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1

car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat  

E-print Network

car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat One of the most successful problems I have used with high school kids is the now notorious "car and two goats" problem. Its fascinating history certainly accounts, in some measure by the (male) host. Behind one of these there is a car, and behind each of the other two there is a goat. She

McCann, Robert J.

2

Goat skeleton  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goat uses its horns to scare off or defend against predators. Long legs and hooves help the goat climb on steep and rugged terrain. A long neck allow the goat to bend down to grab vegetation (food) from the ground. The goat's blunt teeth suggest its an herbivore, meaning it eats only vegetables.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-09-01

3

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by  

E-print Network

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by University of California Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 And" Davis, CA 1918 University of California Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

4

car goat goat 11/13/2007 1 Car Goat Goat  

E-print Network

car goat goat 11/13/2007 1 Car Goat Goat One of the most successful problems I have used with high school kids is the now notorious "car and two goats" problem. Its fascinating history certainly accounts there is a goat. She chooses one of the doors (hoping, of course, to get the car) and then, before it is opened

Taylor, Peter

5

Texas Angora Goat Production.  

E-print Network

angora goat J. E. Hutchison, Dimcror, College Station, Texas Texcs Anoora Goat Production JAMESA. GRAY AND JACK L. GROFF* Angora goats are adapted to a dry, mild cli- mate. Since they are primarily browsing animals, they thrive best where... to general belief that the Angora goat is a tough, tin can eating animal', he actually is csnsitive, intelligent, healthy and easily managed. is worst enemy is a cold, chilling rain within 6 eeks after shearing. During this period he needs ~rticular care...

Gray, James A.; Groff, Jack L.

1970-01-01

6

your dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goat The Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy Goat  

E-print Network

your dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goat The Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy Goat The modern dairy goat-quality feed, and should be milked properly. With the exception of bucks during breeding season, goats do

New Hampshire, University of

7

The improved Boer goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history, origin and characteristics of the South African Boer breed of goats are reviewed. The development was carried out by a handful of farmers in the Eastern Cape, particularly in the district of Somerset East. The prototype for the breed was selected from several existing breeds of goats in South Africa in order to achieve the present functional characteristics

S. W Malan

2000-01-01

8

Mid-Atlantic 4-H Market Goat  

E-print Network

Mid-Atlantic 4-H Market Goat Project Guide 18USC 707 2006 PUBLICATION 380-310www to USDA statistics, the meat goat industry is growing at a rate of 10 percent to 15 percent a year. Yet, U.S. farmers do not produce enough goats to meet the domestic demand for goat meat. The growing demand for goat

Liskiewicz, Maciej

9

Brock Cole's The Goats.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

Scales, Pat

1997-01-01

10

Cutaneous pythiosis in a goat.  

PubMed

Pythiosis is reported for the first time in a goat. The affected goat had daily access to an aquatic environment and had developed an ulcerative lesion on the skin of the left hindlimb. Microscopically, there were dermal pyogranulomas with 'negatively stained' hyphae, which were identified immunohistochemically as Pythium insidiosum. PMID:25555632

do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; Silva, T R; Oliveira-Filho, J C; Riet-Correa, F

2015-01-01

11

The Goat in the Rug.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

12

7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

2014-01-01

13

New Hampshire Dairy Goat Seminar Milk Sanitation  

E-print Network

New Hampshire Dairy Goat Seminar Milk Sanitation Farm and Forest Exposition Saturday-February 8 Phil Cassette, President, American Dairy Goat Association; and District #1 Directors: Jennifer Mellett the conference and 4-H dairy goat activities. Dairy Goat publications will also be for sale. John C. Porter

New Hampshire, University of

14

7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

2014-01-01

15

7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

2013-01-01

16

7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

2012-01-01

17

7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

2012-01-01

18

7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture...LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

2013-01-01

19

Marketing Texas Goats.  

E-print Network

on the range, at markets or butcher shops and is served in many hotels and cafes. All of the boned goat meat is used in the manufacture of processed meats such as frank- furters, bologna and breakfast sausage. The meat is dry, lean and absorbs more water.... Approximately 94 percent of the producers I sell their mohair through wool and mohair warehouses. Although grading and sorting are practiced in Texas, about 91 percent of the producers marketed their 1955 mohair in the "original bag." Approximately 47...

McNeely, John G.; Tieken, A. W.

1956-01-01

20

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...frozen custard made with goat's milk”, or “goat's milk french ice cream”, or, alternatively, “french ice cream made with goat's milk”, or “goat's milk french custard ice cream”, or, alternatively, “french custard ice...

2010-04-01

21

Introduction to the NH 4-H Dairy Goat Project  

E-print Network

Introduction to the NH 4-H Dairy Goat Project UNHCE 4-H Youth Development 4-H Animal Science Work Team 4-H Dairy Goat members learn about raising dairy goats as well as uses of goat milk. This project provides opportunities to learn about goat nutrition, kidding and general goat management. Members

New Hampshire, University of

22

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

SciTech Connect

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

1986-02-01

23

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

24

4-H Meat Goat Guide  

E-print Network

clippers with 20- and 23-tooth combs and cutters ? small animal grooming clippers; ? syringes and needles; ? goat blankets and/or socks; ? halters, collars and/or show chains; ? hoof trimmers; ? drench gun; ? small portable feed troughs; ? soft brush... for grooming; ? water bucket. You may want the following optional equipment if you are exhibiting several goats at major shows: ? show box to hold equipment; ? hot air blower or dryer; ? portable livestock scales; ? extension cords; ? muzzles; ? electric fans...

Craddock, Frank; Stultz, Ross

2006-10-30

25

GOATS Image Projection Component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

2011-01-01

26

RUNNING HEAD: RADIOSTRONTIUM IN DAIRY GOATS A Model of Radiostrontium Transfer in Dairy Goats  

E-print Network

1 RUNNING HEAD: RADIOSTRONTIUM IN DAIRY GOATS A Model of Radiostrontium Transfer in Dairy Goats _________________ Received November 12, 1996 #12;2 ABSTRACT1 A model of radiostrontium transfer in dairy goats is presented obtained by fitting the model to data from a study of7 radiostrontium and Ca transfer in goats. The model

Crout, Neil

27

9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the results of the tests. (1) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age...5) of this section. (ii) Tuberculosis testing is not required for goats...the United States to be tested for tuberculosis as described in paragraph...

2013-01-01

28

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introduccin a  

E-print Network

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introducción a Scrum Mike Cohen Traducido: Ernesto Grafeuille Revisado y modificado: Pedro Cabalar Noviembre 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Software, LLC Estamos perdiendo la hacia atrás -pueden servir mejor a los actuales requisitos competitivos". #12;Mountain Goat Software

Cabalar, Pedro

29

Basic Goat Production 5-Day Workshop  

E-print Network

Basic Goat Production 5-Day Workshop February 11, 18, 25, March 4 and 11, 2014 All classes are 6 family have been raising meat for over 26 years, including meat and dairy goats. She is a strong advocate information about raising goats for meat or milk in New Hampshire; behavior, ease of handling, selection, age

New Hampshire, University of

30

JULIANA BOERIO-GOATES CURRICULUM VITA  

E-print Network

JULIANA BOERIO-GOATES CURRICULUM VITA Department of Chemistry Brigham Young University Provo, UT, Argonne, IL #12;Juliana Boerio-Goates Vita Honors and Awards Alcuin Fellowship in General Education, BYU Committee for the Pure and Applied Chemistry Award 1999-2001. #12;Juliana Boerio-Goates Vita Chair

Seamons, Kent E.

31

Nutritional Requirements of the Angora Goat.  

E-print Network

B-1105 March 1971 Nutritional Regu irements of the ANGORA GOAT TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station ~nkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas Con tents Introduction... ...... .... . .. .--- - --- .----- ---- -- -- - - --. . ------------------ - ----- -1 4 Appendix .--... .... .--. -------- - -- -- ---- --- ..-.-....--........------- .-----. ------ 14 Preface Angora goat production holds a prominent positiori Texas agriculture. Most of the goat industry is loc~tcl! the area of the state...

Huston, J. E.; Shelton, Maurice; Ellis, W. C.

1971-01-01

32

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats Kate Hepworth, Animal Sciences Student; Mike Neary, Extension Sheep Specialist; Terry Hutchens, Extension Associate for Goat Production, University of Kentucky associated with parasites, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract of sheep and goats can cause

33

GOAT induced Ghrelin Acylation Regulates Hedonic Feeding  

PubMed Central

Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates homeostatic and reward-related feeding behavior. Recent evidence indicates that acylation of ghrelin by the gut enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is necessary to render ghrelin maximally active within its target tissues. Here we tested the hypothesis that GOAT activity modulates food motivation and food hedonics using behavioral pharmacology and mutant mice deficient for GOAT and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR). We evaluated operant responding following pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin and assessed the necessity of endogenous GOAT activity for operant responding in GOAT and GHSR-null mice. Hedonic-based feeding behavior also was examined in GOAT-KO and GHSR-null mice using a “Dessert Effect” protocol in which the intake of a palatable high fat diet “dessert” was assessed in calorically-sated mice. Pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin augmented operant responding; notably, this effect was dependent on intact GHSR signaling. GOAT-KO mice displayed attenuated operant responding and decreased hedonic feeding relative to controls. These behavioral results correlated with decreased expression of the orexin-1 receptor in reward-related brain regions in GOAT-KO mice. In summary, the ability of ghrelin to stimulate food motivation is dependent on intact GHSR signaling and modified by endogenous GOAT activity. Furthermore, GOAT activity is required for hedonic feeding behavior, an effect potentially mediated by forebrain orexin signaling. These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding. PMID:22982020

Davis, JF.; Perello, M.; Choi, DL.; Magrisso, IJ.; Kirchner, H.; Pfluger, PT.; Tschoep, M.; Zigman, JM.; Benoit, SC.

2012-01-01

34

GOATS - Orbitology Component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the early stage of mission concept development.

Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

35

4-H Club Goat Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

Brown, R. Kipp

36

Goat milk in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat milk and its products of yoghurt, cheese and powder have three-fold significance in human nutrition: (1) feeding more starving and malnourished people in the developing world than from cow milk; (2) treating people afflicted with cow milk allergies and gastro-intestinal disorders, which is a significant segment in many populations of developed countries; and (3) filling the gastronomic needs of

G. F. W. Haenlein

2004-01-01

37

Social dominance in adult female mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

1995-01-01

38

A Folk Tale of a Goat  

E-print Network

Folk Tale of a Goat Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshe 'dzin tells folk tale about a goat who's mother was killed by a sheep. The sheep and her daughter then always bullied the goat daughter, but in the end... the goat daughter married a prince. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Folktale Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 17 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad...

Bkra shis bzang po

2009-11-17

39

Peste des petits ruminants in Ethiopian goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of disease characterised by fever, ocular and nasal discharge, coughing and sneezing, oral necrosis, diarrhoea, enteritis and pneumonia in goats was shown by the use of specific cDNA probes to have been peste des petits ruminants, confirmed for the first time in Ethiopia. Both morbidity and mortality rates were high in goats but sheep were not affected.

P. L. Roeder; G. Abraham; G. Kenfe; T. Barrett

1994-01-01

40

Finishing Lambs and Goat Kids on Pasture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producing goats and lambs for ethnic markets offers an economic opportunity for small farm producers in the Appalachian Region of the U.S. There are a variety of forages used in goat and sheep production systems. Overall, nutrients available to ruminants depend upon the types and combinations of p...

41

Monitoring of clinical signs in goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats

Timm Konold; Gemma E Bone; Laura J Phelan; Marion M Simmons; Lorenzo González; Sílvia Sisó; Wilfred Goldmann; Saira Cawthraw; Steve AC Hawkins

2010-01-01

42

Total cholesterol concentrations of the muscles in castrated Boer goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat meat is an important source of animal protein and Boer goats are the most widespread breed of meat goats. Cholesterol in meat is a potential cause of human disease and little is known about the cholesterol concentration in different goat muscles. As animals gain bodyweight the amount of cholesterol in their tissues generally increases and can vary for different

N. M. Werdi Pratiwi; P. J. Murray; D. G. Taylor

2006-01-01

43

TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat!  

E-print Network

TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat! TUDelftLibrary `Goat' to repository.tudelft.nl! For every 1.000th publication deposited in the TU Delft Repository a goat is donated to a poor family in Bangladesh. #12;TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat! TU Delft scientific output available

Langendoen, Koen

44

What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats?  

E-print Network

1 What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats? Parasites commonly found in sheep and goats parasites in sheep and goats are: lung worms (Dictyocaulus spp. or Muellerius capillaris); stomach worms parasites, the most common of which are coccidia (Eimeria or Isospora). How do sheep and goats get infested

Tullos, Desiree

45

This information sheet is for the care and use of Goats Potential Injury & Zoonotic Diseases: Goats are more  

E-print Network

This information sheet is for the care and use of Goats Potential Injury & Zoonotic Diseases: Goats goats. They can also become aggressive towards each other. They move in family groups with the older is a list of zoonotic diseases associated with goats: Q-Fever: This rickettsial disease, caused by Coxielia

Wood, Marcelo A.

46

4-H Meat Goat Guide Frank Craddock and Ross Stultz*  

E-print Network

4-H Meat Goat Guide AS 3-4.060 10/06 H H H H 18USC707 #12;#12; 4-H Meat Goat Guide Frank Craddock that goats are an excellent choice as a club project. Because goats are small, easy to work with and demand of time. If you have decided to have a club goat project, your first decision will be to determine which

New Hampshire, University of

47

Reproductive Efficiency in Angora Goats.  

E-print Network

. In a study by Shelton and Stewart (1973), 244 does \\\\.ere slitughtered and the ovulation rate recorded. Of illis number, 25 (10.2 percent) had not ovulated, 170 11i!l,'i percent) had single ovulations and 49 (20.1 per- rcnt) llntl ovulated two eggs.... This presumably represents some de- Shelton and Stewart (1973) attempted to parti tion gee of limitation due to undernutrition, uterine the losses in reproductive efficiency of Angora goat$ crowding and so forth. Thus, final or birth weight The results are shown...

Shelton, Maurice; Groff, Jack L.

1974-01-01

48

Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

2013-01-01

49

Experimental Tribulus terrestris poisoning in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven, 1–2-year-old native goats were fed dried Tribulus terrestris from Sabzevar district of Khorasan province for 8 weeks. Two goats showed clinical signs of toxicity including weight loss, depression, ruminal stasis, icterus and elevation of body temperature. Haematological and biochemical trails revealed a declining of packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma total protein and elevation of total and direct bilirubin,

M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; V. Ebrahim-pour; A. N. Mohebi

2004-01-01

50

Reproduction traits in the Boer goat doe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to give insight into the reproduction potential of the Boer goat doe. Assessment of the reproduction traits in the Boer goat doe demonstrates a mean body weight at puberty of between 30.6 and 27.5kg, depending on the dietary energy level. Kids weaned during the natural breeding season (April\\/May) exhibit oestrus or puberty earlier than

J. P. C Greyling

2000-01-01

51

Mohair variation on the Angora goat  

E-print Network

MOHAIR VARIATION ON THE ANGORA GOAT A Thesis GILBERT RAYMO1ID ENGDAHI. Suhmitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASi1 University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1970 Major Subject...: Animal Science (Livestock Production) MOHAIR VARIATION ON THE ANGORA GOAT A Thesis by GILBERT RAyMOND ENCDAHL Approved as to style and content by: , "Chairman of Committee) (Member) ( ead of Department) (Member) May 1970 ABSTRACT Nohair...

Engdahl, Gilbert Raymond

1970-01-01

52

Copper toxicosis in a Boer goat.  

PubMed

A 1-year-old female Boer goat was presented with a 1-day history of pigmenturia, anorexia, and shivering. Anemia was not present initially, but progressive hemolytic anemia developed subsequently and was characterized by the finding of Heinz bodies in both intact RBCs and in ghost cells and the presence of atypical fusiform RBCs. Plasma biochemical analysis revealed increased activities of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase, hyperbilirubinemia, and azotemia. Histopathologic examination of a liver biopsy revealed necrosis of individual hepatocytes and intracytoplasmic rhodamine-positive granules, consistent with copper. Copper concentration in ante-mortem hepatic tissue was increased, and a diagnosis of copper toxicosis was made. Despite supportive therapy, the goat continued to decline and was euthanized. Necropsy findings included hepatic necrosis and hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Freshly collected specimens of liver and kidney had markedly increased copper concentrations. The mineral composition of the water, grass hay, and goat chow was evaluated, and toxins and significant mineral imbalances were not found. The underlying cause of the hepatic accumulation and subsequent release of copper remains unclear in this goat. Recently, Boer goats have been recognized as being prone to copper toxicosis and may be more susceptible than other breeds; similar to sheep, Boer goats may experience a hemolytic crisis secondary to copper toxicosis. PMID:23121408

Cregar, Laura C; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Ringen, Davin R; Evans, Tim J; Johnson, Gayle C; Kuroki, Keiichi

2012-12-01

53

Mountain Goat Survey Ragged Range area,  

E-print Network

The contents of this paper are the sole responsibility of the authori We conducted an aerial survey for mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in the Ragged Range area of the southern Mackenzie Mountains from 22-24 August 2011. The area surveyed covered ca. 1,700 km 2 and was bounded by 62 o 16’N and 61 o 45’N to the north and south and 127 o 20’W and 128 o 20’W to the east and west. We classified goats into four sex/age classes: kids, yearlings, nannies, and billies; some goats were not classified, they were not young of the year. We used a global positioning system (GPS) to track the survey flight paths and record the locations of all wildlife seen. We observed 278 mountain goats, 124 billies, 80 nannies, 50 kids and 6 yearlings; 18 goats were unclassified. We estimated 62.5 kids/100 nannies, 155 billies/100 nannies, and 18percent kids. Other wildlife observed during the survey included 62 Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli), five northern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), two moose (Alces alces gigas), two beavers (Castor canadensis), two trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator), one wolverine (Gulo gulo), and one golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The survey results provide increasing evidence that the number of mountain goats inhabiting the southern Mackenzie Mountains is far greater than that estimated by Veitch et al. (2002).ii

Southern Mackenzie Mountains; Nicholas C. Larter

2011-01-01

54

Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Pakistani goats.  

PubMed

Pakistan contains numerous domestic goat breeds, but until now there has been no comprehensive study on genetic diversity or a phylogenetic analysis of Pakistani goats. In this study, we analysed the complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the cytochrome b gene of 13 Pakistani domestic goat breeds (Capra hircus) and one wild goat, the Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus blythi). The phylogenetic analyses and sequence divergence (SD) established four distinct mt-lineages termed as A, B and C (previously reported) and a new lineage D. The Sindh Ibex appeared as an outgroup of domestic goats. The estimated divergence times between the most recently evolved mt-lineages A and D were from 260,483 to 371,052 YA. This suggested that at least four different strains of wild Capra might have been the source of the modern domestic goats. The new mt-lineage D revealed high SD from mt-lineage A and may be the oldest branch under domestication, while mt-lineages B and C showed lower SD and might have been domesticated during an advanced stage of the domestication process. PMID:14687071

Sultana, S; Mannen, H; Tsuji, S

2003-12-01

55

Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in goats.  

PubMed

Clinical, histopathological and ultrastructural findings of caprine dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) with autosomal recessive inheritance are reported. The goats presented with exungulation, erosions, crusts and scars on the skin and ulcers in the oral cavity. Microscopically, the skin showed subepidermal separation with clefts filled occasionally with clear eosinophilic fluid, cellular debris or neutrophils. Ultrastructurally, the site of blister formation was the sublamina densa in the epidermal basement membrane zone. In skin with blister formation and in clinically uninvolved skin, the basal lamina was preserved, but the anchoring fibrils were sparse and rudimentary. A twin brother of an affected kid was mated over 5 years with his mother; three out of the 10 kids born presented with epidermolysis bullosa, indicating that the disease has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. It is suggested that the disease is similar to human severe generalized recessive DEB. PMID:23123123

Medeiros, G X; Riet-Correa, F; Barros, S S; Soares, M P; Dantas, A F M; Galiza, G J N; Simões, S V D; Borges, A S

2013-05-01

56

Seasonal variation in semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal effects on semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats were studied in this experiment. A definite breeding season for the two breeds was determined. Semen quality parameters that were quantified include semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, percentage live sperm, dead sperm and scrotal circumference. Scrotal circumference, semen volume, concentration and sperm concentration of

E. C. Webb; M. H. Dombo; M. Roets

57

The complete nucleotide sequence of goat (Capra hircus) mitochondrial genome. Goat mitochondrial genome.  

PubMed

The goat mtDNA sequences reported to date are fragmentary. By using both in silico cloning procedure and conventional molecular biology techniques we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the goat (Capra hircus) mitochondrial genome. The length of the sequence was 16.640 bp. Genes responsible for 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 13 protein-coding regions are found. The genome organization is conformed to those of other mitochondrial genomes. Comparison between the 13 protein coding genes of goat, cow and sheep reveals that the difference range from 1.2 to 12.2% with a mean of 7.3% between goat and cow and from 0 to 15.6% (mean 4.7%) between goat and sheep. PMID:14509832

Parma, Pietro; Pietro, Parma; Feligini, Maria; Maria, Feligini; Greeppi, Gianfranco; Gianfranco, Greppi; Enne, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Enne

2003-06-01

58

4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast Goat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

59

6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides Goat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

60

Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus  

E-print Network

Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus Frido Welker a,b, , Elza. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae

Bern, Universität

61

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115...Standardized Frozen Desserts § 135.115 Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the...

2012-04-01

62

Diet selection by sheep and goats in the Noorsveld  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet selection of Angora and Boer goats, and Dorper and Merino sheep was studied in the Noorsveld to ascertain differences in their food preferences. This information will facilitate the identification of possible goat and sheep combinations to improve the utilization of this veld type. Dorper and Merino sheep and Angora goats selected very similar diets while the diet selected

P. C. V. du Toit; C. D. Blom

1995-01-01

63

GOAT GROWTH MODEL: GENOTYPE X NUTRITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted using three goat populations: the Boer (BR), the Spanish (SP), and the Tennessee Stiff-legged (TS) breeds, maintained at the International Goat Research Center. The goats were fed three levels: 100%, or (ad libitum) 85% and 70% of ad lib, of the same ration containing 18% CP ...

64

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...

2013-07-01

65

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...

2012-07-01

66

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...

2014-07-01

67

Acceptability of mineral supplements by West African dwarf goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A locally manufactured mineral supplement was provided to 36 browsing West African Dwarf (WAD) goats from 3 to 15 months of age to identify acceptability of the supplementary mineral mixture by experimental animals. Experimental goats were randomly allotted to six treatments of six goats (three male and three female) and were provided with different forms of minerals. Group I was

P. O. Ogebe; B. K. Ogunmodede; L. R. McDowell

1996-01-01

68

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...

2011-07-01

69

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...

2010-07-01

70

Toxicity in goats caused by oleander ( Nerium oleander)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cases of poisoning by oleander (Nerium oleander) were observed in several species, except in goats. This study aimed to evaluate the pathological effects of oleander in goats. The experimental design used three goats per group: the control group, which did not receive oleander and the experimental group, which received leaves of oleander (50mg\\/kg\\/day) for six consecutive days. On the seventh

R. R. Barbosa; J. D. Fontenele-Neto; B. Soto-Blanco

2008-01-01

71

Reproductive traits of German fawn goats in Vojvodina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive efficiency of goats of German fawn breed was established based on reproduction parameters: age of goats at first mating and first kidding, duration of gestation, kidding interval, number of kids in the litter and mass of kids at birth and weaning. Average age of goats at first mating was 242 days, and first kidding 398,1 days. Duration of gestation

M. Cinkulov; A. Nebesni; M. Krajinovic; I. Pihler; M. Zujovic

2009-01-01

72

NEW YORK STATE 4-H MEAT GOAT PROJECT  

E-print Network

NEW YORK STATE 4-H MEAT GOAT PROJECT FACT SHEET #1 By Dr. E. A. B. Oltenacu Revised April 1999 by Dr. tatiana Stanton Cornell University, Ithaca , NY 14853 WHY DO I WANT TO OWN A GOAT? Have you asked yourself this question? Do you think that baby goats are cute and might be sort of fun to own? Have you

New Hampshire, University of

73

Cytogenetic observations on a Robertsonian translocation in Saanen goats (1)  

E-print Network

Cytogenetic observations on a Robertsonian translocation in Saanen goats (1) I. BURGUETE D. DI type was detected in a herd of 15 goats of the Saanen breed, reared on a farm located in southern Italy-armed chromosome. Key words : Robertsonian translocation, goat, chromosomes. Résumé Etude cytogénétique d

Boyer, Edmond

74

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2013-01-01

75

Evaluating demographic models for goat domestication using mtdna sequences  

E-print Network

Evaluating demographic models for goat domestication using mtdna sequences Pascale GErbault demographic models for goat domestication using mtDNa sequences. Anthropozoologica 47.2 : 65-78. Routes. Notably, domestic goat (Capra hircus) did not have any wild progenitors (Capra aegagrus) in Europe before

76

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student Hutchens, Extension Goat Specialist, Univ. of Kentucky Dr. Patty Scharko, Extension Veterinarian to production of both sheep and goats. Producers must observe animals closely to keep individual animals

77

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2014-01-01

78

ORIGINAL PAPER Soft goats' cheese enriched with polyunsaturated fatty  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Soft goats' cheese enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids by dietary the saturated fatty acids (SFA) content of goats' milk, under real field conditions and production, by means crossbreed Alpine dairy goats were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with oilseeds providing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Bioavailability of sulfamethoxypyridazine following intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in goats  

E-print Network

administration in goats SK Garg RP Uppal2 t Deparimew of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary; The pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) was investigated in goats after a single intramuscular (im and maintain serum concentrations 25 pg/mL, a rational dosage regimen of SMP for goats would be 55 and 38 mg

Boyer, Edmond

80

Design a poster on dairy goat Teach others about  

E-print Network

Design a poster on dairy goat breeds Teach others about showmanship techniques Give a speech on the importance of the dairy industry Acquire skills in dairy goat production through ownership and care of dairy goats. Learn marketing, processing, distribution, consumption, and use of dairy products. Discover

New Hampshire, University of

81

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2012-01-01

82

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2010-01-01

83

Original article Pathogenesis of natural goat scrapie: modulation by host  

E-print Network

Original article Pathogenesis of natural goat scrapie: modulation by host PRNP genotype and effect prevalence of scrapie in a large dairy goat herd, 72 infected animals were examined by immunohistochemistry the former (average scores of 9.3 and 3.0, respectively). A significant proportion of the 38 goats that were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

NEW YORK STATE 4-H DAIRY GOAT PROJECT  

E-print Network

NEW YORK STATE 4-H DAIRY GOAT PROJECT FACT SHEET #1 By Dr. E. A. B. Oltenacu Revised April 1999 by Dr. tatiana Stanton Cornell University, Ithaca , NY 14853 WHY DO I WANT TO OWN A GOAT? Have you asked yourself this question? Do you think that baby goats are cute and might be sort of fun to own? Have you

New Hampshire, University of

85

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2013-01-01

86

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2014-01-01

87

Original article Inheritance of color in Angora goats  

E-print Network

Original article Inheritance of color in Angora goats D. Phillip Sponenberga Snejana Alexieva) Abstract - Inheritance of color in Angora goats deviates from mechanisms previously reported in other breeds and types of goats. Segregation data are most consistent with the presence of a dominant white

Boyer, Edmond

88

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2010-01-01

89

MOTILITY OF THE FORESTOMACHS IN GOATS H.J. EHRLEIN  

E-print Network

MOTILITY OF THE FORESTOMACHS IN GOATS H.J. EHRLEIN Zoophysio%gie, Universitiit Hohenheim, 7U'a0, 1975). The aim of this study was to elucidate these functions. Material and Methods Goats were fitted using an x-ray image intensifier, a videotape recorder and a cinecamera on goats and sheep

Boyer, Edmond

90

Cytogenetic study of the Spanish goat breed Murciana-Granadina  

E-print Network

Cytogenetic study of the Spanish goat breed Murciana-Granadina I Burguete Facultad de Veterinaria-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) goat / chromosomes / Murciana-Granadina breed INTRODUCTION In order to provide a basis to know the level of chromosome aberrations in populations of the autochthonous Spanish goat breed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Polymorphism of ?-casein in the Creole goat of Guadeloupe  

E-print Network

Note Polymorphism of ?-casein in the Creole goat of Guadeloupe: evidence for a null allele MF - A polymorphism of /3-casein, including several null phenotypes, was observed in a large flock of Creole goats existence of 2 different mutations producing a null allele at locus ,0-Cn. goat / ,8-casein / polymorphism

Boyer, Edmond

92

Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1  

E-print Network

Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1 O. D. Knipe2 1 Presented of the Environmental Protection Agency and be registered for the intended use. Abstract: Use of goats to convert. Results indicate that trampling of grass seed by goats in burned-over chaparral promotes germin- ation

Standiford, Richard B.

93

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2012-01-01

94

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall...

2011-01-01

95

COMPARATIVE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEVAMISOLE IN NON LACTATING EWES AND GOATS  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEVAMISOLE IN NON LACTATING EWES AND GOATS P. GALTIER, L. ESCOULA, R in non lactating adult goats and ewes. In each case, the recommended veterinary therapeutic forms pregnant females (four Romanov ewes and four Alpine goats) were used during a three week-period. Body

Boyer, Edmond

96

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2011-01-01

97

Prion gene (PRNP) haplotype variation in United States goat breeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie eradication efforts cost 18 million dollars annually in the United States and rely heavily upon PRNP genotyping of sheep. Genetic resistance might reduce goat scrapie and limit the risk of goats serving as a scrapie reservoir, so PRNP coding sequences were examined from 446 goats of 10 bree...

98

Conditioning Goats to Avoid Eating Young Sarcopoterium Spinosum Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major purpose of this study was to investigate whether German fawn goats can learn to refrain from eating Sarcopoterium spinosum plants. Conditioning goats to avoid eating their favorite plants such as young tree seedlings may be useful in preventing them from harming forests. Eight goats were divided in to two groups. Magnesium Hydroxide (MGH) treated plants were given to one

Akin Pala; Canakkale Onsekiz

2007-01-01

99

Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.  

PubMed

Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly. PMID:559107

Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

1977-04-01

100

Situation, changes and future of goat industry around the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats are considered to be very important for their contribution to the development of rural zones and people. In a fast changing world, this statement has to be confirmed by considering how the organisation of the goat industry can support sustainable development. The situation of each goat production (milk, meat, fibre and skin) was analysed and compared. Each economic factor

J.-P. Dubeuf; P. Morand-Fehr; R. Rubino

2004-01-01

101

Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

102

First isolation of Histophilus somni from goats.  

PubMed

Histophilus somni (former name: Haemophilus somnus) is a Gram-negative, facultative pathogen bacterium that colonises the mucous membranes of cattle and sheep, however it was also described in American bison and bighorn sheep. It can cause local or generalised diseases and asymptomatic carriers can also occur. The presence and the etiological role of this microorganism have not been confirmed in any other domesticated species yet. The purpose of this study was to prove the presence of H. somni in goats by bacterial isolation. Nasal, vaginal or praeputial swab samples were collected from 205 goats in 10 flocks. H. somni strains were isolated from 2 out of 10 flocks; in one flock 10 H. somni strains were isolated from the genital mucosa of 17 goats, while a single H. somni strain was cultured from a vagina of 26 animals in the other flock. Partial amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of three H. somni strains verified the identification. The comparative examination of carbon source metabolism using the Biolog Microstation ID System (Biolog, Ca) showed a close relationship of the caprine strains, while they were less related to H. somni type strain CCUG-36157 of bovine origin. H. somni strains were isolated only in the oestrus season from goat flocks with sheep contact. This is the first paper on isolation of H. somni from goats. PMID:18774660

Jánosi, Katalin; Hajtós, István; Makrai, László; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Varga, János; Fodor, László

2009-02-01

103

A bivalent vaccine against goat pox and Peste des Petits ruminants induces protective immune response in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety and immunogenicity of an experimental combined vaccine comprising attenuated strains of Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and goat poxvirus (GTPV) was evaluated in goats. Goats immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of vaccine consisting of 103TCID50 of each of PPRV and GTPV were monitored for clinical and serological responses for a period of 4 weeks postimmunization (pi) and postchallenge (pc).

Madhusudan Hosamani; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Bimalendu Mondal; Arnab Sen; V. Bhanuprakash; Santanu Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Mahendra Pal Yadav; Raj Kumar Singh

2006-01-01

104

New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

Ripberger, Chad

2014-01-01

105

Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats  

PubMed Central

Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population. PMID:23814477

Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal

2013-01-01

106

A study on the cardiovascular physiology of the goat  

E-print Network

, heart rate, and tem- perature in non-anesthetized goats. 46 47 Effects of vagal stimulation on heart rate and blood pressure in goat No. 002. . 48 Effects of vagal stimulation on heart rate and blood pressure in goat No. 120. . 50 Effects... III in goat No. 035. Tracings of the effects of electrical stimulation of the right and left vagi on blood pressure, heart rate EKG, and respiration in goat No. 032; EKG with lead I, blood pressure in right femoral and the left carotid artery...

Ahmad, Alauddin

1964-01-01

107

Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

2013-12-01

108

Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding. PMID:19083117

Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

2009-10-01

109

Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments.  

PubMed

Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m(-2)). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m(-2), we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m(-2), and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m(-2) (55 and 45 resp min(-1)) and 1000 W m(-2) (120 and 95 resp min(-1), respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm(-2) is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the levels of radiation depend on the latitude of the location. PMID:25336109

Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

2014-10-22

110

EFFICACY OF GARLIC AS AN ANTHELMINTIC IN ADULT BOER GOATS  

E-print Network

Abstract — The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum L.) for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in adult female Boer goats. The impact of garlic treatment in goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and Coccidia was evaluated by measuring fecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA scores, and body weight. Goats were exposed to four dosage levels of concentrated (99.3%) garlic juice (2.5 ml, 5 ml, and 10 ml) during four weeks. There was a significant decrease in fecal counts of Coccidia eggs in goats treated with 10 ml of garlic juice (group 4; p0.05). However, at the intermediate dose of garlic (5 ml), goat body weight was significantly increased (group 3; pgoats. Garlic extract contributes to the alleviation of gastrointestinal infections in goats by reducing the Coccidia burden and may enhance animal performance in adult goats.

Mulumebet Worku; R. Franco; K. Baldwin

111

Comparison of the milk quality of the South African Boer and Australian Rangeland goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk composition studies on goats are limited and have mainly concentrated on traditional dairy breeds. Since goats have the advantage of producing larger volumes over a longer lactation period, systematic studies to define the quality of goats milk is warranted. There is anecdotal evidence amongst goat breeders suggesting that some breeds of goat produce highly nutritious milk. In this study,

Stephen P. A Iaschi; Jennie Hui; Fuen Nie Chong; Anja Strange; Max Strange; Roberta Bencini; Guan K Tay

2004-01-01

112

Genetic differentiation of chinese indigenous meat goats ascertained using microsatellite information.  

PubMed

To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats. PMID:25049548

Ling, Y H; Zhang, X D; Yao, N; Ding, J P; Chen, H Q; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Y H; Ren, C H; Ma, Y H; Zhang, X R

2012-02-01

113

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Fair Dairy & Meat Goat Entry Form  

E-print Network

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Fair Dairy & Meat Goat Entry Form Entry Deadline ___________________________________________________________ # Pens Needed _______ Class/ Department Dairy Breed/ Meat Goat Date of Birth Name of Animal Meat Goat Tag/ Meat Goat Date of Birth Name of Animal Meat Goat Tag # #12;

Liskiewicz, Maciej

114

Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in goats J.E. LINDBERG  

E-print Network

Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in goats J.E. LINDBERG Swedish University of Agricultural, xanthine) in goat kids. Estimates of microbial N synthesis in dairy goats were calculated from allantoin excretion and from results obtained in goat kids. In Expt 1 three male kids were bottle fed with goat milk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Genetic relatedness between Ardi, Black Bedouin and Damascus goat breeds.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to analyze genetic relatedness and differentiation of common native goat populations in some countries of the Middle East. The populations were Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria, respectively. Domesticated goats of the Middle East are mostly related to common ancestors, but there is limited molecular genetic evidence. Four microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped in 89 individuals of the three populations using an automated genetic analyzer. Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats exhibited high average allele number and expected heterozygosity of 8.25, 9, and 7.25, and 0.750, 0.804, and 0.779, respectively. F-statistics for population differentiation showed 6.0% of total genetic variation, whereas 94.0% as differentiation between individuals within all populations. The least varied within populations was Ardi goats, then Damascus goats and finally Black Bedouin goats. Furthermore, the Damascus goat population was more differentiated from Black Bedouin goats than from Ardi goats. On the other hand, there was strong evidence of admixture between the majority of Ardi and Black Bedouin goat individuals but little with those of Damascus goats. Genetic distance between Ardi and Black Bedouin goats was the shortest, whereas it was the longest between Ardi and Damascus goats. The phylogenetic tree clearly revealed the expected degree of differentiation in the three populations. From a genetic conservation point of view, it is recommended to maintain the biodiversity of these distinct populations in case genetic migration of genetic resources and genetic conservation are absent. PMID:25036515

Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

2014-01-01

116

Adrenal function in Angora goats: A comparative study of adrenal steroidogenesis in Angora goats, Boer goats, and Merino sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

South African Angora goats (Capra ae- gagrus) are susceptible to stress conditions, possibly due to adrenal cortex malfunction. Selection for mohair production may reduce adrenal function and decrease cortisol production. Secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex is essential for the induction of several gluconeo- genic enzymes that enable animals to survive stressful conditions, and adrenocortical insufficiency, therefore, precipitates a

Y. Engelbrecht; P. Swart

117

Biosecurity for Sheep and Goat Producers  

E-print Network

. ?Mostvaccinesmustberefrigeratedduringstorageand use.Keeptherefrigeratortemperaturebetween 36degreesFand40degreesF. ?Ifvaccinesorothermedicationsdonotrequirerefriger- ation,storethemoutofdirectsunlightinacontrolled environment. ?Givetherightvaccinetotherightspeciesofanimal...-contaminatingplants. ForeignAnimalDiseasesAffecting SheepandGoats Foot-and-MouthDisease Disease-causingorganism:Virus Modeoftransmission:Oralandinhalation Symptoms:Blistersorerosionsonmouth,lips,tongue, hoovesandteats Vaccine:Yes,emergencyvaccination Treatment:No Zoonotic...

Craddock, Frank; Dement, Angela

2008-10-06

118

Ectoparasites of goats in the UK.  

PubMed

The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment. PMID:25465737

Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard

2015-01-15

119

Pasture management for sheep and goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small ruminant producers in Appalachia have many questions about forage management. Forage management decisions need to be keyed to the specific needs of the small ruminant t species to be grazed. Sheep and goats are different from each other and both are very different from cattle. Important con...

120

Fatal Melioidosis in Goats in Bangkok, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand. PMID:24891468

Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

2014-01-01

121

Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a goat herd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthelmintic resistance was monitored over a 30 month period within a goat herd in eastern Virginia, USA. Resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and benzimidazole drugs was detected in Haemonchus contortus using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). When levamisole use was discontinued for 1 year, susceptibility to levamisole appeared to return. Although a single treatment with fenbendazole was able to

Anne M Zajac; Terry A Gipson

2000-01-01

122

Viable transgenic goats derived from skin cells.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors were enucleated, karyoplast-cytoplast couplets were constructed, and then fused and activated simultaneously by a single electrical pulse. Fused couplets were either co-cultured with oviductal cells in TCM-199 medium (in vitro culture) or transferred to intermediate recipient goat oviducts (in vivo culture) until final transfer. The resulting morulae and blastocysts were transferred to the final recipients. Pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography 25-30 days after embryo transfer. In vitro cultured NT embryos developed to morulae and blastocyst stages but did not produce any pregnancies while 30% (6/20) of the in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts produced pregnancies. Two of these pregnancies were resorbed early in gestation. Of the four recipients that maintained pregnancies to term, two delivered dead fetuses 2-3 days after their due dates, and two recipients gave birth to healthy kids at term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed that both kids were transgenic and had integration sites consistent with those observed in the adult cell line. PMID:15359599

Behboodi, Esmail; Memili, Erdogan; Melican, David T; Destrempes, Margaret M; Overton, Susan A; Williams, Jennifer L; Flanagan, Peter A; Butler, Robin E; Liem, Hetty; Chen, Li How; Meade, Harry M; Gavin, William G; Echelard, Yann

2004-06-01

123

Palatability of Forage Chicory Cultivars for Goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...

124

Marketing goat dairy produce in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats have always been part of the fringes of agriculture in the UK. They were probably introduced by the Romans 2000 years ago. During the middle ages they were seen as undesirable probably because they did not conform with the new agricultural revolution. Since those times and in fact as recently as the last 30 years there has been an

Alan Mowlem

2005-01-01

125

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

126

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2011-01-01

127

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2012-01-01

128

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

129

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2014-01-01

130

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2010-01-01

131

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

132

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

133

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

134

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

135

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

136

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

137

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

138

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2013-01-01

139

Investigation of the primary cause of hypoadrenocorticism in South African Angora goats (Capra aegagrus): A comparison with Boer goats (Capra hircus) and Merino sheep (Ovis aries)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to identify the pri- mary site of the reduced adrenal function in South Afri- can Angora goats (Capra aegagrus) that causes a decrease in cortisol production and leads to severe losses of Angora goats during cold spells. Angora goats, Boer goats (Capra hircus), and Merino sheep (Ovis aries) were assigned to three intravenous treatments: 1) insulin, 2)

Y. Engelbrecht; T. Herselman; A. Louw; P. Swart

140

20 Sheep & Goat Research Journal, Volume 22, 2007 2007, Sheep & Goat Research Journal Managers of pastures in the northern tallgrass prairie  

E-print Network

20 Sheep & Goat Research Journal, Volume 22, 2007 ©2007, Sheep & Goat Research Journal Summary to fire and browsing by goats. The study was conducted from 2002 through 2006 at South Dakota State) sites and grazed by goats for three to five days in late June. Western snowberry foliar cover, plant

141

Heavy metal levels in goats from Notasulga, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

Goat meat farming is increasing in popularity in southeastern region of United States. In order to monitor environmental contamination of heavy metals in goat meat, samples of liver, kidney, and muscle were collected from 20 goats on a goat farm in Notasulga, Alabama. These samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The copper concentration was significantly higher in livers than the concentration in kidneys and muscles. Lead, cadmium, and zinc levels did not show any significant differences between liver, kidney, and muscle samples. The concentrations of lead and copper in livers and cadmium in kidneys were significantly different in males when compared to females. However, in muscle, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc showed no significant difference between male and female or between young and old goats. Further, the concentrations of lead in livers and cadmium in kidneys showed a significant difference between young and old goats.

Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Forester, D.M.; Thompson, S.J. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States). School of Veterinary Medicine; Mielke, H.W. [Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1994-12-31

142

Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.  

PubMed

Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25193885

Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel

2014-12-01

143

Natural Infection of Domestic Goats with Ehrlichia chaffeensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight domestic goats from an area of Ehrlichia chaffeensis endemicity were tested for antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis and for E. chaffeensis-specific 16S rRNA gene fragments by an indirect fluorescent antibody test and a nested PCR assay, respectively. Twenty-eight of 38 (73.7%) goats had antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis (>1:128), and 6 of 38 (15.8%) goats were positive by diagnostic

VIVIEN G. DUGAN; SUSAN E. LITTLE; DAVID E. STALLKNECHT; ASHLEY D. BEALL

144

Visual discrimination at varying distances in domestic goats  

E-print Network

. Btudies on operant conditioning of goats began as early as 1954 with Liddell's work dealing with classical defensive conditioning (Liddell et al. , 1954). Other investigators have studied operant responses in goats as indicators of hunger and thirst... the mother-neonate bond. Science. 145: 835. Liddel 1 ~ H. S. , W. T. Jaees and O. D. Anderson. 1934. The comparative physiology of the conditioned motor reflex. Based on experiments with the pig~ dog, sheep, goat and rabbi t. Comp. Psychol . Monogr. 2...

Blakeman, Nancy Elizabeth

1983-01-01

145

Oklahoma State University Department of Animal Science: Goats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This great informational website from Oklahoma State University's Department of Animal Science is all about goats (_Capra hircus_). The site provides subpages with photos and information for many breeds of goats from Alpine to Zhongwei. Site visitors can search for specific goat breeds by clicking on a letter of the alphabet or by perusing an alphabetical list of goat breeds. Links are also provided to other breeds of livestock including cattle, horses, sheep, and swine. Additionally, visitors can link to information on livestock breeds by region, livestock research, and to the Virtual Livestock Library.

1995-01-01

146

Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Anatolian indigenous domestic goats.  

PubMed

Anatolia has been an important region for civilizations and agricultural revolution as a major domestication centre for livestock species. Goats (Capra hircus) were among the earliest domesticated animals in this region. In this study, genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds was characterized by comparison of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1. A total of 295 individuals, including 99 Anatolian Black goats, 96 Angora goats and 100 Kilis goats, were used. Haplogroup A was found to be the dominant haplogroup in all three breeds. The highest haplogroup diversity, including haplogroups A, B2, C and G, was observed in the Anatolian Black breed. Haplogroup D was only observed in Kilis and Angora goats. Haplogroup G was found in Angora and Anatolian Black breeds. The Anatolian goat breeds had high genetic diversity values and a weak phylogeographical structure. The nucleotide diversity values were found to be higher than those in previously studied goat breeds. The fact that Anatolia is a domestication centre and its geographical position as a junction of trade routes may have caused the higher genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds. PMID:24942987

Akis, I; Oztabak, K; Mengi, A; Un, C

2014-12-01

147

Multiple maternal origins and weak phylogeographic structure in domestic goats  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals have played a key role in human history. Despite their importance, however, the origins of most domestic species remain poorly understood. We assessed the phylogenetic history and population structure of domestic goats by sequencing a hypervariable segment (481 bp) of the mtDNA control region from 406 goats representing 88 breeds distributed across the Old World. Phylogeographic analysis revealed three highly divergent goat lineages (estimated divergence >200,000 years ago), with one lineage occurring only in eastern and southern Asia. A remarkably similar pattern exists in cattle, sheep, and pigs. These results, combined with recent archaeological findings, suggest that goats and other farm animals have multiple maternal origins with a possible center of origin in Asia, as well as in the Fertile Crescent. The pattern of goat mtDNA diversity suggests that all three lineages have undergone population expansions, but that the expansion was relatively recent for two of the lineages (including the Asian lineage). Goat populations are surprisingly less genetically structured than cattle populations. In goats only ?10% of the mtDNA variation is partitioned among continents. In cattle the amount is ?50%. This weak structuring suggests extensive intercontinental transportation of goats and has intriguing implications about the importance of goats in historical human migrations and commerce. PMID:11344314

Luikart, Gordon; Gielly, Ludovic; Excoffier, Laurent; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Bouvet, Jean; Taberlet, Pierre

2001-01-01

148

Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

1980-01-01

149

Transcervical embryo collection in Boer goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted, aimed at improving the practicability of the method for transcervical embryo collection in Boer goats described by Pereira et al. [Pereira, R.J.T.A., Sohnrey, B., Holtz, W., 1998. J. Anim. Sci. 76, 360–363]. Invention of a hammock-like restraining device, use of a wider-bore flushing catheter and a modified flushing mode contributed toward this end. The importance of

W Holtz

2000-01-01

150

Theileriosis of sheep and goats in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in West China. Its main distribution includes Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia,\\u000a Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Sichuan. The epidemic period is from late March to July with April–May being the peak months.\\u000a This is the perid of most intensive tick attack byHaemaphysalis qinghaiensis (772–9924%) during the year. It has been proved that the

Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin

1997-01-01

151

Potential of goat probiotic to bind mutagens.  

PubMed

The mutagen binding ability of the goat probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum DDBA) was evaluated. The oral administration of these probiotics reduced fecal mutagens and intestinal cancer markers in goats. Secondly, the effects of probiotics against the mutagenesis induced by sodium azide (SA), and Benzopyrene (B[?]P) by performing the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was investigated. The capacity to bind benzopyrene and the stability of the bacterial-mutagen complex was analyzed by HPLC. The dismutagenic potential against both mutagens was proportional to probiotic concentration. Results showed that probiotic antimutagenic capacity against SA was ranging from 13 to 78%. The mixture of four goat probiotics (MGP) displayed higher antimutagenic activity against SA than any individual strains at the same cell concentration. This study shows that the highest diminution of mutagenicity in presence of B[?]P (74%) was observed in presence of MGP. The antimutagenic activity of nearly all the individual probiotic and the MGP were in concordance with the B[?]P binding determined by HPLC. According to our results, the B[?]P binding to probiotic was irreversible still after being washed with DMSO solution. The stability of the toxic compounds-bacterial cell binding is a key consideration when probiotic antimutagenic property is evaluated. MGP exhibits the ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in supplemented foods for goats since it can lead to the removal of potent mutagens and protect and enhance ruminal health and hence food safety of consumers. PMID:24785349

Apás, Ana Lidia; González, Silvia Nelina; Arena, Mario Eduardo

2014-08-01

152

ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM GOATS FROM BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goats are economically important in many countries and little is known of caprine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 143 goats from 3 Brazilian States, using modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25); 46 (32.2%) tested positive. Samples of brain, heart, ...

153

Erythrocyte antigens in Norwegian goats: serological and genetic studies.  

PubMed

Goat alloantisera and bovine blood typing reagents were used to characterize eight erythrocyte antigen specificities in Norwegian goats by cluster analysis, absorption and family studies. Most of the goat sera were produced by injecting dams once or twice with blood cells or blood from their own kids. The characterized specificities were designated N1-N8. The two specificities N5 and N8 were recognized both by goat alloantisera and by reagents against the bovine factors E'1 and E'2 (N5) and I (N8), which are allelic factors in the bovine B-system. In goat families, the two specificities also behaved as alleles. Consequently, the locus or gene system coding for these specificities was called the B-system of goats. The six other erythrocyte antigens were provisionally assigned to six separate loci. In addition, a bovine anti-sheep R factor reagent reacted with cells from 3.3% of the goats tested, whereas a monoclonal antibody against the Forssman antigen reacted with all the goats tested. PMID:1702589

Nesse, L L

1990-01-01

154

Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

155

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850) of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian) District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type

M. Afzal; K. Javed; M. Shafiq

156

Goat and sheep milk products other than cheeses and yoghurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of goat and sheep milk for manufacture of different milk and milk products is increasing, although the proportion is much less compared to cow and buffalo milk worldwide, but it is much better organized in some countries than in others. Manufacturing of goat and sheep milk commercially or artisanally on the farm for direct sales is done successfully

A. J. Pandya; K. M. Ghodke

2007-01-01

157

Quest for Nutritional and Medicinal Forages for Meat Goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Appalachian meat goat producers are encountering animal nutritional and health problems for which research-based solutions are limited. Goats prefer to eat weeds and browse, selecting the highest quality herbage available. Foraging on traditional pastures not only limits the variety of plant speci...

158

The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat living in harsh environments represents a climax in the capacity of domestic ruminants to adjust to such areas. This ability is multifactorial: low body mass, and low metabolic requirements of goats can be regarded as an important asset to them for it minimise their maintenance and water requirements, in areas where water sources are widely distributed and food sources

Nissim Silanikove

2000-01-01

159

The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems analysis approach. (Author/RL)

Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

1979-01-01

160

INTRATRACHEAL INFUSION OF COMMON FEEDYARD FUNGI IN GOATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to compare the pathology induced by four fungi compared to a saline control. Thirty weanling goats were randomly assigned to 5 groups, 6 goats per group. Four fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Mucor ramosissimus, and Montosporium lanuginosa ) isola...

161

ADAPTmap: International coordinated data resource for improving goat production effiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goats provide vital food and economic security, particularly in developing countries. We created a database that is a nexus for all performance, type, geographic information system (GIS), production environment, and genome information on goats. This resource provides a platform for meta-analysis tha...

162

Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

163

[Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].  

PubMed

An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats. PMID:2049057

Seidel, B

1991-03-01

164

The Status Of Mountain Goats In Canada's Northwest Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) are the least studied ungulate species that occurs in the Northwest Territories. The distribution of goats in the territory - both historically and at present - is limited to the lower half of the 130,000 km 2 Mackenzie Mountains between the Yukon-NWT border and the east edge of the range, including a portion of Nahanni National

ALASDAIR VEITCH; ELLEN SIMMONS; MIKI PROMISLOW; DOUGLAS TATE; MICHELLE SWALLOW; RICHARD POPKO

165

Original article Immortalized goat milk epithelial cell lines  

E-print Network

T antigen. The kinetics of growth of TIGMEC1, TIG- MEC2 and TIGMEC3 cell lines showed a doubling time of 24Original article Immortalized goat milk epithelial cell lines replicate CAEV at high level Laila epithelial cells were isolated from CAEV-uninfected goats and three cell lines designated TIGMEC-1, TIGMEC-2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.  

PubMed

A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market. PMID:20163593

Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

2009-04-01

167

Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection  

E-print Network

Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection E conducted to test the hypothesis that goats eat more than sheep and that goats are more selective feeders (DM) per kg metabolic live weight (WO.75) day (d) was 75.9 g for sheep, and 83.7 g for goats

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Vitamin E concentration in blood plasma of goats fed palm oil leaves  

E-print Network

Vitamin E concentration in blood plasma of goats fed palm oil leaves AR Alimon, B Nor Azam of vitamin E in blood plasma of goats. Nine male Kacang goats weighing 17-18 kg were placed in individual, such as haemoglobin, plasma protein, PCV, MCV, WBC etc... Plasma vitamin E level (ug/ml) (Table) of goats fed oil palm

Boyer, Edmond

169

ANATOMIC AND CYTOGENETIC STUDIES ON 19 HORNLESS GOATS WITH SEXUAL DISORDERS  

E-print Network

ANATOMIC AND CYTOGENETIC STUDIES ON 19 HORNLESS GOATS WITH SEXUAL DISORDERS Parvathi-K. BASRUR H Of nineteen polled Saanen goats with sexual disorders three were genetically male XY, two were XX IXY chimeras on the anatomic and cytogenetic features of I intersex Saanen goats. Since then we have examined 8 more goats

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

170

Comparison of RBG-banded karyotypes of cattle, sheep and goat  

E-print Network

Comparison of RBG-banded karyotypes of cattle, sheep and goat H Hayes E Petit Institut National de 1990) cattle / goat / sheep / RBG-bands / chromosomes Based on natural taxonomic criteria, the 3 main or cattle) and Caprinae (Capra hircus: goat, Ovis aries: domestic sheep). Cattle, goat and sheep karyotypes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

Comparative effect of diets on microbial activity of the rumen in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Comparative effect of diets on microbial activity of the rumen in sheep and goats C. MASSON, W Zootechnie 26, boulevard D' Petitjean, 21100 Dïjon (France) Three 2-year old Alpine castrated he-goats/kg po.To varied between 55 and 74 in goats and 35 and 72 in sheep. Dry matter intake of goats was higher

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Utilization of sesbania leaves as sole feed in growing goats M Shahjalal  

E-print Network

Utilization of sesbania leaves as sole feed in growing goats M Shahjalal Dept of Animal Nutrition foliage of high crude protein and low crude fibre is commonly used for feeding goats. Lack of information and nutrient utilization in growing Black Bengal goats. Nine male castrated goats aged about 5 months

Boyer, Edmond

173

Effects of intrauterine infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma capricolum on the fertility of Nubian goats  

E-print Network

on the fertility of Nubian goats A. A. SHALLALI, A. M. HOMEIDA E. A. DAFALLA Central Veterinary Research Laboratory of mature female Nubian goats. Two groups of 4 and 3 goats each were experimentally infected by an in utero group of 4 goats served as a control. Both bacterial infections persisted in all experimental animals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

MEAT GOAT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS PARAMETERS WHEN FINISHED ON ORCHARDGRASS, RED CLOVER, OR ALFALFA PASTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the U.S., particularly on small farms. There are a diversity of forage types and qualities used in meat goat production systems. Seventy-two Boer goats were used to evaluate weight gain and carcass parameters when growing goats were finished on alfalfa ...

175

Can Horn Length of Mountain Goats Be Used as a Measure of Habitat Quality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the horn growth of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) from two areas with different histories and levels of habitat quality. In 1952 and 1953, 18 goats were introduced to Kodiak Island, Alaska. The population now numbers around 1,900 goats and continues to increase. Animals for this transplant were taken from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, where goats have been widespread

THOMAS J. MCDONOUGH; JOHN R. CRYE; GINO G. DEL FRATE

176

Comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin administered intravenously to sheep and goats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic behavior of sodium amoxicillin was studied after intravenous administration to six sheep and five goats to determine if there are species differences in disposition. The plasma drug concentrations vs. time following intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg were best described by the biexponential equations Cp = 42.9e-0.077.t + 3.68e-0.0134.t for goats, and Cp = 53.5e-0.06.t + 1.69e-0.015.t for sheep. The terminal disposition half-lives for sheep and goats were 46.3 and 66.9 min respectively and were not significantly different. Amoxicillin clearance for sheep and goats were 10.1 and 11.4 ml/min.kg respectively. There were no significant differences between any of the pharmacokinetic parameters measured in sheep and goats. PMID:1573707

Craigmill, A L; Pass, M A; Wetzlich, S

1992-03-01

177

Improving Reproductive Efficiency in Angora Goats.  

E-print Network

of the doe seem to be the major sources of variation in ovulation or kidding rate. In a study by Shelton and Stewart (1973), 244 'Texas Angora goats appear to be somewhat different than those in Turkey, as workers in that country report a very low level... of twinning (Yalcin 1982). 6 t! I r ????? o 0 00 ~o Figute 4. Breeding weight, in pounds, of a 244- number sample of does. Source: Shelton and Stewart (1973). 80-90 90-100 100+ does were slaughtered and the ovulation rate recorded...

Shelton, Maurice; Groff, Jack

1984-01-01

178

The Inheritance of Cryptorchidism in Goats.  

E-print Network

is rumored often enough to demand attention, although naturally positive evidence on a point which might reflect unfavorably upon strains living today is difficult to secure. The American Angora Goat Breeders Association was first incorpo- rated in 1900... been born in the regis- tered flock were also tried out. The results for the kidding of 1924 were : Sire No. Normal Sons Ridgling Sons 1061 24 4 250n 6 0 262n 1 0 Line-Breeding to Ridglings There had been no evidence so far of the inheritance...

Dameron, W. H.; Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence)

1930-01-01

179

Seasonal variation of goat seminal plasma proteins.  

PubMed

The present study describes the investigation of seasonal changes in seminal plasma proteins of Saanen goats under natural conditions in south Brazil. Proteins were isolated by liquid chromatography on heparin Sepharose CL-6B column and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Important differences were observed in the pattern of heparin-affinity proteins (HAPs), such as a band of 178 kDa unique to the breeding season; a decrease in 119 kDa proteins; and an increase in proteins ranging from 73 to 104 kDa. HAP caused deterioration of sperm motility and acrosome breakage in media containing and not containing skimmed milk; the effect was most remarkable with the proteins from the nonbreeding season. Furthermore, HAP presented phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, which was 4.4-fold higher in nonbreeding season than in breeding season. Binding sites for HAP were identified in the sperm surface, particularly at the middle piece of the spermatozoa. These results indicate that proteins from goat seminal plasma are under seasonal control and associated with sperm function during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. PMID:12041898

La Falci, V S N; Tortorella, H; Rodrigues, J L; Brandelli, A

2002-02-01

180

Delayed excretion of 3-methylhistidine in goats  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) as an index of muscle protein degradation in dairy goats. The criterion for validation was the rapid and quantitative excretion of radiolabeled 3MH. Three adult dry does and four bucks were confined to metabolism cages and injected with 5 ml of L-3-(/sup 14/C)methylhistidine dihydrochloride (4 microCi/mL) diluted in normal saline. The does' urine was collected from catheters and the bucks' urine from stainless steel separators protected with fecal collection bags. The daily urine samples were analyzed for labeled amino acid. Urinary recovery of radioactivity from all does was less than 33% after 3 d and was proceeding at less than 5% d. After 9 d, total recovery was less than 50% of total dose for the does. Elimination rates were slightly higher and more variable for the yearling bucks (25-63% after 4 d). On the basis of these data, 3MH does not appear to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in either male or female dairy goats.

Brown, D.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Calvert, C.C.

1987-12-01

181

Heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium Infection) as a Cause of Postrestocking Mortality of Goats in Mozambique  

PubMed Central

A serological survey in Mozambique to detect antibodies to Cowdria ruminantium, the etiologic agent of heartwater, revealed a seroprevalence of 8.1% (n = 332) for goats in the northern province of Tete and of 65.6% (n = 326) for goats in the southern provinces. Translocation of 10 serologically negative goats from Tete to farms in the south resulted in two clinical cases of heartwater that were fatal. In addition, four goats seroconverted within the study period of 5 weeks. One goat showed no symptoms. Two goats died of other causes, whereas the remaining goat went missing after 1 week. Experimental needle infections of goats and sheep were conducted to confirm results and to isolate different strains of C. ruminantium. These data indicate that translocation of goats from the north to the south of Mozambique bears a high risk of C. ruminantium infection, which can cause fatal disease. PMID:11427440

Bekker, Cornelis P. J.; Vink, Daan; Lopes Pereira, Carlos M.; Wapenaar, Wendela; Langa, Afonso; Jongejan, Frans

2001-01-01

182

Effect of sunflower cake supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotypes of South Africa.  

PubMed

The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (P<0.05) SLW and CDM than non-supplemented groups. The Xhosa lop-eared (XLE) and Nguni (NGN) goats had higher pH24 (P<0.05) than BOR and XBC goats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (P<0.05). The sunflower cake supplemented BOR and NGN goats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. PMID:21784584

Xazela, N M; Chimonyo, M; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

2012-01-01

183

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate...

2014-01-01

184

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate...

2010-01-01

185

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate...

2013-01-01

186

Saluda 4-H Dairy, Beef, Goat, Dog, and Poultry Show Entry Form Return by: Monday, September 9, 2014  

E-print Network

Saluda 4-H Dairy, Beef, Goat, Dog, and Poultry Show Entry Form Return by: Monday, September 9, 2014/1/14:_________ Animal Name:________________________________ Species:_________________________ (Beef, Dairy, Goat:________________________________ Species:_________________________ (Beef, Dairy, Goat, Poultry, Dog) Animal Birthdate

Stuart, Steven J.

187

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate...

2012-01-01

188

Meat quality parameters of descendants by grading hybridization of Boer goat and Guanzhong Dairy goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition, cholesterol levels, fatty acid profile, meat taste, and quality parameters were evaluated in 48 buck kids from goats of the Guanzhong Dairy breed (Group G) and their crosses (Group F1: 1\\/2 Boer?×1\\/2 Guanzhong Dairy?; Group F2: 3\\/4 Boer?×1\\/4 Guanzhong Dairy?; Group F3: 7\\/8 Boer?×1\\/8 Guanzhong Dairy?) at different ages of slaughter (6, 8 and 10 months). Results indicated

W. Ding; L. Kou; B. Cao; Y. Wei

2010-01-01

189

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2012-01-01

190

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2013-01-01

191

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2010-01-01

192

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2014-01-01

193

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2011-01-01

194

Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

Abstract Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639?bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats. PMID:25103439

Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

2014-08-01

195

Management Tips for Internal Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

The primary control strategy for internal parasites in sheep and goats has been the use of anthelmintics. Because overuse has caused the development of resistant strains, new strategies must be used. This publication lists available anthelmintics...

Craddock, Frank; Machen, Richard V.; Craig, Tom

2003-02-20

196

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cream made with goat's milk”. (2) Until September 14, 1998, when safe and suitable sweeteners other than nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners are used in the food, their presence shall be declared by their common or usual name on the principal...

2013-04-01

197

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...cream made with goat's milk”. (2) Until September 14, 1998, when safe and suitable sweeteners other than nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners are used in the food, their presence shall be declared by their common or usual name on the principal...

2014-04-01

198

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cream made with goat's milk”. (2) Until September 14, 1998, when safe and suitable sweeteners other than nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners are used in the food, their presence shall be declared by their common or usual name on the principal...

2011-04-01

199

Immobilization of mountain goats with xylazine and reversal with idazoxan.  

PubMed

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were captured in traps and immobilized with xylazine, later reversed with idazoxan. One hundred and forty-one goats were immobilized, 94 with a single injection and 47 with multiple injections. Dosage (mg/kg of body weight) of xylazine received, induction time, and recovery time after handling did not differ among sex-age classes. Increasing the dosage did not shorten induction time. The first injection of xylazine in multiple-injection captures was lower than the dose given in single-injection captures, suggesting that insufficient initial doses of xylazine made multiple injections necessary. Xylazine is an effective drug for immobilization of mountain goats captured in traps, at dosages of about 4.9 mg/kg. The dosage of xylazine required to immobilize mountain goats is higher than that reported for bighorn sheep and white-tailed deer. PMID:9577782

Haviernick, M; Côté, S D; Festa-Bianchet, M

1998-04-01

200

Ruminal impaction due to Ficus esquiroliana Levl. in Boer goats.  

PubMed

Ruminal impaction is considered an important internal disease in ruminants, such as dairy cows, sheep, and goats. It has been reported that its occurrence is associated with many different causes. This study describes a novel case of ruminal impaction caused by a plant, Ficus esquiroliana Levl., in Boer goats. This case suggests that Ficus esquiroliana should be taken into consideration when providing food for ruminants. PMID:24298432

Zhai, Shao-Lun; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Man-Lin; Lv, Dian-Hong; Wei, Wen-Kang

2013-01-01

201

Monitoring of clinical signs in goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies  

PubMed Central

Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response) and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits) at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of individual neurological signs. PMID:20202205

2010-01-01

202

Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat  

E-print Network

Copyright by MERRITT IVAN PIKE 1975 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Animal Science (Meat Science) IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Approved as to style and content by: Co- an of Committee Co...

Pike, Merritt Ivan

1974-01-01

203

Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

2015-02-01

204

Production of Prnp ?\\/? goats by gene targeting in adult fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homozygous mice devoid of functional Prnp are resistant to scrapie and prion propagation, but heterozygous mice for Prnp disruption still suffer from prion disease and prion deposition. We have previously generated heterozygous cloned goats with\\u000a one allele of Prnp functional disruption. To obtain goats with both alleles of Prnp be disrupted which would be resistant to scrapie completely, a second-round

Caihong Zhu; Bei Li; Guohua Yu; Jianquan Chen; Huiqing Yu; Juan Chen; Xujun Xu; Youbing Wu; Aimin Zhang; Guoxiang Cheng

2009-01-01

205

Besnoitiosis of the reproductive tract of male goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of high morbidity of caprine besnoitiosis in different provinces of Iran and its significant adverse economic impact\\u000a on goat production in this area, this study was undertaken to study the macroscopic and microscopic changes of the scrotum,\\u000a testis, and epididymis of animals at different age groups associated with Besnoitia spp. The testicles, epididymides, and scrotums of 106 male goats

A. Oryan; M. Kafi; N. Morgan-Azghadi

2008-01-01

206

Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.  

PubMed

A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not. PMID:24893025

Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

2014-05-01

207

Targeting the exogenous htPAm gene on goat somatic cell beta-casein locus for transgenic goat production.  

PubMed

Combining gene targeting of animal somatic cells with nuclear transfer technique has provided a powerful method to produce transgenic animal mammary gland bioreactor. The objective of this study is to make an efficient and reproducible gene targeting in goat fetal fibroblasts by inserting the exogenous htPAm cDNA into the beta-casein locus with liposomes or electroporation so that htPAm protein might be produced in gene-targeted goat mammary gland. By gene-targeting technique, the exogenous htPAm gene was inserted to milk goat beta-casein gene sequences. Fetal fibroblasts were isolated from Day 35 fetuses of Guanzhong milk goats, and transfected with linear gene-targeting vector pGBC4htPAm using Lipefectamin-2000 and electoporation, respectively. Forty-eight gene-targeted cell colonies with homologous recombination were obtained, and three cell colonies were verified by DNA sequence analysis within the homologous recombination region. Using gene-targeted cell lines as donor cells for nuclear transfer, a total of 600 reconstructed embryos had been obtained, and 146 developed cloned embryos were transferred to 16 recipient goats, and finally three goats showed pregnancy at Day 90. PMID:16998796

Shen, Wei; Lan, Guocheng; Yang, Xueyi; Li, Lan; Min, Lingjiang; Yang, Zhengtian; Tian, Liyuan; Wu, Xiaojie; Sun, Yujiang; Chen, Hong; Tan, Jinghe; Deng, Jixian; Pan, Qingjie

2007-04-01

208

Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats  

PubMed Central

West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture.

Chiejina, Samuel N.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Fakae, Barineme B.

2015-01-01

209

Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.  

PubMed

West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. PMID:25744655

Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

2015-01-01

210

A comparative study of peste des petits ruminants and Kata in West African dwarf goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental infections of West African Dwarf goats with Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Kata were indistinguishable clinically and pathologically. Goats convalescent from Kata resisted infection with rinderpest virus. Heterologous stimulation of secondary antibody response was observed.

A. C. Rowland; G. R. Scott; S. Ramachandran; D. H. Hill

1971-01-01

211

PURDUE LAMBING SCHOOL **This event should be helpful to goat producers also**  

E-print Network

PURDUE LAMBING SCHOOL **This event should be helpful to goat producers also** Saturday, March 2. The Lambing School is conducted as an educational event for new, beginning or veteran sheep or goat producers

212

Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population  

E-print Network

Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population JOAQUI diversity over 14 cohorts in a small and relatively isolated population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) during a period of demographic increase. Offspring heterozygosity decreased while parental

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

213

Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure.  

PubMed

Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in countries where goats are frequently reared in backyards that are also homes to cats (the definitive host of this parasite) elevates such concern. To date, there has been little attention to either the prevalence or genotypic characteristics of T. gondii isolates in young ruminant food animals in Europe. Here, we estimated the prevalence of T. gondii goat-kids raised in backyards and slaughtered for human consumption during Easter. We collected 181 paired samples of serum and diaphragm. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against T. gondii , and muscle tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect T. gondii DNA. Thirty-two diaphragm samples were also bioassayed in mice, and the isolates were genotyped using microsatellite markers. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in goat-kids was 33.1% (60/181; 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.3-40.5%), and T. gondii DNA was found in 6.1% (11/181; 95% CI 3.1-10.6) of the diaphragm samples. We isolated the parasite from 2 of 32 goat-kids, and the T. gondii strains belonged to genotype II. The results showed that 1/3 of 3-mo-old goats may be infected with T. gondii , and their consumption during Easter (as barbecue) may seriously compromise food safety as a result. PMID:25003793

Pa?tiu, Anamaria I; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Györke, Adriana; ?uteu, Ovidiu; Balea, Anamaria; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Dom?a, Cristian; Cozma, Vasile

2015-02-01

214

Production of biologically active human granulocyte colony stimulating factor in the milk of transgenic goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a transgenic female goat harboring goat beta-casein promoter\\/human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) fusion gene by microinjection into fertilized one-cell goat zygotes. Human G-CSF was produced at levels of up to 50?µ?g\\/ml in transgenic goat milk. Its biological activity was equivalent to recombinant human G-CSF expressed from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell when assayed using in vitro

Jung Ho Ko; Chul-Sang Lee; Kui Hyun Kim; Myung-Geol Pang; Ja Shin Koo; Nanzhu Fang; Deog-Bon Koo; Keon Bong Oh; Woo-Sik Youn; Guo Dong Zheng; Jung Sun Park; Sun Jung Kim; Yong-Mahn Han; In Young Choi; Joonho Lim; Sang Tae Shin; Seung Won Jin; Kyung-Kwang Lee; Ook Joon Yoo

2000-01-01

215

Efficacy of clorsulon for the treatment of experimentally induced infections of Fasciola hepatica in goats.  

PubMed

A dose titration study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of clorsulon against the adult stage of Fasciola hepatica in goats. Thirty-nine goats were experimentally infected with metacercariae of F hepatica. At 14 weeks after infection, each goat was assigned randomly to 1 of 5 groups. Goats in groups 1 to 4 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 3.5, 7, 11, and 15 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The fifth group of goats (control group) was infected with F hepatica, but were not treated with clorsulon. Postmortem examination of goats at 3 weeks after treatment revealed mean reductions in numbers of flukes of 83, 98, 99, and 100% for groups 1 to 4, respectively. Mean percentage of reduction in eggs following treatment of groups was 82, 98, 100, and 100%, respectively. The clinical effects of clorsulon in 24 goats that were not infected with F hepatica were studied. Goats in groups 1 to 3 received a single oral administration of clorsulon at dosages of 7, 21, and 35 mg/kg, respectively, every other day for a total of 3 doses/goat. Group-4 goats (control group) received a vehicle placebo. Goats in group 3 were subject to postmortem examination at 14 days after dosing. Abnormal signs or lesions that could be attributed to clorsulon were not found in any goat. PMID:2021237

Sundlof, S F; Bliss, E L; Greiner, E C; Tran, T Q; Wertenberger, M A

1991-01-01

216

Preference of goats and sheep for browse species under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preference of goats and sheep for browse species in mixed browse and pasture conditions in New Zealand was determined using 6 goats and 6 sheep observed for 2?h periods on 6 occasions between February and December. The goats and sheep were given free access to established nurseries. The 2 nurseries contained 6 types of leguminous shrubs, 3 non?leguminous shrub

R. S. Pande; P. D. Kemp; J. Hodgson

2002-01-01

217

76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export...testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export...when exporting goats and breeding swine. Therefore, the...Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

2011-05-24

218

Genetic variation in the kappa-casein gene of South African goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-casein (kappa-casein) is of special interest as a milk protein polymorphism due to its known relationship with milk quality and composition. A number of allelic variants have been identified in goats. In this study, genetic variants of the ?-casein gene were evaluated in the South African Boer goat, Saanen and local unimproved goat types, using RFLP and DNA sequencing. The

R. C. Scheepers; E. van Marle-Köster; C. Visser

2010-01-01

219

Comparison of Performance of Boer and Spanish Goats in Two U.S. Locations'12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information quantifying performance of Boer goats in the United States is lacking. To overcome this knowledge void a simulation study was performed to determine how Boer goats would com- pare to Spanish goats in two locations, Texas and Oklahoma. Within each of these locations forage conditions were altered from high forage (HF) , medium forage (MF) , and low forage

H. D. Blackburn

220

Serum amino acid and myofibrillar protein profiles in Boer goat bucks following undernutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work was to determine serum free amino acid and myofibrillar protein profiles in Boer goats following undernutrition in order to study the physiological consequences of undernutrition in this goat breed. Fifteen Boer goat bucks were allocated to two experimental groups: CG (control group), fed ad libitum Themeda trianda hay, supplemented with maize, molasses and urea; and

A. M. Almeida; L. M. J. Schwalbach; H. O. deWaal; J. P. C. Greyling; L. A. Cardoso

2004-01-01

221

Early detection of viral excretion from experimentally infected goats with peste-des-petits ruminants virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 15 goats for 9 days after subcutaneous infection with 103 TCID50 with isolates of peste-des-petits ruminants virus from Africa and India and five concurrent, uninfected control goats. Typical clinical signs of the infection were present in all 15 infected goats by day 8 and in most by day 6 and some signs were present by day 4. However,

E. Couacy-Hymann; S. C. Bodjo; T. Danho; M. Y. Koffi; G. Libeau; A. Diallo

2007-01-01

222

Diagnosis of footrot in goats: application of ELISA tests for response to antigens of Dichelobacter nodosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats are an important natural host for footrot and are infected with Dichelobacter nodosus that have virulence characteristics similar to those of sheep strains. However, the humoral response of goats to D. nodosus antigens and the possibility of a serological diagnosis of footrot in goats have not been studied. With the aim of evaluating a diagnostic ELISA test, we investigated

S. C Ghimire; R. J Whittington; O. P Dhungyel; H. D Joshi; J. R Egerton

2002-01-01

223

The metabolism and action of insulin and glucagon in lactating and non-lactating goats  

E-print Network

The metabolism and action of insulin and glucagon in lactating and non-lactating goats J. GRIZARD in the adaptation of metabolism to lactation (Gill and Hart, 1980 ; Burnol et al., 1985) but the mechanisms and their action on blood glucose in lactating and non-lactating goats. Material and methods. Nine Alpine goats 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

Goat kids' intestinal absorptive mucosa in period of passive immunity acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum intake in newborn goat kids is essential for the acquisition of immunoglobulins (Ig) and influencing development of gastrointestinal mucosa. The present study investigated small intestine structure in the postnatal goat kid fed lyophilized bovine colostrum, an alternative source of antibodies to small ruminants, or goat colostrum using scanning electron microscopy technique. At 0, 7 and 14h of life 15

Débora Botéquio Moretti; Wiolene Montanari Nordi; Anali Linhares Lima; Patrícia Pauletti; Ivanete Susin; Raul Machado-Neto

225

A review of the nutritional and health aspects of goat milk in cases of intestinal resection  

E-print Network

Review A review of the nutritional and health aspects of goat milk in cases of intestinal resection of the dietary inclusion of goat milk on the utilization of protein, fat and minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn of a goat milk- based diet, compared to bovine milk, has shown a higher protein efficiency ratio, protein

Boyer, Edmond

226

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Italian goat breeds measured  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Italian goat breeds measured with microsatellite, Molise University, Campobosso, Italy 3 Department of Sheep and Goat Research, Animal Production Research In Egypt, goats are an important source of meat. They are distributed across the country, especially dense

Merilä, Juha

227

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428...Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

2010-01-01

228

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats H balance in sheep and goats and on potentially related parameters such as plasma urea nitrogen (PUN on the fermentation capacity of sheep and goat rumen fluid were also investigated. Results indicate that the infusion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Palatability for goat of some Mediterranean shrubs. Comparison between browsing time and cafeteria technique  

E-print Network

Palatability for goat of some Mediterranean shrubs. Comparison between browsing time and cafeteria breed goats were used for experiments. The experimental range land covers an area of approximately 20 ha local breed goats were identified with 3 different colours and were allowed to browse with their 200

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

25April 2014 n the past 50 years, cattle, sheep, and goat num-  

E-print Network

25April 2014 I n the past 50 years, cattle, sheep, and goat num- bers have increased from about 2 numbers in developing countries will exceed those on the entire planet in 2000.3 The world's goat, goats, grasslands, secondary plant metabolites, sheep, woody plants. Rangelands 36(2):25­31 doi: 10

231

A Mendelian polymorphism underlying quantitative variations of goat ?s1-casein  

E-print Network

A Mendelian polymorphism underlying quantitative variations of goat ?s1-casein F. GROSCLAUDE- les, designated a,,-Cn'-, ?s1-CnF and ?s1-Cno, were identified at the goat a!-Cn locus superiority in casein content of milks from goats possessing the allele

Boyer, Edmond

232

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428...Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

2014-01-01

233

SOME THOUGHTS ON THE ASSOCIATION OF POLLED TRAIT AND INTERSEXUALITY IN GOATS  

E-print Network

SOME THOUGHTS ON THE ASSOCIATION OF POLLED TRAIT AND INTERSEXUALITY IN GOATS Parvathi-K. BASRUR mechanism for the association of polledness and intersexuality in dairy goats has been proposed in the light of Goats was located on the Y chromosome in close proximity to, or as part of the maledetermining genes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Regression of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial function and structure in neonatal goats  

E-print Network

Regression of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial function and structure in neonatal goats ITZICK adipose tissue mitochondria function and structure in neonatal goats. Am. J. Physiol. 252(Endocrinol changesexhibited by rapidly regressing goat'sperirenalBAT in the 1stwk postpartumareaccompanied by dramatic

Vatnick, Itzick

235

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428...Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

2012-01-01

236

Straw feeding value in sheep and goats: effect of energy and nitrogen supply  

E-print Network

Straw feeding value in sheep and goats: effect of energy and nitrogen supply JL Tisserand, E Arista-Petitjjean, 21000 Dijon, France Previous studies have shown that goats utilize nitrogen-deficient diets better than experimental details have been presented in Arista (1991).). TableI shows that goats ingest the 4 diets

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Habitat Modeling Using Path Analysis: Delineating Mountain Goat Habitat in the Washington Cascades  

E-print Network

Habitat Modeling Using Path Analysis: Delineating Mountain Goat Habitat in the Washington Cascades: ______________________________________ #12;HABITAT MODELING USING PATH ANALYSIS: DELINEATING MOUNTAIN GOAT HABITAT IN THE WASHINGTON CASCADES in mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations in Washington State over the past few decades has spurred

Wallin, David O.

238

1B Hatsuma: Billy the goat O. Knill, 7/24/2003 Dear 1b students,  

E-print Network

1B Hatsuma: Billy the goat O. Knill, 7/24/2003 Dear 1b students, note that this problem is likely the problem. Here it is: Billy the goat is attached with a rope of length to a point at a circular silo problem called "Goat problem" or "Bull thethering problem". (M.E. Hoffman, "An application of Curvature

Knill, Oliver

239

76 FR 69721 - Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 14229-000] Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary...Competing Applications On July 15, 2011, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc. filed an application...Robert S. Grimm, CEO/President, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc., c/o Alaska...

2011-11-09

240

Differential effects of goat browsing on herbaceous plant community in a two-phase mosaic  

E-print Network

Differential effects of goat browsing on herbaceous plant community in a two-phase mosaic O. Gabay plant communities is usually attributed to direct consumption of plants. We hypothesized that goats environmental conditions through modification of woody plant struc- ture. We assessed the effects of goats

241

ELUCIDATING THE IMMUNOACTIVITY OF A GOAT SERUM PEPTIDE Todd Avery Parker  

E-print Network

ELUCIDATING THE IMMUNOACTIVITY OF A GOAT SERUM PEPTIDE By Todd Avery Parker A Dissertation Biology Mississippi State, Mississippi May 2002 #12;ELUCIDATING THE IMMUNOACTIVITY OF A GOAT SERUM PEPTIDE OF A GOAT SERUM PEPTIDE Pages in Study: 97 Candidate for Degree of Doctor of Molecular Biology The purpose

Ray, David

242

213 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos  

E-print Network

213© WILDLIFE BIOLOGY · 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos americanus goats appear to be more sensitive to harvest than other ungulates, likely because of poor recruitment and unhunted mountain goat Oreamnos americanus populations Alejandro Gonzalez Voyer, Kirby G. Smith & Marco

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

243

Third International Workshop on Major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Third International Workshop on Major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats 8­11 December 2003, Toulouse WORKSHOP ON MAJOR GENES AND QTL IN SHEEP AND GOATS This is the third international meeting dealing domestic species, including sheep and goats, and the identification of genes having an average effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

76 FR 51025 - Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 14229-000] Goat Lake Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary...Competing Applications On July 15, 2011, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc., filed an application...Robert S. Grimm, CEO/President, Goat Lake Hydro, Inc., c/o Alaska...

2011-08-17

245

Is the apocrine milk secretion process observed in the goat species rooted in the perturbation  

E-print Network

Review Is the apocrine milk secretion process observed in the goat species rooted lipids). Despite a long controversy, goat milk secretion is still considered to occur through an apocrine of secre- tion described in the goat could be the consequence of the dysfunction observed

Boyer, Edmond

246

Nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy goats J.E. LINDBERG, P. CISZUK  

E-print Network

Nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy goats J.E. LINDBERG, P. CISZUK Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Nutrition and Management, S-750 07 Uppsala, Smecle» Dairy goats brewer's grain and peas as protein supplements. In Expt 3 the goats were fed pea-silage : grass

Boyer, Edmond

247

E. Rodrguez-Gonzlez et al.BCB-selected-goat oocytes matured withcysteamine Original article  

E-print Network

E. Rodríguez-González et al.BCB-selected-goat oocytes matured withcysteamine Original article Developmental competence of prepubertal goat oocytes selected with brilliant cresyl blue and matured maturation (IVM) medium to improve the in vitro embryo development of prepubertal goat oocytes. The oocytes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Mountain Goat Genetic Diversity and Population Connectivity in Washington and Southern British Columbia  

E-print Network

Mountain Goat Genetic Diversity and Population Connectivity in Washington and Southern British, is not allowed without my written permission. Leslie C. Parks February 14, 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Genetic by resistance (IBR), that are driving genetic isolation. Although the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

Wallin, David O.

249

Dominant and recessive brown in goats DP Sponenberg1 C LaMarsh2  

E-print Network

Note Dominant and recessive brown in goats DP Sponenberg1 C LaMarsh2 1 Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061; 2 Blue Berry Sunrise Farm Pygmy Goats - Pygmy goats in the USA occur in a variety of colors including black, roan (called agouti by breeders

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Management of domesticated boer goat (Capra hircus) and free ranging kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)  

E-print Network

Management of domesticated boer goat (Capra hircus) and free ranging kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros in integrated game and goat farming systems within the Valley Bushveld of the Eastern Cape of southern Africa. Goat production is affected by competition for browse by free ranging wild herbivores (kudu, bushbuck

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

251

Characteristics and developments in the production of sheep and goat meat in Australia  

E-print Network

Characteristics and developments in the production of sheep and goat meat in Australia B. J of feral goats in Australia have been intermittently harvested to provide small quantities of meat for export (for example 600o kg exported to France 1974/75). About So00o goats are slaughtered each year

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Original article High prevalence of scrapie in a dairy goat herd  

E-print Network

Original article High prevalence of scrapie in a dairy goat herd: tissue distribution of disease) Abstract ­ Following a severe outbreak of clinical scrapie in 2006­2007, a large dairy goat herd was culled) was positive in only 30 (41.7%) of the infected goats. However, the efficiency of rectal and palatine tonsil

Boyer, Edmond

253

Small Ruminant Research 64 (2006) 162168 Digestibility and nitrogen retention in llamas and goats fed alfalfa,  

E-print Network

Small Ruminant Research 64 (2006) 162­168 Digestibility and nitrogen retention in llamas and goats of this experiment was to determine the relative digestive capabilities and N retention between goats and llamas fed three forages. Four llamas (2 yrs; 125 ± 7.3 kg BW) and four Boer-cross goats (2 yrs; 53 ± 8.4 kg BW

Ehleringer, Jim

254

Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study  

E-print Network

Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram. The results in these three species were more or less similar. Peroxidase of buffalo, goat and ram. (1) Present address :Reproductive Biology Lab., Dept. of Biology, Guru Nanak Dev

Boyer, Edmond

255

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428...Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

2013-01-01

256

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of calcium-fortified milk-rich diets (either goat's  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of calcium-fortified milk-rich diets (either goat's or cow's milk) on copper in goat's milk, in comparison to similarly fortified cow's milk. This was performed to check whether Ca-fortified goat's milk minimizes Ca­Cu interactions which would favor Cu bioavailability in experimentally induced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

Sexual behaviour and gonadal activity during the year in the tropical Creole meat goat.  

E-print Network

Sexual behaviour and gonadal activity during the year in the tropical Creole meat goat. I. Female consecutive years on 30 adult creole goats to determine if ovarian activity and oestrous behaviour varied) and S (supplemented). Every month pasture quality was assessed and the animals were weighed. Goats of group S received

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Energy utilization of diets with different hay proportions in lactating goats  

E-print Network

Energy utilization of diets with different hay proportions in lactating goats L Rapetti Even in intensive farming conditions, dairy goats are commonly fed rations with high forage proportions production. Literature on energy metabolism of lactating goats fed diets with high energy and protein

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

Bienn. Symp. North. Wild Sheep and Goat Counc. 14:115-130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) are native to Idaho, the southernmost portion of their recent distribution in North America. Mountain goat populations apparently declined sharply early in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries due to unregulated hunting. The first survey of known mountain goats ranges indicated approximately 2,785 animals in 1955. Populations have increased only slightly over the 5 decades

260

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains ...

261

Low seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Boer goats in Missouri  

PubMed Central

Background Goats are known reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever. However, there has been very little research on the prevalence of C. burnetii exposure and risk in meat goats farmed in the US. Banked serum samples were secondarily tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies. Findings The animal and herd-level seroprevalence estimates for C. burnetii were 1.2% (3/249) and 4.2% (1/24) respectively. Within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 1.2%. Conclusions This study indicates that seroprevalence of C. burnetii in Boer goats raised in Missouri was low, but it does not preclude the existence of a higher level of infection in Missouri’s meat goat herds. This result is inconclusive because this study was disadvantaged by the small number of individual animal and herds tested, which compromised the statistical power of this study to detect a possible higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii in this population, if present. More research is warranted to corroborate the preliminary findings reported here in order to determine the public health significance C. burnetii infection risks associated with contemporary goat production systems in the US. PMID:24994554

2014-01-01

262

Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin following subcutaneous administration in meat goats.  

PubMed

Tulathromycin is a triamilide antibiotic that maintains therapeutic concentrations for an extended period of time. The drug is approved for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and swine and is occasionally used in goats. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in meat goats, 10 healthy Boer goats were administered a single 2.5 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of tulathromycin. Plasma concentrations were measured by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) detection. Plasma maximal drug concentration (Cmax) was 633 ± 300 ng/ml (0.40 ± 0.26 h post-subcutaneous injection). The half-life of tulathromycin in goats was 110 ± 19.9 h. Tulathromycin was rapidly absorbed and distributed widely after subcutaneous injection 33 ± 6 L/kg. The mean AUC of the group was 12,500 ± 2020 h ng/mL for plasma. In this study, it was determined that the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin after a single 2.5 mg/kg SC injection in goats were very similar to what has been previously reported in cattle. PMID:20638089

Young, Gabrielle; Smith, Geof W; Leavens, Teresa L; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Mason, Sharon E; Riviere, Jim E; Tell, Lisa A

2011-06-01

263

Acute phase proteins in healthy goats: Establishment of reference intervals.  

PubMed

Acute inflammatory processes can trigger increased production of acute phase proteins (APPs) that can be useful biomarkers of inflammation. APPs are diverse and include proteins involved in coagulation, opsonization, iron regulation, and limitation of tissue injury. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein have been proposed as useful APPs in goats. APPs can differ markedly by species, therefore species-specific reference intervals and studies are necessary. The objective of this study was to determine species-specific reference intervals for 4 APPs in goats. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein were measured in in 54 clinically normal adult goats. APPs were measured using goat-specific commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance to compare sexes and breeding status. Reference Value Advisor was used to calculate reference limits according to the IFCC-CLSI guidelines. Only 1 APP was found to vary in healthy animals; serum haptoglobin was increased in lactating animals and decreased in pregnant does in their second trimester when compared with open, nonlactating does. No sex-based differences were seen for any of the APPs measured. We report normal reference intervals for 4 serum APPs that may be useful as disease markers. Haptoglobin should be interpreted with caution in animals with unknown pregnancy status. Further studies are needed to determine whether these APPs are useful biomarkers in goat disease states. PMID:25776542

Heller, Meera C; Johns, Jennifer L

2015-03-01

264

Copy number and integration sites in growth hormone transgenic goats.  

PubMed

Transgenic goats have been utilized for years to produce valuable protein. However, when transgenic goats are produced by random integration of inserted genes into cells, the copy number and integration sites of these genes in the goat genome are typically indefinite. Most polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods that have been utilized to determine copy number and integration sites of inserted genes in the genome require complicated manipulations. In this study, we used quantitative real-time PCR and thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR to determine copy number and integration sites of the inserted genes, respectively. Copies of transgenic goat lines GHcd-2 and GHcd-7 were 12.95 ± 0.18 and 12.24 ± 1.12, respectively. Two integration sites, located in chromosomes 3 and 11 and referred to as tg1 and tg2, were identified by thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR. Junction PCR was then performed to confirm the integration sites of growth hormone transgenic goats. Transgenic copy number and integration sites were determined, which will be useful for determining the relationship between the growth hormone expression, copy number, and integration sites. PMID:25867346

Zhang, Q; Lin, J; Yu, Q H; Hu, W W; Yang, Q

2015-01-01

265

Pathology of natural Przhevalskiana silenus infestation in goats.  

PubMed

Among the arthropods causing diseases to animals, myiasis causes a broad range of infestations depending on the location of larvae and its developmental stages on the body of the host. These infestations reduce host physiological functions, destroy host tissues and cause significant economic losses to livestock worldwide. This study was conducted to find out the pathological changes of goats tissue infested with Przhevalskiana silenus. Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI), improperly named goat hypodermosis, is a myiasis caused by larvae of P. silenus. Out of 16,250 goats examined in the slaughter house in the studied area, 433 (2.67%) were infested with warble fly. The minimum and maximum rate of infectivity was 7 and 84 with an average of 32.4 warbles per animal. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the infested subcutaneous tissues. Infiltration of the mononuclear cell types, tissue necrosis, pyogranulomatous reaction, hyalinization, mineralization, muscle fragmentation, oedema, and hyperemia of arterioles and capillaries were the most important microscopic findings associated with different developmental stages of P. silenus instars in the goats. The results of this survey indicated that GWF is a widespread infestation in Shiraz, Fars Province, southern part of Iran. PMID:23202597

Oryan, A; Bahrami, S

2012-12-01

266

Feeding behaviour and pasture utilization by goats in the southern Italy Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia, Sezione di Potenza,  

E-print Network

Feeding behaviour and pasture utilization by goats in the southern Italy R. RUBINO Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia, Sezione di Potenza, Viale Basento, 106, 85100 Potenza (Italia) Grazing of goats of the diet of local and Maltese goats were determined on pasture using oesophagus fistulated animals. Goat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Reproductive performance of female goats given progestagen associated with PMSG and/or HMG in deep anestrus  

E-print Network

Reproductive performance of female goats given progestagen associated with PMSG and/or HMG in deep and after a 21-day fluorogestone acetate (FGA) treatment, 200 pluriparous lactating Alpine goats were given at sponge removal. All the goats were mated naturally during estrus. The percentage of goats kidding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

Incidence of Oestrus ovis infestation in Borno-White Sahel goats in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria  

E-print Network

Short note Incidence of Oestrus ovis infestation in Borno-White Sahel goats in the semi-arid zone in Maiduguri showed that 53.8 % of the 4 000 Borno-White Sahel goats examined were parasitised. The mean year-round infestation per goat was 2.03 larvae. Adult goats had a higher infestation rate than younger ones (60 versus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Isolation, characterization and kinetics of goat cystatins.  

PubMed

Two cysteine proteinase inhibitors I and II were purified from goat kidney using alkaline denaturation, ammonium sulphate fractionation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The purified inhibitors were homogenous and showed a single band on SDS PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions with an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. The cystatin forms were stable in the range of pH 3-10 and up to 95 degrees C. Immunological identity with the sheep LMW kininogen was obtained suggesting that the inhibitor is closely related to kininogens. Spectral studies confirm that the inhibitors have predominantly an alpha-helical structure and undergo major conformational changes during complex formation with papain. The inhibitors had similar inhibitory activities on cysteine proteinases. Both inhibitors inhibited papain, ficin and bromelain competitively, with maximum affinity for papain. The overall lower affinity of these inhibitors to cysteine proteinases compared to other known cystatins can be attributed to the unusual N-terminal sequence where Leu is substituted by Ile. Furthermore, N-terminal sequence analysis revealed maximum homology to mammalian LMW kininogen. PMID:16257555

Sadaf, Z; Shahid, P B; Bilqees, B

2005-12-01

270

The complete mitochondrial genome of Yunnan black goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

Abstract Yunnan black goat (Capra hircus) is one of the famous native goat breed in China. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of Yunnan black goat mitochondrial genome was determined for the first time. Sequence analysis showed that the genome structure was in typical with other vertebra animals. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The base composition was A (33.6%), G (13.1%), C (26.0%) and T (27.3%), so the percentage of A and T (60.9%) was higher than that of G and C. PMID:24495140

Tang, Yan-Xia; Liu, Fang; Tang, Hong-Xia; Yang, Shao-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

2014-02-01

271

The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

Abstract Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus) is a native breed of Hunan province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Xiangdong black goat is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,641?bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 33.53% A, 13.12% G, 27.25% T and 26.09% C, in the order A?>?T?>?C?>?G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes. PMID:25423508

Mao-Liang, Ran; Chen, Bin; Ouyang, Xuxiang; Li, Zhi; Dong, Lian-Hua

2014-11-25

272

Heavy metals in livers and kidneys of goats in Alabama  

SciTech Connect

The popularity of goat farming is increasing in the southeastern region of the United States. Baseline values of Hg, Pb, and Cd are not available in goat tissues in the United States. These values are needed when monitoring food for heavy metal contamination which may be associated with urbanization and industrialization. Due to human activities or anthropogenic sources of metals in the environment, high concentrations of these metals have been observed in herbage and animal tissues. It has also been reported that toxic heavy metals are concentrated mostly in kidneys and livers of animals. The risk of exposure of humans to heavy metals contained in edible organs of animals has received widespread concern. The objectives of this study were to (i) measure the levels of Hg,Pb, and Cd in livers and kidneys of goats; and (ii) determine whether accumulation of these metals is related to age and/or sex. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Datiri, B.C. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States)

1995-10-01

273

Effect of different diluents on goat semen fertility.  

PubMed

Skim milk (SM) is considered to be the most widely employed extender for goat sperm used for artificial insemination (AI). However, the fertilizing life span of sperm stored in milk or milk-based extenders does not exceed 12h. Besides some seminal plasma components, such as a protein fraction from the goat bulbourethral gland secretion (SBUIII), interacts with some milk fractions and inhibits the spermatozoa motility. The aim of this study was to prolong the survival of buck semen and its fertility. Buck ejaculates were diluted to a final concentration of 100x10(6)spermatozoa/ml with three different diluents: SM, TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and TEMPOL+hyaluronic acid (TEMPOL+HA). At 7h from dilution 42 goats were inseminated with semen diluted with SM (short-term semen) while after storage for 24h, 44 and 45 goats were inseminated with semen diluted with TEMPOL and TEMPOL+HA (long-term storage), respectively. At day 50 from AI the percentages of pregnant goats were 71.4% (30/42) with SM, 61.4% (27/44) with TEMPOL and 48.8% (22/45) with TEMPOL+HA, with significant differences between SM and TEMPOL+HA. The kidding rate was 66.7% (28/42) with SM diluent, 61.4% (27/44) with TEMPOL and 48.8% (22/45) with TEMPOL+HA, without significant differences among treatment groups. In conclusion, it is possible to maintain good fertility in goats after AI with semen stored for 24h in TEMPOL. PMID:17383124

Mara, L; Dattena, M; Pilichi, S; Sanna, D; Branca, A; Cappai, P

2007-11-01

274

The Effect of C. burnetii Infection on the Cytokine Response of PBMCs from Pregnant Goats  

PubMed Central

In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection). In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-? mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-? mRNA and IFN-? mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-? protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-? protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection. PMID:25279829

Ammerdorffer, Anne; Roest, Hendrik-I J.; Dinkla, Annemieke; Post, Jacob; Schoffelen, Teske; van Deuren, Marcel; Sprong, Tom; Rebel, Johanna M.

2014-01-01

275

Variation in the functions of village goats in Zimbabwe and South Africa.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to compare the functions and management systems of goats in Chirumanzu district in Zimbabwe and, Alfred Nzo and Amatole districts in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected using participatory rural appraisal techniques and direct observations. In addition, structured questionnaires from 344 households as follows; 69 from Alfred Nzo district, 144 from Amatole district and 132 from Chirumanzu district were also used to retrieve information from farmers. There were more female goat owners in male-headed households in Chirumanzu (75%) than in Amatole (27%) and Alfred Nzo (30%). Mean goat flock sizes per household were markedly high in Amatole (14.0 +/- 0.31) and Alfred Nzo (14.1 +/- 1.42) as compared to Chirumanzu (4.7 +/- 0.30). There were positive correlations (r = 0.30 for Amatole, r = 0.34 for Alfred Nzo and r = 0.25 for Chirumanzu; P < 0.05) between goat flock sizes and cattle herd sizes kept per household. Seventy-nine and 78% of households in Amatole and Alfred Nzo kept goats mainly for initiation ceremonies, respectively. Nearly all (95%) of the households in Chirumanzu reared goats for household consumption. Goat houses in all the districts were poorly constructed. Farmers' perceptions showed that most goat mortalities were mainly caused by gastrointestinal parasites and tick-borne diseases, especially heartwater. About 29, 15 and 27% of households in Alfred Nzo, Amatole and Chirumanzu, respectively, owned bucks. There were no formal markets for goats in the three districts. Chirumanzu had more females owning goats than the other two districts. No adolescents owned goats in all the three districts. Adolescent boys participated in the management of goats more than adolescent girls across the three districts. Differences in the importance of goats among countries and regions should be borne in mind when designing goat improvement and rural development programmes. PMID:19252996

Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

2009-10-01

276

Fetotoxic Effects of Locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) in Pregnant Goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has beena substantial amount of research in sheep given locoweed from 60 to 130 days of gestation. Even so, there has been no research on fetotoxic effects of locoweed during gestation days 30-60, and little has been done to describe the effect of poisoning in pregnant goats. Thus the purpos...

277

GOAT ADIPOSE TISSUE MOBILIZATION AND MILK PRODUCTION LEVEL  

E-print Network

GOAT ADIPOSE TISSUE MOBILIZATION AND MILK PRODUCTION LEVEL D. SAUVANT Y. CHILLIARD, P. BAS P weight that high levels of milk production are closely associated with an intense mobili- zation of body work was conducted to study the relationships which associate milk yield and lipomobilization levels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Genotypic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in Iranian goats  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate and characterize the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) from goats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Methods A total of 120 goats were screened from abattoirs of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Forty out of 120 samples were infected with cystic echinococcosis and 29 out of 40 infected samples were fertile hydatid cysts (containing protoscolices) which were collected from the livers and lungs of infected goats. DNA samples were extracted from the protoscolices and characterized by mitochondrial DNA sequencing of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. Results Sequences analysis of nine fertile hydatid cysts indicated that all isolated samples were infected with the G1 sheep strain and two sequences were belonged to G14 and G1c microvarients of the G1 genotype. Conclusions The results showed that goats act as alternative intermediate hosts for sheep strain. G1 genotype seems to be the main route of transmission and it should be considered in further studies.

Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Reza; Omrani, Vahid Fallah; Spotin, Adel; Esfandiari, Behzad

2013-01-01

279

USE OF GOATS FOR THE CONTROL OF SALT CEDAR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire, flood, herbicide, manual, mechanical and insect biocontrol methods have all been used to remove invasive salt cedar. Each method has advantages and disadvantages in particular circumstances. We used goats to browse replicated 1-3 acre plots in salt cedar near San Acacia and San Marcial along t...

280

Mediterranean sheep and goats production: An uncertain future  

Microsoft Academic Search

European sheep and goat production, in the Mediterranean areas represent important economic, environmental and sociological issues. Our article aims at comparing the situation of the main small ruminant systems in South European regions (Spain, France, Italy and Greece), and their possible future evolution.On the average, the income of milk systems tends to be higher than meat systems thanks to a

M. de Rancourt; N. Fois; M. P. Lavín; E. Tchakérian; F. Vallerand

2006-01-01

281

Novel bluetongue virus in goats, Corsica, France, 2014.  

PubMed

During 2000-2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

Zientara, Stéphan; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

2014-12-01

282

Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014  

PubMed Central

During 2000–2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

283

Isolation of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from aborted goat fetuses.  

PubMed

Abortions and stillbirths were noticed in pregnant goats on a farm in the state of Gujarat, India. About 50% of the pregnant goats aborted or gave birth to dead kids. Bluetongue virus (BTV) antibody in the sera of affected goats was detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral antigen in the blood of these goats and in the aborted fetal spleens was detected using a sandwich ELISA. Two viruses (SKN-9, SKN-10) were isolated in cell culture from aborted fetal spleens and were confirmed as Orbivirus by demonstration of ten bands in RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified as BTV-1 by sequencing of the VP2 gene. Sequence analyses revealed thatthese isolates were very closely related to a BTV-1 (strain SKN-8) isolated from Culicoides vectors captured on the same farm one month after the occurrence of abortion. Isolation of BTV-1 from fetuses is probably evidence of transplacental transmission of the wild-type strain, because attenuated or laboratory-adapted BTV-1 strains have never been used in this region. This may have important implications in the epidemiology of bluetongue, considering the presence of many BTV serotypes in India. PMID:25812205

Chauhan, H C; Biswas, S K; Chand, K; Rehman, W; Das, B; Dadawala, A I; Chandel, B S; Kher, H N; Mondal, B

2014-12-01

284

Foraging selectivity of three goat breeds in a Mediterranean shrubland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging behaviors of the Damascus, Mamber and Boer goat breeds were compared on shrublands of the South Carmel mountain ridge of Israel. Dietary choice was determined for a group of yearling animals of each breed (n=11 or 12), housed and grazed separately to prevent social facilitation, during a total of 4 (Mamber) or 5 (Damascus and Boer) sessions of four

T. A. Glasser; S. Y. Landau; E. D. Ungar; A. Perevolotsky; L. Dvash; H. Muklada; D. Kababya; J. W. Walker

285

Utilisation of the boer goat for intensive animal production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence is examined for the utilisation of Boer goats for intensive animal production. They are used for meat production and the skins are a valuable byproduct. They are by preference browsers and can utilise bushveld most efficiently in combination with cattle. They have a peak in sexual activity in autumn but will breed at any time provided correct husbandry

J. D. Skinner

1972-01-01

286

Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue.  

PubMed

Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

2013-12-01

287

Synchronization of oestrus in goats: dose effect of progestagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trial was conducted to test the efficiency of different doses of intravaginal progestagen in the synchronization of different goat breeds, in the breeding season. Sixty Multiparous Boer and 60 Indigenous feral does were allocated to three treatment groups. The groups consisted of a control group (natural oestrus) (n=20\\/breed); 60mg MAP sponge groups inserted for 14 days plus 300IU PMSG

J. P. C. Greyling; M. van der Nest

2000-01-01

288

Evaluation of the Activity of Plant Extracts in Boer Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The effect of extracts from Neem ( Azadirachta indica ), Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium ) and Tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum) with added copper sulfate, on female Boer goats infected with gastrointestinal parasites (GIN ) was evaluated. Approach: Following initial screening for infection, animals were artificially infected with a mix containing approximately 80% Haemonchus contortus and 20% Trichostrongylus spp. After

M. Worku; R. Franco; J. H. Miller

2009-01-01

289

Identification of the secondary follicle cycle of Hexi cashmere goat.  

PubMed

This experiment conducted to identify a periodic change of ultrastructures of secondary follicle characteristics during a whole year, reveal the molecule regulation of growth of cashmere. A total of 10 cashmere goats of 1-year old were studied. The paraffin section and ultrathin slices of skin were made each month in a whole year, observed, photographed, and analyzed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope after stained. Following the development of down fiber, the ultrastructures of secondary follicle of Hexi cashmere goat showed a periodic change within a year. There were five different periods during a down fiber cycle. It was observed that the stage of telogen, proanagen, anagen, procatagen, and catagen was in January and February, March and April, May to August, September and October, and November and December, respectively. The key change observed in secondary follicle under transmission electron microscope was inner root sheath. This study illustrated the five different stage of secondary follicle of Hexi Cashmere goat within a whole growth cycle, and has provided more detailed information about the research field of Hexi cashmere goat. Choosing the suitable time to harvest the cashmere may get the profit maximization. PMID:22753049

He, Yanyu; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu

2012-09-01

290

USDA DAIRY GOAT GENETIC EVALUATION PROGRAM - STATUS AND PLANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evaluations for milk, fat, and protein yields are calculated annually in July and evaluations for type are calculated in December. These evaluations are provided to regional computing centers, the dairy goat association, and the general public through web access. Data flows from the farms through th...

291

A descriptive study of dairy goat predation in Louisiana.  

PubMed

Questionnaires concerning herd size, housing and management, and previous instances of predation were mailed to 124 goat owners in Louisiana. Postcards were mailed over a period of one year on a monthly basis, to the 84 individuals who responded to this questionnaire. Owners were asked to indicate whether they had seen predators on their property and whether any goats were injured or killed by the predators. Upon receipt of any postcard with a "yes" answer to either of these questions, a telephone interview was conducted to determine the exact circumstances of predator experience. The interview format included time, physical circumstances, and detailed questions about the actions of the predator and the goats. In 85% of the cases, the predators sighted were reported as dogs, and most of these were thought to be pets, rather than wild. Instances of attacks occurred most frequently during periods of reduced light. No clear seasonal pattern of attacks emerged. Four management factors were associated with a reduction in number of attacks; penning the goats at night, use of a night light, proximity of the herd to an occupied residence, and presence of a dog. PMID:3567749

Hagstad, H V; Hubbert, W T; Stagg, L M

1987-01-01

292

Footrot in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student  

E-print Network

and money each year in an attempt to control it in their flock or herd. If footrot becomes a problem-negative, anaerobic bacteria, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus (also referred to as Bacteroides by cattle, deer, and horses. In general, sheep are affected more severely than goats. The bacteria

293

The toxicity of Burttia prunoides in rats and goats.  

PubMed

Studies of the toxicity of the leaves and seeds of the plant Burttia prunoides from Singida district of Tanzania were conducted in rats and goats. One group of rats was drenched with a decoction of powdered seeds or leaves while the other group was fed rations containing different proportions of powdered seeds or leaves. The goats were drenched with aqueous suspensions of powdered seeds or leaves. All animals were observed for behavioral changes and clinical signs. Leaves were not toxic to the rats or the goats. In rats the seeds induced a severe acute central nervous system (CNS) disorder and death and also a subacute syndrome characterized by emaciation and milder CNS signs. In goats the seeds induced a severe CNS disorder where unlike the rats the animals did recover. Postmortem findings in the rats included hemorrhage and inflammation of the glandular stomach and edema and congestion of the lungs, brain and mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. The kidneys were congested and showed complete nephrosis of the proximal tubular epithelium. Livers were congested and had focal areas of necrosis. The findings in this study resemble those obtained in calves and sheep using the same plant. PMID:3686822

Msengi, L M; Mosha, R D; Matovelo, J A; Hansen, N G

1987-10-01

294

Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue  

PubMed Central

Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

2013-01-01

295

MONITORING GOAT AND SHEEP MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on MSCC were exami...

296

Some production traits of the West African Dwarf goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of West African Dwarf goats over a 5 year period indicated that these animals are not seasonal breeders but kid throughout the year. Sixty-five per cent of does kidded twice a year and multiple births accounted for 59% of all births. Seventy-two per cent of all deaths were of kids under 3 months of age. Pneumonia and starvation

E. N. W. Oppong; N. M. N. Yebuah

1981-01-01

297

Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

298

What Gets Your Goat? Art across the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Features Elayne Goodman's mixed-media sculpture "The Goat Castle in Natchez," which is dedicated to a whodunnit murder mystery in Mississippi. Provides historical background of the murder and information on Goodman's life. Includes activities in history and social science, mathematics, science, language arts, visual arts, and economics and social…

Sartorius, Tara Cady

2000-01-01

299

Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

Miles, William F. S.

2009-01-01

300

Heat stability and enzymatic modifications of goat and sheep milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat treatments are important processes that affect the quality of milk and especially the physico-chemical and renneting properties. Goat and sheep milk are less stable to heat treatments than cow milk. Although heat-induced reactions are similar between animal species, the changes relative to temperature differences are due to differences in micellar structure, partition of salts between colloidal and aqueous phases,

K. Raynal-Ljutovac; Y. W. Park; F. Gaucheron; S. Bouhallab

2007-01-01

301

Haemoglobin polymorphism and resistance to helminths in Red Sokoto goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemoglobin variants were studied in a population of 104 Red Sokoto goats of over 1 year of age and in 49 kids. Three haemoglobin variants and 5 phenotypes were detected. The observed proportions of haemoglobin phenotypes in animals over 1 year of age differed from the expected numbers calculated on the basis of genetic equilibrium, while in kids there was

V. Buvanendran; T. Sooriyamoorthy; R. A. Ogunsusi; I. F. Adu

1981-01-01

302

Habitat Selection by Mountain Goats in South Coastal British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed data from 18 Global Positioning System collars from 2001 to 2003 in southwestern coastal British Columbia to improve understanding of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) habitat use and its relation to forestry operations. We described seasonal home ranges, movements, and winter habitat selection patterns to predict winter habitat use in similar geographic areas. Seasonal periods were determined for individual

SHAWN TAYLOR; WAYNE WALL

303

Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

2014-04-01

304

POTENTIAL USE OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA IN MEAT GOAT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two preliminary studies were done: 1) to evaluate the nutritive value of Artemisia annua, and 2) to determine efficacy of the isolated plant compound artemisinin administered at 300 mg per head (ART300) compared to no artemisinin control (CON) for controlling gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goat...

305

Herds of goats enlisted in the fight against kudzu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Invasive Species: Plants: Kudzu [pdf]http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/kudzu.shtmlKudzu-Goat Interactions [pdf]http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/6750James Dickey: Kudzuhttp://www.breakoutofthebox.com/kudzu.htmKudzu Recipeshttp://home.att.net/~ejlinton/jelly.html"Ode to Billy Goats" [Quick Time]http://www.tfponline.com/absolutenm/templates/onlineExclusive.aspx?articleid=5064&zoneid=72In his time, Benjamin Franklin once observed, "In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes." Had he visited certain parts of the American South in the early 21st century, he might have added "kudzu", effectively completing that troika. This very fast growing vine has spread with amazing speed since its introduction to the United States in 1876, via the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. For decades it was used as an ornamental, but by the 1950s the plant was a ubiquitous part of the landscape in Mississippi, Alabama and other parts of the South. Recently, the city of Chattanooga has decided to enlist a new partner in the ongoing horticultural battle with this noxious weed: goats. The city's public works department decided to allow the goats free reign over a prominent ridge in town that is covered in kudzu, and so far, the results have been encouraging. Of course, things haven't been easy, and there is the "laugh factor" that was recently mentioned by a city forestry inspector, Jerry Jeansonne. Similar programs are also underway in the cities of Tallahassee and Spartanburg, South Carolina, though it remains to be seen whether or not this program can be duplicated on a wider scale. The first link will take users to a New York Times article which talks about the use of goats to control the kudzu of Chattanooga. Moving on, the second link leads to a very thorough website offered by the United States Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center. Here, visitors can learn about kudzu and the ongoing efforts to control this very hearty species. The third link leads to an important 1992 study that investigated the potential to control kudzu with the use of goats. The fourth link will take users to James Dickey's compelling poem on this very prolific vine. The fifth link leads to a number of creative recipes from one Jane Linton that make use of kudzu in such delights as kudzu blossom jelly and apple cider. Finally, the last link will take users to a recent musical number recorded in tribute to the hard-working goats of Chattanooga.

Grinnell, Max

2007-06-08

306

Polymorphism of GDF9 gene and its association with litter size in goats.  

PubMed

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was studied as a candidate gene for high prolificacy in goats. The polymorphism of exon 1 and flanking of GDF9 gene was detected by PCR-SSCP in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. Three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in goat breeds joined and two silent mutations (c.183A>C and c.336C>T) were identified in comparison genotype AA with genotype BB. Heterozygous genotype AB and wild type BB were detected in all five goat breeds and homozygous genotype AA was only detected in Jining Grey goats. The frequencies of genotypes AA, AB and BB were 0.18, 0.42 and 0.40 in Jining Grey goats, respectively. The genotype distribution was different (P?goat) and low prolificacy breeds (Boer, Wendeng Dairy, Liaoning Cashmere and Beijing native goats). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype AA and AB had 0.72 (P??0.05) kids more than those with genotype AB. These indicated that the allele A may have certain correlation with prolificacy in Jining Grey goats. PMID:21547534

Chu, M X; Wu, Z H; Feng, T; Cao, G L; Fang, L; Di, R; Huang, D W; Li, X W; Li, N

2011-08-01

307

Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats  

PubMed Central

A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

2013-01-01

308

A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.  

PubMed

Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat. PMID:12778586

Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

2003-05-01

309

Polymorphisms of caprine GDF9 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

The exons 1, 2 and flanking region of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene in five randomly selected does of Jining Grey, Boer and Liaoning Cashmere goats were amplified and analyzed. Thirteen nucleotide differences were identified in GDF9 gene between sheep (AF078545) and goats. Four SNPs (G3288A in intron 1, G423A, A959C [Gln320Pro] and G1189A [Val397Ile] in exon 2) were detected in four goat breeds with different prolificacy, in which G3288A was a new SNP in goats. The results showed that loci 3288, 423 and 1189 in Boer goats, loci 3288 and 423 in Guizhou White goats, loci 423 and 1189 in Liaoning Cashmere goats were all in complete linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1, r (2) = 1), respectively. In moderate (Boer goat) and low prolificacy (Liaoning Cashmere goat) breeds, linkage analysis indicated that there were more fervent linkage disequilibrium among loci 3288, 423 and 1189 than high prolificacy (Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats) breeds. For the 959 locus, the genotype distribution showed obvious difference between high prolificacy breeds and moderate or low prolificacy breeds (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype CC or AC had 0.81 (P < 0.01) or 0.63 (P < 0.01) kids more than those with genotype AA, respectively. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele C at 959 locus of GDF9 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. These results provide further evidence that the GDF9 gene may be significantly correlated with high prolificacy in goats. PMID:21181498

Feng, T; Geng, C X; Lang, X Z; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Di, R; Fang, L; Chen, H Q; Liu, X L; Li, N

2011-11-01

310

Microbial dynamics during the ripening of a mixed cow and goat milk cheese manufactured using frozen goat milk curd.  

PubMed

To overcome the seasonal shortage of goat milk in mixed milk cheese manufacture, pasteurized goat milk curd and high-pressure-treated raw goat milk curd manufactured in the spring were held at -24 °C for 4 mo, thawed, and mixed with fresh cow milk curd for the manufacture of experimental cheeses. Control cheeses were made from a mixture of pasteurized cow and goat milk. The microbiota of experimental and control cheeses was studied using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Bacterial enumeration by classical methods showed lactic acid bacteria to be the dominant population in both control and experimental cheeses. In total, 681 isolates were grouped by partial amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) into 4 groups and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (563 isolates), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (72 isolates), Lactobacillus spp. (34 isolates), and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris (12 isolates). Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of cheese showed (1) the predominance of Lc. lactis in all cheeses; (2) the presence of Leu. pseudomesenteroides population in all cheeses from d 15 onward; (3) the presence of a Lactobacillus plantarum population in control cheese until d 15 and in experimental cheeses throughout the ripening period. Due to the most diverse and complete set of peptidases present in the genus Lactobacillus, the prevalence of this population in experimental cheeses could give rise to differences in cheese flavor between experimental and control cheeses. PMID:21943728

Campos, G; Robles, L; Alonso, R; Nuñez, M; Picon, A

2011-10-01

311

Mammogenesis and induced lactation with or without reserpine in nulliparous dairy goats.  

PubMed

Nulliparous goats were used to evaluate the effects of a standard protocol for inducing lactation with or without using a prolactin-releasing agent (reserpine). Estrus was synchronized and goats were submitted to daily s.c. injections of estradiol-17beta and progesterone (0.5 and 1.25 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) for 7 d. The goats were divided into 2 groups and injected i.m. with 1 mg/d of reserpine (n = 7) or the vehicle (n = 7) on d 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Lactation was initiated by i.m. injections of dexamethasone (10 mg/d) from d 18 to 20. Goats were machine milked once daily from d 21 to 120, at which time they were mated with herd sires. Milk was measured and sampled daily during wk 1 of lactation and weekly thereafter. Udder traits were measured in all goats at d -2 (before the induction treatment) and on d 35 and 100 (during lactation). Goats initiated lactation on d 21 (100%) and milk yield increased thereafter. The milk yield of control and reserpine-treated goats increased as lactation advanced, peaking at wk 10 of lactation, when reserpine-treated goats yielded 1,079 +/- 89 mL/d of milk compared with 850 +/- 96 mL/d for control goats. Yet milk yield at the peak was only 55% of the peak milk yield observed in contemporary primiparous goats. The composition of initial milk (d 21) was different from that expected for colostrum. Milk composition stabilized after d 3 of lactation. There were no differences among groups for milk fat, protein, casein, or whey protein, but milk from control goats contained greater nonprotein nitrogen than that from reserpine-treated goats (0.48 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%). Teat length increased from 24.7 +/- 1.1 to 34.5 +/- 2.4 mm in control goats during mammogenesis (d -2 to 35), but stabilized in reserpine goats (25.2 +/- 2.2 mm). The distance between teats (11.5 +/- 0.4 cm), and the volume (922 +/- 63 mL) and depth (15.6 +/- 0.60 cm) of the udder increased similarly in both groups during mammogenesis and lactation. After mating, 82% of herdmates became pregnant, whereas only 21% of the lactation-induced goats conceived (1 reserpine-treated and 2 control goats). In conclusion, lactation induction was effective in nulliparous goats, but neither milk yield nor the side effects on fertility seem to support its recommendation. PMID:17638986

Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Albanell, E; Carné, S; Casals, R; Such, X

2007-08-01

312

Chronic atrial fibrillation causes left ventricular dysfunction in dogs but not goats: experience with dogs, goats, and pigs  

PubMed Central

Structural remodeling in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs over weeks to months. To study the electrophysiological, structural, and functional changes that occur in chronic AF, the selection of the best animal model is critical. AF was induced by rapid atrial pacing (50-Hz stimulation every other second) in pigs (n = 4), dogs (n = 8), and goats (n = 9). Animals underwent MRIs at baseline and 6 mo to evaluate left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). Dogs were given metoprolol (50–100 mg po bid) and digoxin (0.0625–0.125 mg po bid) to limit the ventricular response rate to <180 beats/min and to mitigate the effects of heart failure. The pacing leads in pigs became entirely encapsulated and lost the ability to excite the heart, often before the onset of sustained AF. LV EF in dogs dropped from 54 ± 11% at baseline to 33 ± 7% at 6 mo (P < 0.05), whereas LV EF in goats did not drop significantly (69 ± 8% at baseline vs. 60 ± 9% at 6 mo, P = not significant). After 6 mo of AF, fibrosis levels in dog atria and ventricles increased, whereas only atrial fibrosis levels increased in goats compared with control animals. In our experience, the pig model is not appropriate for chronic rapid atrial pacing-induced AF studies. Rate-controlled chronic AF in the dog model developed HF and LV fibrosis, whereas the goat model developed only atrial fibrosis without ventricular dysfunction and fibrosis. Both the dog and goat models are representative of segments of the patient population with chronic AF. PMID:23812387

Ranjan, Ravi; Higuchi, Koji; Kholmovski, Eugene; Angel, Nathan; Li, Li; MacLeod, Rob; Norlund, Layne; Olsen, Aaron; Davies, Christopher J.; Marrouche, Nassir F.

2013-01-01

313

D-loop sequence mitochondrial DNA variability of Sarda goat and other goat breeds and populations reared in the Mediterranean area.  

PubMed

To provide useful knowledge on goat breed origin and history, we studied the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 69 goats from five different breeds, Camosciata delle Alpi, Maltese, Nubian, Saanen and Sarda, and one population, the Tunisian. All goats analysed displayed a moderate haplotype and nucleotide diversity. The highest was in the Sarda - the autochthonous breed reared in Sardinia. On the basis of mtDNA control region sequences, animals showed a high genetic haplotype diversity, 35 haplotypes were each represented by a single sequence and only a few haplotypes were shared among the animals. New haplotypes of goats reared in the Mediterranean area were identified and the majority of Italian goats belonged to haplogroup A. This result confirmed worldwide distribution and diversity of haplogroup A. PMID:20831559

Vacca, G M; Daga, C; Pazzola, M; Carcangiu, V; Dettori, M L; Cozzi, M C

2010-10-01

314

Modulating Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Transport-Induced Immunosuppression in Goats  

PubMed Central

The effect of 12?h road transportation on some basic blood cells and the modulating role of ascorbic acid were investigated in 40 adult Red Sokoto goats during the hot dry season. The animals were divided into two groups, GI (experimental; n = 20) and GII (control; n = 20). Group 1 was administered with ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100?mg/kg body weight, while GII was given 10?mL of sterile water per goat. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12?h. The result obtained in GII goats showed that loading, transportation, high ambient temperature (AT), and relative humidity (RH) encountered during transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia, which can cause immunosuppression. In GI goats, the administration of AA prior to loading and transportation ameliorated the adverse effects of loading and transportation stress on neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and eosinopenia of the goats. PMID:23738106

Minka, Ndazo Salka; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

2011-01-01

315

Chemical composition and quality characteristics of chevon from goats fed three different post-weaning diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six Boer×Spanish intact male goats (BW=18±0.8kg; age 4 months) were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on the chemical composition and quality characteristics of goat meat (chevon). Animals were allotted to three treatment groups (n=12\\/treatment) with three pens for each treatment. Each pen of four goats was fed one of three dietary treatments for 90 d: (1) a

J. H. Lee; B. Kouakou; G. Kannan

2008-01-01

316

Persistent detection of peste de petits ruminants antigen in the faeces of recovered goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was confirmed in West African Dwarf goats. They were managed symptomatically with\\u000a antibiotics and antidarrhoeics. Following clinical recovery, faeces were collected every week from 40 recovered goats to monitor\\u000a excretion of the PPR virus haemagglutinins in their faeces. All the 40 recovered goats shed the PPR virus haemagglutinins\\u000a for 11 weeks post recovery. Nine

M. C. O. Ezeibe; O. N. Okoroafor; A. A. Ngene; J. I. Eze; I. C. Eze; J. A. C. Ugonabo

2008-01-01

317

Spanish goat diets as influenced by brush management in the Post Oak Savannah of Texas  

E-print Network

of most browse and herbaceous species which were consumed by goats. Dietary in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVDOM) varied from 41. 8 to 61. 9%. Sidahmed (1981) reported IVDOM values of 51. 6% in esophageal- fistulae samples from goats... and from October to November, 1980, and in January and Narch, 1981 for summer, fall, winter and spring periods, respectively. Spanish goats (nannies and yearlings) fitted with esophageal fistulae (Van Dyne and Torrel 1964) and cannulae (Taylor...

Lopes, Expedito Aguiar

1982-01-01

318

Sex determination in goat by amplification of the HMG box using duplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable method of determining the sex of goat embryos prior to implantation through amplification of the high-motility-group (HMG) box of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene of the goats.Goat specific primers were designed for duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As an internal control gene, the

Lei Shi; Wenbin Yue; Youshe Ren; Fulin Lei; Junxing Zhao

2008-01-01

319

Effects of milk production level and physiological stage on insulin resistance in lactating goats  

E-print Network

Effects of milk production level and physiological stage on insulin resistance in lactating goats goats to intravenous INS challenge (IVIC) were studied at 2 lactation stages (LS), LS1 = 12 wk, LS2 = 17), ML2LS1 =2.7 kg FCM, ML1LS2 = 3.4 kg FCM, ML2LS2 =2.4 kg FCM. Goats were injected with 11.5 &mu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin following single dose intravenous administration in normal and febrile goats.  

PubMed

A pharmacokinetic study of gentamicin (5 mg/kg intravenous (i.v.)) was conducted first in clinically healthy female goats and then in the same goats after induction of fever by Escherichia coli endotoxin (0.2 microgram/kg i.v.). Rectal temperature increased 1 degrees to 1.5 degrees C in febrile goats. Differences in the blood serum concentrations of gentamicin were not observed at any time between febrile and normal goats. The disposition kinetics of gentamicin were described by a biexponential expression CP = Ae-alpha t + Be-beta t. Median values for the half-lives of gentamicin were 103.6 min in normal and 136.0 min in febrile goats. The apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 263.3 ml/kg in the febrile goats which was not different from that in the normal goats (240.6 ml/kg). The volume of the central compartment (Vc) was almost identical in normal and febrile goats. The body clearance (Cl beta) was observed to be 1.7 and 1.6 ml/min.kg in normal and febrile goats, respectively. Dosage regimens for gentamicin were calculated on the basis of median kinetic data. PMID:7853462

Ahmad, A H; Bahga, H S; Sharma, L D

1994-10-01

321

Preliminary Study on Major Health Problems of the Newly Introduced Boer Goat Breed in Ethiopia  

E-print Network

Abstract: A study was conducted on 60 newly introduced Boer goats breed at Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center (ATARC) Nucleus site to identify the major health problems since their introduction to Ethiopia. Purposive sampling for clinical and laboratory examinations and secondary data collection were used. Out of 60 Boer goats, 26.0 % of them were found to be affected by either one or more of the major health problems. The relative prevalence of the disease problems in Boer goats was found to be 53.3%. GIT parasites, keratoconjunctivitis, ticks, respiratory problems and local abscess with their respective prevalence of 35.0, 20.0, 15.0, 11.7 and 10.0 % were found to be the major health problems of Boer goats at ATARC. The result of the secondary data analysis also showed high prevalence (42.2%) of major health problems in Boer goats being respiratory problems, gastrointestinal parasites, local abscess, diarrhea and orf as the major diseases affecting them. The occurrences of the problems were not significantly affected by age and sex of Boer goats. The high prevalence and diversity of health problems in Boer goats underline the importance of further studies at nucleus site and farm conditions in line with the identification of the different disease agents to design effective prevention and control strategies before the distribution of Boer goats to farmers. Key words: GIT parasites Keratoconjunctivitis Ticks Respiratory problems Boer goats

Dinka Hunduma; Tigre Worku; Wagari Moti; Regassa Feyesa

322

The composition of plasma and interstitial fluid of goats with swelling disease.  

PubMed

Angora goats may develop a characteristic ventral oedema of the subcutaneous tissue which is not unlike the 'wet-carcass syndrome' of sheep. The plasma of oedematous goats shows a lower total protein concentration, a lower colloid osmotic pressure and a lower albumin: globulin ratio than that of normal goats. Similarly, interstitial fluid of oedematous goats has a lower protein concentration, osmolality and colloid osmotic pressure than the fluid from normal but a similar albumin:globulin ratio. These results suggest that, unlike the 'wet-carcass syndrome' of sheep, the most likely explanation for the oedema is hypoproteinaemia which leads to filtration of fluid and an increased capillary permeability. PMID:6655657

Mitchell, G; Hattingh, J; Ganhao, M F

1983-09-01

323

Serology and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). A total of 466 native Korean goats from 40 herds (11 to 12 samples per herd) were randomly selected throughout the nation and evaluated by direct palpation, bacterial isolation, ELISA, and PCR. In serological examinations, 267 (57.3 %) of the goats tested were positive against C. pseudotuberculosis. When seroprevalence was analyzed according to age, region, and season, statistically significant differences were observed in relation to all three parameters (P?goats were palpated to diagnose CLA. Pus samples taken from superficial abscesses were used for bacterial isolation. Among the 466 goats tested, 34 (7.3 %) were presumptively diagnosed with CLA, and C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 24 goats (70.6 % of goats with CLA lesions) whose infections were confirmed by PCR. Considering the high seroprevalence and bacterial isolation rate from most of the superficial CLA lesions, it is suspected that many internal CLA lesions exist in this goat population. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widespread in native Korean goats, and appropriate control programs need to be established. PMID:25682104

Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Ha-Young; Byun, Jae-Won; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Daekeun; Kwak, Dongmi

2015-04-01

324

Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.  

PubMed

Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats. PMID:480512

Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

1979-04-01

325

Isolation of Prion with BSE Properties from Farmed Goat  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Scrapie is not considered a public health risk, but BSE has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Small ruminants are susceptible to BSE, and in 2005 BSE was identified in a farmed goat in France. We confirm another BSE case in a goat in which scrapie was originally diagnosed and retrospectively identified as suspected BSE. The prion strain in this case was further characterized by mouse bioassay after extraction from formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue embedded in paraffin blocks. Our data show that BSE can infect small ruminants under natural conditions and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie. Surveillance should continue so that another outbreak of this zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy can be prevented and public health safeguarded. PMID:22172149

Lockey, Richard; Sallis, Rosemary E.; Terry, Linda A.; Thorne, Leigh; Holder, Thomas M.; Beck, Katy E.; Simmons, Marion M.

2011-01-01

326

The complete mitochondrial genome of Boer goat (Bovidae; Caprinae).  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of Boer goat. The mitogenome was 16,639?bp in length, comprised of 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. Almost all genes were encoded on the H-strand except the ND6 and eight tRNA genes. Most of the genes initiated with ATG, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 started with ATA. The total base composition of the mitogenome was 33.53% for A, 26.05% for C, 13.12% for T and 27.30% for G. These results provide a standard reference sequence for phylogenetic analyses among goats. PMID:25187040

Niu, Lili; Hu, Jiangtao; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiaoyue; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

2014-09-01

327

The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese tibetan goat (Capra hircus).  

PubMed

Abstract The Tibetan goat (Capra hircus), a breed native to China, is adapted to cold and hypoxia. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tibetan goat. The mitochondrial genome is 16,640?bp in length, with a base composition of 33.6% A, 26.0% C, 13.1% G and 27.3% T. It has a typical mitogenome structure, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. This genomic data provides a strating point for future phylogenetics studies. PMID:25010078

Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

2014-07-10

328

Nutritive value of Ficus religiosa in West African dwarf goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding value of Ficus religiosa (FR) was investigated with West African dwarf (WAD) goats, by feeding FR with Panicum maximum grass (PM) at different ratios of 0:100 (i.e. solely PM), 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 (which were mixture of forages) and 100:0 (solely FR). The study lasted for 105 days, during which feed intake, weight gain, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were

M. A Bamikole; O. J Babayemi; O. M Arigbede; U. J Ikhatua

2003-01-01

329

Reproductive performance and preweaning growth of Spanish goats  

E-print Network

Agronomique d'Abidjan Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas C. Cartwright Records From 1730 Spanish kid goats sired by 37 males and born From 657 does were ana)yzed to determine genetic and environmental factors that affect birth weight. weaning... weight, preweaning average daily gain, survival rate and multiple birth rate and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for those growth and reproduction characters. The data were collected at the Winter -Wal I ranch at Brady, Texas, where...

Bogui, Nathalie Scholastique

1986-01-01

330

Variance components of early growth traits in the Boer goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variance components and resulting heritabilities of birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), preweaning average daily gain (ADG), 6 months weight (6 mW), 9 months weight (9 mW), yearling weight (YW) and the preweaning Kleiber ratio (KR) were estimated in either or in both of two Boer goat herds at two different locations (A and O), using the derivative-free restricted maximum

S. J. Schoeman; J. F. Els; M. M. van Niekerk

1997-01-01

331

Timing of emergence of ovulatory follicles in polyovulatory goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study characterized the timing of emergence of ovulatory follicles during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle in polyovulatory does and assessed whether selection may influence ovulation rate through differences in ovarian follicular dynamics, by characterizing preovulatory follicular emergence and growth in two ecotypes of Neuquen-Criollo Argentinean goats (Short-Hair, n=11 and Long-Hair, n=9). During the breeding season, the

M. Cueto; A. Gibbons; R. Alberio; H. Taddeo; A. Gonzalez-Bulnes

2006-01-01

332

Radioimmunocytochemistry using a tritiated goat anti-rabbit second antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affinity-purified goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (GAR) was conjugated with (³H)-propionyl succinimidate and used to localize substance P (SP), enkephalin (ENK), and serotonin immunoreactive sites in the spinal dorsal horn and medulla of the rat and cat. Autoradiographic localization was demonstrated on paraffin, frozen, Vibratome, and 2 micron plastic sections. The latter were obtained from radiolabeled Vibratome sections that were embedded

E. J. Glazer; J. Ramachandran; A. I. Basbaum

1984-01-01

333

Productive performances of Guadeloupean Creole goats during the suckling period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-genetic sources of variation were investigated for preweaning performance of Creole goats of Guadeloupe using 6375 individual records collected from 1980 to 1994. The analyzed sources of variation were litter size, sex, rank of lactation, year and season of kiddings. Age at first kidding averaged 17.2±3.1 months and the mean kidding interval was 8.5±1.2 months. Litter size (LS) at birth,

G Alexandre; G Aumont; J. C Mainaud; J Fleury; M Naves

1999-01-01

334

The pathology of experimental coyotillo Karwinskia humboldtiana poisoning in goats  

E-print Network

, and D) consisted primarily of congestion and edema with occasional small areas of emphysema. The lesions in the groups fed lower doses of the plant (C and g) had other changes present. Those in group E had purulent bronchopneusmnis superimposed... on the congestion and edema, This wss particularly severe in animal 25911. The poisoned goats in group C had a different type of change. Tha vessels were widely dilated and the endothelima was hyperplastic. There was an adenomatoid appearance...

Dewan, Manik Lal

1964-01-01

335

Deriving nutrient requirements of growing Indian goats under tropical condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 25 feeding trials conducted on growing goats, from different research institutes across India were subjected to multiple regression analysis to derive nutritional requirements of TDN, CP and DCP for maintenance and BW gain. Maintenance requirements for TDN, CP and DCP were 30.1, 5.83 and 3.22g\\/kg BW0.75, respectively. The corresponding requirements for one g gain in BW were 1.61,

A. B. Mandal; S. S. Paul; G. P. Mandal; A. Kannan; N. N. Pathak

2005-01-01

336

Acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of the metabolic consequences of exposure to elevated partial pressures of nitrogen and helium under normobaric and hyperbaric conditions in goats. The results include the finding that hyperbaric nitrogen causes and increase in metabolic rate and a general decrease in blood constituent levels which is interpreted as reflecting a shift toward fatty acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrates. A similar but more pronounced pattern was observed with hyperbaric helium.

Schatte, C. L.; Bennett, P. B.

1973-01-01

337

Weed Technology. 1997. Volume 11:734-738 Diets of Angora Goats Grazing Leafy Spurge Euphorbia esula-Infested  

E-print Network

-approved computer code from Composite List of Weeds, Revised 1989. Available from WSSA, 8 10 East 10th Street of Angora goats nursing kids were met throughout the grazing season. Use of Angora goats is another tool

338

Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.

1983-03-01

339

Cholecystic adenocarcinoma and pancreatic insulinomas in a goat.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old female Boer goat with a history of chronic arthritis and recurrent episodes of recumbency, increased serum gamma-glutamyl transferase, and complete inability to stand was submitted for necropsy. Gross changes included the presence of a white, firm, smooth, 6 cm × 4 cm × 3 cm mass that diffusely expanded and partially effaced the gall bladder and infiltrated the adjacent hepatic parenchyma. On cut surface, the mass was pale yellow and had small, irregular, dark yellow areas. Scattered through the pancreas were 2 gray, well-demarcated, soft, homogeneous, 1 cm in diameter nodules that bulged out from the capsular surface. The right femoral head had a locally extensive area of cartilage erosion. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the gall bladder and pancreatic nodules revealed a primary cholecystic adenocarcinoma and multifocal insulinomas, respectively. A metastatic focus from the gall bladder neoplasm was observed infiltrating the right adrenal gland medulla. The goat also had mild pulmonary infestation by Muellerius capillaris. Primary hepatobiliary and pancreatic neoplasia is rare in goats, and to the authors' knowledge, neither cholecystic adenocarcinoma nor pancreatic insulinomas have been previously reported in this species. PMID:25274741

Yau, Wilson; Rissi, Daniel R

2014-11-01

340

Clorsulon pharmacokinetics in sheep and goats following oral and intravenous administration.  

PubMed

Clorsulon was measured in plasma and urine of sheep and goats after administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) and after a single oral dose of 7 mg/kg. A three-compartment model with elimination occurring from the central compartment was determined to best describe the i.v. data, whereas a one-compartment model with a single exponential absorption phase best described the oral plasma data. The bioavailability of orally administered clorsulon was approximately 55% in goats and 60% in sheep. Peak plasma concentrations occurred at 14 h and 15 h after oral administration in goats and sheep, respectively. Absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract effectively prolonged the elimination of clorsulon by increasing the elimination half-life from 17 to 28 h in sheep and from 12 to 23 h in goats for the i.v. and oral routes, respectively. In both goats and sheep, approximately 50% of the i.v. dose was recovered in urine as parent drug at 48 h after administration, whereas 41% and 30% of the dose was recovered after oral administration for goats and sheep, respectively. The elimination rate constant (kel) in goats was nearly twice as large as the value determined in sheep, and the urea under the i.v. plasma curve in goats was only 63% of the value in sheep indicating that goats are more effective in their capacity to eliminate clorsulon than are sheep. These differences in drug disposition between sheep and goats may account for the reduced efficacy of clorsulon reported in goats. PMID:1433492

Sundlof, S F; Whitlock, T W

1992-09-01

341

Polymorphisms of myostatin gene ( MSTN ) in four goat breeds and their effects on Boer goat growth performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphisms of myostatin (MSTN) gene were investigated as a candidate marker for goat growth in 687 individuals by gene sequencing and polymerase chain\\u000a reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Three potential genotypes (AA, AB and BB) of 5 bp indel (1,256\\u000a TTTTA\\/?) in 5?UTR were detected in four breeds. The polymorphism (CC, CD and DD) of substitution (1,388 T\\/A) in exon

Chunyan Zhang; Yun Liu; Deqing Xu; Qunying Wen; Xiang Li; Wenmin Zhang; Liguo Yang

342

The feeding height preferences of two goat breeds fed Grewia occidentalis L. (Tiliaceae) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nguni goats and Boer goats, which are farmed together in the savannas of the Eastern Cape Province, depend on the same feed resources. The feeding height intake rates and preferences of one of their most preferred browse species, Grewia occidentalis L. (Tiliaceae), were studied in order to indirectly determine resource partitioning between these goat breeds on the basis of feeding

L. E Dziba; P. F Scogings; I. J Gordon; J. G Raats

2003-01-01

343

Seroprevalence of, and risk factors for, peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats in Northern Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important disease that affect sheep and goat industry in Asia and Africa. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence, and risk factors, of PPR in sheep and goat flocks from five different governorates (Irbid, Jarash, Ajloun, Mafraq and Zarka) located in Northern Jordan. Serum samples from 929 and 400 sheep and goats,

Ahmad M. Al-Majali; Nazmi O. Hussain; Nadim M. Amarin; Aggrey A. Majok

2008-01-01

344

74 FR 2658 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...mandatory COOL. Producers of cattle, hogs, sheep, and goats while not directly covered...are 1,018,359 farms that raise beef cows, and 2,458 are estimated to have annual...as small and an estimated 99 percent of sheep, lamb, and goat farms would be considered...production claims. Cattle, hog, lamb, sheep, chicken, and goat producers may...

2009-01-15

345

Polymorphisms at the five exons of the growth hormone gene in the algarvia goat: possible association with milk traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present preliminary study attempts to establish associations between milk production traits and genetic polymorphisms at the GH gene in the Algarvia goat. The DNA of 108 goats of the indigenous Portuguese Algarvia breed was evaluated. Single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) were identified at the five exons of the goat growth hormone (gGH) gene. Two conformational patterns were found in each

E. Malveiro; M. Pereira; P. X. Marques; I. C. Santos; C. Belo; R. Renaville; A. Cravador

2001-01-01

346

Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat  

E-print Network

Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat C and milk lipidic secretion. Seven lactating goats equipped with duodenal cannulae have followed 3 periods, P2, the goats were duodenally perfused, twice a day after milking with an emulsion providing 4 g

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

63 FR 3671 - Interstate Movement of Sheep and Goats From States That Do Not Quarantine Scrapie Infected and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Interstate Movement of Sheep and Goats From States...interstate movement of sheep and goats. We believe...a serious disease of sheep and goats. After evaluating...wool pulling; biting at legs or side; lip smacking...shall be an electronic implant, flank tattoo, or...

1998-01-26

348

J. A. Wisniewski, D. E. Moody, B. D. Hammock and L. R. Shull Enzyme Activities in Cattle, Goats and Sheep  

E-print Network

J. A. Wisniewski, D. E. Moody, B. D. Hammock and L. R. Shull Enzyme Activities in Cattle, Goats, GOATS AND SHEEP 1 J. A. Wisniewski2, D. E. Moody 3, B. D. Hammock 3 and L. R. Shull2 University in composite samples representing entire livers and in samples from three lobes, using liversof cattle, goats

Hammock, Bruce D.

349

Degradation and outflow rate of protein supplements in the rumen of dry and lactating ewes and goats  

E-print Network

and goats M. HADJIPANAYIOTOU, A. KOUMAS, E. GEORGHIADES D. HADJIDEMETRIOU Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus Six dry Chios ewes and 6 dry Damascus goats an average weight of 58.1 and 60.0 kg goats with an average live weight of 64 and 60 kg, respectively were used. They were given 129.2 and 125

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Study of the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in the analysis of the tree foliage intake of goats  

E-print Network

foliage intake of goats JJ Waelput R Biston M Meuret2 1 CRA, Gembloux, Station de Haute Belgique, 100 rue intake of goats on Mediterranean wooded rangelands. Materials and Methods ― Fodder and fe- cal samples were collected from 3 groups of 3 goats, browsing ad lib on fresh leafy Quercus pubescens branches

Boyer, Edmond

351

Lipoprotein lipase activity and composition of omental adipose tissue as related to lipid metabolism of the goat in late  

E-print Network

metabolism of the goat in late pregnancy and early lactation Y. CHILLIARD, D. SAUVANT, J. HERVIEU, Michelle composition were estimated on 5 goats in late pregnancy and early lactation. These data were compared increased from pregnancy to lactation. Inter-goat variations were large for most parameters and emphasized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Evaluation of goat body lipids change according to the level of feeding by the condition scoring method  

E-print Network

Evaluation of goat body lipids change according to the level of feeding by the condition scoring in livestock production systems. In a previous work, the scoring method was calibrated in the Sahel goat (Cissé on extensive pasture. This study aimed at determining in this goat the monthly change in body weight (BW

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

Comparison of the chemical composition and the particle size of alimentary bolus in goats and sheep fed various diets  

E-print Network

Comparison of the chemical composition and the particle size of alimentary bolus in goats and sheep- tors accounting for the better utilization of poor forages by goats, compared with sheep, urea on 3 wether goats and 3 sheep fitted with an esophagus cannula, for 3 wk after a 15 d pre- experimental

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Feeding habit of goats in the scavenging system of Bangladesh Dept of General Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

E-print Network

Feeding habit of goats in the scavenging system of Bangladesh MR Alam Dept of General Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh In the mixed farming system goats are reared mostly by the landless farmers to supplement their income. Feeding of goats depend on systems

Boyer, Edmond

355

Rapid tests to assess concentrate feed acceptability by goats P. MORAND-FEHR J. HERVIEU, D. LEGENDRE, A. GUTTER,  

E-print Network

Rapid tests to assess concentrate feed acceptability by goats P. MORAND-FEHR J. HERVIEU, D-Bernard, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France) Several, or all, Alpin or Saanen goats of a flock often refuse partly developed to assess the acceptability of concentrate feeds for goats and the risk of refusal. In two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

A Dig into the Past Mitochondrial Diversity of Corsican Goats Reveals the Influence of Secular Herding Practices  

E-print Network

A Dig into the Past Mitochondrial Diversity of Corsican Goats Reveals the Influence of Secular rue du cha^teau de l'Horloge, BP 647, 13094 Aix-en-Provence, France Abstract The goat (Capra hircus ancestor, the bezoar (Capra aegagrus), still occurs. During the Neolithic dispersal, the domestic goat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

Quality and consumer acceptability of salt and phosphate enhanced goat loin from goats fed varying levels of pine bark.  

PubMed

Goat loins (n=22) were evaluated to test effects of 0, 15, and 30% dietary pine bark (PB) and salt, water, and phosphate enhancement on shelf-life, shear force (WBSF) and consumer acceptability. No interactions existed between PB and enhancement. Dietary PB did not affect objective color, but enhancement increased a* and b* values (P<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased from d 1 to d 5 of storage (P<0.0001), but were not affected by PB or enhancement. The WBSF for 30% PB was less than that of 0% PB (P=0.0199), and enhancement decreased WBSF (P=0.0010). Texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were greater (P<0.05) for 15 and 30% PB compared to 0% PB. Enhanced loin samples had greater appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability scores (P<0.05). Results indicated that enhancement improved tenderness and consumer acceptability of goat loin, and PB had minimal impact on goat loin quality. PMID:22112521

Leick, C M; Broadway, P R; Solaiman, S; Behrends, J M

2012-03-01

358

Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate, and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into 4 treatment groups: 1) contr...

359

Forage intake and nutrition of range goats in a shrubland in northeastern Mexico.  

PubMed

Voluntary intake and nutritive value of diets selected by goats grazing a shrubland at Marin county, N.L., Mexico were determined. Four esophageally cannulated Spanish female goats (average BW 35 kg), were used to collect extrusa samples monthly throughout 1 yr (June 1987 to May 1988). Organic matter intake (OMI) was estimated by total fecal collections from four castrated Spanish male goats (average BW 42 kg). Diets selected by goats were high in CP throughout the year (means = 18.9%). Available CP represented only about half the total CP. The ADF content of extrusa samples differed (P less than .05) among months, with high ADF values during winter months. Dietary lignin followed a similar pattern during the year. Goats consumed forage with sufficient amounts of Ca, Na, K, Mg, Cu, ZN, Mn, and Fe to meet requirements. The OMI of goats was different (P less than .05) among sampling periods. On the average, estimated OMI (means = 878.7 g/d) compared well with results of other studies in the area. Amounts of DE consumed by goats (1.1 Mcal DE/d) were not sufficient to meet requirements for maintenance plus low activity. High levels of browse in the diets presumably were responsible for low in vitro OM digestibility (means = 34.1%) throughout the year. Thus, productivity of range goats in these areas should be improved by supplementing with protein and energy. PMID:1648070

Ramírez, R G; Loyo, A; Mora, R; Sanchez, E M; Chaire, A

1991-03-01

360

Peri and intra-operative management of the goat during acute surgical experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats are used as animal models for surgery and trauma research. The authors discuss appropriate methods for induction of anesthetics, intubation and surgical maintenance of the goat during acute experimentation. Risks imposed by the Q fever pathogen Coxiella burnetii are described, as well as measures that have proven effective in minimizing zoonotic transmission of this pathogen to laboratory personnel. With

Devin C Flaherty; Besim Hoxha; Shirley Nelson; Jie Sun; Hunaid Gurji; Jerry W Simecka; Robert T Mallet; Albert H Olivencia-Yurvati; Egeenee Q Daniels

2010-01-01

361

Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii cause a glycoprotein storage disease in goats. This paper reports the experimental poisoning in goats by dried I. sericophylla and I. riedelii containing 0.05% and 0.01% swainsonine, respectively. Three groups with four animals each were used. Group 1 recei...

362

Effects of concentrate level on carcass traits of Boer crossbred goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boer crossbred goats (n=46) were used to assess the effects of dietary concentrate on carcass composition, primal cut yield, sensory properties, and fatty acid (FA) composition. Goats were fed diets ad libitum, with no concentrate (range) or with one of three levels of concentrate (low, 50%; medium, 70%; high, 90%) for 126 days before slaughter. Carcass measurements were taken at

S. M. Ryan; J. A. Unruh; M. E. Corrigan; J. S. Drouillard; M. Seyfert

2007-01-01

363

Superovulation and embryo collection in nulliparous Boer goat does immunized against a recombinant ovine ?-subunit inhibin  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the purpose of eliciting a superovulatory response, 12 adult nulliparous Boer goat does were actively immunized against a recombinant ?-subunit of ovine inhibin (roIHN-?; two injections of 100mg 4 weeks apart). Another 12 control Boer goat does were treated with physiological saline and acted as controls. One year later the immunized animals were boostered by the administration of another

G. Padilla; P. G. Knight; W. Holtz

2008-01-01

364

Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on cryopreservation of Boer goat semen in Tris egg yolk extender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant added in different concentrations to the Tris egg yolk extenders on semen cytological parameters pre freezing and post thawing (motility, morphology, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity) of Boer goat spermatozoa. A total of 40 ejaculates from four Boer goat bucks were collected

Akeel Ahmed Memon; H. Wahid; Y. Rosnina; Y. M. Goh; M. Ebrahimi; F. M. Nadia; G. Audrey

365

Foraging behaviour of the newly introduced Boer goat breed in a Mediterranean woodland: A research observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brush encroachment is reducing pasture and amenity values of rangelands in the upper Galilee, Israel. Local Mamber goats are efficient at preventing brush encroachment, but their low prolificacy and slow growth of their kids prevent profitable farming. Boer goats from southern Africa are deemed to be prolific and rapidly growing, but their ability to exploit Mediterranean woodland and scrubland in

Hava Aharon; Z. Henkin; E. D. Ungar; Dorit Kababya; Hagit Baram; A. Perevolotsky

2007-01-01

366

Comparative milk production potential of Indigenous and Boer goats under two feeding systems in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the milk potential of Boer goat and South African local Indigenous goat does, under intensive and extensive nutritional regimes. Thirty-six Multiparous does (18 Boer and 18 Indigenous) were allocated to intensive (complete diet) and extensive (natural pastures) environmental groups, following kidding. Does were hand-milked twice weekly and the milk production recorded. Body

J. P. C. Greyling; V. M. Mmbengwa; L. M. J. Schwalbach; T. Muller

2004-01-01

367

Avermectin-resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of Boer goats and Dorper sheep in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes among small ruminants is widespread in South Africa and Dorper sheep and Boer goats have been imported into Switzerland from this country on a number of occasions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of avermectin (AVM) resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in these breeds in Switzerland. A total of 24 Boer goat farms and

R. Artho; M. Schnyder; L. Kohler; P. R. Torgerson; H. Hertzberg

2007-01-01

368

Effect of season on the freezability of Boer goat semen in the northern temperate zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of season (spring, summer, autumn and winter) on pre- and post-freezing percentage of motile spermatozoa and percentage of live spermatozoa in Boer breed goat semen was studied between February 1, 1989, and January 1, 1990. Of the available 195 ejaculates collected from 6 healthy sexually mature Boer goat bucks, 177 had a mass activity greater than 3 (0

R. K. Tuli; W. Holtz

1995-01-01

369

Variance components and genetic parameters for weight and size at birth in the Boer goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variance components, heritability (direct additive and maternal) and correlations (additive genetic, phenotypic, maternal genetic and environmental) of body weight (BW) and body size including length (BL), height (BH) and chest girth (BCG) at birth in Boer goats were estimated on the basis of 5096 records obtained from a Boer Goat Breeding Station in Yidu, China, during 2001–2005. The parameters were

Chunyan Zhang; Liguo Yang; Zhong Shen

2008-01-01

370

LEUCAENA AS A SUPPLEMENT FOR GOATS GRAZING BAHIAGRASS IN SOUTH FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goats require protein supplementation while grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum natatum Flugge) during summer in Florida. We measured weight gains of Boer x Spanish goats (6-7 mo old) in July- Novembver, 2003 (140 d) while grazing leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)de wit]with bahiagrass (LEUC), compare...

371

Mapping of mitochondrial DNA of individual sheep and goats: rapid evolution in the D loop region.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from sheep and goat was compared by restriction endonuclease analysis and heteroduplex mapping in the electron microscope. The fragment patterns produced by endonuclease Hae III from three individual sheep and two goat mtDNAs all differed from each other. The three sheep mtDNAs had identical Eco RI and Hind III fragments, but the two goat mtDNA patterns differed from each other as well as from sheep mtDNA. We estimate that each sheep mtDNA differs from each other by 0.5-1% of its nucleotide sequences, the two goat mtDNAs by 1-2%, and there is a 6-11% sequence difference between sheep and goat mtDNAs. We have mapped the Eco RI and Hind III sites of goat and sheep mtDNA and determined the positions of the D loop, which marks the replication origin, relative to the restriction map. The D loops are at homologous positions on the mtDNAs from both species, but the goat D loop is only 75% as long as the sheep D loop. Regions with a high degree of sequence divergence occur at both ends of the D loop. We suggest that a duplication of about 150 base pairs has occurred in the region where the sheep and goat D loops differ in length. We discuss mtDNA evolution in terms of divergence of isolated "mitochondrial DNA clones." PMID:884736

Upholt, W B; Dawid, I B

1977-07-01

372

Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antigen in conjunctival smears of goats by indirect immunofluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRv) antigen was detected in conjunctival epithelial cells obtained from goats in the early or late stage of the disease by the use of a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) to PPRV in an immunofluorescent antibody test (EFAT). The affected goats were sampled during an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants in Eritrea. Syncytia were also

K. J. Sumption; G. Aradom; G. Libeau; A. J. Wilsmore

1998-01-01

373

Histopathological study of a natural outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants in goats of Tamilnadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Morbilli viruses responsible for Rinderpest in cattle and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats, are important pathogens of domestic ruminants. PPR infection is most commonly recorded among the sheep population in India. This article deals with the first exclusive outbreak of PPR in goats in a mixed population that occurred in the southern districts of Tamilnadu,

A. W. Aruni; P. S. Lalitha; A. C. Mohan; P. Chitravelu; S. P. Anbumani

1998-01-01

374

Protection of goats against rinderpest by vaccination with attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine virus to protect small ruminants against virulent rinderpest virus was investigated. Out of four susceptible goats that were infected with the highly virulent Saudi strain of rinderpest virus by intranasal ioculation, three developed mild clinical signs of disease and infected susceptible in-contact goats and cattle with rinderpest virus. However, four

A Diallo

1995-01-01

375

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats H the grazing animal performances. This study was designed to investigate the effect of tannins on the nitrogen balance in sheep and goats and on potentially related parameters such as plasma urea nitrogen (PUN

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

Effect of sex and genotype on protein metabolism parameters in the liver of the young goat  

E-print Network

Effect of sex and genotype on protein metabolism parameters in the liver of the young goat SJ genotypes and sexes to possible differences in the liver nitrogen metabolism of the goat. Local PW male expressed as RNA/protein and protein/DNA ratios, respectively. Within both sexes the crossbreeds had higher

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Preference for drinking warm water during heat stress affects milk production in food-deprived goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deprivation leads to diminished water intake and decreased milk production in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to determine whether these effects could be alleviated by offering six lactating goats (Capra hircus) warm water to drink at normal or hot ambient temperatures. The food deprivation period was started on Day — 1 at 0700 h by feeding

K. Olsson; K. Cvek; E. Hydbring

1997-01-01

378

Association of Raillietia caprae with the presence of Mycoplasmas in the external ear canal of goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We did a descriptive study to determine whether the presence in the external ear canal of the Raillietia caprae mites and Mycoplasmas were associated. For that we sampled 360 goats slaughtered at abattoirs in the summer to identify those infested with the mite. We found only 20 infested, so used all of those plus another 47 uninfested goats selected systematically

Otero Negrete Jimena; Jaramillo Meza Laura; Miranda Morales Rosa Elena; Navarro Hernández Jaime Alonso; Quintero Martínez María Teresa

2009-01-01

379

Occurrence and biology of goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana silenus (Diptera, Oestridae) in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI) by the larvae of Przhevalskiana silenus is endemic in goats of semi-hilly and mountainous regions of Iran. This myiasis has severe economic impact on tanning industries, and it is responsible for impaired milk and meat production, growth retardation and carcass depreciation. To estimate the prevalence of GWFI in the southern areas of Iran, from October

A. Oryan; S. M. Razavi; S. Bahrami

2009-01-01

380

INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...

381

64 FR 66791 - Scrapie in Sheep and Goats; Interstate Movement Restrictions and Indemnity Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...contact between unrelated sheep). There is no evidence...theory for the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Suspect animal. A sheep or goat exhibiting any...wool pulling; biting at legs or side; lip smacking...Suspect animal. A sheep or goat exhibiting any...wool pulling; biting at legs or side; lip...

1999-11-30

382

Blood groups and evolutionary relationships among domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), domestic Goat (Capra hircus),  

E-print Network

Blood groups and evolutionary relationships among domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), domestic Goat (Capra in this report are concerned with the results of blood typing ofaoudad (Ammotragus lervia), 20 european mouflons (Ovis musimon) and 260 domestic goats (Capra hircus). The blood samples were tested with 31 different

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. Two studies were completed in which supplemental feeds...

384

SERICEA LESPEDEZA HAY AS A NATURAL DEWORMING AGENT AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION IN GOATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the United States (US). Due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat GIN, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to i...

385

Effect of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts in goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of three experiments was to determine the influence of high condensed tannin (CT) grain sorghum on gastrointestinal parasite fecal egg counts (FEC) in goats. Sixteen naturally-infected Boer crossbred mixed sex goats were used at 124 plus minus 2.9 days of age in Experiment 1, 24 mixe...

386

A Model of Radioiodine Transfer to Goat Milk Incorporating the Influence of Stable Iodine  

E-print Network

1 A Model of Radioiodine Transfer to Goat Milk Incorporating the Influence of Stable Iodine 1 N reported models for radioiodine in ruminants cannot account for the effect of variations in stable iodine intake including large countermeasure doses of stable iodine, on the transfer of radioiodine to goat milk

Crout, Neil

387

Serum protein levels and neonatal growth rate of Nubian goat kids in Taiwan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of serum total protein and ?-globulin were determined in 43 newborn goat kids of up to 5 days of age on two goat farms in Taiwan using colorimetric assay and an agarose gel electrophoresis kit, respectively. The kids were sufficiently bottle-fed with the maternal colostrum every 6h for the first day and every 12h since 2 days. The overall

J. C Chen; C. J Chang; H. C Peh; S. Y Chen

1999-01-01

388

Influence of kid rearing systems on milk yield, kid growth and cost of Florida dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and cost in Florida dairy goats. Two groups of animals were created, one with goats under natural suckling and the other under artificial rearing. In the suckling group, the kids were suckled up to

M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; Y. Mena; J. M. Castel; P. González-Redondo; F. P. Caravaca

2009-01-01

389

Clinical and Pathological Effects of Short-term Cyanide Repeated Dosing to Goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this work is to determine and describe the effects of subacute cyanide toxicity to goats. Eight female goats were divided into two groups. The first group of five animals was treated with 8.0mg KCN kg-1 body weight day -1 for seven consecutive days. The second group of three animal...

390

Comparative Study on the Performance of Crossbred Goats under Çukurova Subtropical Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darcan, N. and Güney, O. 2002. Comparative study on the performance of crossbred goats under Çukurova subtropical climate. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 22: 61–64.The milk and reproduction performance of crossbred genotypes (German Fawn x Hair first back cross, Damascus crossbred, Çukurova and Taurus types) improved by the Çukurova University Agriculture Faculty Dairy Goat Farm Unit in the subtropical Mediterranean climatic

Nazan Darcan; Okan Güney

2002-01-01

391

Lysine Metabolism by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats at Two Stages of Lactation  

E-print Network

Lysine Metabolism by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats at Two Stages of Lactation S. J. Mabjeesh lysine and protein metabolism in goats (n = 4) at two stages of lactation (80 ± 17 vs. 233 ± 14 DIM) in response to an i.v. infusion of lysine (Lys) plus methionine (Met). At each stage of lactation [2-15 N

Bequette, Brian J.

392

Amino Acid Exchange by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats when Histidine Limits Milk Production  

E-print Network

Amino Acid Exchange by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats when Histidine Limits Milk Production B gland in response to an imposed limitation on His supply for milk production. Lactating goats (n = 4% of energy requirements for milk production. The protein deficiency was alleviated by infusion

Bequette, Brian J.

393

Changes in the fatty acid composition of goat milk fat after a 48-hour fast  

E-print Network

Changes in the fatty acid composition of goat milk fat after a 48-hour fast Anne-Marie MASSART, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Summary. Five lactating goats were milked twice daily. After a control period of 3 days, they were fasted for 48 hr. The milk was collected at each milking. At the end

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

66 FR 43964 - Scrapie in Sheep and Goats; Interstate Movement Restrictions and Indemnity Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...origin and to the owner of the animals at the time they were so identified...official identification to the animals. In such cases the animals...animals, upon arrival of the sheep or goats in interstate commerce...or (vi) Prior to moving a sheep or goat across a State line...43995

2001-08-21

395

EFFECT OF YEAR, STAGE OF LACTATION, PARITY, BREED AND REGION ON GOAT MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on goat MSCC were ...

396

A Review of Nutritional and Physiological Factors Affecting Goat Milk Lipid Synthesis and Lipolysis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses ofmilk yield andcomposition (fatand protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content in- creaseswithalmostallstudiedfatsupplementsingoats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats

Y. Chilliard; A. Ferlay; J. Rouel; G. Lamberet

2003-01-01

397

NEUROLOGIC DISEASE IN RANGE GOATS ASSOCIATED WITH OXYTROPIS SERICEA (LOCOWEED)POISONING AND WATER DEPRIVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

About 200 of 2500 Spanish goats, foraging on the mountain rangelands in western Montana, developed neurologic disease. Affected animals had severe rear limb weakness, knuckling of the rear fetlocks and a hoping gait. Sick goats were of all ages and in good flesh though they often had dull, shaggy ...

398

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and choline in dairy goats nutrition: Production and health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential to modify milk fatty acid composition and milk production by dietary administration of marine oils rich in n-3 PUFAs in goats diets is reviewed. Moreover animal and human health implications are considered. Role of nutrition in dairy goats for enhancing content of CLA in milk fat is also discussed. At last, rumen protected choline supplementation is evaluated to

G. Savoini; A. Agazzi; G. Invernizzi; D. Cattaneo; L. Pinotti; A. Baldi

2010-01-01

399

EFFECT OF CLINICAL STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS MASTITIS ON EARLY LACTATION DAIRY GOATS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to characterize the effect of induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis on physical parameters and milk constituents of first lactation Alpine dairy goats in early lactation (22 d in milk). The right udder half of seven goats was challenged with approximately 120 colony-forming u...

400

Evidence for persistent Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections. PMID:18987224

Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F

2008-11-01

401

Skull, mandible, and metapodials of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat (Oreamnos harringtoni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chester Stock (1936) described a late Rancholabrean species of extinct mountain goat (Oreamnos harringtoni) based on scant remains from a cave in the Great Basin, Nevada. We present a review using cranial, mandibular, and metapodial remains of O. harringtoni from 13 localities in the southwest. The extinct mountain goat is not just a smaller form of the living species, O.

Jim I. Mead; Mark C. Lawler

1995-01-01

402

Placing the mountain goat: A total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of a group’s evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a ‘rogue taxon’ as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as

Aaron B. A. Shafer; Jocelyn C. Hall

2010-01-01

403

Effects of insulin, cortisol and prolactin on lipid, protein and casein syntheses in goat mammary tissue  

E-print Network

Effects of insulin, cortisol and prolactin on lipid, protein and casein syntheses in goat mammary of Molecular Genetics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (Prague). Glucagon-free insulin was a gift from Eli of insulin, prolactin and cortisol on protein, lipid and casein syntheses were examined in goat mammary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

SHEEP AND GOAT PREFERENCE FOR AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF MEDITERRANEAN MAQUIS SHRUBS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value, intake and preferences of sheep and goats for the dominant 6 shrubs of the holly oak maquis-type shrublands in Croatia. The experimental sheep (n=12, mean weight 28.5 kg) were a local Croatian mixed breed. The experimental goats (n=12,...

405

Production GH transgenic goat improving mammogenesis by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Growth hormone is a positive regulator of mammary gland development. Dairy animals that are administered growth hormone display enhanced lactation performance, a desirable agricultural trait. The objective of the current research was to generate an improved milk production phenotype in a large animal model using over-expressed GH in the mammary gland to promote mammogenesis. To this end, we constructed a mammary gland-specific expression vector, pcGH, and demonstrated effective GH expression in goat mammary epithelial cells in vitro by ELISA. Then, to produce transgenic offspring that were capable of stable GH expression in vivo, the linearized pcGH vector was electroporated into goat fetal fibroblasts. Cell colonies that were positive for GH were used as donors for nuclear transfer to enucleated oocytes. A total of 253 morulae or blastocytes developed from the reconstructed embryos were transferred to 56 recipients, resulting in 24 pregnancies at day 35. Finally, six transgenic goats were born. PCR detection confirmed the success of the cloning procedure. To observe the mammogenesis of dairy goats, the GH transgenic goats were mated with a completely healthy buck. In the later pregnancy period, the mammary gland of the GH transgenic goats were extensive than non-transgenic goats. These experiments indicated that the pcGH vector was incorporated into the transgenic goats and affected mammogenesis, which laid a solid foundation for elucidating the impact of GH on mammogenesis and lactation performance. PMID:24706058

Zhang, Q; Chen, J Q; Lin, J; Yu, Q H; Yu, H Q; Xu, X J; Liu, G H; Yang, Q

2014-07-01

406

Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

407

Finishing meat goats on birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, or red clover pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may contain natural compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production patterns, animal performance, and health when meat goat kids were fin...

408

Sequence conservation of microsatellites between Bos taurus (cattle), Capra hircus (goat) and related species. Examples of use in parentage testing and phylogeny analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel of 70 bovine microsatellites was tested for amplification from goat DNA. Forty-three could be successfully amplified by PCR, 20 of which were tested for polymorphism. Three were applied for parentage testing in goat families and their exclusion probability evaluated. Fourteen were cloned and sequenced from goat DNA, and goat and bovine sequences were compared to evaluate interspecific conservation.

Laurent Pépin; Yves Amigues; Andrée Lépingle; Jean-Luc Berthier; Albert Bensaid; Daniel Vaiman

1995-01-01

409

Estimated prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis in boer goat herds in missouri, USA.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate true animal-level and herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in Missouri Boer goat herds. Sera harvested from blood samples collected from goats ?24 months of age in 25 Missouri Boer goat herds were tested for presence of MAP antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Herds were declared positive for MAP if one or more goats in the herd tested positive for MAP antibodies. True animal, within-herd, and between-herd prevalences were calculated using the Rogan-Gladen estimator and were 1.4% (95% CI = 0.1 to 3.6%), 3% (95% CI = 0 to 6%), and 54.7% (95% CI = 28.2 to 86.2%), respectively. Findings in this study confirmed that MAP infection is endemic in Missouri Boer goat herds. PMID:23251834

Pithua, Patrick; Kollias, Nathaniel S

2012-01-01

410

Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure in Boer goat herds in Missouri, USA.  

PubMed

Limited data currently exist on the prevalence of Toxoplasma infections in goats in the USA. The objective of this pilot investigation was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Boer goats raised in Missouri. Sera collected from 367 Boer goats in 24 herds were tested using a commercial latex agglutination assay. Evidence of T. gondii antibodies was present in 25 of the 367 goats, with titres of 1 : 32 in 4, 1 : 64 in 11, 1 : 128 in 5, 1 : 256 in 3 and 1 : 1024 in 2. Estimates for the apparent animal-level and between-herd prevalence were 6.8% (95% CI = 4.7-9.9%) and 41.7% (95% CI = 24.5-61.2%). These results confirm that Boer goats in Missouri are exposed to T. gondii and may constitute a public health risks. PMID:24256548

Yaglom, H D; Rottinghaus, A A; Pithua, P

2014-09-01

411

Application of a duplex-PCR for detection of cows' milk in goats' milk.  

PubMed

A duplex-PCR method, with 2 pairs of primers recognizing sequences of mitochondrial D-loop region, was developed to identify cows' milk in the milk of goats. The PCR was shown to be specific and sensitive, enabling the detection of less than 1% of cows' milk added to the milk of goats. Simultaneous use of a primer pair for goats' and cows' mitochondrial DNA fragment prevented false negative results. The method was applied to track the presence of cow DNA in goat milk available on the Polish market. A total of 54 milk samples from 3 Polish (34) and one foreign producer (20) were examined. In 33 samples, cow DNA was detected, while 21 samples, including all of the 20 samples from foreign producers, produced the goat-specific product only. PMID:18247453

Kotowicz, Monika; Adamczyk, Eryk; Bania, Jacek

2007-12-01

412

Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932

dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José

2014-01-01

413

Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems. PMID:25271457

Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

2014-01-01

414

Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.  

PubMed

Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens. PMID:25510297

Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

2015-02-01

415

Comparison of estrone and 17?-estradiol levels in commercial goat and cow milk.  

PubMed

Increased levels of estrogen metabolites are believed to be associated with cancers of the reproductive system. One potential dietary source of these metabolites that is commonly consumed worldwide is milk. In North America, dairy cows are the most common source of milk; however, goats are the primary source of milk worldwide. In this study, the absolute concentrations of unconjugated and total (unconjugated plus conjugated) estrone (E(1)) and 17?-estradiol (E(2)) were compared in a variety of commercial cow milks (regular and organic) and goat milk. A lower combined concentration of E(1) and E(2) was found in goat milk than in any of the cow milk products tested. The differences in E(1) and E(2) levels between regular and organic cow milks were not as significant as the differences between goat milk and any of the cow milk products. Goat milk represents a better dietary choice for individuals concerned with limiting their estrogen intake. PMID:22459818

Farlow, D W; Xu, X; Veenstra, T D

2012-04-01

416

Placing the mountain goat: a total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses.  

PubMed

The interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all Caprini except muskox and goral. Maximum parsimony placed mountain goats in a derived Caprini clade. Closer examination revealed that parsimony analysis failed to integrate over phylogenetic uncertainty. We then tested our mountain goat placement against nine published alternatives using non-parametric tests, and the parametric SOWH test. Non-parametric tests returned ambiguous results, but the SOWH test rejected all alternative hypotheses. Our study represents the first explicit testing of all hypotheses for the placement of mountain goats and supports a relatively basal position for the taxon. PMID:20097296

Shafer, Aaron B A; Hall, Jocelyn C

2010-04-01

417

Genetic diversity and structure in Asian native goat analyzed by newly developed SNP markers.  

PubMed

In the current study, a total of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the intron region were developed in goat (Capra hircus) by utilizing genomic information of cattle and sheep due to poor available genomic information on goat. Using these markers, we carried out genetic diversity and structure analyses for 10 Asian goat populations. The phylogenetic tree and principal components analysis showed good correspondence between clustered populations and their geographic locations. The STRUCTURE software analysis illustrated six divergent genetic structures among 10 populations. Myanmar and Cambodia populations showed high admixture patterns with different ancestry, suggesting genetic introgression into native goat populations. We also investigated the correlation between genetic diversity and geographic distance from a domestication center. This result showed a decreasing trend of genetic diversity according to the distance (P = 0.014). This result supported common consensus that western Asia is one of the centers of origin for modern Asian domestic goat. PMID:23607488

Lin, Bang Zhong; Kato, Taiki; Kaneda, Makoto; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Sasazaki, Shinji; Mannen, Hideyuki

2013-08-01

418

Prevalence of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antibodies among sheep and goats in India.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pestivirus antibodies in sheep and goats in India. A total of 2803 serum samples collected between 2004 and 2008 from 1777 sheep in 92 flocks and 1026 goats in 63 flocks belonging to 13 states were tested by competition ELISA for detection of pestivirus antibodies. In sheep, the true prevalence rate was 23.4% (95% confidence interval: 22.9%-27.0%) and in goats it was 16.9% (95% CI: 16.4%-21.3%). The flock level seroprevalence was 66.3% for sheep and 54.0% for goats. Geographical variation in individual and flock prevalence was highly significant. A significant association (p < 0.05) was found between sheep and goat flocks having cattle contact and the flock level seroprevalence. The seroprevalence was lower in 6 months-1 year age group compared to the 1-2 year and >2 year age groups in both sheep and goats. Cross neutralization studies on 61 seropositive sheep and 34 seropositive goat samples representing all positive flocks, exhibited > four fold higher titre to bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) in 41 sheep and 23 goat samples and to BVDV-2 in one sheep and goat each. This study for the first time showed serological evidence of wide spread BVDV infections in Indian sheep and goats, with BVDV-1 predominating and BVDV-2 occasionally besides highlighting the potential risk of infection to other species, which needs to be considered whenever BVD control measures are initiated. PMID:19153817

Mishra, N; Rajukumar, K; Tiwari, A; Nema, R K; Behera, S P; Satav, J S; Dubey, S C

2009-10-01

419

Sericea lespedeza hay as a natural deworming agent against gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats.  

PubMed

Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the United States (US). Due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat GIN, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to increase profitability of small ruminant industries. A study was designed to test the efficacy of a high condensed tannin (CT) legume, sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)] against GIN of goats fed in confinement. The goats were given a trickle infection of 500 H. contortus larvae/animal three times per week during the trial to simulate natural infection. Twenty Boer bucks (6-8 months old) were fed bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay plus concentrate for 5 weeks in confinement and then 10 animals were switched to SL hay for an additional 7 weeks. Throughout the trial, feces and blood were collected weekly from individual animals to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV). Fecal cultures were made weekly from pooled samples to determine treatment effects on GIN larval development. All goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial, with adult worms in the abomasum and small intestine of each goat recovered, counted, and identified to species. Feeding SL hay to goats significantly (P<0.01) reduced FEC and increased PCV compared with BG hay. In addition, a lower percentage of ova in feces from SL-fed goats developed into infective (L3) larvae. There was a direct effect of SL hay on adult worms, with significantly (P<0.01) lower numbers of both abomasal (H. contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta) and small intestinal (Trichostrongylus colubriformis) nematodes compared with goats fed BG hay. Feeding SL hay to goats is an effective means of controlling parasitic nematodes and may be a potential supplement/replacement for chemical anthelmintics. PMID:16564132

Shaik, S A; Terrill, T H; Miller, J E; Kouakou, B; Kannan, G; Kaplan, R M; Burke, J M; Mosjidis, J A

2006-06-30

420

Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii  

PubMed Central

Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans. PMID:23152826

Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien

2012-01-01

421

Bacteriological and molecular investigations of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy goats.  

PubMed

In order to investigate reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy goats, samples for bacteriological analyses were collected from seven herds. S. aureus was detected in 353 (6.2%) of 5671 milk samples, 53 (9.9%) of 535 teat skin swabs, 392 (68.9%) of 569 nasal swabs and in 180 (31.6%) of 569 vaginal swabs. Vaginal swabs were more often S. aureus-positive after kidding (44.9%) than before drying off (19.1%), while nasal swabs were more often positive before drying off (75.6%) than after kidding (62.0%). Retrieved S. aureus isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and selected isolates were tested for enterotoxin genes (se) by PCR. By PFGE, 505 S. aureus isolates were divided into 33 pulsotypes (PTs). The five most prevalent PTs included 73.3% of the isolates and were found in 3-5 herds. Pairs of S. aureus isolates from persistent intramammary infections (IMI), repeated vaginal swabs, and from milk and teat skin from the same animal were usually identical. Paired isolates from other body sites of the same animal, including from bilateral IMI, were identical in less than 50% of the situations. The majority (71.9%) of analysed S. aureus isolates were se-positive. The genes sec, sell and tst were detected almost exclusively, but no correlation was observed between persistence of IMI and the enterotoxin gene profile of the causal S. aureus strains. The frequent presence of S. aureus on the mucous membranes may contribute to dispersal of the bacteria among dairy goats, hampering effective transmission control in dairy goat herds. PMID:19733450

Mørk, T; Kvitle, B; Mathisen, T; Jørgensen, H J

2010-02-24

422

Behavioral and physiological characterization of emotional states in dairy goats  

E-print Network

collected as count data. Mouthing, sniffing, grooming, eating, standing, rearing, kneeling, and recumbancy were recorded as a percentage oF time. Behaviors directed to the neighboring goat were also recorded as a percentage of time. All eight subjects.... Defecation: Elimination of feces Eat: Mastication, swallowing and/or rumination of feed Groom: Licking, chewing or rubbing of one's body parts Headmovement: Change in head r8tation & 90 on the x or z axis 0 and/or elevation & 90 on the y axis Kneel...

Carbonaro, Denise Ann

1989-01-01

423

Diagnostic exercise: suppurative rhombencephalitis and meningitis in a goat.  

PubMed

A 1-year-old female Boer goat was presented for necropsy following spontaneous death and history of acute recumbency, nystagmus, and sialorrhea. A swollen area was grossly observed in the brainstem at the level of the pons. On cut surface, the right cerebellar peduncles were expanded by a focal, pale, poorly demarcated, slightly depressed, and soft area of malacia. Microscopically, this area contained diffuse edema and necrosis, with microabscesses, neuronal necrosis, neuronophagia, axonal spheroids, vasculitis, and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. The diagnosis was based on the morphologic findings, fluorescent antibody test results, and special staining. PMID:23576239

Dill, J A; Rissi, D R

2014-07-01

424

Effects of dehydration and rehydration on thermoregulatory sweating in goats.  

PubMed Central

1. Measurement of rectal temperature (Tr), sweat rate, respiratory frequency (f) and respiratory evaporation (Eresp) were made in one Nubian and four Alpine-Toggenberg goats while they stood for 90 min in a climate chamber at 40 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta). The animals were studied when they were hydrated, when they had been dehydrated by 48 h water deprivation, and when they were rehydrated by voluntary drinking of water or saline or by intraruminal water administration. Plasma osmolality (Posm), plasma protein concentration (PP) and haematocrit (Hct) were measured before every experiment and before and after voluntary drinking. 2. Hydrated animals increased evaporation by panting and sweating during heat exposure and Tr rose about 1 degree C. The rate of sweating was as high or higher than Eresp. Dehydrated animals had lower sweat rates and higher Tr than hydrated animals, but f and Eresp were the same in hydrated and dehydrated animals. 3. When dehydrated goats were allowed to drink after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating began abruptly within 3 min of the start of drinking in every animal whether water or saline was drunk. Sweat rate returned to hydrated levels or higher before any change occurred in Posm, PP or Hct. Respiratory frequency was higher after drinking than in dehydrated animals which were not allowed to drink. 4. When water was administered by rumen tube after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating in the Nubian occurred with a short latency, similar to the onset after drinking. In the other four animals, sweating onset occurred on average at 13 min 42 s after intraruminal water administration. 5. It is concluded that sweating is a significant avenue of evaporative heat loss in these goats when they are hydrated and exposed to high Ta. Sweat rate is markedly reduced after water deprivation but returns to hydrated levels within 3 min after the start of drinking. The rapid recovery of sweating after voluntary drinking is not initiated by changes in Posm or in blood volume and does not appear to depend upon osmoreceptors in the mouth or gastrointestinal tract since it occurs after drinking either water or saline. The arrival of water in the rumen may be sufficient to initiate immediate sweating in some goats, but the act of drinking is necessary in others. PMID:2621603

Baker, M A

1989-01-01

425

International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development Technological and Institutional Innovations for Sustainable Rural Development Reproduction Rate of Kacang and Peranakan Etawah Goats under Village Production Systems in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small ruminants like sheep and goats are important for a larger part of the Indonesian rural population. The existing goat husbandry is normally the result of hundreds of years of tradition. The major feeding systems in goat production found in Indonesia are the cut and carry and grazing systems. The number of goats raised per farm is relatively small. Goats

Akhmad Sodiq; Soedito Adjisoedarmo; Ezzat S. Tawfik

426

Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vaccination, serological testing, culling and awareness) and of Jalisco that had negligible brucellosis campaign participation. A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted among 1,713 goats of 83 flocks. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis was higher (38%) in Jalisco than in Michoacán (11%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that goats from Michoacán had lower odds to test positive for brucellosis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.48) compared to goats from Jalisco. Goats in zero-grazing systems had lower odds than goats in grazing systems (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.57). When goats were kept in pens with low density (0.002 to 0.22 goat/m(2)), odds was lower (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.67) compared to goats kept in pens with higher density (0.23 to 1 goat/m(2)). Odds was higher for testing positive when farmers bought goats from goat traders (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.87) compared to farmers who did not. If scavenger poultry had access to goat pens, the odds was half (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.83) of those where poultry had no access. Regular disinfection of the pen reduced the odds (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) compared to where disinfection was not regular. The brucellosis control campaign was effective in reducing brucellosis seropositivity. PMID:23420068

Oseguera Montiel, David; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; Keilbach Baer, Nícola Maria; van der Zijpp, Akke

2013-08-01

427

Performance and Longevity of a Novel Intraosseous Device in a Goat (Capra hircus) Model  

PubMed Central

We performed 2 studies to assess the function and longevity of a novel intraosseous catheter device. For study 1, 9 goats were assigned to 3 groups (intraosseous catheter in the proximal humerus, intraosseous catheter in the proximal tibia, or standard jugular catheter). Devices in the tibia remained in place for less time than did those in the humerus, and no goats exhibited radiographic evidence of resulting damage or structural change in surrounding bone. Positive bacterial cultures were found in all 9 goats at various time points. In study 2, 18 goats were assigned to 2 groups (intraosseous catheter in the wing of the ilium or proximal humerus). Samples for serial aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures and CBC were collected while devices remained in use. Clinical monitoring and removal criteria were identical those for study 1. Catheters in the ilium remained in place for less than 24 h on average, and those in the humerus remained in place for an average of 2.5 d. Several goats with proximal humeral catheters demonstrated moderate lameness after removal, and radiographic evidence of periosteal bone growth was noted in another goat. Bloodwork indicated mild elevations of WBC counts from baseline in some cases. Bacterial growth was found in samples from 4 of 18 goats at various time points. Our study indicated that intraosseous catheters may remain safely in place for more than 24 h, but animals should be monitored closely for negative side effects for several days after removal. PMID:21640033

Jackson, Erin E; Ashley, T Clay; Snowden, Karen F; Gresham, Vincent C; Budke, Christine M; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Taylor, Destiny A

2011-01-01

428

Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)  

PubMed Central

Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

2014-01-01

429

Ghrelin O Acyl Transferase (GOAT) as a Novel Metabolic Regulatory Enzyme  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) presents a growing threat to the global health. Evidences highlight an important role of ghrelin as a key regulator of glucose metabolism. The physiological functions of ghrelin are mediated by enzyme ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) which is capable of generating the active form of this metabolic hormone. However, its exact mechanism of action and influence on energy balance and glucose metabolism is yet to be explored. Objectives: To review the physiological role of GOAT in the regulation of energy balance and glucose metabolism and explore the potential therapeutic avenues of modulators of GOAT to counter the progression of obesity and T2DM. Methods: Publications were sought through electronic searches. The bibliographies of all papers, book, chapters and editorials were scanned and hand searches were also conducted for journals, and conference proceedings. Conclusion: GOAT peptide modulates the insulin secretion as well as insulin sensitivity. Modulators of GOAT signaling like inhibitors of GOAT increases insulin secretion, enhance peripheral insulin sensitivity and thus counters obesity and T2DM. Modulators of GOAT can be a probable therapy for modifying food intake and for countering obesity and T2DM.

Gaidhane, Shilpa; Gaidhane, Abhay M.; Simkhada, Padam; Zahiruddin, Quazi Syed

2015-01-01

430

Tenderizing effect of blade tenderizer and pomegranate fruit products in goat meat.  

PubMed

Toughness of goat meat is a major problem with regard to consumer acceptance. Keeping this in view a blade tenderizer was developed for tenderization of goat meat. Pomegranate fruit products were also explored for tenderization effect on goat meat. Tenderization of goat meat with pomegranate seed powder improved the textural properties marginally with slight adverse colour change and taste. Samples treated with PRP got lower score for colour in sensory evaluation and there was adverse effect on taste of treated meat. Blade tenderization and 4% PSP proved better for tenderization and were compared with control and 0.2% papain in goat meat chunks. The cooked samples treated with papain and blade incisions got better sensory scores and required lesser shear force compared to 4% PSP and control. Overall the papain treated meat was superior in terms sensory attributes followed by blade incision and PSP. The results suggested that the blade incisions can be used for tenderization of goat meat. Pomegranate seed powder maybe considered for mixing with other spices to marinate goat meat mainly for its beneficial effects. PMID:23572717

Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N; Devatkal, Suresh K; Borah, Anjan; Singh, Desh B; Sahoo, Jhari

2011-02-01

431

Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries).  

PubMed

Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

2014-01-01

432

Serological evidence for a hepatitis e virus-related agent in goats in the United States.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an important public health disease in many developing countries and is also endemic in some industrialized countries. In addition to humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from pig, chicken, rat, mongoose, deer, rabbit and fish. While the genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans, the genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and infect humans and other animal species. As a part of our ongoing efforts to search for potential animal reservoirs for HEV, we tested goats from Virginia for evidence of HEV infection and showed that 16% (13/80) of goat sera from Virginia herds were positive for IgG anti-HEV. Importantly, we demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies to HEV were present in selected IgG anti-HEV positive goat sera. Subsequently, in an attempt to genetically identify the HEV-related agent from goats, we conducted a prospective study in a closed goat herd with known anti-HEV seropositivity and monitored a total of 11 kids from the time of birth until 14 weeks of age for evidence of HEV infection. Seroconversion to IgG anti-HEV was detected in seven of the 11 kids, although repeated attempts to detect HEV RNA by a broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR from the faecal and serum samples of the goats that had seroconverted were unsuccessful. In addition, we also attempted to experimentally infect laboratory goats with three well-characterized mammalian strains of HEV but with no success. The results indicate that a HEV-related agent is circulating and maintained in the goat population in Virginia and that the goat HEV is likely genetically very divergent from the known HEV strains. PMID:22909079

Sanford, B J; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Engle, R E; Dryman, B A; Cecere, T E; Buechner-Maxwell, V; Sponenberg, D P; Meng, X J

2013-12-01

433

Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).  

PubMed

Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

2012-03-01

434

Characterization of Liaoning Cashmere Goat Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Functional Annotation and Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology. Results Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51%) unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17%) unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes. Conclusion The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses. PMID:24130835

Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Jinke; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

2013-01-01

435

Association of Vitamin E with Rapid Thawing on Goat Semen  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100??M. Semen was packaged into 0.25?mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (?155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (?196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20??L aliquot of thawed semen to 1?mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm·Kg?1) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process. PMID:24955428

Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Dias, Júlio César Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

2014-01-01

436

Transfer of Orally Administered Terpenes in Goat Milk and Cheese  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between terpenes’ intake and their presence in animal tissues (blood and milk) as well as in the final product (cheese). Eight dairy goats were divided in two balanced groups, representing control (C) and treatment (T) group. In T group oral administration of a mixture of terpenes (?-pinene, limonene and ?-caryophyllene) was applied over a period of 18 d. Cheese was produced, from C and T groups separately, on three time points, twice during the period of terpenes’ oral administration and once after the end of experiment. Terpenes were identified in blood by extraction using petroleum ether and in milk and cheese by the use of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) method, followed by GC-MS analysis. Chemical properties of the milk and the produced cheeses were analyzed and found not differing between the two groups. Limonene and ?-pinene were found in all blood and milk samples of the T group after a lag-phase of 3 d, while ?-caryophyllene was determined only in few milk samples. Moreover, none of the terpenes were traced in blood and milk of C animals. In cheese, terpenes’ concentrations presented a more complicated pattern implying that terpenes may not be reliable feed tracers. We concluded that monoterpenes can be regarded as potential feed tracers for authentification of goat milk, but further research is required on factors affecting their transfer. PMID:25049497

Poulopoulou, I.; Zoidis, E.; Massouras, T.; Hadjigeorgiou, I.

2012-01-01

437

Association of vitamin E with rapid thawing on goat semen.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100 ?M. Semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (-155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20 ?L aliquot of thawed semen to 1 mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm · Kg(-1)) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process. PMID:24955428

Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Carrascal, Erly; Dias, Júlio César Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

2014-01-01

438

GOAT – A simple LC-MS/MS gradient optimization tool  

PubMed Central

Modern nano-HPLC systems are capable of extremely precise control of solvent gradients, allowing high-resolution separation of peptides. Most proteomics laboratories use a simple linear analytical gradient for nano-LC-MS/MS experiments, though recent evidence indicates that optimized non-linear gradients result in increased peptide and protein identifications from cell lysates. In concurrent work, we examined non-linear gradients for the analysis of samples fractionated at the peptide level, where the distribution of peptide retention times often varies by fraction. We hypothesized that greater coverage of these samples could be achieved using per-fraction optimized gradients. We demonstrate that the optimized gradients improve the distribution of peptides throughout the analysis. Using previous generation MS instrumentation, a considerable gain in peptide and protein identifications can be realized. With current MS platforms that have faster electronics and achieve shorter duty cycle, the improvement in identifications is smaller. Our gradient optimization method has been implemented in a simple graphical tool (GOAT) that is MS-vendor independent, does not require peptide ID input, and is freely available for non-commercial use at http://proteomics.swmed.edu/goat PMID:24723505

Trudgian, David C; Fischer, Roman; Guo, Xiaofeng; Kessler, Benedikt M; Mirzaei, Hamid

2014-01-01

439

Mother goats do not forget their kids’ calls  

PubMed Central

Parent–offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids’ calls 7–13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers’ responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11–17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance. PMID:22719031

Briefer, Elodie F.; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G.

2012-01-01

440

Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.  

PubMed

Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The average interval between treatments was significantly longer in dairy goat herds (4.8 months) than in the beef herds (3.6 months). The most commonly used drugs were macrocyclic lactones (37.7% in dairy and 39.5% in beef herds) and benzimidazoles (48.9% in dairy and 31.5% in beef herds). Goat production in Minas Gerais is still in its infancy, and even though using a control program associated with other health practices, producers still rely heavily on chemicals to get satisfactory results. PMID:21232868

Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

2011-03-10

441

Physiological responses and lactational performances of late-lactation dairy goats under heat stress conditions.  

PubMed

Eight Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation were exposed to different ambient conditions, using metabolic cages in a climatic chamber. The experimental design was a crossover (2 periods of 35 d and 4 goats each) and conditions were (1) thermal neutral (TN; 15 to 20 °C day-night) and (2) heat stress (HS; 12-h day at 37 °C and 12-h night at 30.5 °C). Humidity was maintained at 40% and light-dark was constant (12-12h). The forage:concentrate ratio was adjusted daily for maintaining similar value in TN and HS goats (70:30). Water was freely available at ambient temperature. Rectal temperature and respiratory rate (0800, 1200 and 1700 h) and milk yield were recorded daily, whereas milk composition, nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin in blood were analyzed weekly. At d 25, additional blood samples were taken for analysis of metabolites and indicators of the acid-base balance. Digestibility coefficients and N balance were determined (d 31 to 35) and body weight was recorded (d 35). Compared with TN goats, HS goats experienced greater rectal temperature (+0.58 °C), respiratory rate (+48 breaths/min), water intake (+77%) and water evaporation (+207%). Intake of HS goats rapidly declined until d 7 (-40%), partially recovered from d 7 to 19, and steadied thereafter (-14%). No changes in digestibility or N balance were detected. Blood nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin peaked at d 7 in HS goats but did not vary thereafter. Although milk yield did not vary by treatment, milk of HS goats contained -12.5% protein and -11.5% casein than TN goats. Panting reduced concentration and pressure of CO? in the blood of HS goats, but they were able to maintain their blood pH similar to the TN group by lowering HCO?(-) and increasing Cl(-) concentrations in their blood. In conclusion, HS dairy goats showed dramatic physiological changes during the first week of treatment and partially recovered thereafter. They were able to maintain milk yield by losing body mass, but milk protein content and protein yield were depressed. Further research is needed to assess the response of dairy goats to HS at earlier stages of lactation. PMID:23958010

Hamzaoui, S; Salama, A A K; Albanell, E; Such, X; Caja, G

2013-10-01

442

Pathogenicity of attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus in sheep and goats.  

PubMed

Progressive loss of virulence for goat kids was noticed when peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus was passaged in Vero cells. While goats inoculated with the 60th passage suffered from the clinical PPR disease and mortality, goats inoculated with the 80th passage did not show any sign of the disease. If the progressive loss of virulence of the virus with passage continues, it will not be long before a homologous PPR vaccine will be obtained at the National Veterinary Institute, Vom. PMID:2263739

Adu, F D; Joannis, T; Nwosuh, E; Abegunde, A

1990-01-01

443

Natural and experimental poisoning of goats with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plant Crotalaria retusa L.  

PubMed

Crotalaria retusa L. (rattleweed), estimated to contain about 4.96% monocrotaline (MCT) in the seed, was associated with a natural poisoning outbreak in goats. The poisoning was experimentally reproduced by the administration of C. retusa seeds containing approximately 4.49% of MCT. Thus, 1 of 3 goats given a single dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (bw) of seeds (248 mg MCT/kg bw) and 2 goats given a single dose of 347 mg MCT/kg bw showed acute clinical signs and were euthanized 10-11 days after dosing. Clinical signs and gross and histologic lesions were characteristic of acute centrilobular liver necrosis. PMID:23847092

Maia, Lisanka A; de Lucena, Ricardo B; Nobre, Verônica M da T; Dantas, Antônio F M; Colegate, Steven M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2013-09-01

444

Outside enclosure and additional enrichment for dairy goats – a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background Dairy goats are commonly housed at a space allowance of 0.7 – 0.8 m2/goat in commercial Norwegian goat herds, which is very low compared to regulations and recommendations in other European countries. One easy and cheap way to increase space allowance is to allow the animals’ access to outdoor area. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of access to an outside enclosure and environmental enrichment for dairy goats kept in slatted floor pens with low space allowance on their activity pattern and social behaviour. Methods A group of 82 dairy goats on a commercial Norwegian dairy farm were kept inside during the winter period from October to April. In April the goats were given access to an outside enclosure for 8 hours per day. After having access to the enclosure for another for two days, enrichment (branches) was provided, and after 19 days the enrichment were removed. The goats were observed for 5 hours per day for the two last days before they got access to the outside enclosure, the two days in the enclosure, the two first and the two last days with enrichment and for the following two days without enrichment by two trained observers. Results When allowed access to the enclosure, the goats spent nearly 50% of the time outside, and later the time spent outside was reduced to less than 40% (P?goats appeared to have a regular use of the enclosure. Time spent resting decreased 59.2% to only 25.2% when the goats first got access to the enclosure, but then started to increase again (P?goats were allowed access to the outdoor enclosure whereas play behaviour was only observed in the outside enclosure (P?goats preferred to use the outside enclosure when being active, and branches were perceived as an attractive enrichment. PMID:23173769

2012-01-01

445

[Association of polymorphisms of exon 2 of GOLA-DQA2 gene with blood immune traits in goats].  

PubMed

The polymorphisms of exon 2 of GOLA-DQA2 gene were analyzed by PCR-RFLP technique in Laiwu black goats, Lubo goats, and Boer goats; and the effects of genotypes of GOLA-DQA2 gene on blood immune traits were estimated. The results showed that four genotypes were detected in the three goats. Polymorphic sites were detected at base positions 77, 79, 80, and 169 in exon 2 of GOLA-DQA2 gene. The effects of breed were major effect. In Lubo goats, red blood count (RBC) with genotype AB was significantly higher than that with genotype BB (P<0.05), and white blood count (WBC) with genotype AB was significantly higher than that with genotype BC (P<0.05). Hematocrit (HCT) in Lubo goats with genotype AB was significantly higher than that with genotypes BB and BC (P<0.05). WBC-large cell ratio (W-LCR) in Lubo goats with genotype BC was significantly higher than that with genotype BB (P<0.05). In Laiwu black goats and Boer goats, there was certain degree of association between genotypes and blood immune traits, but it was not significant. Genotype AB and BC was an important factor affecting RBC, WBC, W-LCR, and so on. It was concluded from these results that GOLA-DQA2 was the gene affecting the blood immune traits, which provides a basis for disease resistance breeding of goats. PMID:23448931

Xing, Feng; Qin, Zi-Juan; Wang, Gui-Zhi; Ji, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Jian-Min

2013-02-01

446

Toxicity of White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) and Chemical Extracts of White Snakeroot in Goats.  

PubMed

White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) is a sporadically toxic plant that causes trembles in livestock and milk sickness in humans that drink tainted milk. The putative toxin in white snakeroot is tremetone and possibly other benzofuran ketones, even though it has not been demonstrated in vivo. Toxic white snakeroot was dosed to goats, and they developed clinical signs of poisoning, exercise intolerance, significant increases in serum enzyme activities, and histological changes. Tremetone and the other benzofuran ketones were extracted with hexane; the extracts and residues were analyzed for tremetone and dosed to goats at tremetone and benzofuran ketone concentrations similar to the original plant material. However, none of the dosed goats developed the disease. The results demonstrate for the first time that white snakeroot is a potent myotoxin in goats and that other compound(s), which may be lost or modified during the extraction process, could be involved in causing trembles and milk sickness. PMID:25641641

Davis, T Zane; Lee, Stephen T; Collett, Mark G; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Green, Benedict T; Buck, Steven R; Pfister, James A

2015-02-25

447

Poisoning in Sheep and Goats by Sacahuiste (Nolina texana) Buds and Blooms.  

E-print Network

and Photodynamic Diseases of Man and the Lower Animals. Archives of Pathology, 23, 339. 3. Mathews, F. P. 1937. Lechuguilla (Agave lecheguilla) Poisoning in Sheep, Goats and Laboratory Animals. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 554. 4. Quin J...

Mathews, F. P. (Frank Patrick)

1940-01-01

448

Major proteins in goat milk: an updated overview on genetic variability.  

PubMed

Milk and dairy products are very important in Mediterranean diet because of their health promoting and organoleptic properties. In many developing countries, goat rearing has a key role in livestock production. What makes goats so popular is their ability to provide high quality food under diverse climatic conditions and resilience to extreme and capricious environments. In the last years, the interest concerning caprine milk has been increasing also to find a new exploitation for local breeds. To promote the goat dairy products there is a clear need to know the quality and the technological aspects of milk produced. That being so, the purpose of this study was to review the available literature on the major goat milk proteins with a particular attention to recent findings on their genetic variability. Moreover, the main effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition were also discussed. PMID:24381104

Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

2014-02-01

449

The genetic diversity of mtDNA D-loop and the origin of Chinese goats.  

PubMed

The complete sequences of mitochondrial DNA D-loop of 128 individuals in nine Chinese goat (Capra hircu) breeds were analyzed by DNA sequencing technology. The results show that the length of mtDNA D-loop in Chinese goats is 1,212-1,213 bp. There are 102 polymorphic sites, accounting for 8.42% of 1,212 bp sequence. Ninety-two mtDNA haplotypes were determined. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity are 0.9333-1.0000 and 0.7062%-1.8265%, respectively. The results indicate that the genetic diversity of Chinese goats is very abundant. The NJ tree indicates that Chinese goats have two types of maternal origins from lineage A and lineage B. The possibility of lineage B originating from China is also discussed. PMID:16722337

Liu, Ruo-Yu; Yang, Gong-She; Lei, Chu-Zhao

2006-05-01

450

A duplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool.  

PubMed

Abstract In this article attempts were made to establish one-step duplex PCR assay for the identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool. Primers were selected from published papers or designed in the well-conserved region of mitochondrial D-loop genes after alignment of the available sequences in the GenBank database. A fragment of 294?bp from cashmere goat was amplified and three PCR fragments including a bright main band of approximately 404?bp in length were obtained from sheep. The duplex PCR was found to be effective in detecting mixed samples precisely when sheep wool was mixed to goat cashmere with the relative proportion of over 9.09%. The duplex PCR could be considered as a simple and promising method in identification of goat cashmere and sheep wool. PMID:25259446

Geng, Qing-Rong

2014-09-26

451

High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in goats in southeast Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the seroprevalence rate of bluetongue virus (BTV) in goat flocks in southeast of Iran. Methods The blood samples were collected randomly from herds of southeast of Iran. A total of 93 sera samples were collected between 2011 and 2012. Antibodies to BTV in sera were detected by using a commercial competitive ELISA 3 according to manufacturer's instructions. Results The seroprevalence rates were 67.7% for goats. Within a herd, prevalence of BTV seropositive animals ranged from 33.3% to 100.0%. All goat flocks were positive to BTV antibodies. Conclusions This study describes a high seroprevalence rate of BTV in goat flocks in southeast of Iran for the first time. PMID:25183097

Mozaffari, Ali Asghar; Khalili, Mohammad; Sabahi, Sina

2014-01-01

452

Precipitating antibody in sera of goats naturally affected with peste des petits ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitating antibody was detected in sera of goats naturally affected with peste des petits ruminants in three locations in Western Nigeria. It was necessary to decomplement sera to obtain a good result.

O. A. Durojaiye

1982-01-01

453

High forage quality helps maintain resilience to gastrointestinal parasites on sheep and goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites (especially the blood feeder Haemonchus contortus) in small ruminants is a problem for sheep and goat producers. Gastrointestinal parasite overloads reduce livestock performance and production efficiency, and can result in increased death losses of animals...

454

PhD studentship: Using vocalisations to assess affective states and cognition in goats  

E-print Network

of age, body size and sex in goat kid calls revealed using the source-filter theory. Applied Animal not forget their kids' calls. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 279, 3749-3755. Briefer EF, McElligott AG

Chittka, Lars

455

Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasma mycoides Subspecies capri from Milk of Natural Goat Mastitis Cases  

PubMed Central

Association of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) with natural goat mastitis has been studied earlier largely by detecting the Mmc DNA using molecular methods. However, report on detection of cultivable Mmc isolates from natural goat-mastitis milk is still very rare. In this study, Mmc was isolated from milk samples (n = 171) of goats with or without clinical signs of mastitis. Mmc isolates were further characterized by biochemical and species-specific PCR methods. Intra species strain variation was also studied by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (16S ARDRA). The study recovered a total of 6 Mmc isolates (3.5%). Three types of intraspecies variants among the recovered Mmc isolates were found by 16S ARDRA. The study concluded that Mmc may be an etiological agent of mycoplasmal mastitis in Indian goat herds. PMID:23762593

Kumar, Vijay; Rana, Rajneesh; Mehra, Somya; Rout, Pramod Kumar

2013-01-01

456

Effect of ultrasound pretreatment on rennet-induced coagulation properties of goat's milk.  

PubMed

The effects of ultrasound (US) pretreatment on goat milk before rennet-induced coagulation were studied in order to improve the milk coagulation properties. Skimmed goat milk was subjected to US at 800 W for different times (0-20 min) and various parameters were evaluated. The particle sizes in US pretreated goat milk under the transmission electron microscopy were smaller than in untreated samples. For US pretreated samples, the degree of whey protein denaturation, contents of soluble calcium and phosphorus increased by 9.57%, 16.90% and 13.68%, respectively. The gel firmness, coagulum strength, final storage modulus, cohesiveness, water holding capacity and cross-linking of gels demonstrated marked increase. The turbiscan stability index (TSI) also confirmed the improvement of goat milk coagulation properties with increasing duration of US pretreatment, whereas the gelation time was prolonged. PMID:25038663

Zhao, Lily; Zhang, Shuwen; Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lu, Jing; Xue, Haixiao; Kong, Fanhua; Lv, Jiaping

2014-12-15

457

Outbreak of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in golden Guernsey goats in Great Britain.  

PubMed

An outbreak of caprine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis was disclosed in June 2008, affecting goats of the golden Guernsey breed kept on 10 separate smallholdings in south-west Wales and the west of England. Following the initial diagnosis at postmortem examination, 30 goats that reacted positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, together with five in-contact animals, were euthanased and subjected to postmortem examination and mycobacterial culture. Spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat analysis of isolates showed that they were all of the same genotype, endemic to south-west Wales. Retrospective movement tracings identified a goat herd in south-west Wales, by then completely dispersed, as the probable common source of infection. There was a perfect correlation between the SICCT test and culture results in all slaughtered goats. Grossly visible tubercular lesions were observed at postmortem examination in all but one reactor. PMID:19767636

Daniel, R; Evans, H; Rolfe, S; de la Rua-Domenech, R; Crawshaw, T; Higgins, R J; Schock, A; Clifton-Hadley, R

2009-09-19

458

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sheep Strains Isolated from Cyprus Sheep and Goats.  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358

Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

2015-04-01

459

Influence of insulin or glucagon, alone or combined, on glucose homeostasis in dairy goats treated  

E-print Network

Influence of insulin or glucagon, alone or combined, on glucose homeostasis in dairy goats treated (Gallo and Block, 1990), this trial aimed to study glucose homeostasis with injection of INS and/or GLA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

Contagious ecthyma in bighorn sheep and mountain goat in western Canada.  

PubMed

Contagious ecthyma (CE) is reported in bighorn sheep (Ovis c. canadensis) from several national parks in western Canada and in moutain goat (Oreamnos americanus) from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. (This is the first report of CE in mountain goat.) Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology, transmission experiments and the demonstration of a proxvirus with the electron microscope. The infection was transmitted from wild to domestic goat, but not to domestic sheep. Most infections, some of them severe, were found in lambs and kids. Clinical signs of disease were similar to those seen in domestic sheep and goats. General body condition was poor and animals had difficulty feeding normally. All infected herds had prolonged contact with areas where salt was provided artificially (i.e., salt blocks, highways and campgrounds). Fewer infected sheep were observed annually when salt blocks were removed from Jasper National Park. PMID:1113436

Samuel, W M; Chalmers, G A; Stelfox, J G; Loewen, A; Thomsen, J J

1975-01-01

461

Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.  

PubMed

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

2009-07-01

462

Mineral Metabolism in Singleton and Twin-pregnant Dairy Goats  

PubMed Central

During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (49.5 kg±7.6 body weight [BW]) were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen), 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin) and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days). Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg) decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg) was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g). Mineral retention (mg/g) increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g) increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal absorption. Finally, mineral metabolism was specific to each genotype and, except for Na, was not affected by the number of fetuses. PMID:25557674

Härter, C. J.; Castagnino, D. S.; Rivera, A. R.; Lima, L. D.; Silva, H. G. O.; Mendonça, A. N.; Bonfim, G. F.; Liesegang, A.; St-Pierre, N.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

2015-01-01

463

Role of species diversity and secondary compound complementarity on diet selection of Mediterranean shrubs by goats.  

PubMed

Goats foraging on Mediterranean shrubs containing secondary compounds (toxins) may consume a variety of shrubs that contain different phytotoxins, thereby increasing shrub intake and avoiding toxicosis. We conducted eight experiments to examine whether goats offered different mixtures of shrubs containing different phytotoxins (tannins and saponins) would consume more shrub biomass than goats offered one shrub a single phytotoxin (tannin or saponin). In the first three experiments, goats fed a mixture of three tannin-rich shrubs (Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo, and Pistacia lentiscus) ate more foliage than goats offered only one shrub (23.2 vs. 10.7 g/kg BW; 25.2 vs. 13.4 g/kg BW, and 27.9 vs. 7.9 g/kg BW), regardless of tannin concentration in individual shrub species. Goats also consumed more foliage when offered the same three tannin-rich shrubs than when offered the saponin-rich shrub Hedera helix (25.4 vs. 8.0 g/kg BW). However, goats offered a mixture of the same three tannin-rich shrubs consumed less foliage than goats offered a mixture of two shrubs containing tannins and saponins: Quercus and Hedera (21.6 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), Arbutus and Hedera (21.8 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), and Pistacia and Hedera (19.7 vs. 22.0 g/kg BW). Comparison of intake of shrubs containing only tannins or saponins to intake of shrubs containing both tannins and saponins indicated that goats consumed more total biomass when fed with shrubs with both classes of compounds than with either tannins or saponins alone. Our results suggest that goats can increase intake of Mediterranean shrubs high in secondary compounds by selecting those with different classes of phytotoxins. Simultaneous ingestion of shrubs containing tannins and saponins may promote chemical interactions that inhibit toxic effects of these phytotoxins in the intestinal tract. In addition to complementary interactions between tannins and saponins, biological diversity within Mediterranean maquis vegetation also plays a positive role in increasing shrub intake by goats. PMID:16770718

Rogosic, Jozo; Estell, Richard E; Skobic, Dragan; Martinovic, Anita; Maric, Stanislava

2006-06-01

464

Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at an average rate of 4.9±2.2(SE) percent annually since 2004. We caution that the estimated rate of population growth may be conservative if severe spring weather deterred some mountain goats from reaching the high-elevation survey areas during the 2011 surveys. If the estimated average rate of population growth were to remain constant in the future, then the population would double in approximately 14-15 years.

Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

2011-01-01

465

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF TEPHROSIA CANDIDA SEED IN WEST AFRICAN DWARF GOATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundnut-cake (GNC), Soybean-meal (SBM) and cottonseed-cake (CSC) are expensive protein sources for ruminants. This study examined the feeding value of unconventional protein source of Tephrosia candida seed (TCS) in WAD goats. Four diets were formulated using GNC, SBM, CSC and TCS protein sources and fed to WAD goats to monitor intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Effects of feeding the diets

BABAYEMI Olaniyi Jacob; Musbau Adungbe BAMIKOLE

466

The efficacy of monensin as a coccidiostat, and its effect on feed efficiency in Angora goats  

E-print Network

suffering clinical coccidiosis and contained oocysts of Eimeria crandall's and Eimeria christenseni. The oocysts were sporulated by a modifica- tion of the procedure described by Hammond and Davis (1944), and stored in 27. . potassium dichromate at 4~C..., little experimental work has been done specifically with Angora goats. Kid mohair which is currently valued at $7. 00 per pound makes these goats extremely valuable. Since coccidiosis is a disease of primary importance to Angora producers (Craig, 1978...

Hinkle, Marilyn Lee

1980-01-01

467

Immunisation of goat bucks against GnRH to prevent seasonal reproductive and agonistic behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to test the efficacy of a commercially available vaccine, Vaxstrate® (Arthur Webster Pty Ltd, Castle Hill, N.S.W.), to immunise adult male goats against GnRH. The general hypothesis tested was that immunisation of goats against GnRH using Vaxstrate® would suppress gonadotrophin secretion, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis in the testis, production of male odour and agonistic behaviour between males.

S. I. Godfrey; S. W. Walkden-Brown; G. B. Martin; E. J. Speijers

1996-01-01

468

Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infection in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the effects of Acacia karoo and Acacia nilotica diets on Haemonchus contortus infections in goats. Twenty-four Boer goats of mixed sex (live weight 17–22kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, namely: A. nilotica (AN) group, A. karoo (AK) group, control infected with H. contortus (HC) group and the non-infected control (NHC) group.

C. Kahiya; S. Mukaratirwa; S. M. Thamsborg

2003-01-01

469

Superovulation and embryo transfer in South African Boer and Indigenous feral goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the international interest in South African Boer goats and the possible utilization of superior genetic material, 56 Indigenous feral and 25 Boer goat does were used either as recipients or donor animals in a superovulation and embryo transfer program. Donor animals (Boer, n=8; Indigenous, n=16) were superovulated using 20mg follicle stimulating hormone-p (FSH-p) (Folltropin) and recipients (Boer, n=20; Indigenous,

J. P. C Greyling; M van der Nest; L. M. J Schwalbach; T Muller

2002-01-01

470

Efficacy of amprolium for the treatment of pathogenic Eimeria species in Boer goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of two different doses of amprolium in goats heavily infected with pathogenic Eimeria species. Forty Boer goat kids ranging from 3 to 5 months of age with naturally occurring coccidiosis were randomly divided into 2 groups and treated orally with amprolium at doses of 10mg\\/kg daily for 5 days (n=20) or 50mg\\/kg daily for 5

Gabrielle Young; Mark L. Alley; Derek M. Foster; Geof W. Smith

2011-01-01

471

Effects of Gender and Age on Performance and Harvest Traits of Boer × Spanish Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cameron. M.R., Hart, S.P., Sahlu, T., Gilchrist, C., Coleman, S.W. and Goetsch, A.L. 2001. Effects of gender and age on performance and harvest, traits of Boer × Spanish goats. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 141–155.Sixty Boer × Spanish goats ware used to determine, effects of gender and age on performance and harvest triats. Wethers, females and males (16.8, 15.6 and

M. R. Cameron; S. P. Hart; T. Sahlu; C. Gilchrist; S. W. Coleman; A. L. Goetsch

2001-01-01

472

Early pregnancy detection by real-time ultrasonography in Boer goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early pregnancy detection in goats was not practicable until recently. The present investigation evaluated the use of transrectal and transabdominal real-time ultrasonography for this purpose in a flock of Boer goats. Measurements were conducted by both the transrectal and transabdominal routes. A rectal 7.5MHz linear array transducer enabled the reliable recognition of uterine fluid accumulation, indicating early pregnancy, from day

G. R. Padilla-Rivas; B. Sohnrey; W. Holtz

2005-01-01

473

Meat quality of designated South African indigenous goat and sheep breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcass composition, proximate meat composition, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of two breeds of goats, Indigenous (n=12) and Boer goats (n=12), and two breeds of sheep, Damara (n=12) and Dorper (n=12), on extensive pasture-grazing, were analysed. The right side of each carcass was processed into wholesale cuts and dissected into subcutaneous fat, meat and bone. Meat and fat were

P. A Tshabalala; P. E Strydom; E. C Webb; H. L de Kock

2003-01-01

474

Identification of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 2 in Korean native goat ( Capra hircus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the genus Pestivirus, four genetically distinct viral species are currently recognized: bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus (BDV). BVDV-1 and BDV infections have been described in goat species. Since 1998, border disease (BD) like symptoms in goats have been reported repeatedly in two southern-most provinces of

In-Joong Kim; Bang-Hun Hyun; Jin-Ho Shin; Kyoung-Ki Lee; Kyung-Woo Lee; Kyoung-Oh Cho; Mun-Il Kang

2006-01-01

475

Estimation of direct additive, maternal additive, heterotic and maternal heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya  

E-print Network

ESTIMATION OF DIRECT ADDITIVE, MATERNAL ADDITIVE, HETEROTIC AND MATERNAL HETEROTIC EFFECTS FROM CROSSBREEDING GOATS IN KENYA A Thesis by CAMILLIJS OSUNDO AJJJJYA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 t'Jajor Subject: Animal Breeding ESTIMATION OF DIRECT ADDITIVE, MATERNAL ADDITIVE, HETEROTIC AND MATERNAL HETEROTIC EFFECTS FROM CROSSBREEDING GOATS IN KENYA A Thesis CAMILLUS OSUNDO AHUYA...

Ahuya, Camillus Osundo

1987-01-01

476

Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.  

PubMed

Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

2014-01-01

477

Protective immune response of live attenuated thermo-adapted peste des petits ruminants vaccine in goats.  

PubMed

Virulent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) of Indian origin (PPRV Jhansi 2003) initially adapted in Vero cells was further propagated in thermo-adapted (Ta) Vero cells grown at 40 °C for attaining thermo-adaption and attenuation of virus for development of Ta vaccine against PPR in goats and sheep. The virus was attenuated up to 50 passages in Ta Vero cells, at which, the virus was found sterile, innocuous in mice and guinea pigs and safe in seronegative goats and sheep. The developed vaccine was tested for its immunogenicity in goats and sheep by subcutaneous inoculation of 100 TCID50 (0.1 field dose), 10(3) TCID50 (one field dose) and 10(5) TCID50 (100 field doses) of the attenuated virus along with controls as per OIE described protocols for PPR vaccine testing and were assessed for PPRV-specific antibodies 7-28 days post vaccination (dpv) by PPR competitive ELISA and serum neutralization tests. The PPRV antibodies were detected in all immunized goats and sheep and goats were protective when challenged with virulent PPRV at 28th dpv along with controls for potency testing of the vaccine. The attenuated vaccine did not induce any adverse reaction at high dose (10(5) TCID50) in goats and sheep and provided complete protection even at low dose (10(2) TCID50) in goats when challenged with virulent virus. There was no shedding and horizontal transmission of the attenuated virus to in-contact controls. The results indicate that the developed PPR Ta attenuated virus is innocuous, safe, immunogenic and potent or efficacious vaccine candidate alternative to the existing vaccines for the protection of goats and sheep against PPR in the tropical countries like India. PMID:25674603

Balamurugan, V; Sen, A; Venkatesan, G; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, R K

2014-01-01

478

The detection of antibody against peste des petits ruminants virus in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) has been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to peste des\\u000a petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in sheep, goats, cattle and Buffalo. Serum samples from sheep (n?=?232), goats (n?=?428), cattle\\u000a (n?=?43), buffalo (n?=?89) were tested. The animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or PPR. Findings suggested\\u000a that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in

Haider Ali Khan; Muhammad Siddique; Sajjad-ur-Rahman; Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Ashraf

2008-01-01

479

Hypospadias, diverticulum, and agenesis in the penile shaft of a goat kid ( Capra hircus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to report a rare congenital urinary tract anomaly in a goat kid. A 2-day-old male goat (Capra hircus) showed depression, inappetence, pain, vocalizing, and the existence of a small bag at the bottom of the abdominal region.\\u000a Physical examination revealed the absence of fever, increased heart rate, and increased breathing rate. The urinary tract

Arash Omidi; Sara Monjezi; Abolghasem Nabipour

2011-01-01

480

Epizootiological aspects of peste des petits ruminants and rinderpest in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Epizootiological aspects of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and rinderpest in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia are examined. The presence of PPR has been suspected on occasions, but virus isolation has been successful only once. Information regarding PPR and rinderpest in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia is scarce. The only survey conducted indicated that neither disease is endemic in the country. PMID:11107629

al-Naeem, A; Abu Elzein, E M; al-Afaleq, A I

2000-12-01

481

Toxicity and tissue residue depletion of levamisole hydrochloride in young goats.  

PubMed

Toxicity and tissue residue depletion studies were conducted in young goats, using an oral drench formulation of levamisole hydrochloride. In the target animal toxicity study, 3 groups of 5 goats each were given levamisole orally to provide approximately 11.88, 23.76, or 35.64 mg of levamisole HCl/kg/d for 3 consecutive days; a fourth group of 5 goats served as untreated controls. Blood samples were taken for analysis of levamisole 1 day prior to dosing and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 days following the third dose. At the 35.64-mg/kg dose, 2 of 5 goats responded with typical cholinergic signs of toxicosis on each of the 3 days of dosing. The times for the onset of clinical signs of toxicosis ranged from 18 to 63 minutes, with an average duration of 32 minutes. Administration of 23.76 mg of levamisole HCl/kg resulted in hyperactive behavior in 1 of 5 goats only on the first day of dosing; no abnormal behavior was observed in any of the 5 goats following the second or third dose of levamisole HCl at 23.76 mg/kg. Untoward effects were not seen in the 5 goats dosed at 11.88 mg of levamisole HCl/kg or in the controls during the 3-day dosing period or in the following 7-day observation period. Overall, the observed signs of toxicosis did not become more severe, affect more goats, or persist for a longer period on subsequent dosing days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2389890

Babish, J G; Coles, G C; Tritschler, J P; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J

1990-07-01

482

Diet selection among goats of different milk production potential on rangeland  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to examine how milk yield capacity affects diet selection of pluriparous mixed-breed goats on rangeland. Diets of goats were examined using microhistological fecal analysis at the beginning, middle and end of a 5-month lactation. Throughout lactation (158 days) diets of low (47.8±2.9l kg per lactation) or high (66.0±8.1l kg per lactation) yielding does had similar levels

M. Mellado; R. Estrada; L. Olivares; F. Pastor; J. Mellado

2006-01-01

483

Factors Affecting Body Weight of Aardi Goat Kids in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Shaikh, M.A. and Mogawer, H.H. 2001. Factors affecting body weight of Aardi goat kids in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 233–238.To study the effects of dam weight, litter size and kid sex on birth weight and weight gain from birth to weaning, 31 male and 3G female Aardi goat, kids, from 40 dams were reared under identical conditions.

M. A. Al-Shaikh; H. H. Mogawer

2001-01-01

484

A comparative thermophysiological study on water-deprived goats and camels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to characterise and compare the thermophysiological adaptation of goats and camels to water deprivation under hot environmental conditions. A total of five male Aardi goats (25±3.2 kg BW; 10±2 months old) as well as five male Majaheem camels (340±16.6 kg; 22±2 months old) were used in this study. This study was performed during summer season and lasted

Emad M. Samara; Khalid A. Abdoun; Aly B. Okab; Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

2012-01-01

485

The preparation and properties of a protein concentrate from goat (Capra hirens) muscle  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION. LITERATURE REVIEW EXPERIMENTAL. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1X Materials . Extraction procedure. Solvent recovery. Analysis of goat meat and GPC (1) Yield . (2) Protein determination (3) Volatile content. (4) Lipid content (5) Ash content... of GPC (g per 100 g goat meat) as affected by varying phosphate concentrate. 5 - Hoisture absorption curve for GPC extracted at pH 9. 5 and treated with 3 g phosphate. Protein content of GPC extracted under various conditions . 7 - Protein recovery...

Lee, Nong-Shein

1973-01-01

486

Novel Intraosseous Device Performance and Longevity in a Goat Model (Capra hircus)  

E-print Network

in the proximal humerus group demonstrated moderate lameness following removal. One goat developed an abscess near the insertion site and showed radiographic evidence of periosteal bone growth. Serial cultures showed growth of Bacillus, Streptococcus...-patency. Approximately two days later the goat developed a fever, swelling in the shoulder area, and became lame. Antibiotics were administered and the fever resolved completely, but approximately one week after catheter removal, an abscess developed dorsal...

Jackson, Erin Elizabeth

2012-02-14

487

Freeze dried anterior cruciate ligament allograftsPreliminary studies in a goat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

One ACL in each of 11 mature goats was replaced with a freeze dried bone-ACL-bone allograft. One year fol lowing implantation the goats had their knees evaluated biomechanically and for microvascularity and histologic changes. The reconstructed knees had a significantly greater total AP laxity (3.8 ± 0.6 mm) (mean and SEM) than the controls (1.0 ± 0.1 mm). Differences in

D. W. Jackson; E. S. Grood; S. P. Arnoczky; D. L. Butler; T. M. Simon

1987-01-01

488

Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.  

PubMed

The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. PMID:25200782

Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

2014-11-01

489

Effect of intermittent watering on growth, thermoregulation and behaviour of Ethiopian Somali goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats in semi-arid regions may be watered at long intervals. This experiment was conducted to assess how 3–4 months old suckling goat kids cope with intermittent watering. The experimental period lasted for 32 days that was divided into four even periods. Measurements were taken during the first 4 days of each period. One group of seven does (W1D) and their

Urge Mengistu; Kristina Dahlborn; Kerstin Olsson

2007-01-01

490

Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo  

PubMed Central

Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

2014-01-01

491

Mitochondrial DNA reveal that domestic goat (Capra hircus) are genetically affected by two subspecies of bezoar (Capra aegagurus).  

PubMed

This article describes the complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA displacement loop (D-loop) region and cytochrome b gene from domestic goats in Laos (Laos native) and wild goat "markhor" (C. falconeri). The wild goat "bezoar" (Capra aegagrus) has been considered to be the strongest candidate for the ancestor of the domestic goats (C. hircus); however, there is not sufficient molecular data to verify the hypothesis at present. In phylogenetic analyses, two wild goats, the markhor and the ibex (C. ibex), appeared as an outgroup, while the bezoar was located in a cluster of domestic goats. Mitochondrial haplotypes of Laos natives revealed two distinct major clusters: one was the same as the bezoar, the second, unique to Laos natives. The topology and calibrated levels of sequence divergence suggests that these clusters might represent at least two different subspecies of ancestral bezoars. PMID:11530852

Mannen, H; Nagata, Y; Tsuji, S

2001-06-01

492

Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

2014-12-01

493

Influence of kid rearing systems on milk composition and yield of Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.  

PubMed

One-hundred eight lactations of Murciano-Granadina goats from different years were used to compare two kid rearing systems. Goats were separated into two groups: suckling and milking. Dams in the suckling group were milked once daily until kids were weaned (wk 0 to 7) and then were milked twice daily. Dams in the milking group were separated from their kids at 48 h after birth; then, kids were raised artificially, and goats were milked twice daily. Total milk yield was estimated according to the oxytocin method during suckling. Stage of lactation, parity, prolificacy, and year effects on milk yield and composition were also studied. As expected, during the first 7 wk of lactation, marketable milk was higher for dams that were milked than for dams that were suckled. Neither milk yield nor milk composition throughout the entire lactation was affected by group or prolificacy with the exception of the percentage of milk CP. The lactation curve peaked at wk 4 or 5 and declined slowly afterward. First parity goats had the lowest milk yield but the highest fat and protein percentages. Third parity goats had the highest milk yield. The separation of kids from their dams after birth did not affect total lactation performance because of the minimal importance of the neuroendocrine milk ejection reflex in goats compared with that of other ruminants. PMID:9436106

Peris, S; Caja, G; Such, X; Casals, R; Ferret, A; Torre, C

1997-12-01

494

Characterization of microRNAs from goat (Capra hircus) by Solexa deep-sequencing technology.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of small noncoding RNAs that are highly conserved in plants and animals. Many miRNAs are known to mediate a myriad of cell processes, including proliferation and differentiation, via the regulation of some transcription and signaling factors, which are closely related to muscle development and disease. In this study, small RNA cDNA libraries of Boer goats were constructed. In addition, we obtained the goat muscle miRNAs by using Solexa deep-sequencing technology and analyzed these miRNA characteristics by combining it with the bioinformatics technology. Based on Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, 562 species-conserved and 5 goat genome-specific miRNAs were identified, 322 of which exceeded 100 in the expression levels. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction from 8 randomly selected miRNAs showed that the 8 miRNAs were expressed in goat muscle, and the expression patterns were consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. The identification and characterization of miRNAs in goat muscle provide important information on the role of miRNA regulation in muscle growth and development. These data will help to facilitate studies on the regulatory roles played by miRNAs during goat growth and development. PMID:23913378

Ling, Y H; Ding, J P; Zhang, X D; Wang, L J; Zhang, Y H; Li, Y S; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, X R

2013-01-01

495

Polymorphisms of the myostatin gene (MSTN) and its relationship with growth traits in goat breeds.  

PubMed

Mutations in the myostatin (MSTN) gene can inactivate its expression and result in a non-functional protein, which leads to dramatic muscularity and a "double-muscling" phenomenon in many species. Using gene sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism methods, polymorphisms of the MSTN gene were investigated as a candidate marker for growth in 288 goats. The results showed 2 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms: DQ167575 g.197G>A and 345A>T. Three potential genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) of substitution 197G>A in the 5'-untranslated region were detected in the 2 breeds. The polymorphism (CC and CD) of substitution 345A>T in exon I was segregated. The genetic diversity analysis revealed that Boer goat and Anhui white goat possessed intermediate genetic diversity in the P1 and P3 loci. Significant associations between the genotypes of the P3 locus and body weight, body length, and body height were observed in Boer goat and Anhui white goat (P < 0.05). It could be inferred that the MSTN gene may be a major gene or linked to the major gene affecting the goat growth traits. The polymorphic site could be a molecular marker-assisted selection program for body weight. PMID:23613242

Zhang, Z J; Ling, Y H; Wang, L J; Hang, Y F; Guo, X F; Zhang, Y H; Ding, J P; Zhang, X R

2013-01-01

496

Goat milk free fatty acid characterization during conventional and ohmic heating pasteurization.  

PubMed

The disruption of the milk fat globule membrane can lead to an excessive accumulation of free fatty acids in milk, which is frequently associated with the appearance of rancid flavors. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography techniques have been shown to be useful tools in the quantification of individual free fatty acids in dairy products providing enough sensitivity to detect levels of rancidity in milk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the short-chain and medium-chain free fatty acid profile in i) raw untreated goat milk; ii) raw goat milk passing through pumps and heating units (plate-and-frame heat exchanger and ohmic heater); and iii) processed goat milk by conventional and ohmic pasteurization to determine the influence of each treatment in the final quality of the milk. Multivariate statistical analysis has shown that the treatments studied were not responsible for the variability found on free fatty acid contents. In particular, it was possible to conclude that ohmic pasteurization at 72 degrees C for 15 s did not promote an extended modification of free fatty acid contents in goat milk when compared with that of conventional pasteurization. Furthermore, principal component analysis showed that the capric acid can be used to discriminate goat's milk with different free fatty acid concentrations. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed evidence of the existence of correlations between contents of short and medium chain free fatty acids in goat milk. PMID:18650269

Pereira, R N; Martins, R C; Vicente, A A

2008-08-01

497

Genetic diversity and molecular phylogeography of Chinese domestic goats by large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of 666 individuals (including 109 new individuals, 557 individuals retrieved from GenBank) from 33 Chinese domestic goat breeds throughout China were used to investigate their mtDNA variability and molecular phylogeography. The results showed that all goat breeds in this study proved to be extremely diverse, and the average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.990 ± 0.001 and 0.032 ± 0.001, respectively. The 666 sequences gave 326 different haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that there were 4 mtDNA haplogroups identified in Chinese domestic goats, in which haplogroup A was predominant and widely distributed. Our finding was consistent with archaeological data and other genetic diversity studies. Amova analysis showed there was significant geographical structuring. Almost 84.31% of genetic variation was included in the within-breed variance component and only 4.69% was observed among the geographic distributions. This genetic diversity results further supported the previous view of multiple maternal origins of Chinese domestic goats, and the results on the phylogenetic relationship contributed to a better understanding of the history of goat domestication and modern production of domestic goats. PMID:24532161

Zhao, Yongju; Zhao, Runze; Zhao, Zhongquan; Xu, Huizhong; Zhao, Erhu; Zhang, Jiahua

2014-06-01

498

Peste des petits ruminants virus tissue tropism and pathogenesis in sheep and goats following experimental infection.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B; Babiuk, Shawn

2014-01-01

499

Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Tissue Tropism and Pathogenesis in Sheep and Goats following Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B.; Babiuk, Shawn

2014-01-01

500

The aroma of goat milk: seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment.  

PubMed

Goat milk was characterized and analyzed by human sensory evaluation and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Most potent odor-active compounds were determined in (a) raw goat's milk from two different seasons and (b) heated goat's milk after different treatment intensities. A trained panel found sensorial differences between winter and summer milks (seasonal effect) and milks from different farms (farm-specific effect). A total of 54 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ?8 were detected of which 42 odorants were identified. 4-Ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatol) and one unknown compound (RI 2715) showed highest intensities in all raw milks. With heat treatment, goat-like, stable-like, and (cooked) milk-like odor characteristics decreased while caramel-like or vanilla-like notes increased. In total, 66 odor-active compounds were detected in heated goat milks (FD ? 8). To the best of our knowledge, only 16 of the 42 identified odorants were reported before in raw goat's milk. Additionally, for the first time the presence of 1-benzopyran-2-one (coumarin) could be confirmed in ruminant milk. PMID:25405703

Siefarth, Caroline; Buettner, Andrea

2014-12-10