stromal cells showed significantly increased proteoglycan (PG) accumulation within their nucleus pulposus (NP) region. However, collagen content, MRI grade and histology did not show statistically significant differences between the cell-treated and control IVDs. Conclusions Following transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells, NP tissue contained more PG than control discs. Although this result was promising, the rate and severity of degeneration in this goat disc injury were modest, suggesting that a more severe injury and a larger sample size is indicated for future studies to better define the utility of cell therapies in this model. PMID:20890267

  2. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host. PMID:26697224

  3. Low seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Boer goats in Missouri

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Goats are known reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever. However, there has been very little research on the prevalence of C. burnetii exposure and risk in meat goats farmed in the US. Banked serum samples were secondarily tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies. Findings The animal and herd-level seroprevalence estimates for C. burnetii were 1.2% (3/249) and 4.2% (1/24) respectively. Within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 1.2%. Conclusions This study indicates that seroprevalence of C. burnetii in Boer goats raised in Missouri was low, but it does not preclude the existence of a higher level of infection in Missouri’s meat goat herds. This result is inconclusive because this study was disadvantaged by the small number of individual animal and herds tested, which compromised the statistical power of this study to detect a possible higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii in this population, if present. More research is warranted to corroborate the preliminary findings reported here in order to determine the public health significance C. burnetii infection risks associated with contemporary goat production systems in the US. PMID:24994554

  4. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  5. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are the major source of Q fever in humans. To investigate the goat’s immune response we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via inhalation with a Dutch outbreak isolate of C. burnetii. All animals were successfully infected. Phase 1 and Phase 2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies were measured. Cellular immune responses were investigated by interferon-gamma, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (IFN-? Elispot), lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and systemic cytokines. After two weeks post inoculation (wpi), a strong anti-C. burnetii Phase 2 IgM and IgG antibody response was observed while the increase in IgM anti-Phase 1 antibodies was less pronounced. IgG anti-Phase 1 antibodies started to rise at 6 wpi. Cellular immune responses were observed after parturition. Our results demonstrated humoral and cellular immune responses to C. burnetii infection in pregnant goats. Cell-mediated immune responses did not differ enough to distinguish between Coxiella-infected and non-infected pregnant animals, whereas a strong-phase specific antibody response is detected after 2 wpi. This humoral immune response may be useful in the early detection of C. burnetii-infected pregnant goats. PMID:23915213

  6. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  7. Quantitative determination of casein genetic variants in goat milk: Application in Girgentana dairy goat breed.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (?s2-, ?-, and ?-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: ?s2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; ?-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and ?-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of ?s2-casein genetic variants A and F, and ?-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for ?-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein. PMID:26304408

  8. Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from goats and sheep indicating G7 genotype in goats in the Northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Fadakar, Bahman; Tabatabaei, Nasim; Borji, Hassan; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2015-11-30

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been a human public health problem in the Northeast of Iran, molecular data regarding the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats and sheep in these regions are still scarce. In the present study, we determined the genotypes of E. granulosus infecting sheep and goats in northeast of Iran. During April 2013-June 2014, 50 and 30 hydatid cysts were recovered from liver tissue of sheep and goats, respectively,. Protoscoleces or germinal layers were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted, and the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene was amplified by PCR. The results of PCR-RFLP and the sequence analysis showed that all the samples isolated from sheep (n=50) and most of samples in goats (n=24) were G1 strain, the most prevalent straint in livestock ruminants of Iran. Furthermore, six parasites isolated from goats were found to correspond to E. intermedius (G7 genotype), here reported for the first time from Iran. PMID:26483165

  9. Heavy metals in livers and kidneys of goats in Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Datiri, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    The popularity of goat farming is increasing in the southeastern region of the United States. Baseline values of Hg, Pb, and Cd are not available in goat tissues in the United States. These values are needed when monitoring food for heavy metal contamination which may be associated with urbanization and industrialization. Due to human activities or anthropogenic sources of metals in the environment, high concentrations of these metals have been observed in herbage and animal tissues. It has also been reported that toxic heavy metals are concentrated mostly in kidneys and livers of animals. The risk of exposure of humans to heavy metals contained in edible organs of animals has received widespread concern. The objectives of this study were to (i) measure the levels of Hg,Pb, and Cd in livers and kidneys of goats; and (ii) determine whether accumulation of these metals is related to age and/or sex. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Human Infection with Orf Virus from Goats in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Keshan; Liu, Yongjie; Kong, Hanjin; Shang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Orf virus, which belongs to the Parapoxvirus genus, induces a zoonotic infectious disease characterized by acute, highly vascularized cutaneous pustular lesions in sheep and goats. A number of Orf outbreaks have been reported in sheep and goats in recent years, but no reports have described an Orf virus strain from humans in China. In this study, we diagnosed Orf virus infection in two people, a mother and son, in the Gansu province of China. The human Orf virus was isolated and its phylogenetic characterization was analyzed based on a complete B2L gene. The results are useful for developing prospective programs to control Orf virus infections in both goats and humans PMID:24745915

  11. Transferrin and haemoglobin polymorphism in domesticated goats in the USA.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Q; Foote, W C; Bunch, T D

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of transferrin (Tf) and haemoglobin (Hb) polymorphisms in five goat breeds in the USA is reported. Two Tf types, A and B, were identified. A significant difference in frequency (P less than 0.05) was observed only between the Spanish and Alpine goats. Haemoglobin beta-globin variants, Hb beta A, Hb beta D and Hb beta E were observed with isoelectric focusing at pH ranges 5-8 and 6.7-7.7. Hb beta D was not found in the Alpine and Angora breeds. Haemoglobin allelic frequencies varied widely and differed significantly (P less than 0.05) among breeds. PMID:2024785

  12. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats

    PubMed Central

    Chiejina, Samuel N.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Fakae, Barineme B.

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

  13. Variation in the functions of village goats in Zimbabwe and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the functions and management systems of goats in Chirumanzu district in Zimbabwe and, Alfred Nzo and Amatole districts in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected using participatory rural appraisal techniques and direct observations. In addition, structured questionnaires from 344 households as follows; 69 from Alfred Nzo district, 144 from Amatole district and 132 from Chirumanzu district were also used to retrieve information from farmers. There were more female goat owners in male-headed households in Chirumanzu (75%) than in Amatole (27%) and Alfred Nzo (30%). Mean goat flock sizes per household were markedly high in Amatole (14.0 +/- 0.31) and Alfred Nzo (14.1 +/- 1.42) as compared to Chirumanzu (4.7 +/- 0.30). There were positive correlations (r = 0.30 for Amatole, r = 0.34 for Alfred Nzo and r = 0.25 for Chirumanzu; P < 0.05) between goat flock sizes and cattle herd sizes kept per household. Seventy-nine and 78% of households in Amatole and Alfred Nzo kept goats mainly for initiation ceremonies, respectively. Nearly all (95%) of the households in Chirumanzu reared goats for household consumption. Goat houses in all the districts were poorly constructed. Farmers' perceptions showed that most goat mortalities were mainly caused by gastrointestinal parasites and tick-borne diseases, especially heartwater. About 29, 15 and 27% of households in Alfred Nzo, Amatole and Chirumanzu, respectively, owned bucks. There were no formal markets for goats in the three districts. Chirumanzu had more females owning goats than the other two districts. No adolescents owned goats in all the three districts. Adolescent boys participated in the management of goats more than adolescent girls across the three districts. Differences in the importance of goats among countries and regions should be borne in mind when designing goat improvement and rural development programmes. PMID:19252996

  14. A functional study of proximal goat ?-casein promoter and intron 1 in immortalized goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kung, M H; Lee, Y J; Hsu, J T; Huang, M C; Ju, Y T

    2015-06-01

    Goat ?-casein (CSN2) promoter has been extensively used to derive expression of recombinant therapeutic protein in transgenic goats; however, little direct evidence exists for signaling molecules and the cis-elements of goat CSN2 promoter in response to lactogenic hormone stimulation in goat mammary epithelial cells. Here, we use an immortalized caprine mammary epithelial cell line (CMC) to search for evidence of the above. Serial 5'-flanking regions deleted of promoter and intron 1 in goat CSN2 (-4,047 to +2,054) driven by firefly luciferase reporter gene were constructed and applied to measure promoter activity in CMC. The intron 1 region (+393 to +501) significantly decreased basal activity of the promoter. This finding contradicts other studies of the role of intron 1. The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5a played a significant role in activating promoter activity by prolactin stimulation. Hydrocortisone enhanced and prolonged the activity of STAT5a and promoter in CMC, but was independent of the glucocorticoid receptor response element. The minimum length of the CSN2 promoter segment in response to lactogenic stimulation was confirmed by 5' serial deletions. A cis-element located from -300 to -90 in proximal goat CSN2 promoter that is absent in bovine and human CSN2 promoter was newly identified. We demonstrated the presence of a STAT5a binding site (-102 to -82) and preservation of the guanosine nucleotide at position -90 based on responses to the presence of lactogenic hormone using internal deletions and point mutations of the predicted STAT5a binding site, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Together, these findings demonstrate that the proximal -300 bp of goat CSN2 promoter containing the STAT5a binding site (-102 to -82) is the response element for lactogenic hormone stimulation. Additionally, intron 1 may be required for tissue or developmental stage-specific expression in mammary gland. The role of the far-distal regions of goat CSN2 promoter in high-level lactogenic hormone induction and specific expression require further examination. PMID:25841968

  15. NEW YORK STATE 4-H MEAT GOAT PROJECT

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    NEW YORK STATE 4-H MEAT GOAT PROJECT FACT SHEET #1 By Dr. E. A. B. Oltenacu Revised April 1999 than cows, cost much less to house and feed, and give family-sized amounts of milk daily. They bond well with the person who milks and feeds them, live about as long as a dog and make great companions

  16. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  17. A slaughterhouse survey of lung lesions in goats.

    PubMed

    Valero, G; Alley, M R; Manktelow, B W

    1992-06-01

    A survey of the lungs from 4284 goats killed at a slaughterhouse in the North Island of New Zealand during the winter of 1990 revealed only ten cases of non-parasitic bronchopneumonia. However, 41% of the lungs had lesions consistent with infection by Muellerius capillaris, 33% with Dictyocaulus filaria, and 8% with both species. The prevalence of parasitic lesions increased with age. The carcasses of goats with mild to severe Dictyocaulus filaria lesions were from 0.81 to 1.52 kg lighter than those without the lesions (p<0.001). The carcasses of goats with more than ten nodular (Muellerius capillaris) lesions were 0.75 kg lighter than those without the lesions (p<0.001). Twelve sets of lungs had lesions of chronic bronchiectasis. Nematode larvae were seen in the bronchial lumina of three of them. The microscopic appearance varied from a moderate dilatation of occluded bronchi which retained an intact epithelium, to large foreign-body granulomas where the remaining bronchial outlines were barely discernible. Multiple, very discrete, fibrous pleural plaques were found on the caudal lobes in two cases. Plaques of this morphology have not been described previously in the veterinary literature. Pleural adhesions were found in 350 cases (8.2%). The relatively higher frequency of pleurisy versus non-parasitic pneumonia suggests that pneumonia in goats in the North Island of New Zealand completely resolves in most cases. PMID:16031656

  18. Status of genetic diversity of U. S. dairy goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity underpins the livestock breeders’ ability to improve the production potential of their livestock. Therefore, it is important to periodically assess genetic diversity within a breed. Such an analysis was conducted on U.S. dairy goat breeds: Alpine, LaMancha, Nigerian Dwarf, Nubian, ...

  19. USDA DAIRY GOAT GENETIC EVALUATION PROGRAM - STATUS AND PLANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluations for milk, fat, and protein yields are calculated annually in July and evaluations for type are calculated in December. These evaluations are provided to regional computing centers, the dairy goat association, and the general public through web access. Data flows from the farms through th...

  20. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

  1. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section...

  2. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section...

  3. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section...

  4. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section...

  5. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section...

  6. Introduction to the NH 4-H Dairy Goat Project

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Animal Identification: Permanent ID ­ The animal must have an ear tag, ear tattoo, tail tattoo tags. Most goats have a tattoo in their ear, or in the case of a LaMancha, on the bottom side or within state must possess a USDA approved individual identification tag, tattoo, or electronic implant

  7. EFFECT OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION ON MILK COMPOSITION OF GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following study was conducted to characterize relationship between subclinical staphylococcal mastitis and experimentally induced clinical S. aureus mastitis on milk constituents of dairy goats. Monthly milk samples (May through September) from udder halves of lactating does were collected to de...

  8. USE OF GOATS FOR THE CONTROL OF SALT CEDAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire, flood, herbicide, manual, mechanical and insect biocontrol methods have all been used to remove invasive salt cedar. Each method has advantages and disadvantages in particular circumstances. We used goats to browse replicated 1-3 acre plots in salt cedar near San Acacia and San Marcial along t...

  9. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Washington State domestic goat herds.

    PubMed

    Sondgeroth, Kerry S; Davis, Margaret A; Schlee, Sara L; Allen, Andy J; Evermann, James F; McElwain, Terry F; Baszler, Tim V

    2013-11-01

    A caprine herd seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection was determined by passive surveillance of domestic goat herds in Washington State. Serum samples (n=1794) from 105 herds in 31 counties were analyzed for C. burnetii antibodies using a commercially available Q fever antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. The sera were submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for routine serologic screening over an approximate 1-year period from November, 2010, through November, 2011. To avoid bias introduced by testing samples from ill animals, only accessions for routine screening of nonclinical animals were included in the study. A standard cluster sampling approach to investigate seroprevalence at the herd level was used to determine optimal study sample size. The results identified C. burnetii antibodies in 8.0% of samples tested (144/1794), 8.6% of goat herds tested (9/105), and 25.8% of counties tested (8/31). Within-herd seroprevalence in positive counties ranged from 2.9% to 75.8%. Counties with seropositive goats were represented in the western, eastern, southeastern, and Columbia basin agricultural districts of the state. To our knowledge this is the first county-specific, statewide study of C. burnetii seroprevalence in Washington State goat herds. The findings provide baseline information for future epidemiologic, herd management and public health investigations of Q fever. PMID:24107207

  10. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM...

  11. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  12. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  13. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Brom, R Van den; Engelen, E van; Roest, H I J; Hoek, W van der; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations. PMID:26315774

  14. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  15. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  16. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  17. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  18. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  19. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... when slaughtered, must be from a flock or herd subject to a ruminant feed ban equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  20. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  1. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  2. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  3. What Gets Your Goat? Art across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Features Elayne Goodman's mixed-media sculpture "The Goat Castle in Natchez," which is dedicated to a whodunnit murder mystery in Mississippi. Provides historical background of the murder and information on Goodman's life. Includes activities in history and social science, mathematics, science, language arts, visual arts, and economics and social…

  4. Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

    2013-12-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

  5. Goats' milk xanthine oxidoreductase is grossly deficient in molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha; Harrison, Roger

    2004-02-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified from goats' milk. The u.v.-visible absorption spectrum was essentially identical to those of the corresponding bovine and human milk enzymes and showed an A280/A450 ratio of 5.20+/-0.12, indicating a high degree of purity. Like bovine and human milk XORs, enzyme purified from goats' milk showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a subunit with approximate Mr 150,000. On Western blotting, mouse monoclonal anti-human XOR antibody cross-reacted with purified caprine and bovine XORs. The specific xanthine oxidase activity of goats' milk XOR, however, was very much lower than that of bovine XOR, although NADH oxidase activities of XOR from the two sources were similar. In these respects, the caprine milk XOR mirrors the human milk enzyme, in which case the kinetic effects have previously been attributed to relatively low molybdenum content. The molybdenum content of goats' milk XOR also was shown to be relatively low, with 0.09 atoms Mo per subunit, compared with 055 atoms Mo per subunit for the bovine enzyme. A parallel purification of human milk XOR showed 0.03 atoms Mo per subunit. The possible physiological significance of the low molybdenum content of the caprine milk enzyme and of its correspondingly low enzymic activity is discussed. PMID:15068060

  6. Genotypic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in Iranian goats

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Reza; Omrani, Vahid Fallah; Spotin, Adel; Esfandiari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and characterize the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) from goats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Methods A total of 120 goats were screened from abattoirs of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Forty out of 120 samples were infected with cystic echinococcosis and 29 out of 40 infected samples were fertile hydatid cysts (containing protoscolices) which were collected from the livers and lungs of infected goats. DNA samples were extracted from the protoscolices and characterized by mitochondrial DNA sequencing of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. Results Sequences analysis of nine fertile hydatid cysts indicated that all isolated samples were infected with the G1 sheep strain and two sequences were belonged to G14 and G1c microvarients of the G1 genotype. Conclusions The results showed that goats act as alternative intermediate hosts for sheep strain. G1 genotype seems to be the main route of transmission and it should be considered in further studies.

  7. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Desserts §...

  8. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...be moved directly as a group from the port of entry...establishment for slaughter as a group. The sheep and goats...establishment by APHIS Form VS 17-33, which must...conditions: (1) The animals have not tested positive...be moved directly as a group from the port of...

  9. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...be moved directly as a group from the port of entry...establishment for slaughter as a group. The sheep and goats...establishment by APHIS Form VS 17-33, which must...conditions: (1) The animals have not tested positive...be moved directly as a group from the port of...

  10. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...be moved directly as a group from the port of entry...establishment for slaughter as a group. The sheep and goats...establishment by APHIS Form VS 17-33, which must...conditions: (1) The animals have not tested positive...be moved directly as a group from the port of...

  11. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...be moved directly as a group from the port of entry...establishment for slaughter as a group. The sheep and goats...establishment by APHIS Form VS 17-33, which must...conditions: (1) The animals have not tested positive...be moved directly as a group from the port of...

  12. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...be moved directly as a group from the port of entry...establishment for slaughter as a group. The sheep and goats...establishment by APHIS Form VS 17-33, which must...conditions: (1) The animals have not tested positive...be moved directly as a group from the port of...

  13. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from domestic goats.

    PubMed

    Sandmaier, Shelley E S; Nandal, Anjali; Powell, Anne; Garrett, Wesley; Blomberg, Leann; Donovan, David M; Talbot, Neil; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2015-09-01

    The creation of genetically modified goats provides a powerful approach for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and for ensuring food safety all of which are high-priority goals for animal agriculture. The availability of goat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are characteristically immortal in culture would be of enormous benefit for developing genetically modified animals. As an alternative to long-sought goat ESCs, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) by forced expression of bovine POU5F1, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, LIN-28, and NANOG reprogramming factors in combination with a MIR302/367 cluster, delivered by lentiviral vectors. In order to minimize integrations, the reprogramming factor coding sequences were assembled with porcine teschovirus-1 2A (P2A) self-cleaving peptides that allowed for tri-cistronic expression from each vector. The lentiviral-transduced cells were cultured on irradiated mouse feeder cells in a semi-defined, serum-free medium containing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The resulting goat iPSC exhibit cell and colony morphology typical of human and mouse ESCs-that is, well-defined borders, a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, a short cell-cycle interval, alkaline phosphatase expression, and the ability to generate teratomas in vivo. Additionally, these goat iPSC demonstrated the ability to differentiate into directed lineages in vitro. These results constitute the first steps in establishing integration and footprint-free iPSC from ruminants. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 709-721, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26118622

  14. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

  15. Tuberculosis in Goats and Sheep in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia and Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Goat.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Gezahegne Mamo; Abebe, Fekadu; Worku, Yalelet; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Bjune, Gunnar; Ameni, Gobena

    2012-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted on 2231 small ruminants in four districts of the Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia to investigate the epidemiology of tuberculosis in goats and sheep using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test, postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culture and molecular typing methods. The overall animal prevalence of TB in small ruminants was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%-0.7%) at ?4?mm and 3.8% (95% CI: 3%-4.7%) at cutoff ?2?mm. The herd prevalence was 20% (95% CI: 12-28%) and 47% (95% CI: 37-56%) at ?4?mm and ?2?mm cut-off points, respectively. The overall animal prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.1-3.5%) and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8-7.9%) at ?4?mm and ?2?mm cut-off points, respectively. Mycobacteriological culture and molecular characterization of isolates from tissue lesions of tuberculin reactor goats resulted in isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SIT149) and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria as causative agents of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like diseases in goats, respectively. The isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in goat suggests a potential transmission of the causative agent from human and warrants further investigation in the role of small ruminants in epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the region. PMID:22852105

  16. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K

    2010-10-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. PMID:20673232

  17. Genetic characterization of Meigu goat (Capra hircus) based on the mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Meigu goat (Capra hircus) is one of the indigenous goat breeds in China. Our research findings revealed that the entire mitochondrial genome of Meigu goat was 16,643?bp in length. The contents of A, C, T and G in the mitochondrial genome were 33.59%, 26.05%, 27.31% and 13.05%, respectively. The mitogenome of meigu goat contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. Components of the Meigu goat's mitogenome were similar to those of other Capra hircus in gene arrangement and composition. These results could provide essential information for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of domestic goats. PMID:25185701

  18. Variability with altitude of major histocompatibility complex-related microsatellite loci in goats from Southwest China.

    PubMed

    E, G X; Huang, Y F; Zhao, Y J; Na, R S

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to use microsatellite BM1258 loci of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as an indicator of the influence of genetic diversity of immunity in goats (Dazu Black, Hechuan White, Meigu, and Tibetan goat). In total, 132 animals comprising 50 Dazu Black goats, 24 Hechuan White goats, 34 Meigu goats, and 24 Tibetan goats were examined. Collectively, 18 different alleles and 42 genotypes were found. The overall observed levels of heterozygosity showed large divergence from the expected levels in the four breeds, and an increase in the mean number of alleles of BM1258 accompanied decreasing altitude of the livestock's habitat. Our results indicate that low-altitude regions or plains were more conducive to genetic material exchange and gene flow between different populations. In addition, it seems that the breeds from low-altitude regions were less susceptible to problems introduced by commercial animals. PMID:26600522

  19. Experimental vaginal infection of goats with semen contaminated with the "CPG" strain of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Wanderley, Flaviana Santos; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Câmara, Diogo Ribeiro; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Feitosa, Bruna Catarina de Oliveira; Freire, Roberta Lemos; de Moraes, Erica Paes Barreto Xavier; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to characterize the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in goats experimentally infected vaginally with semen contaminated with the CPG strain (genotype III). Ten female goats were randomly allocated into 2 groups (G1 and G2), each with 5 animals, and inseminated during estrus. Goats in G1 were inseminated with semen containing 1 × 10(5) tachyzoites, whereas those in G2 (control) were inseminated with semen free from tachyzoites (insemination = day 0). In G1, seroconversion (indirect immunofluorescence reaction) and DNA (polymerase chain reaction) in the blood was present in 4/5 and 3/5, respectively, from the 7th day. In G2, all goats were negative in all tests. Embryonic reabsorption occurred in 4 of 5 goats from G1 between days 21 and 49. In conclusion, artificial vaginal insemination with semen containing tachyzoites of T. gondii -infected goats and is a potential transmission route of this parasite through semen. PMID:23391103

  20. [Histologic studies of the postnatal development of the uterus of dwarf goats].

    PubMed

    Michel, G; Rabie, F O

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-four Syrian goats were investigated for postnatal uterus development, from the first day after parturition to the age of six months. Structures were found to undergo conspicuously early differentiation. Full morphological uterus development was established at the age of three to four months. Syrian goat thus is sexually mature at that early age. This is considered to be essential to good suitability of Syrian goat as experimental animal. PMID:1789724

  1. Intravaginal administration of an inactivated vaccine prevents lesions induced by caprine herpesvirus-1 in goats.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Tarsitano, Elvira; Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Tempesta, Maria; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-02-19

    To evaluate the efficacy of mucosal vaccination with a beta-propiolactone inactivated caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1) vaccine, goats received vaginal administrations of two 7-day cycles at 2 weeks intervals. Seven days after the end of the second cycle, goats were challenged intravaginally with 4 ml of virulent BA.1 strain of CpHV-1. Vaccinated goats shed challenge virus for 8 days but, in comparison with control unvaccinated-challenged goats, were significantly protected from the classical clinical signs of genital lesions. Even without adjuvants, prolonged mucosal vaccination induced production of secretory IgA and provided significant clinical protection. PMID:17150288

  2. Prevalence and dynamics of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in kids born from naturally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Alauddin, Md; Hossain, K M Mozaffor; Islam, Md Hemayetul; Kitoh, Katsuya; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domesticated goats intended for human consumption in a rural suburb of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 55.1% (80/145) of the goats tested in our sample. The seroprevalence among goats aged <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and ?3 years were 36.7%, 66.0%, 59.1% and 100%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age. Among the seropositive goats, a subsample of eight free-ranging female goats with access to male goats was placed under continuous observation. During the observation period, these seropositive female goats delivered 11 kids, all of which were found to be seronegative before suckling colostrum. This finding strongly suggested that trans-placental infection rarely occurs in female goats that have acquired an infection before pregnancy. Our results indicate that infection via ingestion of oocysts plays a more important role than endogenous trans-placental infection in maintaining the endemicity of T. gondii among goats in Bangladesh. PMID:26028431

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacán State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Silva-Aguilar, D; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2013-06-01

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico, is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma were found in 52 (15.2%) of 341 goats, with titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 9, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 4, 1:800 in 9, 1:1,600 in 3, and 1:3,200 or higher in 3. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms sampled, and seroprevalence varied significantly among farms (1.9-90%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with age, municipality, altitude, and climate but not with breed. Increased seroprevalence was found in goats aged 13-24 and 49-86 mo old (25% and 22.9%, respectively). Goats raised in farms in a municipality with semi-warm humid climate at 1,700 m of altitude had the highest seroprevalence (62.1%). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in goats in Michoacán State, Mexico, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii and semi-warm humid climate. Results indicate that infected goats are likely an important source of infection with T. gondii in humans in Michoacán State. PMID:23116086

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Boer goat (Bovidae; Caprinae).

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Hu, Jiangtao; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiaoyue; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of Boer goat. The mitogenome was 16,639?bp in length, comprised of 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. Almost all genes were encoded on the H-strand except the ND6 and eight tRNA genes. Most of the genes initiated with ATG, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 started with ATA. The total base composition of the mitogenome was 33.53% for A, 26.05% for C, 13.12% for T and 27.30% for G. These results provide a standard reference sequence for phylogenetic analyses among goats. PMID:25187040

  5. Staphylococcus spp. as mastitis-related pathogens in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Deinhofer, M; Pernthaner, A

    1995-02-01

    A total of 359 Micrococcaceae strains isolated from goat milk samples were differentiated with the commercially available ATB 32 Staph differentiation system. Of these strains, 303 (84.4%) were identified. Six strains were sensitive in the bacitracin resistance test, and accordingly classified as Micrococcus spp. Staphylococcal species isolated of goat milk were S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. caprae, S. lentus, S. simulans, S. capitis, S. lugdunensis, S. xylosus, S. chromogenes, S. hominis, S. arlettae, S. warneri, S. sciuri, and S. saprophyticus. Highest somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and the highest prevalence of clinical udder alterations were associated with coagulase-positive S. aureus. Increases in milk SCC as well as pathological udder findings were observed in infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci such as novobiocin-sensitive S. epidermidis, S. simulans, S. lugdunensis, S. chromogenes, and S. warneri. PMID:7740755

  6. Six Cases of Verminous Pneumonia (Muellerius Sp.) in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Nimmo, Judith S.

    1979-01-01

    Six cases of verminous pneumonia in goats due to Muellerius sp. were reviewed. In only one case was the pneumonia diagnosed antemortem. The gross necropsy findings and histopathology revealed a widespread interstitial pneumonia in all the cases. There was variability in the local reaction around the parasites from almost none in the mildest cases to larger focal accumulations of macrophages and mononuclear inflammatory cells. Only in the severest cases were eosinophils seen and even then were scattered and few in number. No nodular lesions were seen associated with the parasites. The pathology of the pulmonary lesions in goats appears to be more commonly of the diffuse type and therefore significantly different from the nodular lesion usually observed in sheep. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4. PMID:436107

  7. Diagnostic pathology in microbial diseases of sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Benavides, J; González, L; Dagleish, M; Pérez, V

    2015-12-14

    Post-mortem examination is a key step in the diagnostic process of infectious diseases in sheep and goats. Diagnostic pathology deals with identification and study of lesions, at the same time providing also significant clues regarding pathogenesis of the diseases. This article reviews the salient pathological findings associated with the most significant infectious diseases of sheep and goats present in countries where small ruminants are a relevant agricultural industry. Lesions are reviewed according to the different organ systems where they occur. Emphasis has been given in the description of the salient lesional patterns than can be identified in each organ and which can be of help in the differential diagnosis of the lesions caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions. Finally, a review of the usefulness of ancillary tests that may be used on various tissue samples for performing an aetiological diagnosis, is included; the application of various techniques, from immunohistochemistry to molecular biology-based tests, is described. PMID:26275854

  8. Annual rhythmicity and maturation of physiological parameters in goats.

    PubMed

    Piccione, G; Caola, G; Refinetti, R

    2007-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate seasonal rhythmicity and maturation of physiological parameters in goats. Five kids (Capra hircus, Maltese breed) were studied for 24 months, starting at 5 months of age. Rectal temperature and various blood-borne substances (melatonin, cholesterol, urea, total bilirubin, albumin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and sodium) were measured once a month at dawn and dusk. Serum bilirubin concentration exhibited statistically significant 12-month rhythmicity, and melatonin concentration exhibited 6-month rhythmicity. Changes in the dusk-to-dawn difference in rectal temperature during the course of the study provided suggestive evidence that the circadian rhythm of body temperature in goats is not fully developed until the end of the second year of life. The results documented also maturational changes in cholesterol production and blood glucose regulation. PMID:17197002

  9. Bacteriological quality of on-farm manufactured goat cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Tham, W. A.; Hajdu, L. J.; Danielsson-Tham, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of 198 ripened soft or semi-soft goat cheeses obtained from dairy farms and the retail trade was investigated. The cheeses were examined for total counts of aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria (37 and 44 degrees C respectively), enterococci, coagulase positive staphylococci, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. Cheeses obtained from dairy-farms were also determined for pH value. In terms of all tests performed, cheeses made of heat-treated milk with starter culture had the best prospects for fulfilling the criteria for 'fit for consumption'. Cheeses made of raw milk without starter culture made up the most unsatisfactory group from a food-hygiene point of view. Bacteriological guidelines for on-farm manufactured goat cheese are suggested. PMID:2106443

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese tibetan goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-03-01

    The Tibetan goat (Capra hircus), a breed native to China, is adapted to cold and hypoxia. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tibetan goat. The mitochondrial genome is 16,640?bp in length, with a base composition of 33.6% A, 26.0% C, 13.1% G and 27.3% T. It has a typical mitogenome structure, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. This genomic data provides a strating point for future phylogenetics studies. PMID:25010078

  11. Partial purification of goat kidney beta-mannosidase.

    PubMed Central

    Frei, J I; Cavanagh, K T; Fisher, R A; Hausinger, R P; Dupuis, M; Rathke, E J; Jones, M Z

    1988-01-01

    1. Goat kidney beta-mannosidase was purified 8500-fold to a specific activity of 65,000 nmol/h per mg of protein with a 6% yield by using multiple steps including cation-exchange and anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography. This is the first description of a highly purified preparation from goat tissue; however, it was not homogeneous, as judged by silver-stained SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. The enzyme exhibited microheterogeneity when analysed by isoelectric focusing (pI 5.5-6.5). 3. Purified beta-mannosidase hydrolysed the terminal beta-(1----4)-linkage of oligosaccharides that accumulate in beta-mannosidosis. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3355501

  12. Town Club or Program Goat Horse Poultry Rabbit

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Dog Exploring Nature Garden- ing Goat Horse Poultry Rabbit Science & Tech Sheep Shooting Sports x x x x Canaan Cardigan Mountain Bobcats x x x x x x x x Campton North Country 4-H River Riders x x Riders x x x x Monroe Hunt Mountain x x x N. Haverhill Bob-O-Link x x x N. Haverhill Little OxBow x x N

  13. Acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C. L.; Bennett, P. B.

    1973-01-01

    Assessment of the metabolic consequences of exposure to elevated partial pressures of nitrogen and helium under normobaric and hyperbaric conditions in goats. The results include the finding that hyperbaric nitrogen causes and increase in metabolic rate and a general decrease in blood constituent levels which is interpreted as reflecting a shift toward fatty acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrates. A similar but more pronounced pattern was observed with hyperbaric helium.

  14. Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Rodolakis, A; Laroucau, K

    2015-12-14

    Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease. PMID:26255554

  15. Lechuguilla (Agave lecheguilla) Poisoning in Sheep, Goats, and Laboratory Animals. 

    E-print Network

    Mathews, F. P. (Frank Patrick)

    1937-01-01

    vesicular dermatitis by feeding another member of the Polygonaceal Lady's Thumb (Polygonum persicaria), to a pig in the presence of direct sunlight, but obtained negative results upon feeding the same plant to a bull. The observations of Bichlmaier (2... or henna to LECHUGUILLA POISONING IN SHEEP AND GOATS 9 protect them against the dermatitis resulting from the grazing of Hypericzcrn has evidently been practiced for several centuries, although the fre- quent references in the literature upon...

  16. Lentiviral vector-mediated transduction of goat undifferentiated spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hassan; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Hajian, Mahdi; Nasiri, Zahra; Bahadorani, Mehrnoosh; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies show that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are able to colonize and form mature spermatozoa following transplantation into germ cell depleted testes of recipient males. Therefore, efficient ways for enrichment and gene transfer into SSCs provides a powerful tool for production of transgenic animals. In order to adapt the technique to goats, three issues were addressed: (i) enrichment of the undifferentiated spermatogonia including SSCs using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), (ii) lentiviral vector-mediated transduction of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene into enriched cells, and (iii) transplantation of transduced undifferentiated spermatogonia into the germ cell depleted testes of immune-suppressed mice to assess for migration and colony formation ability. Enriched cells were transduced by lentiviral vectors and subsequently analyzed for expression of THY1, PLZF, VASA, UCHL1 and BCL6B genes. Cells were also analyzed for GFP and PLZF by flow cytometry. Enriched transduced cells were transplanted into germ cell depleted mice testis. Quantitative analysis of transcripts revealed that MACS-enrichment significantly increased the expression of SSC-characteristic genes THY1, PLZF, VASA, UCHL1 and BCL6B compared to non-enriched population (P?0.05). EGFP transduction did not affect the expression levels of SSC-characteristic genes. Flow cytometry revealed that 72% of transduced-enriched cells were positive for EGFP. Finally, transduced-enriched goat SSCs could colonize within the cells into the seminiferous tubules of germ cell depleted recipient mice at higher frequency than non-enriched cells. The results indicated that enrichment of goat undifferentiated spermatogonia by magnetic-activated cell sorting for THY1 antibody combined with lentiviral vector-mediated transduction has the potential to be used for production of transgenic goats. PMID:26481046

  17. Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

    1987-05-01

    The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

  18. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  19. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Bryan R.; Rahs, Engel Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent ( n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent ( n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations ( p?0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  20. Zeus, Aesculapius, Amalthea and the proteome of goat milk.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Fasoli, Elisa; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Gallina, Serafina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Foti, Salvatore

    2015-10-14

    The goat whey proteome has been explored in depth via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) at three different pH values. A total of 452 unique species have been tabulated, a proteome discovery so far unmatched in any single other investigation of milk from any mammalian species. This massive discovery is probably related to: i) the extraordinary load of proteins onto the CPLL beads (i.e. 2g for each different pH captures) vs. barely 100?L of beads; ii) the high resolution/high mass accuracy of mass spectral data; and iii) the use of two complementary tools, Mascot and PEAKS, each one contributing to a set of unique protein IDs. Due to the relative paucity of available protein annotations for goat, only 10% of the identified proteins belong to the capra, whereas 52% are specific of sheep and 37% are homologous to that of bovine milk. This work reports the largest description so far of the goat milk proteome, which has been compared with cow's milk proteome and would thus help to understand the importance of low-abundance proteins with respect to the unique biological properties of this nutrient. PMID:26193489

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Midventral and Flank Laparotomy Approaches in Goat

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, A. A.; Andeshi, R. A.; Yakubu, A. S.; Lawal, F. M.; Adamu, U.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral). Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of 12 ± 2.1 months, and average weight of 13.4 ± 2?kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (n = 5). Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in erythema at 18–24 hours and 10–14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10–14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocytes counts were significantly different (P < 0.05) at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems. PMID:26464943

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides from Fermented Goat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goat placenta was fermented by Bacillus subtilis and the optimal fermentation parameters of strongest antioxidant capacity of peptides were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of fermentation time, initial pH value and glucose content on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of the goat peptides were well fitted to a quadric equation with high determination coefficients. According to the data analysis of design expert, the strongest DPPH radical scavenging capacity value was obtained with the following conditions: content of glucose was 2.23%, initial pH value was 7.00 and fermentation time was 32.15 h. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity commonly referring antioxidant activity showed a concentration dependency and increased with increasing peptide concentration. The effects of temperature and pH were assessed to determine the stability of antioxidant peptides prepared from goat placenta. Antioxidant peptides showed good stabilities when temperature was lower than 70?. However, the antioxidant peptides lost antioxidant activities rapidly under alkaline and excessive acid condition. Ultrafiltration technique was performed to separate fermentation broth with different Mw (molecular weight). It was found that peptides in the range of < 3 KDa mainly accounted for the antioxidant activities.

  3. Monitoring of embryonic and fetal losses in different breeds of goats using real-time B-mode ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Samir, Haney; Karen, Aly; Ashmawy, Tarek; Abo-Ahmed, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-15

    Compared to cattle and sheep, few studies had been undertaken to evaluate the incidence of embryonic and fetal losses (EFL) in goats. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the timing of EFL and to identify the factors that are associated with EFL in goats such as breed, age, parity, method of estrous synchronization, and breeding. Moreover, this study aimed to ensure whether a relationship existed between serum progesterone (P4) and EFL. Goats (n = 151) of different breeds (70 Zaraiebi, 42 Damascus, and 39 Cross goats [Baladi × Damascus]) were evaluated by ultrasonography to monitor EFL during different stages of gestation (D20-23, D26-29, D33-36, D40-45, and D47-54 after breeding). Blood samples were collected at D7, D20, and at each ultrasonographic scanning to clarify changes of serum P4 levels concurrently with EFL. Results revealed that 45 of 109 goats (41.28%) were exposed to EFL. A higher EFL % was observed between D20 to 23 and D47 to 54 (19.61%) compared with D47 to 54 to birth (11.76%). Moreover, a higher EFL % was observed in Zaraiebi goats compared with others. Age and goat parity had no significant effect on the EFL % in all goats. A high EFL % were observed in goats synchronized by P4 sponge, as well as artificially inseminated goats compared with goats with spontaneous estrus, and bred by natural mating, respectively. Serum P4 at D7 or D20 after breeding showed nonsignificant difference between normal pregnant goats and goats that experienced EFL. Unlike goats that experienced partial EFL, goats that experienced total EFL between D20 to 23 and D26 to 29 showed an abrupt P4 reduction (85.06%; P < 0.01) suggesting the probability of endocrine disruption of the CL. However, goats that were exposed to total EFL between D26 and 29 to D33 to 36 showed a low P4 reduction (24.90%; P < 0.05), which might be considered as an effect rather than a cause of EFL. In conclusion, different factors such as breed, estrous synchronization, breeding, and stage of pregnancy may be involved in EFL in goats. Therefore, improvement of the goat management in the early stage of pregnancy is important to decrease EFL % in goats. Although the P4 did not show any significant difference between normal pregnancy goats and goats that experienced EFL, CL disruption should be taken into the consideration, at least, in goats exposed to total embryonic losses. PMID:26489907

  4. Sheep and goats as tool to suppress juniper encroachment: Influence of stocking density and mixed grazing during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing trials were conducted to evaluate the use of prescribed grazing by sheep and goats to suppress one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) sapling reinvasion. A 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted with Goats (G) or Goats + Sheep (G+S) at high or low stocking densities (SD). Ten ...

  5. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats' cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV. PMID:26671568

  6. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate slaughter...

  7. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate slaughter...

  8. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate slaughter...

  9. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate slaughter...

  10. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate slaughter...

  11. 76 FR 39377 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the July Sheep and Goat Survey, and Postpone the Renewal of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the July Sheep and Goat Survey, and Postpone the Renewal...approved information collection, (July Sheep and Goat Survey), and to indefinitely...INFORMATION: Title: Suspension of July Sheep and Goat Survey and postponement of...

  12. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats’ cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV. PMID:26671568

  13. Evidence for persistent Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F

    2008-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections. PMID:18987224

  14. Effects of CSN1S2 Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats

    PubMed Central

    Yue, X. P.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Mao, C. C.; Lan, X. Y.; Chen, H.; Lei, C. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268) and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440) breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats) and daily milk yield (202 goats) were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05). The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05). PMID:25049867

  15. Finishing meat goats on birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may contain natural compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production patterns, animal performance, and health when meat goat kids were fin...

  16. Goat Urine and Limestone Affect Nitrogen and Cation Distributions in an Acidic Grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.) to clear overgrown pastures and woodlots of unwanted vegetation may result in high rates of urine deposition where goats congregate. Surface application of limestone to dystrophic acid soils before clearing is known to augment ammonia gas volatilization from ...

  17. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  18. Generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Domestic Goats - Capra hircus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The creation of genetically modified (GM) goats provides a powerful method for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and ensuring food safety, all of which are high priority goals for animal agriculture. However, GM goats and the GM livestock field in general have l...

  19. Effect of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of three experiments was to determine the influence of high condensed tannin (CT) grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts (FEC) in goats. Sixteen naturally-infected Boer crossbred mixed sex goats were used at 124 plus minus 2.9 days of age in Experiment 1, 24 mixe...

  20. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS §...

  1. USING REASONING TO GUIDE ANNOTATION WITH GENE ONTOLOGY TERMS IN GOAT

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Robert

    USING REASONING TO GUIDE ANNOTATION WITH GENE ONTOLOGY TERMS IN GOAT MICHAEL BADA 1 , DANIELE TURI with a DAML+OIL version of GO and an instance store of mined GO-term-to-GO-term associations, GOAT aims to aid

  2. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate, and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into 4 treatment groups: 1) contr...

  3. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for... and breeding swine by eliminating the need to conduct pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing... exportation be tested for tuberculosis and, for some goats, brucellosis prior to export. Section 91.9...

  4. A Model of Radioiodine Transfer to Goat Milk Incorporating the Influence of Stable Iodine

    E-print Network

    Crout, Neil

    1 A Model of Radioiodine Transfer to Goat Milk Incorporating the Influence of Stable Iodine 1 N intake including large countermeasure doses of stable iodine, on the transfer of radioiodine to goat milk on the effect of countermeasure doses of stable iodine on radioiodine transfer to milk. To account

  5. Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission. PMID:22276529

  6. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. Two studies were completed in which supplemental feeds...

  7. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied. Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300-10000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoa...

  8. EFFECT OF CLINICAL STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS MASTITIS ON EARLY LACTATION DAIRY GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to characterize the effect of induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on physical parameters and milk constituents of first lactation Alpine dairy goats in early lactation (22 d in milk). The right udder half of seven goats was challenged with approximately 120 colony-forming u...

  9. Clinical and Pathological Effects of Short-term Cyanide Repeated Dosing to Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work is to determine and describe the effects of subacute cyanide toxicity to goats. Eight female goats were divided into two groups. The first group of five animals was treated with 8.0mg KCN kg-1 body weight day -1 for seven consecutive days. The second group of three animal...

  10. ROLE OF SPECIES DIVERSITY AND SECONDARY COMPOUND COMPLEMENTARITY ON DIET SELECTION OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY GOATS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats foraging on Mediterranean shrubs containing secondary compounds (toxins) may consume a variety of shrubs that contain different phytotoxins to increase shrub intake and avoid toxicosis. We conducted eight experiments to examine whether goats offered different mixtures of shrubs containing diff...

  11. Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

  12. Analysis on DNA sequence of GPR54 gene and its association with litter size in goats.

    PubMed

    Cao, G L; Chu, M X; Fang, L; Feng, T; Di, R; Li, N

    2011-08-01

    The kisspeptin/GPR54 pathway is crucial in the process of puberty onset. Six pairs of primers were designed to clone goat GPR54 and scan polymorphisms and one pair of primers to detect polymorphisms of GPR54 in sexual precocious and sexual late-maturing goat breeds. A DNA fragment of 4258 bp of goat GPR54 was obtained, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1137 bp and encodes 378 amino acids, having a high homology with other mammals. The protein was predicted to have seven transmembrane regions. There were no base pair variation in exons 1-4 and three base changes (G4014A, G4136A and C4152T) in exon 5 by sequencing and the three mutations may have some correlation with sexual precocity in goats. For the 4152 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype TT and CT had 1.02 and 0.84 (P<0.01) kids more than those with genotype CC, respectively. No significant difference (P>0.05) was found in litter size between TT and CT genotypes in Jining Grey goat. For the other two loci, no significant difference (P>0.05) was found in litter size between different genotypes in Jining Grey goats. The present study preliminarily indicated an association between allele T of the 4152 locus in GPR54 and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. PMID:21110113

  13. Wattles in goats are associated with the FMN1/GREM1 region on chromosome 10.

    PubMed

    Reber, I; Keller, I; Becker, D; Flury, C; Welle, M; Drögemüller, C

    2015-06-01

    The presence of congenital appendages (wattles) on the throat of goats is supposed to be under genetic control with a dominant mode of inheritance. Wattles contain a cartilaginous core covered with normal skin resembling early stages of extremities. To map the dominant caprine wattles (W) locus, we collected samples of 174 goats with wattles and 167 goats without wattles from nine different Swiss goat breeds. The samples were genotyped with the 53k goat SNP chip for a subsequent genome-wide association study. We obtained a single strong association signal on chromosome 10 in a region containing functional candidate genes for limb development and outgrowth. We sequenced the whole genomes of an informative family trio containing an offspring without wattles and its heterozygous parents with wattles. In the associated goat chromosome 10 region, a total of 1055 SNPs and short indels perfectly co-segregate with the W allele. None of the variants were perfectly associated with the phenotype after analyzing the genome sequences of eight additional goats. We speculate that the causative mutation is located in one of the numerous gaps in the current version of the goat reference sequence and/or represents a larger structural variant which influences the expression of the FMN1 and/or GREM1 genes. Also, we cannot rule out possible genetic or allelic heterogeneity. Our genetic findings support earlier assumptions that wattles are rudimentary developed extremities. PMID:25736034

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; García-Machado, C; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2011-12-29

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains (n=492). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 174 (31%) of 562 goats, with titers of 1:25 in 18, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 10, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 32, 1:800 in 40, 1:1600 in 17, and 1:3200 or higher in 15. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased with age, and varied with breed and geographic region; goats raised in the semi-desert region (Nubian breed) had a significantly higher seroprevalence (32.7%) than those raised in the mountains (mixed breed) (18.6%). Seropositive goats were found in all 12 (100%) farms sampled. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in goats in Durango State, Mexico. Results indicate that infected goats are likely an important source of T. gondii infection in humans in Durango State. PMID:21767913

  15. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...eliminate the requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and...eliminating the need to conduct pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing when the receiving...intended for exportation be tested for tuberculosis and, for some goats,...

  16. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...eliminate the requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and...eliminating the need to conduct pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing when the receiving...intended for exportation be tested for tuberculosis and, for some goats,...

  17. INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...

  18. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE IN RANGE GOATS ASSOCIATED WITH OXYTROPIS SERICEA (LOCOWEED)POISONING AND WATER DEPRIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 200 of 2500 Spanish goats, foraging on the mountain rangelands in western Montana, developed neurologic disease. Affected animals had severe rear limb weakness, knuckling of the rear fetlocks and a hoping gait. Sick goats were of all ages and in good flesh though they often had dull, shaggy ...

  19. SERICEA LESPEDEZA HAY AS A NATURAL DEWORMING AGENT AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION IN GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the United States (US). Due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat GIN, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to i...

  20. Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats. This paper reports the experimental poisoning in goats by dried I. sericophylla and I. riedelii containing 0.05% and 0.01% swainsonine, respectively. Three groups with four animals each were used. Group 1 recei...

  1. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue seed on physiological parameters of mature female meat goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the study were to determine if consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue seed would affect thermoregulation and dry matter intake (DMI) in mature female meat goats. During the 4 week study, goats (n = 18) were assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6 per treatment) and f...

  2. The potential to control Haemonchus contortus in indigenous South African goats with copper oxide wire particles

    PubMed Central

    Vatta, A.F.; Waller, P.J.; Githiori, J.B.; Medley, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The high prevalence of resistance of Haemonchus contortus to all major anthelmintic groups has prompted investigations into alternative control methods in South Africa, including the use of copper oxide wire particle (COWP) boluses. To assess the efficacy of COWP against H. contortus in indigenous South African goats, 18 male faecal egg-count-negative goats were each given ca.1200 infective larvae of H. contortus three times per week during weeks 1 and 2 of the experiment. These animals made up an “established” infection group (ESTGRP). At the start of week 7, six goats were each given a 2-g COWP bolus orally; six goats received a 4-g COWP bolus each and six animals were not treated. A further 20 goats constituted a “developing” infection group (DEVGRP). At the beginning of week 1, seven of the DEVGRP goats were given a 2-g COWP bolus each; seven goats were treated with a 4-g COWP bolus each and no bolus was given to a further six animals. During weeks 1–6, each of these DEVGRP goats was given ca. 400 H. contortus larvae three times per week. All 38 goats were euthanized for worm recovery from the abomasa and small intestines in week 11. In the ESTGRP, the 2-g and 4-g COWP boluses reduced the worm burdens by 95% and 93%, respectively compared to controls (mean burden ± standard deviation, SD: 23 ± 33, 30 ± 56 and 442 ± 518 worms, P = 0.02). However, in the DEVGRP goats, both the 2-g and 4-g COWP treatments were ineffective in reducing the worm burdens relative to the controls (mean burdens ± SD: 1102 ± 841, 649 ± 855, 1051 ± 661 worms, P = 0.16). Mean liver copper levels did not differ between the ESTGRP goats treated with 2-g COWP, 4-g COWP or no COWP (mean ± standard error of the mean, SEM, in ppm: 93.7 ± 8.3; 101.5 ± 8.3; 71.8 ± 8.3, P = 0.07) nor did they differ between the DEVGRP goats (mean ± SEM, in ppm: 74.1 ± 9.1; 75.4 ± 9.1; 74.9 ± 10.0, P > 0.99). The copper values were considered adequate, but not high, for goats. The COWP boluses have the potential to be used in the place of conventional anthelmintics for the control of established H. contortus infections in indigenous South African goats, but their use as part of an integrated approach to control H. contortus in the field must be fully investigated. PMID:19346076

  3. Placing the mountain goat: a total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Hall, Jocelyn C

    2010-04-01

    The interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all Caprini except muskox and goral. Maximum parsimony placed mountain goats in a derived Caprini clade. Closer examination revealed that parsimony analysis failed to integrate over phylogenetic uncertainty. We then tested our mountain goat placement against nine published alternatives using non-parametric tests, and the parametric SOWH test. Non-parametric tests returned ambiguous results, but the SOWH test rejected all alternative hypotheses. Our study represents the first explicit testing of all hypotheses for the placement of mountain goats and supports a relatively basal position for the taxon. PMID:20097296

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems. PMID:25271457

  5. Application of a duplex-PCR for detection of cows' milk in goats' milk.

    PubMed

    Kotowicz, Monika; Adamczyk, Eryk; Bania, Jacek

    2007-12-01

    A duplex-PCR method, with 2 pairs of primers recognizing sequences of mitochondrial D-loop region, was developed to identify cows' milk in the milk of goats. The PCR was shown to be specific and sensitive, enabling the detection of less than 1% of cows' milk added to the milk of goats. Simultaneous use of a primer pair for goats' and cows' mitochondrial DNA fragment prevented false negative results. The method was applied to track the presence of cow DNA in goat milk available on the Polish market. A total of 54 milk samples from 3 Polish (34) and one foreign producer (20) were examined. In 33 samples, cow DNA was detected, while 21 samples, including all of the 20 samples from foreign producers, produced the goat-specific product only. PMID:18247453

  6. A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats submitted to 3 veterinary diagnostic laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew L.; Goupil, Brad A.; Valentine, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of arriving at a definitive etiologic diagnosis in goats with clinical signs referable to the spinal cord. Twenty-seven goats with a spinal cord lesion were identified. The most common lesion recognized, in 13 of 27 goats, was degenerative myelopathy. Eight goats with degenerative myelopathy were diagnosed with copper deficiency. Non-suppurative inflammation due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, necrosis due to parasite larvae migration, and neoplasia were each diagnosed 3 times. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to careful handling and histologic examination of the spinal cord, samples of other tissues, including the brain, liver, and serum, be collected for ancillary testing if warranted. PMID:23204583

  7. Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder.

  8. Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure in Boer goat herds in Missouri, USA.

    PubMed

    Yaglom, H D; Rottinghaus, A A; Pithua, P

    2014-09-01

    Limited data currently exist on the prevalence of Toxoplasma infections in goats in the USA. The objective of this pilot investigation was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Boer goats raised in Missouri. Sera collected from 367 Boer goats in 24 herds were tested using a commercial latex agglutination assay. Evidence of T. gondii antibodies was present in 25 of the 367 goats, with titres of 1 : 32 in 4, 1 : 64 in 11, 1 : 128 in 5, 1 : 256 in 3 and 1 : 1024 in 2. Estimates for the apparent animal-level and between-herd prevalence were 6.8% (95% CI = 4.7-9.9%) and 41.7% (95% CI = 24.5-61.2%). These results confirm that Boer goats in Missouri are exposed to T. gondii and may constitute a public health risks. PMID:24256548

  9. A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

    2013-07-01

    A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of making a definitive diagnosis in goats that may have had clinical signs referable to the brain. One hundred thirty-nine goats with a brain lesion were identified. The most common lesion, in 52.5% of the goats, was suppurative inflammation. Approximately two-thirds of these goats had encephalitic listeriosis. Other goats were found to have suppurative inflammation in association with septicemia, pituitary abscesses, dehorning injury, and otitis. Thirty goats (21.6%) were diagnosed with polioencephalomalacia. Twenty-one goats (15.1%) were diagnosed with nonsuppurative inflammation. In more than half of these goats, no definitive diagnosis was made, while 8 were infected with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and 1 with Rabies virus. However, few goats were tested for rabies. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to appropriate handling of the brain, the head should be examined with attention paid to the sella turcica and the temporal bones for evidence of a pituitary abscess and otitis, respectively. Histologic examination should include multiple areas of the brain, including the brainstem, for lesions of encephalic listeriosis; the cerebral cortex, for lesions of polioencephalomalacia; and the hippocampus, for Negri bodies associated with Rabies virus infection. Consideration should be given to collecting samples of other tissues including, but not limited to, the spinal cord and liver for ancillary testing if warranted. PMID:23794017

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the mammary gland from GH transgenic goats during involution.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Bao, Ze Kun; Zhang, Qiang; Hu, Wei Wei; Yu, Qing Hua; Yang, Qian

    2015-07-10

    Mammary glands are organs for milk production in female mammals. Growth hormone (GH) is known to affect the growth and development of the mammary gland, as well as to increase milk production in dairy goats. This study performed a comprehensive expression profiling of genes expressed in the mammary gland of early involution GH transgenic (n=4) and non-transgenic goats (n=4) by RNA sequencing. RNA was extracted from mammary gland tissues collected at day 3 of involution. Gene expression analysis was conducted by Illumina RNA sequencing and sequence reads were assembled and analyzed using TopHat. FPKM (fragments per kilobase of exon per million) values were analyzed for differentially expressed genes using the Cufflinks package. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes was categorized using agriGO, while KEGG pathway analysis was performed with the online KEGG automatic annotation server. Our results revealed that 75% of NCBI goat annotated genes were expressed during early involution. A total of 18,323 genes were expressed during early involution in GH transgenic goats, compared with 18,196 expressed genes during early involution of non-transgenic goats. In these expressed genes, the majority (17,589) were ubiquitously expressed in GH transgenic and non-transgenic goats. However, there were 745 differentially expressed genes, 421 of which were upregulated and 324 were downregulated in GH transgenic goats. GO and KEGG pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in mammary gland physiology, including cell adhesion molecules, ECM-receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and fat metabolism. Our results demonstrated that the GH receptor was strongly affected in GH transgenic goats, which may activate the IGF-1/Stat3 signaling pathway. Overall, our study provided a global view of the transcriptome during involution of GH transgenic and non-transgenic goats, which increases our understanding of the biology of involution in the goat. PMID:25865296

  11. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed. PMID:25285492

  12. Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats. Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animal. All animals underwent echocardiography four times in a 72-hour period. Echocardiography was performed three times by one author and once by another. Images were stored and measured offline. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility and any differences due to animal or day were evaluated. Reference ranges (mean?±?2 standard deviations) were calculated for both species. Results Majority of the images obtained were of good to excellent quality. Image acquisition was straightforward with 5.4% of animals demonstrating a small scanning window. Reliability was excellent for majority of dimensions and time indices. There was less variation in repeatability when compared with reproducibility and differences were greater for technique than for measurements. Dimensions that were less reliable included those for right ventricular diameter and left ventricular free wall. There were many differences in cardiac dimensions between sheep and goats. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that specific reference ranges are required for these two species. Repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for the majority of cardiac dimensions and time indices suggesting that this technique is reliable and valuable for examination of clinical cases over time and for longitudinal research studies. PMID:23017011

  13. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds?

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Signe A.; Sörensen, Camilla R. L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark. PMID:25076056

  14. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    PubMed

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark. PMID:25076056

  15. Control strategies using diclazuril against coccidiosis in goat kids.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonio; Guedes, Aránzazu C; Muñoz, María C; Molina, José M; Hermosilla, Carlos; Martín, Sergio; Hernández, Yeray I; Hernández, Alvaro; Pérez, Davinia; Matos, Lorena; López, Adassa M; Taubert, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Coccidiosis is probably the main parasitic disease affecting goat kids around the weaning period, leading to high economic losses in goat production due to deaths and delayed growth rates of infected animals. A total of 101 kids of 2-4 weeks of age, naturally infected with Eimeria spp., were divided into five groups and studies were conducted to analyse the effects of metaphylactic administration of diclazuril (Vecoxan®) on parasitological and productive parameters. Two different doses of diclazuril (1 and 2 mg/kg BW, p.o.) were given either at 3 weeks (single treatment) or at 3 and 5 weeks of life (double treatment). The faecal oocyst shedding and the body weights of the animals were monitored at 2-weeks intervals for 6 consecutive weeks. Treatments of goat kids with diclazuril were effective against the three most predominant Eimeria species recorded in this study (E. arloingi, E. ninakohlyakimovae and E. christenseni) and also against other minor species found in faecal examinations, including E. alijevi, E. caprina, E. jolchijevi, E. caprovina, E. hirci and E. aspheronica). In consequence, OPG values lower than 1?×?10(3) were detected in 90 to 100% of the animals up to 15-20 days post-treatment depending on the treatment regimen. Even a single dose of 1 mg/kg BW p.o. resulted in an increase of growth rates in treated animals and therefore should be considered as a control strategy in farms precluding coccidian infections, whilst double and multiple dose treatments could be the recommendation for environments heavily contaminated with Eimeria oocysts. In relation to the OPG reduction and increased growth rates, the severity of the clinical signs (i.e., diarrhoea) was ameliorated in treated animals during the course of infection compared to that of non-treated or control kids. The precise timing of treatment appears crucial in order to prevent severe clinical coccidiosis and thereby enabling the adequate development of protective immune response against Eimeria challenge infections. PMID:22193521

  16. Studies of chemical components of Angora goat seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, G; White, I G; Chow, P

    1989-09-01

    Ejaculates were collected by artificial vagina from 11 Angora goats, once or twice weekly, between April and July in two successive years. The mean +/- SEM ejaculate volumes each year were 0.8 +/- 0.30 and 0.98 +/- 0.52 ml; the sperm concentrations were 3.33 +/- 0.49 and 2.94 +/- 0.45 x 10(9)/ml, and the pH values were 7.01 +/- 0.34 and 7.20 +/- 0.17. The concentrations (mg/100ml) of fructose (875 +/- 97) and lactic acid (73 +/- 17) in goat seminal plasma were sufficiently high to be important substrates for maintenance of sperm motility. Only trace amounts of glucose were present in seminal plasma. The glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) concentration of seminal plasma (809 +/- 154 mg 100 ml ) was correlated with whole semen sperm concentration (P < 0.001), indicating that GPC is of epididymal origin. Goat sperm are not likely to utilize GPC as a substrate and its metabolizable derivatives, glycerophosphate (3.3 +/- 1.1 mg 100 ml ) and glycerol (1.8 +/- 1.0 mg 100 ml ), were not present in sufficiently high concentrations to be significant as energy sources for the sperm. The mean concentration of citric acid was 331 mg 100 ml seminal plasma. Colored semen was consistently produced by eight bucks, and in yellow, light yellow and white ejaculates, the seminal plasma riboflavin (mug/ml) concentrations were 5.38 +/- 2.89, 3.09 +/- 0.85 and 1.73 +/- 0.88, respectively. This suggests that the color is due to riboflavin, which is probably produced by the vesicular glands since the concentration of riboflavin in the seminal plasma was correlated with fructose and citric acid levels. PMID:16726692

  17. Polioencephalomalacia associated with closantel overdosage in a goat.

    PubMed

    Sakhaee, E; Derakhshanfar, A

    2010-06-01

    This report describes clinical and pathological findings associated with closantel (a halogenated salicylanilide anthelmintic) overdosage in a 3-year-old goat. The clinical signs included blindness, incoordination, ataxia, depression of the palpebral and pupillary reflexes, and recumbency. No gross lesions were noted in tissue or organs at necropsy, but microscopic lesions were seen in nervous tissue and hepatic cells. Polioencephalomalacia was clearly evident. Bilaterally symmetrical status spongiosus of the white matter of the brain, bilateral laminar necrosis, microcavitations, ischaemic cell change and severe degeneration of the cerebellum were seen in nervous tissue. Fatty change and hydropic degeneration in the liver and hepato-cellular degeneration were observed histologically. PMID:21247019

  18. Effects of dehydration and rehydration on thermoregulatory sweating in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M A

    1989-01-01

    1. Measurement of rectal temperature (Tr), sweat rate, respiratory frequency (f) and respiratory evaporation (Eresp) were made in one Nubian and four Alpine-Toggenberg goats while they stood for 90 min in a climate chamber at 40 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta). The animals were studied when they were hydrated, when they had been dehydrated by 48 h water deprivation, and when they were rehydrated by voluntary drinking of water or saline or by intraruminal water administration. Plasma osmolality (Posm), plasma protein concentration (PP) and haematocrit (Hct) were measured before every experiment and before and after voluntary drinking. 2. Hydrated animals increased evaporation by panting and sweating during heat exposure and Tr rose about 1 degree C. The rate of sweating was as high or higher than Eresp. Dehydrated animals had lower sweat rates and higher Tr than hydrated animals, but f and Eresp were the same in hydrated and dehydrated animals. 3. When dehydrated goats were allowed to drink after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating began abruptly within 3 min of the start of drinking in every animal whether water or saline was drunk. Sweat rate returned to hydrated levels or higher before any change occurred in Posm, PP or Hct. Respiratory frequency was higher after drinking than in dehydrated animals which were not allowed to drink. 4. When water was administered by rumen tube after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating in the Nubian occurred with a short latency, similar to the onset after drinking. In the other four animals, sweating onset occurred on average at 13 min 42 s after intraruminal water administration. 5. It is concluded that sweating is a significant avenue of evaporative heat loss in these goats when they are hydrated and exposed to high Ta. Sweat rate is markedly reduced after water deprivation but returns to hydrated levels within 3 min after the start of drinking. The rapid recovery of sweating after voluntary drinking is not initiated by changes in Posm or in blood volume and does not appear to depend upon osmoreceptors in the mouth or gastrointestinal tract since it occurs after drinking either water or saline. The arrival of water in the rumen may be sufficient to initiate immediate sweating in some goats, but the act of drinking is necessary in others. PMID:2621603

  19. Pharmaceutical control of reproduction in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Abecia, José A; Forcada, Fernando; González-Bulnes, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Small ruminant species such as sheep and goats are short-day breeders, which is a crucial factor affecting the offer of lambs and kids throughout the year. An appropriate management of reproduction allows ewes and does to breed in the spring to increase the supply of product to the marketplace on a year-round basis. Pharmaceutical control of reproduction is possible, usually through administration of hormones or analogues related to the natural estrous cycle, such as progesterone, prostaglandins, and/or melatonin. PMID:21215891

  20. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (p<0.01). At the overall individual-animal level, 32.5% (714/2195, 95% CI=30.6-34.5) of goats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (p<0.001). A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (p<0.05). Increases in the female herd size (logarithmic scale) were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, while increases in male herd size had a negative association with seropositivity. If other sheep or goat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These results can inform strategies to mitigate exposure to C. burnetii in Ontario. PMID:26231909

  1. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range. PMID:19395736

  2. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  3. Conservation and function of Dazl in promoting the meiosis of goat male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhiwei; Hu, Yue; Liao, Mingzhi; Yu, Meng; Zhu, Haijing; Wang, Long; Wu, Jiang; Bai, Chunling; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2014-05-01

    Dazl (deleted in azoospermia-like) is a conserved gene in mammalian meiosis, which encodes RNA binding protein required for spermatocyte meiosis. Up to date, the expression and function of Dazl in the goat testis are unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of Dazl in dairy goat testis and their function in male germline stem cells (mGSCs). The results first revealed that the expression level of Dazl in adult testes was significantly higher than younger and immature goats, and azoospermia and male intersex testis. The dairy goat Dazl is highly conserved analysed by several online and bioinformatics software, respectively. Over-expression of Dazl promoted the expression of meiosis-related genes in dairy goat mGSCs. The expression of Stra8 was up-regulated by over-expression of Dazl analysed by Luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, results suggest the Dazl plays an important role in dairy goat spermatogenesis and that over-expression of Dazl may promote Stra8 expression in dairy goat mGSCs. PMID:24477583

  4. Evidence for introgressive hybridization of captive markhor (Capra falconeri) with domestic goat: cautions for reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Sabine E; Schwammer, Harald M; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2008-04-01

    Markhors (Capra falconeri) are among the most endangered mammal species, and several conservation measures, including ex situ breeding, are implemented to prevent their extinction. We studied sequence diversity and differentiation of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region among C. f. heptneri and C. f. megaceros kept in four zoos in relationship to lineages of other wild and domestic goats, to assess for the first time the level of molecular distinctness and variability among those subspecies, and to check for possible introgression by related Capra taxa, such as domestic goats. Levels of differentiation between some Capra falconeri lineages and modern domestic goats were similar to levels between other wild goat species (i.e., Capra aegagrus, Capra ibex) and domestic goats. Among pure markhor lineages, paraphyly was observed for C. f. heptneri, suggesting occurrence of shared ancestral polymorphism among markhor subspecies and/or ancient or recent gene exchange between subspecies. Interestingly, 35.7% of all studied markhors from three zoos are introgressed by the domestic goat. Furthermore, despite relatively small breeding group sizes, markhors have maintained a relatively high proportion of mtDNA variation within zoo groups. In any case, the existence of markhors introgressed with domestic goat DNA in zoos should be considered when selecting markhors for ex situ breeding programs with the aim of building up a stock for later reintroduction into the wild. PMID:18228130

  5. High prevalence of Eimeria infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang Hui; Lei, Li-Hui; Shang, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Man; Zhao, Yan Qing; Chen, Chao-Xi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-01

    A survey of dairy goats for infection with Eimeria species of coccidia was conducted in the Shaanxi province, northwestern China between December and November 2010, including Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. A total of 584 fecal samples (250 and 334 from Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, respectively) in six farms were collected. Eimeria oocysts were seen in 568 (97.3%) fecal samples, with six species, namely Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria arloingi, Eimeria alijevi, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria hirci, and Eimeria christenseni. The most prevalent were E. arloingi in Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, with an overall prevalence of 83.3% and 84.4%, and the lowest prevalence were E. christenseni (26.9%) and E. hirci (20.7%) for Saanen and Guanzhong Dairy goats, respectively. Two or more Eimeria species were commonly presented in all the age groups; 80.0% and 81.4% of positive Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats carried more than two species, and 1.6% and 6.5% of two breeds had six species. The results of the present survey suggested that Eimeria infection is wide and severe in the Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, which suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to prevent and control coccidial infection in dairy goats in this province. PMID:22057552

  6. Antibody kinetics in goats and conceptuses naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Leonardo P; Nogueira, Clayton I; Costa, Rafael C; Orlando, Débora R; Bruhn, Fábio R P; Lopes, Priscila F R; Nakagaki, Karen Y R; Peconick, Ana P; Seixas, Josilene N; Bezerra, Pedro S; Raymundo, Djeison L; Varaschin, Mary S

    2013-09-23

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan which can cause abortions in caprines. However, information regarding the humoral immune response and the occurrence of reproductive disorders is scarce. This is the first study in which the kinetics of antibodies is studied in pregnant goats naturally infected by N. caninum, as well as their respective conceptuses. The subclasses of IgG (IgG1 and IgG2) were also evaluated in pregnant goats. Reproductive problems related to neosporosis (abortion and stillbirth) occurred in 15.38% of the goats. There was a statistically significant association between the increased titres of maternal IgG in the second half of the gestational period with the occurrence of endogenous transplacental transmission. The rate of congenital transmission was 77%. During the gestational period of the seropositive goats, there was mainly a predominance of the subclass IgG2, although mixed patterns of IgG2-IgG1 and the IgG1 pattern were also observed. These results indicate that N. caninum is responsible for the occurrence of important alterations in the humoral immune response of naturally infected goats, and is also a potential causative agent for reproductive disorders in goats. The high proportion of infected conceptuses reinforces the suggestion that congenital infection is one of the main routes of parasite transmission in goats. PMID:23537945

  7. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy sheep and goats mixed stock farming.

    PubMed

    Diakoua, Anastasia; Anastasia, Diakou; Papadopoulos, Elias; Elias, Papadopoulos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Nikolaos, Panousis; Karatzias, Charilaos; Charilaos, Karatzias; Giadinis, Nektarios; Nektarios, Giadinis

    2013-12-01

    Toxoplasma and Neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. Mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in Mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. In order to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in Greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep and goats kept in mixed flocks, 833 sera samples (458 sheep and 375 goats) from 50 mixed flocks in different areas of the country were examined by ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies. Specific IgG against T. gondii were detected in 53.71% and 61.3% and against N. caninum in 16.8% and 6.9% of the sheep and goats, respectively. Goats had higher Toxoplasma seroprevalence than sheep (p<0.05), while sheep had higher Neospora seroprevalence than goats (p<0.05). The present study is the first report world wide, on the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum in sheep and goats that are kept together in mixed flocks. PMID:24103737

  8. High excretion of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum by peri-parturient goats in one flock in western France.

    PubMed

    Paraud, C; Pors, I; Rieux, A; Brunet, S

    2014-05-28

    Cryptosporidium spp. is an important agent of neonatal diarrhoea in goat kids. Little is known about its molecular characterization in adult goats. A longitudinal study was set up to identify the species excreted by adult goats around parturition. Individual faecal samples were collected from 20 pregnant adult goats between 1 and 5 years old in one flock. Samplings began 3 weeks before the estimated kidding date and were done weekly until kidding and for 2 weeks after kidding. Cryptosporidium oocysts were concentrated from 15 g of faeces using a caesium chloride (CsCl) method. Oocyst output was determined using a direct immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Genomic DNA was extracted from each CsCl-concentrated faecal sample positive by IFAT and submitted to a nested PCR-RFLP on the SSU rDNA gene followed by sequencing to identify the isolates at species level. According to their kidding date, goats were sampled between 4 and 8 times. Sixteen goats, out of the eighteen which kidded, were found positive at least at one sampling date. Infection was asymptomatic. Prevalence of excretion was maximal 14 days before kidding with half of the goats excreting oocysts at this date. Excretion was higher before kidding than after kidding. Unexpected levels of excretion were observed with individual oocyst excretion ranging from 6 to 2.5 × 10(5) oocysts per gram of faeces. All isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. PMID:24746237

  9. Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)

    PubMed Central

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  10. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

  11. Serological evidence for a hepatitis e virus-related agent in goats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sanford, B J; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Engle, R E; Dryman, B A; Cecere, T E; Buechner-Maxwell, V; Sponenberg, D P; Meng, X J

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an important public health disease in many developing countries and is also endemic in some industrialized countries. In addition to humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from pig, chicken, rat, mongoose, deer, rabbit and fish. While the genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans, the genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and infect humans and other animal species. As a part of our ongoing efforts to search for potential animal reservoirs for HEV, we tested goats from Virginia for evidence of HEV infection and showed that 16% (13/80) of goat sera from Virginia herds were positive for IgG anti-HEV. Importantly, we demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies to HEV were present in selected IgG anti-HEV positive goat sera. Subsequently, in an attempt to genetically identify the HEV-related agent from goats, we conducted a prospective study in a closed goat herd with known anti-HEV seropositivity and monitored a total of 11 kids from the time of birth until 14 weeks of age for evidence of HEV infection. Seroconversion to IgG anti-HEV was detected in seven of the 11 kids, although repeated attempts to detect HEV RNA by a broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR from the faecal and serum samples of the goats that had seroconverted were unsuccessful. In addition, we also attempted to experimentally infect laboratory goats with three well-characterized mammalian strains of HEV but with no success. The results indicate that a HEV-related agent is circulating and maintained in the goat population in Virginia and that the goat HEV is likely genetically very divergent from the known HEV strains. PMID:22909079

  12. Birth of kids after artificial insemination with sex-sorted, frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bathgate, R; Mace, N; Heasman, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; de Graaf, S P

    2013-12-01

    Successful sex-sorting of goat spermatozoa and subsequent birth of pre-sexed kids have yet to be reported. As such, a series of experiments were conducted to develop protocols for sperm-sorting (using a modified flow cytometer, MoFlo SX(®) ) and cryopreservation of goat spermatozoa. Saanen goat spermatozoa (n = 2 males) were (i) collected into Salamon's or Tris catch media post-sorting and (ii) frozen in Tris-citrate-glucose media supplemented with 5, 10 or 20% egg yolk in (iii) 0.25 ml pellets on dry ice or 0.25 ml straws in a controlled-rate freezer. Post-sort and post-thaw sperm quality were assessed by motility (CASA), viability and acrosome integrity (PI/FITC-PNA). Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa frozen in pellets displayed significantly higher post-thaw motility and viability than spermatozoa frozen in straws. Catch media and differing egg yolk concentration had no effect on the sperm parameters tested. The in vitro and in vivo fertility of sex-sorted goat spermatozoa produced with this optimum protocol were then tested by means of a heterologous ova binding assay and intrauterine artificial insemination of Saanen goat does, respectively. Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa bound to sheep ova zona pellucidae in similar numbers (p > 0.05) to non-sorted goat spermatozoa, non-sorted ram spermatozoa and sex-sorted ram spermatozoa. Following intrauterine artificial insemination with sex-sorted spermatozoa, 38% (5/13) of does kidded with 83% (3/5) of kids being of the expected sex. Does inseminated with non-sorted spermatozoa achieved a 50% (3/6) kidding rate and a sex ratio of 3 : 1 (F : M). This study demonstrates for the first time that goat spermatozoa can be sex-sorted by flow cytometry, successfully frozen and used to produce pre-sexed kids. PMID:23701168

  13. Association of Vitamin E with Rapid Thawing on Goat Semen

    PubMed Central

    Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Dias, Júlio César Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100??M. Semen was packaged into 0.25?mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (?155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (?196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20??L aliquot of thawed semen to 1?mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm·Kg?1) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process. PMID:24955428

  14. The economics of sheep and goat husbandry in Norse Greenland.

    PubMed

    Mainland, Ingrid; Halstead, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Insight into the relative importance of sheep and goat herding and of the economic significance of each species (i.e., milk vs. meat vs. wool) in Medieval Greenland is obtained through the application of Halstead et al.'s (2002) criteria for the identification of adult ovicaprine mandibles to faunal assemblages from three Norse farmsteads: Sandnes, V52a, and Ø71S. The economic strategies identified are broadly comparable between the two species and the Eastern and Western Settlement sites examined, and are suggestive of the subsistence production of meat and milk. Comparison with farmsteads elsewhere in Greenland indicates that socio-economic status and/or farmstead size interacted with geographical location in determining the economic strategies employed by the Norse farmers. A broader use of resources and a more varied diet are evident at larger farmsteads in Greenland and this paper suggests that such sites would have been better able than their smaller counterparts to withstand environmental deterioration during the early Middle Ages. These analyses have also confirmed that goats were relatively more common in Norse sites in Greenland than in Norse sites in Iceland, Orkney, or Shetland. PMID:21774148

  15. Mother goats do not forget their kids’ calls

    PubMed Central

    Briefer, Elodie F.; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Parent–offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids’ calls 7–13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers’ responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11–17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance. PMID:22719031

  16. [Differentiation of staphylococci from sheep and goat milk samples].

    PubMed

    Deinhofer, M; Pernthaner, A

    1993-06-01

    A total of 447 micrococcaceae strains isolated from 88 ewe and 359 goat milk samples from cases of chronic mastitis were differentiated by means of the ATB 32 STAPH-test. Of these strains 389 (= 87%) could be identified. Fourteen strains were sensitive in the bacitracin-resistance-test and therefore classified as Micrococcus spp. In ewe milk following Staphylococcus spp. were found: S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. lentus, S. xylosus, S. warneri, S. equorum, S. haemolyticus, S. simulans, S. hominis and S. saprophyticus. Staphylococcus spp. identified in goat milk samples were: S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. caprae, S. lentus, S. simulans, S. capitis, S. lugdunensis, S. xylosus, S. chromogenes, S. hominis, S. arlettae, S. warneri, S. sciuri, and S. saprophyticus. Highest cell counts in the milk of both animals species, and the highest incidence of clinical udder alterations were caused by S. aureus. Increases in milk cell counts as well as pathological udder findings were observed in coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections for novobiocin-sensitive Staphylococcus spp. (S. epidermidis, S. warneri, S. simulans, S. lugdunensis, and S. chromogenes) and several S. lentus strains. PMID:8339709

  17. Control of haemonchosis in Malaysian goats with closantel.

    PubMed

    Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Jalila, A; Sani, R; Symoens, C

    1994-06-01

    The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of closantel on natural infections with Haemonchus contortus were studied in goats in Peninsular Malaysia. Closantel was highly effective against H. contortus, either at a subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 5.0 mg kg-1 body weight (100%), or in an oral drench mixture with mebendazole at a dose of 10.0 mg kg-1 (99.2%), as indicated by faecal egg counts. H. contortus larvae were absent from faecal cultures for 5, 6 and 7 weeks following treatment with s.c. injections of closantel at doses of 2.5 mg kg-1, 5.0 mg kg-1 and 10.0 mg kg-1 respectively, and for 6 weeks after treatment with closantel at 10.0 mg kg-1, given orally. Through its sustained activity, closantel not only prevented reinfection with H. contortus but also caused a dramatic reduction in pasture contamination. The potential utility of closantel in the strategic control of haemonchosis in goats, and as an alternative treatment for benzimidazoles and levamisole resistant H. contortus strains, is discussed. PMID:7975118

  18. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Roermund, H J W van; Bergevoet, R H M

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reactive strategies were initiated after PCR positive bulk tank milk or after an abortion storm (abortion percentage in the herd of 5% or more). Preventive vaccination eradicates Q fever in a herd on average within 2 and 7 years (depending on breeding style and vaccination strategy). Economic outcomes reveal that preventive vaccination is always the preferred Q fever control strategy on infected farms and this even holds for a partial analysis if only on-farm costs and benefits are accounted for and human health costs are ignored. Averted human health costs depend to a large extend on the number of infected human cases per infected farm or animal. Much is yet unknown with respect to goat-human transmission rates. When the pathogen is absent in both livestock and farm environment then the "freedom of Q fever disease" is achieved. This would enable a return to non-vaccinated herds but more insight is required with respect to the mechanisms and probability of re-infection. PMID:26164531

  19. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the goat forestomach during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Angela; Masot, Javier; Franco, Antonio; Gazquez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the detection and distribution of synaptophysin (SPY), non-neuronal enolase (NNE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin (VIM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression in the goat forestomach during prenatal development. A total of 140 embryos and fetuses were examined to evaluate protein expression from the first stage of prenatal life until birth. In all cases, SPY immunoreactivity was detected at 53 days gestation in the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis, serosa, and myenteric plexuses. Immunoreactivity to NNE was observed at 64 days gestation in the same locations as well as the epithelial layer. Glial cells were found at 64 days as indicated by signals corresponding to GFAP and VIM at 39 days. Positive staining for NPY and VIP was observed at 113, 75, and 95 days in the rumen, reticulum, and omasum, respectively, in the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis, and myenteric plexuses of each of these gastric compartments. These findings indicate possible preparation of the fetal goat forestomach for postnatal function. Compared to other ruminant species, neuroendocrine cells, glial cells and peptidergic innervations markers were detected earlier compared to sheep but at around the same stage as in deer. PMID:24136206

  20. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the goat forestomach during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Angela; Masot, Javier; Franco, Antonio; Gazquez, Antonio; Redondo, Eloy

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the detection and distribution of synaptophysin (SPY), non-neuronal enolase (NNE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin (VIM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression in the goat forestomach during prenatal development. A total of 140 embryos and fetuses were examined to evaluate protein expression from the first stage of prenatal life until birth. In all cases, SPY immunoreactivity was detected at 53 days gestation in the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis, serosa, and myenteric plexuses. Immunoreactivity to NNE was observed at 64 days gestation in the same locations as well as the epithelial layer. Glial cells were found at 64 days as indicated by signals corresponding to GFAP and VIM at 39 days. Positive staining for NPY and VIP was observed at 113, 75, and 95 days in the rumen, reticulum, and omasum, respectively, in the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis, and myenteric plexuses of each of these gastric compartments. These findings indicate possible preparation of the fetal goat forestomach for postnatal function. Compared to other ruminant species, neuroendocrine cells, glial cells and peptidergic innervations markers were detected earlier compared to sheep but at around the same stage as in deer. PMID:24136206

  1. Breeding season and aspects of reproduction of female goats.

    PubMed

    Amoah, E A; Gelaye, S; Guthrie, P; Rexroad, C E

    1996-04-01

    Reproductive data were collected on 608 female goats and their 1,147 offspring, involving 20 herds, from different geographical locations in Georgia for 3 yr. Results for seven breeds and a dairy crossbred revealed that most goats bred seasonally, commencing approximately in late June and reaching a peak in September to November. However, the Pygmy had an unusual peak of mating activity during summer (July). Gestation period ( +/- SE) was 150.6 +/- 2.64 d. Pygmies had the shortest gestation period, whereas Toggenburgs had the longest. Gestation period decreased as the litter of size of the doe increased (b = -.92 d/kid, P < .001) and increased slightly with increasing parity (b = .22 d/parity). December and January matings had the shortest gestation period. Litter size was 1.85 +/- .67, with twins being the most prevalent litter size. Litter size varied among breeds. The litter size increased with mating weight of the doe for most breeds (litter size increased approximately .02 kids/kg of mating weight). Birth weight was 3.24 +/- .64 kg and varied among breeds; Pygmy kids were lightest (1.7 kg) and Toggenburgs were heaviest (3.9 kg). Males were heavier than female kids. Birth weight decreased with the size of litter (approximately .45 kg/kid, P < .001). PMID:8727991

  2. Leptospirosis in sheep and goats under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate management practices and poor reproductive performance have been reported as fundamental factors on reducing the levels of productivity in livestock. Different pathogens have been reported in small ruminants' herds/flocks with reproductive failures. The aim of the present study was to review aspects of leptospirosis in small ruminants, mainly its impact on reproduction and consequently on productivity of the herds/flocks under tropical conditions. Leptospiral infection in goats and sheep is common in several countries, and those species can also act as carriers of leptospires. Severe disease is often associated to young animals and is frequently associated to incidental serovars. In contrast, subclinical infection is mainly characterized by reproductive problems, such as infertility, abortion, occurrence of stillbirths, and weak lambs/goat kids. Moreover, laboratorial tests are essential to achieve an accurate diagnosis of the infection. Microscopic agglutination test is the most common indirect test of leptospirosis, being used worldwide. In small ruminants, PCR consists on a recommendable method for diagnosing animals that carry leptospires. Control of leptospirosis in small ruminants involves measures such as the identification and treatment of the carriers and other sources of infection, quarantine in acquired animals, and systematic immunization with commercial vaccines containing the circulating serovars in the herd/flock. Productivity of small ruminant breeding can dramatically increase with adequate sanitary conditions and control of leptospirosis. Immunization of all the animals combined to the treatment of carriers may successfully control the infection and importantly reduce the economic reproductive hazards that are observed under tropical conditions. PMID:24085419

  3. Trend analysis of plasma insulin level around parturition in relation to parity in Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Rosi, F

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of parity on plasma insulin level around parturition in Saanen goats. On d -14, -7, 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 from parturition, plasma glucose, NEFA, free AA, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were analyzed in 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous goats. At parturition, BW of primiparous goats was about 75% of that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001) and then their milk production was lower than that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001). At parturition, glucose increased (P < 0.01) in both primiparous and multiparous goats and then decreased (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation, remaining higher (P < 0.01) in primiparous than multiparous goats until the end of the study period. In both groups, free AA decreased (P < 0.01) at parturition, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation without difference between groups. Only in multiparous goats, plasma NEFA increased at parturition (P < 0.01), returning to prepartum levels on d 14 (P < 0.01). Changes in glucose and AA could have been caused by cortisol, which increased (P < 0.01) at parturition in both primiparous and multiparous goats, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 7 of lactation, without difference between the parity groups. In multiparous goats, insulin decreased soon after parturition (P < 0.05), remaining at low levels until the end of the study period, whereas in primiparous goats, insulin did not vary until d 14 of lactation, when it decreased (P < 0.05) also in this group. Therefore, between d 3 and 14 of lactation, insulin was higher in primiparous than multiparous goats (P < 0.05). Only in primiparous goats, at kidding, insulin was negatively correlated to BW (P < 0.01), and after parturition it was negatively correlated with milk yield (P < 0.05) and plasma NEFA (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that higher insulin levels in primiparous Saanen goats, which are still immature at their first breeding season, acted to limit both the mobilization of bodily reserves and the capture of nutrients by the lactating mammary gland, thus providing nutrients for their own physical and physiological development. PMID:24778336

  4. The Toxicity of the Ripe Fruit of Blackbrush or Tarbrush (Flourensia cernua) for Sheep and Goats

    E-print Network

    Mathews, F. P. (Frank Patrick)

    1944-01-01

    animal. Since these tests in- clude material collected from four different areas it is evident that the location of the plant is of minor importance. The one exception, goat No. 111, is a good example of a resistant animal. No variation in the toxicity... 125 was killed with two doses, each representing 0.805 per cent of the body weight, whereas Goat 127 withstood four daily doses, each TOXICITY OF RIPE FRUIT OF BLACKBRUSH FOR SHEEP AND GOATS 11 Fig. 1. Flourensia ccmoa, a single bush...

  5. Comparison of two techniques for diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis in diarrhoeic goat kids and lambs in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Symeoudakis, Symeon; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted in the Larnaca area of Cyprus and included 28 goat and 15 sheep flocks suffering from neonatal diarrhoea (>20%). Faecal samples from diarrhoeic animals revealed that 25 of the 28 goat and 12 of the 15 sheep flocks were positive for Cryptosporidium. The ELISA was more accurate in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis compared to the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique (P < 0.05). Flock size and the period of kidding/lambing were found to be the main risk factors implicated in the occurrence of neonatal goat kid/lamb cryptosporidiosis. PMID:22373929

  6. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kova??ík, Kamil; Koudela, B?etislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. PMID:24387851

  7. Mineral Metabolism in Singleton and Twin-pregnant Dairy Goats

    PubMed Central

    Härter, C. J.; Castagnino, D. S.; Rivera, A. R.; Lima, L. D.; Silva, H. G. O.; Mendonça, A. N.; Bonfim, G. F.; Liesegang, A.; St-Pierre, N.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (49.5 kg±7.6 body weight [BW]) were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen), 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin) and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days). Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg) decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg) was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g). Mineral retention (mg/g) increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g) increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal absorption. Finally, mineral metabolism was specific to each genotype and, except for Na, was not affected by the number of fetuses. PMID:25557674

  8. Efficacy of halofuginone lactate against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Julie; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe

    2014-05-28

    Preliminary results obtained in calves, lambs and goat kids infected by Cryptosporidium sp. have indicated a partial prophylactic efficacy of halofuginone lactate when administered at 100 ?g/kg body weight (BW). In this study, the efficacy of halofuginone lactate was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts per oral route. The trial consisted in 2 replicated experiments carried out successively at 2 months of interval. Twenty-two 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally inoculated once, 2-3 days after the arrival in premises, with 10(6)C. parvum oocysts per oral route and were allocated into 2 groups. Animals of group 1 acted as untreated control whereas animals of group 2 received halofuginone lactate for 10 days from the infection day to day 9 post-infection (DPI) at a daily oral dose rate of 100 ?g/kg BW. Individual oocyst shedding was monitored by daily examination of faecal smears stained by carbol fuchsin and scored semi-quantitatively (0-5) until 19 DPI. Daily diarrhoea scores, weight gain and mortality were recorded. In the first experiment, oocyst excretion started 1 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 3.6) and became undetectable from 16-19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 1 day later, showed lower scores compared to control on 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 DPI and vanished from 16 to 19 DPI. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Five kids died in the control group compared to 1 kid in the treated group. In the second (replicated) experiment, oocyst excretion started 2 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 4.5) and became undetectable 18 and 19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 2 days later, peaked on 13 DPI (mean score 2.3) and persisted until the end of the experiment. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Ten kids died in the control group compared to 3 kids in the treated group. The results demonstrated the efficacy of halofuginone lactate when given as a prophylactic treatment at 100 ?g/kg BW during 10 days in reducing oocyst shedding, diarrhoea and mortality in goat kid cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24636788

  9. Consumption of Pistacia lentiscus foliage alleviates coccidiosis in young goats.

    PubMed

    Markovics, A; Cohen, I; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Dvash, L; Ungar, E D; Azaizeh, H; Landau, S Y

    2012-05-25

    Coccidiosis near weaning is a major cause of diarrhea, ill-thrift, and impaired performance in small ruminants. A recent survey showed that in villages of the Samaria Hills, Israel, shepherds treat young, weaned goat kids afflicted with diarrhea by cutting and feeding them the foliage of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk) or by tethering them close to lentisk bushes which they browse. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lentisk leaves do indeed have anti-coccidial value, and, if positive, to ascertain the role of tannins in this effect. We monitored for 24 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) days the effect of lentisk feeding on the development of naturally occurring coccidiosis in weaned kids artificially infected with parasitic nematodes. In Experiment 1, kids were infected with nematodes and fed lentisk foliage (PIS) or cereal hay (HAY). Coccidiosis developed at the early stage of the nematode infection, when dietary treatments were initiated. Kids in the PIS group had a lower (P<0.02) concentration of oocysts per gram feces (opg). In Experiment 2, aimed at verifying if tannins are the active component in lentisk foliage, coccidiosis occurred at the peak of the nematode infection, before experimental diets were initiated. Dietary treatments were: cereal hay (HAY), or lentisk foliage consumed without (PIS) or with (PISPEG) a 20-g daily supplement of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 4000), a molecule that impairs tannin-bonding with proteins. Goats fed the PIS diet had lower fecal opg counts than counterparts of the HAY (P<0.001) and PISPEG (P<0.002) treatments. Fecal opg counts for the HAY and PISPEG treatments did not differ, suggesting that the anti-coccidial moiety in lentisk was indeed tannins. Our results strongly suggest that: (i) in agreement with the ethno-veterinary anecdotal evidence, exposure of young, weaned goat kids to lentisk foliage alleviates coccidiosis; and (ii) this positive effect is associated with tannins. As coccidiosis is a major affliction of kids, providing them with tannin-rich browse near weaning could be an environmentally friendly way of improving their welfare and health status, in particular under bio-organic farm management. PMID:22196852

  10. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

  11. The Effects of GH Transgenic Goats on the Microflora of the Intestine, Feces and Surrounding Soil

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zekun; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Jian; Hu, Weiwei; Yu, Huiqing; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    The development of genetically engineered animals has brought with it increasing concerns about biosafety issues. We therefore evaluated the risks of growth hormone from transgenic goats, including the probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial community of the goats’ gastrointestinal tracts, feces and the surrounding soil. The results showed that neither the GH nor the neoR gene could be detected in the samples. Moreover, there was no significant change in the microbial community of the gastrointestinal tracts, feces and soil, as tested with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, phylogenetic analysis showed that the intestinal content, feces and soil samples all contained the same dominant group of bacteria. These results demonstrated that expression of goat growth hormone in the mammary of GH transgenic goat does not influence the microflora of the intestine, feces and surrounding soil. PMID:26445136

  12. Effects of physical and chemical traits affecting intake of woody plants by goats 

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Eric Edward

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the intake of 8 major browse species by Spanish goats (Capra hircus). Diet preference and a selection order was established for the 8 browse species by calculating instantaneous intake rates (IIR, mg/sec) following 2 types...

  13. A Haemonchus Contortus Management Plan for Sheep and Goats in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Machen, Richard V.; Craddock, Frank; Craig, Tom; Fuchs, Thomas W.

    1998-05-22

    Internal parasites are the single largest threat to the profitability of sheep and goat production in Texas. Haemonchus contortus is the parasite of greatest concern. This publication explains common symptoms, sources of the parasite's resistance...

  14. Role of PRNP S127 allele in experimental goat infection with classical caprine scrapie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic goats and sheep. Experimental inoculation studies in sheep confirmed that classical caprine scrapie can readily transmit to sheep. Therefore, even if current scrapie eradication measures are successful in sheep, goa...

  15. Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections

    PubMed Central

    EIBACH, R.; BOTHE, F.; RUNGE, M.; FISCHER, S. F.; PHILIPP, W.; GANTER, M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other. PMID:22217267

  16. Comparative foraging ecology of white-tailed deer and Angora goats on the Edwards Plateau, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Jacobson, Roy Arthur

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated how seasonal patterns in forage abundance and quality influenced the feeding behavior of white-tailed deer ( Odocolieus virginianus) and Angora goats; two similar-sized ungulates with different digestive morphologies. I...

  17. High forage quality helps maintain resilience to gastrointestinal parasites on sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites (especially the blood feeder Haemonchus contortus) in small ruminants is a problem for sheep and goat producers. Gastrointestinal parasite overloads reduce livestock performance and production efficiency, and can result in increased death losses of animals...

  18. PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are extensively utilized in disease diagnostics with monoclonal antibodies serving as critical tools within the assay. Detection of scrapie in sheep and goats relies heavily on immunoassays including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In the United States, regulatory tes...

  19. Estimation of heterosis and heterosis retention in the development of a synthetic breed of goat 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Matthew Blain

    1994-01-01

    Review of crossbreeding research indicates that the dominance model does not always adequately account for heterosis. With this in mind, genetic models were fit to goat crossbreeding data for type of birth, birth weight, and adjusted (for age...

  20. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at an average rate of 4.9±2.2(SE) percent annually since 2004. We caution that the estimated rate of population growth may be conservative if severe spring weather deterred some mountain goats from reaching the high-elevation survey areas during the 2011 surveys. If the estimated average rate of population growth were to remain constant in the future, then the population would double in approximately 14-15 years.

  1. Genome analysis of orf virus isolates from goats in the Fujian Province of southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xuelin; Zeng, Xiancheng; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Li, Ming; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Yifan; Rock, Daniel L.; Luo, Shuhong; Wang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Orf virus (ORFV), a species of the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae, causes non-systemic, highly contagious, and eruptive disease in sheep, goat, and other wild and domestic ruminants. Our previous work shows orf to be ubiquitous in the Fujian Province of China, a region where there is considerable heterogeneity among ORFVs. In this study, we sequenced full genomes of four Fujian goat ORFV strains (OV-GO, OV-YX, OV-NP, and OV-SJ1). The four strains were 132–139 kb in length, with each containing 124–132 genes and about 64% G+C content. The most notable differences between the four strains were found near the genome termini. OV-NP lacked seven and OV-SJ1 lacked three genes near the right terminus when compared against other ORFVs. We also investigated the skin-virulence of the four Fujian ORFVs in goats. The ORFVs with gene deletions showed low virulence while the ORFVs without gene deletions showed high virulence in goats suggesting gene deletion possibly leads to attenuation of ORFVs. Gene 134 was disrupted in OV-NP genome due to the lack of initial code. The phylogenetic tree based on complete Parapoxviruse genomes showed that sheep originated and goat originated ORFVs formed distinctly separate branches with 100% bootstrap. Based on the single gene phylogenetic tree of 132 genes of ORFVs, 47 genes can be easily distinguished as having originated from sheep or goats. In order to further reveal genetic variation presented in goat ORFVs and sheep ORFVs, we analyzed the deduced amino acid sequences of gene 008, multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of gene 008 from the genome of five goat ORFVs and four sheep ORFVs revealed 33 unique amino acids differentiating it as having sheep or goats as host. The availability of genomic sequences of four Fujian goat ORFVs aids in our understanding of the diversity of orf virus isolates in this region and can assist in distinguishing between orf strains that originate in sheep and goats. PMID:26557108

  2. Biological, seasonal and environmental factors associated with Pulex irritans infestation of dairy goats in Greece.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulos, G; Theodoropoulos, G; Kominakis, A; Theis, J H

    2006-04-15

    The objectives of the present study were to study the fauna of fleas infesting dairy goats in Greece, the spectrum of hosts each flea species infests, identify risk factors in the environment, and goat management practices that favour flea infestation of goats, and describe the seasonal variation of infestation in goats. For this purpose, a total of 64 herds, with a history of flea infestation in goats, were visited during June and July of 2002 for data collection on flea burdens, species of fleas on goats, and other farm or pet animal species in the farm. Also data were collected on herd characteristics and management along with the flea infestation status of the village where it was located through a questionnaire survey. Data on elevation and climatic characteristics of the villages where the herds were located were also used in the study. All fleas collected from goats, sheep, pigs, and cattle were identified as being Pulex irritans. All fleas collected from cats were identified as being Ctenocephalides felis. Dogs were infested either with P. irritans, C. canis, or C. felis, or with both C. canis and C. felis. Kids had a significantly higher flea burden than goats and the Skopelos breed had the highest flea burden of all breeds followed in diminishing order by the breeds Capra prisca, Saanen cross mix, and Alpine cross mix (p < 0.05). The gender of the animal had no significant effect on flea burden. Factors significantly affecting the flea burden of goats were duration of flea infestation in the herd, type of flea control, and manure imported prior to the appearance of fleas in the herd (p < 0.05). The flea burden of goats was highest during summer and lowest during winter (p < 0.01), with complete an absence of infestation in January and February. Finally, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the average annual temperature of villages with flea infestation (15.59 degrees C) and villages without flea infestation (17.14 degrees C). It was concluded that P. irritans was a true infestation of goats in Greece. PMID:16414195

  3. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  4. Histological Features of the Degenerating Intervertebral Disc in a Goat Disc-injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yejia; Drapeau, Susan; An, Howard S.; Markova, Dessislava; Lenart, Brett A.; Anderson, D. Greg

    2010-01-01

    Study Design An in vivo study to develop a goat large-animal model for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Objectives To determine an optimal method for inducing goat IVD degeneration suitable for testing disc regeneration therapies. Summary of Background Data Although rodent, rabbit, and other small animal studies are useful, the narrow dimensions of IVDs in these species limit studies requiring injection of a relevant volume of therapeutics or implantation of engineered tissue constructs. For this study, the goat was selected because the size and shape of their IVDs are comparable to those of adult humans. Methods A minimally invasive approach that did not cause significant morbidity or mortality to adult goats (n = 6) was used. Under fluoroscopic guidance, goat lumbar IVDs were injured with a 4.5 mm drill bit or #15 or #10 surgical blades. Two months post-injury, the goats were euthanized and their IVDs with adjacent endplates were isolated, decalcified and stained. Results A numerical histological scale to categorize the degree of goat IVD degeneration was developed based on the histological features of rabbit IVDs previously described by Masuda et al., goat IVDs described by Hoogendoorn et al., and human IVDs described by Boos et al. The inter-rater agreement of our scoring system was assessed (weighted Kappa value = 0.6646). Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the injured IVDs with uninjured control. A 4.5 mm drill bit inserted to a 15 mm depth resulted in a significantly higher histological score compared to uninjured controls (p = 0.01). Injury with a #15 or #10 blade did not result in increased histological scores compared with uninjured controls. Conclusions A comparison of the various injuries inflicted showed that the use of a 4.5 mm drill bit resulted in the most significant histological changes. PMID:21245789

  5. Nutritive evaluation of two native north Texas legumes (Strophostyles) for goats 

    E-print Network

    Foster, Jamie Lee

    2004-11-15

    -1 NUTRITIVE EVALUATION OF TWO NATIVE NORTH TEXAS LEGUMES (STROPHOSTYLES) FOR GOATS A Thesis by JAMIE LEE FOSTER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2004 Major Subject: Agronomy NUTRITIVE EVALUATION OF TWO NATIVE NORTH TEXAS LEGUMES (STROPHOSTYLES) FOR GOATS A Thesis by JAMIE LEE FOSTER Submitted...

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths, lungworms and liver fluke in sheep and goats in Norway.

    PubMed

    Domke, Atle V Meling; Chartier, Christophe; Gjerde, Bjørn; Leine, Nils; Vatn, Synnøve; Stuen, Snorre

    2013-05-01

    The present study describes the occurrence of various gastrointestinal helminths, lungworms and liver flukes in Norwegian sheep and goats as assessed from faecal samples and post mortem examinations performed between 2007 and 2010. Faecal samples for gastrointestinal nematode egg counts were collected from 77 sheep flocks and 30 dairy goat flocks from three geographical regions in Norway. Additionally, thirty-two lambs and 16 adult goats were euthanized for necropsy examination and for identification of adult gastrointestinal nematodes and tapeworms, lungworms and liver flukes. The survey showed that there was a higher mean excretion of trichostrongyle eggs in sheep than in goats at the individual level (392 EPG vs. 154 EPG, p<0.001). For both host species, the mean prevalence and intensity of excreted trichostrongyle eggs were significantly higher in the southern coastal region compared with the inland and northern regions (p<0.001). Third stage larvae of Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia, Haemonchus and Nematodirus type were the most prevalent ones in the coprocultures from sheep, whereas larvae of Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia and Nematodirus type dominated in goats. The most prevalent gastrointestinal nematode species found at necropsy was Teladorsagia circumcincta (75.0 and 81.2% respectively in sheep and goats), while the largest mean worm burdens were recorded for Haemonchus contortus in sheep (724±623) and T. circumcincta in goats (377±529). Other gastrointestinal nematode species were present at low prevalence or in low numbers. Fasciola hepatica was only found in necropsied sheep from the coastal region with a prevalence of 18.8%. The lungworm Mullerius capillaris was found from all regions in necropsied goats (31.2%) and from coastal area in sheep (3.1%). The present study indicates that H. contortus and Nematodirus battus have a wider geographical distribution to the north than expected, and describes to our knowledge the northernmost occurrence of H. contortus in the Nordic countries. PMID:23298563

  7. A survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by latex agglutination assay in dairy goats in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Swai, Emmanuel Senyael; Kaaya, Jackson Eliona

    2013-01-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, are increasingly becoming a global food safety concern. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in apparently healthy, unvaccinated dairy goat flocks reared under mixed smallholders, northern Tanzania between April and October 2011. Flock- and animal-level data were collected using a questionnaire. Sera (n = 337) collected from goats aged ? 6 months and from 102 flocks, respectively, were analyzed using modified Eiken latex agglutination test. A flock was classified as T. gondii seropositive if at least one animal tested positive. Titers considered diagnostically significant (? 1:16) were detected in 19.3 % of goats and 45.17 % of flocks, respectively. The antibody levels ranged from 1:16 to 1:2,048 and among the seropositive goats, the proportion of high antibody levels (? 1:2,048), suggestive of acute infection, was 1.5 %. The study revealed that goats raised in Babati are at a lower risk of acquiring T. gondii infection (P = 0.00209) than those which are raised in Arumeru district. The prevalence of T. gondii antibody was significantly higher in crossbred (24.7 %) and Saanen (24.4 %) breed goats than in local (14.3 %) and Toggenburg (12.1 %) and in females than in males (P = 0.043). No significant difference was observed among goats kept under various husbandry practices. The relatively high seroprevalence detected in this study suggests that toxoplasmosis may be posing a significant animal and human health risk and that the consumption of goat meat may play a role in the transmission of the disease to humans. PMID:22644734

  8. Metabolic and oxidative status of Saanen goats of different parity during the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    Radin, Lada; Šimpraga, Miljenko; Vince, Silvijo; Kosteli?, Antun; Milinkovi?-Tur, Suzana

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to research changes in metabolic and antioxidative status of Saanen goats of different parity occurring during the peripartum period. Blood samples were taken on 10-7 and 3-1 d prepartally and 1-3, 14 and 28 d postpartally from goats allocated in three groups according to their parity: primiparous (PRIM), goats that kidded the 2nd or 3rd time (MID), and goats that kidded 4 or more times (MULTI)). Metabolic profile parameters (non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, triglycerides, albumin and urea) and indicators of oxidative stress ((superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were determined. Intense metabolic changes associated with late pregnancy and onset of lactation were pronounced the most in MULTI goats that also had the biggest litter per goat. Significant differences were found in metabolic parameters NEFA, BHB, glucose, triglycerides within groups during peripartum period, as well as between them (the effect of parity). MDA concentrations were indicative of increased lipid peroxidation around parturition, especially pronounced in MULTI group 1-3 d prepartally, when the highest GSH-Px/SOD ratio was also found. Postpartally, antioxidant enzymes ratio in MID and MULTI group decreased while MDA concentrations remained high, suggesting antioxidant system inefficiency. Significant time × group interaction was observed for most of the parameters. The obtained results show that the goats of higher parity display higher levels of metabolism intensity and consequently, varying levels of oxidative stress during the peripartum period. Further studies should determine applicability of NEFA and BHB in periparturient metabolic profiling in dairy goats as well as establish normal ranges and cut-off levels for these biomarkers. PMID:26511664

  9. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  10. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. PMID:25200782

  11. FAUNA AND IDENTITY: RITUAL, FEAST AND DIET AT GOAT SPRING PUEBLO, NEW MEXICO 

    E-print Network

    Mendha, Muhammad Ali A

    2013-09-26

    AND IDENTITY: RITUAL, FEAST AND DIET AT GOAT SPRING PUEBLO, NEW MEXICO An Undergraduate Research Scholars Thesis By MUHAMMAD ALI ALTAF MENDHA Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment... 1 ABSTRACT Fauna and Identity: Ritual, Feast and Diet at Goat Spring Pueblo, New Mexico. (May 2014) Muhammad Ali Altaf Mendha Department of Anthropology Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Suzanne Eckert Department of Anthropology...

  12. Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  13. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  14. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  15. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon footprint per area of land farmed compared with outdoor farming systems, although the 2 systems were not significantly different when results were expressed per kilogram of FPCM, at 0.81kg CO2e and 1.03kg CO2e per kg of FPCM, respectively. Both systems had footprints less than other reported dairy goat carbon footprints and on par with those for New Zealand dairy cows. The methodology used to determine enteric methane is important for an accurate and meaningful assessment. The choice of manure management system and supplementary feed can substantially affect the carbon footprint. PMID:25981064

  16. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  17. The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-12-10

    Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ?8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ? 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk. PMID:25405703

  18. Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Collins, W.F.; Williams, H.L.

    1985-08-01

    Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.

  19. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Spi?ic, Silvio; Ra?i? Ivana; Andrijani?, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepani?, Maja; Cvetni?, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus. PMID:26054222

  20. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Spi?ic S; Ra?ić Ivana; Andrijanić M; Duvnjak S; Zdelar-Tuk M; Stepanić M; Cvetnić Z

    2015-05-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus.

  1. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Tissue Tropism and Pathogenesis in Sheep and Goats following Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B.; Babiuk, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

  2. Molecular cloning, structural analysis, and tissue expression of the TNNT3 gene in Guizhou black goat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haolin; Zhang, Jinhua; Yu, Bo; Li, Liang; Shang, Yishun

    2015-11-15

    The vertebrate fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) protein is an important regulatory and structural component of thin filaments in skeletal muscle, which improves meat quality traits of livestock and poultry. In this study, the troponin T isoforms from adult goat (skeletal muscle mRNA) were identified. We isolated the full-length coding sequence of the goat TNNT3 gene (GenBank: KM042888), analyzed its structure, and investigated its expression in different tissues from different aged goats (10, 30, 90, 180, and 360days old). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that Guizhou black goat TNNT3 was highly expressed in the biceps femoris muscle, abdominal muscle, and longissimus dorsi muscle (P<0.01), and lowly expressed in the cardiac muscle, masseter muscle, and rumen tissue (P>0.05). Western blotting confirmed that the TNNT3 protein was expressed in the muscle tissues listed above, with the highest level found in the longissimus dorsi muscle, and the lowest level in the masseter muscle. In the 10 to 360day study period the TNNT3 protein expression level was the highest when the goats were 30days old. A peptide, ASPPPAEVPEVHEEVH that may contribute to improved goat meat tenderness was identified. This study provides an insight into the molecular structure of the vertebrate TNNT3 gene. PMID:26187066

  3. Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research. PMID:23067875

  4. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk composition and yield of Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Peris, S; Caja, G; Such, X; Casals, R; Ferret, A; Torre, C

    1997-12-01

    One-hundred eight lactations of Murciano-Granadina goats from different years were used to compare two kid rearing systems. Goats were separated into two groups: suckling and milking. Dams in the suckling group were milked once daily until kids were weaned (wk 0 to 7) and then were milked twice daily. Dams in the milking group were separated from their kids at 48 h after birth; then, kids were raised artificially, and goats were milked twice daily. Total milk yield was estimated according to the oxytocin method during suckling. Stage of lactation, parity, prolificacy, and year effects on milk yield and composition were also studied. As expected, during the first 7 wk of lactation, marketable milk was higher for dams that were milked than for dams that were suckled. Neither milk yield nor milk composition throughout the entire lactation was affected by group or prolificacy with the exception of the percentage of milk CP. The lactation curve peaked at wk 4 or 5 and declined slowly afterward. First parity goats had the lowest milk yield but the highest fat and protein percentages. Third parity goats had the highest milk yield. The separation of kids from their dams after birth did not affect total lactation performance because of the minimal importance of the neuroendocrine milk ejection reflex in goats compared with that of other ruminants. PMID:9436106

  5. A mitochondrial analysis reveals distinct founder effect signatures in Canarian and Balearic goats.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, A; Manunza, A; Jordana, J; Capote, J; Pons, A; Pais, J; Delgado, T; Atoche, P; Cabrera, B; Martínez, A; Landi, V; Delgado, J V; Argüello, A; Vidal, O; Lalueza-Fox, C; Ramírez, O; Amills, M

    2015-08-01

    In the course of human migrations, domestic animals often have been translocated to islands with the aim of assuring food availability. These founder events are expected to leave a genetic footprint that may be recognised nowadays. Herewith, we have examined the mitochondrial diversity of goat populations living in the Canarian and Balearic archipelagos. Median-joining network analysis produced very distinct network topologies for these two populations. Indeed, a majority of Canarian goats shared a single ancestral haplotype that segregated in all sampled islands, suggesting a single founder effect followed by a stepping-stone pattern of diffusion. This haplotype also was present in samples collected from archaeological assemblies at Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, making evident its widespread distribution in ancient times. In stark contrast, goats from Majorca and Ibiza did not share any mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating the occurrence of two independent founder events. Furthermore, in Majorcan goats, we detected the segregation of the mitochondrial G haplogroup that has only been identified in goats from Egypt, Iran and Turkey. This finding suggests the translocation of Asian and/or African goats to Majorca, possibly as a consequence of the Phoenician and Carthaginian colonisations of this island. PMID:26153924

  6. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed. PMID:23050494

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dairy goats from Romania.

    PubMed

    Iovu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Gavrea, Raluca; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-05-25

    Little information is available about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goats in Romania and even in Europe. During 2007-2010, 735 serum samples were collected from dairy goats located in 4 historical regions (Cri?ana, Maramure?, Transylvania and Muntenia) of Romania. Sera were analyzed for T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies (IgG type) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two commercial kits (Chekit Toxotest Antibody ELISA and Chekit Neospora caninum Antibody ELISA; Idexx-Bommeli, Switzerland). Three hundred and eighty-eight out of 735 (52.8%) goats presented T. gondii antibodies and 12 out of 512 (2.3%) goats had N. caninum antibodies. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests that infection with this parasite is common in dairy goats in Romania, and less common the infection with N. caninum. This is the first time that infection with N. caninum in goats has been reported in Romania and the first extended study on seroepidemiology of T. gondii. PMID:22177331

  8. The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world. PMID:21291550

  9. [Sanitary and technologic evaluation of the rural processing of fresh goat cheese in Chile].

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C

    1988-12-01

    A sanitary and technological diagnosis of the goat cheese rural process was carried out. The purpose was to obtain more information for the planning of a program aimed to the improvement of this small agroindustry. Samples of milk, curdle, dry abomasum, rennet, water and cheese of 10% of the small industries of two rural villages in two agricultural seasons, were taken. Moreover, dilutions of the utensils and goat udders were prepared. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis of mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, and detection of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+), Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis. Proximate chemical analysis and determinations of sodium chloride and titratible acidity in milk, cheese, dry abomasum and rennet, were carried out. Goat milk was also subjected to analysis of density. It was found that significant sanitary failures are present during th whole goat cheese process, although the highest bacteria contamination occurred at the milking, curdling and filling stages. These are characterized by excessive handling and absolute lack of hygiene. The pathogen B. melitensis was absent; therefore the causes of poisoning were attributed to the toxin produced by S. aureus and to the significant count of fecal coliforms found in the goat cheese. Even though the goats are fed under a poor feeding system, the milk presented a normal physical and chemical composition. Nevertheless, protein and fat matter losses occur during cheese preparation, as a result of handling practices and lack of process control. PMID:3154301

  10. Parasitic bronchitis in goats and the possible use of Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine for its control.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R L

    1994-02-01

    Parasitic bronchitis is widely prevalent in migratory flocks of small ruminants in the northwest Himalayan regions of India. The prevalence data collected from 5554 goats, maintained in 31 villages in different agroclimatic regions of the Himalayas, showed that the prevalence of the disease in goats varied from 18.7 to 47.6% with an overall prevalence of 21.8%. Interestingly, 27.6% of goats maintained at an altitude of 2700-3900 m above mean sea level in Kargil (Jammu and Kashmir), where the climate is cold and dry for the major part of the year, were positive for the lungworm infections. The common lungworms observed were Dictyocaulus filaria, Protostrongylus rufescens, Varestrongylus pneumonicus and occasionally Muellerius spp. The kids were more susceptible to lungworm infections than adult goats. In experimental studies, it was seen that goats were more susceptible to Dictyocaulus filaria infection than sheep and two vaccine doses comprising 1000 and 2000 gamma-attenuated D. filaria (ovine strain) infective larvae conferred 97% protection in male Beetal kids against a homologous challenge dose of 4200 normal D. filaria larvae. The importance of simultaneous control of the disease in goats and sheep is discussed. PMID:8171828

  11. Endothelin receptors mediating contraction in goat cerebral arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Salom, J. B.; Torregrosa, G.; Barberá, M. D.; Jover, T.; Alborch, E.

    1993-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to identify the subtype of receptor mediating contraction to endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin S6b in goat isolated middle cerebral arteries. 2. Endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 contracted cerebral arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. Although the three peptides were full agonists, the order of potency was endothelin-1 = endothelin-2 > endothelin-3, with a relative potency of endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 versus endothelin-3 of approximately 280. Sarafotoxin S6b induced concentration-dependent contractions with lower potency than endothelin-1/endothelin-2, higher potency than endothelin-3 and a higher maximum response than the three endothelins. 3. The selective ETA-receptor antagonist, BQ-123, did not induce changes in either the resting tension or in the active tone developed by depolarization. In contrast, BQ-123 produced concentration-dependent relaxations of endothelin-1-precontracted cerebral arteries, and to a greater extent of sarafotoxin S6b-precontracted arteries. 4. Concentration-response curves to endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin S6b were competitively antagonized by BQ-123 (pA2 of 7.43 +/- 0.12 and 8.41 +/- 0.09, respectively). In contrast, BQ-123 had no effect on 5-hydroxytryptamine-elicited contractions even at 10(-6) M. 5. It is concluded that both the order of potency of endothelin isopeptides and the antagonism of BQ-123 point to the existence of ETA receptors mediating vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin S6b in the goat middle cerebral artery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8358573

  12. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. ?eta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a ?eta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. PMID:20113446

  13. Hematological shift in goat kids naturally devoid of prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Reiten, Malin R.; Bakkebø, Maren K.; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Lewandowska-Sabat, Anna M.; Olsaker, Ingrid; Tranulis, Michael A.; Espenes, Arild; Boysen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) is incompletely understood. The expression of PrPC in hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells suggests a role in the development of these cells, and in PrPC knockout animals altered immune cell proliferation and phagocytic function have been observed. Recently, a spontaneous nonsense mutation at codon 32 in the PRNP gene in goats of the Norwegian Dairy breed was discovered, rendering homozygous animals devoid of PrPC. Here we report hematological and immunological analyses of homozygous goat kids lacking PrPC (PRNPTer/Ter) compared to heterozygous (PRNP+/Ter) and normal (PRNP+/+) kids. Levels of cell surface PrPC and PRNP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) correlated well and were very low in PRNPTer/Ter, intermediate in PRNP+/Ter and high in PRNP+/+ kids. The PRNPTer/Ter animals had a shift in blood cell composition with an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and a tendency toward a smaller mean RBC volume (P = 0.08) and an increased number of neutrophils (P = 0.068), all values within the reference ranges. Morphological investigations of blood smears and bone marrow imprints did not reveal irregularities. Studies of relative composition of PBMCs, phagocytic ability of monocytes and T-cell proliferation revealed no significant differences between the genotypes. Our data suggest that PrPC has a role in bone marrow physiology and warrant further studies of PrPC in erythroid and immune cell progenitors as well as differentiated effector cells also under stressful conditions. Altogether, this genetically unmanipulated PrPC-free animal model represents a unique opportunity to unveil the enigmatic physiology and function of PrPC. PMID:26217662

  14. Comparison of the nutritional regulation of milk fat secretion and composition in cows and goats.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Chilliard, Y; Rouel, J; Leskinen, H; Shingfield, K J; Bernard, L

    2015-10-01

    A study with 2 ruminant species (goats and cows) with inherent differences in lipid metabolism was performed to test the hypothesis that milk fat depression (MFD) due to marine lipid supplements or diets containing high amounts of starch and plant oil is caused by different mechanisms and that each ruminant species responds differently. Cows and goats were allocated to 1 of 3 groups (4 cows and 5 goats per group) and fed diets containing no additional oil (control) or supplemented with fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil and wheat starch (SOS) according to a 3×3 Latin square design with 26-d experimental periods. In cows, milk fat content was lowered by FO and SOS (-31%), whereas only FO decreased milk fat content in goats (-21%) compared with the control. Furthermore, FO and SOS decreased milk fat yield in cows, but not in goats. In both species, FO and SOS decreased the secretion of C16 FA output. However, SOS increased milk secretion of >C16 FA in goats. Compared with the control, SOS resulted in similar increases in milk trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in both species, but caused a 2-fold larger increase in trans-10 18:1 concentration in cows than for goats. Relative to the control, responses to FO in both species were characterized by a marked decrease in milk concentration of 18:0 (-74%) and cis-9 18:1 (-62%), together with a ~5-fold increase in total trans 18:1, but the proportionate changes in trans-10 18:1 were lower for goats. Direct comparison of animal performance and milk FA responses to FO and SOS treatments demonstrated interspecies differences in mammary lipogenesis, suggesting a lower sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in goats and that ruminal biohydrogenation pathways are more stable and less prone to diet-induced shifts toward the formation of trans-10-containing intermediates in goats compared with cows. Even though a direct cause and effect could not be established, results suggest that regulation of milk fat synthesis during FO-induced MFD may be related to a shortage of 18:0 for endogenous mammary cis-9 18:1 synthesis, increase in the incorporation of trans FA in milk triacylglycerols, and limitations in the synthesis of FA de novo to maintain milk fat melting point. However, the possible contribution of biohydrogenation intermediates with putative antilipogenic effects in the mammary gland, including trans-9,cis-11 CLA, trans-10 18:1, or cis-11 18:1 to FO-induced MFD cannot be excluded. PMID:26233463

  15. Use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Terrill, T H; Kallu, R R; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J

    2007-10-01

    The objectives of these experiments were to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in young and mature goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether the effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding management. Two experiments were conducted during cooler months in Georgia, and 4 experiments were conducted during warmer spring or summer months in Arkansas. Meat goats received 0 up to 10 g of COWP under a variety of management conditions. In all experiments, blood and feces were collected every 3 or 7 d from 6 to 42 d to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC) to estimate the degree of GIN infection. In mature goats grazing fall pasture, mean FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated goats increased, and those of 4 g of COWP-treated goats remained low on d 0, 7, and 14 (COWP x d, P < 0.03), and FEC decreased on these days (P < 0.001). In 5 and 10 g of COWP-treated goats, PCV increased (P < 0.001), but FEC and PCV remained unchanged over time in control goats. Fecal egg counts were similar among all low doses (0.5, 1, 2, 4 g) of COWP administered to weaned kids for all dates examined (P > 0.10), which were lower on d 7 through 21 (COWP x date, P < 0.05) but similar by d 28, compared with FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated kids. Packed cell volume was lower in 0 g compared with all COWP-treated kids by d 14 (COWP x date, P < 0.05). Feeding management in combination with COWP for GIN control had little effect compared with COWP alone for these short-term studies. In conclusion, a dose of COWP as low as 0.5 g, which was considered optimal to reduce the risk of copper toxicity, was effective in reducing FEC in young goats, and 5 g of COWP was effective in older goats. Copper oxide does not appear to be effective in controlling newly acquired L4 stage (preadult) larvae, which also feed on blood, leading to decreased PCV in newly infected goats. PMID:17565056

  16. Vasoconstrictive Responses by the Carotid and Auricular Arteries in goats to Ergot Alkaloid Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, Glen; Flythe, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E-) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E- and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E- seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 µg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E- treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation.

  17. Economic contribution and viability of dairy goats: implications for a breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Ogola, T D O; Nguyo, W K; Kosgey, I S

    2010-06-01

    To augment the incomes of smallholder farmers in Kenya and consequently improve their nutrition and income, many development organisations and policy makers are increasingly promoting dairy goat farming. Among the key organisations supporting the initiative is Heifer Project International-Kenya (HPIK). However, the economic contribution and viability of dairy goats under the HPIK project have not been studied so far. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of dairy goats to household income and the performance of the dairy goat enterprise using gross and net margins from dairy goat farming as an indicator of economic viability. A survey covering 71 farmers was carried out in the Coast, Nyanza, and the Rift Valley provinces of Kenya using a set of pre-tested structured and semi-structured questionnaires. Results showed that, on average, the dairy goat enterprise contributed, correspondingly, about 15.2% and 4.8% to the total livestock and overall household income and was viable. Differences in gross and net margins across agroecological zones were attributed to milk prices. Despite the existence of non-viable enterprises in two of the provinces, the few present suggest the possibility of obtaining reliable incomes from the enterprise. Redoubling of effort or re-orientation of production to match the local and external requirements would, however, be necessary. Costs and revenues were similar across the agroecological zones. Farmers with positive gross margins had better milk and stock sales and vice versa. The success of a dairy goat enterprise is attributed to location and good management. Besides, farmers' awareness of the market demands within and outside the community is important in establishing production goals and may be crucial to achieving a positive gross margin. PMID:19937381

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Dairy Goats: Genotypic and Phenotypic Comparison of Intramammary and Environmental Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Scaccabarozzi, Licia; Leoni, Livia; Ballarini, Annalisa; Barberio, Antonio; Locatelli, Clara; Casula, Antonio; Bronzo, Valerio; Pisoni, Giuliano; Jousson, Olivier; Morandi, Stefano; Rapetti, Luca; García-Fernández, Aurora; Moroni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Following the identification of a case of severe clinical mastitis in a Saanen dairy goat (goat A), an average of 26 lactating goats in the herd was monitored over a period of 11 months. Milk microbiological analysis revealed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 7 of the goats. Among these 7 does, only goat A showed clinical signs of mastitis. The 7 P. aeruginosa isolates from the goat milk and 26 P. aeruginosa isolates from environmental samples were clustered by RAPD-PCR and PFGE analyses in 3 genotypes (G1, G2, G3) and 4 clusters (A, B, C, D), respectively. PFGE clusters A and B correlated with the G1 genotype and included the 7 milk isolates. Although it was not possible to identify the infection source, these results strongly suggest a spreading of the infection from goat A. Clusters C and D overlapped with genotypes G2 and G3, respectively, and included only environmental isolates. The outcome of the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed on the isolates revealed 2 main patterns of multiple resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides. Virulence related phenotypes were analyzed, such as swarming and swimming motility, production of biofilm and production of secreted virulence factors. The isolates had distinct phenotypic profiles, corresponding to genotypes G1, G2 and G3. Overall, correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between sampling source, RAPD genotype, PFGE clusters, and phenotypic clusters. The comparison of the levels of virulence related phenotypes did not indicate a higher pathogenic potential in the milk isolates as compared to the environmental isolates. PMID:26606430

  19. Production of transgenic dairy goat expressing human ?-lactalbumin by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao

    2015-02-01

    Production of human ?-lactalbumin (h?-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat ?-lactoglobulin (?LG) promoter, the h?-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of h?-LA was investigated. Both the h?-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ?60-70%) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these h?-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0%, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried h?-LA and the h?-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins. PMID:25139669

  20. Introgression from Domestic Goat Generated Variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex of Alpine Ibex

    PubMed Central

    Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetics of levamisole-oxyclozanide combination in sheep and goats following per os administration

    PubMed Central

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Aksit, Dilek; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Since there is no registered anthelmintic drug available for use in goats, extra-label use of drugs is a common practice in most countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic disposition of levamisole (LVM)-oxyclozanide (OXZ) combination in sheep and goats following per os administration. Goats (n = 8) and sheep (n = 8) 12- to 16-months-old were used for this study. The animals received tablet formulation of LVM and OXZ combination orally at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Blood samples were collected by jugular vein at different times between 5 min and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of LVM and OXZ were analyzed by HPLC following liquid-liquid phase extraction procedures. The plasma concentrations and systemic availabilities of both LVM and OXZ in goats were lower and the plasma persistence of LVM was shorter compared with those observed in sheep. Terminal half-lives (t1/2?z) of both molecules are shorter in goats compared with those in sheep. Goats treated with LVM-OXZ combination at the recommended dose for sheep may result in a reduced efficacy, because of under-dosing, which may increase the risk of drug resistance in parasites. Increased or repeated dose could be a strategy to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to improve the efficacy against the target parasites in goats compared with sheep. However, some adverse reactions may occur since LVM has relatively very narrow therapeutic index due to its nicotine-like structure and effect. PMID:25356001

  2. Comparative pharmacokinetics of levamisole-oxyclozanide combination in sheep and goats following per os administration.

    PubMed

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Aksit, Dilek; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2014-10-01

    Since there is no registered anthelmintic drug available for use in goats, extra-label use of drugs is a common practice in most countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic disposition of levamisole (LVM)-oxyclozanide (OXZ) combination in sheep and goats following per os administration. Goats (n = 8) and sheep (n = 8) 12- to 16-months-old were used for this study. The animals received tablet formulation of LVM and OXZ combination orally at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Blood samples were collected by jugular vein at different times between 5 min and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of LVM and OXZ were analyzed by HPLC following liquid-liquid phase extraction procedures. The plasma concentrations and systemic availabilities of both LVM and OXZ in goats were lower and the plasma persistence of LVM was shorter compared with those observed in sheep. Terminal half-lives (t1/2?z) of both molecules are shorter in goats compared with those in sheep. Goats treated with LVM-OXZ combination at the recommended dose for sheep may result in a reduced efficacy, because of under-dosing, which may increase the risk of drug resistance in parasites. Increased or repeated dose could be a strategy to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to improve the efficacy against the target parasites in goats compared with sheep. However, some adverse reactions may occur since LVM has relatively very narrow therapeutic index due to its nicotine-like structure and effect. PMID:25356001

  3. Modulation of joint moments and work in the goat hindlimb with locomotor speed and surface grade

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Allison S.; Lee, David V.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Goats and other quadrupeds must modulate the work output of their muscles to accommodate the changing mechanical demands associated with locomotion in their natural environments. This study examined which hindlimb joint moments goats use to generate and absorb mechanical energy on level and sloped surfaces over a range of locomotor speeds. Ground reaction forces and the three-dimensional locations of joint markers were recorded as goats walked, trotted and galloped over 0, +15 and ?15 deg sloped surfaces. Net joint moments, powers and work were estimated at the goats' hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the stance phase via inverse dynamics calculations. Differences in locomotor speed on the level, inclined and declined surfaces were characterized and accounted for by fitting regression equations to the joint moment, power and work data plotted versus non-dimensionalized speed. During level locomotion, the net work generated by moments at each of the hindlimb joints was small (less than 0.1 J kg?1 body mass) and did not vary substantially with gait or locomotor speed. During uphill running, by contrast, mechanical energy was generated at the hip, knee and ankle, and the net work at each of these joints increased dramatically with speed (P<0.05). The greatest increases in positive joint work occurred at the hip and ankle. During downhill running, mechanical energy was decreased in two main ways: goats generated larger knee extension moments in the first half of stance, absorbing energy as the knee flexed, and goats generated smaller ankle extension moments in the second half of stance, delivering less energy. The goats' hip extension moment in mid-stance was also diminished, contributing to the decrease in energy. These analyses offer new insight into quadrupedal locomotion, clarifying how the moments generated by hindlimb muscles modulate mechanical energy at different locomotor speeds and grades, as needed to accommodate the demands of variable terrain. PMID:23470662

  4. In vitro maturation and fertilization of prepubertal and pubertal black Bengal goat oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Momena; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Musharraf Uddin; Ahmed, Jalal Uddin; Haque, Aminul; Shamsuddin, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Oocytes retrieval, in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) efficiency are inevitable steps towards in vitro production of embryos. In the present study, these parameters were investigated in the ovaries of prepubertal (n = 31) and pubertal (n = 61) black Bengal goats obtained from a slaughterhouse. Nuclear maturation was evaluated upon aspiration and following IVM in TCM-199 (Earle's salt with L-glutamine and sodium bicarbonate) for 27 h at 39? under 5% CO2 in humidified air. The oocytes retrieval and efficiency (mean ± SD) per prepubertal and pubertal goats were 5.2 ± 0.6 and 6.8 ± 0.6, and 77.3 ± 0.1% and 80.5 ± 0.6%, respectively. Anaphase I - telophase I stages differed significantly (7.3 ± 0.8 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.05) between the two groups of goats. After IVM, the percentages of metaphase II were significantly higher (66.3 vs. 60.3, p < 0.05) in pubertal goats than in their prepubertal counterparts. The percentages of normal in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Fert-Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate of pubertal goat oocytes did not differ between Percoll and swim-up sperm separation methods (36.7 ± 0.9% vs. 32.7 ± 1.3%, p > 0.05). Furthermore, sperm capacitation by heparin alone or in combination with ionomycin did not lead to a significant increase in the normal fertilization rate (34.8 ± 1.7 vs. 32.2 ± 1.5%, respectively) in the oocytes of pubertal goats. In conclusion, the ovaries of pubertal black Bengal goats obtained from the slaughterhouse could be used for in vitro embryo production. However, further optimization of the IVM and IVF techniques are necessary for satisfactory in vitro embryo production. PMID:21368566

  5. Comparison of performance of Boer and Spanish goats in two U.S. locations.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, H D

    1995-01-01

    Information quantifying performance of Boer goats in the United States is lacking. To overcome this knowledge void a simulation study was performed to determine how Boer goats would compare to Spanish goats in two locations, Texas and Oklahoma. Within each of these locations forage conditions were altered from high forage (HF), medium forage (MF), and low forage (LF). Forage conditions were altered within location to emulate the variation in forage conditions that could occur in each location. Management varied from fall breeding (FB) to year-round breeding (YRB). Across breed and forage conditions, YRB resulted in higher levels of performance than FB for births per doe, number of kids sold per doe, sale weight per doe, and biological efficiency (weight sold[kg]/dry matter consumed [kg]). Boers did produce more sale weight per doe than Spanish on HF. However, the Boer's advantage was decreased or negated when exposed to MF or LF conditions. Both breeds had similar levels of performance for number of kids sold per doe under HF conditions. Under MF or LF the Spanish goats had greater levels of kids sold per doe. Neither breed simulated had a consistent advantage in both locations and varying forage conditions, but, in general, as forage conditions worsened Boer performance ranked below that of the Spanish goats. These results indicate that a complete endorsement of the Boer cannot be made. Effective use of the Boer goat will depend on the forage resource base and producers' ability to provide inputs, such as supplementation, to the goat production system. PMID:7601748

  6. Short communication: Determination of withdrawal time for oxytetracycline in different types of goats for milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela; Woldesenbet, Sela

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry and the presence of antibiotics in milk is a health hazard. The objective of this study was to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in fresh, aged, and pasteurized milk of 3 breeds of goats using HPLC analysis. It was also essential to determine the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats. The quantitative results obtained using the HPLC system were compared with the tolerance limit of oxytetracycline in milk in the United States. Fifteen milking does, 5 Nubians, 5 Alpines, and 5 LaManchas were randomly selected from the milking herd at the International Goat Research Center at Prairie View A&M University. A simple sample preparation and isocratic HPLC method using ultraviolet detection was used for analysis of milk samples. The HPLC results indicated that the withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in treated Alpine does was 82h (7 milking), whereas for Nubian does the period was 58h (5 milking), and for LaManchas the period was 72h (6 milking) after drug administration. The overall withdrawal period for all the treated goats of 3 breeds was 72h. Although these results indicated that the depletion rate of this antibiotic was faster in goats than the reported data for cows, the 96-h withdrawal period that is currently used for lactating cows is still necessary for these 3 breeds of goats. Additionally, our results indicated that oxytetracycline is not stable in goat milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and will decrease significantly. PMID:25958275

  7. Metabolic regulation of ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) expression in the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary, and stomach

    PubMed Central

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Córdoba-Chacón, Jose; Salvatori, Roberto; Castaño, Justo P.; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Luque, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin acts as an endocrine link connecting physiological processes regulating food intake, body composition, growth, and energy balance. Ghrelin is the only peptide known to undergo octanoylation. The enzyme mediating this process, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract (GI; primary source of circulating ghrelin) as well as other tissues. The present study demonstrates that stomach GOAT mRNA levels correlate with circulating acylated-ghrelin levels in fasted and diet-induced obese mice. In addition, GOAT was found to be expressed in both the pituitary and hypothalamus (two target tissues of ghrelin’s actions), and regulated in response to metabolic status. Using primary pituitary cell cultures as a model system to study the regulation of GOAT expression, we found that acylated-ghrelin, but not desacyl-ghrelin, increased GOAT expression. In addition, growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and leptin increased, while somatostatin (SST) decreased GOAT expression. The physiologic relevance of these later results is supported by the observation that pituitary GOAT expression in mice lacking GHRH, SST and leptin showed opposite changes to those observed after in vitro treatment with the corresponding peptides. Therefore, it seems plausible that these hormones directly contribute to the regulation of pituitary GOAT. Interestingly, in all the models studied, pituitary GOAT expression paralleled changes in the expression of a dominant spliced-variant of ghrelin (In2-ghrelin) and therefore this transcript may be a primary substrate for pituitary GOAT. Collectively, these observations support the notion that the GI tract is not the only source of acylated-ghrelin, but in fact locally-produced des-acylated-ghrelin could be converted to acylated-ghrelin within target tissues by locally active GOAT, to mediate its tissue-specific effects. PMID:20035826

  8. Diet choice by goats as effect of milk production level during late lactation.

    PubMed

    Avondo, M; Pagano, R I; De Angelis, A; Pennisi, P

    2013-07-01

    The diet self-regulation ability of goats during late lactation has been studied with regard to their production level. Two groups of seven Girgentana goats producing 1100 ± 157 g/day (H group) and 613 ± 138 g/day (L group) were housed in individual pens and were given alfalfa pelleted hay (1.5 kg), whole grains of maize (0.5 kg), barley (0.5 kg), faba bean (0.5 kg) and pelleted sunflower cake (0.5 kg) on a daily basis. During a 7-day pre-experimental period, goats received a mixed ration based on the same feeds used during the experimental period (1.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of each concentrate). Individual choice of feeds was continuously recorded for 7 days using a 24-h IR video surveillance system equipped with four video cameras. The nutrient intake in both groups was much higher than needed. Goats in the H group ate more (2016.3 v. 1744.3 g dry matter (DM)/day) and selected less hay (26.9% v. 34.6% DM), more high-protein feeds (faba bean and sunflower cake: 14.0% and 15.9% v. 8.8% and 7.9% DM, respectively) and less maize (21.5% v. 25.0% DM), reaching a higher CP concentration in the diet (17.3% v. 15.0% DM) compared with the goats in the L group. During the 24-h trial period, hay was more constantly selected (on average never reaching <20% of the total hourly basis feeding time, apart from the first hour after feed administration) compared with concentrate feeds. This feeding behaviour has probably exercised a 'curative' effect that enabled the goats to continue to take in very high levels of starch and protein, without manifesting any symptom of metabolic disease. Shifting goats from the pre-experimental diet, based on a mixture of the same feeds used during the experimental period, to the free-choice feeding caused more than 20% increase in milk production in both groups. From the results of the intake, we are unable to conclude that the goats can select their diet to meet their requirements, as goats consumed much more than needed. However, when free to choose their diet, the animals improved milk performance, despite the late-lactation stage. PMID:23473071

  9. Serosurvey of Schmallenberg Virus Infection in the Highest Goat-Specialized Region of France.

    PubMed

    Valas, S; Baudry, C; Ehrhardt, N; LeVen, A; Thirion, M; Aubert, C; Vialard, J

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring of both the spread and clinical impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection within its full host range is important for the control of the epidemic and potential new outbreaks. In France, a national surveillance plan based on voluntary notifications of congenital malformations in newborn ruminants revealed that goats were the less affected host species. However, seroprevalence studies only targeted sheep and cattle, preventing accurate estimations of the real impact of SBV infection in goats. Here, a serological survey was conducted in the highest goat-specialized region of France between June 2012 and January 2013. A total of 1490 goat sera from 50 herds were analysed by ELISA. The between-herd and within-herd prevalences were estimated at 62% and 13.1%, respectively. Seroprevalence was not uniformly distributed throughout the territory and markedly differed between intensive and extensive herds. The low within-herd seroprevalence demonstrates that a large fraction of the French goat population remains susceptible to SBV infection. PMID:24467819

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Bressani, F A; Tizioto, P C; Giglioti, R; Meirelles, S L C; Coutinho, R; Benvenuti, C L; Malagó-Jr, W; Mudadu, M A; Vieira, L S; Zaros, L G; Carrilho, E; Regitano, L C A

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are small cell-signaling proteins that play an important role in the immune system, participating in intracellular communication. Four candidate genes of the cytokine family (IL2, IL4, IL13, and IFNG) were selected to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that might be associated with resistance to gastrointestinal endoparasites in goats. A population of 229 goats, F2 offspring from an F1 intercross was produced by crossing pure Saanen goats, considered as susceptible to gastrointestinal endoparasites, with pure Anglo-Nubian goats, considered resistant. Blood was collected for DNA extraction and fecal samples were also collected for parasite egg count. Polymorphisms were prospected by sequencing animals with extreme phenotype for fecal egg count (FEC) distribution. The association between SNPs and phenotype was determined by using the Fisher exact test with correction for multiple tests. Three of the 10 SNPs were identified as significant (P ? 0.03). They were found in intron 1 of IL2 (ENSBTA00000020883), intron 3 of IL13 (ENSBTA00000015953) and exon 3 of IFNG (ENSBTA00000012529), suggesting an association between them and gastrointestinal endoparasite resistance. Further studies will help describe the effects of these markers accurately before implementing them in marker assisted selection. This study is the pioneer in describing such associations in goats. PMID:25366747

  11. Clinical management of dietary induced urolithiasis associated with balanoposthitis in a Boer goat

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Y.; Abdullah, F.F.J.; Daud, N.H. Bin Abu; Shaari, R. Bin; Tijjani, A.; Sadiq, M.A.; Mohammed, K.; Adamu, L.; Mohd, A.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A Boer-Kajang cross male goat was presented to the Veterinary Hospital, University Malaysia Kelantan with a history of dysuria, hematuria and restlessness. The goat was intensively managed (confined to the pen) and fed with only palm kernel cake for the last three months. Physical examination revealed that the goat was dull, depressed, having an inflamed penis and prepuce with blood stained urine dripping from the penis. The differential diagnoses were obstructive urolithiasis, urinary tract infection and balanoposthitis. Based on the history, clinical signs, physical examination, urinalysis, ultrasonagraphy and feed analysis, the goat was diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and balanoposthitis. Treatment was instituted by amputation of the urethral process and retrograde urohydropulsion to relieve the blockade. Sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (Norodine®24) 15mg/kg, I.M; flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, I.M; vitamin B complex 1ml/10kg, I.M and ammonium chloride 300mg/kg orally were administered. The goat responded well to treatment and was recovering well during a follow up visit. PMID:26623360

  12. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the milk of naturally infected goats in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, M J G; Kim, P C P; Moraes, É P B X; Sá, S G; Albuquerque, P P F; Silva, J G; Alves, B H L S; Mota, R A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in milk samples from naturally infected goats in the state of Pernambuco, (Brazil). In total, 248 blood serum samples were collected and processed from lactating goats and then submitted to a search for antibodies to T. gondii through the indirect immunofluorescence reaction. Samples with a score of 64 or more were considered positive. In total, 248 milk samples were collected and processed from the same group of goats in order to study the DNA of T. gondii using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In the serum samples, 56/248 (22.58%) of the animals were positive, whereas the DNA of the parasite was detected in 15/248 (6.05%) of the milk samples. Five of these 15 samples were animals who were also positive in the serology. This study reports the first occurrence of the elimination of T. gondii from the milk of naturally infected goats in the north-east of Brazil. It is suggested that the consumption of in natura goat milk may constitute a potential risk to the health of milk consumers in this region. PMID:24034351

  13. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes. PMID:18551378

  14. Hydrology of Goat Lake watershed, Snohomish County, Washington, 1982-87

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, N.P.; Ebbert, J.C.; Poole, J.E.; Peck, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Goat Lake watershed functions as an experimental watershed for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the US Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs, the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. 36 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Hydrology of the Goat Lake watershed, Snohomish County, Washington, 1982-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Ebbert, J.C.; Poole, J.E.; Peck, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Goat Lake watershed in Snohomish County, Washington, functions as an ' experimental watershed ' for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs , the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. (USGS)

  16. Effects of supplemental feeding on intake by kid, yearling, and adult Angora goats on rangeland.

    PubMed

    Huston, J E

    1994-03-01

    Sixty female Angoras, including 20 each of kids (9 mo), pregnant yearlings (21 mo), and pregnant adults (2.5 to 4 yr), were used to determine the effects of supplemental feed and level of supplemental digestible DM (DDM) on voluntary intake on rangeland. Treatments included negative control (NC: no supplemental feed) and supplements to provide equal CP (3 g/kg of BW.75) and either 4.8, 9.8, or 19.8 g/kg of BW.75 of DDM per day. Forage intake (FI), gastrointestinal tract fill (FILL), mean particulate turnover, mean particulate whole-tract residence time, fecal output, and forage DM digestibility (FDMD) were measured in all goats using a pulse-dose marker technique when the yearling and adult goats were in late pregnancy. Forage intake increased (quadratic regression, P = .01) at the low level of feeding, but both FI and FDMD decreased in a quadratic pattern in the pregnant goats as DDM feeding level increased. Total DDM intake reached a maximum at the medium supplementation level. Stimulative, additive, and substitutive effects on forage intake were observed as feeding level increased. Yearling goats had lower FILL and intake than kids and adults (metabolic BW basis), which may explain problems associated with reproduction in young goats. PMID:8181995

  17. Immunoprotection in goats against Haemonchus contortus after immunization with cysteine protease enriched protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonio; Molina, José Manuel; González, Jorge Francisco; Conde, Magnolia María; Martín, Sergio; Hernández, Yeray Isidro

    2004-01-01

    Haemonchus cysteine proteases, because of their apparent critical function in worm physiology, are considered important candidates in the immunological control of haemonchosis in sheep. Only limited information is, however, available on the immunoprotective properties of these molecules in goats. In the present study cysteine proteases of Haemonchus contortus adult worms isolated from a goat strain (Gran Canaria, Spain) were enriched by affinity chromatography and evaluated as immunoprotective antigens against caprine haemonchosis. The eggs per gram of faeces averaged over the whole experiment for unvaccinated goats (550 +/- 13.5) was significantly greater (P < 0.001) than that of vaccinated goats (61 +/- 2.9). Accordingly, the worm burden was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05), with mean values of 247.5 +/- 43.8 and 762.5 +/- 78.3 worms per animal in the immunized and nonimmunized goats, respectively. The percentage of egg (89%) and worm (68%) reduction approached those attained with other immunogens used in sheep. PMID:15369659

  18. DNA vaccine encoding Haemonchus contortus actin induces partial protection in goats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ruofeng; Wang, Jingjing; Xu, Lixin; Song, Xiaokai; Li, Xiangrui

    2014-10-01

    Actin is a globular multi-functional protein that forms microfilaments, and participates in many important cellular processes. Previous study found that Haemonchus contortus actin could be recognized by the serum of goats infected with the homology parasite. This indicated that H. contortus actin could be a potential candidate for vaccine. In this study, DNA vaccine encoding H. contortus actin was tested for protection against experimental H. contortus infections in goats. Fifteen goats were allocated into three trial groups. The animals of Actin group were vaccinated with the DNA vaccine on day 0 and 14, and challenged with 5000 infective H. contortus third stage larval (L3) on day 28. An unvaccinated positive control group was challenged with L3 at the same time. An unvaccinated negative control group was not challenged with L3. The results showed that DNA vaccine were transcribed at local injection sites and expressed in vivo post immunizations respectively. For goats in Actin vaccinated group, higher levels of serum IgG, serum IgA and mucosal IgA were produced, the percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes and the concentrations of TGF-? were increased significantly (P<0.05). Following L3 challenge, the mean eggs per gram feces (EPG) and worm burdens of Actin group were reduced by 34.4% and 33.1%, respectively. This study suggest that recombinant H. contortus Actin DNA vaccine induced partial immune response and has protective potential against goat haemonchosis. PMID:25236283

  19. Ovine and caprine toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) in aborted animals in Jordanian goat and sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Abu-Dalbouh, Mohamad Abed-alhaleem; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-five biological samples (106 aborted foetal tissue samples and 149 blood samples from aborted sheep and goats) were collected from 188 animals during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region of Jordan. The sampled animals belonged to 93 goat and sheep flocks that had cases of abortion. A total of 169 (66.3%) biological samples were collected from sheep and 86 (33.7%) from goats. Seventy-six (29.8%) biological samples (45 blood and 31 tissue samples) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii by PCR assay. The positive samples were obtained from 43 sheep and 23 goats. The overall toxoplasma-specific prevalence rate was 35.1% (66/188). Forty flocks (43%) had at least one T. gondii PCR-positive animal. The risk factors related to flock health status and farm management that are hypothesized to be associated with T. gondii PCR positivity were also assessed using multiple logistic regressions. The presence of cats (OR = 4.74), a large flock size (OR = 2.76) and the method of disposing the aborted foetuses (OR = 3.77) were all statistically significant (P<0.05) risk factors that were positively associated with toxoplasma positivity in goat and sheep flocks. PMID:21643666

  20. Toxoplasma gondii in goats from Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil: risks factors and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme; Sotomaior, Cristina; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan with wide geographical distribution and minimal parasitic specificity that affects many species of wild and domestic animals. In livestock, especially in small ruminants like goats, toxoplasmosis can cause abortion and the birth of weak animals, leading to economic losses to farmers, and is a major source of human infection. This is a seroepidemiological study of toxoplasmosis in goats in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Sera from 405 goats from the metropolitan mesoregion of Curitiba, eastern state, were tested by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Information on properties and goat characteristics was also collected using questionnaires. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was 39.41 and 35.96% by ELISA and IFAT, respectively. T. gondii antibody prevalence increased with age. The risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats were: age over one year; exposure to cats, type of management and purpose of breeding. Other epidemiological factors and relevant control measures are discussed in the current study. PMID:22534944

  1. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in goats in selected locations in three agroclimatic zones of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Noordeen, F; Rajapakse, R P; Faizal, A C; Horadagoda, N U; Arulkanthan, A

    2000-11-10

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the faeces of 1020 goats in three age categories was examined during 1999 in selected locations of three agroclimatic zones of Sri Lanka. The oocysts were demonstrated using the Sheather's sucrose flotation method followed by staining with the modified Ziehl Neelsen technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in animals from all agroclimatic zones with the highest prevalence of infection in the dry zone (33.6%) compared with 24.7 and 21.7% in the intermediate zones and wet, respectively (P<0.001). Overall, Cryptosporidium oocyst counts were significantly higher in goats of <6 months and 7-12 months of age groups compared with goats of >12 months of age (P<0.001). Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 291/1020 (28.5%) animals, while 194/1020 animals (19%), 84/1020 animals (8.2%) and 13/1020 animals (1.3%) excreted low (1-1000 oocysts per gram of faeces), moderate (1000-5000 oocysts per gram of faeces) and high (>5000 oocysts per gram of faeces) counts, respectively. The mean Cryptosporidium count was 383 oocysts per gram of faeces. The majority of the infected goats were asymptomatic. These animals are likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in goat kids and humans. PMID:11035227

  2. Influence of climatic and management factors on Eimeria infections in goats from semi-arid zones.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; González, J F; Rodríguez, E; Martín, S; Hernández, Y I; Almeida, R; Molina, J M

    2006-10-01

    A survey of Eimeria infections was performed in dairy goats and kids (<6 months old) of six farms from a dry desert area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). The number of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) was determined by a modified McMaster technique over a total of 2,616 individual faecal samples taken from the rectum in monthly intervals. Eimeria oocysts were found in 96.1% of the samples with OPG ranging from 1 x 10(2) to 1.4 x 10(6). Kid goats had significantly (P < 0.001) higher OPG counts (46,496 +/- 5,228) than dairy females (2,225 +/- 287). Eight Eimeria species were identified, with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae (30.0%), Eimeria arloingi (28.6%) and Eimeria alijevi (20.5%) being the most frequent species followed by Eimeria caprina (9.1%), Eimeria christenseni (4.5%), Eimeria jolchijevi (3.4%), Eimeria caprovina (3.2%) and Eimeria hirci (0.7%). Although significant differences were observed among goat groups and herds, the eight species were present in the six farms in both dairy goats and kids. The intensity of oocysts shedding was related to some factors such as the size of the herd and was further influenced by the prevailing climatic conditions of the area. The highest OPG counts were recorded during the hot season in dairy goats and close to weaning time in kids reared in small farms having no prophylactic treatments against eimeriosis. PMID:17010046

  3. Molecular cloning, sequence, and phylogenetic analysis of T helper 1 cytokines of Pashmina goats.

    PubMed

    Shebannavar, Sunil; Rasool, Thaha

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines play an important role in regulation of immune responses either in health or disease. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding mature Interleukin (IL)-2, interferon gamma (IFN-?), and IL-12 p35 and p40 of Pashmina goat were cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence was deduced from nucleotide sequence and compared with those available in GeneBank. Mature forms of goat IL-2, IFN-?, IL-12 p35, and IL-12 p40 composed of 135, 143, 196, and 305 amino acid residues, respectively. Comparison of amino acid sequence of goat IL-2 with sheep, buffalo, cattle, pig, camel, cat, and human sequences showed homology percentages of 100, 97.8, 96.3, 72.4, 72.4, 67.2, and 64.7, respectively. Amino acid sequence of goat IFN-? showed 98.6, 95.8, 81.1, 81.8, 80.4, and 62.9 percent homology with sheep, bovine, pig, horse, dog, and humans, respectively. Homology ranging from 81.6 to 99% for IL-12 p35 sequences and 85.6 to 100% for IL-12 p40 sequences at amino acid level were observed across these species. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of goat cytokines revealed close relationship with sheep sequence. PMID:25380464

  4. Use of the miniature anion exchange centrifugation technique to isolate Trypanosoma evansi from goats.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Carlos; Corbera, Juan A; Doreste, Francisco; Büscher, Philippe

    2004-10-01

    DEAE (anion exchanger diethylaminoethyl)-cellulose and mini Anion Exchange Centrifugation Technique (mAECT) allow salivarian trypanosomes to be separated from the blood of affected animals. The purpose of this study was to assess the mAECT in goats infected with T. evansi. Five adult Canary goats were inoculated intravenously with at least 1 x 10(5) T. evansi isolated from a dromedary camel in the Canary Islands. The goats were monitored for specific antibodies and parasite detection. The inoculated goats became infected and the parasitemia remained very low but was persistent. For mAECT columns, the DEAE gel was equilibrated with phosphate-buffered saline glucose. T. evansi was detected by its mobility with a microscope at low magnification (10 x 10). The mAECT proved to be more sensitive than blood smear and buffy coat but less sensitive than mouse inoculation. We conclude that in cases of very low parasitemia in goats, mAECT can be used when other parasite-detection tests have failed. PMID:15604483

  5. Effect of feeding milk from goats fed tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) to rats and calves.

    PubMed

    Goeger, D E; Cheeke, P R; Schmitz, J A; Buhler, D R

    1982-09-01

    Dried tansy ragwort, which contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), was fed to lactating dairy goats. Milk containing 7.5 ng of PA/g (dry weight basis) from these goats was fed to rats and calves. Rats fed a goats' milk diet for 180 days with a calculated total PA intake of 0.96 mg/rat had swollen hepatocytes of centrilobular distribution, and biliary hyperplasia, indicating PA involvement. Rats fed tansy ragwort at dietary levels of 1%, 0.1%, 0.01% and 0.001% (corresponding to PA intakes of 39.77, 5.04, 0.52, and 0.05 mg/rat) showed swollen hepatocytes, megalocytosis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis. The histopathologic changes in the milk-fed rats and those given 0.001% tansy ragwort in the diet were similar. Definitive changes in 2 calves fed goats' milk were not detected. The results with rats indicate that PA are transferred in goats' milk and may produce hepatoxic effects. PMID:7149409

  6. A Dig into the Past Mitochondrial Diversity of Corsican Goats Reveals the Influence of Secular Herding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Sandrine; Fernández, Helena; Cucchi, Thomas; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Casabianca, François; Istria, Daniel; Pompanon, François; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine; Taberlet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The goat (Capra hircus) is one of the earliest domesticated species ca. 10,500 years ago in the Middle-East where its wild ancestor, the bezoar (Capra aegagrus), still occurs. During the Neolithic dispersal, the domestic goat was then introduced in Europe, including the main Mediterranean islands. Islands are interesting models as they maintain traces of ancient colonization, historical exchanges or of peculiar systems of husbandry. Here, we compare the mitochondrial genetic diversity of both medieval and extant goats in the Island of Corsica that presents an original and ancient model of breeding with free-ranging animals. We amplified a fragment of the Control Region for 21 medieval and 28 current goats. Most of them belonged to the A haplogroup, the most worldwide spread and frequent today, but the C haplogroup is also detected at low frequency in the current population. Present Corsican goats appeared more similar to medieval goats than to other European goat populations. Moreover, 16 out of the 26 haplotypes observed were endemic to Corsica and the inferred demographic history suggests that the population has remained constant since the Middle Ages. Implications of these results on management and conservation of endangered Corsican goats currently decimated by a disease are addressed. PMID:22299033

  7. J. A. Wisniewski, D. E. Moody, B. D. Hammock and L. R. Shull Enzyme Activities in Cattle, Goats and Sheep

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    J. A. Wisniewski, D. E. Moody, B. D. Hammock and L. R. Shull Enzyme Activities in Cattle, Goats.journalofanimalscience.orgDownloaded from #12;INTERLOBULAR DISTRIBUTION OF HEPATIC XENOBIOTIC- METABOLIZING ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN CATTLE in composite samples representing entire livers and in samples from three lobes, using liversof cattle, goats

  8. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with...

  9. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in 2009-2010 to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n = 72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final body we...

  10. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  11. Growth and carcass characteristics in goat kids fed grass and alfalfa hay-based diets with limited concentrate supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding legume hay (alfalfa; Medicago sativa L.) or mixed grass hay on ADG and carcass characteristics of growing goats. In Experiment 1, 24 Spanish kids, equally representing intact male, female, and wether goats, were pen-fed ad libitum eit...

  12. Performance and carcass parameters when meat goats were finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the eastern U.S., particularly on small farms, to supply ethnic market demands. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters were determined when meat goat kids were finished on pastures of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC), bird...

  13. Contractile properties of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenital cleft palates and normal palates of Spanish goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A goat model in which cleft palate is induced by the plant alkaloid, anabasine was used to determine muscle fiber integrity of the levator veli palatine muscle. It was determined that the muscle fibers of the cleft palate-induced goats were primarily of the type 2 (fast fibers) which fatigue easil...

  14. Phenotypic alteration of blood and milk leukocytes in goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes a persistent and slow progressive infection in goats, characterized by chronic proliferative sinovitis, arthritis and, less frequently, pneumonia. Infected goats could also be affected by interstitial mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...

  15. 76 FR 39377 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the July Sheep and Goat Survey, and Postpone the Renewal of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the July Sheep and Goat Survey, and... Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to suspend one currently approved information collection, (July Sheep...: Suspension of July Sheep and Goat Survey and postponement of Census of Aquaculture and TOTAL surveys....

  16. A dig into the past mitochondrial diversity of Corsican goats reveals the influence of secular herding practices.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sandrine; Fernández, Helena; Cucchi, Thomas; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Casabianca, François; Istria, Daniel; Pompanon, François; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine; Taberlet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The goat (Capra hircus) is one of the earliest domesticated species ca. 10,500 years ago in the Middle-East where its wild ancestor, the bezoar (Capra aegagrus), still occurs. During the Neolithic dispersal, the domestic goat was then introduced in Europe, including the main Mediterranean islands. Islands are interesting models as they maintain traces of ancient colonization, historical exchanges or of peculiar systems of husbandry. Here, we compare the mitochondrial genetic diversity of both medieval and extant goats in the Island of Corsica that presents an original and ancient model of breeding with free-ranging animals. We amplified a fragment of the Control Region for 21 medieval and 28 current goats. Most of them belonged to the A haplogroup, the most worldwide spread and frequent today, but the C haplogroup is also detected at low frequency in the current population. Present Corsican goats appeared more similar to medieval goats than to other European goat populations. Moreover, 16 out of the 26 haplotypes observed were endemic to Corsica and the inferred demographic history suggests that the population has remained constant since the Middle Ages. Implications of these results on management and conservation of endangered Corsican goats currently decimated by a disease are addressed. PMID:22299033

  17. Counting Sheep: A Deterministic and Stochastic Model of Bighorn Sheep and Mountain Goats in Rocky Mountain National Park

    E-print Network

    Rowell, Eric C.

    Counting Sheep: A Deterministic and Stochastic Model of Bighorn Sheep and Mountain Goats in Rocky Mountain National Park Becky Patrias 28 July 2009 There is an expanding population of mountain goats near Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado that is threatening to invade the territory of native bighorn

  18. Effects of inhaled fine dust on lung tissue changes and antibody response induced by spores of opportunistic fungi in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the immunity and pathology induced by spores of Mucor ramosissimus and Trichoderma viride given by intratracheal inoculation of goats following exposure to sterile fine dust aerosol. Thirty-six weanling Boer-Spanish goats were used. A prospective randomize...

  19. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276

  20. Quantification of Toxoplasma gondii in tissue samples of experimentally infected goats by magnetic capture and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Juránková, Jana; Opsteegh, Marieke; Neumayerová, Helena; Kova??ík, Kamil; Frencová, Anita; Baláž, Vojt?ch; Volf, Ji?í; Koudela, B?etislav

    2013-03-31

    Undercooked meat containing tissue cysts is one of the most common sources of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. Goats are very susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis, and especially kids are common food animals, thereby representing a risk for human infection. A sequence-specific magnetic capture method was used for isolation of T. gondii DNA from tissue samples from experimentally infected goat-kids and real-time PCR for the 529 bp repeat element allowed quantification of T. gondii DNA. The contamination level in different types of tissue and in two groups of goats euthanized 30 and 90 dpi was compared. The highest concentration of T. gondii DNA in both groups of goats was found in lung tissue, but only the higher parasite count in lung tissue compared to other organs in group A (euthanized 30 dpi) was statistically significant. T. gondii concentrations were higher in liver and dorsal muscle samples from goats euthanized 90 dpi than in goats euthanized at 30 dpi, while the T. gondii concentration in hearts decreased. This study describes for the first time distribution of T. gondii parasites in post-weaned goat kids. New information about T. gondii predilection sites in goats and about the progression of infection between 30 and 90 dpi was achieved. PMID:23219045

  1. The role of bioactive tannins in the postpartum energy retention and productive performance of goats browsed in a natural rangeland.

    PubMed

    Kabasa, J D; Opuda-Asibo, J; Thinggaard, G; ter Meulen, U

    2004-08-01

    The role of bioactive tannins in browse in the postpartum performance of goats grazed under natural range conditions was studied using 40 yearling Mubende goats (20+/-0.32 kg). In a completely randomized design, goats of one group (n = 20) received a daily drench of 50 g per goat of polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 4000 given as a condensed tannin (CT) deactivator, and goats of the other group (n = 20) acted as the control (no PEG). Mean birth weights, live weight gains, abortion and twinning rates, litter size and tissue energy retention were measured. The PEG drench resulted in lower postpartum weight gains and tissue energy retention (p < 0.05). Postpartum weekly weight loss per doe was 0.65 kg in the PEG group and 0.46 kg in the control group, while tissue energy loss was 17.7 MJ per goat in the PEG group and 10.23 MJ per goat in the control group in the first 8 weeks. Net weight gain was observed in the control group at the 11 th week but was delayed in the PEG group (15th week). The PEG group had lower birth weights and higher kids mortalities (p <0.05). Selective feeding in the Ankole rangeland exposes goats to beneficial concentrations of dietary CT with apparent cumulative effects leading to improved postpartum performance of does and kids. PMID:15560517

  2. Radioimmunocytochemistry using a tritiated goat anti-rabbit second antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, E.J.; Ramachandran, J.; Basbaum, A.I.

    1984-07-01

    Affinity-purified goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (GAR) was conjugated with (/sup 3/H)-propionyl succinimidate and used to localize substance P (SP), enkephalin (ENK), and serotonin immunoreactive sites in the spinal dorsal horn and medulla of the rat and cat. Autoradiographic localization was demonstrated on paraffin, frozen, Vibratome, and 2 micron plastic sections. The latter were obtained from radiolabeled Vibratome sections that were embedded in epoxy resin. The distribution of SP, ENK, and serotonin demonstrated by radioimmunocytochemistry was comparable to that observed on semiadjacent sections using peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunocytochemistry. The autoradiograms, however, were generated using primary antibody concentrations up to five times more dilute than concentrations used for the PAP procedure. Indirect radioimmunocytochemistry using a (3H) anti-immunoglobulin G second antibody can be used to localize a variety of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera. It is quantifiable at the light microscopic level and can be potentially used with peroxidase histochemistry to double label immunoreactive structures at the ultrastructural level.

  3. Novel Kobuvirus species identified from black goat with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-08-27

    In this study, a caprine kobuvirus was identified from the diarrheal feces of a Korean black goat. The virus had an 8291-nucleotide-long genome excluding the poly(A) tail, and the genome contained a large open reading frame of 7437 bp, which encoded a putative polyprotein precursor of 2479 amino acids. Full-genome sequence analysis indicated that the caprine kobuvirus was most closely related to porcine kobuvirus, with 75.9% amino acid similarity and 70.1% nucleotide similarity. The predicted secondary structure of the 5' terminus (110-bp region) of strain 12Q108 consisted of three stem-loop domains. The first loop sequence of 12Q108 differed from that of strain Y-1-CH1 at one nucleotide position. The full genome substitution rates of caprine kobuvirus were assessed and the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of caprine kobuivirus was compared with that of kobuvirus strains from other species. The rate of evolutionary substitution was determined to be 6.40 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year, and the TMRCA was determined to be 149.6 years for kobuviruses. Furthermore, the caprine kobuvirus TMRCA was determined to be 48.8 years (95% highest posterior density: 8.3-88.4). PMID:24984842

  4. Schmallenberg disease in sheep or goats: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Lievaart-Peterson, K; Luttikholt, S; Peperkamp, K; Van den Brom, R; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Schmallenberg disease has emerged in North-Western Europe in 2011 and has since spread widely, even across the European borders. It has the potency to infect many, mainly ruminant, species, but seems to lack zoonotic potential. Horizontal transmission occurs through various Culicoides biting midges and subsequent trans-placental transmission causes teratogenic effects. In some small ruminants, clinical signs, including fever, decreased milk production and diarrhea occur during the viraemic phase, but infection is mostly asymptomatic. However, fetal Schmallenberg virus infection in naïve ewes and goats can result in stillborn offspring, showing a congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome. The economic impact of infection depends on the number of malformed lambs, but is generally limited. There is debate on whether Schmallenberg virus has newly emerged or is re-emerging, since it is likely one of the ancestors of Shamonda virus, both Orthobunyaviruses belonging to the species Sathuperi virus within the Simbu serogroup viruses. Depending on the vector-borne transmission and the serologic status, future outbreaks of Schmallenberg disease induced congenital disease are expected. PMID:26441013

  5. Seasonal variations in the semen quality of young British goats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Noakes, D E

    1996-03-01

    Physical characteristics of semen quality were studied over a 12 month period in 10 post pubertal, young male goats (7-19 months of age) maintained under the naturally prevailing climatic conditions characteristic of the South of England (latitude N 51 degrees 46'). Semen was collected fort-nightly using an artificial vagina and an ovariectomized, oestrogenized teaser doe. The physical appearance of the ejaculates varied from a yellow or whitish-yellow colour during September-December to a creamy-white colour during the remainder of the year. Ejaculate volume decreased from 0.96 +/- 0.06 ml in October to the minimum value of 0.39 +/- 0.03 ml in April and 0.38 +/- 0.02 ml in July, after which there was a sharp increase to the highest value, 1.04 +/- 0.05 ml, in September. Sperm cell concentration per ml was lowest (3.66 +/- 0.16 x 10(9)), during November and highest (6.56 +/- 0.29 x 10(9)) during May. However, the total sperm per ejaculate were highest during the September and lowest in December. The mass and individual motilities were higher during August-December than in the remainder of the year. The percentages of dead and morphologically abnormal spermatozoa were highest during May. The effect of the months and seasons of the year on all parameters of semen quality were significant (P < 0.01). PMID:8680844

  6. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for mountain goat surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, whereas generally greater than 80 and greater than 60 percent of locations were within sampling units delineated in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks, respectively. Presence of GPS-collared mountain goats within the sampling frame of Olympic National Park varied by diurnal period (midday versus crepuscular), survey season (July versus September), and the interaction of diurnal period and survey season. Aerial surveys conducted in developing a sightability model for mountain goat aerial surveys indicated mean detection probabilities of 0.69, 0.76, and 0.87 in North Cascades, Olympic, and Mount Rainier National Parks, respectively. Higher detection probabilities in Mount Rainier likely reflected larger group sizes and more open habitat conditions than in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks. Use of sightability models will reduce biases of population estimates in each park, but resulting population estimates must still be considered minimum population estimates in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks because the current sampling frames do not encompass those populations completely. Because mountain goats were reliably present within the sampling frame in Mount Rainier National Park, we found no compelling need to adjust mountain goat survey boundaries in that park. Expanding survey coverage in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks to more reliably encompass the altitudinal distribution of mountain goats during summer would enhance population estimation accuracy in the future. Lowering the altitude boundary of mountain goat survey units by as little as 100 meters to 1,425 meters in Olympic National Park would increase mountain goat presence within the survey and reduce variation in counts related to movements of mountain goats outside the survey boundaries.

  7. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats. PMID:26462199

  8. Age-Specificity of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Sheep, Goats and Cattle on Subsistence Farms in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Moizur; AZAD, Md. Thoufic Anam; NAHAR, Lovely; ROUF, Shah Md. Abdur; OHYA, Kenji; CHIOU, Shih-Pin; BABA, Minami; KITOH, Katsuya; TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats. PMID:24849051

  9. Age-specificity of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in sheep, goats and cattle on subsistence farms in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Azad, Md Thoufic Anam; Nahar, Lovely; Rouf, Shah Md Abdur; Ohya, Kenji; Chiou, Shih-Pin; Baba, Minami; Kitoh, Katsuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats. PMID:24849051

  10. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats. PMID:26462199

  11. Fertility of the West African dwarf goat in its native environment following prostaglandin F2-alpha induced estrus.

    PubMed

    Akusu, M O; Egbunike, G N

    1984-07-01

    The fertility of ten West African Dwarf goats in which oestrus was induced with PGF2 alpha was comparable to that of the five West African Dwarf goats in the control group. Performance indices as determined by duration of oestrus and length of gestation were not affected. Similarly the birth weight of kids was not significantly influenced. However, treated goats were superior to controls when the interval from commencement of experiment to oestrus is considered, although there was no difference between the two treated groups of goats (5 mg vs 10 mg PGF2 alpha). Results showed that PGF2 alpha could be an important tool in oestrus synchronization and thus in controls of the reproductive performance of the West African Dwarf goats under humid lowland tropical environmental conditions. PMID:6592874

  12. The kinematic and metamorphic development of the Towaliga-Goat Rock mylonites, Georgia-Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, W. A., Jr.

    The Towaliga-Goat Rock and Bartletts Ferry deformation zones are major tectonic boundaries of the southeastern Piedmont. The Towaliga zone separates the Pine Mountain Belt and the Inner Piedmont and the Goat Rock and Bartletts Ferry Zones separate the Pine Mountain and Uchee Belt. The Uchee Belt is composed of granitic gneisses and amphibolites modified by deformational phases, each represented by distinctive mesoscopic folding patterns. The earliest is a poorly developed folding of obscure compositional layering. Later leucocratic banding is folded by recumbent isoclines with subhorizontal axial plane cleavage. Intensification of cleavage to the northwest produces the southeast dipping mylonitic foliation of the Goat Rock and Bartletts Ferry Zone. Mesoscopic structural patterns is accounted for by regional compressive folding accompanied by ductile drag folding and mylonitization on the limbs of a major anticlinal structure.

  13. Assessing admixture by multivariate analyses of phenotypic differentiation in the Algerian goat livestock.

    PubMed

    Ouchene-Khelifi, Nadjet-Amina; Ouchene, Nassim; Maftah, Abderrahman; Da Silva, Anne Blondeau; Lafri, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    In Algeria, goat research has been largely neglected, in spite of the economic importance of this domestic species for rural livelihoods. Goat farming is traditional and cross-breeding practices are current. The phenotypic variability of the four main native breeds (Arabia, Makatia, M'zabite and Kabyle), and of two exotic breeds (Alpine and Saanen), was investigated for the first time, using multivariate discriminant analysis. A total of 892 females were sampled in a large area, including the cradle of the native breeds, and phenotyped with 23 quantitative measures and 10 qualitative traits. Our results suggested that cross-breeding practices have ever led to critical consequences, particularly for Makatia and M'zabite. The information reported in this study has to be carefully considered in order to establish governmental plan able to prevent the genetic dilution of the Algerian goat livestock. PMID:26077115

  14. Clinico-biochemical studies on acute toxic nephropathy in goats due to uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, P.K.; Joshi, H.C.

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxic nephropathy was produced in 6 healthy goats by injecting intravenously 1% uranyl nitrate (UN) (15 mg/kg body weight). The early painful clinical signs simulating shock progressed with subnormal temperature, slow-shallow respiration and arrhythmic pulse followed by death due to respiratory failure within 96 to 120 hr. All the affected goats had normocytic normochromic anemia, leucocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift eosinopenia, decreased monocytes and presence of 1-2% reticulocytes in the peripheral blood smears. On blood chemical analysis, a uniform and continuous rise was seen in serum creatinine with a concomitant daily increase of serum urea and uric acid. Simultaneous analysis of urine indicated polyuria leading to oliguria, acidic pH, albuminuria, glycosuria with presence of neutrophils, RBC's, epithelial and fatty casts, increase of triple phosphate, and cystine crystals reflecting acute damage of kidneys in the affected goats.

  15. Oral pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen to evaluate gastric emptying profiles of Shiba goats.

    PubMed

    Elbadawy, Mohamed; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Aboubakr, Mohamed; Khalil, Waleed Fathy; Shimoda, Minoru

    2015-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen was investigated following oral dosing to Shiba goats in order to evaluate the properties of gastric emptying. Acetaminophen was intravenously and orally administered at 30 mg/kg body weight to goats using a crossover design with a 3-week washout period. The stability of acetaminophen in rumen juice was also assessed. Acetaminophen concentrations were measured by HPLC. Since acetaminophen was stable in rumen juice for 24 hr, the extremely low bioavailability (16%) was attributed to its hepatic extensive first-pass effect. The mean absorption time and absorption half-life were unexpectedly short (4.93 and 3.35 hr, respectively), indicating its marked absorption from the forestomach, which may have been due to its smaller molecular weight. Therefore, acetaminophen was considered to be unsuitable for evaluating gastric emptying in Shiba goats. PMID:26018358

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Liaoning cashmere goat from northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Li, Xia; Guo, Ling; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun; Yu, Di; Zhao, Quan; Liu, Xiao-Gang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, serum samples from 650 goats were collected from five counties between May and June 2012 and antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected by indirect haemagglutination assay; 58 (9%) had antibodies to T. gondii with antibody titres of 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive samples were distributed in all five counties: seroprevalences in Kuandian county (15%, 21/139, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9–21%) were statistically different from the four other counties (Gaizhou, Huanren, Xiuyan and Liaoyang), and the seroprevalence difference between Xiuyan county (12%, 15/127, 95% CI 6–17%) and two other counties (Huanren, Liaoyang) was significantly different (P < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the seroprevalence of T. gondii exposure in Liaoning cashmere goat in China. Our results indicated that Liaoning cashmere goat could be a potential reservoir for the transmission of T. gondii in Liaoning Province. PMID:24845552

  17. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the milk fat fatty acid profile of goats.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples. PMID:26212967

  18. Is the goat a new host for the G3 Indian buffalo strain of Echinococcus granulosus?

    PubMed

    Calderini, Pietro; Gabrielli, Simona; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Four goats bred in Central Italy (province of Rieti) revealed, in the liver, metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus. The cysts, unilocular and fertile, were examined by microscopy and molecular diagnostics. Morphological data on the rostellar hooks are in agreement with the original description of the strain found in buffaloes and are largely compatible with those reported in Europe for cattle and humans. Specific PCR followed by DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene revealed for all the isolates 99.5% identity to the reference strain G3 genotype and 99.3% and 99.1% to G2 and G1, respectively. Further genetic markers (nad1 and 12S rRNA) confirmed the identity of the goat isolates to the G3 strain. This genotype, here reported for the first time in goats, proved to have a wider than previously supposed host range, therefore its relevance in human hydatidosis is expected to be more often evidenced. PMID:22666099

  19. Echocardiographic findings in a goat with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic parasitic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Buczinski, S; Pinard, J; Ferrouillet, C; Veillette, M

    2010-02-01

    A four-year old goat was presented for anorexia and apathy since kidding one week earlier. Physical examination revealed dyspnea, extensive ascites and bilateral distended jugular veins, suggestive of congestive right heart failure. The echocardiographic findings of severe right ventricular and atrial dilatation were consistent with right heart failure. In the absence of abnormalities in the right ventricular outflow tract a diagnosis of cor pulmonale secondary to lung disease was posed. Due to a poor prognosis, the goat was euthanized. Necropsy confirmed cor pulmonale and identified severe chronic parasitic pneumonia as underlying cause. Echocardiography is an interesting tool also applicable in the farm for diagnosing heart diseases in goats, and its use should help to avoid unnecessary therapy in cases with a poor prognosis. PMID:20127650

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Liaoning cashmere goat from northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Li, Xia; Guo, Ling; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun; Yu, Di; Zhao, Quan; Liu, Xiao-Gang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, serum samples from 650 goats were collected from five counties between May and June 2012 and antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected by indirect haemagglutination assay; 58 (9%) had antibodies to T. gondii with antibody titres of 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive samples were distributed in all five counties: seroprevalences in Kuandian county (15%, 21/139, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9-21%) were statistically different from the four other counties (Gaizhou, Huanren, Xiuyan and Liaoyang), and the seroprevalence difference between Xiuyan county (12%, 15/127, 95% CI 6-17%) and two other counties (Huanren, Liaoyang) was significantly different (P < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the seroprevalence of T. gondii exposure in Liaoning cashmere goat in China. Our results indicated that Liaoning cashmere goat could be a potential reservoir for the transmission of T. gondii in Liaoning Province. PMID:24845552

  1. Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep and goats in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nasir, A; Ashraf, M; Khan, M S; Javeed, A; Yaqub, T; Avais, M; Reichel, M P

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain seroepidemiological information on the Neospora caninum infection status of sheep and goats in different areas of Punjab Province and Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). A cross-sectional study, with the use of a competitive ELISA, showed an overall 27.7% (35 of 128) (95% confidence interval [CI] ± 7.7%) and 8.6% (13 of 142) (95% CI ± 4.6%) seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in sheep and goats, respectively. The difference in seroprevalence between sheep and goat populations was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The highest prevalence (37.4% ± 13.2%) was recorded in the tailless breed of sheep. PMID:21854220

  2. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

  3. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  4. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-?-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

  5. Resistance to classical scrapie in experimentally challenged goats carrying mutation K222 of the prion protein gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type) and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002). Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats. PMID:22296670

  6. Preliminary report on induction of estrus with multiple eCG injections in Colored Mohair goats during the anestrus season.

    PubMed

    Karaca, F; Tasal, I; Alan, M

    2009-08-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple eCG injections in the induction of estrus and pregnancy in Colored Mohair goats during the anestrus season. It was also aimed to determine total dose of eCG required for induction of estrus. Ten multiparous and lactating goats were used. The goats were randomly divided into two groups and treatments were started on May 22. Group eCG (n=5) was treated with eCG intramuscularly for 6 days. Daily dosages of eCG from May 22 to May 27 were 300 IU, 200 IU, 200 IU, 100 IU, 100 IU and 50 IU, respectively. Goats in control group received no treatment. Blood samples were taken from animals in each of the two groups just before and after the beginning of the treatments and serum progesterone concentrations were assayed by RIA. Starting on the fourth day after the first treatments, goats were exposed to fertile bucks twice daily for 30 min to detect standing heat. The estrus goats were allowed to be mated by the bucks. Pregnancies were determined 40 days after mating by real-time ultrasonography. One goat on day 5 and three goats on day 7 exhibited behavioral estrus in eCG group (80%) after the first eCG injection. Three of them (75%) became pregnant. None of the goats in the control group exhibited behavioral estrus. Mean serum progesterone concentrations had prominent elevations indicating ovulation in eCG group, but not in control group, after 20 days from the first treatments. Progesterone concentrations of eCG group were significantly different than those of control group on days 20 and 28 (P<0.05). The results suggest that divided multiple injections of a total 950 IU eCG are effective without progestagen pretreatment in the induction of estrus and obtaining successful pregnancy and live kids in Colored Mohair goats during the anestrus season. PMID:18799273

  7. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Chamorro, Manuel F; Neill, John D; Brodersen, Bruce W; Walz, Heather L; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Walz, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25-35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam's acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  8. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25–35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam’s acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  9. In vitro effects of fatty acids on goat, calf and guinea pig hepatic gluconeogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, R.J.; Armentano, L.E.

    1986-03-05

    Isolated hepatocytes from male guinea pigs, ruminating goats and bull calves were incubated at 39 C for 1h. Fatty acids C18:1, C16, and C8 (.5, 1, 2 mM) were added as albumin complexes (3:1 molar ratio), C2 and C4 (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mM) were added as Na salts. In ruminant cells C2 had no effect on (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate (PROP) (2.5 mM) or (U-/sup 14/C)-L-lactate (LACT) (2.5 mM) metabolism. C4 (2.5 or 5 mM) decreased (/sup 14/C)-glucose (GLU) (P < .01) from PROP (48% goats, 68% calves) and decreased LACT conversion to GLU, (27% goats, 50% calves), C8, C16 and C18:1 effects depended on gluconeogenic substrate and species. In goat cells conversion of PROP to GLU was increased (P < .01) by C18:1 (30%) and C8 (52%) with C16 showing a similar trend. There were no interactions between the effects of fatty acids and lactation state (lactating does vs wethers). In goat cells C8 increased PROP conversion to GLU relative to oxidation, other fatty acids did not change relative rates. In calf cells C18:1, C16 and C8 had no effect on PROP metabolism. C8 inhibited gluconeogenesis from LACT in goats (24%) (P < .07) and calves (47%) (P < .01). In contrast fatty acids decreased (P < .01) GLU production from PROP (C18:1 90%, C8 80%) and LACT (C18:1 75%, C8 75%) in cells from guinea pigs. They have established a clear difference in the regulation of gluconeogenesis among species which contain similar intracellular distribution of P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase.

  10. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality. PMID:23369514

  11. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Faqir; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2013-01-01

    The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality. PMID:23369514

  12. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

    2015-01-15

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91 kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work suggests that a possible mechanism of action of SL against female H. contortus in the animal's abomasum is a direct action of CT on the cuticle of the worm. PMID:25465738

  13. Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The computational demands of sociality (maintaining group cohesion, reducing conflict) and ecological problems (extractive foraging, memorizing resource locations) are the main drivers proposed to explain the evolution cognition. Different predictions follow, about whether animals would preferentially learn new tasks socially or not, but the prevalent view today is that intelligent species should excel at social learning. However, the predictions were originally used to explain primate cognition, and studies of species with relatively smaller brains are rare. By contrast, domestication has often led to a decrease in brain size, which could affect cognition. In domestic animals, the relaxed selection pressures compared to a wild environment could have led to reduced social and physical cognition. Goats possess several features commonly associated with advanced cognition, such as successful colonization of new environments and complex fission-fusion societies. Here, we assessed goat social and physical cognition as well as long-term memory of a complex two-step foraging task (food box cognitive challenge), in order to investigate some of the main selection pressures thought to affect the evolution of ungulate cognition. Results The majority of trained goats (9/12) successfully learned the task quickly; on average, within 12 trials. After intervals of up to 10 months, they solved the task within two minutes, indicating excellent long-term memory. The goats did not learn the task faster after observing a demonstrator than if they did not have that opportunity. This indicates that they learned through individual rather than social learning. Conclusions The individual learning abilities and long-term memory of goats highlighted in our study suggest that domestication has not affected goat physical cognition. However, these cognitive abilities contrast with the apparent lack of social learning, suggesting that relatively intelligent species do not always preferentially learn socially. We propose that goat cognition, and maybe more generally ungulate cognition, is mainly driven by the need to forage efficiently in harsh environments and feed on plants that are difficult to access and to process, more than by the computational demands of sociality. Our results could also explain why goats are so successful at colonizing new environments. PMID:24666734

  14. Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goats: seroprevalence and potential risk factors under dairy husbandry practices.

    PubMed

    Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Maksimov, Pavlo; Conraths, Franz J; Kiossis, Evaggelos; Brozos, Christos; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Schares, Gereon

    2012-12-21

    Sheep and goats are highly susceptible for infections with Toxoplasma gondii and may play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. The aim of this study was to obtain up-to-date data on T. gondii infection in small ruminants and to identify putative risk factors in sheep and goats reared under dairy husbandry systems most commonly applied in Greece. To this end, ELISA tests were established for the examination of sheep and goat sera based on the use of TgSAG1, a major surface antigen of T. gondii tachyzoites. Serum samples from 2-4 years old small ruminants, 1501 from sheep and 541 from goats were examined. These samples had been collected on 69 farms in a mountainous and in a costal environment of Northern Greece from September 2008 to January 2009. In addition to farms containing only sheep (n=28) and farms containing only goats (n=9) also mixed farms with both animal species (n=32) were sampled. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on putative risk factors. Sheep showed a higher seroprevalence (48.6% [729/1501]) for T. gondii than goats (30.7% [166/541]). Univariate multi-level modelling assuming random effects by the factor "farm" revealed that goats were statistically significantly less often seropositive than sheep (OR 0.475 [95% CI: 0.318-0.707]). No statistically significant regional differences in seroprevalence were observed. Risk factor analysis using univariate multi-level modelling revealed that sheep and goats that were kept under intensive (OR 4.30 [95% CI: 1.39-13.27]) or semi-intensive (OR 5.35 [95% CI: 2.33-12.28]) conditions had significantly higher odds of being seropositive. Further significant risk factors were "feeding concentrate" (OR 3.88 [95% CI: 1.81-8.29]) and providing "water from the public supply" (OR 1.67 [95% CI: 4.56-12.39]) to small ruminants. PMID:22883972

  15. Congenital duplication of the caudal region (monocephalus dipygus) in a kid goat.

    PubMed

    Corbera, J A; Arencibia, A; Morales, I; Gutierrez, C

    2005-02-01

    A case of congenital duplication (monocephalus dipygus) in a goat is described. Two pelvis and four pelvic limbs were observed in the kid. Conjoined or fused symmetric twins were diagnosed. Associated abnormalities were cleft palate and anal atresia. Most of the classically recognized teratogens were ruled out by history and serology. However, progenitors were related in the second degree. Thus, genetic factors could be suspected in this case. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first report of monocephalus dipygus in a goat. PMID:15649230

  16. Large animal models of human cauda equina injury and repair: evaluation of a novel goat model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-tao; Zhang, Pei-xun; Xue, Feng; Yin, Xiao-feng; Qi, Cao-yuan; Ma, Jun; Chen, Bo; Yu, You-lai; Deng, Jiu-xu; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies of cauda equina injury have primarily used rat models, which display significant differences from humans. Furthermore, most studies have focused on electrophysiological examination. To better mimic the outcome after surgical repair of cauda equina injury, a novel animal model was established in the goat. Electrophysiological, histological and magnetic resonance imaging methods were used to evaluate the morphological and functional outcome after cauda equina injury and end-to-end suture. Our results demonstrate successful establishment of the goat experimental model of cauda equina injury. This novel model can provide detailed information on the nerve regenerative process following surgical repair of cauda equina injury. PMID:25788921

  17. The effects of progesterone priming on reproductive performance of GnRH-PGF2alpha-treated anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Husein, Mustafa Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M; Haddad, Serhan G

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of a 5-day progesterone priming prior to a GnRH-PGF2alpha treatment on reproductive performance of anestrous goats. Thirty-six Mountain Black goats were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement and were administered intravaginally on day -12, either with 300 mg progesterone inserts (CGPE and CGP) or with 0 mg progesterone (GPE and GP) for 5 days. On day -6, the goats were injected with 100 microg GnRH, followed 6 days later by 15 mg PGF2alpha (day 0), the time at which the goats in the CGPE and GPE groups were administered 300 IU eCG injections and those in CGP and GP groups were administered the control solution. The goats were exposed to four fertile bucks at 0 h and were checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals for 72 h. Blood samples were collected from all goats for progesterone analysis. Progesterone concentrations increased only in CGPE and CGP during the period of device insertion but remained low in GPE and GP groups (P < 0.001). Progesterone levels at the time of GnRH injection on day -6 were basal (0.2 +/- 0.04 ng.mL-1) among the groups and began to increase starting on day -2. Day 0 progesterone concentrations differed (P < 0.05) among groups and were significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P < 0.001). A similar proportion of goats expressed estrus and intervals to detected estrus were shorter (P < 0.05) in the CGPE and GPE groups than in GP with no difference between the CGPE, CGP and GPE or between CGP and GP groups. The number of goats ovulating based upon elevated progesterone levels on day 0 was significantly greater (P = 0.002) in CGPE (9/9) and CGP (9/9) than GPE (6/9) and GP (5/9) groups and was significantly influenced by CIDR-G (P = 0.03). All pregnant goats had elevated progesterone concentration on day 0 and none of the goats with basal progesterone levels became pregnant. Pregnancy and kidding rates, twinning percentage and the number of kids born per goat exposed were greater (P < 0.05) among goats treated with progesterone and eCG. In conclusion, progesterone priming and eCG are essential for producing higher rates of pregnancy and kidding in GnRH-PGF2alpha-treated anestrous goats. PMID:16285911

  18. A Sensitive and Effective Proteomic Approach to Identify She-Donkey’s and Goat’s Milk Adulterations by MALDI-TOF MS Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Scapaticci, Margherita; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    She-donkey’s milk (DM) and goat’s milk (GM) are commonly used in newborn and infant feeding because they are less allergenic than other milk types. It is, therefore, mandatory to avoid adulteration and contamination by other milk allergens, developing fast and efficient analytical methods to assess the authenticity of these precious nutrients. In this experimental work, a sensitive and robust matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling was designed to assess the genuineness of DM and GM milks. This workflow allows the identification of DM and GM adulteration at levels of 0.5%, thus, representing a sensitive tool for milk adulteration analysis, if compared with other laborious and time-consuming analytical procedures. PMID:25110863

  19. Seroprevalence, Detection of DNA in Blood and Milk, and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in a Goat Population in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Franco, Filomena; Papini, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of a major zoonosis with cosmopolitan distribution and is known to be transmitted mainly by the ingestion of undercooked or raw animal products. Drinking unpasteurized goat's milk is a risk factor associated with human toxoplasmosis. However, very little is known about the excretion of DNA in goat milk. Aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection using a modified agglutination test (MAT), to detect T. gondii DNA by nested-PCR (n-PCR) in samples of blood and milk from seropositive goats, and to genotype DNA isolates using 11 molecular markers in 127 adult lactating goats from 6 farms in Italy. Positive MAT results were found in 60.6% of goats while 13% of blood and milk samples from seropositive goats were positive to n-PCR. A kappa coefficient of 1 indicated a perfect agreement between blood and milk n-PCR. Genetic characterization of isolates revealed the occurrence of genotype III (n = 7), genotype I (n = 1), and atypical genotypes with hints for genotype I (n = 2). Our results suggest that the risk of excretion of Toxoplasma tachyzoites might frequently occur in milk of seropositive goats testing positive to n-PCR on blood. PMID:24093106

  20. Seroprevalence, detection of DNA in blood and milk, and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in a goat population in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Pedonese, Francesca; Mugnaini, Linda; Franco, Filomena; Papini, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of a major zoonosis with cosmopolitan distribution and is known to be transmitted mainly by the ingestion of undercooked or raw animal products. Drinking unpasteurized goat's milk is a risk factor associated with human toxoplasmosis. However, very little is known about the excretion of DNA in goat milk. Aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection using a modified agglutination test (MAT), to detect T. gondii DNA by nested-PCR (n-PCR) in samples of blood and milk from seropositive goats, and to genotype DNA isolates using 11 molecular markers in 127 adult lactating goats from 6 farms in Italy. Positive MAT results were found in 60.6% of goats while 13% of blood and milk samples from seropositive goats were positive to n-PCR. A kappa coefficient of 1 indicated a perfect agreement between blood and milk n-PCR. Genetic characterization of isolates revealed the occurrence of genotype III (n = 7), genotype I (n = 1), and atypical genotypes with hints for genotype I (n = 2). Our results suggest that the risk of excretion of Toxoplasma tachyzoites might frequently occur in milk of seropositive goats testing positive to n-PCR on blood. PMID:24093106