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1

car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat  

E-print Network

car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat One of the most successful problems I have used with high school kids is the now notorious "car and two goats" problem. Its fascinating history certainly accounts, in some measure by the (male) host. Behind one of these there is a car, and behind each of the other two there is a goat. She

McCann, Robert J.

2

Goat skeleton  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goat uses its horns to scare off or defend against predators. Long legs and hooves help the goat climb on steep and rugged terrain. A long neck allow the goat to bend down to grab vegetation (food) from the ground. The goat's blunt teeth suggest its an herbivore, meaning it eats only vegetables.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2007-09-01

3

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by  

E-print Network

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by University of California Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 And" Davis, CA 1918 University of California Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

4

car goat goat 11/13/2007 1 Car Goat Goat  

E-print Network

car goat goat 11/13/2007 1 Car Goat Goat One of the most successful problems I have used with high school kids is the now notorious "car and two goats" problem. Its fascinating history certainly accounts there is a goat. She chooses one of the doors (hoping, of course, to get the car) and then, before it is opened

Taylor, Peter

5

Texas Angora Goat Production.  

E-print Network

fond of them. Use mature goats for this purpose because the briars can catch and hold young goats, which often do not have strength to pull free. Catclaws provide nutritious browse that goats , eat during spring and summer. Do not run kids... Angora goats is detailed 1 business and requires accurate records on breed- ing and kidding dates, sires and dams. Individuals entering the registered goat busi- ness should have good knowledge of genetics, nutrition, as well as advertising...

Gray, James A.; Groff, Jack L.

1970-01-01

6

your dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goat The Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy Goat  

E-print Network

your dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goat The Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy Goat The modern dairy goat-quality feed, and should be milked properly. With the exception of bucks during breeding season, goats do

New Hampshire, University of

7

Interview with Alison Goate.  

PubMed

Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals. PMID:20477443

Goate, Alison

2008-12-01

8

Brock Cole's The Goats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

Scales, Pat

1997-01-01

9

The Goat in the Rug.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

10

Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at

Jim I. Mead; Paul S. Martin; Robert C. Euler; Austin Long; A. J. T. Jull; Laurence J. Toolin; Douglas J. Donahue; T. W. Linick

1986-01-01

11

New Hampshire Dairy Goat Seminar Milk Sanitation  

E-print Network

New Hampshire Dairy Goat Seminar Milk Sanitation Farm and Forest Exposition Saturday-February 8 Phil Cassette, President, American Dairy Goat Association; and District #1 Directors: Jennifer Mellett the conference and 4-H dairy goat activities. Dairy Goat publications will also be for sale. John C. Porter

New Hampshire, University of

12

7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

2011-01-01

13

7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

2014-01-01

14

7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

2013-01-01

15

7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

2012-01-01

16

7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

2012-01-01

17

7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

2014-01-01

18

7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

2011-01-01

19

7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

2013-01-01

20

The Texas goat situation, 1955  

E-print Network

'Gice P~ozs' gaetc usuellr hSV9 8 fem Spanish dane an the rsnge Ca praride the ueest xor hase sls~&tero ghie nest is llsed espoclsll'g during the sheering Qnd hMdina cessons ta feed the help hired st this time, : -Augers goats sre rciccd pzimsr... and the vol\\zza of goats is relativelp stee@' thxuugh Labor volumes of goats axe marhetad in August, September aud Qctober @ken is! other moEHihs of zhs /care Beoemberp genus' and Peb~ UniLon Stook' Xardsi @hase seasons of tahe pears The Augers does 1@d...

Tieken, Alton Waldemar

1956-01-01

21

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

SciTech Connect

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

1986-02-01

22

Milking goats for malaria vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A herd of transgenic goats could save millions of lives, claim the biotechnologists who developed them because their milk contains the key ingredient of a malaria vaccine and can yield up to 5 kg of this protein a year.

Henry Nicholls

2004-01-01

23

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

24

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat.  

PubMed

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. PMID:16593655

Mead, J I; Martin, P S; Euler, R C; Long, A; Jull, A J; Toolin, L J; Donahue, D J; Linick, T W

1986-02-01

25

GOATS Image Projection Component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

2011-01-01

26

RUNNING HEAD: RADIOSTRONTIUM IN DAIRY GOATS A Model of Radiostrontium Transfer in Dairy Goats  

E-print Network

1 RUNNING HEAD: RADIOSTRONTIUM IN DAIRY GOATS A Model of Radiostrontium Transfer in Dairy Goats _________________ Received November 12, 1996 #12;2 ABSTRACT1 A model of radiostrontium transfer in dairy goats is presented obtained by fitting the model to data from a study of7 radiostrontium and Ca transfer in goats. The model

Crout, Neil

27

Basic Goat Production 5-Day Workshop  

E-print Network

Basic Goat Production 5-Day Workshop February 11, 18, 25, March 4 and 11, 2014 All classes are 6 family have been raising meat for over 26 years, including meat and dairy goats. She is a strong advocate information about raising goats for meat or milk in New Hampshire; behavior, ease of handling, selection, age

New Hampshire, University of

28

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introduccin a  

E-print Network

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introducción a Scrum Mike Cohen Traducido: Ernesto Grafeuille Revisado y modificado: Pedro Cabalar Noviembre 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Software, LLC Estamos perdiendo la hacia atrás -pueden servir mejor a los actuales requisitos competitivos". #12;Mountain Goat Software

Cabalar, Pedro

29

JULIANA BOERIO-GOATES CURRICULUM VITA  

E-print Network

JULIANA BOERIO-GOATES CURRICULUM VITA Department of Chemistry Brigham Young University Provo, UT, Argonne, IL #12;Juliana Boerio-Goates Vita Honors and Awards Alcuin Fellowship in General Education, BYU Committee for the Pure and Applied Chemistry Award 1999-2001. #12;Juliana Boerio-Goates Vita Chair

Seamons, Kent E.

30

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats Kate Hepworth, Animal Sciences Student; Mike Neary, Extension Sheep Specialist; Terry Hutchens, Extension Associate for Goat Production, University of Kentucky associated with parasites, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract of sheep and goats can cause

31

GOAT induced ghrelin acylation regulates hedonic feeding.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates homeostatic and reward-related feeding behavior. Recent evidence indicates that acylation of ghrelin by the gut enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is necessary to render ghrelin maximally active within its target tissues. Here we tested the hypothesis that GOAT activity modulates food motivation and food hedonics using behavioral pharmacology and mutant mice deficient for GOAT and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR). We evaluated operant responding following pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin and assessed the necessity of endogenous GOAT activity for operant responding in GOAT and GHSR-null mice. Hedonic-based feeding behavior also was examined in GOAT-KO and GHSR-null mice using a "Dessert Effect" protocol in which the intake of a palatable high fat diet "dessert" was assessed in calorically-sated mice. Pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin augmented operant responding; notably, this effect was dependent on intact GHSR signaling. GOAT-KO mice displayed attenuated operant responding and decreased hedonic feeding relative to controls. These behavioral results correlated with decreased expression of the orexin-1 receptor in reward-related brain regions in GOAT-KO mice. In summary, the ability of ghrelin to stimulate food motivation is dependent on intact GHSR signaling and modified by endogenous GOAT activity. Furthermore, GOAT activity is required for hedonic feeding behavior, an effect potentially mediated by forebrain orexin signaling. These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding. PMID:22982020

Davis, J F; Perello, M; Choi, D L; Magrisso, I J; Kirchner, H; Pfluger, P T; Tschoep, M; Zigman, J M; Benoit, S C

2012-11-01

32

Systemic mastocytosis in a goat.  

PubMed

Systemic mastocytosis was diagnosed in a 4-year-old, female Nubian goat. Clinically, the animal was depressed and had severe macrocytic hypochromic anemia and leukopenia. Postmortem examination revealed neoplastic mast cells invading the heart, lung, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Eosinophils were frequently admixed with infiltrating mast cells in all organs. Using routine light microscopy, histochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy, metachromatic and periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules were identified within the cytoplasm of neoplastic mast cells. Erythrophagocytosis was observed in some neoplastic cells, although its contribution to the anemia was not clear. This report represents the first description of mast cell neoplasia in the goat. PMID:8592810

Khan, K N; Sagartz, J E; Koenig, G; Tanaka, K

1995-11-01

33

GOATS - Orbitology Component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the early stage of mission concept development.

Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

34

Goat milk in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat milk and its products of yoghurt, cheese and powder have three-fold significance in human nutrition: (1) feeding more starving and malnourished people in the developing world than from cow milk; (2) treating people afflicted with cow milk allergies and gastro-intestinal disorders, which is a significant segment in many populations of developed countries; and (3) filling the gastronomic needs of

G. F. W. Haenlein

2004-01-01

35

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2010-01-01

36

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2011-01-01

37

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2012-01-01

38

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2013-01-01

39

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2014-01-01

40

Molecular characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations.  

PubMed

Six Ethiopian indigenous goat populations viz. Gumuz, Agew, Begia-Medir, Bati, Abergelle, and Central Abergelle were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Society for Animal Genetics. A total of 158 individual goats were tested to assess genetic variations within and between the goat populations in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. The markers revealed 100% polymorphism across six goat populations indicating the presence of genetic diversity, which is an important variable to measure genetic variability within and between populations. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.56 (Central Abergelle) to 0.68 (Bati) and 0.59 (Abergelle) to 0.69 (Agew goat), respectively. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Begia-Medir and Central Abergelle (0.039), and the largest distances between Agew and Abergelle (0.140) and Gumuz and Abergelle (0.169). Neighbor-joining and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods with bootstrap value of 1,000 was used which grouped the six goat populations into two major groups viz. the Abergelle goat cluster as one group and the Agew, Gumuz, Bati, Begia-Medir, and Central Abergelle goats as the second group. In our study, the obtained higher total variation within the goat populations (95%) confirms a close relatedness of the studied goat ecotypes, which might have happened due to the existence of uncontrolled animal breeding strategies resulting from uncontrolled movement of animals through various market routes and agricultural extension systems. The study contributed to the genetic characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations and demonstrated the usefulness of the 15 microsatellite makers for biodiversity studies in goats. PMID:22237413

Hassen, Halima; Lababidi, Samer; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Baum, Michael; Tibbo, Markos

2012-08-01

41

Social dominance in adult female mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

1995-01-01

42

A Folk Tale of a Goat  

E-print Network

Folk Tale of a Goat Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshe 'dzin tells folk tale about a goat who's mother was killed by a sheep. The sheep and her daughter then always bullied the goat daughter, but in the end... the goat daughter married a prince. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Folktale Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 17 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad...

Bkra shis bzang po

2009-11-17

43

Toxicity of ethion in goats.  

PubMed

Cholinesterase activities were measured in plasma and in red blood cells from 6 goats after iv injection of the organophosphorus insecticide ethion at 3 different dose levels--2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Plasma levels of ethion after injection were established. At 2 mg/kg no signs of toxicity were observed and the blood cholinesterase activity remained above 65% of the control value. After administration of the higher doses the goats showed signs of severe toxicity corresponding to increased parasympathetic stimulation. Cholinesterase activities in blood were reduced to approximately 10% of the control value for the 5 mg/kg group and to approximately 5% for the 10 mg/kg group. Reactivation of cholinesterase activity in blood cells and plasma by means of pralidoxime was very efficient during the first 24 hr after administration of ethion, but was insignificant after 72 hours. PMID:2301152

Mosha, R D; Gyrd-Hansen, N

1990-02-01

44

20 Sheep & Goat Research Journal, Volume 22, 2007 2007, Sheep & Goat Research Journal Managers of pastures in the northern tallgrass prairie  

E-print Network

20 Sheep & Goat Research Journal, Volume 22, 2007 ©2007, Sheep & Goat Research Journal Summary;21 Sheep & Goat Research Journal, Volume 22, 2007 ©2007, Sheep & Goat Research Journal Introduction Western

45

A sightability model for mountain goats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

2009-01-01

46

Finishing Lambs and Goat Kids on Pasture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producing goats and lambs for ethnic markets offers an economic opportunity for small farm producers in the Appalachian Region of the U.S. There are a variety of forages used in goat and sheep production systems. Overall, nutrients available to ruminants depend upon the types and combinations of p...

47

Sexual stimulation in male sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that the sexual performance of male goats is enhanced by viewing the mating activities of other males prior to being placed with sexually receptive females. This same experience has no effect on the sexual performance of male sheep. In the present experiment, 14 male goats and 17 rams were individually allowed to sniff and nuzzle the

Edward O Price; Reid Borgwardt; Agustin Orihuela; Martin R Dally

1998-01-01

48

TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat!  

E-print Network

TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat! TUDelftLibrary `Goat' to repository.tudelft.nl! For every 1.000th publication deposited in the TU Delft Repository a goat is donated to a poor family in Bangladesh. #12;TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat! TU Delft scientific output available

Langendoen, Koen

49

This information sheet is for the care and use of Goats Potential Injury & Zoonotic Diseases: Goats are more  

E-print Network

This information sheet is for the care and use of Goats Potential Injury & Zoonotic Diseases: Goats goats. They can also become aggressive towards each other. They move in family groups with the older is a list of zoonotic diseases associated with goats: Q-Fever: This rickettsial disease, caused by Coxielia

Wood, Marcelo A.

50

4-H Meat Goat Guide Frank Craddock and Ross Stultz*  

E-print Network

4-H Meat Goat Guide AS 3-4.060 10/06 H H H H 18USC707 #12;#12; 4-H Meat Goat Guide Frank Craddock that goats are an excellent choice as a club project. Because goats are small, easy to work with and demand of time. If you have decided to have a club goat project, your first decision will be to determine which

New Hampshire, University of

51

Mechanics of breathing in goats.  

PubMed

Common pulmonary function tests used in man and domestic mammals were adapted to the goat. Requirements for intrathoracic pressure record and pulmonary function investigation were determined. The elastance of the mid-thoracic portion of the oesophagus was measured in 17 healthy goats. The calculated percentage error in identifying the endoesophageal intrathoracic pressure decreased with somatic growth, and was found to be smaller than 2 per cent for adult goats. The location of the oesophageal balloon catheter used to measure the intrathoracic pressure was standardised. The following regression equation calculated between the length of catheter (Lcat) and the thoracic circumference (TC) was found: Lcat (cm) = 6.19 +/- 0.7163 X TC (cm) (R2 = 0.96). The influence of the dead space of a face mask on respiration pattern and arterial blood gas were studied. There were no significant changes in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pHa, breathing frequency and intrathoracic pressures. The influence of head and neck position was investigated. Upper airway resistance (Ruaw), measured with the head in a normal position did not significantly differ from values obtained with the head in a horizontal position. Ruaw measured with the head in a vertical position was considerably increased. Arterial blood gas tension and pulmonary mechanics were measured to assess the reproducibility of pulmonary function measurements. Variability in blood gas tension, tidal volume and minute volume is small. The variability of peak to peak intrathoracic pressure change (max delta Plp), dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL) and Rt were relatively large. PMID:3212281

Bakima, M; Gustin, P; Lekeux, P; Lomba, F

1988-11-01

52

Haematological values of Nigerian goats and sheep.  

PubMed

Haematological parameters were determined in healthy Nigerian breeds of goats and sheep. Most values in the Nigerian goats were similar to those reported for temperate breeds of goats although the haemoglobin concentrations and the MCHC were lower. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and red cell counts of the West African Dwarf sheep were lower while the MCV were higher than those reported for sheep in the temperate climate. RBC values decreased with age in both Nigerian goats and sheep. Although sex pregnancy appeared to have little or no influence on the erythrocytic values, pregnant ewes had higher haematocrit and haemoglobin values. The low erythrocytic values were attributed to a low but constant parasitic burden which affected the flocks studied. Total leucocyte counts were considerably higher in the Nigerian goats and sheep than those reported for temperate breeds of animals. Young goats had higher total leucocyte counts while pregnant goats had reduced leucocyte counts. The leucocytic values were not affected by age and sex. Pregnant ewes also had higher leucocyte counts than non-pregnant ewes and rams. PMID:968949

Oduye, O O

1976-08-01

53

Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

2013-01-01

54

Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats  

PubMed Central

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

2013-01-01

55

Physicochemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physico-chemical characteristics of milk are related to its composition for a particular animal species. Sheep milk contains higher levels of total solids and major nutrient than goat and cow milk. Lipids in sheep and goat milk have higher physical characteristics than in cow milk, but physico-chemical indices (i.e., saponification, Reichert Meissl and Polenske values) vary between different reports. Micelle structures

Y. W. Park; M. Juárez; M. Ramos; G. F. W. Haenlein

2007-01-01

56

Application of wild goats in cashmere breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Xinjiang goat had a lower cashmere weight (137 g), shorter cashmere length (5.0 cm), but finer cashmere diameter (12.74 ?m) than other types. If graded up with the Liaoning cashmere goat to the 2nd generation, cashmere weights were 320 g and 300 g for yearling bucks and yearling does, respectively, cashmere length was 7.0 cm and cashmere diameter increased

M. Yerxat; Yalejean

1995-01-01

57

Stomach Worms in Sheep and Goats.  

E-print Network

BUL TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS ,LETIN NO. 448 APRIL, 1932 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE Stomach Worms in Sheep and Goats - - T. 0. WALTON, President AGRICULTURAL.... The stomach worm, a round-worm parasite infesting the ourth stomach of sheep and goats, frequently causes heavy Isses in these animals. The females deposit eggs which pass out in the droppings to the ground, where they hatch. The young larvae reach...

Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree); Schmidt, H.

1932-01-01

58

Experiences with Goat Project as a Tool in Human Development: Goats for Poor Women in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Income sources are few for land less, rural women in Bangladesh pushed into problems caused by loss of husband. After reviewing some research results concerning women's roles in farming in Bangladesh, the paper describes results of a project which used Black Bengal goats to assist poor women with positive results. It is concluded that goat rearing is an appropriate

M. Saadullah; M. M. Hossain; Shajeda Akhter

59

Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus  

E-print Network

Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus Frido Welker a,b, , Elza. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae

Bern, Universität

60

6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides Goat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

61

4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast Goat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

62

Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat  

E-print Network

of ultimate palatability of the cooked product. Broiled goat meat has unique palatability attributes, beino less desirable in flavor and tenderness than pork and less ten- der than either beef or lamb and thus, would not be interchangeable wi th meat... young Angora goats were much less tender and much lower in overall satisfaction than were those from lamb carcasses. Meat from goats and lambs of comparable maturity differs in tenderness such that goat meat is much less desirable than lamb in overall...

Pike, Merritt Ivan

2012-06-07

63

Inflammatory Gene Expression in Goats in Response to Transport  

E-print Network

was to determine whether expression of immune-related genes changes in goats that are exposed to transport stress. In this study, 15 Spanish-Boer goats ranging from 3 to 4 yrs of age were transported for 12 h. Goats were divided into 5 groups of 3 and placed in 1...

Carter, Mark

2012-10-19

64

Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

65

Original article Inheritance of color in Angora goats  

E-print Network

Original article Inheritance of color in Angora goats D. Phillip Sponenberga Snejana Alexieva) Abstract - Inheritance of color in Angora goats deviates from mechanisms previously reported in other breeds and types of goats. Segregation data are most consistent with the presence of a dominant white

Boyer, Edmond

66

Design a poster on dairy goat Teach others about  

E-print Network

Design a poster on dairy goat breeds Teach others about showmanship techniques Give a speech on the importance of the dairy industry Acquire skills in dairy goat production through ownership and care of dairy goats. Learn marketing, processing, distribution, consumption, and use of dairy products. Discover

New Hampshire, University of

67

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2014-07-01

68

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2013-07-01

69

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2014-01-01

70

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2012-01-01

71

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2011-07-01

72

COMPARATIVE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEVAMISOLE IN NON LACTATING EWES AND GOATS  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEVAMISOLE IN NON LACTATING EWES AND GOATS P. GALTIER, L. ESCOULA, R in non lactating adult goats and ewes. In each case, the recommended veterinary therapeutic forms pregnant females (four Romanov ewes and four Alpine goats) were used during a three week-period. Body

Boyer, Edmond

73

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2012-07-01

74

Original article Pathogenesis of natural goat scrapie: modulation by host  

E-print Network

Original article Pathogenesis of natural goat scrapie: modulation by host PRNP genotype and effect prevalence of scrapie in a large dairy goat herd, 72 infected animals were examined by immunohistochemistry the former (average scores of 9.3 and 3.0, respectively). A significant proportion of the 38 goats that were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1  

E-print Network

Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1 O. D. Knipe2 1 Presented of the Environmental Protection Agency and be registered for the intended use. Abstract: Use of goats to convert. Results indicate that trampling of grass seed by goats in burned-over chaparral promotes germin- ation

Standiford, Richard B.

76

Bioavailability of sulfamethoxypyridazine following intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in goats  

E-print Network

administration in goats SK Garg RP Uppal2 t Deparimew of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary; The pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) was investigated in goats after a single intramuscular (im and maintain serum concentrations 25 pg/mL, a rational dosage regimen of SMP for goats would be 55 and 38 mg

Boyer, Edmond

77

Polymorphism of ?-casein in the Creole goat of Guadeloupe  

E-print Network

Note Polymorphism of ?-casein in the Creole goat of Guadeloupe: evidence for a null allele MF - A polymorphism of /3-casein, including several null phenotypes, was observed in a large flock of Creole goats existence of 2 different mutations producing a null allele at locus ,0-Cn. goat / ,8-casein / polymorphism

Boyer, Edmond

78

Cytogenetic observations on a Robertsonian translocation in Saanen goats (1)  

E-print Network

Cytogenetic observations on a Robertsonian translocation in Saanen goats (1) I. BURGUETE D. DI type was detected in a herd of 15 goats of the Saanen breed, reared on a farm located in southern Italy-armed chromosome. Key words : Robertsonian translocation, goat, chromosomes. Résumé Etude cytogénétique d

Boyer, Edmond

79

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2010-01-01

80

Cytogenetic study of the Spanish goat breed Murciana-Granadina  

E-print Network

Cytogenetic study of the Spanish goat breed Murciana-Granadina I Burguete Facultad de Veterinaria-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) goat / chromosomes / Murciana-Granadina breed INTRODUCTION In order to provide a basis to know the level of chromosome aberrations in populations of the autochthonous Spanish goat breed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

81

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2010-07-01

82

MOTILITY OF THE FORESTOMACHS IN GOATS H.J. EHRLEIN  

E-print Network

MOTILITY OF THE FORESTOMACHS IN GOATS H.J. EHRLEIN Zoophysio%gie, Universitiit Hohenheim, 7U'a0, 1975). The aim of this study was to elucidate these functions. Material and Methods Goats were fitted using an x-ray image intensifier, a videotape recorder and a cinecamera on goats and sheep

Boyer, Edmond

83

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2013-01-01

84

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2011-01-01

85

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2012-01-01

86

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2010-01-01

87

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2014-01-01

88

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student to production of both sheep and goats. Producers must observe animals closely to keep individual animals diseases affecting sheep and goats do not pose any human health risks, some are zoonotic

89

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2011-01-01

90

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2013-01-01

91

CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA IN MOUNTAIN GOAT OF COASTAL BRITISH COLUMBIA11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is

D. M. HEBERT; M. SAMUEL; G. W. SMITH

92

Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.  

PubMed

Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly. PMID:559107

Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

1977-04-01

93

New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

Ripberger, Chad

2014-01-01

94

Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

2013-12-01

95

Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments.  

PubMed

Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m(-2)). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m(-2), we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m(-2), and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m(-2) (55 and 45 resp min(-1)) and 1000 W m(-2) (120 and 95 resp min(-1), respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm(-2) is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the levels of radiation depend on the latitude of the location. PMID:25336109

Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

2014-10-22

96

Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks. PMID:18328644

Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

2008-08-25

97

Genetic Differentiation of Chinese Indigenous Meat Goats Ascertained Using Microsatellite Information  

PubMed Central

To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats. PMID:25049548

Ling, Y. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Yao, N.; Ding, J. P.; Chen, H. Q.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ren, C. H.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhang, X. R.

2012-01-01

98

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Fair Dairy & Meat Goat Entry Form  

E-print Network

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Fair Dairy & Meat Goat Entry Form Entry Deadline ___________________________________________________________ # Pens Needed _______ Class/ Department Dairy Breed/ Meat Goat Date of Birth Name of Animal Meat Goat Tag/ Meat Goat Date of Birth Name of Animal Meat Goat Tag # #12;

Liskiewicz, Maciej

99

Development of a prolonged estrus effect for use in Judas goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Judas goats (JGs; Capra hircus) to locate remnant animals is a powerful tool for enhancing feral goat eradication efforts, being especially important to island conservation programs. JGs are goats that are captured, fitted with radio telemetry collars and released. As goats are gregarious, JGs search out and associate with other goats. They can then be tracked down

Karl J. Campbell; Greg S. Baxter; Peter J. Murray; Bruce E. Coblentz; C. Josh Donlan

2007-01-01

100

In vitro development of goat-sheep and goat-goat zona-free cloned embryos in different culture media.  

PubMed

The gradual decline in the genetic diversity of farm animals has threatened their survival and risk of their extinction has increased many fold in the recent past. Endangered species could be rescued using interspecies embryo production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three different culture media on the development of Handmade cloned intraspecies (goat-goat) and interspecies (goat-sheep) embryo reconstructs. Research vitro cleave media (RVCL) yielded higher cleavage and morula-blastocyst development in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer groups compared with G1.G2 and modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOFaaci). Cleavage frequency of intraspecies cloned embryos in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 did not differ significantly (87.12%, 82.45%, and 92.52%, respectively). However, the morula/blastocyst frequency in RVCL was greater in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (51.18% vs. 38.28% vs. 36.50%, respectively). Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in interspecies cloned embryos was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (76.14% and 42.3% vs. 65.9% and 38.3% vs. 58.56% and 33.1%, respectively). Goat oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 and kept as control. Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in this group was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (89.66% and 65.26% vs. 85.44% and 48.05% vs. 86.58% and 42.06%, respectively). Conclusively, the results suggest that not only can the interspecies embryos of goat be produced using sheep oocytes as donor cytoplast but also the percentages can be improved by using RVCL media for culturing of the embryos. PMID:24210966

Khan, F A; Bhat, M H; Yaqoob, S H; Waheed, S M; Naykoo, N A; Athar, H; Khan, H M; Fazili, M R; Ganai, N A; Singla, S K; Shah, R A

2014-02-01

101

Fatal melioidosis in goats in Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand. PMID:24891468

Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

2014-08-01

102

Pasture management for sheep and goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small ruminant producers in Appalachia have many questions about forage management. Forage management decisions need to be keyed to the specific needs of the small ruminant t species to be grazed. Sheep and goats are different from each other and both are very different from cattle. Important con...

103

Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a goat herd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthelmintic resistance was monitored over a 30 month period within a goat herd in eastern Virginia, USA. Resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and benzimidazole drugs was detected in Haemonchus contortus using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). When levamisole use was discontinued for 1 year, susceptibility to levamisole appeared to return. Although a single treatment with fenbendazole was able to

Anne M Zajac; Terry A Gipson

2000-01-01

104

Casein haplotype variability in Apulian goat breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the tight linkage among the casein genes, th e study of the haplotype variability is a necessary approach in order to identify important effects whi ch could be exploited for the genetic improvement o f goat species, showing considerable casein genetic variat ion. The aim of this paper was to analyse the casei n haplotype distribution, with particular

Chessa Stefania; Chiatti Francesca; Rignanese Daniel; Bolla Patrizia; Caroli Anna

105

Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.  

PubMed

The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment. PMID:25465737

Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

2015-01-15

106

Louping Ill in Goats, Spain, 2011  

PubMed Central

Although louping ill affects mainly sheep, a 2011 outbreak in northern Spain occurred among goats. Histopathologic lesions and molecular genetics identified a new strain of louping ill virus, 94% identical to the strain from Britain. Surveillance is needed to minimize risk to domestic and wildlife species and humans. PMID:22607689

Royo, Luis J.; Martínez, Claudia Pérez; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Höfle, Úrsula; Polledo, Laura; Marreros, Nelson; Casais, Rosa; Marín, Juan F. García

2012-01-01

107

Sheep Are Not Goats Basic animal husbandry  

E-print Network

Sheep Are Not Goats Basic animal husbandry education for sheep owners January 15, 22, 29://www.events.unh.edu/RegistrationForm.pm?event_id=17229 Class I - January 15, 2015: Basic information about raising sheep in New Hampshire; behavior, ease and the sheep in mind. Class II - January 22, 2015: Nutrition and Health: Feeding your sheep and adding pasture

New Hampshire, University of

108

Studies on coccidiosis in goats in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out in a flock consisting of 110 goats. Nine species of coccidia were found: Eimeria christenseni, E. arloingi, E. jolchijev, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. alijevi, E. apsheronica, E. caprina, E. caprovina and E. hirci. Eighty-one percent of adults and 100% of kids were infected. Number of oocysts per gram of feces in kids ranged form 1200 to

A Balicka-Ramisz

1999-01-01

109

Viable transgenic goats derived from skin cells.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors were enucleated, karyoplast-cytoplast couplets were constructed, and then fused and activated simultaneously by a single electrical pulse. Fused couplets were either co-cultured with oviductal cells in TCM-199 medium (in vitro culture) or transferred to intermediate recipient goat oviducts (in vivo culture) until final transfer. The resulting morulae and blastocysts were transferred to the final recipients. Pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography 25-30 days after embryo transfer. In vitro cultured NT embryos developed to morulae and blastocyst stages but did not produce any pregnancies while 30% (6/20) of the in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts produced pregnancies. Two of these pregnancies were resorbed early in gestation. Of the four recipients that maintained pregnancies to term, two delivered dead fetuses 2-3 days after their due dates, and two recipients gave birth to healthy kids at term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed that both kids were transgenic and had integration sites consistent with those observed in the adult cell line. PMID:15359599

Behboodi, Esmail; Memili, Erdogan; Melican, David T; Destrempes, Margaret M; Overton, Susan A; Williams, Jennifer L; Flanagan, Peter A; Butler, Robin E; Liem, Hetty; Chen, Li How; Meade, Harry M; Gavin, William G; Echelard, Yann

2004-06-01

110

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals...AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended...

2010-01-01

111

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals...AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended...

2011-01-01

112

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

113

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2011-01-01

114

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico...CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation...

2013-01-01

115

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

116

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2014-01-01

117

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2010-01-01

118

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2010-01-01

119

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2014-01-01

120

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

121

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico...CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation...

2012-01-01

122

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2013-01-01

123

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

124

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2013-01-01

125

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico...CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation...

2014-01-01

126

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2011-01-01

127

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2012-01-01

128

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

129

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2012-01-01

130

Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.  

PubMed

Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25193885

Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel

2014-12-01

131

Heavy metal levels in goats from Notasulga, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

Goat meat farming is increasing in popularity in southeastern region of United States. In order to monitor environmental contamination of heavy metals in goat meat, samples of liver, kidney, and muscle were collected from 20 goats on a goat farm in Notasulga, Alabama. These samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The copper concentration was significantly higher in livers than the concentration in kidneys and muscles. Lead, cadmium, and zinc levels did not show any significant differences between liver, kidney, and muscle samples. The concentrations of lead and copper in livers and cadmium in kidneys were significantly different in males when compared to females. However, in muscle, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc showed no significant difference between male and female or between young and old goats. Further, the concentrations of lead in livers and cadmium in kidneys showed a significant difference between young and old goats.

Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Forester, D.M.; Thompson, S.J. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States). School of Veterinary Medicine; Mielke, H.W. [Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1994-12-31

132

Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological\\u000a zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This\\u000a paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of

F. Rumosa Gwaze; M. Chimonyo; K. Dzama

2009-01-01

133

Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Anatolian indigenous domestic goats.  

PubMed

Anatolia has been an important region for civilizations and agricultural revolution as a major domestication centre for livestock species. Goats (Capra hircus) were among the earliest domesticated animals in this region. In this study, genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds was characterized by comparison of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1. A total of 295 individuals, including 99 Anatolian Black goats, 96 Angora goats and 100 Kilis goats, were used. Haplogroup A was found to be the dominant haplogroup in all three breeds. The highest haplogroup diversity, including haplogroups A, B2, C and G, was observed in the Anatolian Black breed. Haplogroup D was only observed in Kilis and Angora goats. Haplogroup G was found in Angora and Anatolian Black breeds. The Anatolian goat breeds had high genetic diversity values and a weak phylogeographical structure. The nucleotide diversity values were found to be higher than those in previously studied goat breeds. The fact that Anatolia is a domestication centre and its geographical position as a junction of trade routes may have caused the higher genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds. PMID:24942987

Akis, I; Oztabak, K; Mengi, A; Un, C

2014-12-01

134

Vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox.  

PubMed

Sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease (Neethling) are diseases of sheep, goats and cattle respectively, caused by strains of poxvirus, within the genus Capripoxvirus. Strains affecting sheep and goats are not totally host-specific; some cause disease in both sheep and goats while others may cause disease in only one species. Those causing disease in cattle appear to be specific for cattle, and this is reflected in the different geographical distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and sheep pox and goat pox (sheep and goat pox); LSD is confined to Africa, while sheep and goat pox are present in Africa north of the equator, and throughout West Asia and India, as far East as China and Bangladesh. Occasionally sheep and goat pox spreads from Turkey into Greece. All strains of capripoxvirus so far examined are antigenically indistinguishable, and recovery from infection with one strain provides immunity against all other strains. Because of this antigenic homology among all strains, there is the potential to use a single vaccine strain to protect cattle, sheep and goats. PMID:14677686

Kitching, R P

2003-01-01

135

Oklahoma State University Department of Animal Science: Goats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great informational website from Oklahoma State University's Department of Animal Science is all about goats (_Capra hircus_). The site provides subpages with photos and information for many breeds of goats from Alpine to Zhongwei. Site visitors can search for specific goat breeds by clicking on a letter of the alphabet or by perusing an alphabetical list of goat breeds. Links are also provided to other breeds of livestock including cattle, horses, sheep, and swine. Additionally, visitors can link to information on livestock breeds by region, livestock research, and to the Virtual Livestock Library.

136

A Genetic Linkage Map of the Male Goat Genome  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a first genetic linkage map of the goat genome. Primers derived from the flanking sequences of 612 bovine, ovine and goat microsatellite markers were gathered and tested for amplification with goat DNA under standardized PCR conditions. This screen made it possible to choose a set of 55 polymorphic markers that can be used in the three species and to define a panel of 223 microsatellites suitable for the goat. Twelve half-sib paternal goat families were then used to build a linkage map of the goat genome. The linkage analysis made it possible to construct a meiotic map covering 2300 cM, i.e., >80% of the total estimated length of the goat genome. Moreover, eight cosmids containing microsatellites were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization in goat and sheep. Together with 11 microsatellite-containing cosmids previously mapped in cattle (and supposing conservation of the banding pattern between this species and the goat) and data from the sheep map, these results made the orientation of 15 linkage groups possible. Furthermore, 12 coding sequences were mapped either genetically or physically, providing useful data for comparative mapping. PMID:8878693

Vaiman, D.; Schibler, L.; Bourgeois, F.; Oustry, A.; Amigues, Y.; Cribiu, E. P.

1996-01-01

137

Multiple maternal origins and weak phylogeographic structure in domestic goats  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals have played a key role in human history. Despite their importance, however, the origins of most domestic species remain poorly understood. We assessed the phylogenetic history and population structure of domestic goats by sequencing a hypervariable segment (481 bp) of the mtDNA control region from 406 goats representing 88 breeds distributed across the Old World. Phylogeographic analysis revealed three highly divergent goat lineages (estimated divergence >200,000 years ago), with one lineage occurring only in eastern and southern Asia. A remarkably similar pattern exists in cattle, sheep, and pigs. These results, combined with recent archaeological findings, suggest that goats and other farm animals have multiple maternal origins with a possible center of origin in Asia, as well as in the Fertile Crescent. The pattern of goat mtDNA diversity suggests that all three lineages have undergone population expansions, but that the expansion was relatively recent for two of the lineages (including the Asian lineage). Goat populations are surprisingly less genetically structured than cattle populations. In goats only ?10% of the mtDNA variation is partitioned among continents. In cattle the amount is ?50%. This weak structuring suggests extensive intercontinental transportation of goats and has intriguing implications about the importance of goats in historical human migrations and commerce. PMID:11344314

Luikart, Gordon; Gielly, Ludovic; Excoffier, Laurent; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Bouvet, Jean; Taberlet, Pierre

2001-01-01

138

Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

1980-01-01

139

Toxoplasmosis infection associated with raw goat's milk.  

PubMed

In October 1978, a large family cluster of acute toxoplasmosis was identified in northern California. Indirect fluorescent IgM antibody tests showed that ten of 24 members of an extended family had serological evidence of acute Toxoplasma infection. The index case had retinochoroiditis; the other nine persons had asymptomatic infections. All ten seropositive persons had recently consumed raw goat's milk from the family herd as compared with no consumption of raw milk by the 14 persons with negative results. No dietary item or other risk factors were as strongly associated with positive serological test results as raw milk consumption. Although ingestion of soil-transmitted oocysts could not be ruled out unequivocally as the source of infection, the data suggest that drinking raw milk from infected goats might be another possible vehicle for the transmission of toxoplasmosis. PMID:7120593

Sacks, J J; Roberto, R R; Brooks, N F

1982-10-01

140

Theileriosis of sheep and goats in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in West China. Its main distribution includes Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia,\\u000a Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Sichuan. The epidemic period is from late March to July with April–May being the peak months.\\u000a This is the perid of most intensive tick attack byHaemaphysalis qinghaiensis (772–9924%) during the year. It has been proved that the

Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin

1997-01-01

141

Effects of castration on grooming in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOORING, M. S., A. J. GAVAZZI AND B. L. HART. Effects of castration on grooming in goats. PHYSIOL BEHAV 64(5) 707–713, 1998.—In African antelope and North American cervids, breeding males during the rut engage in less oral self-grooming, and harbor a greater density of ticks, compared with conspecific females and non-breeding males. The purpose of this study was to experimentally

Michael S Mooring; Anita J Gavazzi; Benjamin L Hart

1998-01-01

142

Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics  

PubMed Central

Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems. PMID:23621908

2013-01-01

143

The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat living in harsh environments represents a climax in the capacity of domestic ruminants to adjust to such areas. This ability is multifactorial: low body mass, and low metabolic requirements of goats can be regarded as an important asset to them for it minimise their maintenance and water requirements, in areas where water sources are widely distributed and food sources

Nissim Silanikove

2000-01-01

144

The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems analysis approach. (Author/RL)

Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

1979-01-01

145

Induced udder orf infection in sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical orf lesions were successfully produced (experimently) on the udder dermis of lactating sheep and goats. The animals were subjected to daily clinical examination and the developing lesions were monitored and recorded. The lesions involved were erythema, papules, pustules and firm irregular scabs on the skin of the udders. One goat developed unilateral moderate udder fibrosis and two of the

Fadhel Housawi; El Tayb; Abu Elzein; Abdul Mohsen Al-Naeem; Ahmad Gameel; Abdul Qader Homaida

146

INTRATRACHEAL INFUSION OF COMMON FEEDYARD FUNGI IN GOATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to compare the pathology induced by four fungi compared to a saline control. Thirty weanling goats were randomly assigned to 5 groups, 6 goats per group. Four fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Mucor ramosissimus, and Montosporium lanuginosa ) isola...

147

Effects of soap supplies on goat milk production and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - To determine the possibility of obtaining goat milk with a high dietetic quality, an experiment was carried out using two groups of goats. Animals were fed with either a diet supplemented (9%) or not supplemented (0%) with a protected fat rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). These diets were completed diets, pelletted and administered in this way together

L. Pérez; M. R. Sanz Sampelayo; F. Gil Extremera; J. Boza

148

Quest for Nutritional and Medicinal Forages for Meat Goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Appalachian meat goat producers are encountering animal nutritional and health problems for which research-based solutions are limited. Goats prefer to eat weeds and browse, selecting the highest quality herbage available. Foraging on traditional pastures not only limits the variety of plant speci...

149

Sensory and chemical characteristics of ground goat meat products  

E-print Network

Ground goat meat and beef with 15% target fat content were produced using primal cuts of goat meat and beef chuck roasts obtained at 24 hours and ~7 days postmortem, respectively, and analyzed for total fat, moistures total and nowhere irons 2...

Myers, Cheri Elizabeth

2012-06-07

150

Visual discrimination at varying distances in domestic goats  

E-print Network

centralis in the goat retina has been described by Hughes and Whiteridge (1975)~ it is not *nnem what method is used for accomodation in goats. The existence of an' area centralis would seem to contradict the concept of a ramp retina. The optical...

Blakeman, Nancy Elizabeth

2012-06-07

151

Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent ( n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with

Bryan R. Foster; Engel Y. Rahs

1983-01-01

152

Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33

Bryan R. Foster; Engel Y. Rahs

1983-01-01

153

Grazing ability of European black pine understorey vegetation by goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats’ utilizing ability of spontaneous vegetation, depending on stocking density, grazing season and day period, was studied on a European black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. nigra) reforested slope of the Pyrenees with direct observation of the animals’ grazing behaviour. Goats spent about 59% of their time eating in spring versus 85% in autumn. However, the mean grazing time (8.6h)

L. Torrano; J. Valderrábano

2005-01-01

154

Original article Immortalized goat milk epithelial cell lines  

E-print Network

Original article Immortalized goat milk epithelial cell lines replicate CAEV at high level Laila epithelial cells were isolated from CAEV-uninfected goats and three cell lines designated TIGMEC-1, TIGMEC-2 and TIGMEC-3 were established. The three cell lines retained their morphological characteristics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

[Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].  

PubMed

An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats. PMID:2049057

Seidel, B

1991-03-01

156

The Status Of Mountain Goats In Canada's Northwest Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) are the least studied ungulate species that occurs in the Northwest Territories. The distribution of goats in the territory - both historically and at present - is limited to the lower half of the 130,000 km 2 Mackenzie Mountains between the Yukon-NWT border and the east edge of the range, including a portion of Nahanni National

ALASDAIR VEITCH; ELLEN SIMMONS; MIKI PROMISLOW; DOUGLAS TATE; MICHELLE SWALLOW; RICHARD POPKO

157

Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats ( Capra hircus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls

Paul J. Weldon; David P. Graham; Lara P. Mears

1993-01-01

158

Mammary metabolism in the goat during normal or hormonally-induced lactation  

E-print Network

Mammary metabolism in the goat during normal or hormonally-induced lactation Y. CHILLIARD C lactating goats (group N) and in 4 non-pregnant goats induced to lactate by hormonal treatment (group 1 % of in vitro protein synthesis were not significantly lower in theI than in the N goat mammary tissue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

ANATOMIC AND CYTOGENETIC STUDIES ON 19 HORNLESS GOATS WITH SEXUAL DISORDERS  

E-print Network

ANATOMIC AND CYTOGENETIC STUDIES ON 19 HORNLESS GOATS WITH SEXUAL DISORDERS Parvathi-K. BASRUR H Of nineteen polled Saanen goats with sexual disorders three were genetically male XY, two were XX IXY chimeras on the anatomic and cytogenetic features of I intersex Saanen goats. Since then we have examined 8 more goats

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

Comparison of RBG-banded karyotypes of cattle, sheep and goat  

E-print Network

Comparison of RBG-banded karyotypes of cattle, sheep and goat H Hayes E Petit Institut National de 1990) cattle / goat / sheep / RBG-bands / chromosomes Based on natural taxonomic criteria, the 3 main or cattle) and Caprinae (Capra hircus: goat, Ovis aries: domestic sheep). Cattle, goat and sheep karyotypes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

Influence of Anionic Salts on Bone Metabolism in Periparturient Dairy Goats and Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of diets supplemented with anionic salts on bone metabolism of dairy goats and sheep. Twelve Saanen goats and 12 Ostfrisean milk sheep (fourth lac- tation) were divided into 2 groups each (sheep control (SC), goat control (GC); sheep anionic salts (SA), goat anionic salts (GA)). Each group was fed

A. Liesegang

2008-01-01

162

Can Horn Length of Mountain Goats Be Used as a Measure of Habitat Quality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the horn growth of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) from two areas with different histories and levels of habitat quality. In 1952 and 1953, 18 goats were introduced to Kodiak Island, Alaska. The population now numbers around 1,900 goats and continues to increase. Animals for this transplant were taken from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, where goats have been widespread

THOMAS J. MCDONOUGH; JOHN R. CRYE; GINO G. DEL FRATE

163

Molecular phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.  

PubMed

The domestic goat is one of the most important livestock species, but its origins and genetic diversity still remain uncertain. Multiple highly divergent maternal lineages of goat have been reported in previous studies. Although one of the mitochondrial DNA lineages, lineage B, was detected only in eastern and southern Asia, the geographic distribution of these lineages was previously unclear. Here, we examine the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Asian goats by mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. The analyses of a total of 1661 Asian goats from 12 countries revealed a high frequency of lineage B in Southeast Asia. The frequency of this lineage tended to be higher in mountain areas than in plain areas in Southeast Asian countries, and there was a significant correlation between its frequency and morphological traits. The results suggest an original predominance of lineage B in Southeast Asia and the recent infiltration of lineage A into Southeast Asian goats. PMID:22524237

Lin, B Z; Odahara, S; Ishida, M; Kato, T; Sasazaki, S; Nozawa, K; Mannen, H

2013-02-01

164

A Dig into the Past Mitochondrial Diversity of Corsican Goats Reveals the Influence of Secular Herding Practices  

E-print Network

compare the mitochondrial genetic diversity of both medieval and extant goats in the Island of CorsicaA Dig into the Past Mitochondrial Diversity of Corsican Goats Reveals the Influence of Secular population. Present Corsican goats appeared more similar to medieval goats than to other European goat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

Ventilation of sheep and goat barns.  

PubMed

Good ventilation is an important part of any livestock housing system. It may be accomplished by either natural or mechanical means. Generally, except for buildings that must be kept at warm, nonfluctuating temperatures, naturally ventilated cold housing is satisfactory for sheep and goats provided it is dry and draft-free in pen and resting areas, and air exchange is taking place at a rate high enough to remove moisture, gases, and airborne disease organisms from the building. Understanding the importance of site location, building orientation, and principles of ventilation design increases the likelihood of successful barn ventilation. PMID:2245366

Collins, E R

1990-11-01

166

Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis in a goat.  

PubMed

Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis is reported in an adult goat. The clinical signs were severe respiratory distress due to partial nasal obstruction, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, skin nodules on the ears and dorsal nasal region and focal depigmentation of the ventral commissure of the right nostril. At necropsy examination, sagittal sectioning of the head revealed a yellow irregular mass extending from the nasal vestibule to the frontal portion of the nasal cavity. Microscopically, there was pyogranulomatous rhinitis and dermatitis, with numerous intralesional periodic acid-Schiff-positive fungal hyphae morphologically suggestive of Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger was isolated by microbiological examination. PMID:24011904

do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; de Oliveira-Filho, J C; Dantas, A F M; Simões, S V D; Garino, F; Riet-Correa, F

2014-01-01

167

Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection. PMID:24703974

Koinari, M; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

2014-06-01

168

Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats in Jammu, India.  

PubMed

Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats was studied using field and abattoir samples at Jammu, India. Abattoir examination revealed that 36.2 % of sheep and 30.9 % of goats were positive for paramphistomosis. The mean worm counts (±SEM) were 23.5 ± 5.7 in sheep and 19.9 ± 3.5 in goats. On coprological examination, 16.3 % of sheep and 13.6 % of goats were found positive for paramphistomosis. The mean egg counts (±SEM) were 4.4 ± 2.6 in sheep and 3.6 ± 2.1 in goats. Season was found to have a significant (p < 0.05) influence on the prevalence of paramphistomosis. A higher percentage of animals were found positive in rainy and post-rainy seasons as compared with summer and winter seasons. The distributions of eggs and adult flukes were significantly (p < 0.01) different among seasons. The prevalences observed according to age and sex of sheep and goats were not significant. The study conclude that the late summer months are major risk period for paramphistomosis in the pasture grazing sheep and goats and the administration of an efficient anthelmintic in May-June and September-October should be strongly recommended to reduce the infection and minimise the perpetuating financial losses to animal owners in the region. PMID:25320497

Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Rastogi, Ankur

2014-12-01

169

Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure.  

PubMed

Abstract Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in countries, where goats are frequently reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitive host of this parasite) elevates such concern. To date, there has been little attention to either the prevalence or genotypic characteristics of T. gondii isolates in young ruminant food animals in Europe. Here, we estimated the prevalence of T. gondii goat-kids raised in backyards and slaughtered for human consumption during the Easter season. We collected 181 paired samples of sera and diaphragm. Serum samples were analyzed by ELISA for antibodies against T. gondii, and muscle tissues by PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. 32 diaphragm samples were also bioassayed in mice, and the isolates were genotyped using microsatellite markers.The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in goat-kids was 33.1% (60/181; 95%CI: 26.3-40.5%), and T. gondii DNA was found in 6.1% (11/181; 95% CI 3.1-10.6) of the diaphragm samples. We isolated the parasite from 2 out of 32 goat-kids, and the T. gondii strains belonged to genotype II. The results showed that one-third of three-month old goats may be infected with T. gondii, and their consumption during Easter (as barbecue) may seriously compromise food safety as a result. PMID:25003793

Pastiu, Anamaria; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Györke, Adriana; Suteu, Ovidiu; Balea, Anamaria; Kalmar, Zsuzsa; Rosenthal, Benjamin Martin; Domsa, Cristian; Cozma, Vasile

2014-07-01

170

Delayed excretion of 3-methylhistidine in goats  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) as an index of muscle protein degradation in dairy goats. The criterion for validation was the rapid and quantitative excretion of radiolabeled 3MH. Three adult dry does and four bucks were confined to metabolism cages and injected with 5 ml of L-3-(/sup 14/C)methylhistidine dihydrochloride (4 microCi/mL) diluted in normal saline. The does' urine was collected from catheters and the bucks' urine from stainless steel separators protected with fecal collection bags. The daily urine samples were analyzed for labeled amino acid. Urinary recovery of radioactivity from all does was less than 33% after 3 d and was proceeding at less than 5% d. After 9 d, total recovery was less than 50% of total dose for the does. Elimination rates were slightly higher and more variable for the yearling bucks (25-63% after 4 d). On the basis of these data, 3MH does not appear to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in either male or female dairy goats.

Brown, D.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Calvert, C.C.

1987-12-01

171

Performance of growing goats fed Gliricidia maculata.  

PubMed

Sixteen female crossbred (localxAnglo-Nubian) goats raised from 20-30kg were fed a basal diet of cassava chips, cotton seed cake, rice bran and rice straw, where 0, 30, 40 or 50% of the diet dry matter was replaced with leaves from Gliricidia maculata. All the diets containing Gliricidia resulted in a higher intake than the diet without Gliricidia, but the diet with 30% Gliricidia gave the best intake and the highest growth rate, 105g per day. Total intake was 2.8% of the body weight (BW). Five male goats of the same breed and size were used to study the effect of supplementing rice straw with different levels of Gliricidia leaves on intake and apparent digestibility of the diets. Increasing the amount of Gliricidia leaves decreased the rice straw intake but increased intake of total dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and crude protein (CP). Supplementing with Gliricidia leaves improved the dry matter digestibility (DMD), the OM digestibility and the CP digestibility in the mixed Gliricidia and rice straw diet, compared to pure rice straw, but the values were somewhat lower than could be expected by calculations from the pure rice straw and Gliricidia diets. The DMD of Gliricidia was 64.1%. PMID:11182303

van Hao, N; Ledin, I

2001-02-01

172

Dermatophilus congolensis infection in goats in Tanzania.  

PubMed

When goats in Eastern Tanzania were screened for skin diseases, Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from the skin lesions in 8 of 484 animals examined. In one severely affected case, the disease was also characterized by histological studies (Gram stain, Giemsa stain and routine HE studies) and electron microscopy. The histological picture was characterized by hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, folliculitis and an inflammatory cellular reaction involving the epidermis. Gram stain and Giemsa stain revealed longitudinal and transverse branching filaments in the deeper layers of the epidermis. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated D. congolensis in various morphological forms, ranging from filamentous to tuber-shaped structures, mixed with numerous coccoid bodies of variable size. In some instances, the organisms were geometrically arranged in parallel rows of beading and were present in and among the degenerated epithelial cells. Several host cells showed degenerative changes. Ticks present on the goats were Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Boophilus sp. The clinical signs, pathological lesions, diagnosis, epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease are discussed. PMID:11556616

Msami, H M; Khaschabi, D; Schöpf, K; Kapaga, A M; Shibahara, T

2001-10-01

173

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2013-01-01

174

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2012-01-01

175

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2014-01-01

176

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2011-01-01

177

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2010-01-01

178

Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

Abstract Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639?bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats. PMID:25103439

Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

2014-08-01

179

Copper metabolism in small ruminants : with special emphasis on goats.  

E-print Network

??Twenty-four 1 ??? 1??year-old castrated Cashmere goats and 24 1??year-old Corriedale wethers were individually penned and offered ryegrass-white clover silage at maintenance level. Mineral content… (more)

Mahuyemba, Alphonse Shija

1990-01-01

180

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for...Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115 Goat's...milk ice cream is the food prepared in...

2010-04-01

181

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for...Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115 Goat's...milk ice cream is the food prepared in...

2012-04-01

182

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for...Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115 Goat's...milk ice cream is the food prepared in...

2014-04-01

183

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for...Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115 Goat's...milk ice cream is the food prepared in...

2013-04-01

184

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS Requirements for...Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115 Goat's...milk ice cream is the food prepared in...

2011-04-01

185

Immobilization of mountain goats with xylazine and reversal with idazoxan.  

PubMed

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were captured in traps and immobilized with xylazine, later reversed with idazoxan. One hundred and forty-one goats were immobilized, 94 with a single injection and 47 with multiple injections. Dosage (mg/kg of body weight) of xylazine received, induction time, and recovery time after handling did not differ among sex-age classes. Increasing the dosage did not shorten induction time. The first injection of xylazine in multiple-injection captures was lower than the dose given in single-injection captures, suggesting that insufficient initial doses of xylazine made multiple injections necessary. Xylazine is an effective drug for immobilization of mountain goats captured in traps, at dosages of about 4.9 mg/kg. The dosage of xylazine required to immobilize mountain goats is higher than that reported for bighorn sheep and white-tailed deer. PMID:9577782

Haviernick, M; Côté, S D; Festa-Bianchet, M

1998-04-01

186

Goats as an osteopenic animal model.  

PubMed

A large osteopenic animal model that resembles human osteoporotic changes is essential for osteoporosis research. This study aimed at establishing a large osteopenic animal model in goats. Twenty-five Chinese mountain goats were used in which they were either ovariectomized (OVX) and fed with a low-calcium diet (n = 16) or sham-operated (SHAM; n = 9). Monthly photodensitometric analysis on proximal tibial metaphysis and calcaneus was performed. Two iliac crest biopsy specimens obtained before and 6 months after OVX were used for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Lumbar vertebrae (L2 and L7), humeral heads, and calcanei were collected for BMD measurement after euthanasia. The humeral heads and calcanei were used in biomechanical indentation test. BMD measurement showed a significant 25.0% (p = 0.006) decrease in BMD of the iliac crest biopsy specimens 6 months after OVX. It also was statistically significant when compared with the SHAM (p = 0.028). BMD at L2, L7, calcaneus, and humeral head reduced by 24-33% (p ranged from 0.001 to 0.011) when compared with the SHAM. Photodensitometry showed a continuous decrease in bone density after OVX. There were significant decreases of 18.9% in proximal tibial metaphysis (p = 0.003) and 21.8% in calcaneus (p = 0.023) in the OVX group 6 months postoperatively. Indentation test on the humeral head and calcaneus showed a significant decrease 52% (p = 0.006) and 54% (p = 0.001), respectively, in energy required for displacement of 3 mm in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group. The decreases correlated significantly to the decrease in BMD of the corresponding specimens (r2 = 0.439 and 0.581; p < 0.001 for both). In conclusion, this study showed that OVX plus a low-calcium diet could induce significant osteopenia and deterioration of mechanical properties of the cancellous bone in goats. PMID:11760851

Leung, K S; Siu, W S; Cheung, N M; Lui, P Y; Chow, D H; James, A; Qin, L

2001-12-01

187

Cytoarchitectural differences of myoepithelial cells among goat major salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, the distribution of myoepithelial cells (mecs) in the salivary glands was studied by both immunohistochemistry,\\u000a and transmission electron microscopy; however, little was elucidated concerning their morphological features, especially in\\u000a goats. This study was performed to investigate the correlation between the cytoarchitecture of the mecs in goat major salivary\\u000a glands (parotid, mandibular, and sublingual glands) and the nature of the

Yaser Hosny Elewa; Mohammad Hafez Bareedy; Ahmed Awad Abu Al Atta; Osamu Ichii; Saori Otsuka; Tomonori Kanazawa; Shin-Hyo Lee; Yoshiharu Hashimoto; Yasuhiro Kon

2010-01-01

188

Goat Immunoglobulin Purification on Phosphocellulose and Deae Affi Gel Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for the efficient purification of immunoglobulins G (IgG) to near homogeneity from goat serum. This was achieved by performing first an AS-40 fractionation on goat serum, followed by chromatography on phosphocellulose (P11) equilibrated in citrate buffer at pH 5.7. Peak I, eluted at V0 from P11, contained all IgG and the other serum proteins, except ?

P. Ninfali; L. Baronciani; S. Rapa; D. Marzioni; F. Mannello

1994-01-01

189

Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.  

PubMed

A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not. PMID:24893025

Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

2014-05-01

190

Efficacy of closantel against Fasciola hepatica in Korean native goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closantel (Flukiver™), a salicylanilide antiparasitic compound, was tested in Korean native goats infected with Fasciola hepatica. The goats were administered closantel once orally at a dose of 10 mg\\/kg body weight. Efficacy was monitored weekly by fecal examination of all infected animals starting the second week post-treatment and continuing for 3 weeks. Closantel elicited 80.3, 97.8 and 92.7% efficacy in

C. G. Lee; S. H. Cho; J. T. Kim; C. Y. Lee

1996-01-01

191

Effect of foliage-tannins on feeding activity in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY -The concept that tannins in foilage reduce the voluntary intake of foilage by goats by evoking negative postingestive responses was examined. Meals and breaks between meals of goats fed high-tannin foilage were cyclic; the first meal within each cycle was the longest. Once-daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 4000, a tannin-binding agent, increased the

N. Silanikove; N. Gilboa; A. Perevolotsky; Z. Nitsan

192

Normal Erythrogram of Mountain Gaddi Goats During Different Physiological Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rastogi, S. K., Kumar, N., Singh, S. P. and Tyagi, S. K. 1993. Normal erythrogram of mountain gaddi goats during different physiological conditions. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 3: 107–111.Vanous erythrocytic characteristics were studied in thirty Gaddi goats (male kids, female kids, pregnant does, non-pregnant does and bucks). Highest erythrocytic count (21.6x 10\\/?1) and MCHC (30.7%) were recorded in bucks. The

S. K. Rastog; Naresh Kumar; S. P. Singh; S. K. Tyagi

1993-01-01

193

Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.  

PubMed

Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

2006-06-01

194

Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation. PMID:24248787

Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

1993-12-01

195

L-lactate utilization by dairy goats  

SciTech Connect

Three Toggenberg goats were used to investigate utilization of L-lactate as substrate for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Objectives were: (1) to determine the extent lactate could be used for body and milk fat synthesis; (2) to estimate contribution of lactate to glucose synthesis; (3) to assess differences in these measurements during early lactation, mid-lactation and the dry period; and (4) to observe differences in labeling of glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions in body and milk fat 7 days post-infusion of isotopes. Goats were fed in metabolism crates a 70% concentrate ration in hourly increments to meet individual requirements. After a pulse dose, U-/sup 14/C-lactate (34 uCi/hr) and 6-/sup 3/H-Glucose (100 uCi/hr) was infused via jugular cannula for 8 hours. Blood an milk were sampled hourly beginning 3 and 3.5 hours, respectively, after the pulse dose. Body fat was biopsied after the infusion (Day 0) and one week post-infusion (Day 7). Plasma glucose and lactate concentrations were greater in early 70.4 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively) compared to mid-lactation (50.8 and 5.9 gm/dl). Mid-lactation and dry period values were similar. Glucose turnover differed for early and mid-lactation and the dry period (141, 86, and 70 mmol/hr, respectively). Percentage of glucose derived from lactate tended to decrease through lactation into the dry period (28% vs 10%). Plasma lactate turnover was greater during lactation as opposed to the dry period (124 and 35 mmol/hr). During early lactation a greater proportion of lactate was incorporated into glucose than during either mid-lactation or the dry period.

Rodriguez, N.R.

1984-01-01

196

Haematological studies on Indian pashmina goats.  

PubMed

Haematological studies were conducted on 61 clinically normal pashmina producing goats of the Cheghu breed, acclimatised to the temperate, humid climatic condition of Mukteswar, about 2400 m above sea level. The experimental goats comprised four age groups (birth to one month, six to nine months, three to five years and six to 10 years) of both sexes. The overall values, irrespective of age and sex, for the parameters examined were: red blood cells, 14.17 +/- 1.96 X 10(12) litre-1; haemoglobin, 7.46 +/- 0.79 g dl-1; packed cell volume, 0.31 +/- 0.04 litres litre-1; mean corpuscular volume, 21.62 +/- 2.46 fl; mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, 23.72 +/- 1.80 g dl-1; mean corpuscular haemoglobin, 5.11 +/- 0.67 pg; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 0.00 mm at one hour; plasma protein 6.58 +/- 0.78 g dl-1; icterus index, 9.15 +/- 2.92 units; white blood cells 12.26 +/- 2.66 X 10(9) litre-1; absolute count of lymphocytes, 4.62 +/- 1.40; neutrophils, 5.91 +/- 2.84; monocytes, 0.38 +/- 0.15; eosinophils, 0.32 +/- 0.17 and basophils, 0.05 +/- 0.05 (X 10(9) litre-1). The sex of the animal did not affect the haematological parameters but the effect of age was evident. In newborn kids the haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and packed cell volume values were higher and the total leucocyte count was lower than in other age groups. As the kids grew older lymphocyte numbers decreased while neutrophils increased. PMID:3823626

Somvanshi, R; Biswas, J C; Sharma, B; Koul, G L

1987-01-01

197

PURDUE LAMBING SCHOOL **This event should be helpful to goat producers also**  

E-print Network

PURDUE LAMBING SCHOOL **This event should be helpful to goat producers also** Saturday, March 2. The Lambing School is conducted as an educational event for new, beginning or veteran sheep or goat producers

198

Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population  

E-print Network

Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population JOAQUI diversity over 14 cohorts in a small and relatively isolated population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) during a period of demographic increase. Offspring heterozygosity decreased while parental

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

199

The complete mitochondrial genome of Leizhou goat Capra hircus (Bovidae; Caprinae).  

PubMed

Abstract Leizhou goat (Capra hircus) is one of the famous native goat breed in China. In this study, the 16,651?bp complete nucleotide sequence of Leizhou goat mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the first time. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes. PMID:25080105

Sun, Li-Qun; Guo, Gong-Liang; Wu, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Lei

2014-07-31

200

Effects of dietary protein level on performance of Angora and cashmere-producing Spanish goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of dietary crude protein level on fiber production of Angora and cashmere-producing Spanish goats were studied in 16 yearling doelings (eight Spanish, eight Angora) for 8 weeks. Goats were housed in individual stalls and maintained at constant temperature (21 °C) with 9 h light and 15 h darkness each day. Goats were initially sheared, blocked by body weight (BW)

Z. H. Jia; T. Sahlu; J. M. Fernandez; S. P. Hart; T. H. Teh

1995-01-01

201

Social rank and response to the “male effect” in the Australian Cashmere goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine if the social status of Australian Cashmere goats affects their response to the male effect in terms of LH secretion, ovulation and expression of estrus. Australian Cashmere goats were kept isolated from the males during 5 months. The index of success (SI) of each goat was calculated to establish their social rank. In

L. Alvarez; L. Zarco; F. Galindo; D. Blache; G. B. Martin

2007-01-01

202

25April 2014 n the past 50 years, cattle, sheep, and goat num-  

E-print Network

25April 2014 I n the past 50 years, cattle, sheep, and goat num- bers have increased from about 2 numbers in developing countries will exceed those on the entire planet in 2000.3 The world's goat, goats, grasslands, secondary plant metabolites, sheep, woody plants. Rangelands 36(2):25­31 doi: 10

203

Nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy goats J.E. LINDBERG, P. CISZUK  

E-print Network

Nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy goats J.E. LINDBERG, P. CISZUK Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Nutrition and Management, S-750 07 Uppsala, Smecle» Dairy goats brewer's grain and peas as protein supplements. In Expt 3 the goats were fed pea-silage : grass

Boyer, Edmond

204

Characteristics and developments in the production of sheep and goat meat in Australia  

E-print Network

Characteristics and developments in the production of sheep and goat meat in Australia B. J of feral goats in Australia have been intermittently harvested to provide small quantities of meat for export (for example 600o kg exported to France 1974/75). About So00o goats are slaughtered each year

Boyer, Edmond

205

Animus 15 (2011) www.swgc.mun.ca/animus "GOATS AND MONKEYS!": SHAKESPEARE, HOBBES,  

E-print Network

Animus 15 (2011) www.swgc.mun.ca/animus "GOATS AND MONKEYS!": SHAKESPEARE, HOBBES contract, thereby escaping the state of nature, which he characterizes as #12;MOORE: "GOATS (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006), 12-13. #12;MOORE: "GOATS AND MONKEYS!": SHAKESPEARE

Oyet, Alwell

206

Habitat Modeling Using Path Analysis: Delineating Mountain Goat Habitat in the Washington Cascades  

E-print Network

Habitat Modeling Using Path Analysis: Delineating Mountain Goat Habitat in the Washington Cascades: ______________________________________ #12;HABITAT MODELING USING PATH ANALYSIS: DELINEATING MOUNTAIN GOAT HABITAT IN THE WASHINGTON CASCADES in mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations in Washington State over the past few decades has spurred

Wallin, David O.

207

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Italian goat breeds measured  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Italian goat breeds measured with microsatellite, Molise University, Campobosso, Italy 3 Department of Sheep and Goat Research, Animal Production Research In Egypt, goats are an important source of meat. They are distributed across the country, especially dense

Merilä, Juha

208

Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study  

E-print Network

Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram. The results in these three species were more or less similar. Peroxidase of buffalo, goat and ram. (1) Present address :Reproductive Biology Lab., Dept. of Biology, Guru Nanak Dev

Boyer, Edmond

209

A Mendelian polymorphism underlying quantitative variations of goat ?s1-casein  

E-print Network

A Mendelian polymorphism underlying quantitative variations of goat ?s1-casein F. GROSCLAUDE- les, designated a,,-Cn'-, ?s1-CnF and ?s1-Cno, were identified at the goat a!-Cn locus superiority in casein content of milks from goats possessing the allele

Boyer, Edmond

210

The preference of adult sheep and goats grazing ryegrass and white clover  

E-print Network

The preference of adult sheep and goats grazing ryegrass and white clover PD Penning JA Newman AJ Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-6501, USA Sheep and goats have been shown to select different (50 x 40 m of clover alongside 50 x 10 m grass). Prior to the test the sheep and goats grazed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

A Model of Radioiodine Transfer to Goat Milk Incorporating the Influence of Stable Iodine  

E-print Network

1 A Model of Radioiodine Transfer to Goat Milk Incorporating the Influence of Stable Iodine 1 N intake including large countermeasure doses of stable iodine, on the transfer of radioiodine to goat milk. A metabolically based model of radioiodine transfer in goats has been parameterised using new experimental data

Crout, Neil

212

Is the apocrine milk secretion process observed in the goat species rooted in the perturbation  

E-print Network

Review Is the apocrine milk secretion process observed in the goat species rooted lipids). Despite a long controversy, goat milk secretion is still considered to occur through an apocrine of secre- tion described in the goat could be the consequence of the dysfunction observed

Boyer, Edmond

213

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains ...

214

Small Ruminant Research 64 (2006) 162168 Digestibility and nitrogen retention in llamas and goats fed alfalfa,  

E-print Network

Small Ruminant Research 64 (2006) 162­168 Digestibility and nitrogen retention in llamas and goats of this experiment was to determine the relative digestive capabilities and N retention between goats and llamas fed three forages. Four llamas (2 yrs; 125 ± 7.3 kg BW) and four Boer-cross goats (2 yrs; 53 ± 8.4 kg BW

Ehleringer, Jim

215

76 FR 51025 - Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 14229-000] Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary...Competing Applications On July 15, 2011, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc., filed an application...Robert S. Grimm, CEO/President, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc., c/o Alaska...

2011-08-17

216

Changes in the fatty acid composition of goat milk fat after a 48-hour fast  

E-print Network

Changes in the fatty acid composition of goat milk fat after a 48-hour fast Anne-Marie MASSART, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Summary. Five lactating goats were milked twice daily. After a control period to adipose tissue lipolysis. Introduction. The effect of fasting goats for a period of 24 hr on milk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Mountain Goat Genetic Diversity and Population Connectivity in Washington and Southern British Columbia  

E-print Network

Mountain Goat Genetic Diversity and Population Connectivity in Washington and Southern British, is not allowed without my written permission. Leslie C. Parks February 14, 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Genetic by resistance (IBR), that are driving genetic isolation. Although the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

Wallin, David O.

218

Regression of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial function and structure in neonatal goats  

E-print Network

Regression of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial function and structure in neonatal goats ITZICK adipose tissue mitochondria function and structure in neonatal goats. Am. J. Physiol. 252(Endocrinol changesexhibited by rapidly regressing goat'sperirenalBAT in the 1stwk postpartumareaccompanied by dramatic

Vatnick, Itzick

219

Diet composition of goats grazing in mixed shrubs-grass rangeland A.S. NASTIS  

E-print Network

Diet composition of goats grazing in mixed shrubs-grass rangeland A.S. NASTIS Range Sei. Lab. 236, Aristotelion University, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece) Measurements of time spent by goats grazing shrubs goats from 8 : 30 until 13 : 00 hrs the first 2-3 days of each month, all the year found. Periodically

Boyer, Edmond

220

E. Rodrguez-Gonzlez et al.BCB-selected-goat oocytes matured withcysteamine Original article  

E-print Network

E. Rodríguez-González et al.BCB-selected-goat oocytes matured withcysteamine Original article Developmental competence of prepubertal goat oocytes selected with brilliant cresyl blue and matured maturation (IVM) medium to improve the in vitro embryo development of prepubertal goat oocytes. The oocytes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

Straw feeding value in sheep and goats: effect of energy and nitrogen supply  

E-print Network

Straw feeding value in sheep and goats: effect of energy and nitrogen supply JL Tisserand, E Arista-Petitjjean, 21000 Dijon, France Previous studies have shown that goats utilize nitrogen-deficient diets better than experimental details have been presented in Arista (1991).). TableI shows that goats ingest the 4 diets

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

Sexual behaviour and gonadal activity during the year in the tropical Creole meat goat.  

E-print Network

Sexual behaviour and gonadal activity during the year in the tropical Creole meat goat. I. Female consecutive years on 30 adult creole goats to determine if ovarian activity and oestrous behaviour varied) and S (supplemented). Every month pasture quality was assessed and the animals were weighed. Goats of group S received

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

Differential effects of goat browsing on herbaceous plant community in a two-phase mosaic  

E-print Network

Differential effects of goat browsing on herbaceous plant community in a two-phase mosaic O. Gabay plant communities is usually attributed to direct consumption of plants. We hypothesized that goats environmental conditions through modification of woody plant struc- ture. We assessed the effects of goats

224

Management of domesticated boer goat (Capra hircus) and free ranging kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)  

E-print Network

Management of domesticated boer goat (Capra hircus) and free ranging kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros in integrated game and goat farming systems within the Valley Bushveld of the Eastern Cape of southern Africa. Goat production is affected by competition for browse by free ranging wild herbivores (kudu, bushbuck

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Ingestive behaviour of sheep and goats grazing in a landscape mosaic  

E-print Network

Ingestive behaviour of sheep and goats grazing in a landscape mosaic M Trabalza-Marinucci V during the years prior to the experiment by sheep, goats, cattle, and horses. The animals used in the experiment were 18 Heidschnucken sheep and 16 Alpine and Spanish-type goats, distributed in three homogeneous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

NETHERLANDS AND GERMANY: DAIRY GOAT PRODUCTS June 15 -June 18, 2009  

E-print Network

NETHERLANDS AND GERMANY: DAIRY GOAT PRODUCTS June 15 - June 18, 2009 Written by Clara Hedrich: Dairy Goat Products Dairy Artisan Series 2010 3 n INTRODUCTION Larry and Clara Hedrich own and operate. A portion of their milk is sold through the Quali- ty Dairy Goat Cooperative of Wisconsin, of which Larry

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

227

1B Hatsuma: Billy the goat O. Knill, 7/24/2003 Dear 1b students,  

E-print Network

1B Hatsuma: Billy the goat O. Knill, 7/24/2003 Dear 1b students, note that this problem is likely the problem. Here it is: Billy the goat is attached with a rope of length to a point at a circular silo problem called "Goat problem" or "Bull thethering problem". (M.E. Hoffman, "An application of Curvature

Knill, Oliver

228

Dominant and recessive brown in goats DP Sponenberg1 C LaMarsh2  

E-print Network

Note Dominant and recessive brown in goats DP Sponenberg1 C LaMarsh2 1 Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061; 2 Blue Berry Sunrise Farm Pygmy Goats - Pygmy goats in the USA occur in a variety of colors including black, roan (called agouti by breeders

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of calcium-fortified milk-rich diets (either goat's  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of calcium-fortified milk-rich diets (either goat's or cow's milk) on copper in goat's milk, in comparison to similarly fortified cow's milk. This was performed to check whether Ca-fortified goat's milk minimizes Ca­Cu interactions which would favor Cu bioavailability in experimentally induced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

76 FR 69721 - Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 14229-000] Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary...Competing Applications On July 15, 2011, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc. filed an application...Robert S. Grimm, CEO/President, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc., c/o Alaska...

2011-11-09

231

ELUCIDATING THE IMMUNOACTIVITY OF A GOAT SERUM PEPTIDE Todd Avery Parker  

E-print Network

ELUCIDATING THE IMMUNOACTIVITY OF A GOAT SERUM PEPTIDE By Todd Avery Parker A Dissertation Biology Mississippi State, Mississippi May 2002 #12;ELUCIDATING THE IMMUNOACTIVITY OF A GOAT SERUM PEPTIDE OF A GOAT SERUM PEPTIDE Pages in Study: 97 Candidate for Degree of Doctor of Molecular Biology The purpose

Ray, David

232

Original article High prevalence of scrapie in a dairy goat herd  

E-print Network

Original article High prevalence of scrapie in a dairy goat herd: tissue distribution of disease) Abstract ­ Following a severe outbreak of clinical scrapie in 2006­2007, a large dairy goat herd was culled) was positive in only 30 (41.7%) of the infected goats. However, the efficiency of rectal and palatine tonsil

Boyer, Edmond

233

Energy utilization of diets with different hay proportions in lactating goats  

E-print Network

Energy utilization of diets with different hay proportions in lactating goats L Rapetti Even in intensive farming conditions, dairy goats are commonly fed rations with high forage proportions production. Literature on energy metabolism of lactating goats fed diets with high energy and protein

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Progesterone, estrogen, LH, FSH and PRL concentrations in plasma during the estrous cycle in goat  

E-print Network

Progesterone, estrogen, LH, FSH and PRL concentrations in plasma during the estrous cycle in goat G in plasma were measured in 7 goats by RIA. Mean progesterone level was 0.0-0.8 ng/ml in estrus and 1-4 ng were seen around estrus. Introduction. Studies on hormonal control of the estrous cycle in the goat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

SOME THOUGHTS ON THE ASSOCIATION OF POLLED TRAIT AND INTERSEXUALITY IN GOATS  

E-print Network

SOME THOUGHTS ON THE ASSOCIATION OF POLLED TRAIT AND INTERSEXUALITY IN GOATS Parvathi-K. BASRUR mechanism for the association of polledness and intersexuality in dairy goats has been proposed in the light of Goats was located on the Y chromosome in close proximity to, or as part of the maledetermining genes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Effectof Exerciseon the PlasmaNonesterified FattyAcid Composition of Dogsand Goats:Specieswith Different  

E-print Network

Effectof Exerciseon the PlasmaNonesterified FattyAcid Composition of Dogsand Goats as tracers for turnover studies. Individual NEFA were measured in trained dogs and goats (VO2max dog/VO2max goat = 2.2; where VO2max = max- imal oxygen consumption) during treadmill exercise at 40 and 60% VO2max

McClelland, Grant B.

237

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats H balance in sheep and goats and on potentially related parameters such as plasma urea nitrogen (PUN on the fermentation capacity of sheep and goat rumen fluid were also investigated. Results indicate that the infusion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Comparative effect of diets on microbial activity of the rumen in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Comparative effect of diets on microbial activity of the rumen in sheep and goats C. MASSON, W/kg po.To varied between 55 and 74 in goats and 35 and 72 in sheep. Dry matter intake of goats was higher (110 to 140 p. 100) than that of sheep and more especially when the protein content of the diet was low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection  

E-print Network

Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection E conducted to test the hypothesis that goats eat more than sheep and that goats are more selective feeders than sheep. In Experiment 1 with long lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay over 14 days, intake of dry matter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

A review of the nutritional and health aspects of goat milk in cases of intestinal resection  

E-print Network

Review A review of the nutritional and health aspects of goat milk in cases of intestinal resection of the dietary inclusion of goat milk on the utilization of protein, fat and minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn of a goat milk- based diet, compared to bovine milk, has shown a higher protein efficiency ratio, protein

Boyer, Edmond

241

213 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos  

E-print Network

213© WILDLIFE BIOLOGY · 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos americanus and unhunted mountain goat Oreamnos americanus populations Alejandro Gonzalez Voyer, Kirby G. Smith & Marco and unhunted mountain goat Oreamnos americanus populations. - Wildl. Biol. 9: 213-218. Native populations

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

242

Bienn. Symp. North. Wild Sheep and Goat Counc. 14:115-130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) are native to Idaho, the southernmost portion of their recent distribution in North America. Mountain goat populations apparently declined sharply early in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries due to unregulated hunting. The first survey of known mountain goats ranges indicated approximately 2,785 animals in 1955. Populations have increased only slightly over the 5 decades

243

The cleaning of caucasian goat's rue chaff in the combine harvester cleaner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis L.) is perennial grass which can be harvested as green mass and as seeds. The expansion of grasses with small seeds, such as Caucasian goat's rue has been stopped because of unsolved problems of yield processing and seed preparation in Lithuania. Caucasian goat's rue grass is usually harvested in the second half of July when

E. Vaiciukevi?ius; A. Sakalauskas; E. Šarauskis; R. Domeika; V. Butkus

244

Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle  

SciTech Connect

Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

Reddington, J.J.

1985-01-01

245

Methadone in healthy goats - pharmacokinetics, behaviour and blood pressure.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics and effects of the opioid methadone on behaviour, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and haematocrit were studied in goats. Two goats received methadone (0.2mg/kg) intravenously and the terminal half-life was 88 and 91 min, the volume of distribution 8.4 and 6.1L/kg, and clearance 86 and 123 mL/min/kg. In a crossover study eight goats received methadone (0.6 mg/kg) or 0.15M NaCl subcutaneously (SC). After SC administration bioavailability was complete and the terminal half-life was 215 ± 84 min (mean ± SD), Tmax 31 ± 15 min and Cmax 45 ±11 ng/mL. Blood pressure and haematocrit increased while heart rate did not change. The goats did not ruminate and they climbed, scratched, gnawed and showed tail-flicking after SC methadone in contrast to NaCl administration. The use of methadone in goats may be restricted due to the inhibition of rumination and the rather short half-life. PMID:23540608

Olsén, L; Olsson, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Bondesson, U; Ingvast-Larsson, C

2013-08-01

246

Kappa casein gene polymorphism in local Tunisian goats.  

PubMed

The genetic polymorphism of the goat Kappa casein was investigated in Tunisian goats. Blood samples were collected from local goat breeds. Samples of genomic DNA were obtained from leukocytes of 175 dairy goats and regions of interest in the gene were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and then evaluated in agarose gel. For a better characterization of the single nucleotide polymorphism, a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism was performed employing the endonuclease DNA amplification using 459 bp primers. The PCR products of primers (459 bp) digested by restriction enzyme Alw44I produced two fragments of 459 and 381 bp. The Kappa casein allelic variants in tested animals revealed different genotypes, two of them were homozygous: AA or BB, AC or BC and CC. Genotypic frequencies were 12.5, 60.5 and 27% for AA or BB, CC and AC or BC, respectively. Identification of different variants of the Kappa casein can be used for the improvement and conservation of Tunisian local goats. PMID:24517024

Jemmali, B; Ben Gara, A; Selmi, H; Ammari, Z; Bouheni, C; Ben Larbi, M; Hammami, M; Amraoui, M; Kamoun, M; Rouissi, H; Rekik, B

2013-12-15

247

Feeding behaviour and pasture utilization by goats in the southern Italy Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia, Sezione di Potenza,  

E-print Network

Feeding behaviour and pasture utilization by goats in the southern Italy R. RUBINO Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia, Sezione di Potenza, Viale Basento, 106, 85100 Potenza (Italia) Grazing of goats of the diet of local and Maltese goats were determined on pasture using oesophagus fistulated animals. Goat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Reproductive performance of female goats given progestagen associated with PMSG and/or HMG in deep anestrus  

E-print Network

Reproductive performance of female goats given progestagen associated with PMSG and/or HMG in deep and after a 21-day fluorogestone acetate (FGA) treatment, 200 pluriparous lactating Alpine goats were given at sponge removal. All the goats were mated naturally during estrus. The percentage of goats kidding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

A novel genetic variant of the goat Six6 gene and its association with production traits in Chinese goat breeds.  

PubMed

We looked for novel genetic variations within the Six6 gene by PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and forced RFLP-PCR and estimated their associations with production traits in 2132 goats of eight indigenous Chinese breeds. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (NM_001104993.1: g.232T>C) within the goat Six6 gene was identified. The frequencies of allele "C" varied from 0.8621 to 1.000, which were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotype and allele frequencies were found to be significantly different in the breeds. Association analysis revealed a significant relationship between genotypes and cannon circumference in Hainan black goats (P = 0.047); adult individuals with genotype CT showed higher cannon circumference than those with genotype CC. Another significant association of genotypes with five-year-old fiber length was found in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats (P = 0.002). In addition, individuals with genotype CT had longer fiber length than those with genotype CC. The data revealed that the Six6 gene positively affects growth traits and cashmere traits. Polymorphism of Six6-PstI could be useful as a DNA marker for goat breeding and genetics via marker-assisted selection. PMID:22179999

Pan, C Y; Lan, X Y; Zhao, H Y; Hu, S R; Huai, Y T; Lei, C Z; Chen, H

2011-01-01

250

The complete mitochondrial genome of Yunnan black goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

Abstract Yunnan black goat (Capra hircus) is one of the famous native goat breed in China. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of Yunnan black goat mitochondrial genome was determined for the first time. Sequence analysis showed that the genome structure was in typical with other vertebra animals. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The base composition was A (33.6%), G (13.1%), C (26.0%) and T (27.3%), so the percentage of A and T (60.9%) was higher than that of G and C. PMID:24495140

Tang, Yan-Xia; Liu, Fang; Tang, Hong-Xia; Yang, Shao-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

2014-02-01

251

The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

Abstract Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus) is a native breed of Hunan province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Xiangdong black goat is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,641?bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 33.53% A, 13.12% G, 27.25% T and 26.09% C, in the order A?>?T?>?C?>?G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes. PMID:25423508

Mao-Liang, Ran; Chen, Bin; Ouyang, Xuxiang; Li, Zhi; Dong, Lian-Hua

2014-11-25

252

[Genetic diversity in goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis].  

PubMed

Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301

Xu, Limei; Liu, Chousheng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Zhigang; Han, Xu; Li, Xiaoxia; Chang, Shuang

2010-05-01

253

Heavy metals in livers and kidneys of goats in Alabama  

SciTech Connect

The popularity of goat farming is increasing in the southeastern region of the United States. Baseline values of Hg, Pb, and Cd are not available in goat tissues in the United States. These values are needed when monitoring food for heavy metal contamination which may be associated with urbanization and industrialization. Due to human activities or anthropogenic sources of metals in the environment, high concentrations of these metals have been observed in herbage and animal tissues. It has also been reported that toxic heavy metals are concentrated mostly in kidneys and livers of animals. The risk of exposure of humans to heavy metals contained in edible organs of animals has received widespread concern. The objectives of this study were to (i) measure the levels of Hg,Pb, and Cd in livers and kidneys of goats; and (ii) determine whether accumulation of these metals is related to age and/or sex. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Datiri, B.C. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States)

1995-10-01

254

[The cell count in sheep and goat milk].  

PubMed

The udder health of 404 sheep from 23 flocks and 397 goats from 15 herds in Lower Austria was examined. In order to determine cell levels, the Schalm Test (equivalent to the California mastitis test) and a fluoroscopic "Fossomatic" cell count appliance were employed. The resultant physiological median levels of somatic cell content were established as 71,000 cells/ml for sheep milk and 415,000 cells/ml for goat milk. Significant factors influencing the cell count levels were the milking technique in both species and age in sheep but not in goats. The pathogens most frequently isolated as causes of chronic or latent mastitis were coagulase-positive and -negative cocci. PMID:1796462

Pernthaner, A; Deutz, A; Schlerka, G; Baumgartner, W

1991-12-01

255

Cryptococcal meningitis in a goat – a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptococcus spp. are saprophytic and opportunistic fungal pathogens that are known to cause severe disease in immunocompromised animals. In goats there are reports of clinical cryptococcal pneumonia and mastitis but not of meningitis. Case presentation The following report describes a case of a five year old buck showing severe neurological signs, including paraplegia and strong pain reaction to touch of the hindquarters region. Treatment with antibiotics was unsuccessful and the animal was euthanized for humanitarian reasons. Postmortem examination revealed lumbar meningitis, lung nodules and caseous lymphadenitis lesions. Encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans were identified from the lungs and meninges, showing that cryptococcal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of goats showing paresis and hyperesthesia. The possibility of concurrent immunosuppression due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection is raised. Conclusions Cryptoccocal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis list of goat diseases with ataxia and hyperesthesia. PMID:24708822

2014-01-01

256

Genetic resistance to scrapie infection in experimentally challenged goats.  

PubMed

In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis; Andréoletti, Olivier

2014-03-01

257

Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats  

PubMed Central

In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

2014-01-01

258

Changes in texture of yogurt from goat’s milk modified by transglu-taminase depending on pH of the milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Set yoghurt from goat's milk with adjusted pH to 6,4, 6,3, 6,2 and 6,1 and than modified by microbial transglutaminase (TGase) were produced. Control yoghurt was produced from goat's milk of pH 6,4 but without modification by TGase. In yoghurt determined sensory quality, pH, texture parameters and syneresis. Modification of goat's milk by TGase caused an increase in apparent viscosity,

J. Domaga?a; M. Sady; T. Grega; D. Najgebauer-Lejko

2007-01-01

259

Reproductive performance and preweaning growth of Spanish goats  

E-print Network

Agronomique d'Abidjan Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas C. Cartwright Records From 1730 Spanish kid goats sired by 37 males and born From 657 does were ana)yzed to determine genetic and environmental factors that affect birth weight. weaning... the goats were maintained on rangeland and bred From September to November. Environmental factors considered were age of dam at kidding, sex oF kid, type of birth/rearing, birth month, birth year and age at weaning. All factors affected the growth...

Bogui, Nathalie Scholastique

2012-06-07

260

Hydration State of Goats Transported by Road for 12 Hours During the Hot-Dry Conditions and the Modulating Role of Ascorbic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of 12 hr of road transportation during the hot-dry conditions and the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA) on the hydration state of goats. Twenty goats who served as treatment goats received oral administration of 100 mg\\/kg body weight of AA, whereas another 20 control goats received sterile water; thereafter, the goats were loaded and

Salka Ndazo Minka; Joseph Olusegun Ayo

2012-01-01

261

Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Senior Record Book  

E-print Network

Virginia 4-H Market Goat Project Senior Record Book (for youth ages 14 - 19) Name county/city 4-H program are you enrolled in with this project _______________________________ 4-H Club___________________________________________ Years in 4-H (including this year) ________ Is the place where you keep your project animal registered

Liskiewicz, Maciej

262

Footrot in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student  

E-print Network

they release, which determines their ability to digest the connective tissue between the horn and flesh such as that in dry lots can cause irritation to the soft tissue, and create ideal conditions for footrot when tissue. #12;Purdue Extension · Knowledge to Go 2 Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats

263

Identification of the secondary follicle cycle of Hexi cashmere goat.  

PubMed

This experiment conducted to identify a periodic change of ultrastructures of secondary follicle characteristics during a whole year, reveal the molecule regulation of growth of cashmere. A total of 10 cashmere goats of 1-year old were studied. The paraffin section and ultrathin slices of skin were made each month in a whole year, observed, photographed, and analyzed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope after stained. Following the development of down fiber, the ultrastructures of secondary follicle of Hexi cashmere goat showed a periodic change within a year. There were five different periods during a down fiber cycle. It was observed that the stage of telogen, proanagen, anagen, procatagen, and catagen was in January and February, March and April, May to August, September and October, and November and December, respectively. The key change observed in secondary follicle under transmission electron microscope was inner root sheath. This study illustrated the five different stage of secondary follicle of Hexi Cashmere goat within a whole growth cycle, and has provided more detailed information about the research field of Hexi cashmere goat. Choosing the suitable time to harvest the cashmere may get the profit maximization. PMID:22753049

He, Yanyu; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu

2012-09-01

264

Melatonin and fleece growth in Australian cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups each of eight Australian cashmere goats (four males, four females, 10 months old) were implanted at the base of the ear with melatonin pellets (18 mg) between July and October (July group), January and April (January group), or sham implanted (control). Cashmere and hair length changes were measured during the year following implantation. Rates of growth, maximum length,

W. R. L. Klören; B. W. Norton

1995-01-01

265

What Gets Your Goat? Art across the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Features Elayne Goodman's mixed-media sculpture "The Goat Castle in Natchez," which is dedicated to a whodunnit murder mystery in Mississippi. Provides historical background of the murder and information on Goodman's life. Includes activities in history and social science, mathematics, science, language arts, visual arts, and economics and social…

Sartorius, Tara Cady

2000-01-01

266

Evaluation of the Activity of Plant Extracts in Boer Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The effect of extracts from Neem ( Azadirachta indica ), Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium ) and Tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum) with added copper sulfate, on female Boer goats infected with gastrointestinal parasites (GIN ) was evaluated. Approach: Following initial screening for infection, animals were artificially infected with a mix containing approximately 80% Haemonchus contortus and 20% Trichostrongylus spp. After

M. Worku; R. Franco; J. H. Miller

2009-01-01

267

Pharmacokinetics of Pefloxacin in Goats after Intravenous or Oral Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent pefloxacin, following the administration of a single intravenous (10 mg\\/kg) or oral (20 mg\\/kg) dose, were investigated in healthy female goats. The antimicrobial activity in plasma was measured at predetermined times after drug administration by an agar well diffusion microbiological assay, using Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) as the test organism.

J. K. Malik; G. S. Rao; S. Ramesh; S. Muruganandan; H. C. Tripathi; D. C. Shukla

2002-01-01

268

Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens produces disease in sheep, goats and other animal species, most of which are generically called enterotoxemias. This micro-organism can be a normal inhabitant of the intestine of most animal species including humans, but when the intestinal environment is altered by sudden changes in diet or other factors, C. perfringens proliferates in large numbers and produces several potent toxins

F. A. Uzal

2004-01-01

269

Review article Border disease of sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Review article Border disease of sheep and goats Peter F. Nettletona Janine A. Gilraya Pierre Russo January1998; accepted13 March 1998) Abstract - Border disease (BD) is a congenital virus disease of sheep. There are no defined serotypes but pestiviruses isolated from sheep exhibit considerable antigenic diversity and three

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

USE OF GOATS FOR THE CONTROL OF SALT CEDAR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire, flood, herbicide, manual, mechanical and insect biocontrol methods have all been used to remove invasive salt cedar. Each method has advantages and disadvantages in particular circumstances. We used goats to browse replicated 1-3 acre plots in salt cedar near San Acacia and San Marcial along t...

271

Fetotoxic Effects of Locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) in Pregnant Goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has beena substantial amount of research in sheep given locoweed from 60 to 130 days of gestation. Even so, there has been no research on fetotoxic effects of locoweed during gestation days 30-60, and little has been done to describe the effect of poisoning in pregnant goats. Thus the purpos...

272

Some factors affecting lipase activity in goat milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different temperatures (20 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C), pasteurization (71 °C for 15 s), boiling (100 °C), agitation for 5 and 10 min, pH changes (milk on acidic and alkaline side of pH), certain chemicals (copper sulphate, silver nitrate, lead nitrate and sodium chloride) on the lipase activity in local goat and cow milks was investigated.

J. M. Jandal

1995-01-01

273

What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats?  

E-print Network

parasites in sheep and goats are: lung worms (Dictyocaulus spp. or Muellerius capillaris); stomach worms that live in those environments are at high risk of becoming infested. · Lung worms and liver flukes grow of an organ when there are too many worms. Lung worms Lung worms irritate the bronchioles inside the lung

Tullos, Desiree

274

Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014  

PubMed Central

During 2000–2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

275

Habitat Selection by Mountain Goats in South Coastal British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed data from 18 Global Positioning System collars from 2001 to 2003 in southwestern coastal British Columbia to improve understanding of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) habitat use and its relation to forestry operations. We described seasonal home ranges, movements, and winter habitat selection patterns to predict winter habitat use in similar geographic areas. Seasonal periods were determined for individual

SHAWN TAYLOR; WAYNE WALL

276

POTENTIAL USE OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA IN MEAT GOAT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two preliminary studies were done: 1) to evaluate the nutritive value of Artemisia annua, and 2) to determine efficacy of the isolated plant compound artemisinin administered at 300 mg per head (ART300) compared to no artemisinin control (CON) for controlling gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goat...

277

Herds of goats enlisted in the fight against kudzu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Invasive Species: Plants: Kudzu [pdf]http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/kudzu.shtmlKudzu-Goat Interactions [pdf]http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/6750James Dickey: Kudzuhttp://www.breakoutofthebox.com/kudzu.htmKudzu Recipeshttp://home.att.net/~ejlinton/jelly.html"Ode to Billy Goats" [Quick Time]http://www.tfponline.com/absolutenm/templates/onlineExclusive.aspx?articleid=5064&zoneid=72In his time, Benjamin Franklin once observed, "In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes." Had he visited certain parts of the American South in the early 21st century, he might have added "kudzu", effectively completing that troika. This very fast growing vine has spread with amazing speed since its introduction to the United States in 1876, via the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. For decades it was used as an ornamental, but by the 1950s the plant was a ubiquitous part of the landscape in Mississippi, Alabama and other parts of the South. Recently, the city of Chattanooga has decided to enlist a new partner in the ongoing horticultural battle with this noxious weed: goats. The city's public works department decided to allow the goats free reign over a prominent ridge in town that is covered in kudzu, and so far, the results have been encouraging. Of course, things haven't been easy, and there is the "laugh factor" that was recently mentioned by a city forestry inspector, Jerry Jeansonne. Similar programs are also underway in the cities of Tallahassee and Spartanburg, South Carolina, though it remains to be seen whether or not this program can be duplicated on a wider scale. The first link will take users to a New York Times article which talks about the use of goats to control the kudzu of Chattanooga. Moving on, the second link leads to a very thorough website offered by the United States Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center. Here, visitors can learn about kudzu and the ongoing efforts to control this very hearty species. The third link leads to an important 1992 study that investigated the potential to control kudzu with the use of goats. The fourth link will take users to James Dickey's compelling poem on this very prolific vine. The fifth link leads to a number of creative recipes from one Jane Linton that make use of kudzu in such delights as kudzu blossom jelly and apple cider. Finally, the last link will take users to a recent musical number recorded in tribute to the hard-working goats of Chattanooga.

Grinnell, Max

2007-06-08

278

Polymorphism of GDF9 gene and its association with litter size in goats.  

PubMed

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was studied as a candidate gene for high prolificacy in goats. The polymorphism of exon 1 and flanking of GDF9 gene was detected by PCR-SSCP in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. Three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in goat breeds joined and two silent mutations (c.183A>C and c.336C>T) were identified in comparison genotype AA with genotype BB. Heterozygous genotype AB and wild type BB were detected in all five goat breeds and homozygous genotype AA was only detected in Jining Grey goats. The frequencies of genotypes AA, AB and BB were 0.18, 0.42 and 0.40 in Jining Grey goats, respectively. The genotype distribution was different (P?goat) and low prolificacy breeds (Boer, Wendeng Dairy, Liaoning Cashmere and Beijing native goats). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype AA and AB had 0.72 (P??0.05) kids more than those with genotype AB. These indicated that the allele A may have certain correlation with prolificacy in Jining Grey goats. PMID:21547534

Chu, M X; Wu, Z H; Feng, T; Cao, G L; Fang, L; Di, R; Huang, D W; Li, X W; Li, N

2011-08-01

279

Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats  

PubMed Central

A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

2013-01-01

280

Polymorphisms of caprine GDF9 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

The exons 1, 2 and flanking region of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene in five randomly selected does of Jining Grey, Boer and Liaoning Cashmere goats were amplified and analyzed. Thirteen nucleotide differences were identified in GDF9 gene between sheep (AF078545) and goats. Four SNPs (G3288A in intron 1, G423A, A959C [Gln320Pro] and G1189A [Val397Ile] in exon 2) were detected in four goat breeds with different prolificacy, in which G3288A was a new SNP in goats. The results showed that loci 3288, 423 and 1189 in Boer goats, loci 3288 and 423 in Guizhou White goats, loci 423 and 1189 in Liaoning Cashmere goats were all in complete linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1, r (2) = 1), respectively. In moderate (Boer goat) and low prolificacy (Liaoning Cashmere goat) breeds, linkage analysis indicated that there were more fervent linkage disequilibrium among loci 3288, 423 and 1189 than high prolificacy (Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats) breeds. For the 959 locus, the genotype distribution showed obvious difference between high prolificacy breeds and moderate or low prolificacy breeds (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype CC or AC had 0.81 (P < 0.01) or 0.63 (P < 0.01) kids more than those with genotype AA, respectively. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele C at 959 locus of GDF9 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. These results provide further evidence that the GDF9 gene may be significantly correlated with high prolificacy in goats. PMID:21181498

Feng, T; Geng, C X; Lang, X Z; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Di, R; Fang, L; Chen, H Q; Liu, X L; Li, N

2011-11-01

281

D-loop sequence mitochondrial DNA variability of Sarda goat and other goat breeds and populations reared in the Mediterranean area.  

PubMed

To provide useful knowledge on goat breed origin and history, we studied the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 69 goats from five different breeds, Camosciata delle Alpi, Maltese, Nubian, Saanen and Sarda, and one population, the Tunisian. All goats analysed displayed a moderate haplotype and nucleotide diversity. The highest was in the Sarda - the autochthonous breed reared in Sardinia. On the basis of mtDNA control region sequences, animals showed a high genetic haplotype diversity, 35 haplotypes were each represented by a single sequence and only a few haplotypes were shared among the animals. New haplotypes of goats reared in the Mediterranean area were identified and the majority of Italian goats belonged to haplogroup A. This result confirmed worldwide distribution and diversity of haplogroup A. PMID:20831559

Vacca, G M; Daga, C; Pazzola, M; Carcangiu, V; Dettori, M L; Cozzi, M C

2010-10-01

282

Modulating Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Transport-Induced Immunosuppression in Goats  

PubMed Central

The effect of 12?h road transportation on some basic blood cells and the modulating role of ascorbic acid were investigated in 40 adult Red Sokoto goats during the hot dry season. The animals were divided into two groups, GI (experimental; n = 20) and GII (control; n = 20). Group 1 was administered with ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100?mg/kg body weight, while GII was given 10?mL of sterile water per goat. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12?h. The result obtained in GII goats showed that loading, transportation, high ambient temperature (AT), and relative humidity (RH) encountered during transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia, which can cause immunosuppression. In GI goats, the administration of AA prior to loading and transportation ameliorated the adverse effects of loading and transportation stress on neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and eosinopenia of the goats. PMID:23738106

Minka, Ndazo Salka; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

2011-01-01

283

Cloning of the goat beta-casein-encoding gene and expression in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

The goat beta-casein-encoding gene (CSN2), which encodes the most abundant protein of goat milk, has been cloned and sequenced. The intron/exon organization of the 9.0-kb goat CSN2 gene is similar to that of other CSN2 genes. Expression of the goat gene was principally restricted to the mammary gland of lactating transgenic animals. A low level of expression was also observed in skeletal muscle and skin. In contrast to a rat CSN2 transgene [Lee et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (1988) 1027-1041], the goat gene was expressed to a high degree in the lactating mammary gland. Differences in the content or context of regulatory elements may account for the enhanced performance of the goat relative to the rat CSN2 gene in transgenic mice. PMID:1446822

Roberts, B; DiTullio, P; Vitale, J; Hehir, K; Gordon, K

1992-11-16

284

Sheep and goat preference for and nutritional value of Mediterranean maquis shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value, intake and preferences of sheep and goats for the dominant six shrubs of the holly oak maquis-type shrublands in Croatia. The experimental sheep (n=12, mean weight 28.5kg) were a local Croatian mixed breed. The experimental goats (n=12, mean weight 13.4kg) were a mixture of domestic goats crossed with Saanen

J. Rogosic; J. A. Pfister; F. D. Provenza; D. Grbesa

2006-01-01

285

[Histologic studies of the postnatal development of the uterus of dwarf goats].  

PubMed

Thirty-four Syrian goats were investigated for postnatal uterus development, from the first day after parturition to the age of six months. Structures were found to undergo conspicuously early differentiation. Full morphological uterus development was established at the age of three to four months. Syrian goat thus is sexually mature at that early age. This is considered to be essential to good suitability of Syrian goat as experimental animal. PMID:1789724

Michel, G; Rabie, F O

1991-01-01

286

Effects of milk production level and physiological stage on insulin resistance in lactating goats  

E-print Network

Effects of milk production level and physiological stage on insulin resistance in lactating goats goats to intravenous INS challenge (IVIC) were studied at 2 lactation stages (LS), LS1 = 12 wk, LS2 = 17), ML2LS1 =2.7 kg FCM, ML1LS2 = 3.4 kg FCM, ML2LS2 =2.4 kg FCM. Goats were injected with 11.5 &mu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Intake dynamics of goats and Ilamas feeding on garrigue grazing lands  

E-print Network

Intake dynamics of goats and Ilamas feeding on garrigue grazing lands B Dumont1 M Meuret2 1 ENSA'Ecodéveloppement, domaine Saint-Paul, 84143 Montfavet Cedex, France A comparison was made of intake dynam- ics in goats-count technique. The 2 flocks (21 goats and 11 Ilamas) were allo- cated in June 1991 to 2 different 0.5-ha pad

Boyer, Edmond

288

Effect of somatic cell count on lactation and soft cheese yield by dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell count (SCC), California mastitis test (CMT), milk acidity (pH and titratable acidity) and their relationship with artisan soft chevre-type goat cheese yield were studied, using individual samples taken from Alpine goats over a 7 month lactation period. Every animal (n = 57) was sampled weekly for 2 months after parturition and every 15 days thereafter. Goats were hand-milked

M. A. Galina; R. Morales; B. López; M. A. Carmona

1996-01-01

289

Effect of low levels of dietary cobalt on apparent nutrient digestibility in Omani goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of low levels of dietary cobalt (Co) on apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients was investigated in three breeds of Omani goats (Batina, Dhofari and Jabal Akdhar). Goats were divided into control and treated groups. Goats in both groups were fed Rhodes grass hay ad libitum and a commercially prepared diet containing 0.10 and 0.12mgCo\\/kg dry matter, respectively, from 10

Isam T. Kadim; Eugene H. Johnson; Osman Mahgoub; Anandarajah Srikandakumar; Dawood Al-Ajmi; Andrew Ritchie; Kanthi Annamalai; Abdulla S. Al-Halhali

2003-01-01

290

Calicophoron daubneyi infection in grazing goats: Results from a cross-sectional coprological survey in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of grazing goats by Calicophoron daubneyi has already been described in France, in particular in the Saône-et-Loire area (eastern France). The aim of the present study was to describe more precisely the distribution of this parasite in this area. Forty-two goat farms using pasture were visited once at the end of 2006: 15 goats per farm were individually sampled

C. Paraud; E. Fournier; V. Robergeot; A. Kulo; I. Pors; C. Baudry; C. Chartier

2009-01-01

291

The morphology and lattice structure of bone crystal after strontium treatment in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium (Sr) compounds have become increasingly popular in osteoporosis treatment. As a bone seeking element, 98% of Sr\\u000a deposits in bone and teeth after oral ingestion. However, the quality of new bone after Sr deposition is yet to be extensively\\u000a investigated. In this study, eight osteopenic goats were divided into two groups: Ca + 40Sr (five goats) and controls (three\\u000a goats). Controls

Zhaoyang Li; William W. Lu; Lianfu Deng; Peter K. Y. Chiu; David Fang; Raymond W. M. Lam; John C. Y. Leong; Keith D. K. Luk

2010-01-01

292

Delayed seroconversion following naturally acquired caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats.  

PubMed

One hundred eight milking goats from a dairy that had been using a modified caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) eradication program were tested for CAEV antibodies by serologic methods and for proviral CAEV DNA by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. All goats were free of clinical symptoms of CAEV infection. Twenty-seven of the 108 goats were considered seropositive, on the basis of ELISA results. Proviral CAEV DNA was detected, using PCR techniques, in mononuclear leukocytes in blood samples obtained from 25 of the these 27 seropositive goats. Twenty of the 81 seronegative goats also had positive PCR test results. Ten of these goats seroconverted by 8 months later, and virus was readily isolated from mononuclear leukocytes in venous blood samples after the goats had seroconverted. Virus was also isolated from mononuclear leukocytes in blood samples collected from 4 of 11 goats that were seronegative, but had positive PCR test results. These results indicated that seroconversion can be delayed for many months following natural infection with CAEV. Delayed seroconversion appears to be a feature of CAEV infection, which may have direct implications for CAEV eradication programs and epidemiologic studies that rely on serologic methods to detect infected goats. PMID:8291763

Rimstad, E; East, N E; Torten, M; Higgins, J; DeRock, E; Pedersen, N C

1993-11-01

293

Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.  

PubMed

Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats. PMID:480512

Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

1979-04-01

294

Pre-parturition staphylococcal mastitis in primiparous replacement goats: persistence over lactation and sources of infection.  

PubMed

This investigation reported for the first time the occurrence of intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus in primiparous replacement goats before parturition and the persistence of clinical Staphylococcus aureus infection during the lactation period. Subclinical infections, mainly caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), did not persist during lactation. Genotyping analysis indicated that environment seems to play a moderate role as source of intramammary infections to goats before parturition, but causative agents of mastitis in lactating animals are not genotypically related to environmental staphylococci. The occurrence and persistence of intramammary infections in replacement goats demonstrate the need to consider those animals as potential sources of infections in dairy goat herds. PMID:25487513

Jácome, Iacome; Sousa, Francisca; De Leon, Candice; Spricigo, Denis A; Saraiva, Mauro; Givisiez, Patricia; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Vieira, Rafael; Oliveira, Celso

2014-12-01

295

Comparison study of tooth enamel ESR spectra of cows, goats and humans  

PubMed Central

The ESR radiation dosimetric properties of tooth enamel samples from cows and goats were investigated and compared with those of human samples. Samples were prepared first mechanically, and then chemically. The study results showed that the native signals from cow and goat samples were weaker than those from human samples; the radiation sensitivities for cow and goat samples were very close to those of human tooth enamel samples. These results indicated that cow and goat teeth could be alternative materials for radiation dose estimation. PMID:25037102

Jiao, Ling; Liu, Zhong-Chao; Ding, Yan-Qiu; Ruan, Shu-Zhou; Wu, Quan; Fan, Sai-Jun; Zhang, Wen-Yi

2014-01-01

296

Differentiation of organic goat's milk based on its hippuric acid content as determined by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Organic foods have lately aroused interest by virtue of their quality and their essential, exclusive characteristics. In this study, we assessed the potential of CE to detect a marker that is able to identify the particular food given to the goats and develop an effective method to determine directly the most abundant organic acid in goat's milk (viz. hippuric acid). In addition, we examined the use of the hippuric acid content of goat's milk as a general marker for authenticating organic goat's milk. The feeding of these goats can be influenced by the time of the year. For this reason, we have collected samples from 20 conventionally fed goats and 20 organically fed goats over a period of 2 months. A threshold value dependent on the hippuric acid content was thus established for the first time with a view to discriminating between conventional and organic goat's milk. Organic acids in goat's milk were separated in a running buffer consisting of 120 mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate and 0.5 mM CTAB set to pH 8. The precision of the ensuing method is acceptable for hippuric acid; thus, the RSD for peak area and migration time was less than 10 and 4%, respectively. Also, calibration curves were linear throughout the studied concentration range. PMID:20593395

Carpio, Azahara; Rodríguez-Estévez, Vicente; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Manuel; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

2010-07-01

297

The complete mitochondrial genome of Boer goat (Bovidae; Caprinae).  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of Boer goat. The mitogenome was 16,639?bp in length, comprised of 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. Almost all genes were encoded on the H-strand except the ND6 and eight tRNA genes. Most of the genes initiated with ATG, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 started with ATA. The total base composition of the mitogenome was 33.53% for A, 26.05% for C, 13.12% for T and 27.30% for G. These results provide a standard reference sequence for phylogenetic analyses among goats. PMID:25187040

Niu, Lili; Hu, Jiangtao; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiaoyue; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

2014-09-01

298

The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese tibetan goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

Abstract The Tibetan goat (Capra hircus), a breed native to China, is adapted to cold and hypoxia. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tibetan goat. The mitochondrial genome is 16,640?bp in length, with a base composition of 33.6% A, 26.0% C, 13.1% G and 27.3% T. It has a typical mitogenome structure, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. This genomic data provides a strating point for future phylogenetics studies. PMID:25010078

Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

2014-07-10

299

Bacteriological quality of on-farm manufactured goat cheese.  

PubMed Central

The bacteriological quality of 198 ripened soft or semi-soft goat cheeses obtained from dairy farms and the retail trade was investigated. The cheeses were examined for total counts of aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria (37 and 44 degrees C respectively), enterococci, coagulase positive staphylococci, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. Cheeses obtained from dairy-farms were also determined for pH value. In terms of all tests performed, cheeses made of heat-treated milk with starter culture had the best prospects for fulfilling the criteria for 'fit for consumption'. Cheeses made of raw milk without starter culture made up the most unsatisfactory group from a food-hygiene point of view. Bacteriological guidelines for on-farm manufactured goat cheese are suggested. PMID:2106443

Tham, W. A.; Hajdu, L. J.; Danielsson-Tham, M. L.

1990-01-01

300

Saluda 4-H Dairy, Beef, Goat, Dog, and Poultry Show Entry Form Return by: Monday, September 9, 2014  

E-print Network

Saluda 4-H Dairy, Beef, Goat, Dog, and Poultry Show Entry Form Return by: Monday, September 9, 2014, Poultry, Dog) Animal Birthdate:_____________________________ Breed:___________________________ Sex:________________________________ Species:_________________________ (Beef, Dairy, Goat, Poultry, Dog) Animal Birthdate

Stuart, Steven J.

301

Acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of the metabolic consequences of exposure to elevated partial pressures of nitrogen and helium under normobaric and hyperbaric conditions in goats. The results include the finding that hyperbaric nitrogen causes and increase in metabolic rate and a general decrease in blood constituent levels which is interpreted as reflecting a shift toward fatty acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrates. A similar but more pronounced pattern was observed with hyperbaric helium.

Schatte, C. L.; Bennett, P. B.

1973-01-01

302

Recurrent laryngeal nerve activation by ? 2 adrenergic agonists in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that respiratory arrhythmias and apneas induced by ?2 agonists in anesthetized goats are associated with an increase of upper airway expiratory-related activity, rather than a general depression of breathing. Activities of phrenic (Phr) and recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) were recorded in response to the ?2 agonists clonidine (0.5–3.0 ?g ·

M. S. Hedrick; M. L. Ryan; G. E. Bisgard

1995-01-01

303

Pharmacokinetic Disposition of Subcutaneously Administered Enrofloxacin in Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin was studied in goats after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration at a single dose of 7.5 mg\\/kg body weight. Blood samples were drawn from a jugular vein into heparinized tubes at predetermined time intervals after administration of the drug and the plasma was separated by centrifugation. The concentrations of enrofloxacin in the plasma were determined by a

S. Ramesh; G. S. Rao; J. K. Malik

2002-01-01

304

The Economics of Sheep and Goat Husbandry in Norse Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Insight into the relative importance of sheep and goat herding and of the economic significance of each species (i.e., milk vs. meat vs. wool) in Medieval Greenland is obtained through the application of Halstead et al.'s (2002) criteria for the identification of adult ovicaprine mandibles to faunal assemblages from three Norse farmsteads: Sandnes, V52a, and Ø71S. The economic strategies identified

Paul Halstead; Ingrid Mainland

2005-01-01

305

Physicochemical characteristics of goat's milk in Austriaseasonal variations and differences  

E-print Network

parameters. The mean values obtained for all breeds during the whole season were as follows: pH 6(39), 6 6: pH:6.55:0.549 °C:0.828%:12.24% (w/w):3.35% (w/w) :2.40% (w/w):0.63% (w/w):0.325gL-1 :3NOTE Physicochemical characteristics of goat's milk in Austria­seasonal variations and differences

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Town Club or Program Goat Horse Poultry Rabbit  

E-print Network

Dog Exploring Nature Garden- ing Goat Horse Poultry Rabbit Science & Tech Sheep Shooting Sports x x x x Canaan Cardigan Mountain Bobcats x x x x x x x x Campton North Country 4-H River Riders x x Riders x x x x Monroe Hunt Mountain x x x N. Haverhill Bob-O-Link x x x N. Haverhill Little OxBow x x N

New Hampshire, University of

307

A study on the cardiovascular physiology of the goat  

E-print Network

- vals in seconds and amplitude of electro- cardiographic waves in mv with the ster- nal lead or M-X (Manubrium to Xiphoid). Durations of electrocardiographic inter- vals in seconds and amplitude of electro- cardiographic waves in mv with different... in seconds and amplitude of electro- cardiographic waves in mv with the sternal lead or M-X lead (Manubrium to Xiphoid). in non-anesthetized goats. Durations of electrocardiographic inter- vals in seconds and amplitude of electro- cardiographic waves...

Ahmad, Alauddin

2012-06-07

308

Fungal diversity in cow, goat and ewe milk.  

PubMed

Knowledge of fungal diversity in the environment is poor compared with bacterial biodiversity. In this study, we applied the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (D-HPLC) technique, combined with the amplification of the ITS1 region from fungal rDNA, for the rapid identification of major fungal species in 9 raw milk samples from cow, ewe and goat, collected at different periods of the year. A total of 27 fungal species were identified. Yeast species belonged to Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Geotrichum, Kluyveromyces, Malassezia, Pichia, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon genera; and mold species belonged to Aspergillus, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Engyodontium, Fusarium, Penicillium and Torrubiella genera. Cow milk samples harbored the highest fungal diversity with a maximum of 15 species in a single sample, whereas a maximum of 4 and 6 different species were recovered in goat and ewe milk respectively. Commonly encountered genera in cow and goat milk were Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida spp. (C. catenulata and C. inconspicua); whereas Candida parapsilosis was frequently found in ewe milk samples. Most of detected species were previously described in literature data. A few species were uncultured fungi and others (Torrubiella and Malassezia) were described for the first time in milk. PMID:21944758

Delavenne, Emilie; Mounier, Jerome; Asmani, Katia; Jany, Jean-Luc; Barbier, Georges; Le Blay, Gwenaelle

2011-12-01

309

Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.

1983-03-01

310

Tolerance of sheep-goat chimeras to their component cells.  

PubMed

Four sheep-goat chimeras with a goat or sheep sibling having an identical genotype to one of the two component species of cells were tested for tolerance through mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) and skin grafts. None of the four chimeras showed a response to its sib in MLR and three of the four accepted sib skin grafts. This demonstrates that the chimerism exhibited by these animals was sufficient to render the chimera tolerant to antigens expressed by the sib. Two of the four sibs showed positive responses to their chimeric sibs in MLR and two did not; one negative response was expected because the chimera's lymphocytes were essentially all the same species as the sib's. Chimeric skin grafts were partially accepted by two of the four sibs, suggesting the presence of both sheep and goat cells in the skin grafts derived from the chimeras. Two of the four sibs did not accept chimeric skin grafts, possibly due to lack of compatible cells in the graft. Neither differences between an allo- and xenoresponse in MLR nor time differences in the rejection of allo- and xenografts were observed. PMID:8510078

Gustafson, R A; Anderson, G B; BonDurant, R H; Mahi-Brown, C

1993-03-01

311

Basic haematological values in the Cameroon goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

1. Basic haematological values in 165 Cameroon goats (Capra hircus) are reported. 2. The erythrocyte count, mean 14.36 x 10(12) l-1, ranged from 8.24 to 24.7 x 10(12) l-1; the haematocrit values, mean 0.304, varied from 0.20 to 0.38; the haemoglobin content, mean 113.4 g/l, was in the range from 83.0 to 143.0 g/l and the leukocyte count, mean 13.67 x 10(9) l-1, had lowest and highest values between 5.4 and 24.5 x 10(9) l-1. 3. Comparing these blood constituents in 47 male and 118 female Cameroon goats we demonstrated statistically significant lower values of the haematocrit and haemoglobin content and a statistically significant higher proportion of lymphocytes in the female animals. 4. In 16 pregnant and 30 non-pregnant female Cameroon goats, all animals older than 3 years, no statistically significant differences of the red blood picture were noted. 5. Also in three groups, assorted according to age, no significant changes in basic haematological parameters were seen. 6. During one year follow-up of some haematological parameters, statistically significant seasonal changes were found. 7. All presented data are compared with values abstracted from the literature and discussed. PMID:2892620

Pospísil, J; Kase, F; Váhala, J

1987-01-01

312

Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

1987-05-01

313

Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent ( n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent ( n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations ( p?0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

Foster, Bryan R.; Rahs, Engel Y.

1983-03-01

314

Anthelmintic and nutritional effects of heather supplementation on Cashmere goats grazing perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate anthelmintic and nutri- tional effects of heather supplementation in goats graz- ing perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures, 40 dry Cashmere goats were randomly assigned to 4 treat- ments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 grazing man- agement treatments (supplementation with heather vs. nonsupplementation) and 2 anthelmintic treatments (treatment vs. nontreatment). Goats grazed continu- ously from May to

K. Osoro; A. Mateos-Sanz; P. Frutos; U. Garcõ ´ a; L. M. Ortega-Mora; L. M. M. Ferreira; R. Celaya; I. Ferre

315

Degradation and outflow rate of protein supplements in the rumen of dry and lactating ewes and goats  

E-print Network

and goats M. HADJIPANAYIOTOU, A. KOUMAS, E. GEORGHIADES D. HADJIDEMETRIOU Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus Six dry Chios ewes and 6 dry Damascus goats an average weight of 58.1 and 60.0 kg goats with an average live weight of 64 and 60 kg, respectively were used. They were given 129.2 and 125

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Recent data on nitrogen utilization and requirements in dairy goats J. BRUN-BELLUT S. GIGER D. SAUVANT G. BLANCHART  

E-print Network

Recent data on nitrogen utilization and requirements in dairy goats J. BRUN-BELLUT S. GIGER D Paris Cedex 015 (France) To improve the knowledge of nitrogen utilization in dairy goats to specify were mainly made of lucerne hay and maize silage. They were fed to lactating or dry pregnant goats. 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Rapid tests to assess concentrate feed acceptability by goats P. MORAND-FEHR J. HERVIEU, D. LEGENDRE, A. GUTTER,  

E-print Network

Rapid tests to assess concentrate feed acceptability by goats P. MORAND-FEHR J. HERVIEU, D-Bernard, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France) Several, or all, Alpin or Saanen goats of a flock often refuse partly developed to assess the acceptability of concentrate feeds for goats and the risk of refusal. In two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Lipoprotein lipase activity and composition of omental adipose tissue as related to lipid metabolism of the goat in late  

E-print Network

metabolism of the goat in late pregnancy and early lactation Y. CHILLIARD, D. SAUVANT, J. HERVIEU, Michelle composition were estimated on 5 goats in late pregnancy and early lactation. These data were compared increased from pregnancy to lactation. Inter-goat variations were large for most parameters and emphasized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Evaluation of goat body lipids change according to the level of feeding by the condition scoring method  

E-print Network

Evaluation of goat body lipids change according to the level of feeding by the condition scoring in livestock production systems. In a previous work, the scoring method was calibrated in the Sahel goat (Cissé on extensive pasture. This study aimed at determining in this goat the monthly change in body weight (BW

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Feeding habit of goats in the scavenging system of Bangladesh Dept of General Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

E-print Network

Feeding habit of goats in the scavenging system of Bangladesh MR Alam Dept of General Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh In the mixed farming system goats are reared mostly by the landless farmers to supplement their income. Feeding of goats depend on systems

Boyer, Edmond

321

Comparison of the chemical composition and the particle size of alimentary bolus in goats and sheep fed various diets  

E-print Network

Comparison of the chemical composition and the particle size of alimentary bolus in goats and sheep- tors accounting for the better utilization of poor forages by goats, compared with sheep, urea on 3 wether goats and 3 sheep fitted with an esophagus cannula, for 3 wk after a 15 d pre- experimental

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

Study of the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in the analysis of the tree foliage intake of goats  

E-print Network

foliage intake of goats JJ Waelput R Biston M Meuret2 1 CRA, Gembloux, Station de Haute Belgique, 100 rue intake of goats on Mediterranean wooded rangelands. Materials and Methods ― Fodder and fe- cal samples were collected from 3 groups of 3 goats, browsing ad lib on fresh leafy Quercus pubescens branches

Boyer, Edmond

323

76 FR 39377 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the July Sheep and Goat Survey, and Postpone the Renewal of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the July Sheep and Goat Survey, and Postpone the Renewal...approved information collection, (July Sheep and Goat Survey), and to indefinitely...INFORMATION: Title: Suspension of July Sheep and Goat Survey and postponement of...

2011-07-06

324

Polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing of BMPR1B gene in prolific Assam hill goat.  

PubMed

Assam hill goat (Capra hircus) is a prolific local goat in India. bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR1B) gene was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. The objective of the present study was to detect the incidence of mutation in the exonic region of BMPR1B gene of Assam hill goat. Total 90 blood samples were collected randomly from different parts of Assam and genomic DNA were extracted using phenol-chloroform method. The quantity and quality of extracted DNA was examined by spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, respectively. PCR amplicon showed a product of 140 bp fragment of BMPR1B gene. The purified product upon digestion with AvaII showed monomorphic banding pattern and revealed wild type alleles with AA genotype. Nucleotide sequencing showed one new mutation 773 (G?C) which is found to be unique in Assam hill goat. Construction of tree at nucleotide level generates from the present experiment lies in common cluster which differs from the other breeds of goat. The analysis of polymorphism for BMPR1B in Assam hill goat indicates that the genetic factor responsible for prolificacy or multiple kidding rates is not related to the reported mutated alleles of BMPR1B gene. Therefore, attempts to be made to detect other SNPs for BMPR1B gene or otherwise effort should be made towards other fecundity gene which might be responsible for the prolificacy of Assam hill goat. PMID:24535267

Dutta, Rupam; Laskar, Subimal; Borah, Probodh; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti; Das, Bula; Zaman, Galib; Barman, Nagendra Nath; Saikia, Deep Prakash

2014-06-01

325

Finishing meat goats on birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, or red clover pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may contain natural compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production patterns, animal performance, and health when meat goat kids were fin...

326

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and choline in dairy goats nutrition: Production and health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential to modify milk fatty acid composition and milk production by dietary administration of marine oils rich in n-3 PUFAs in goats diets is reviewed. Moreover animal and human health implications are considered. Role of nutrition in dairy goats for enhancing content of CLA in milk fat is also discussed. At last, rumen protected choline supplementation is evaluated to

G. Savoini; A. Agazzi; G. Invernizzi; D. Cattaneo; L. Pinotti; A. Baldi

2010-01-01

327

Effect of free-choice and traditional feeding systems on goat feeding behaviour and intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of two feeding systems – free-choice and traditional – on feeding behaviour and nutrient intake was investigated using six goats for each system. All goats were allocated to individual feeding cages. In free-choice system (group F) alfalfa hay, pasture hay, flaked barley, chick peas and broad beans grain, and beet-pulp in an unrestricted amount were offered. In the

V Fedele; S Claps; R Rubino; M Calandrelli; A. M Pilla

2002-01-01

328

Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats. This paper reports the experimental poisoning in goats by dried I. sericophylla and I. riedelii containing 0.05% and 0.01% swainsonine, respectively. Three groups with four animals each were used. Group 1 recei...

329

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF AMMONIA ABSORPTION BY GOATS FED HIGH STARCH DIETS WITH UREA SUPPLEMENT  

E-print Network

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF AMMONIA ABSORPTION BY GOATS FED HIGH STARCH DIETS WITH UREA SUPPLEMENT J feeding. At the end of each experiment the goats were given 900 g of hay. pH, ammonia, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were determined in rumen contents. Ammonia was estimated in portal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

Herbage intake rates and grazing behaviour of sheep and goats grazing grass or white clover  

E-print Network

Herbage intake rates and grazing behaviour of sheep and goats grazing grass or white clover PD grazing times than those grazing grass (Penning et al, 1991, Appl Anim Beh Sci, 31, 237-250). To examine animals. The experiment had a 2 (sheep or goats) x 2 (grass or clover) factorial design with treatments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Effect of sex and genotype on protein metabolism parameters in the liver of the young goat  

E-print Network

Effect of sex and genotype on protein metabolism parameters in the liver of the young goat SJ genotypes and sexes to possible differences in the liver nitrogen metabolism of the goat. Local PW male expressed as RNA/protein and protein/DNA ratios, respectively. Within both sexes the crossbreeds had higher

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Clinical and Pathological Effects of Short-term Cyanide Repeated Dosing to Goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this work is to determine and describe the effects of subacute cyanide toxicity to goats. Eight female goats were divided into two groups. The first group of five animals was treated with 8.0mg KCN kg-1 body weight day -1 for seven consecutive days. The second group of three animal...

333

Assessment of luteal function in goats by ultrasonographic image attribute analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of luteal echotexture (mean pixel value and heterogeneity), as a tool for assessing luteal function during different phases of the estrous cycle in Toggenburg goats. Sonographic evaluations of the ovaries were performed daily in nulliparous goats (n=21), using a 5MHz linear rectal probe, commencing at estrus (day 0). Blood samples

E. K. Arashiro; J. F. Fonseca; L. G. B. Siqueira; C. A. Fernandes; F. Z. Brandao; E. Oba; J. H. Viana

2010-01-01

334

Short Communication: Evaluation of a Color Method for Testing Immunoglobulin G Concentration in Goat Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum samples (n = 1084) of first and second milking from Majorera goats were taken. The immuno- globulin (Ig) G concentrations estimated by measure- ment of the color of goat colostrum and by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared. Least squares analysis of the relationship between the color measurement method and IgG concentration resulted in a significant linear relationship. Using

A. Argüello; N. Castro; J. Capote

2005-01-01

335

Effects of non-genetic factors on production traits of Inner Mongolia cashmere goats in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of age, sex, age of dam, year of production, herd, and type of birth on cashmere weight, fiber diameter, fiber length, body weight at birth, weaning and yearling in goats, were based on 12 years data from an Inner Mongolia Albas cashmere goat stock farm. The year of production had significant influence on cashmere weight, fiber diameter and

H. M Zhou; D Allain; J. Q Li; W. G Zhang; X. C Yu

2003-01-01

336

Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158

Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

2011-08-01

337

Cheese production potential of milk of Dahlem Cashmere goats from a rheological point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation properties, along with the main components (protein, casein, fat), of goat milk during cheese processing were rheologically evaluated on milk of two breeds of goats (Dahlem Cashmere: DC and German Fawn: GF) using dynamic mechanical analyses. Coagulation time (CT) was estimated during gel formation at 1Hz and 1% strain for 79min after rennet addition. In the sol–gel transition range,

O. Dimassi; S. Neidhart; R. Carle; L. Mertz; G. Migliore; A. Mané-Bielfeldt; A. Valle Zárate

2005-01-01

338

Amino Acid Exchange by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats when Histidine Limits Milk Production  

E-print Network

Amino Acid Exchange by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats when Histidine Limits Milk Production B gland in response to an imposed limitation on His supply for milk production. Lactating goats (n = 4% of energy requirements for milk production. The protein deficiency was alleviated by infusion

Bequette, Brian J.

339

Blood groups and evolutionary relationships among domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), domestic Goat (Capra hircus),  

E-print Network

Blood groups and evolutionary relationships among domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), domestic Goat (Capra in this report are concerned with the results of blood typing ofaoudad (Ammotragus lervia), 20 european mouflons (Ovis musimon) and 260 domestic goats (Capra hircus). The blood samples were tested with 31 different

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

A Review of Nutritional and Physiological Factors Affecting Goat Milk Lipid Synthesis and Lipolysis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses ofmilk yield andcomposition (fatand protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content in- creaseswithalmostallstudiedfatsupplementsingoats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats

Y. Chilliard; A. Ferlay; J. Rouel; G. Lamberet

2003-01-01

341

Serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in 83 goat herds of Yucatan, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted between June and September 2000 in order to detect antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in 83 goat herds in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. A total of 1078 goats older than 4 months of age (mostly of Criollo breed) were sampled in the survey. An agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test showed that three herds (3.6%)

J. F. J. Torres-Acosta; E. J. Gutierrez-Ruiz; V. Butler; A. Schmidt; J. Evans; J. Babington; K. Bearman; T. Fordham; T. Brownlie; S. Schroer; E. Cámara-G; J. Lightsey

2003-01-01

342

Factors influencing milk quantity and quality in Assaf sheep and goat crossbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to analyze the major factors that influence milk yield in Assaf sheep and Saanen, and Shami x Anglo Nubian goats, the major small ruminant dairy breeds and crossbreds in Israel. Six different farms with 745 Israeli-Assaf dairy sheep and 682 goats were surveyed. Udder halves were tested for udder bacterial condition, California mastitis test (CMT), somatic

G. Leitner; U. Merin; A. Glickman; L. Weisblit; O. Krifucks; A. Shwimmer; A. Saran

343

Developmental and hair-coat determinants of grooming behaviour in goats and sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-grooming is a common behaviour among many species of ungulates, as it is among several other mammalian taxonomic groups. In goats, as in rodents and small felids, self-grooming appears to reflect an underlying endogenous timing mechanism, resulting in what has been referred to as programmed grooming. We tested the prediction from the programmed grooming model that newborn and young goats,

Benjamin L Hart; Patricia A Pryor

2004-01-01

344

Prevention of Clinical Mastitis with Barium Selenate in Dairy Goats from a Selenium-Deficient Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mastitis is one of the most negative factors involved in the economy of dairy goat farms. The effect of sele- nium on mammary gland resistance to infectious dis- eases has been demonstrated. This work evaluates the efficacy of a slow-release Se salt (barium selenate) to reduce the incidence of clinical mastitis in goats reared on Se-deficient areas. Six hundred milking

J. Sánchez; P. Montes; A. Jiménez; S. Andrés

2007-01-01

345

Prevalence, causes and laboratory diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in the goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five goat herds were examined to determine the prevalence and causes of subclinical mastitis and to assess the value of some laboratory tests currently used on milk samples as aids in the diagnosis of caprine mastitis. In the 170 samples taken from the pairs of mammary glands of 85 goats, the prevalence of infection in the different herds ranged from

PA Manser

1986-01-01

346

Distinguishing between archaeological sheep and goat bones using a single collagen peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method of isolating and analyzing a single collagen peptide able to distinguish between sheep and goat bone collagen. The 33 amino acid peptide from both sheep and goat collagen was sequenced and shown to differ between the two species at two positions. Analysis of a range of caprines indicated that the sequence changes occurred between the divergence

Mike Buckley; Sarah Whitcher Kansa; Sarah Howard; Stuart Campbell; Jane Thomas-Oates; Matthew Collins

2010-01-01

347

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and sensitivity to tulathromycin in goat respiratory bacterial isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial pneumonia is a common and often life-threatening respiratory problem in both meat and dairy goats. Options for approved antibiotic therapy in goats to combat these bacterial infections are severely limited and frequently drugs must be used in an extra-label manner. Tulathromycin, a triamilide macrolide antimicrobial drug shown to be effective against swine and cattle respiratory bacterial agents, has been

Kristin A. Clothier; Joann M. Kinyon; Ronald W. Griffith

348

Third International Workshop on Major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Third International Workshop on Major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats 8­11 December 2003, Toulouse WORKSHOP ON MAJOR GENES AND QTL IN SHEEP AND GOATS This is the third international meeting dealing on ovulation rate and prolificacy in sheep was totally unsuspected at this time and a number of research teams

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

Preference for drinking warm water during heat stress affects milk production in food-deprived goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deprivation leads to diminished water intake and decreased milk production in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to determine whether these effects could be alleviated by offering six lactating goats (Capra hircus) warm water to drink at normal or hot ambient temperatures. The food deprivation period was started on Day — 1 at 0700 h by feeding

K. Olsson; K. Cvek; E. Hydbring

1997-01-01

350

Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genet...

351

Inhibitory Effect of Goat and Cow Milk Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on Serratia marcescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAVLOVI? H., HARDI J., SLA ?ANAC V., HALT M., KOCEVSKI D. ( 2006): Inhibitory effect of goat and cow milk fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on Serratia marcescens and Campylobacter jejuni . Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 164-171. This study was performed to determine the influence of fermented goat and cow milk produced by the use of Bifido- bacterium longum Bb-46

DRAGANA KOCEVSKI

352

Evaluation of screening tests for detection of antibiotic residues in goat milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty Alpine does were used in this study to evaluate the effectiveness of cowside screening tests in detecting antibiotic residues in goat milk. Ten goats received procaine penicillin G intramuscularly in the hind quarters (2 ml of drug preparation or 600000 IU of procaine penicillin G). The remaining ten were treated with cephapirin sodium (200 mg cephapirin activity), 5 ml

S. S. Zeng; E. N. Escobar; I. Brown-Crowder

1996-01-01

353

Winter habitat use by mountain goats in the Kingcome River drainage of coastal British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using radio telemetry from September 1994 to March 1996, we studied the winter habitat use of 15 mountain goats in the Kingcome River drainage on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada. Our objectives were to identify important attributes of coastal mountain goat winter habitat and, in doing so, to provide resource managers with information that will help them make

Shawn Taylor; Kim Brunt

2007-01-01

354

Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied. Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300-10000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoa...

355

Effects of goat pastoralism on ecosystem carbon storage in semiarid thicket, Eastern Cape, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive pastoralism with goats transforms semiarid thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa from a dense vegetation of tall shrubs to an open landscape dominated by ephemeral grasses and forbs. Approx. 800 000 ha of thicket (which prior to the introduction of goats had a closed canopy and a Portulacaria afra Jacq. component) have been transformed in this manner. Ecosystem

A. J. MILLS; R. M. COWLING; M. V. FEY; G. I. H. KERLEY; J. S. DONALDSON; R. G. LECHMERE-OERTEL; A. M. SIGWELA; A. L. SKOWNO; P. RUNDEL

2005-01-01

356

Placing the mountain goat: A total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of a group’s evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a ‘rogue taxon’ as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as

Aaron B. A. Shafer; Jocelyn C. Hall

2010-01-01

357

Evidence for persistent Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections. PMID:18987224

Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F

2008-11-01

358

Skull, mandible, and metapodials of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat (Oreamnos harringtoni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chester Stock (1936) described a late Rancholabrean species of extinct mountain goat (Oreamnos harringtoni) based on scant remains from a cave in the Great Basin, Nevada. We present a review using cranial, mandibular, and metapodial remains of O. harringtoni from 13 localities in the southwest. The extinct mountain goat is not just a smaller form of the living species, O.

Jim I. Mead; Mark C. Lawler

1995-01-01

359

Antibody and circulating antigen profiles before and after chemotherapy in goats infected with Fasciola gigantica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The profiles of antibody response and circulating antigen levels in goats infected with Fasciola gigantica were studied by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the antibody assay, sera from goats experimentally infected with F. gigantica were reacted with whole worm antigen of the worm before and after chemotherapy with oxyclozanide. In ELISA, there was a significant

Judith V. Mbuh; Benjamin O. Fagbemi

1996-01-01

360

NEUROLOGIC DISEASE IN RANGE GOATS ASSOCIATED WITH OXYTROPIS SERICEA (LOCOWEED)POISONING AND WATER DEPRIVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

About 200 of 2500 Spanish goats, foraging on the mountain rangelands in western Montana, developed neurologic disease. Affected animals had severe rear limb weakness, knuckling of the rear fetlocks and a hoping gait. Sick goats were of all ages and in good flesh though they often had dull, shaggy ...

361

Effects of goats on Tamarix spp. and understory vegetation for riparian restoration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goats were used to reduce Tamarix spp. along the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Seventy 0.1-1.6 ha plots at two locations were either browsed by 400-630 goats for 1-3 days annually, or left unbrowsed. After two annual treatments, nearly every available Tamarix plant in mixed vegetation was browsed (100%)...

362

Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in goats J.E. LINDBERG  

E-print Network

conducted to study urinary excretion of purine derivatives (i.e. allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine) in goat kids. Estimates of microbial N synthesis in dairy goats were calculated from allantoin of age). With decreasing N intake (I 222 mg N/Wl&dquo;75to 223 mg N/WO.7ó), urinary allantoin-N (All

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Sequence conservation of microsatellites between Bos taurus (cattle), Capra hircus (goat) and related species. Examples of use in parentage testing and phylogeny analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel of 70 bovine microsatellites was tested for amplification from goat DNA. Forty-three could be successfully amplified by PCR, 20 of which were tested for polymorphism. Three were applied for parentage testing in goat families and their exclusion probability evaluated. Fourteen were cloned and sequenced from goat DNA, and goat and bovine sequences were compared to evaluate interspecific conservation.

Laurent Pépin; Yves Amigues; Andrée Lépingle; Jean-Luc Berthier; Albert Bensaid; Daniel Vaiman

1995-01-01

364

An initial comparative map of copy number variations in the goat (Capra hircus) genome  

PubMed Central

Background The goat (Capra hircus) represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs) in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina) using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. Results We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat), with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs): on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome). These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P < 0.0001) suggesting that several chromosome regions might contain recurrent interspecies CNVRs. Genes with environmental functions were over-represented in goat CNVRs as reported in other mammals. Conclusions We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the functional relevance of these CNVs and their effects on behavior, production, and disease resistance traits in goats. PMID:21083884

2010-01-01

365

Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932

dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José

2014-01-01

366

Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems. PMID:25271457

Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

2014-01-01

367

Placing the mountain goat: a total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses.  

PubMed

The interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all Caprini except muskox and goral. Maximum parsimony placed mountain goats in a derived Caprini clade. Closer examination revealed that parsimony analysis failed to integrate over phylogenetic uncertainty. We then tested our mountain goat placement against nine published alternatives using non-parametric tests, and the parametric SOWH test. Non-parametric tests returned ambiguous results, but the SOWH test rejected all alternative hypotheses. Our study represents the first explicit testing of all hypotheses for the placement of mountain goats and supports a relatively basal position for the taxon. PMID:20097296

Shafer, Aaron B A; Hall, Jocelyn C

2010-04-01

368

Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.  

PubMed

Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens. PMID:25510297

Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

2015-02-01

369

Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.  

PubMed

Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. PMID:24140164

Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

2013-12-01

370

Polymorphisms of BMPR-IB gene and their relationship with litter size in goats.  

PubMed

The bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) gene was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. According to mRNA sequence of ovine BMPR-IB gene, ten pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of exon 1, exon 2, exon 6 to exon 10 and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the BMPR-IB gene in both high prolificacy breed (Jining Grey goat) and low prolificacy breeds (Wendeng Dairy and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method. Only the products amplified by primers P8 and P10 of the 3'UTR displayed polymorphisms. For primer P8, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in Jining Grey and Wendeng Dairy goats, two genotypes (AA and AB) were in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (71C?T) of the BMPR-IB gene in genotype BB compared with AA. The differences of least squares mean (LSM) for litter size between genotypes AA, AB and BB were non-significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. For primer P10, three genotypes (CC, CD and DD) were detected in Jining Grey and Wendeng Dairy goats and one genotype (CC) in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (130T?C) of the BMPR-IB gene in genotype DD compared with CC. The differences of LSM for litter size between genotypes CC, CD and DD were non-significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. These results preliminarily showed that the detected loci of the BMPR-IB gene had no significant effect on prolificacy of Jining Grey goats. PMID:20300862

Chu, M X; Zhao, X H; Zhang, Y J; Jin, M; Wang, J Y; Di, R; Cao, G L; Feng, T; Fang, L; Ma, Y H; Li, K

2010-12-01

371

Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.  

PubMed

The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed. PMID:25285492

Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

2014-10-01

372

Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats  

PubMed Central

Background Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats. Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animal. All animals underwent echocardiography four times in a 72-hour period. Echocardiography was performed three times by one author and once by another. Images were stored and measured offline. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility and any differences due to animal or day were evaluated. Reference ranges (mean?±?2 standard deviations) were calculated for both species. Results Majority of the images obtained were of good to excellent quality. Image acquisition was straightforward with 5.4% of animals demonstrating a small scanning window. Reliability was excellent for majority of dimensions and time indices. There was less variation in repeatability when compared with reproducibility and differences were greater for technique than for measurements. Dimensions that were less reliable included those for right ventricular diameter and left ventricular free wall. There were many differences in cardiac dimensions between sheep and goats. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that specific reference ranges are required for these two species. Repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for the majority of cardiac dimensions and time indices suggesting that this technique is reliable and valuable for examination of clinical cases over time and for longitudinal research studies. PMID:23017011

2012-01-01

373

Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark. PMID:25076056

Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

2014-01-01

374

Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds?  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark. PMID:25076056

Holm, Signe A.; Sörensen, Camilla R. L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

2014-01-01

375

A latex mask for collection of expired gases from goats.  

PubMed

A latex respiratory mask was developed to collect expired gas from goats in studies of ventilatory adaptation to high altitude. The snouts of 15 animals were dimensioned by taking girth measurements. The procedure requires a rough positive mold of wood which is repeatedly submerged into latex, then slowly rotated upon removal until skim-like layers form a mask. A supporting harness is attached to the mask by use of three flat straps connected by Dot fasteners. A period of several hours per day for up to 2 weeks may be necessary to allow the animal to become accustomed to wearing the mask. PMID:2001217

Forte, V A; Devine, J A; Cymerman, A

1991-02-01

376

Oculoglandular syndrome caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in a dairy goat.  

PubMed

An outbreak of ocular disease in a herd of housed dairy goats was characterized by severe granulomatous conjunctivitis and ipsilateral parotid and submandibular lymphadenopathy. In one case submitted for post-mortem examination, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from both the conjunctiva and submandibular lymph node. Histopathological examination identified severe chronic active suppurative and lymphoplasmacytic conjunctivitis and suppurative and necrotizing lymphadenitis associated with bacteria of yersinial morphology. Similar pathological changes occur in Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome in man due to infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:19410261

Wessels, M E; Payne, J H; Bannerman, R P

2009-01-01

377

Performance and Longevity of a Novel Intraosseous Device in a Goat (Capra hircus) Model  

PubMed Central

We performed 2 studies to assess the function and longevity of a novel intraosseous catheter device. For study 1, 9 goats were assigned to 3 groups (intraosseous catheter in the proximal humerus, intraosseous catheter in the proximal tibia, or standard jugular catheter). Devices in the tibia remained in place for less time than did those in the humerus, and no goats exhibited radiographic evidence of resulting damage or structural change in surrounding bone. Positive bacterial cultures were found in all 9 goats at various time points. In study 2, 18 goats were assigned to 2 groups (intraosseous catheter in the wing of the ilium or proximal humerus). Samples for serial aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures and CBC were collected while devices remained in use. Clinical monitoring and removal criteria were identical those for study 1. Catheters in the ilium remained in place for less than 24 h on average, and those in the humerus remained in place for an average of 2.5 d. Several goats with proximal humeral catheters demonstrated moderate lameness after removal, and radiographic evidence of periosteal bone growth was noted in another goat. Bloodwork indicated mild elevations of WBC counts from baseline in some cases. Bacterial growth was found in samples from 4 of 18 goats at various time points. Our study indicated that intraosseous catheters may remain safely in place for more than 24 h, but animals should be monitored closely for negative side effects for several days after removal. PMID:21640033

Jackson, Erin E; Ashley, T Clay; Snowden, Karen F; Gresham, Vincent C; Budke, Christine M; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Taylor, Destiny A

2011-01-01

378

Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries).  

PubMed

Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

2014-01-01

379

Modulation of electrolyte homeostasis by dietary nitrogen intake in growing goats.  

PubMed

In goats, the combination of dietary N and Ca reduction caused hypocalcaemia and further changes in Ca homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N reduction under normocalcaemia on mineral and bone metabolism in young goats. Young male goats of the Saanen breed were fed a diet reduced in N (8 %) for about 7 weeks (ten animals per group) and were compared with goats fed with an adequate N (14 %) diet. When N intake was reduced in young goats, plasma urea concentrations as well as renal elimination of urea were reduced. This was inversely related to creatinine in plasma and urine, which increased during a dietary N reduction as a function of reduced renal activity to save urea during N scarcity. During this decrease in renal function, associated with declined insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations, a reduction in calcidiol and calcitriol concentrations could be observed. Meanwhile, carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen values and activity of total alkaline phosphatase were both elevated, indicating some bone remodelling processes taking place during a reduced N diet in young goats. The concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and total Ca were changed in several body fluids, indicating that Pi and Ca homeostasis was perturbed in goats fed a reduced N diet. Therefore, more research is needed to find the balance between reduction of environmental N pollution by reducing dietary N in ruminant feeding and maintaining the animal's health. PMID:21443813

Muscher, Alexandra S; Piechotta, Marion; Breves, Gerhard; Huber, Korinna

2011-06-01

380

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy sheep and goats mixed stock farming.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma and Neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. Mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in Mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. In order to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in Greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep and goats kept in mixed flocks, 833 sera samples (458 sheep and 375 goats) from 50 mixed flocks in different areas of the country were examined by ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies. Specific IgG against T. gondii were detected in 53.71% and 61.3% and against N. caninum in 16.8% and 6.9% of the sheep and goats, respectively. Goats had higher Toxoplasma seroprevalence than sheep (p<0.05), while sheep had higher Neospora seroprevalence than goats (p<0.05). The present study is the first report world wide, on the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum in sheep and goats that are kept together in mixed flocks. PMID:24103737

Diakoua, Anastasia; Anastasia, Diakou; Papadopoulos, Elias; Elias, Papadopoulos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Nikolaos, Panousis; Karatzias, Charilaos; Charilaos, Karatzias; Giadinis, Nektarios; Nektarios, Giadinis

2013-12-01

381

Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

2009-01-01

382

Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.  

PubMed

Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range. PMID:19395736

Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

2009-04-01

383

Evidence for introgressive hybridization of captive markhor (Capra falconeri) with domestic goat: cautions for reintroduction.  

PubMed

Markhors (Capra falconeri) are among the most endangered mammal species, and several conservation measures, including ex situ breeding, are implemented to prevent their extinction. We studied sequence diversity and differentiation of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region among C. f. heptneri and C. f. megaceros kept in four zoos in relationship to lineages of other wild and domestic goats, to assess for the first time the level of molecular distinctness and variability among those subspecies, and to check for possible introgression by related Capra taxa, such as domestic goats. Levels of differentiation between some Capra falconeri lineages and modern domestic goats were similar to levels between other wild goat species (i.e., Capra aegagrus, Capra ibex) and domestic goats. Among pure markhor lineages, paraphyly was observed for C. f. heptneri, suggesting occurrence of shared ancestral polymorphism among markhor subspecies and/or ancient or recent gene exchange between subspecies. Interestingly, 35.7% of all studied markhors from three zoos are introgressed by the domestic goat. Furthermore, despite relatively small breeding group sizes, markhors have maintained a relatively high proportion of mtDNA variation within zoo groups. In any case, the existence of markhors introgressed with domestic goat DNA in zoos should be considered when selecting markhors for ex situ breeding programs with the aim of building up a stock for later reintroduction into the wild. PMID:18228130

Hammer, Sabine E; Schwammer, Harald M; Suchentrunk, Franz

2008-04-01

384

Notes from the field: Q fever outbreak associated with goat farms--Washington and Montana, 2011.  

PubMed

On April 22, 2011, the Q fever bacterium Coxiella burnetii was detected in a goat placenta collected from a farm in Washington, where 14 of 50 (28%) pregnant does had aborted since January. A county health alert advised health-care providers to ask patients with symptoms compatible with Q fever (e.g., fever, headache, chills, and myalgia) about exposure to goats, and the owners of the farm informed purchasers of their goats that C. burnetii had been detected in their herd. On May 25, the county health department reported a symptomatic patient with antibodies to C. burnetii who had purchased goats from the farm in February. On May 27, a report from Montana identified a child seropositive for C. burnetii whose family had purchased goats from the Washington farm in October 2010; one of the goats aborted triplets 2 weeks before the child's May 12, 2011, illness onset. On May 31, five more persons reported onset of symptoms compatible with Q fever from late March to mid-May, following exposure at a Montana farm to goats purchased from the Washington farm at various times during October 2010--January 2011. On June 10, the Washington State Department of Health and Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services requested CDC assistance to characterize the extent of the outbreak, distribute Q fever information, and identify others at risk for infection. PMID:21993345

2011-10-14

385

Influence of diet and rennet on the composition of goats' milk and cheese.  

PubMed

Dry matter, protein, fat, pH, mineral (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Se) concentrations were determined in samples of goats' milk and in fresh, semi-hard and hard cheeses to study the effect of the goats' diet and the type of rennet used for the cheese processing of the Palmero Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. Two groups of 20 Palmero goats were fed 2 different diets: a Palmero diet (PD supplied by native forages adapted to subhumid areas, which had a high ratio of long fibre to concentrates (65:35), and an actual diet (AD), the most commonly used by goat farmers, with a low ratio of long fibre to concentrates (35:65). In general, the cheese samples from goats fed with PD had higher mean Ca, Zn, Cu and Se concentrations than the samples obtained from AD fed goats. The diet exhibited a greater influence on the chemical composition of the cheeses than the rennet used in their production. Applying a stepwise linear discriminant analysis a complete percentage of correct classifications of the three types of cheeses according to the diet of the goats was observed. PMID:24725675

Fresno Baquero, María; Álvarez Ríos, Sergio; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Darias Martín, Jacinto

2011-05-01

386

Effects of Monensin on Metabolism and Production in Dairy Saanen Goats in Periparturient Period  

PubMed Central

This trial evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with monensin sodium on dry matter intake, metabolic parameters and milk yield and milk composition of dairy Saanen goats in the periparturient period. Twelve Saanen pregnant dairy goats were assigned to a treatment and a control group. Saanen goats were fed monensin as its 10% sodium salt in the amount of 33 mg/kg of total dry matter intake during 30 d before parturition till d 42 in milk. Blood samples were collected from each goat at d 30, 15 and 7 before expected kidding time and also in d 1, 7, 13, 19, 21, 28, 35 and 42 postpartum. The serum concentrations of ?-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterifed fatty acid (NEFA), calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, total protein, albumin and glucose and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were determined. The BHBA concentration significantly decreased in goats, which received monensin in comparison to controls in the postpartum period (p = 0.049). The concentration of sodium (Na) was significantly influenced by monensin treatment in the postpartum period (p = 0.048). In addition, the difference in dry matter intake was highly significant between the two groups during the pre-partum period. Controls had more dry matter intake (DMI) than treatment goats (p = 0.0001). Mean 3.5% fat corrected milk production was not influenced by monensin treatment. However, milk fat percentage was significantly decreased in monensin treated goats (p = 0.0017). PMID:25049709

Sadjadian, Rasool; Seifi, Hesam A.; Mohri, Mehrdad; Naserian, Abbas Ali; Farzaneh, Nima

2013-01-01

387

Characterization of Liaoning Cashmere Goat Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Functional Annotation and Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology. Results Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51%) unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17%) unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes. Conclusion The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses. PMID:24130835

Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Jinke; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

2013-01-01

388

Birth of kids after artificial insemination with sex-sorted, frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Successful sex-sorting of goat spermatozoa and subsequent birth of pre-sexed kids have yet to be reported. As such, a series of experiments were conducted to develop protocols for sperm-sorting (using a modified flow cytometer, MoFlo SX(®) ) and cryopreservation of goat spermatozoa. Saanen goat spermatozoa (n = 2 males) were (i) collected into Salamon's or Tris catch media post-sorting and (ii) frozen in Tris-citrate-glucose media supplemented with 5, 10 or 20% egg yolk in (iii) 0.25 ml pellets on dry ice or 0.25 ml straws in a controlled-rate freezer. Post-sort and post-thaw sperm quality were assessed by motility (CASA), viability and acrosome integrity (PI/FITC-PNA). Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa frozen in pellets displayed significantly higher post-thaw motility and viability than spermatozoa frozen in straws. Catch media and differing egg yolk concentration had no effect on the sperm parameters tested. The in vitro and in vivo fertility of sex-sorted goat spermatozoa produced with this optimum protocol were then tested by means of a heterologous ova binding assay and intrauterine artificial insemination of Saanen goat does, respectively. Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa bound to sheep ova zona pellucidae in similar numbers (p > 0.05) to non-sorted goat spermatozoa, non-sorted ram spermatozoa and sex-sorted ram spermatozoa. Following intrauterine artificial insemination with sex-sorted spermatozoa, 38% (5/13) of does kidded with 83% (3/5) of kids being of the expected sex. Does inseminated with non-sorted spermatozoa achieved a 50% (3/6) kidding rate and a sex ratio of 3 : 1 (F : M). This study demonstrates for the first time that goat spermatozoa can be sex-sorted by flow cytometry, successfully frozen and used to produce pre-sexed kids. PMID:23701168

Bathgate, R; Mace, N; Heasman, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; de Graaf, S P

2013-12-01

389

Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).  

PubMed

Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

2012-03-01

390

Leptospirosis in sheep and goats under tropical conditions.  

PubMed

Inadequate management practices and poor reproductive performance have been reported as fundamental factors on reducing the levels of productivity in livestock. Different pathogens have been reported in small ruminants' herds/flocks with reproductive failures. The aim of the present study was to review aspects of leptospirosis in small ruminants, mainly its impact on reproduction and consequently on productivity of the herds/flocks under tropical conditions. Leptospiral infection in goats and sheep is common in several countries, and those species can also act as carriers of leptospires. Severe disease is often associated to young animals and is frequently associated to incidental serovars. In contrast, subclinical infection is mainly characterized by reproductive problems, such as infertility, abortion, occurrence of stillbirths, and weak lambs/goat kids. Moreover, laboratorial tests are essential to achieve an accurate diagnosis of the infection. Microscopic agglutination test is the most common indirect test of leptospirosis, being used worldwide. In small ruminants, PCR consists on a recommendable method for diagnosing animals that carry leptospires. Control of leptospirosis in small ruminants involves measures such as the identification and treatment of the carriers and other sources of infection, quarantine in acquired animals, and systematic immunization with commercial vaccines containing the circulating serovars in the herd/flock. Productivity of small ruminant breeding can dramatically increase with adequate sanitary conditions and control of leptospirosis. Immunization of all the animals combined to the treatment of carriers may successfully control the infection and importantly reduce the economic reproductive hazards that are observed under tropical conditions. PMID:24085419

Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

2014-01-01

391

The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in Kenya.  

PubMed

California mastitis test (CMT), direct leukocytes counts and bacteriological examination were performed on 630 milk samples from apparently healthy mammary glands of dairy goats comprising a mixed population of German Alpine, Toggenberg, Saanen and Galla crosses to find the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 9.8% according to CMT, 9.7% according to direct leukocyte counts and 28.7% by bacterial isolation during a 3-month period. The proportion of the bacteriologically positive milk samples was significantly (P <0.01) higher than that positive for CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was a significant (P < 0.01) correlation between CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was no significant direct relationship between bacterial isolation and CMT Bacterial organisms were isolated in 22.5% of the 568 CMT-negative milk samples. The results suggest that bacterial organisms isolated from the CMT-negative milksamples were either latent infections or did not stimulate any significant increase in somatic cell counts that could be detected by either the CMT or direct leukocyte counts. The observations of this study indicate that the mere presence of bacteria in goat's milk does not mean that the udder is infected and so does not warrant antibiotic therapy. PMID:10949513

Ndegwa, E N; Mulei, C M; Munyua, S J

2000-03-01

392

Differential respiratory muscle recruitment induced by clonidine in awake goats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dysrhythmic breathing induced by the alpha2-agonist clonidine is accompanied by differential recruitment of respiratory muscles. In adult goats (n = 14) electromyographic (EMG) measurements were made from inspiratory muscles (diaphragm and parasternal intercostal) and expiratory muscles [triangularis sterni (TS) and transversus abdominis (Abd)]. EMG of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle was used as an index of upper airway (glottal) patency. Peak EMG activities of all spinal inspiratory and expiratory muscles were augmented by central and peripheral chemoreceptor stimuli. Phasic TA was apparent in the postinspiratory phase of the breathing cycle under normoxic conditions. During dysrhythmic breathing episodes induced by clonidine, TS and Abd activities were attenuated or abolished, whereas diaphragm and parasternal intercostal activities were unchanged. There was no tonic activation of TS or Abd EMG during apneas; however, TA activity became tonic throughout the apnea. We conclude that 1) alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation results in differential recruitment of respiratory muscles during respiratory dysrhythmias and 2) apneas are accompanied by active glottic closure in the awake goat. PMID:9516185

Hedrick, M S; Dwinell, M R; Janssen, P L; Pizarro, J; Bisgard, G E

1998-04-01

393

The economics of sheep and goat husbandry in Norse Greenland.  

PubMed

Insight into the relative importance of sheep and goat herding and of the economic significance of each species (i.e., milk vs. meat vs. wool) in Medieval Greenland is obtained through the application of Halstead et al.'s (2002) criteria for the identification of adult ovicaprine mandibles to faunal assemblages from three Norse farmsteads: Sandnes, V52a, and Ø71S. The economic strategies identified are broadly comparable between the two species and the Eastern and Western Settlement sites examined, and are suggestive of the subsistence production of meat and milk. Comparison with farmsteads elsewhere in Greenland indicates that socio-economic status and/or farmstead size interacted with geographical location in determining the economic strategies employed by the Norse farmers. A broader use of resources and a more varied diet are evident at larger farmsteads in Greenland and this paper suggests that such sites would have been better able than their smaller counterparts to withstand environmental deterioration during the early Middle Ages. These analyses have also confirmed that goats were relatively more common in Norse sites in Greenland than in Norse sites in Iceland, Orkney, or Shetland. PMID:21774148

Mainland, Ingrid; Halstead, Paul

2005-01-01

394

Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in the goat. II. Pathology.  

PubMed

Infection of male goats aged 8-10 months with 5000 or 50 000 organisms of a Mindanao strain of Trypanosoma evansi was observed over a period of 90 days. The infection induced clinical disease which was lethal, especially at the higher dose rate. Lesions were more acute in goats that received the higher dose. Gross and microscopical changes were not pathognomonic, except in the presence of demonstrable trypanosomes. At necropsy, a combination of lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, testicular enlargement, anaemic signs and consolidation of the anterior lobes of the lungs was suggestive of surra. Testicular changes, especially aspermia, indicated probable infertility. The cytopathology of the lungs, liver, intestine, kidneys, testes, bone marrow, brain and other organs was immunological in nature, characterized by mononuclear infiltration of interstitial tissues, with minor cellular damage and the presence of trypanosomes. B- and T- cell responses were observed in the lymphatic system, but the findings indicated immunosuppression in the lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow during the third month after infection. Exudative inflammatory changes were mild. It is suggested that the cytopathology of most haemophilic trypanosomal infections is predominantly an immunological process. PMID:16213516

Dargantes, A P; Campbell, R S F; Copeman, D B; Reid, S A

2005-11-01

395

Association of Vitamin E with Rapid Thawing on Goat Semen  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100??M. Semen was packaged into 0.25?mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (?155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (?196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20??L aliquot of thawed semen to 1?mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm·Kg?1) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process. PMID:24955428

Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Dias, Júlio César Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

2014-01-01

396

Physiological responses and lactational performances of late-lactation dairy goats under heat stress conditions.  

PubMed

Eight Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation were exposed to different ambient conditions, using metabolic cages in a climatic chamber. The experimental design was a crossover (2 periods of 35 d and 4 goats each) and conditions were (1) thermal neutral (TN; 15 to 20 °C day-night) and (2) heat stress (HS; 12-h day at 37 °C and 12-h night at 30.5 °C). Humidity was maintained at 40% and light-dark was constant (12-12h). The forage:concentrate ratio was adjusted daily for maintaining similar value in TN and HS goats (70:30). Water was freely available at ambient temperature. Rectal temperature and respiratory rate (0800, 1200 and 1700 h) and milk yield were recorded daily, whereas milk composition, nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin in blood were analyzed weekly. At d 25, additional blood samples were taken for analysis of metabolites and indicators of the acid-base balance. Digestibility coefficients and N balance were determined (d 31 to 35) and body weight was recorded (d 35). Compared with TN goats, HS goats experienced greater rectal temperature (+0.58 °C), respiratory rate (+48 breaths/min), water intake (+77%) and water evaporation (+207%). Intake of HS goats rapidly declined until d 7 (-40%), partially recovered from d 7 to 19, and steadied thereafter (-14%). No changes in digestibility or N balance were detected. Blood nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin peaked at d 7 in HS goats but did not vary thereafter. Although milk yield did not vary by treatment, milk of HS goats contained -12.5% protein and -11.5% casein than TN goats. Panting reduced concentration and pressure of CO? in the blood of HS goats, but they were able to maintain their blood pH similar to the TN group by lowering HCO?(-) and increasing Cl(-) concentrations in their blood. In conclusion, HS dairy goats showed dramatic physiological changes during the first week of treatment and partially recovered thereafter. They were able to maintain milk yield by losing body mass, but milk protein content and protein yield were depressed. Further research is needed to assess the response of dairy goats to HS at earlier stages of lactation. PMID:23958010

Hamzaoui, S; Salama, A A K; Albanell, E; Such, X; Caja, G

2013-10-01

397

Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.  

PubMed

Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ?95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet based mainly or exclusively on eating green grass (grazing), independently of the production system. Hence, this marker would not be useful for the actual organic policies to distinguish organic milk under the current regulations, because organic dairy ruminants can be fed organic compound feed and conserved fodder without grazing at all. PMID:23849634

Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

2013-09-01

398

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk. PMID:20105517

Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

2010-02-01

399

75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding...

2010-09-17

400

Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other. PMID:22217267

EIBACH, R.; BOTHE, F.; RUNGE, M.; FISCHER, S. F.; PHILIPP, W.; GANTER, M.

2012-01-01

401

A duplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool.  

PubMed

Abstract In this article attempts were made to establish one-step duplex PCR assay for the identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool. Primers were selected from published papers or designed in the well-conserved region of mitochondrial D-loop genes after alignment of the available sequences in the GenBank database. A fragment of 294?bp from cashmere goat was amplified and three PCR fragments including a bright main band of approximately 404?bp in length were obtained from sheep. The duplex PCR was found to be effective in detecting mixed samples precisely when sheep wool was mixed to goat cashmere with the relative proportion of over 9.09%. The duplex PCR could be considered as a simple and promising method in identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool. PMID:25259446

Geng, Qing-Rong

2014-09-26

402

Some observations on the sero-prevalence of heartwater and tick infestation in Zambian goats.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out to define the distribution of heartwater in goats that originated from six districts in communal grazing semi-arid areas of Zambia. A total of 181 samples (40.1%) out of 451 serum samples from adult goats were positive for Ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies after screening using indirect MAP-1B antigen ELISA technique with statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) between the six districts. Out of 1 036 adult goats examined for tick infestation, 105 were infested by ticks, with Amblyomma species being the most dominant tick encountered. Amblyomma variegatum, which is the vector for heartwater transmission in Zambia constituted 42.4% of the tick species, identified. The overall tick infestation rate was 10% while the tick:goat ratio was 2.1:1. Amblyomma variegatum appears to be widespread throughout the study area, as are antibodies to E. ruminantium. PMID:15373339

Ahmadu, B; Lovelace, C E A; Samui, K L; Mahan, S

2004-06-01

403

Risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity of goat herds in the Mexicali Valley of Baja California, Mexico.  

PubMed

A case-control study was conducted in the Mexicali Valley to identify risk factors for goat-herd seropositivity for Brucella melitensis. Nineteen case herds (> or = 2 positive results with the 8% rose bengal plate test (RBT)) and 55 control herds (zero positive results in RBT), matched for herdsize and geographic location, were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression was used to construct a multivariable model of the odds of seropositivity using variables assessed in a questionnaire administered to goat ranchers. The final model for herd seropositivity included increased risk from importation of goats from other Mexican states, the presence of La Mancha breed does, and the presence of does born outside the herd. Increasing herdsize was also highly significant (p < 0.01). In addition, a significant (p < 0.05) positive association was found between the presence of seropositive dogs (as assessed by RBT) and seropositive goats on the same ranch. PMID:9879591

Mikolon, A B; Gardner, I A; Hernandez De Anda, J; Hietala, S K

1998-12-01

404

High forage quality helps maintain resilience to gastrointestinal parasites on sheep and goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites (especially the blood feeder Haemonchus contortus) in small ruminants is a problem for sheep and goat producers. Gastrointestinal parasite overloads reduce livestock performance and production efficiency, and can result in increased death losses of animals...

405

Food intake and rumen motility in dwarf goats. Effects of some serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serotonergic regulation of feeding behaviour has not so far been studied in ruminants. Therefore, the effects of some serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on food intake and forestomach motility were studied in dwarf goats.

F. Kaya; C. T. M. van Duin; G. H. Veenendaal; A. S. J. P. A. M. van Miert

1992-01-01

406

Influence of insulin or glucagon, alone or combined, on glucose homeostasis in dairy goats treated  

E-print Network

Influence of insulin or glucagon, alone or combined, on glucose homeostasis in dairy goats treated (Gallo and Block, 1990), this trial aimed to study glucose homeostasis with injection of INS and/or GLA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections.  

PubMed

Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other. PMID:22217267

Eibach, R; Bothe, F; Runge, M; Fischer, S F; Philipp, W; Ganter, M

2012-11-01

408

Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.  

PubMed

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

2009-07-01

409

Contagious ecthyma in bighorn sheep and mountain goat in western Canada.  

PubMed

Contagious ecthyma (CE) is reported in bighorn sheep (Ovis c. canadensis) from several national parks in western Canada and in moutain goat (Oreamnos americanus) from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. (This is the first report of CE in mountain goat.) Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology, transmission experiments and the demonstration of a proxvirus with the electron microscope. The infection was transmitted from wild to domestic goat, but not to domestic sheep. Most infections, some of them severe, were found in lambs and kids. Clinical signs of disease were similar to those seen in domestic sheep and goats. General body condition was poor and animals had difficulty feeding normally. All infected herds had prolonged contact with areas where salt was provided artificially (i.e., salt blocks, highways and campgrounds). Fewer infected sheep were observed annually when salt blocks were removed from Jasper National Park. PMID:1113436

Samuel, W M; Chalmers, G A; Stelfox, J G; Loewen, A; Thomsen, J J

1975-01-01

410

Seasonal effects of volatile oils in ashe and redberry juniper on preference and digestibility by goats  

E-print Network

(qnodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz) and live Oak [Quercus virginiana (Small) Sarg. var. fusiformis] during the spring and fall. Angora and Spanish goats were exposed to ashe female, ashe male, redberry female and redberry...

Riddle, Richard R.

2012-06-07

411

Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at an average rate of 4.9±2.2(SE) percent annually since 2004. We caution that the estimated rate of population growth may be conservative if severe spring weather deterred some mountain goats from reaching the high-elevation survey areas during the 2011 surveys. If the estimated average rate of population growth were to remain constant in the future, then the population would double in approximately 14-15 years.

Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

2011-01-01

412

Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens produces disease in sheep, goats and other animal species, most of which are generically called enterotoxemias. This micro-organism can be a normal inhabitant of the intestine of most animal species including humans, but when the intestinal environment is altered by sudden changes in diet or other factors, C. perfringens proliferates in large numbers and produces several potent toxins that are absorbed into the general circulation or act locally with usually devastating effects on the host. History, clinical signs and gross post-mortem findings are useful tools for establishing a presumptive diagnosis of enterotoxaemia by C. perfringens in sheep and goats, although no definitive diagnosis of these diseases can be made without laboratory confirmation. Because all types of C. perfringens can be normal inhabitants of the intestine of most animals, culture of this micro-organism from intestinal contents of animals has no diagnostic value unless a colony count is performed and large numbers (usually more than 10(4)-10(7)CFU/g) of C. perfringens are found. The most accepted criterion in establishing a definitive diagnosis of enterotoxaemia by C. perfringens is the detection of its toxins in intestinal contents. However, some of the major toxins of C. perfringens (i.e. epsilon toxin) can also be found, albeit in small amounts, in the small intestine of clinically normal sheep, and this poses a diagnostic challenge. In such cases the histopathology of the brain must be used as an alternative diagnostic tool, since the lesions produced by epsilon toxin in the brains of sheep and goats are unique and pathognomonic for C. perfringens type D enterotoxaemia. Ancillary tests, such as measurement of urine glucose or observation of Gram stained smears of intestinal mucosa can be used and, although they have a presumptive diagnostic value when positive, they cannot be used to rule out a diagnosis of enterotoxaemia if they are negative. In conclusion, the diagnosis of C. perfringens infections in animals is complex and it is appropriate to rely on a combination of diagnostic techniques rather than one singe test. PMID:16701510

Uzal, F A

2004-04-01

413

Efficacy of halofuginone lactate against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates.  

PubMed

Preliminary results obtained in calves, lambs and goat kids infected by Cryptosporidium sp. have indicated a partial prophylactic efficacy of halofuginone lactate when administered at 100 ?g/kg body weight (BW). In this study, the efficacy of halofuginone lactate was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts per oral route. The trial consisted in 2 replicated experiments carried out successively at 2 months of interval. Twenty-two 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally inoculated once, 2-3 days after the arrival in premises, with 10(6)C. parvum oocysts per oral route and were allocated into 2 groups. Animals of group 1 acted as untreated control whereas animals of group 2 received halofuginone lactate for 10 days from the infection day to day 9 post-infection (DPI) at a daily oral dose rate of 100 ?g/kg BW. Individual oocyst shedding was monitored by daily examination of faecal smears stained by carbol fuchsin and scored semi-quantitatively (0-5) until 19 DPI. Daily diarrhoea scores, weight gain and mortality were recorded. In the first experiment, oocyst excretion started 1 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 3.6) and became undetectable from 16-19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 1 day later, showed lower scores compared to control on 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 DPI and vanished from 16 to 19 DPI. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Five kids died in the control group compared to 1 kid in the treated group. In the second (replicated) experiment, oocyst excretion started 2 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 4.5) and became undetectable 18 and 19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 2 days later, peaked on 13 DPI (mean score 2.3) and persisted until the end of the experiment. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Ten kids died in the control group compared to 3 kids in the treated group. The results demonstrated the efficacy of halofuginone lactate when given as a prophylactic treatment at 100 ?g/kg BW during 10 days in reducing oocyst shedding, diarrhoea and mortality in goat kid cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24636788

Petermann, Julie; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe

2014-05-28

414

Mineral Metabolism in Singleton and Twin-pregnant Dairy Goats  

PubMed Central

During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (49.5 kg±7.6 body weight [BW]) were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen), 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin) and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days). Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg) decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg) was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g). Mineral retention (mg/g) increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g) increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal absorption. Finally, mineral metabolism was specific to each genotype and, except for Na, was not affected by the number of fetuses. PMID:25557674

Härter, C. J.; Castagnino, D. S.; Rivera, A. R.; Lima, L. D.; Silva, H. G. O.; Mendonça, A. N.; Bonfim, G. F.; Liesegang, A.; St-Pierre, N.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

2015-01-01

415

Mineral Metabolism in Singleton and Twin-pregnant Dairy Goats.  

PubMed

During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (49.5 kg±7.6 body weight [BW]) were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen), 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin) and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days). Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg) decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg) was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g). Mineral retention (mg/g) increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g) increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal absorption. Finally, mineral metabolism was specific to each genotype and, except for Na, was not affected by the number of fetuses. PMID:25557674

Härter, C J; Castagnino, D S; Rivera, A R; Lima, L D; Silva, H G O; Mendonça, A N; Bonfim, G F; Liesegang, A; St-Pierre, N; Teixeira, I A M A

2015-01-01

416

Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium in Goats across Four Provincial Level Areas in China  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium in goats from Guangdong Province, Hubei Province, Shandong Province, and Shanghai City of China. Six hundred and four fecal samples were collected from twelve goat farms, and the overall infection rate was 11.4% (69/604). Goats infected with Cryptosporidium were found in eleven farms across four provincial areas, and the infection rate ranged from 2.9% (1/35) to 25.0% (9/36). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified. Cryptosporidium xiaoi (45/69, 65.2%) was the dominant species, followed by C. parvum (14/69, 20.3%) and C. ubiquitum (10/69, 14.5%). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was varied with host age and goat kids were more susceptible to be infected than adult goats. Subtyping C. parvum and C. ubiquitum positive samples revealed C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 and C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa were the most common subtypes. Other C. parvum subtypes were detected as well, such as IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA17G2R1. All of these subtypes have also been detected in humans, suggesting goats may be a potential source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. This was the first report of C. parvum subtypes IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA17G2R1 infecting in goats and the first molecular identification of C. parvum and its subtypes in Chinese goats. PMID:25343501

Mi, Rongsheng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Yuxuan; Chen, Yongjun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Zhaoguo

2014-01-01

417

Diets of prairie dogs ( Cynomys mexicanus) co-existing with cattle or goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diets of prairie dogs (Cynomys mexicanus) co-existing with goats or cattle were examined using microhistological fecal analysis in a 1-year study on a grassland of northern Mexico. Consumption of forbs was generally higher (33% versus 21% across all seasons; P< 0.05) in prairie dog diets co-existing with cattle compared to prairie dogs co-existing with goats. The diet of prairie dogs

M. Mellado; A. Olvera

2008-01-01

418

Nutritional quality indices of milk fat from goats on diets supplemented with different roughages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional indices of milk fat of 1\\/2 Boer×Saanen goats on diets supplemented with three roughages. Eighteen goats under a semi-intensive system were divided into groups, and fed an ad libitum supplement of sorghum silage, maize silage or mulberry hay. Nutritional indices were determined from three milk samples taken during winter (August) and spring–summer

E. K. Osmari; U. Cecato; F. A. F. Macedo; N. E. Souza

2011-01-01

419

Triglyceride analysis by gas chromatography in assessment of authenticity of goat milk fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triglyceride (TG) composition of 35 samples of milk collected at different times of year from five herds of goats was\\u000a analyzed using short capillary column-gas chromatography. The distribution of TG in goat milk fat was unimodal, peaking at\\u000a C40 (12.6%); the sum of TG from C38 to C44 accounted for about 50%, whereas the three classes of TG from

J. Fontecha; V. Díaz; M. J. Fraga; M. Juárez

1998-01-01

420

Associations of mature live weight of Australian cashmere goats with farm of origin and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in live weight and mature size associated with farm of origin, age and sex were quantified for commercial Australian cashmere goats. Goats from 11 farms in four Australian states, consisting of 1367 does and 98 wethers aged 1–13-year-old were monitored between December and June (early summer to mid winter). We used the live weight for May, as this was

B. A. McGregor; K. L. Butler

2010-01-01

421

Oestrus induction and synchronisation during anoestrus in cashmere goats using hormonal treatment in association with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY During the anoestrous period, induction and synchronisation of oestrous was obtained in 30 cashmere goats at 54±5 days after kidding. A treatment for 11 days with vaginal sponges containing FGA (Fluorogestone-acetate) 45 mg and an injection of 400 I.U. of PMSG and 125 mg of PGF 2a i.m. two days before sponge removal, was used. Goats were equally divided

Fiorella Carnevali; Gabriele Schino; Silvana Diverio; Sandro Misiti

422

Genetic diversity and investigation of polledness in divergent goat populations using 52 088 SNPs.  

PubMed

The recent availability of a genome-wide SNP array for the goat genome dramatically increases the power to investigate aspects of genetic diversity and to conduct genome-wide association studies in this important domestic species. We collected and analysed genotypes from 52 088 SNPs in Boer, Cashmere and Rangeland goats that had both polled and horned individuals. Principal components analysis revealed a clear genetic division between animals for each population, and model-based clustering successfully detected evidence of admixture that matched aspects of their recorded history. For example, shared co-ancestry was detected, suggesting Boer goats have been introgressed into the Rangeland population. Further, allele frequency data successfully tracked the altered genetic profile that has taken place after 40 years of breeding Australian Cashmere goats using the Rangeland animals as the founding population. Genome-wide association mapping of the POLL locus revealed a strong signal on goat chromosome 1. The 769-kb critical interval contained the polled intersex syndrome locus, confirming the genetic basis in non-European animals is the same as identified previously in Saanen goats. Interestingly, analysis of the haplotypes carried by a small set of sex-reversed animals, known to be associated with polledness, revealed some animals carried the wild-type chromosome associated with the presence of horns. This suggests a more complex basis for the relationship between polledness and the intersex condition than initially thought while validating the application of the goat SNP50 BeadChip for fine-mapping traits in goat. PMID:23216229

Kijas, James W; Ortiz, Judit S; McCulloch, Russell; James, Andrew; Brice, Blair; Swain, Ben; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

2013-06-01

423

Design and Characterization of a 52K SNP Chip for Goats  

PubMed Central

The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50–60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years. PMID:24465974

Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cédric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cécile; Eggen, André; Heuven, Henri C. M.; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T.; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R.; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhière, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L.; Tircazes, Aurélie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

2014-01-01

424

Effects of dietary zinc on performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma zinc status in Cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six 1.0-year-old Liao Ning Cashmere goat wethers (BW=22.01±0.59kg) were used to determine the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) level on the performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma Zn status during the cashmere fiber growing period. The goats were randomly divided into four groups that were fed a basal diet containing 22.3mg Zn\\/kg dry matter (DM) with 0, 15, 30 or 45mg

Wenbin Jia; Zhihai Jia; Wei Zhang; Runlian Wang; Shiwei Zhang; Xiaoping Zhu

2008-01-01

425

The inheritance of fibre traits in a crossbred population of cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Genetic parameters were calculated for fibre traits measured on patch samples taken at 5 months of age on a crossbred population of cashmere goats, comprising goats of Scottish feral, Icelandic, Tasmanian, New Zealand and Siberian origin. Within-strain heritabilities, fitting genetic origin as a covariable, were: live weight, 0.71 (s.e. 0.08), fibre diameter, 0.63 (0.07), diameter standard deviation 0.43 (0.08),

S. C. Bishop; A. J. F. Russel

1997-01-01

426

Displacement of the abomasum to the left side and pyloric obstruction in a goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A 4-year-old female native goat with the history of inappetence and no defecation was referred to the Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine of Shiraz, Shiraz, southern Iran. During exploratory laparotomy, pyloric obstruction and displacement of the abomasum to the left side was observed. Obstruction of pylorus was due to a ball-shaped phytobezoar. The goat was followed

Meimandi Parizi; Rowshan Ghasrodashti; A. Meimandi

427

A survey of trypanosomosis in Zambian goats using haematocrit centrifuge technique and polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The incidence of trypanosomosis was determined using the haematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT) as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on 120 goat blood spots on filter paper. Both techniques failed to detect a positive reaction, implying that factors such as age, healthy appearance and small sample size notwithstanding, trypanosomosis does not seem to pose a serious threat to goat health in the districts from where the animals originated. PMID:12665140

Ahmadu, B; Lovelace, C E A; Samui, K L

2002-12-01

428

Freeze dried anterior cruciate ligament allograftsPreliminary studies in a goat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

One ACL in each of 11 mature goats was replaced with a freeze dried bone-ACL-bone allograft. One year fol lowing implantation the goats had their knees evaluated biomechanically and for microvascularity and histologic changes. The reconstructed knees had a significantly greater total AP laxity (3.8 ± 0.6 mm) (mean and SEM) than the controls (1.0 ± 0.1 mm). Differences in

D. W. Jackson; E. S. Grood; S. P. Arnoczky; D. L. Butler; T. M. Simon

1987-01-01

429

Effects of duration of photoperiod on the rumination behavior of goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on rumination behavior were conducted with adult female Saanen goats (BW 21.0 kg) to observe the effects of a single short (1 h; 23:00–24:00 h) or long (23 h; 00:00–23:00 h) photoperiod per day. The jaw movements of three goats tested were continuously recorded when they were housed in a cage with the continuous feeder to investigate the effects

S. Oshiro; H. Nakamae; T. Hirayama; K. Furuta; F. Hongo; M. Hirakawa; H. Higodshi

1996-01-01

430

Design and characterization of a 52K SNP chip for goats.  

PubMed

The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50-60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years. PMID:24465974

Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cédric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cécile; Eggen, André; Heuven, Henri C M; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhière, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L; Tircazes, Aurélie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

2014-01-01

431

Propofol directly depresses lumbar dorsal horn neuronal responses to noxious stimulation in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that propofol, acting in the brain, would either enhance, or have no effect, on lumbar dorsal horn\\u000a neuronal responses to a noxious mechanical stimulus applied to the hindlimb. We recorded the response of lumbar dorsal horn\\u000a neurons during differential delivery of propofol to the brain and torso of goats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Goats were anesthetized with isoflurane

Joseph F. Antognini; Xiao Wei Wang; Marla Piercy; Earl Carstens

2000-01-01

432

Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is\\u000a mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect\\u000a measurement of somatic cell count (SCC) by California Mastitis Test (CMT) and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval\\u000a cell counter (DCC)

Ylva Persson; Ida Olofsson

2011-01-01

433

Social information, social feeding, and competition in group-living goats (Capra hircus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are both benefits (e.g., social information) and costs (e.g., intraspecific competition) for individuals foraging in groups. To ascertain how group-foraging goats (Capra hircus) deal with these trade-offs, we asked 1) do goats use social information to make foraging decisions and 2) how do they adjust their intake rate in light of having attracted by other group members? To establish

Adrian M. Shrader; Graham I. H. Kerley; Burt P. Kotler; J. S. Brown

2006-01-01

434

Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infection in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the effects of Acacia karoo and Acacia nilotica diets on Haemonchus contortus infections in goats. Twenty-four Boer goats of mixed sex (live weight 17–22kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, namely: A. nilotica (AN) group, A. karoo (AK) group, control infected with H. contortus (HC) group and the non-infected control (NHC) group.

C. Kahiya; S. Mukaratirwa; S. M. Thamsborg

2003-01-01

435

Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.  

PubMed

Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

2014-01-01

436

Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo  

PubMed Central

Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

2014-01-01

437

Experimental Model of Tuberculosis in the Domestic Goat after Endobronchial Infection with Mycobacterium caprae ?  

PubMed Central

Caprine tuberculosis (TB) has increased in recent years, highlighting the need to address the problem the infection poses in goats. Moreover, goats may represent a cheaper alternative for testing of prototype vaccines in large ruminants and humans. With this aim, a Mycobacterium caprae infection model has been developed in goats. Eleven 6-month-old goats were infected by the endobronchial route with 1.5 × 103 CFU, and two other goats were kept as noninfected controls. The animals were monitored for clinical and immunological parameters throughout the experiment. After 14 weeks, the goats were euthanized, and detailed postmortem analysis of lung lesions was performed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and direct observation. The respiratory lymph nodes were also evaluated and cultured for bacteriological analysis. All infected animals were positive in a single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test at 12 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Gamma interferon (IFN-?) antigen-specific responses were detected from 4 weeks p.i. until the end of the experiment. The humoral response to MPB83 was especially strong at 14 weeks p.i. (13 days after SICCT boost). All infected animals presented severe TB lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. M. caprae was recovered from pulmonary lymph nodes in all inoculated goats. MDCT allowed a precise quantitative measure of TB lesions. Lesions in goats induced by M. caprae appeared to be more severe than those induced in cattle by M. bovis over a similar period of time. The present work proposes a reliable new experimental animal model for a better understanding of caprine tuberculosis and future development of vaccine trials in this and other species. PMID:21880849

Pérez de Val, Bernat; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Martín, Maite; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Romera, Nadine; Escobar, Manel; Solanes, David; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Domingo, Mariano

2011-01-01

438

Differential effects of goat browsing on herbaceous plant community in a two-phase mosaic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of herbivores on herbaceous plant communities is usually attributed to direct consumption of plants. We hypothesized\\u000a that goats affect herbaceous plants both directly (consumption by foraging) and indirectly, by changing environmental conditions\\u000a through modification of woody plant structure. We assessed the effects of goats browsing on environmental conditions, landscape\\u000a structure, and herbaceous plants to link the direct and

O. Gabay; A. Perevolotsky; A. Bar Massada; Y. Carmel; M. Shachak

439

Volatile compounds in herbage intake by goats in two different grazing seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Variations in volatile organic compound (VOC) composition of herbage grazed by goats, in two seasons, were investigated. Fifteen non-supplemented lactating goats grazed for 8 hours\\/day an area of 1.2 ha, from March to middle spring and from middle spring to early June. Artificial diets were formed on the basis of grazing behaviours estimated on five areas of 2x2

V. Fedele; S. Claps; R. Rubino; L. Sepe; G. F. Cifuni

440

Toltrazuril treatment for acute clinical coccidiosis in hair goat kids: clinical, pathological, haematologic and biochemical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness and safety of oral administration of toltrazuril at a dose of 25 mg\\/kg\\/day for two consecutive days. The present study was carried out in a goat flock, reared in Kirikkale province of Turkey. Faeces samples were collected from 26 goat kids (6,716 - 1.11 weeks old) exhibiting the clinical sings of acute

BUGRAHAN B. YAGCI; SIBEL YASA DURU; OGUZ KUL

2007-01-01

441

Histological Features of the Degenerating Intervertebral Disc in a Goat Disc-injury Model  

PubMed Central

Study Design An in vivo study to develop a goat large-animal model for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Objectives To determine an optimal method for inducing goat IVD degeneration suitable for testing disc regeneration therapies. Summary of Background Data Although rodent, rabbit, and other small animal studies are useful, the narrow dimensions of IVDs in these species limit studies requiring injection of a relevant volume of therapeutics or implantation of engineered tissue constructs. For this study, the goat was selected because the size and shape of their IVDs are comparable to those of adult humans. Methods A minimally invasive approach that did not cause significant morbidity or mortality to adult goats (n = 6) was used. Under fluoroscopic guidance, goat lumbar IVDs were injured with a 4.5 mm drill bit or #15 or #10 surgical blades. Two months post-injury, the goats were euthanized and their IVDs with adjacent endplates were isolated, decalcified and stained. Results A numerical histological scale to categorize the degree of goat IVD degeneration was developed based on the histological features of rabbit IVDs previously described by Masuda et al., goat IVDs described by Hoogendoorn et al., and human IVDs described by Boos et al. The inter-rater agreement of our scoring system was assessed (weighted Kappa value = 0.6646). Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the injured IVDs with uninjured control. A 4.5 mm drill bit inserted to a 15 mm depth resulted in a significantly higher histological score compared to uninjured controls (p = 0.01). Injury with a #15 or #10 blade did not result in increased histological scores compared with uninjured controls. Conclusions A comparison of the various injuries inflicted showed that the use of a 4.5 mm drill bit resulted in the most significant histological changes. PMID:21245789

Zhang, Yejia; Drapeau, Susan; An, Howard S.; Markova, Dessislava; Lenart, Brett A.; Anderson, D. Greg

2010-01-01

442

Diet selection among goats of different milk production potential on rangeland  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to examine how milk yield capacity affects diet selection of pluriparous mixed-breed goats on rangeland. Diets of goats were examined using microhistological fecal analysis at the beginning, middle and end of a 5-month lactation. Throughout lactation (158 days) diets of low (47.8±2.9l kg per lactation) or high (66.0±8.1l kg per lactation) yielding does had similar levels

M. Mellado; R. Estrada; L. Olivares; F. Pastor; J. Mellado

2006-01-01

443

Goats fed tannin-containing leaves do not exhibit toxic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood metabolic profile was examined in 2–3 year old non-lactating and non-pregnant Mamber goats consuming Quercus calliprinos (oak), Pistacia lentiscus (pistacia) and Ceratonia siliqua (carob) leaves to determine whether intake of tannin-rich fodder induces subclinical systemic toxicity. Total phenolic and condensed tannin content ranked in the order pistacia > oak > carob. Goats did not exhibit toxic effects following

N. Silanikove; N. Gilboa; A. Perevolotsky; Z. Nitsan

1996-01-01

444

Non-Alpine Habitat Use and Movements of Mountain Goats in North-Central British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The use of non-alpine and forested habitats by mountain goats has largely not been quantified and the common perception of this species as an inhabitant of remote, high elevation mountainous terrain may result in an underestimate,of its true habitat use. Mountain goats are known,to use forested habitats for thermal and snow interception cover, dispersal routes, foraging and mineral licks.

Laurence Turney; R. P. Bio; Anne-Marie Roberts; A. M. Roberts

2004-01-01

445

Molecular and serologic detection of Coxiella burnetii in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).  

PubMed

The occurrence of Q fever in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae) was investigated for the first time in the country using ELISA and PCR. A total of 597 blood samples were collected from goats belonging to five different provinces of Korea. To detect Coxiella burnetii, sera were separated from the whole blood and analysed by ELISA; DNA was extracted directly from the whole blood and analysed by PCR. Overall, 114 (19.1%, 95% C.I.=16.1-22.4) and 57 goats (9.5%, 95% C.I.=7.5-12.2) tested positive for C. burnetii in the ELISA- and PCR-based screening, respectively, while 18 goats (3.0%, 95% C.I.=1.9-4.7) tested positive in both the assays. There was a significant difference between the number of ELISA- and PCR-positive goats (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of Q fever was significantly higher among the adult goats (?1y, 22.0%) than among the young goats (<1y, 13.8%) (P<0.05). While the results of the serologic analysis showed no seasonal variation, data from the PCR-based assay indicated that there were a higher number of positive cases during the cold seasons. Because Q fever infection has high rates of prevalence in native Korean goats, further studies on humans at a high risk of contracting this disease should be conducted. The PCR-based assay used in this study is a useful method for the direct detection of C. burnetii in blood samples from small ruminants. PMID:25061007

Jung, Byeong Yeal; Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Byun, Jae-Won; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kwak, Dongmi

2014-09-17

446

Characterization of genetic resistance to helminths in goats using microsatellite genetic markers  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC RESISTANCE TO HELMINTHS IN GOATS USING MICROSATELLITE GENETIC ~RS A Thesis by JOSEPH KAN'GETHE KOGI Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial fulfdiment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... Characterization of Genetic Resistance to Helminths in Goats Using Microsatellite Genetic Markers. (May 1994) Joseph Kan'gethe Kogi, B. V. M. , University of Nairobi Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. R Taylor Twenty-four microsatellite markers, isolated from...

Kogi, Joseph Kan'gethe

2012-06-07

447

Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

2013-01-01

448

Swainsonine induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in goat trophoblasts.  

PubMed

The indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine (SW) has been reported to impair placentae and ultimately cause abortion in pregnant goats. Up to now, however, the precise effects of SW on goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) are still unclear. In this study, the cytotoxicity effects of SW on GTCs were detected and evaluated by MTT assay, AO/EB double staining, DNA fragmentation assay and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that SW treatment significantly suppressed GTCs viability and induced typical apoptotic features in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. SW treatment increased Bax protein levels, reduced Bcl-2 protein levels, induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, which in turn activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, resulting in GTCs apoptosis. However, caspase-8 activity and the level of Bid did not exhibit significant changes in the process of SW-induced apoptosis. In addition, TUNEL assay suggested that SW induced GTCs apoptosis but not other cells in goat placenta cotyledons. Taken together, these data suggest that SW selectively induces GTCs apoptosis via the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in goat placenta cotyledons, which might contribute to placentae impairment and abortion in pregnant goats fed with SW-containing plants. These findings may provide new insights to understand the mechanisms involved in SW-caused goat's abortion. PMID:25076855

Huang, Yong; Dong, Feng; Du, Qian; Zhang, Hongling; Luo, Xiaomao; Song, Xiangjun; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

2014-01-01

449

Genetic phylogeography and maternal lineages of 18 Chinese black goat breeds.  

PubMed

To understand the origin and genetic phylogeography of Chinese black goats, variations of mitochondrial DNA were characterised with 394 goats from 18 breeds, including 91 new individuals from regions poorly studied until now. Comparison of a 481-bp segment revealed a total of 192 haplotypes with 141 variable sites. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.782?±?0.079 to 1.000?±?0.020 and from 0.009?±?0.001 to 0.045?±?0.006, respectively, indicating a relatively high genetic diversity in Chinese black goats. Phylogenetic analyses identified five haplogroups (A, B1, B2, C and D). The dominant haplogroups A, B1 and B2 were distributed in most of breeds, while the haplogroups C and D were only presented in the breeds located in north or northwest of China. Analysis of molecular variance and multidimensional scaling plot of F ST analyses indicated no obvious geographic structure among breeds. Furthermore, the migration rates revealed that a wide range of gene flow or gene exchange occurred among breeds, which may result in the weak geographic structure of Chinese black goats. Population expansion analysis based on mismatch distribution indicated that two expansion events in Chinese black goats occurred at 10 and 28 mutational time units. Finally, our findings indicate the multiple maternal origins of Chinese black goats and more gene flow (female-mediated) which occurred during their domestic and breeding histories. PMID:23780786

Zhong, Tao; Zhao, Qian Jun; Niu, Li Li; Wang, Jie; Jin, Peng Fei; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lin Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hong Ping; Ma, Yue Hui

2013-11-01

450

Genetic diversity and molecular phylogeography of Chinese domestic goats by large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of 666 individuals (including 109 new individuals, 557 individuals retrieved from GenBank) from 33 Chinese domestic goat breeds throughout China were used to investigate their mtDNA variability and molecular phylogeography. The results showed that all goat breeds in this study proved to be extremely diverse, and the average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.990 ± 0.001 and 0.032 ± 0.001, respectively. The 666 sequences gave 326 different haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that there were 4 mtDNA haplogroups identified in Chinese domestic goats, in which haplogroup A was predominant and widely distributed. Our finding was consistent with archaeological data and other genetic diversity studies. Amova analysis showed there was significant geographical structuring. Almost 84.31% of genetic variation was included in the within-breed variance component and only 4.69% was observed among the geographic distributions. This genetic diversity results further supported the previous view of multiple maternal origins of Chinese domestic goats, and the results on the phylogenetic relationship contributed to a better understanding of the history of goat domestication and modern production of domestic goats. PMID:24532161

Zhao, Yongju; Zhao, Runze; Zhao, Zhongquan; Xu, Huizhong; Zhao, Erhu; Zhang, Jiahua

2014-06-01

451

Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats  

PubMed Central

Background Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research. PMID:23067875

2012-01-01

452

Cerebellar Ataxia Suspected to Be Caused by Oxytropis glabra Poisoning in Western Mongolian Goats  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In the last five years in western Mongolia, a neurological disorder and resultant economic loss have developed in goats, sheep, cattle and horses: association of the disease with ingestion of Oxytropis glabra, a toxic plant, was suggested. Affected goats showed neurological signs, including ataxia, incoordination, hind limb paresis, fine head tremor and nystagmus. Three goats, one with moderate clinical signs and the other two with severe clinical signs, were necropsied and examined to describe and characterize the histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural lesions. Although no gross pathological changes were observed in a variety of organs including the central nervous system of these goats, microscopic examination of the cerebellum demonstrated degenerative changes in all these goats, such as vacuolar changes and loss of Purkinje cells, torpedo formation in the granular layer, increased number of spheroids in the cerebellar medulla, and loss of axons and myelin sheaths of Purkinje cells. The chemical analysis of the dried plant detected 0.02–0.05% (dry weight basis) of swainsonine. This is the first report describing the clinical and pathological findings in Mongolian goats suspected to be affected by O. glabra poisoning. PMID:24572629

TAKEDA, Shuji; TANAKA, Hiroyuki; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito; ISHIHARA, Atsushi; ADILBISH, Altanchimeg; DELGERMAA, Bayarmunkh; GUNGAA, Oyuntsetseg

2014-01-01

453

Pig and Goat Blood as Substitutes for Sheep Blood in Blood-Supplemented Agar Media  

PubMed Central

In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies of a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans were similar on media containing pig, goat, and sheep blood, although differences were found. Enterococcus sp. uniformly produced alpha-hemolysis when incubated in CO2, but in anaerobic conditions the hemolysis varied. In contrast, beta-hemolytic streptococci produced identical hemolytic reactions on all three media. Synergistic hemolysis was not observed on pig blood agar in the CAMP test nor on goat blood agar in the reverse CAMP test. The preparation of chocolate agar (heated) with pig blood required heating to a higher temperature than with sheep or goat blood to yield suitable growth of Haemophilus species. In general, we conclude that pig and goat blood are suitable alternatives to sheep blood for use in bacteriological media in settings where sheep and horse blood are not readily available. PMID:10655351

Anand, Chandar; Gordon, Rhonda; Shaw, Helene; Fonseca, Kevin; Olsen, Merle

2000-01-01

454

The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections  

PubMed Central

Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world. PMID:21291550

2011-01-01

455

Antibody preparation and identification of the Cashmere goat c-kit protein in the testes.  

PubMed

The c-kit protein plays a major role in the regulation of germ cell development. Its expression and distribution in rodent testes have been widely reported. However, research regarding c-kit expression in domestic animals is scarce, and the expression pattern and distribution of c-kit in germ cells have not been clearly defined. In this study, a specific antigenic region for goat c-kit was designed, and a c-kit polyclonal antibody was prepared. This antibody was then applied in a study evaluating c-kit expression in Cashmere goat tissues. A Western blot analysis showed that three forms of c-kit were expressed in goat testes: precursor, mature, and soluble c-kit. Fluorescent immunohistochemical analyses showed that c-kit was primarily expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of goat testes. These results not only clarify the expression and localization of c-kit in the goat testis, but also accelerate further research regarding the function of c-kit in goat spermatogenesis. PMID:25062419

Wu, S C L; Luo, F H; Kong, Q F; Wu, Y J

2014-01-01

456

Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.

Lopez, A.; Collins, W.F.; Williams, H.L.

1985-08-01

457

Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

2012-01-01

458

Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

2014-12-01

459

The effect of the gene for polledness on conception rate and litter size in the Damascus goat  

E-print Network

The effect of the gene for polledness on conception rate and litter size in the Damascus goat A in the Damascus breed of goat in Cyprus. With one exception all polled sires used in the study proved was 1.88 and 1.82 in polled goats (Pp) while it was resp. 1.75 and 1.71 in horned ones. This gives

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra Info  

E-print Network

2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra/13/2013 Cannon Co. Day of Show Youth Must 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Carol 615-563-5260 Bring own Jr. Goat $1.00 a head Control 10 a.m. Melton Bedding Association Goat 7/20/2013 Overton Co. Day of Show Youth Before 5 p.m. 6

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

461

Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes in Bahia State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 439 goats, 240 sheep, 194 cattle and 104 water buffaloes were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by a latex agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28.93% of goats, 18.75% of sheep, 1.03% of cattle and 3.85% of water buffaloes, at a dilution of ?1:64. The highest titres observed in goats, sheep, cattle and

L. F. Pita Gondim; H. V. Barbosa; C. H. A. Ribeiro Filho; H. Saeki

1999-01-01

462

Weight gains of meat goat kids on wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) pastures fertilized at different nitrogen levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pastures are increasingly being used for cool-season forages to complement range-based goat production systems in southern USA. Because goats are more selective than cattle, ideal nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates already established for wheat grazed by cattle may be different for goats. Weight gains of Boer X Spanish doe kids (average 17kg) as well as forage yields

J. P. Muir

2006-01-01

463

Experimental Chrozophora plicata poisoning in goats and sheep.  

PubMed

The clinical, biochemical and pathological effects of the fresh shoots of Chrozophora plicata on Nubian goats and Desert sheep were investigated. The animals were given single or repeated daily doses of 10, 5, 1 and 0.5 g/kg of chrozophora shoots by stomach tube and died at various times post dosing. The main signs of Chrozophora poisoning in both species of ruminants were salivation, dyspnea, bloat, inappetence, dullness, diarrhea, paresis of the hind limbs, recumbency and lateral deviation of the head and neck. The main lesions were hemorrhage in the lungs, heart and kidneys, pulmonary cyanosis and edema, hepatic fatty change and depletion of glycogen, catarrhal enteritis, ascites, hydropericardium and serous atrophy of the cardiac fat and renal pelvis. An increase in the concentration of urea, ammonia and bilirubin and in the activity of GOT and a decrease in total protein were detected in the serum. Hematological changes indicated the development of anemia. PMID:3188365

Galal, M; Adam, S E

1988-10-01

464

A method for quantifying mixed goat cashmere and sheep wool.  

PubMed

Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets. PMID:21190801

Ji, Wan; Bai, Li; Ji, Ming; Yang, Xue

2011-05-20

465

GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

1984-01-01

466

Udder infection of goats by coagulase-negative staphylococci.  

PubMed

Infection of udder halves by coagulase-negative staphylococci in seven commercial goat herds was studied in conjunction with the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Nine different species were identified and only 10% of strains belonged to groups which could not be identified with any of the known Staphylococcus species. The most prevalent species were Staphylococcus epidermidis (47.7%) and Staphylococcus caprae (19.7%). About half of the coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections gave negative CMT scores. The score was independent of the species of staphylococci involved and the stage of lactation. About 60% of the coagulase-negative staphylococcal species isolated were reisolated in the identical half udder during the following lactation. PMID:6730303

Poutrel, B

1984-04-01

467

Cell-surface expression of PrPC and the presence of scrapie prions in the blood of goats.  

PubMed

Although host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) expression in ovine PBMCs and prion infectivity in scrapie-infected sheep blood have been demonstrated, such studies have not been reported in goats. Therefore, this study characterized cell-surface expression of PrP(C) on PBMC subsets derived from normal goats and sheep, by flow cytometry, and determined prion infectivity in blood from a scrapie-infected goat using a transfusion bioassay in goat kids. Cell-surface PrP(C) expression was detected on all subsets of goat PBMCs. The highest PrP(C) cell-surface expression was found in CD2(+) T lymphocytes in goats. Transmission of infection was detected in all three recipients who received whole blood from a goat with classical scrapie. It was concluded that caprine PBMCs express PrP(C) similarly to sheep but with relative differences among PBMCs subsets, and that blood-borne infectious prions can be detected in scrapie-infected goats. Thus, similar to sheep, goat blood may be a suitable diagnostic target for the detection of scrapie infection. PMID:22278824

Dassanayake, Rohana P; Schneider, David A; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Truscott, Thomas C; Davis, William C; O'Rourke, Katherine I

2012-05-01

468

Effect of various combinations of goat, pork and sodium acid pyrophosphate on the properties of fresh link sausage  

E-print Network

. Juiciness, off-flavor and overall desirability scores were not affected by the addition of SAPP. However, those links made with 100% goat meat were less desirable, had more off- flavor avor and were less juicy than those links made with 100% pork... sausages (Smith et al. , 1974a). The limited U. S. con- sumption of goat meat may be due to dislike of the odor and flavor of goat meat and/or to prejudice against the thought of eating goat meat when supplies of pork, beef, The citations...

Reddy, Bokka Rajendra

2012-06-07

469

Estrus synchronization in dairy goats: use of fluorogestone acetate vaginal sponges or norgestomet ear implants.  

PubMed

The ultimate aim of any estrus synchronization method is to allow artificial insemination at a predetermined time after the end of treatment. This requires a very tight synchronization of estrus which is not observed in goats after administration of the usual fluorogestone acetate (FGA)/prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha/equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) treatment. The possibility to improve the synchronization of estrus and luteinizing hormone (LH) peak with different progestagens (FGA versus norgestomet) and routes of administration (vaginal sponge versus subcutaneous ear implant) was evaluated in two experiments where goats received one of three progestagen treatments: (1) a vaginal sponge impregnated with 45 mg of FGA, (2) a half-implant of norgestomet, or (3) a whole implant containing 3 mg of norgestomet. The progestagens were left in place for 11 days and intramuscular injections of 400 or 500 IU of eCG (according to milk yield) and 50 micrograms of an analogue of PGF2 alpha (cloprostenol) were given 48 h prior to progestagen removal. In Experiment 1, 117 cycling goats were checked for the time of onset of estrus, preovulatory LH peak and ovulation rate following estrus synchronization treatment. Goats treated with half-implants came into estrus earlier than those receiving vaginal sponges (27.8 +/- 5.0 h vs. 33.0 +/- 6.6 h, respectively; P < 0.05). No effect of progestagen priming was observed on the variability of the onset of estrus. However, the interval between the time of onset of estrus and LH peak was more variable (P < 0.05) in goats treated with half-implants. In Experiment 2, 170 non-cycling goats were monitored for the time of onset of estrus, percentage of females ovulating, fertility and prolificacy after estrus induction treatment and artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen performed 24 h after the onset of estrus. No effect of progestagen treatment was observed either on the time or the variability of onset of estrus. The percentage of goats ovulating and overall fertility rate were higher (P < 0.05) in goats receiving vaginal sponges (98.2% and 75.0%, respectively) than those treated with half-implants (81.8% and 45.5%, respectively). However, no significant difference was observed, for the same parameters, in animals receiving implants (86.3% and 58.8%, respectively). In conclusion, estrus synchronization with a norgestomet implant or half-implant did not reduce the variability in the onset of estrus and LH peak. The fertility tended to be lower in goats treated with a whole implant and was significantly decreased in goats which received a half-implant. PMID:9231263

Freitas, V J; Baril, G; Saumande, J

1997-04-01

470

Technical note: Validation of data loggers for recording lying behavior in dairy goats.  

PubMed

Changes in standing and lying behavior are frequently used in farm animals as indictors of comfort and health. In dairy goats, these behaviors have primarily been measured using labor-intensive video and live observation methodologies. The aim of this study was to validate accelerometer-based data loggers for use in goats. Two commercial dairy goat farms in Ontario were enrolled; goats were fitted with data loggers on their rear left legs and the pens were equipped with video. Data loggers compared well with video in identifying lying and standing events on both farms (farm 1 and 2, respectively: sensitivity=99.7 and 99.8%, specificity=99.5 and 99.4%, false readings=0.43 and 0.36%). The loggers were also able to record if the goat was lying on her left or right side (farm 1 only: sensitivity=99.9%, specificity=99.3%, false readings=0.38%), but these measures were only accurate if the loggers were attached with sufficient tension to prevent logger rotation. The mature does enrolled on farm 1 spent 14.5±1.0h/d lying down and frequently changed lying side even within a single lying bout (24±5 shifts/d between left and right sides and 16±5 lying bouts/d). The young goats on the second farm averaged just 8.5±3.2h/d in lying time, and spread this time over 8±4 bouts/d. Data loggers accurately measured lying time and lying bouts in mature does and younger goats on both farms, and lying laterality (e.g., left and right lying sides) in mature does on farm 1. PMID:25497810

Zobel, G; Weary, D M; Leslie, K; Chapinal, N; von Keyserlingk, M A G

2015-02-01

471

Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in cashmere goat skin by deep sequencing.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that play significant roles in regulating the expression of the post-transcriptional skin and hair follicle gene. In recent years, extensive studies on these microRNAs have been carried out in mammals such as mice, rats, pigs and cattle. By comparison, the number of microRNAs that have been identified in goats is relatively low; and in particular, the miRNAs associated with the processes of skin and hair follicle development remain largely unknown. In this study, areas of skin where the cashmere grows in anagen were sampled. A total of 10,943,292 reads were obtained using Solexa sequencing, a high-throughput sequencing technology. From 10,644,467 reads, we identified 3,381 distinct reads and after applying the classification statistics we obtained 316 miRNAs. Among them, using conservative identification, we found that 68 miRNAs (55 of these are confirmed to match known sheep and goat miRNAs in miRBase ) are conserved in goat and have been reported in NCBI; the remaining 248 miRNA were conserved in other species but have not been reported in goat. Furthermore, we identified 22 novel miRNAs. Both the known and novel miRNAs were confirmed by a second sequencing using the same method as was used in the first. This study confirmed the authenticity of 316 known miRNAs and the discovery of 22 novel miRNAs in goat. We found that the miRNAs that were co-expressed in goat and sheep were located in the same region of the respective chromosomes and may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. Identificaton of novel miRNAs resulted in significant enrichment of the repertoire of goat miRNAs. PMID:23236360

Liu, Zhihong; Xiao, Hongmei; Li, Huipeng; Zhao, Yanhong; Lai, Shuangying; Yu, Xinlei; Cai, Ting; Du, Chenguang; Zhang, Wenguang; Li, Jinquan

2012-01-01

472

Identification of Conserved and Novel microRNAs in Cashmere Goat Skin by Deep Sequencing  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that play significant roles in regulating the expression of the post-transcriptional skin and hair follicle gene. In recent years, extensive studies on these microRNAs have been carried out in mammals such as mice, rats, pigs and cattle. By comparison, the number of microRNAs that have been identified in goats is relatively low; and in particular, the miRNAs associated with the processes of skin and hair follicle development remain largely unknown. In this study, areas of skin where the cashmere grows in anagen were sampled. A total of 10,943,292 reads were obtained using Solexa sequencing, a high-throughput sequencing technology. From 10,644,467 reads, we identified 3,381 distinct reads and after applying the classification statistics we obtained 316 miRNAs. Among them, using conservative identification, we found that 68 miRNAs (55 of these are confirmed to match known sheep and goat miRNAs in miRBase ) are conserved in goat and have been reported in NCBI; the remaining 248 miRNA were conserved in other species but have not been reported in goat. Furthermore, we identified 22 novel miRNAs. Both the known and novel miRNAs were confirmed by a second sequencing using the same method as was used in the first. This study confirmed the authenticity of 316 known miRNAs and the discovery of 22 novel miRNAs in goat. We found that the miRNAs that were co-expressed in goat and sheep were located in the same region of the respective chromosomes and may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. Identificaton of novel miRNAs resulted in significant enrichment of the repertoire of goat miRNAs. PMID:23236360

Lai, Shuangying; Yu, Xinlei; Cai, Ting; Du, Chenguang; Zhang, Wenguang; Li, Jinquan

2012-01-01

473

Production of transgenic dairy goat expressing human ?-lactalbumin by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Production of human ?-lactalbumin (h?-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat ?-lactoglobulin (?LG) promoter, the h?-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of h?-LA was investigated. Both the h?-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ?60-70 %) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these h?-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0 %, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried h?-LA and the h?-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins. PMID:25139669

Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao

2015-02-01

474

Association analysis between variants in KITLG gene and litter size in goats.  

PubMed

Xinong Saanen (SN) and Guanzhong (GZ) goat breeds were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions with their intron-exon boundaries and the proximal flanking regions of KITLG gene by DNA sequencing and genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment (PCR-RFLP). Four novel SNPs (g.12654G>A, g.12772G>A, g.12829T>C and g.23683C>T) were identified (GenBank accession No. KM609289). It was shown that Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong goat breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium at g.12654G>A, g.12772G>A and g.12829T>C loci (P<0.05). The g.12654G>A, g.12772G>A and g.12829T>C loci were closely linked in both goat breeds (r(2)>0.33). Results of an association analysis indicated that SNPs g.12654G>A, g.12772G>A and g.12829T>C had significant effects on litter size (P<0.05). The combined genotypes of four SNP loci also affected litter size with the C7(GG/GG/CC/CC) genotype in the SN goat breed and C1(AA/GG/CC/CC) and C7(GG/GG/CC/CC) genotypes in the GZ goat breed having the highest litter size. The biochemical and physiological functions, together with the results obtained in our investigation, suggest that C7(GG/GG/CC/CC) could be used in marker-assisted selection to select the individuals with higher litter size in both goat breeds. The results extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the caprine KITLG gene, which might contribute to goat genetic resources and breeding. PMID:25550049

An, X P; Hou, J X; Gao, T Y; Lei, Y N; Song, Y X; Wang, J G; Cao, B Y

2015-03-01

475

Early Weight Development of Goats Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Johne’s disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne’s disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne’s disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne’s disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne’s disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne’s disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age. PMID:24349564

Malone, Alyssa N.; Fletcher, Darcy M.; Vogt, Megan B.; Meyer, Stephen K.; Hess, Ann M.; Eckstein, Torsten M.

2013-01-01

476

Effects of infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus on milk production in goats.  

PubMed

A recently assembled commercial herd of Alpine goats was studied. Milk production criteria--305-day milk production (M), butter fat content (BF), and solids nonfat content (SNF)--and somatic cell counts (linear score) were monitored by Dairy Herd Improvement Association test records. Milk samples from all milking goats in the herd were obtained for bacteriologic culture for mastitis organisms on 2 occasions; the infection rate ascribed to major pathogens was 3%. In November 1985, serum specimens were obtained from 154 does in first lactation. Of these, 56 (36%) were seropositive for caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) antibodies by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), 91 (59%) were seronegative, and serotest results for 7 (5%) were inconclusive. In December, 80 seronegative and 48 seropositive goats remained in the herd and had 305-day projections available. The median production values for seronegative goats (1,539.5 lb of M, 52 lb of BF, 46 lb of SNF) were higher than those for seropositive goats (1,446 lb of M, 45 lb of BF, 44.5 lb of SNF), but this difference was only significant (t test, P less than 0.05) for BF. Does were ranked by a formula that combined M, BF, and SNF, with a desired minimal daily herd average of 5 lb of M, 3% BF, and 3% SNF. A decision was made not to keep offspring from does of the lowest quartile before CAE test results were obtained. This group consisted of 13 of the 80 (16%) seronegative goats and 18 of the 48 (38%) seropositive goats. Thus, a positive CAE test result by AGID was associated (chi 2, P less than 0.01) with poor production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2843492

Smith, M C; Cutlip, R

1988-07-01

477

Introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of Alpine ibex.  

PubMed

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

2014-06-01

478

Vasoconstrictive responses by the carotid and auricular arteries in goats to ergot alkaloid exposure1  

PubMed Central

A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of “Kentucky 31” tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E?) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E? and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E? seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 ?g per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E? treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation. PMID:25478559

Aiken, Glen E.; Flythe, Michael D.

2014-01-01

479

Introgression from Domestic Goat Generated Variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex of Alpine Ibex  

PubMed Central

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

2014-01-01

480

Prevalence, associated determinants, and in vivo chemotherapeutic control of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic goats ( Capra hircus ) of lower Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 800 goats of various breeds, age, and sex were randomly selected from Muzaffargarh (M. garh) and Layyah districts\\u000a of lower Punjab, Pakistan. The selected goats were visited twice a month to collect information about determinants influencing\\u000a goat tick infestation prevalence. For acaricidal efficacy, 360 tick-infested adult goats were subjected to an acaricidal treatment\\u000a and post-treatment quantitative assessment

Muhammad Sohail Sajid; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Nisar Khan; Ghulam Muhammad; Glen Needham; Muhammad Kasib Khan

2011-01-01

481

Comparative effects of low levels of dietary cobalt and parenteral injections of Vitamin B 12 on body dimensions in different breeds of Omani goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of low levels of dietary cobalt and parenteral Vitamin B12 supplementation on live body weight and the body dimensions of three breeds of Omani intact male goats, namely Batina (14 goats), Dhofari (14 goats) and Jabal Al-Akdhar (14 goats). The animals were fed Rhodes grass hay and a commercial diet containing 0.10 and 0.12mg\\/kgDM of cobalt, respectively, from

I. T. Kadim; O. Mahgoub; D. Al-Ajmi; K. R. Al-Habsi; E. H. Johnson

2006-01-01

482

Metabolic regulation of ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) expression in the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary, and stomach  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin acts as an endocrine link connecting physiological processes regulating food intake, body composition, growth, and energy balance. Ghrelin is the only peptide known to undergo octanoylation. The enzyme mediating this process, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract (GI; primary source of circulating ghrelin) as well as other tissues. The present study demonstrates that stomach GOAT mRNA levels correlate with circulating acylated-ghrelin levels in fasted and diet-induced obese mice. In addition, GOAT was found to be expressed in both the pituitary and hypothalamus (two target tissues of ghrelin’s actions), and regulated in response to metabolic status. Using primary pituitary cell cultures as a model system to study the regulation of GOAT expression, we found that acylated-ghrelin, but not desacyl-ghrelin, increased GOAT expression. In addition, growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and leptin increased, while somatostatin (SST) decreased GOAT expression. The physiologic relevance of these later results is supported by the observation that pituitary GOAT expression in mice lacking GHRH, SST and leptin showed opposite changes to those observed after in vitro treatment with the corresponding peptides. Therefore, it seems plausible that these hormones directly contribute to the regulation of pituitary GOAT. Interestingly, in all the models studied, pituitary GOAT expression paralleled changes in the expression of a dominant spliced-variant of ghrelin (In2-ghrelin) and therefore this transcript may be a primary substrate for pituitary GOAT. Collectively, these observations support the notion that the GI tract is not the only source of acylated-ghrelin, but in fact locally-produced des-acylated-ghrelin could be converted to acylated-ghrelin within target tissues by locally active GOAT, to mediate its tissue-specific effects. PMID:20035826

Gahete, Manuel D.; Córdoba-Chacón, Jose; Salvatori, Roberto; Castaño, Justo P.; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Luque, Raul M.

2010-01-01

483

Ruminal metabolism of leafy spurge in sheep and goats: A potential explanation for differential foraging on spurge by sheep, goats, and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an introduced forb that is invading western rangelands. Goats (Capra hircus) readily graze the plant, but cattle (Bos tarus) generally and sheep (Ovis aries) locally appear to develop conditioned flavor aversions to leafy spurge. They either avoid the plant entirely or graze it reluctantly. We hypothesized that: (1) a diterpene diester that can occur in

Scott L. Kronberg; John W. Walker

1993-01-01

484

Comparison of Substitution Rates in ZFX and ZFY Introns of Sheep and Goat Related Species Supports the Hypothesis of Male-Biased  

E-print Network

Comparison of Substitution Rates in ZFX and ZFY Introns of Sheep and Goat Related Species Supports ZFX and ZFY intron sequences in sheep and goat species (the tribe Caprini). The male-driven evolution -- Sex chromosomes -- Generation time -- Caprini -- Sheep -- Goat Introduction From observations

Alvarez, Nadir

485

A comparison of two ways of expressing the voluntary intake of oak foliage-based diets by goats raised on rangelands  

E-print Network

A comparison of two ways of expressing the voluntary intake of oak foliage-based diets by goats Paris Cedex 05, France Introduction - The intake of fresh oak foliage by dairy goats raised on range- tion equations for voluntary intake, estab- lished for goats fed high-value nutritive diets, under

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

486

THE West African Dwarf (WAD) goat is the indigenous breed in the humid and sub-humid zones of West Africa. It is of  

E-print Network

THE West African Dwarf (WAD) goat is the indigenous breed in the humid and sub-humid zones of West Africa. It is of major economic importance to rural communities, where the vast majority of the goat population in these zones is to be found. In Eastern Nigeria, WAD goat production is essentially a subsidiary

Nottingham, University of

487

Failure to obtain a weight gain response to vitamin B12 treatment in young goats grazing pasture that was cobalt deficient for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractMadam: —The current upsurge in the farming of goats has resulted in an increased interest in trace elements in this species. In some areas goats are being farmed on soil types known to be marginally or moderately cobalt deficient for sheep. The susceptibility of goats to cobalt deficiency is not well documented. In one study cobalt deficiency was induced in

R. G. Clark; L. Mantleman; G. A. Verkerk

1987-01-01

488

STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF ⁶°Co GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE GOAT. I. CHANGES IN BLOOD CONSTITUENTS FOLLOWING 1,000 r TOTAL BODY GAMMA IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats were irradiated with a dose of 1,000 r of Co⁶° gamma rays. ; Changes in blood constituents before and after exposure were compared between ; these goats, and non-irradiated controls, both of which were forced to fast ; during the same period. All irradiated goats died in about 10 days after ; irradiation. Loss in body weight was of

M. Hayashi; N. Miyao

1961-01-01

489

Influence of anionic salts on bone metabolism in periparturient dairy goats and sheep.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of diets supplemented with anionic salts on bone metabolism of dairy goats and sheep. Twelve Saanen goats and 12 Ostfrisean milk sheep (fourth lactation) were divided into 2 groups each [sheep control (SC), goat control (GC); sheep anionic salts (SA), goat anionic salts (GA)]. Each group was fed a different diet in the last 10 d of gestation. Groups SC and GC received a normal diet according to the requirements of goats and sheep in this stage of gestation. Groups SA and GA received supplemental anionic salts. The dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) was +524 (SC) and +515 (GC) vs. -163 (SA) and -164 (GA) mEq/kg of dry matter. Blood and urine samples were collected daily until parturition. Serum Ca, P, Mg, serum crosslaps (CTX), osteocalcin, 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (VITD), urinary pH, and urinary Ca concentrations were analyzed. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were measured with peripheral quantitative computer tomography. The bone resorption marker CTX showed significant differences between the animals supplemented with anionic salts and the control animals in goats, but not in sheep. The goats receiving anionic salts had greater CTX concentrations throughout the administration of the salts. In sheep, a difference was only observed on the day of parturition. Similar observations were made in VITD concentrations, although a significant difference between the goat groups was only observed 3 d prepartum. The bone formation marker osteocalcin was lower prepartum in the animals supplemented with anionic salts. The urinary pH was lower in the SA and GA animals, whereas urinary Ca concentrations were greater. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density decreased in all groups around parturition. In conclusion, this experiment showed that the addition of anionic salts in goats led to greater bone resorption rates while on this feeding regimen. It can be concluded that the anionic salts induced a mild metabolic acidosis with all its effects on calcium metabolism. These effects were not evident in milk sheep. PMID:18487668

Liesegang, A

2008-06-01

490

Protein and energy metabolism of lactating Granadina goats.  

PubMed

Twelve goats of the Granadina breed in mid- and late lactation were used in two consecutive years to determine their protein and energy requirements for lactation. The animals were individually fed on diets based on pelleted lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay and barley. A total of six balance experiments were carried out. Gas exchange was measured using open-circuit respiration chambers. Milk yield ranged widely from 0.649 to 1.742 kg/d in the first year and from 0.222 to 1.989 kg/d in the second year, a steady decline in milk output being observed as lactation progressed. Milk composition remained rather constant during the midstage of lactation, with an average content (/kg milk) for total solids, total nitrogen, fat and gross energy of 149.7 g, 5.39 g, 58.8 g and 3.59 MJ respectively. Total endogenous N, endogenous urinary N and maintenance requirement for N in lactating goats were estimated to be 244, 218 mg N/kg body-weight (W)0.75 per d and 478 mg total N/kg W0.75 per d respectively from regression equations. A constant efficiency of use of dietary N for milk N plus retained N of 51.0% was found. By regressing milk energy plus apparent body energy retention or loss on metabolizable energy (ME) intake, the maintenance energy requirement was estimated to be 401 kJ ME/kg W0.75 per d. When estimating the corrected milk yield as milk energy + (0.84 x negative energy retentio) + (1.05 x positive energy retention), regression analysis indicated that the overall efficiency of use of ME for lactation was 66.7%. Also, from a plot of apparent body energy retention v. milk energy yield, both expressed as a percentage of ME intake above maintenance, the efficiency with which ME was used to promote energy retention in the body during lactation was calculated to be 0.907 times that for milk secretion. PMID:2334659

Aguilera, J F; Prieto, C; Fonollá, J

1990-03-01

491

Morphological and molecular characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus from goat isolates in Iran.  

PubMed

Hydatidosis is considered to be an important economic and human public health problem in Iran, where a variety of animals act as intermediate hosts. There is limited information about the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats. In this study, 20 isolates of E. granulosus obtained from goats were characterised by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and morphology of the metacestode. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences were evaluated, and the sequence analysis indicated two genotypes within the isolates. 17 samples were identified as G1 strain, and 3 isolates were identified as G6 strain. The results of the morphological studies support the findings of the molecular studies. Two types of rostellar hooks were observed in the goat isolates, in agreement with the strain identification. Type 1 hooks were morphologically similar to those of the common sheep strains, whereas the dimensions of the hooks in type 2 were similar to those normally found in the camel strain. The morphological results suggest that Echinococcus of goat origin is phenotypically similar to either the sheep (G1) or the camel (G6) strains. Further, these results suggest that the transmission of the G1 genotype between sheep and goats seems to be the predominant mode of transmission, but further work is required to verify this. PMID:22484229

Rajabloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Jalousian, Fatemeh

2012-08-01

492

Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality  

PubMed Central

Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg) and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance) effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection) in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance) effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population. PMID:21864407

2011-01-01

493

Forage to concentrate ratio in Jonica breed goats: influence on lactation curve and milk composition.  

PubMed

The aim of the work is to evaluate the effects of different forage to concentrate rations on milk yield, composition and renneting properties of milk of Jonica breed goats. Twenty-four Jonica goats received diets with forage to concentrate ratio of 35/65, 50/50 or 65/35, providing respectively a low, medium and high energy level. Goats were divided into three homogenous groups and confined in individual pens for 152 days to assess the daily feed intake and milk yield and composition. The main conclusions show that animal body weight did not change significantly with the increasing levels of forage, whereas significant differences (P<0.05) for daily dry matter intake were observed in relation to the evolution of lactation. Milk production was influenced (P<0.05) by dietary treatments and was higher in the diet with the greatest energy level. Forage to concentrate ratios did not significantly affect milk characteristics, milk renneting properties, initial production, rate of increase until reaching the peak and rate of decline after peak production. However, the day of peak production and peak production of goats were linearly reduced when the level of forage increased within the diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that both forage to concentrate ratio and energy level improve goat's production without influencing the milk composition. PMID:19152715

Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Dario, Marco; Laudadio, Vito

2009-02-01

494

PiggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer in Cashmere goat fetal fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

PiggyBac (PB) has recently been found to be functional in various organisms. To verify and exploit its application in the cashmere goat, a PB transposon system including donor and helper vector of was developed, in which the EGFP gene in donor of vector was used as reporter. Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts cells (GFFs) were transfected with the PB transposon system and the efficiency of gene transfer was determined. Compared with random integration, PB-mediated EGFP expression levels increased 7.78-fold in the GFFs, confirming that the PB transposon system constructed successfully mediated efficient foreign gene integration in the GFFs. To further investigate the characteristics of PB-mediated integration instance, PB integration site distribution in the goat genome was examined. The results showed that PB had a preference for AT rich regions of the goat genome. Thus this study confirms the function of PB transposon in GFFs and provides a potential genetic tool for producing transgenic goats. PMID:22738962

Bai, Ding-Ping; Yang, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yu-Lin

2012-01-01

495

Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.  

PubMed

Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (? = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013) - when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all). PMID:25499464

Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Micha?; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strza?kowska, Nina; Kaba, Jaros?aw

2015-02-01

496

Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.  

PubMed

Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

2015-01-01

497

Hydrology of the Goat Lake watershed, Snohomish County, Washington, 1982-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Goat Lake watershed in Snohomish County, Washington, functions as an ' experimental watershed ' for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs , the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. (USGS)

Dion, N.P.; Ebbert, J.C.; Poole, J.E.; Peck, B.S.

1989-01-01

498

Somatic cell counts in relation to infection status of the goat udder.  

PubMed

Bacteriological analyses, cell counts using the Fossomatic method and California Mastitis Test were performed on 1523 goat milk samples taken aseptically at monthly intervals throughout lactation from three goat herds. Of the goat udders, 81.4% were infected, minor pathogens being the most frequent isolates (65.7%). Differences in the level of infection by minor pathogens were found between herds. Cell counts were influenced by stage of lactation and intramammary infection. Cell counts greater than 10(6) cells/ml were found in 80% of milk samples infected by major pathogens and in 45% infected by minor pathogens. About 81% of udders infected with major pathogens gave California Mastitis Test scores of 2 and 3, compared with 20% for uninfected goats. A high proportion (65%) of udders infected with minor pathogens also produced scores of 2 and 3. A significant positive correlation was found between the California Mastitis Test and cell counts. The use of cell counts for the detection of abnormal goat milk is discussed. PMID:1560126

Kalogridou-Vassiliadou, D; Manolkidis, K; Tsigoida, A

1992-02-01

499

Genes regulating lipid and protein metabolism are highly expressed in mammary gland of lactating dairy goats.  

PubMed

Dairy goats serve as an important source of milk and also fulfill agricultural and economic roles in developing countries. Understanding the genetic background of goat mammary gland is important for research on the regulatory mechanisms controlling tissue function and the synthesis of milk components. We collected tissue at four different stages of goat mammary gland development and generated approximately 25 GB of data from Illumina de novo RNA sequencing. The combined reads were assembled into 51,361 unigenes, and approximately 60.07 % of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database (NR). Functional classification through eukaryotic Ortholog Groups of Protein (KOG), gene ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that the unigenes from goat mammary glands are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism and lactose metabolism. The results of qPCR revealed that genes encoding FABP3, FASN, SCD, PLIN2, whey proteins (LALBA and BLG), and caseins (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2 and CSN3) at 100 and 310 days postpartum increased significantly compared with the non-lactating period. In addition to their role in lipid and protein synthesis, the higher expression at 310 days postpartum could contribute to mammary cell turnover during pregnancy. In conclusion, this is the first study to characterize the complete transcriptome of goat mammary glands and constitutes a comprehensive genomic resource available for further studies of ruminant lactation. PMID:25433708

Shi, Hengbo; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Luo, Jun; Cao, Wenting; Shi, Huaiping; Yao, Dawei; Li, Jun; Sun, Yuting; Xu, Huifen; Yu, Kang; Loor, Juan J

2014-11-30

500

Molecular cloning, sequence, and phylogenetic analysis of T helper 1 cytokines of Pashmina goats.  

PubMed

Cytokines play an important role in regulation of immune responses either in health or disease. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding mature Interleukin (IL)-2, interferon gamma (IFN-?), and IL-12 p35 and p40 of Pashmina goat were cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence was deduced from nucleotide sequence and compared with those available in GeneBank. Mature forms of goat IL-2, IFN-?, IL-12 p35, and IL-12 p40 composed of 135, 143, 196, and 305 amino acid residues, respectively. Comparison of amino acid sequence of goat IL-2 with sheep, buffalo, cattle, pig, camel, cat, and human sequences showed homology percentages of 100, 97.8, 96.3, 72.4, 72.4, 67.2, and 64.7, respectively. Amino acid sequence of goat IFN-? showed 98.6, 95.8, 81.1, 81.8, 80.4, and 62.9 percent homology with sheep, bovine, pig, horse, dog, and humans, respectively. Homology ranging from 81.6 to 99% for IL-12 p35 sequences and 85.6 to 100% for IL-12 p40 sequences at amino acid level were observed across these species. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of goat cytokines revealed close relationship with sheep sequence. PMID:25380464

Shebannavar, Sunil; Rasool, Thaha

2015-01-01