Sample records for goats

  1. car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat

    E-print Network

    McCann, Robert J.

    car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat One of the most successful problems I have used with high school kids is the now notorious "car and two goats" problem. Its fascinating history certainly accounts, in some measure by the (male) host. Behind one of these there is a car, and behind each of the other two there is a goat. She

  2. car goat goat 11/13/2007 1 Car Goat Goat

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Peter

    car goat goat 11/13/2007 1 Car Goat Goat One of the most successful problems I have used with high school kids is the now notorious "car and two goats" problem. Its fascinating history certainly accounts doors by the (male) host. Behind one of these there is a car, and behind each of the other two

  3. Texas Angora Goat Production. 

    E-print Network

    Gray, James A.; Groff, Jack L.

    1970-01-01

    angora goat J. E. Hutchison, Dimcror, College Station, Texas Texcs Anoora Goat Production JAMESA. GRAY AND JACK L. GROFF* Angora goats are adapted to a dry, mild cli- mate. Since they are primarily browsing animals, they thrive best where... to general belief that the Angora goat is a tough, tin can eating animal', he actually is csnsitive, intelligent, healthy and easily managed. is worst enemy is a cold, chilling rain within 6 eeks after shearing. During this period he needs ~rticular care...

  4. Marketing Texas Goats

    E-print Network

    McNeely, John G.; Tieken, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    Jdarketkg Zexas Goats TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Much of the information given in this bulletin came from a mailed questionnaire sent to farmers mi 1 ranchmen... in the Texas goat rdising areas. Texas is the major goat-producing state of the nation. About 95 percent of the ,U. S. Angora goat popu. lation in 1955 was in Texas. The total goat population for the State in 1955 was 2,546,000 head, of which I 10.6 percent...

  5. 4-H Meat Goat Guide 

    E-print Network

    Craddock, Frank; Stultz, Ross

    2006-10-30

    commercial show goat rations are medi- cated with a coccidiostat that should help control coccidiosis. Soremouth Soremouth is a contagious, viral disease that causes the formation of scabs on the lips and around the mouths of goats. This virus can affect..., it is probable that ringworm will become a problem in goats as well. Ringworm is contagious and can be transmitted from goat to goat, from goat to human, or from infected equipment to goat. A good prevention program is neces- sary. The following products have...

  6. The housing of milk goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Toussaint

    1997-01-01

    Increasing the size of specialised goat milk producing herds needs modifications in traditional concepts and housing equipment. Environmental factors such as air temperature, humidity, lighting, etc., must be controlled to avoid serious goat diseases. The application of standard techniques in goat breeding such as space requirements, ventilation and insulation, and also an efficient use of building and sanitary protection, will

  7. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

  8. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

  9. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

  10. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

  11. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

  12. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from...

  13. Gorse — A resource for goats?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Radcliffe

    1986-01-01

    A 4-year trial in Canterbury showed that gorse (Ulex europaeus L.) can be a year-round maintenance feed for goats. Goats consistently ate more gorse than did sheep, and preferred flowers, green foliage, and bark. When green foliage was sparse, they ate brown stems. Non-lactating feral goats performed just as well on gorse as on pasture. Liveweights peaked in summer and

  14. Experimental Struvite Urolithiasis in Goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Corbera; M. Morales; F. Doreste; C. Gutierrez

    2007-01-01

    Corbera, J.A., Morales, M., Doreste, F. and Gutierrez, C. 2007. Experimental struvite urolithiasis in goats. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 32: 191–194.To study the occurrence of the experimental struvite urolithiasis in goats in a semi-arid region of the Canary Islands, where urolithiasis is relatively common, 18 one-year old Canary female goats were divided into three equal groups: Group A received a

  15. Aerial of Sheep & Goat Center 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Blnught. ar gaul forw~ud by rural @Ed' truck frcu UERBS. 855tgc XK!vSB BQTL ~up X+gaaseooaaoa ' g2, 1, ; Ths W&or's goat is ohar'so&rimed' bp'A's eoeb of. vhitsa I'Qhairas a as s x s e'e osmssaoaso'ek iso ass as oasoejossoe'i eases ~ so sa I . 1... Predueing SXSS and pepala@en ef geais in Tenace tXy eountieap 1949esi eaaaoasoqoaosee'seeasseeoa'oeoseoseaeeeseaaea , Producing srsa ~. '~tken of goats in ~ ooun&seg 1+geooaaoaes'iyeaaeeeooseo ~ sossoessae. ease'eao'eao, yoe'. " 10 Goats soon clsax...

  16. Milking goats for malaria vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Nicholls

    2004-01-01

    A herd of transgenic goats could save millions of lives, claim the biotechnologists who developed them because their milk contains the key ingredient of a malaria vaccine and can yield up to 5 kg of this protein a year.

  17. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

  18. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat.

    PubMed

    Mead, J I; Martin, P S; Euler, R C; Long, A; Jull, A J; Toolin, L J; Donahue, D J; Linick, T W

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. PMID:16593655

  19. Reproductive Efficiency in Angora Goats

    E-print Network

    Shelton, Maurice; Groff, Jack L.

    1974-01-01

    or decreased adrenocortical activity. The time in which most abortions occur coincides with the stage of rapid fetal development. High mohair producing goats are almost always deficient in protein; this is particularly true in late gestation (Figure 7... ........... .. .............................. 1 ! Literature Cited ................................................................ 1-1 SUMMARY Poor reproductive performance, long a problem of Angora goats under Texas range conditions, was studied to determine the nature of the problem...

  20. your dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goatyour dairy goat The Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy GoatThe Modern Dairy Goat

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    be processed to produce tasty cheeses, butter, and high quality ice cream. Milk is not the only product which the doe carries her young KID--Young goat under six months of age DOE--Female goat BUCK--Male goat for a mature doe is 28 inches and the mini- mum weight 130 pounds. The Nubian is large and has a proud

  1. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (1) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age...5) of this section. (ii) Tuberculosis testing is not required for goats...the United States to be tested for tuberculosis as described in paragraph...

  2. Chitotriosidase Activity in Goat Blood and Colostrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Argüello; N. Castro; M. Batista; I. Moreno-Indias; A. Morales-delaNuez; D. Sanchez-Macias; E. Quesada; J. Capote

    2008-01-01

    Chitotriosidase (ChT) activity has not been investi- gated in ruminants, and therefore, we studied this ac- tivity in blood and colostrum of 25 pregnant goats and 60 goat kids. Blood samples were taken from pregnant goats at 3, 2, and 1 d prepartum; at partum; and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Colostrum samples were obtained by machine-milking

  3. Introduction to the NH 4-H Dairy Goat Project

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    . As a whole, more people use goat milk than cow milk. There are eight types of dairy goats that are recognized Team 4-H Dairy Goat members learn about raising dairy goats as well as uses of goat milk. This project

  4. NEW YORK STATE 4-H DAIRY GOAT PROJECT

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    yourself this question? Do you think that baby goats are cute and might be sort of fun to own? Have you now before you rush out to buy a goat. There are several types of 4 -H goat projects. However thing to check on before buying your goat is whether there are any local laws against having a goat

  5. NEW YORK STATE 4-H MEAT GOAT PROJECT

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    yourself this question? Do you think that baby goats are cute and might be sort of fun to own? Have you now before you rush out to buy a goat. There are several types of 4 -H goat projects. However thing to check on before buying your goat is whether there are any local laws against having a goat

  6. Goat milk in human nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. W. Haenlein

    2004-01-01

    Goat milk and its products of yoghurt, cheese and powder have three-fold significance in human nutrition: (1) feeding more starving and malnourished people in the developing world than from cow milk; (2) treating people afflicted with cow milk allergies and gastro-intestinal disorders, which is a significant segment in many populations of developed countries; and (3) filling the gastronomic needs of

  7. HEPATIC SINUSOIDAL ENDOTHELIUM IN GOATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PL Wright; JA Clemett; KF Smith; WA Day; R Fraser

    1983-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the hepatic sinusoids of the goat was examined. Contrary to current belief concerning this and other ruminant species, we found the sinusoids to be lined by a smooth, continuous layer of endothelium, broken only by the presence of numerous, unoccluded fenestrae which provide a direct path of communication between the sinusoidal lumen and the space of Disse.

  8. Viable Transgenic Goats Derived from Skin Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esmail Behboodi; Erdogan Memili; David T. Melican; Margaret M. Destrempes; Susan A. Overton; Jennifer L. Williams; Peter A. Flanagan; Robin E. Butler; Hetty Liem; Li How Chen; Harry M. Meade; William G. Gavin; Yann Echelard

    2004-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear\\u000a transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized\\u000a at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors

  9. Social dominance in adult female mountain goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

    1995-01-01

    The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

  10. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  11. Study on prevalence of Salmonella infection in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mudit Chandra; B. R. Singh; Hari Shankar; Meenu Agarwal; Ravi Kant Agrawal; Gautam Sharma; N. Babu

    2006-01-01

    Out of 204 slaughtered goats examined, 35(17.6%) yielded Salmonella. Salmonella could be isolated either from mesenteric lymph nodes (11) or from gall bladder (15) or from both of the organ (9) of the goats examined. A total of 60 Salmonella isolates included 34 from gall bladder (of 24 goats) and 26 from mesenteric lymph node (of 20 goats) samples. On

  12. Peste des petits ruminants in Ethiopian goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Roeder; G. Abraham; G. Kenfe; T. Barrett

    1994-01-01

    An outbreak of disease characterised by fever, ocular and nasal discharge, coughing and sneezing, oral necrosis, diarrhoea, enteritis and pneumonia in goats was shown by the use of specific cDNA probes to have been peste des petits ruminants, confirmed for the first time in Ethiopia. Both morbidity and mortality rates were high in goats but sheep were not affected.

  13. Finishing Lambs and Goat Kids on Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing goats and lambs for ethnic markets offers an economic opportunity for small farm producers in the Appalachian Region of the U.S. There are a variety of forages used in goat and sheep production systems. Overall, nutrients available to ruminants depend upon the types and combinations of p...

  14. Desert Conditions and Goat Milk Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shkolnik; E. Maltz; S. Gordin

    1980-01-01

    Adaptation of the small Black Bedouin goat breed to arid desert conditions is discussed. They are watered only once in 2 to 4 days which increases their foraging range greatly. During water deprivation for 4 days, they lose 25 to 30% of body weight from reduction of total body water and blood plasma volume. Neverthe- less, these goats are relatively

  15. Basic Goat Production 5-Day Workshop

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Basic Goat Production 5-Day Workshop February 11, 18, 25, March 4 and 11, 2014 All classes are 6 family have been raising meat for over 26 years, including meat and dairy goats. She is a strong advocate by a registered adult ($15 per class). Early registration is encouraged as space is limited to 25 participants

  16. Mid-Atlantic 4-H Market Goat

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    .ext.vt.edu Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national to USDA statistics, the meat goat industry is growing at a rate of 10 percent to 15 percent a year. Yet, U protein source. Among the largest consumers of goat meat are those from the Middle East, Latin America

  17. Orf infection following ear tagging in goats.

    PubMed

    Housawi, F M; Abu Elzein, E M

    1991-01-01

    This communication describes the first record of orf infection in goats following ear-tagging. Typical orf lesions were observed in the affected goats, and the virus was reisolated and identified from them. The threat of orf infection following ear-tagging should be kept in mind in orf-endemic regions. PMID:1824135

  18. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  19. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  20. Pigment types in sheep, goats, and llamas.

    PubMed

    Sponenberg, D P; Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K; Eng, L A

    1988-01-01

    Pigment types in various colors of fiber from sheep, goats, and llamas were assayed by a method using high performance liquid chromatography. In these three species the black/gray group is due to eumelanin, which is fully intense in all three species. Red phenotypes are due to pheomelanin and fade considerably with age in fiber from sheep and goats, but not in llamas. This phenomenon has implications on the genetic mechanisms used in generating white fiber. Brown phenotypes in sheep are due to eumelanin, in goats these phenotypes are equivocal, and they were not observed in llamas. PMID:3237610

  1. Nutritional Requirements of the Angora Goat

    E-print Network

    Huston, J. E.; Shelton, Maurice; Ellis, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    and required amountc nutrients for Angora goats, (2) their diets and ld - nutrient deficiencies and (3) suggested means for sup: , ing proper nutrition. I JTutritional Requirements of the ANGORA GOAT I t (: -tntl\\, research associate and professor... Receiving from diet 2.15 1.7 .( Deficiency 2.15 2.8 .I Similar calculations can be made for gc other productive states. Table 5 summarizes the roc. deficiencies for all classes of Angora goats at th weights provided they are consuming the diet Table 4...

  2. Soremouth (Contagious Ecthyma) in Sheep and Goats

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, H.; Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1932-01-01

    CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA) IN.-: SHEEP AND GOATS A AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President STATION STAFF? Administration : Veterinary Science : A. B. Conner. M. S., ulrec~or *M. Francis. D. V. M..... Dairy Husbandry -- - *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of April 1, 1932. **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. Soremouth (Contagious Ecthyma) in sheep and goats is an infectious disease and occurs especially in young animals...

  3. Nutritional Requirements of the Angora Goat.

    E-print Network

    Huston, J. E.; Shelton, Maurice; Ellis, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    B-1105 March 1971 Nutritional Regu irements of the ANGORA GOAT TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station ~nkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas Con tents Introduction..., Texas A&M Uni- ! +I Acncultural Research and Extension Center at McGregor; :e professor, Department of Animal Science. a HE ANGORA GOAT INDUSTRY is an important one in Texas, providing a source of income to producers and assisting in brush control...

  4. Experimental Tribulus terrestris poisoning in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; V. Ebrahim-pour; A. N. Mohebi

    2004-01-01

    Seven, 1–2-year-old native goats were fed dried Tribulus terrestris from Sabzevar district of Khorasan province for 8 weeks. Two goats showed clinical signs of toxicity including weight loss, depression, ruminal stasis, icterus and elevation of body temperature. Haematological and biochemical trails revealed a declining of packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma total protein and elevation of total and direct bilirubin,

  5. Improving Reproductive Efficiency in Angora Goats

    E-print Network

    Shelton, Maurice; Groff, Jack

    1984-01-01

    45 . 7 8-1485 November 1984 . -. .-. I~ 81 ~~?\\~i;~~lt'ti'*"?: '=-- ?"": ~ ~..;......:...::.......-...--,,-~l ~ K iN. f . ~~' 11 .. .. i; Improving R~productive Efficiency In Angora Goats The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Neville... In Angora Goats Maurice Shelton Professor Texas Agricultural Experiment Station TAMU Research and Extension Center at San Angelo JacJGoat Specialist Texas Agricultural Extension Service Jover photo: Well-developed Angora does...

  6. Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride Fluxes in Intercostal Muscle from Normal Goats and Goats with Hereditary Myotonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. LIPICKY; S. H. BRYANT

    2009-01-01

    In isolated bundles of external intercostal muscle from normal goats and goats with hereditary myotonia the following were determined: con- centrations and unidirectional fluxes of Na+, K+, and C-, extracellular volume, water content, fiber geometry, and core-conductor constants. No significant difference between the two groups of preparations was found with respect to distribution of fiber size, intracellular concentrations of Na+

  7. The Texas goat situation, 1955 

    E-print Network

    Tieken, Alton Waldemar

    1956-01-01

    'highways?brach transyo&evon, : and greater oom, . venience for bhe rsnohers. have favored dooentra&sed-goat, marks%ay' Qthex yaekers ir Ghn Ant+bio and 'am~xInding are'as operating e4 sos. Ger-aspasia, ;usnaixy bye fmm g0 to pgo goals ab aha one cine Three pa...L]BRAKY g IS N. gaj. EE@E' QE TEXAS t I 1 41beTA Ll? Ti~ I N~MeS 'by . '%Re 'Qredlu@5S;8ehgel c4' 'the ' RASTER GP BGXEHGF Kagr X9$6: ll i l l I' L '. Bsy l~ ~erma p g holy of otherg. Aokeny3adjpeia4 is @ada to I&. S. C. %@e...

  8. The Texas goat situation, 1955

    E-print Network

    Tieken, Alton Waldemar

    1956-01-01

    $g &: ikv~eh ~caa~ ~@%~ 7&haMng Semite~'. V? 8. 5'~ 4gqeg S~egq Se C. ? 1, N is a young, fat, s~ag kJde. . There ia sums difference M. opinion among iiudivlduals ss to ths ags end weight of s cabzito but after zeacIzlng 2g pounds, the. goat...L]BRAKY g IS N. gaj. EE@E' QE TEXAS t I 1 41beTA Ll? Ti~ I N~MeS 'by . '%Re 'Qredlu@5 S;8ehgel c 4' 'the ' RASTER GP BGXEHGF Kagr X9$6: ll i l l I' L '. Bsy l~ ~erma p g holy of otherg. Aokeny3adjpeia4 is @ada to I&. S. C. %@e...

  9. 4-H Meat Goat Guide Frank Craddock and Ross Stultz*

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    , Wichita County Extension Agent. #12; Facilities and Equipment One of the major advantages of a club goat will remain cool and continue to grow during the summer months. However, when club goats are slick shorn

  10. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized...

  11. Visual discrimination at varying distances in domestic goats 

    E-print Network

    Blakeman, Nancy Elizabeth

    1983-01-01

    -neonate relationship are closely related to the development of perceptual skills. Color vision was proved in pygmy goats by Backhaus (1959). In another experiment, goats were able to distinguish yellow, orange~ red, blue, violet and green from relative values...

  12. Recent developments in goat nutrition and application: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Morand-Fehr

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the progress in recent research in goat nutrition since the last International Conference on Goats (Tours, 2000). This review reveals clear progress in the quality of papers, now similar to those on cattle or sheep, particularly on nutritional aspects in tropical areas. Topics dealt with in goat nutrition are feeding behaviour, particularly on pastures or rangelands, feed

  13. Strategic nutrient supplementation of free-ranging goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Kawas; H. Andrade-Montemayor; C. D. Lu

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an insight to nutritional limitations of forages and other feed resources and the use of supplementation technology by small farmers to optimize production potential of goats in semiarid range environments. In developing countries, the potential for goat meat production is limited by many environmental and nutritional factors. Free-ranging goats can select their diet from a complex variety

  14. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly. PMID:559107

  15. MOTILITY OF THE FORESTOMACHS IN GOATS H.J. EHRLEIN

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MOTILITY OF THE FORESTOMACHS IN GOATS H.J. EHRLEIN Zoophysio%gie, Universitiit Hohenheim, 7U'a0, 1975). The aim of this study was to elucidate these functions. Material and Methods Goats were fitted using an x-ray image intensifier, a videotape recorder and a cinecamera on goats and sheep

  16. Besnoitiosis in wild and domestic goats in Iran.

    PubMed

    Cheema, A H; Toofanian, F

    1979-04-01

    Besnoitia cysts and lesions were observed in the skin, blood vessels, epididymis and testes of two wild goats (Capra aegagrus) and in the subcutaneous tissues of two domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the Fars Province of Iran. The seminiferous tubules in the wild goats showed aspermatogenesis, degeneration and atrophy of germinal epithelium. PMID:467078

  17. Reproductive traits of German fawn goats in Vojvodina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cinkulov; A. Nebesni; M. Krajinovic; I. Pihler; M. Zujovic

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive efficiency of goats of German fawn breed was established based on reproduction parameters: age of goats at first mating and first kidding, duration of gestation, kidding interval, number of kids in the litter and mass of kids at birth and weaning. Average age of goats at first mating was 242 days, and first kidding 398,1 days. Duration of gestation

  18. GOAT GROWTH MODEL: GENOTYPE X NUTRITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted using three goat populations: the Boer (BR), the Spanish (SP), and the Tennessee Stiff-legged (TS) breeds, maintained at the International Goat Research Center. The goats were fed three levels: 100%, or (ad libitum) 85% and 70% of ad lib, of the same ration containing 18% CP ...

  19. TU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat!

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    worldwide TU Delft Repository is TU Delft's digital source for publicly available scientific publicationsTU Delft Repository You get published, they get a goat! TUDelftLibrary `Goat' to repository.tudelft.nl! For every 1.000th publication deposited in the TU Delft Repository a goat is donated to a poor family

  20. Graininess and roughness of stirred yoghurt made with goat's, cow's or a mixture of goat's and cow's milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Küçükçetin; M. Demir; A. A?ci; E. M. Çomak

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study how the type of milk and the storage time affect the physicochemical characteristics, including graininess and roughness, of stirred yoghurt. Stirred yoghurt was produced from goat's, cow's or a mixture of goat's and cow's milk and was stored for 15 days at 4°C. Yoghurt produced from goat's milk was characterized by its

  1. A bivalent vaccine against goat pox and Peste des Petits ruminants induces protective immune response in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhusudan Hosamani; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Bimalendu Mondal; Arnab Sen; V. Bhanuprakash; Santanu Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Mahendra Pal Yadav; Raj Kumar Singh

    2006-01-01

    Safety and immunogenicity of an experimental combined vaccine comprising attenuated strains of Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and goat poxvirus (GTPV) was evaluated in goats. Goats immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of vaccine consisting of 103TCID50 of each of PPRV and GTPV were monitored for clinical and serological responses for a period of 4 weeks postimmunization (pi) and postchallenge (pc).

  2. Risk factors for calcium carbonate urolithiasis in goats.

    PubMed

    Nwaokorie, Eugene E; Osborne, Carl A; Lulich, Jody P; Fletcher, Thomas F; Ulrich, Lisa K; Koehler, Lori A; Buettner, Michelle T

    2015-08-01

    Objective-To identify demographic or signalment factors associated with calcium carbonate urolith formation in goats. Design-Retrospective case series and case-control study. Animals-354 goats with calcium carbonate uroliths (case animals) and 16,366 goats without urinary tract disease (control animals). Procedures-Medical records of the Minnesota Urolith Center were reviewed to identify case goats for which samples were submitted between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 2012. Control goats evaluated at US veterinary teaching hospitals in the same time period were identified by searching Veterinary Medical Database records. Age, breed, sex, reproductive status, geographic location, season, and anatomic location of collected uroliths were analyzed to identify risk or protective factors associated with calcium carbonate urolithiasis. Results-Nigerian dwarf goats had higher odds of developing calcium carbonate uroliths than did Pygmy goats (reference group). Several breeds had lower odds of this finding, compared with Pygmy goats; odds were lowest for mixed, Anglo-Nubian, and Toggenburg breeds. Breeds of African origin (Pygmy, Nigerian Dwarf, and Boer) comprised 146 of 275 (53%) case goats with data available. Goats of African descent had a higher risk of developing calcium carbonate uroliths than did goats of non-African descent (reference group). Males and neutered goats had higher odds of calcium carbonate urolithiasis, compared with females and sexually intact goats, respectively. Age category, geographic location, and season were associated with detection of calcium carbonate uroliths. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Goats with calcium carbonate uroliths were typically neutered males, > 1 year of age, and of African descent. This study identified factors associated with calcium carbonate urolithiasis in goats; however, these associations do not allow conclusions regarding cause-and-effect relationships. PMID:26176729

  3. Nasal Oestrosis in a Jamunapari goat.

    PubMed

    Madhu, D N; Sudhakar, N R; Maurya, P S; Manjunathachar, H V; Sahu, Shivani; Pawde, A M

    2014-12-01

    Oestrus ovis is a well-known parasite of the nasal cavities and adjoining sinuses in sheep and goats. A 3-year-old female Jamunapari goat was presented with a history of anorexia, weight loss, in-coordinated movements, nasal discharge since 10 days and two nasal bots expelled during sneezing 3 days back. Upon clinical examination the animal was dull, dysphonic, unsteady gait and having blocked nostrils with thick mucoid discharge along with an increased respiratory rate. Parasitiological examination revealed it as an O. ovis (nasal bots). The occurrence of nasal bots in a goat and its successful therapeutic management and public health significance have been reported and discussed in the present communication. PMID:25320491

  4. Honey mesquite toxicosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kevin E; Breshears, Melanie A; Ritchey, Jerry W; Morgan, Sandra E; Streeter, Robert N

    2002-06-15

    Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is distributed across a large portion of the southwestern United States. Ingestion of young leaves, pods, or beans can cause toxicosis in cattle and goats if they comprise a substantial portion of their diet. Goats, as browsers, are most likely to develolp mesquite toxicosis. Sheep appear to be more resistant to the plant's toxic effects. Consistent clinical signs include weight loss, ptyalism, mandibular tremors, tongue protrusion, and dysphagia. Diagnosis of mesquite toxicosis is largely made on the basis of history and clinical signs with exclusion of appropriate differentials. Laboratory findings are nonspecific but may reveal a mild anemia and hypoglycemia. Postmortem findings suggestive of mesquite toxicosis are limited to fine vacuolation of neurons in the trigeminal motor nucleus. Treatment consists of an alternative diet and supportive care. The disease is treatable in cattle and sheep but has a high case fatality rate in goats. PMID:12092960

  5. Induced pluripotent stem cells from goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Gu, Chenghao; Wang, Ziyu; Dong, Fulu; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a powerful model for genetic engineering, studying developmental biology, and modeling disease. To date, ESCs have been established from the mouse (Evans and Kaufman, 1981, Nature 292:154-156), non-human primates (Thomson et al., , Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 92:7844-7848), humans (Thomson et al., 1998, Science 282:1145-1147), and rats (Buehr et al., , Cell 135:1287-1298); however, the derivation of ESCs from domesticated ungulates such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs have not been successful. Alternatively, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming somatic cells with several combinations of genes encoding transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG). To date, iPSCs have been isolated from various species, but only limited information is available regarding goat iPSCs (Ren et al., 2011, Cell Res 21:849-853). The objectives of this study were to generate goat iPSCs from fetal goat primary ear fibroblasts using lentiviral transduction of four human transcription factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC. The goat iPSCs were successfully generated by co-culture with mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts using medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and human basic fibroblast growth factor. The goat iPSCs colonies are flat, compact, and closely resemble human iPSCs. They have a normal karyotype; stain positive for alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and NANOG; express endogenous pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, and NANOG); and can spontaneously differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24123501

  6. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2014-10-22

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m(-2)). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m(-2), we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m(-2), and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m(-2) (55 and 45 resp min(-1)) and 1000 W m(-2) (120 and 95 resp min(-1), respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm(-2) is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the levels of radiation depend on the latitude of the location. PMID:25336109

  7. Goat meat production in harsh environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Alexandre; N. Mandonnet

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides some insight into special attributes of the goat as an efficient producer of meat under harsh environments. The overview is not intended to be exhaustive; it gives the readers a comprehensive synthesis on the subject allowing them to consult the list of references. Moreover, it would not be possible to classify the most limiting factor among the

  8. Caprine pleuropneumonia in Beetal goats [corrected].

    PubMed

    Hussain, Riaz; Auon, Muhammad; Khan, Ahrar; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Mahmood, Fazal; Ur-Rehman, Sajjad

    2012-03-01

    Seroprevalence, clinical findings, and lesions of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Beetal goats were recorded during an outbreak. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP was 32.50%. Confirmation of Mycoplasma mycoides in serum was carried out using counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) technique. The highest CIE-positive cases were recorded in the older goats (51.72%) as compared to young ones. Nasal swabs collected from 39 goats showing respiratory signs were found positive for M. mycoides. The most consistent clinical findings were mild to severe cough, purulent nasal secretion, emaciation, dyspnea, increased respiration rate, and pyrexia. Mortality due to CCPP was 9.17%. Consolidation of lungs exhibited the highest frequency (100%), followed by alveolar exudation (90.90%) and pleural adhesion (72.72%). Among the microscopic lesions, septal peribronchiolar fibrosis exhibited the highest frequency (81.81%), followed by fibrinous pleuritis (63.63%) and peribronchiolar cuffing of mononuclear cells (54.54%) in lungs. From these results, it was concluded that CCPP under subtropical conditions has high prevalence in Beetal goats and leads to significant mortality. PMID:21735340

  9. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Jessica R.; Byers, Stacey R.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Worley, Deanna R.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Grossman, Alicia N.; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22?cm?×?22?cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method. PMID:23956926

  10. New Hampshire Dairy Goat Seminar Milk Sanitation

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    New Hampshire Dairy Goat Seminar Milk Sanitation Farm and Forest Exposition Saturday-February 8 - Manchester, NH Milk is a food product, and it will never be any better than the sanitary conditions under about transitioning from a hobby to a commercial dairy. SCHEDULE: 9:30 a.m. ADGA District #1 Meeting

  11. Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25193885

  12. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats. PMID:25917305

  13. Immunization of Sheep and Goats Against Soremouth (Contagious Ecthyma). 

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1935-01-01

    of Azriculture. tin coaieration with . Texas - _Extension ... Service. . ,, shc by ! of OC( unc hec the 10s nPP lea 1 a sl Mo --- vat exc 1 +ma C II x the sor sev Contagious ecthyma (soremouth) is an infectious disease of ?ep and goats..., 1935 IMMUNIZATION OF SHEEP AND GOATS AGAINST SOREMOUTH (Contagious Ecthyma) Contagious ecthyma is an infectious disease of sheep and goats caused by a filterable virus and characterized by the formation of papules, vesicles, pustules, and scabs...

  14. Relation among Blood Profiles and Goat Diets on Rangeland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mellado; L. Olivares; A. Rodriguez; J. Mellado

    2006-01-01

    Mellado, M., Olivares, L., Rodriguez, A. and Mellado, J. 2006. Relation among blood profiles and goat diets on rangeland. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 30: 93–98.In this study the hypothesis that botanical composition of goat diets are related to metabolites and mineral levels in blood serum was tested. Diet composition (microhistological analysis of fecal samples) was investigated among adult mixed-breed goats

  15. Effects of praziquantel on experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria V. Johansen; Jesper Monrad; Niels Ø. Christensen

    1996-01-01

    The effect of praziquantel against experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in West African Dwarf goats was investigated. Thirty goats were exposed to 2000 cercariae each and 15 of those received a praziquantel treatment (60 mg kg?1) 13 weeks post-infection. One day, 1 week and 4 weeks post-treatment representative goats from each group were killed and worms were recovered by perfusion. For

  16. Calcium metabolism in normal and thyro-parathyroidectomized goats

    PubMed Central

    Payne, J. M.; Sansom, B. F.

    1966-01-01

    1. The effects of thyro-parathyroidectomy on calcium metabolism in the goat have been investigated using stable calcium balance techniques and the isotopes 45Ca, 47Ca and 85Sr. 2. Thyro-parathyroidectomized goats, whether receiving supplementary thyroxine or not, are in negative calcium balance, whereas normal or thyroidectomized animals are in positive balance. 3. Gastro-intestinal absorption of 45Ca is less in thyro-parathyroidectomized goats, whether receiving supplementary thyroxine or not, than in either normal goats or thyroidectomized goats receiving thyroxine supplements. 4. The rate of endogenous secretion of calcium into the gastro-intestinal tract is unchanged by either thyroidectomy or thyro-parathyroidectomy. Urinary excretion of calcium is also apparently unchanged. 5. The bone calcium accretion rate is reduced to approximately the same extent in thyroidectomized and thyro-parathyroidectomized goats. Thyroxine supplements restore the bone accretion rate of both groups of animals to normal or greater than normal levels. 6. The bone calcium resorption rate is greater in thyro-parathyroidectomized goats, whether receiving thyroxine supplements or not, than in either normal goats or thyroidectomized goats receiving thyroxine supplements. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5921839

  17. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Theileriosis of sheep and goats in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin

    1997-01-01

    Summary  Theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in West China. Its main distribution includes Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia,\\u000a Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Sichuan. The epidemic period is from late March to July with April–May being the peak months.\\u000a This is the perid of most intensive tick attack byHaemaphysalis qinghaiensis (772–9924%) during the year. It has been proved that the

  19. Factors influencing urea space estimates in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Asmare; L. J. Dawson; R. Puchala; T. A. Gipson; M. Villaquiran; I. Tovar-Luna; G. Animut; T. Ngwa; T. Sahlu; R. C. Merkel; A. L. Goetsch

    2007-01-01

    Female Alpine goats, 18 approximately 17 months of age (yearling) and 18 approximately 5-month-old (growing), were used in an experiment to determine effects of animal age, urea dose (100, 130, and 160mg\\/kg BW), and time without feed and water (shrink; 0, 16, and 24h) on urea space (US) estimates. A 20% (w\\/v) urea solution was infused into a jugular vein,

  20. The Inheritance of Cryptorchidism in Goats

    E-print Network

    Dameron, W. H.; Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence)

    1930-01-01

    of their posi- tion in the abdominal cavity. A ridgling does not become such because he has a defective or degenerate testis to begin with, but rather his testis remains small and infantile because of its position. The immediate cause of ridglings...TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR College Station, Brazos County, Texas - -- BULLETIN NO. 407 FEBRUARY, 1930 DIVISION OF RANGE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY , THE INHERITANCE OF CRYPTOR- ! CHIDISM IN GOATS AGRICULTURAL...

  1. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

    2010-07-28

    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P < 0.05) in the goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol concentrations was detected. From this point of view, distillate rosemary leaves can be proposed as an ingredient in ruminant feed because they both alter neither the yield nor the quality of Murciano-Granadina goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid. PMID:20608728

  2. Nitrogen fractions of Andalusian goat milk compared to similar types of commercial milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Olalla; Miguel Navarro; Reyes Artacho; Carmen Cabrera; Rafael Giménez; Cristina Rodriguez; Raquel Mingorance

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, part of a wider study on goat milk in Andalusia, the total nitrogen and the main protein fractions in commercial brands of Andalusian semi-skimmed cow milk and goat milk were measured and compared to the results for raw goat milk from the farms of a major Andalusian goat milk cooperative.Mean total protein content was significantly higher in

  3. Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The

  4. MEAT GOAT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS PARAMETERS WHEN FINISHED ON ORCHARDGRASS, RED CLOVER, OR ALFALFA PASTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the U.S., particularly on small farms. There are a diversity of forage types and qualities used in meat goat production systems. Seventy-two Boer goats were used to evaluate weight gain and carcass parameters when growing goats were finished on alfalfa ...

  5. Can Horn Length of Mountain Goats Be Used as a Measure of Habitat Quality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS J. MCDONOUGH; JOHN R. CRYE; GINO G. DEL FRATE

    We compared the horn growth of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) from two areas with different histories and levels of habitat quality. In 1952 and 1953, 18 goats were introduced to Kodiak Island, Alaska. The population now numbers around 1,900 goats and continues to increase. Animals for this transplant were taken from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, where goats have been widespread

  6. Somatic cell count and milk yield in relation to haemoglobin concentration in Finnish dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Atroshi; S. Sankari; U. B. Lindström

    1986-01-01

    Using 400 Finnish goats, the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and somatic cell counts and milk yield was studied. On the basis of haemoglobin concentration the goats were divided into two groups (> or ?1). Goats with high haemoglobin concentrations had a markedly higher milk yield and the milk had a lower somatic cell count. In contrast, goats with low haemoglobin

  7. Electroencephalographic power spectral analysis of growing goat kids ( Capra hircus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bergamasco; E. Macchi; C. Facello; P. Badino; R. Odore; G. Re; M. C. Osella

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal differentiation and maturation of the brain follow distinctive ontogenetic sequences that are characteristic for each animal specie.The present study was designed to investigate the developmental aspects of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in growing male and female goat kids, using power spectral analysis to assess useful indicators for estimating brain activity in young goats. Moreover, the spectral analysis results could be

  8. Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

  9. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM GOATS FROM BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are economically important in many countries and little is known of caprine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 143 goats from 3 Brazilian States, using modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25); 46 (32.2%) tested positive. Samples of brain, heart, ...

  10. Spraying Effects on Goat Welfare in Hot and Humid Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazan Darcan; Fatin Cedden; Okan Guney

    Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of three different spraying methods on goats for reducing heat stress. Thirty goats divided into three groups for the trial (One time sprayed a day: OTS, Two times sprayed a day TTS and Non-sprayed:

  11. The Status Of Mountain Goats In Canada's Northwest Territories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALASDAIR VEITCH; ELLEN SIMMONS; MIKI PROMISLOW; DOUGLAS TATE; MICHELLE SWALLOW; RICHARD POPKO

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) are the least studied ungulate species that occurs in the Northwest Territories. The distribution of goats in the territory - both historically and at present - is limited to the lower half of the 130,000 km 2 Mackenzie Mountains between the Yukon-NWT border and the east edge of the range, including a portion of Nahanni National

  12. [Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].

    PubMed

    Seidel, B

    1991-03-01

    An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats. PMID:2049057

  13. [Color perception in domestic goats (Capra hircus L.)].

    PubMed

    Buchenauer, D; Fritsch, B

    1980-01-01

    Tests on male goats were designed to determine their capacity for colour vision. The colours yellow, orange, blue, violet and green were tested against gray nuances of like brightness. Goats were found to be able to distinguish between colours and gray nuances. The rate of errors increased in the order: orange, green, red, yellow, violet, blue. PMID:7445793

  14. Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A

    1999-01-01

    A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

  15. Sarcocystis oreamni n. sp. from the mountain goat (oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of 3 of 7 mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; 1 had ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Afzal; K. Javed; M. Shafiq

    Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850) of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian) District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type

  17. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  18. Quest for Nutritional and Medicinal Forages for Meat Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appalachian meat goat producers are encountering animal nutritional and health problems for which research-based solutions are limited. Goats prefer to eat weeds and browse, selecting the highest quality herbage available. Foraging on traditional pastures not only limits the variety of plant speci...

  19. Goat and sheep milk products other than cheeses and yoghurt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Pandya; K. M. Ghodke

    2007-01-01

    The use of goat and sheep milk for manufacture of different milk and milk products is increasing, although the proportion is much less compared to cow and buffalo milk worldwide, but it is much better organized in some countries than in others. Manufacturing of goat and sheep milk commercially or artisanally on the farm for direct sales is done successfully

  20. This information sheet is for the care and use of Goats Potential Injury & Zoonotic Diseases: Goats are more

    E-print Network

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    of infection. Infected ruminants are usually asymptomatic. The rickettsia are shed in the urine, feces, milk and goats and orf in people. In ruminants, it is evidenced by exudative (draining) lesions found. In ruminants, the disease is highly contagious to humans and other animals. Infected sheep or goats

  1. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...

  2. Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota in Feral and Domestic Goats

    PubMed Central

    De Jesús-Laboy, Kassandra M.; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Pantoja-Feliciano, Ida G.; Rivera-Rivera, Michelle J.; Andersen, Gary L.; Domínguez-Bello, María G.

    2011-01-01

    Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M), tet(S), tet(O), tet(Q) and tet(W)] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats’ feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O) and tet(W), but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q). Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota. PMID:24704840

  3. Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats in Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Rastogi, Ankur

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats was studied using field and abattoir samples at Jammu, India. Abattoir examination revealed that 36.2 % of sheep and 30.9 % of goats were positive for paramphistomosis. The mean worm counts (±SEM) were 23.5 ± 5.7 in sheep and 19.9 ± 3.5 in goats. On coprological examination, 16.3 % of sheep and 13.6 % of goats were found positive for paramphistomosis. The mean egg counts (±SEM) were 4.4 ± 2.6 in sheep and 3.6 ± 2.1 in goats. Season was found to have a significant (p < 0.05) influence on the prevalence of paramphistomosis. A higher percentage of animals were found positive in rainy and post-rainy seasons as compared with summer and winter seasons. The distributions of eggs and adult flukes were significantly (p < 0.01) different among seasons. The prevalences observed according to age and sex of sheep and goats were not significant. The study conclude that the late summer months are major risk period for paramphistomosis in the pasture grazing sheep and goats and the administration of an efficient anthelmintic in May-June and September-October should be strongly recommended to reduce the infection and minimise the perpetuating financial losses to animal owners in the region. PMID:25320497

  4. Effect of sunflower cake supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotypes of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Xazela, N M; Chimonyo, M; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (P<0.05) SLW and CDM than non-supplemented groups. The Xhosa lop-eared (XLE) and Nguni (NGN) goats had higher pH24 (P<0.05) than BOR and XBC goats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (P<0.05). The sunflower cake supplemented BOR and NGN goats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. PMID:21784584

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639?bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats. PMID:25103439

  6. Oligosaccharides in goat milk: structure, health effects and isolation.

    PubMed

    Kiskini, A; Difilippo, E

    2013-01-01

    Oligosaccharides have been widely recognized for their prebiotic and anti-infective properties. Among the different types of mammalian milk, the one of humans is the richest source of naturally derived oligosaccharides. However, their use as a basis for functional foods is hampered, due to their structural complexity, which in turn makes their re-synthesis extremely difficult. Thus, oligosaccharides from other sources have to be used. In this sense, goat milk constitutes a very appealing candidate, as it contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, while goat milk oligosaccharides show significant similarities to human milk oligosaccharides from a structural point of view. Studies on goat milk oligosaccharides are scant, and more data is required in order to provide solid clinical evidence of their beneficial effects on humans. The aim of this review is to collect and present the main research findings on goat milk oligosaccharides structure, health effects and isolation. PMID:24200018

  7. Immobilization of mountain goats with xylazine and reversal with idazoxan.

    PubMed

    Haviernick, M; Côté, S D; Festa-Bianchet, M

    1998-04-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were captured in traps and immobilized with xylazine, later reversed with idazoxan. One hundred and forty-one goats were immobilized, 94 with a single injection and 47 with multiple injections. Dosage (mg/kg of body weight) of xylazine received, induction time, and recovery time after handling did not differ among sex-age classes. Increasing the dosage did not shorten induction time. The first injection of xylazine in multiple-injection captures was lower than the dose given in single-injection captures, suggesting that insufficient initial doses of xylazine made multiple injections necessary. Xylazine is an effective drug for immobilization of mountain goats captured in traps, at dosages of about 4.9 mg/kg. The dosage of xylazine required to immobilize mountain goats is higher than that reported for bighorn sheep and white-tailed deer. PMID:9577782

  8. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  9. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  10. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  11. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  12. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  13. Goat-associated Q fever: a new disease in Newfoundland.

    PubMed Central

    Hatchette, T. F.; Hudson, R. C.; Schlech, W. F.; Campbell, N. A.; Hatchette, J. E.; Ratnam, S.; Raoult, D.; Donovan, C.; Marrie, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the spring of 1999 in rural Newfoundland, abortions in goats were associated with illness in goat workers. An epidemiologic investigation and a serologic survey were conducted in April 1999 to determine the number of infections, nature of illness, and risk factors for infection. Thirty-seven percent of the outbreak cohort had antibody titers to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigen >1:64, suggesting recent infection. The predominant clinical manifestation of Q fever was an acute febrile illness. Independent risk factors for infection included contact with goat placenta, smoking tobacco, and eating cheese made from pasteurized goat milk. This outbreak raises questions about management of such outbreaks, interprovincial sale and movement of domestic ungulates, and the need for discussion between public health practitioners and the dairy industry on control of this highly infectious organism. PMID:11384518

  14. Management Tips for Internal Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats

    E-print Network

    Craddock, Frank; Machen, Richard V.; Craig, Tom

    2003-02-20

    The primary control strategy for internal parasites in sheep and goats has been the use of anthelmintics. Because overuse has caused the development of resistant strains, new strategies must be used. This publication lists available anthelmintics...

  15. Management Tips for Internal Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats 

    E-print Network

    Craddock, Frank; Machen, Richard V.; Craig, Tom

    2003-02-20

    The primary control strategy for internal parasites in sheep and goats has been the use of anthelmintics. Because overuse has caused the development of resistant strains, new strategies must be used. This publication lists available anthelmintics...

  16. Inflammatory Gene Expression in Goats in Response to Transport 

    E-print Network

    Carter, Mark

    2012-10-19

    Transport, a common cause of stress in livestock, has been documented to increase cortisol, and epinephrine in goats. However, little is known about the timing of changes in the immune system in these stressed animals. The objective of this study...

  17. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

  18. Ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 Saanen goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ueli Braun; Désirée Jacquat

    2011-01-01

    Background  Primary diseases of the omasum are uncommon in goats, although the omasum may be involved in various gastrointestinal disorders.\\u000a Examination of the caprine omasum via ultrasonography requires a good understanding of the normal appearance of the organ.\\u000a However, in contrast to cattle, there is a lack of reference information on this topic in goats. Thus, the goal of the present

  19. Potential effect of romifidine with lidocaine administration in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kinjavdekar; H. P. Aithal; Amarpal; A. M. Pawde; K. Pratap; G. R. Singh

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the analgesic, sedative and haemodynamic effects of romifidine (50?g\\/kg) (Group I) or a combination of romifidine (50?g\\/kg) and lidocaine (2mg\\/kg) (Group II) after subarachnoid administration to indigenous goats. Ten goats weighing between 15 and 20kg were randomly allocated to two groups (Groups I and II). The drugs were administered in the lumbosacral subarachnoid space.

  20. Sensory and chemical characteristics of ground goat meat products 

    E-print Network

    Myers, Cheri Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    tastes (gustatory sensations) The panel specifically focused on WOF in beef, 11 but they found WOF to be equally identifiable, although at varying intensities, in meat from different species. The fresh beef descriptors would have to be modified across... . 41 6 Trained sensory panel scores of feeling factors, tastes, and aflertastes for plain goat meat loaves aerobically stored at 4'C for 0, 3, or 6 days. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7 Trained sensory panel scores of texture attributes for plain goat...

  1. Besnoitiosis of the reproductive tract of male goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Oryan; M. Kafi; N. Morgan-Azghadi

    2008-01-01

    Because of high morbidity of caprine besnoitiosis in different provinces of Iran and its significant adverse economic impact\\u000a on goat production in this area, this study was undertaken to study the macroscopic and microscopic changes of the scrotum,\\u000a testis, and epididymis of animals at different age groups associated with Besnoitia spp. The testicles, epididymides, and scrotums of 106 male goats

  2. Reproductive performance and preweaning growth of Spanish goats 

    E-print Network

    Bogui, Nathalie Scholastique

    1986-01-01

    REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND PREWEANING GROWTH OF SPANISH GOATS A Thesis by NATHAL IE SCHOLASTIQUE BOGUI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May l986 Major Subject: Animal Breeding REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND PREWEANING GROWTH OF SPANISH GOATS A Thesis by NATHALIE SCHOLASTIQUE BOGUI Approved as to style and content by: T. C. Cartwr)gh (Chairman ot Ccmssfttee) James W. Bassett...

  3. Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat 

    E-print Network

    Pike, Merritt Ivan

    1974-01-01

    Copyright by MERRITT IVAN PIKE 1975 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Animal Science (Meat Science) IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Approved as to style and content by: Co- an of Committee Co...

  4. Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

    2006-06-01

    Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

  5. A comparative study of peste des petits ruminants and Kata in West African dwarf goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Rowland; G. R. Scott; S. Ramachandran; D. H. Hill

    1971-01-01

    Experimental infections of West African Dwarf goats with Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Kata were indistinguishable clinically and pathologically. Goats convalescent from Kata resisted infection with rinderpest virus. Heterologous stimulation of secondary antibody response was observed.

  6. Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population

    E-print Network

    Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population JOAQUI diversity over 14 cohorts in a small and relatively isolated population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) during a period of demographic increase. Offspring heterozygosity decreased while parental

  7. Diet composition of goats grazing in mixed shrubs-grass rangeland A.S. NASTIS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Diet composition of goats grazing in mixed shrubs-grass rangeland A.S. NASTIS Range Sei. Lab. 236 are adaptable mixed feeders rather than browsers even in a Mediterranean zone shrubland. Key words : Goat

  8. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    PubMed

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation. PMID:22890482

  9. Alpha s1-casein, milk composition and coagulation properties of goat milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Clark; J. W. Sherbon

    2000-01-01

    Amounts of alphas1-casein (?s1-CN), protein, fat, SNF and total solids were measured in 125 goat milk samples. Coagulation time, coagulation rate and curd firmness were measured in 75 goat milk samples by dynamic mechanical analysis using a Bohlin VOR Rheometer. After adjustments were made for month, time of milk collection and animal age, it was confirmed that goat milk with

  10. Titres of Specific Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Goats and their Kids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?ubica Mišurová; Vlasta Svobodová; Leoš Pavlata; Rudolf Dvo?ák

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to perform repeated determination of specific antibody levels in mothers and their kids in order to assess indirectly the possibility of vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis in goats. Twenty-eight goats with their kids were included in the study. The following variables were assessed: number of born kids in relation to antibody titres of goats; levels

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Leizhou goat Capra hircus (Bovidae; Caprinae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Qun; Guo, Gong-Liang; Wu, Jin-Yi; Zhang, Lei

    2014-07-31

    Abstract Leizhou goat (Capra hircus) is one of the famous native goat breed in China. In this study, the 16,651?bp complete nucleotide sequence of Leizhou goat mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the first time. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes. PMID:25080105

  12. Relationships between dietary factors and milk urea nitrogen level in goats grazing herbaceous pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Bonanno; Massimo Todaro; Antonino Di Grigoli; Maria Luisa Scatassa; Gabriele Tornambé; Maria Luigia Alicata

    2010-01-01

    This investigation aimed to individuate the dietary factors affecting the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) con- centration in goats grazing herbaceous pasture and, particularly, to verify the relationship linking the diet crude protein (CP) content to MUN. A total of 205 individual observations regarding dietary and milk variables of 37 Girgentana goats involved in two experiments were used. Goats, averaging 154±14

  13. Early detection of viral excretion from experimentally infected goats with peste-des-petits ruminants virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Couacy-Hymann; S. C. Bodjo; T. Danho; M. Y. Koffi; G. Libeau; A. Diallo

    2007-01-01

    We observed 15 goats for 9 days after subcutaneous infection with 103 TCID50 with isolates of peste-des-petits ruminants virus from Africa and India and five concurrent, uninfected control goats. Typical clinical signs of the infection were present in all 15 infected goats by day 8 and in most by day 6 and some signs were present by day 4. However,

  14. New cryptic karyotypic differences between cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    De Lorenzi, Lisa; Planas, Jordi; Rossi, Elena; Malagutti, Luca; Parma, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus) belong to the Bovidae family, and they share a common ancestor 19.7-21.5 Ma ago (MYA). The Bovidae family apparently experienced a rapid species radiation in the middle Miocene. The present day cattle and goat possess the same diploid chromosome number (2n?=?60) and structurally similar autosomes, except that a small subcentromeric portion of cattle chromosome nine has been translocated to goat chromosome 14. In this study, we adopted a new strategy that involves the use of bioinformatics approach to detect unknown cryptic chromosome divergences between cattle and goat using and subsequent validation using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. We identified two hypothetical discrepancies between the cattle and goat genome assemblies: an inversion in the goat chromosome 13 and a transposition in the goat chromosome 6. The FISH technique allowed clear validation of the existence of a new 7.4 Mb chromosomal inversion in the goat chromosome 13. Regarding the transposition in the goat chromosome six, FISH analyses revealed that the cattle and goat genomes shared the same organization, with the assembly of the goat genome being the correct one. Moreover, we defined, for the first time, the size and orientation of the translocated fragment involved in the evolutionary translocation between cattle chromosomes 9 and goat chromosome 14. Our results suggest that bioinformatics represents an efficient method for detecting cryptic chromosome divergences among species. PMID:25612562

  15. The metabolism and action of insulin and glucagon in lactating and non-lactating goats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    amounts of glucose were simultaneously infused. The blood was sampled frequently. Plasma insulin and their action on blood glucose in lactating and non-lactating goats. Material and methods. Nine Alpine goats 4.m.). Two separate experiments (I and II) were performed. In experimentI (6 goats), unlabelled porcine

  16. 213 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos

    E-print Network

    Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2003-01-01

    213© WILDLIFE BIOLOGY · 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos americanus and unhunted mountain goat Oreamnos americanus populations Alejandro Gonzalez Voyer, Kirby G. Smith & Marco and unhunted mountain goat Oreamnos americanus populations. - Wildl. Biol. 9: 213-218. Native populations

  17. Bienn. Symp. North. Wild Sheep and Goat Counc. 14:115-130

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) are native to Idaho, the southernmost portion of their recent distribution in North America. Mountain goat populations apparently declined sharply early in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries due to unregulated hunting. The first survey of known mountain goats ranges indicated approximately 2,785 animals in 1955. Populations have increased only slightly over the 5 decades

  18. Seasonal fluctuation of ixodid ticks on a herd of indigenous goats at oodi, kgatleng district, Botswana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Z. Mushi; J. F. W. Isa; J. Proctor; J. B. Machete; R. W. Kapaata

    1997-01-01

    Ticks are of great economic importance as they are vectors of diseases such as heartwater and anaplasmosis (Soulsby, 1986). Botswana has periods of drought when the grasses are destroyed but the drought-resistant acacia bushes survive and are browsed by goats. Consequently goats thrive and in the 1990 census there were 2 million goats in Botswana. Walker et al. (1978) conducted

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains ...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacan, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...

  1. A review of the nutritional and health aspects of goat milk in cases of intestinal resection

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review A review of the nutritional and health aspects of goat milk in cases of intestinal resection of the dietary inclusion of goat milk on the utilization of protein, fat and minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn of a goat milk- based diet, compared to bovine milk, has shown a higher protein efficiency ratio, protein

  2. Transplantation of goat bone marrow stromal cells to the degenerating intervertebral disc in a goat disc-injury model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yejia; Drapeau, Susan; An, Howard S.; Thonar, Eugene J-M.A.; Anderson, D. Greg

    2010-01-01

    Study Design In vivo randomized controlled study in the goat intervertebral disc (IVD) injury model. Objective To define the effects of allogeneic bone marrow-derived stromal cell injected into the degenerating goat IVDs. Summary of Background Data Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells to the degenerating disc has been suggested as a means to correct the biologic incompetence of the disc. However, large animal models with IVDs similar in shape and size to those of humans are needed to define the efficacy and safety of this approach. Methods Goat IVD degeneration was induced by stabbing with a #15 blade. One month after disc injury, the injured discs were randomly selected to receive goat bone marrow-derived stromal cell (suspended in hydrogel), saline (control), or hydrogel (control) injections. Three and 6 months after stem cell transplantation, goats were euthanized and the IVD were examined for biochemical content and tissue morphology. MR images at 3- and 6-month time points were also examined. Results The goat large animal model shows early degenerative changes following disc injury. Degenerating IVDs injected with bone marrow stromal cells showed significantly increased proteoglycan (PG) accumulation within their nucleus pulposus (NP) region. However, collagen content, MRI grade and histology did not show statistically significant differences between the cell-treated and control IVDs. Conclusions Following transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells, NP tissue contained more PG than control discs. Although this result was promising, the rate and severity of degeneration in this goat disc injury were modest, suggesting that a more severe injury and a larger sample size is indicated for future studies to better define the utility of cell therapies in this model. PMID:20890267

  3. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are the major source of Q fever in humans. To investigate the goat’s immune response we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via inhalation with a Dutch outbreak isolate of C. burnetii. All animals were successfully infected. Phase 1 and Phase 2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies were measured. Cellular immune responses were investigated by interferon-gamma, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (IFN-? Elispot), lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and systemic cytokines. After two weeks post inoculation (wpi), a strong anti-C. burnetii Phase 2 IgM and IgG antibody response was observed while the increase in IgM anti-Phase 1 antibodies was less pronounced. IgG anti-Phase 1 antibodies started to rise at 6 wpi. Cellular immune responses were observed after parturition. Our results demonstrated humoral and cellular immune responses to C. burnetii infection in pregnant goats. Cell-mediated immune responses did not differ enough to distinguish between Coxiella-infected and non-infected pregnant animals, whereas a strong-phase specific antibody response is detected after 2 wpi. This humoral immune response may be useful in the early detection of C. burnetii-infected pregnant goats. PMID:23915213

  4. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract in 29 female Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Steininger, K; Braun, U

    2012-02-01

    The left and right kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra of 29 female clinically healthy Saanen goats were examined via transcutaneous and transrectal ultrasonography. In order to establish reference values the examinations were performed using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer to scan the right caudal costal part of the abdominal wall, right and left dorsal flanks and right and left inguinal regions of standing goats. A 5.0 MHz intracavity probe was used for transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the urinary bladder and urethra. The kidneys were examined in longitudinal and cross section and assessed subjectively. They could usually be seen from the 12th intercostal space on the right side and dorsal right flank. The right kidney was 8.0 ± 0.67 cm long and the left was 8.4 ± 0.64 cm long. The ureters could not be visualized in any of the goats. The length of the urinary bladder was 5.1 ± 1.38 cm, and its largest cross-sectional diameter was 2.6 ± 1.01 cm. The urethra was seen in 23 goats and appeared as echogenic lines with no visible lumen. The transition from the neck of the bladder to the internal urethral orifice extended beyond the brim of the pelvis in only one goat. PMID:22287138

  5. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  6. Introducing young dairy goats into the adult herd after parturition reduces social stress.

    PubMed

    Szabò, S; Barth, K; Graml, C; Futschik, A; Palme, R; Waiblinger, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare social stress, as measured by social behavior and adrenocortical activity, in young dairy goats during the first week after introduction into a herd of adult goats either during the dry period of the herd (i.e., all goats in the herd being pregnant or dry: PD) or shortly after parturition (i.e., all animals lactating or with their kids: LK). Thirty-two young goats that had had no contact with adult goats from the age of 7 wk were introduced into adult goat groups. Adult goats were kept in 2 groups of 36 animals each. Young goats were introduced (in groups of 4 animals each) into each of these 2 groups either during the PD period (2 repetitions) or during LK (2 repetitions); goats with different rearing experience were balanced over introduction periods. Young goats were more often receivers of agonistic social interactions when introduced during PD than during LK. Irrespective of the period of introduction, young goats had other young goats as neighbors more frequently than expected by chance alone, although this was even more distinct during PD. Cortisol metabolite levels increased markedly from baseline during PD, but not after parturition. Rearing showed an effect only on the nearest neighbors, with mother-reared young goats staying closer together. Our results indicate that young goats experience less social stress when being introduced into a herd of adult dairy goats shortly after parturition and with kids still present rather than during the dry period. Whether this effect is due to the period and lactational stage itself or to the presence of kids needs to be tested in future studies. PMID:23849642

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Yunnan black goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Xia; Liu, Fang; Tang, Hong-Xia; Yang, Shao-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Yunnan black goat (Capra hircus) is one of the famous native goat breed in China. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of Yunnan black goat mitochondrial genome was determined for the first time. Sequence analysis showed that the genome structure was in typical with other vertebra animals. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The base composition was A (33.6%), G (13.1%), C (26.0%) and T (27.3%), so the percentage of A and T (60.9%) was higher than that of G and C. PMID:24495140

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Mao-Liang, Ran; Chen, Bin; Ouyang, Xuxiang; Li, Zhi; Dong, Lian-Hua

    2014-11-25

    Abstract Xiangdong black goat (Capra hircus) is a native breed of Hunan province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Xiangdong black goat is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,641?bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 33.53% A, 13.12% G, 27.25% T and 26.09% C, in the order A?>?T?>?C?>?G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Xiangdong black goat provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes. PMID:25423508

  9. Human Infection with Orf Virus from Goats in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Keshan; Liu, Yongjie; Kong, Hanjin; Shang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Orf virus, which belongs to the Parapoxvirus genus, induces a zoonotic infectious disease characterized by acute, highly vascularized cutaneous pustular lesions in sheep and goats. A number of Orf outbreaks have been reported in sheep and goats in recent years, but no reports have described an Orf virus strain from humans in China. In this study, we diagnosed Orf virus infection in two people, a mother and son, in the Gansu province of China. The human Orf virus was isolated and its phylogenetic characterization was analyzed based on a complete B2L gene. The results are useful for developing prospective programs to control Orf virus infections in both goats and humans PMID:24745915

  10. Production and Selected Properties of Bioghurt Made from Goat Milk and Cow–Goat Milk Mixtures by Ultrafiltration and Addition of Skim Milk Powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gokhan Kavas; Harun Uysal; Sevda Kilic; Necati Akbulut; Harun Kesenkas

    2004-01-01

    In this study, bioghurt was produced from goat milk (A) and 70% goat–30% cow (B), 50% goat–50% cow milk (C) mixtures, and stored 14 days at 4 ± 1°C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF) and skim milk powder addition (MP) were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different bioghurt samples were obtained. Selected physical, chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of bioghurt

  11. Ultrasonography of the rumen in 30 Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Jacquat, D; Hässig, M

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the results of ultrasonographic examination of the rumen in 30 healthy Saanen goats. A linear or convex transducer with a variable frequency of 5 to 13 MHz was used to scan standing, non-sedated goats. The location and size of the rumen, the distance between the wall of the rumen and abdominal wall and the appearance and size of the gas, fibre mat and fluid layers of the ruminal contents were assessed. The rumen was seen as a large organ medial to the left abdominal wall. The wall of the rumen appeared as a thick echogenic line. The longitudinal groove was seen as an echogenic notch, which divided the rumen into the dorsal and ventral sacs. The rumen could be visualized from the 9th to 12th intercostal space (ICS) and flank on the left side in all the goats. The rumen was largest in the 12th ICS at 41.6 ± 5.13 cm and smallest in the 8th ICS at 11.3 ± 4.29 cm. The dorsal sac of the rumen was largest in the left cranial flank (17.4 ± 4.43 cm) and the ventral sac was largest in the 12th ICS on the left (29.1 ± 6.03 cm). In the cranial left flank, the rumen was situated immediately adjacent to the abdominal wall in all the goats. The spleen was located between the rumen and abdominal wall in the 8th to 12 th ICS in many of the goats. The gas, fibre mat and fluid layers of the ruminal contents could be visualized in all the goats. The gas layer was 9.9 ± 3.05 cm, the fibre mat layer 16.0 ± 4.55 cm and the fluid layer 12.2 ± 5.57 cm. PMID:21866512

  12. Experimental infection of alpine goats with a Moroccan strain of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV).

    PubMed

    Hammouchi, Mustapha; Loutfi, Chafiqua; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Touil, Nadia; Chaffai, Nadia; Batten, Carrie; Harif, Bachir; Oura, Chris; El Harrak, Mehdi

    2012-11-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) recently caused a serious outbreak of disease in Moroccan sheep and goats. Alpine goats were highly susceptible to PPRV with mortality rates approaching 100%, as opposed to local breeds of sheep which were less susceptible to the disease. The relative susceptibility of alpine goats was investigated through an experimental infection study with the Moroccan strain of PPRV. Severe clinical signs were observed in the alpine goats with virus being excreted through ocular, nasal and oral routes. No difference in the severity of the disease in goats was observed with different inoculation routes and transmission of the virus by direct contact was confirmed. This study confirmed the susceptibility of the alpine goat to PPRV infection and describes a challenge protocol that effectively and consistently reproduced severe clinical signs of PPR in experimentally infected goats. PMID:22633480

  13. Luteal lifespan and fertility after estrus synchronization in goats

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Lu Meng; Takayama, Koji; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Hamana, Katsumi; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Kojima, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment aims to examine the efficiency of estrus synchronization using progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) and to look at luteal function. During the non-breeding and breeding season, 5 adult female Korean native goats were injected intramuscularly with 2.5 ml of physiological saline as the control. A progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponge was then kept in the same goats for 10 days followed, after a week, by an intramuscular injection of 500 IU eCG. Five adult female Nubian goats were mated with a fertile buck during the non-breeding season. During the non-breeding season 2 of the 5 goats showed a normal estrous cycle (ranging from 18 to 21 days) and 3 a short estrous cycle (ranging from 3 to 6 days). During the breeding season the equivalent figures were 1 and 2. The major axes of the corpus luteum (CL) were measured by means of calipers built into the ultrasonography system, and the concentrations of plasma progesterone (P4) were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. The mean major axes of the CL in goats showing the short cycle (6.1 ± 0.5 mm) was significantly smaller than in those showing the normal cycle (8.9 ± 0.5 mm; p < 0.01) and also the value of P4 in goats showing the short cycle (4.2 ± 2.1 ng/ml) was significantly lower than for those showing the normal cycle (10.3 ± 4.3 ng/ml; p < 0.05) at day 3 following ovulation. Three out of 5 Nubian goats became pregnant but only one goat carried to full term. The present experiment indicated that a combination of progesterone and eCG was effective in inducing estrus, although it resulted in a high incidence of short luteal lifespan. The low kidding rate and high incidence of embryonic loss may be due to the instability of the luteal lifespan. PMID:18303279

  14. Characteristics of non-cerebral coenurosis in tropical goats.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulos, G; Kassab, A; Theodoropoulos, G

    2015-07-30

    The epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical profile of non-cerebral coenurosis in goats and the morphological characteristics of the responsible metacestodes (cysts) were examined in a cross-sectional survey of slaughtered goats in abattoirs of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) originating from Abu Dhabi and various tropical countries. The age, country of origin, and location of each cyst in the body of goats were recorded. Blood samples collected from infected and matching healthy goats were subjected to biochemical analysis. Data on the morphological characteristics of the cysts as well as the clusters, scoleces, and rostellar hooks in one cyst from each affected carcass were collected. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. A total of 2,284 slaughtered goats were examined and 40 goats were diagnosed as infected with non-cerebral coenurus cysts. The prevalence of non-cerebral coenurosis was 1.75% and the degree of parasite aggregation (k) was 0.003, which is indicative of overdispersion (k<1). The only abnormalities observed in the infected goats were palpation of large single cysts in thigh muscles and higher serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) value. A total of 76 non-cerebral coenurus cysts from 14 different body locations were collected. No cysts were found in the brain or spinal cord. Cysts located in psoas muscles had on average significantly bigger volumes and higher numbers of scoleces and clusters compared to cysts located in other body parts (P-value=0.000). Significant differences in the morphometric measurements of the rostellar hooks were observed between cysts found in goats from different countries of origin (P-value<0.05) perhaps due to initial steps of allopatric speciation by geographic isolation. A significant positive correlation was found between number of scoleces and volume of cysts (b=6.37>5; R-Sq=89.4%; P-value=0.000) and between number of clusters and number of scoleces (b=25.13>1; R-Sq=79.8%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a positive allometric growth as well as between number of clusters and volume of cysts (b=0.25<0.5; R-Sq=69.4%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a negative allometric growth. The biological significance of the observed allometries is not known, but perhaps for evolutionary reasons the parasite is investing its resources more on the growth of scoleces, less on the growth of cyst volume, and even less on the number of clusters. PMID:26073108

  15. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  16. Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  17. Chewing Efficiency and Body Size of Kid Goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Hooper; J. G. Welch

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-two observations were made on 27 goats (18 mature, nonlactating females and 9 doe kids) to study the relation- ship among metabolic body size (body weight-Ts), cell wall constituent intake, and chewing efficiency. A jaw motion recorder determined the minutes spent eating and ruminating during 24 h. Greater cell wall intake increased the amount of cell wall chewed per minute.

  18. Computer automated sperm head morphometry analysis (ASMA) of goat spermatozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G Gravance; K. M. Lewis; P. J. Casey

    1995-01-01

    The development of computer automated sperm morphometry analysis (ASMA) allows for the objective analysis of sperm head dimensions. A number of studies have been performed to optimize the efficiency of these systems when analyzing spermatozoa from a variety of species. In this study, frozen semen from 10 fertile goat bucks was thawed and prepared on slides for morphometric analysis to

  19. Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats

    E-print Network

    Service, West Lafayette, IN 47907 A sound management program to keep animals healthy is basicCommon Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student, University of Kentucky Purdue extension AS-595-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension

  20. Control of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in goats by vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Saxegaard; FH Fodstad

    1985-01-01

    After several years of unsuccessful efforts to eradicate paratuberculosis in goats in Norway by conventional methods such as general hygienic precautions and the isolation and slaughtering of clinically affected and serologically positive animals, a vaccination programme was initiated in 1967. The vaccine used consists of two live attenuated strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis suspended in a mixture of liquid paraffin, olive

  1. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  2. What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats?

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    parasites in sheep and goats are: lung worms (Dictyocaulus spp. or Muellerius capillaris); stomach worms are at risk of being infested by these parasites. · The eggs and larvae of stomach worms are com- monly found of the parasites. The irritation and pain causes the animal to cough. Stomach worms Stomach worms are voracious

  3. What Gets Your Goat? Art across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Features Elayne Goodman's mixed-media sculpture "The Goat Castle in Natchez," which is dedicated to a whodunnit murder mystery in Mississippi. Provides historical background of the murder and information on Goodman's life. Includes activities in history and social science, mathematics, science, language arts, visual arts, and economics and social…

  4. The Important Candidate Genes in Goats - A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    China SUPAKORN

    2009-01-01

    A total of 271 candidate genes have been detected in goats. However, comprehensive investigations have been carried out on the polymorphism of some genes, involved in the control of economic traits. Candidate genes have an effect on the physiological pathway, metabolism and expression of phenotypes. For growth traits, growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin like growth factor I

  5. Habitat Selection by Mountain Goats in South Coastal British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHAWN TAYLOR; WAYNE WALL

    We analyzed data from 18 Global Positioning System collars from 2001 to 2003 in southwestern coastal British Columbia to improve understanding of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) habitat use and its relation to forestry operations. We described seasonal home ranges, movements, and winter habitat selection patterns to predict winter habitat use in similar geographic areas. Seasonal periods were determined for individual

  6. Building and deploying Billy Goat, a Worm-Detection System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Riordan; Diego Zamboni; Yann Duponchel

    Billy Goat is a worm detection system widely de- ployed throughout IBM and several other corporate networks. We describe the tools and constructions that we have used in the implementation and de- ployments of the system, and discuss contributions which could be useful in the implementation of other similar systems. We also discuss the features and re- quirements of worm

  7. Footrot in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student

    E-print Network

    they release, which determines their ability to digest the connective tissue between the horn and flesh such as that in dry lots can cause irritation to the soft tissue, and create ideal conditions for footrot when tissue. #12;Purdue Extension · Knowledge to Go 2 Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats

  8. EFFECT OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION ON MILK COMPOSITION OF GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following study was conducted to characterize relationship between subclinical staphylococcal mastitis and experimentally induced clinical S. aureus mastitis on milk constituents of dairy goats. Monthly milk samples (May through September) from udder halves of lactating does were collected to de...

  9. Fetotoxic Effects of Locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) in Pregnant Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has beena substantial amount of research in sheep given locoweed from 60 to 130 days of gestation. Even so, there has been no research on fetotoxic effects of locoweed during gestation days 30-60, and little has been done to describe the effect of poisoning in pregnant goats. Thus the purpos...

  10. Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

    2013-12-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

  11. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

    2003-05-01

    Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat. PMID:12778586

  12. Herds of goats enlisted in the fight against kudzu

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2007-06-08

    Invasive Species: Plants: Kudzu [pdf]http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/kudzu.shtmlKudzu-Goat Interactions [pdf]http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/6750James Dickey: Kudzuhttp://www.breakoutofthebox.com/kudzu.htmKudzu Recipeshttp://home.att.net/~ejlinton/jelly.html"Ode to Billy Goats" [Quick Time]http://www.tfponline.com/absolutenm/templates/onlineExclusive.aspx?articleid=5064&zoneid=72In his time, Benjamin Franklin once observed, "In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes." Had he visited certain parts of the American South in the early 21st century, he might have added "kudzu", effectively completing that troika. This very fast growing vine has spread with amazing speed since its introduction to the United States in 1876, via the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. For decades it was used as an ornamental, but by the 1950s the plant was a ubiquitous part of the landscape in Mississippi, Alabama and other parts of the South. Recently, the city of Chattanooga has decided to enlist a new partner in the ongoing horticultural battle with this noxious weed: goats. The city's public works department decided to allow the goats free reign over a prominent ridge in town that is covered in kudzu, and so far, the results have been encouraging. Of course, things haven't been easy, and there is the "laugh factor" that was recently mentioned by a city forestry inspector, Jerry Jeansonne. Similar programs are also underway in the cities of Tallahassee and Spartanburg, South Carolina, though it remains to be seen whether or not this program can be duplicated on a wider scale. The first link will take users to a New York Times article which talks about the use of goats to control the kudzu of Chattanooga. Moving on, the second link leads to a very thorough website offered by the United States Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center. Here, visitors can learn about kudzu and the ongoing efforts to control this very hearty species. The third link leads to an important 1992 study that investigated the potential to control kudzu with the use of goats. The fourth link will take users to James Dickey's compelling poem on this very prolific vine. The fifth link leads to a number of creative recipes from one Jane Linton that make use of kudzu in such delights as kudzu blossom jelly and apple cider. Finally, the last link will take users to a recent musical number recorded in tribute to the hard-working goats of Chattanooga.

  13. Social instability increases aggression in groups of dairy goats, but with minor consequences for the goats’ growth, kid production and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inger Lise Andersen; Sabine Roussel; Erik Ropstad; Bjarne Olai Braastad; Geir Steinheim; Andrew Morten Janczak; Grete meisfjord Jørgensen; Knut Egil Bøe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the effects of social instability (regrouping) during the second trimester (7 weeks) of pregnancy on aggression, cortisol concentrations and growth in goats and its consequences for survival, growth and some aspects of behavioural development in the kids. Six weeks after mating, 32 goats were distributed into eight groups. In four of

  14. Oxidation of goat hepatic galectin-1 induces change in secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Pande, Abhay H; Gupta, Rajesh K; Sumati; Hajela, Krishnan

    2003-06-01

    Galectin-1 requires a reducing environment for its lectin activity and the carbohydrate binding function is destroyed in oxidizing condition. In this report we provide direct evidence that the oxidation of goat hepatic galectin-1 perturbs its carbohydrate recognition domain and this could be due to changes in secondary structure of goat hepatic galectin-1. Conformational changes in goat hepatic galectin-1 due to oxidation were investigated by absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements. PMID:12871146

  15. Persistent detection of peste de petits ruminants antigen in the faeces of recovered goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. O. Ezeibe; O. N. Okoroafor; A. A. Ngene; J. I. Eze; I. C. Eze; J. A. C. Ugonabo

    2008-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was confirmed in West African Dwarf goats. They were managed symptomatically with\\u000a antibiotics and antidarrhoeics. Following clinical recovery, faeces were collected every week from 40 recovered goats to monitor\\u000a excretion of the PPR virus haemagglutinins in their faeces. All the 40 recovered goats shed the PPR virus haemagglutinins\\u000a for 11 weeks post recovery. Nine

  16. Effect of Stage of Lactation on Nutrient Composition of Tswana Sheep and Goat's Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Aganga; J. O. Amarteifio; N. Nkile

    2002-01-01

    Seven Tswana goats and seven Tswana sheep suckling single (male or female) kids or lambs were milked to obtain information on the milk composition of Tswana goats and ewes under semi-intensive management. The milk samples collected were from does and ewes 40–166 days post-partum. The aim of this study was to document the chemical composition of Tswana goat and sheep's

  17. Sex determination in goat by amplification of the HMG box using duplex PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Shi; Wenbin Yue; Youshe Ren; Fulin Lei; Junxing Zhao

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable method of determining the sex of goat embryos prior to implantation through amplification of the high-motility-group (HMG) box of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene of the goats.Goat specific primers were designed for duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As an internal control gene, the

  18. Induction of synchronized estrus in dairy goats with different gonadotrophins1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Fonseca; J. H. Bruschi; F. N. Zambrini; E. Demczuk

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of two gonadotrophins in induction of estrus in dairy goats. A total of 47 dairy goats were randomly divided according to breed into two treatments (T1 and T2). In both treatments, goats received intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxy-progesterone acetate for six days and sub- vulvar administration of 22.5 ?g

  19. Estimation of direct additive, maternal additive, heterotic and maternal heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya 

    E-print Network

    Ahuya, Camillus Osundo

    1987-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 t'Jajor Subject: Animal Breeding ESTIMATION OF DIRECT ADDITIVE, MATERNAL ADDITIVE, HETEROTIC AND MATERNAL HETEROTIC EFFECTS FROM CROSSBREEDING GOATS IN KENYA A Thesis CAMILLUS OSUNDO AHUYA...). According to Harris (1960) the goat has a wider geographical distribution than any other domestic herd animal and has been traditionally a meat animal. Goats have diversified by natural and human selection into many functionally different breeding gene...

  20. Effect of artisanal kid rennet paste on lipolysis in semi-hard goat cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fontecha; I. Castillo; L. Blasco; L. Alonso; M. Juárez

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of hygienised kid rennet pastes in model cheese systems and also in goat milk semi-hard cheeses to promote lipolysis. The results obtained indicated that the use of rennet paste caused greater lipolysis and increased, mostly, the short-chain free fatty acid (FFA) content. The model systems made with whole goat’s milk using rennet paste and commercial

  1. Liquid storage of goat semen in chemically defined extenders.

    PubMed

    Xu, C-L; Zhou, J-B; Zhao, B-T; Lan, G-C; Luo, M-J; Chang, Z-L; Sui, H-S; Tan, J-H

    2009-10-01

    The suitability of certain commercial and self-made chemically defined extenders for liquid storage of goat semen was tested and the effects of storage temperatures, dilution rates and sperm washing and pH of extenders on the goat sperm during liquid storage were observed. Semen was collected from nine goat bucks of the Lubei White and Boer breeds using an artificial vagina. Each ejaculate after initial evaluation was diluted with a specific extender, cooled and stored at a desired temperature. Stored semen was evaluated for sperm motility and other parameters every 24 or 48 h of storage. The ranking order of the existing milk- and yolk-free extenders in sustaining goat sperm motility was Androhep > Zorlesco > Beltsville thawing solution > the Tris-glucose medium. The new extender (mZA) which was formulated based on Zorlesco and Androhep was more suitable for goat sperm than Androhep. The mZAP extender with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) replaced with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) worked as efficiently as the mZA in maintaining sperm motility, membrane integrity, acrosome intactness and capacitation status. Goat sperm motility was best maintained at 5 degrees C during liquid preservation, but decreased significantly as the temperature increased. When semen was sixfold diluted, sperm motility was maintained longer (p < 0.05) after centrifugation, but sperm motility did not differ between the centrifuged and non-centrifuged groups when semen was 11-fold diluted. When the extender pH was adjusted from 6.6 to 6.04, the efficiency increased significantly in both Androhep and mZAP. A forward sperm motility of 34% was maintained for 9 days when buck semen was 11-fold diluted and stored at 5 degrees C in mZAP, with pH adjusted to 6.04. It is concluded that for liquid storage of buck semen, the mZA extender was more suitable than other extenders; BSA can be replaced with PVA in mZA; centrifugation to remove seminal plasma can be omitted by adequate dilution; and the storage temperature and pH of extenders affected sperm motility significantly. PMID:19019073

  2. Serology and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Ha-Young; Byun, Jae-Won; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Daekeun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). A total of 466 native Korean goats from 40 herds (11 to 12 samples per herd) were randomly selected throughout the nation and evaluated by direct palpation, bacterial isolation, ELISA, and PCR. In serological examinations, 267 (57.3 %) of the goats tested were positive against C. pseudotuberculosis. When seroprevalence was analyzed according to age, region, and season, statistically significant differences were observed in relation to all three parameters (P?goats were palpated to diagnose CLA. Pus samples taken from superficial abscesses were used for bacterial isolation. Among the 466 goats tested, 34 (7.3 %) were presumptively diagnosed with CLA, and C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 24 goats (70.6 % of goats with CLA lesions) whose infections were confirmed by PCR. Considering the high seroprevalence and bacterial isolation rate from most of the superficial CLA lesions, it is suspected that many internal CLA lesions exist in this goat population. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widespread in native Korean goats, and appropriate control programs need to be established. PMID:25682104

  3. Comparison study of tooth enamel ESR spectra of cows, goats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Ling; Liu, Zhong-Chao; Ding, Yan-Qiu; Ruan, Shu-Zhou; Wu, Quan; Fan, Sai-Jun; Zhang, Wen-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The ESR radiation dosimetric properties of tooth enamel samples from cows and goats were investigated and compared with those of human samples. Samples were prepared first mechanically, and then chemically. The study results showed that the native signals from cow and goat samples were weaker than those from human samples; the radiation sensitivities for cow and goat samples were very close to those of human tooth enamel samples. These results indicated that cow and goat teeth could be alternative materials for radiation dose estimation. PMID:25037102

  4. Effect of danofloxacin (Advocin A180) on goats affected with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, U; Loria, G R; Godinho, K S; Samson, R; Rowan, T G; Churchward, C; Ayling, R D; Nicholas, R A J

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of danofloxacin (Advocin A180) was evaluated for the treatment of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. Ten healthy Angora goats, confirmed free of CCPP, were exposed to clinically affected animals from a natural outbreak in Thrace, Turkey. After 14 days exposure, 8 goats showed pyrexia ( > or = 41 degrees C). Shortly after, the Angora goats were divided randomly into two groups. Five of these were injected with danofloxacin (6 mg/kg subcutaneously), which was repeated after 48 h; the five remaining animals received saline. Goats were monitored clinically and blood samples were collected for serology. Animals with severe disease were withdrawn from the trial. Goats completing the study were euthanized at day 42. Lung tissue and bronchial fluid were collected for mycoplasma isolation. All danofloxacin-treated goats showed resolution of clinical disease by the end of the trial. Two saline-treated goats failed to complete the study owing to CCPP. Danofloxacin-treated goats showed fewer lung lesions and had significantly lower combined clinical scores than saline controls (p < 0.001). Danofloxacin was found to be highly effective in the treatment of CCPP in goats. PMID:17265768

  5. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

    1979-04-01

    Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats. PMID:480512

  6. The preparation and properties of a protein concentrate from goat (Capra hirens) muscle 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Nong-Shein

    1973-01-01

    as that from sheep. Kir ton (1969) reported that when a taste panel was served cooked samples of the longissimus muscle from goats and sheep, they preferred the mutton, gave secondary preference to the meat from female goats, and indicated that they liked... goat meat. Eggen et al. (1971) re- ported that 65? of the members of their taste panel detected a difference between control wieners (all beef and pork) and wieners in which mature goat meat had been substituted for 5C of the necessary beef...

  7. Differences in growth and carcass characteristics in young goats of different genotypes 

    E-print Network

    Roeder, Brad William

    2000-01-01

    fatter, heavier muscled carcasses than pasture goats. Castration increased feed efficiency, percent hindsaddle, body wall thickness and percent KP; while decreasing leg circumference and carcass length....

  8. Weed Technology. 1997. Volume 11:734-738 Diets of Angora Goats Grazing Leafy Spurge Euphorbia esula-Infested

    E-print Network

    Weed Technology. 1997. Volume 11:734-738 Diets of Angora Goats Grazing Leafy Spurge Euphorbia esula spurge, Euphorbia esula L. #3 EPHES, Angora goat, rangeland. Additional index words: Biological control

  9. Saluda 4-H Dairy, Beef, Goat, Dog, and Poultry Show Entry Form Return by: Monday, September 9, 2014

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Saluda 4-H Dairy, Beef, Goat, Dog, and Poultry Show Entry Form Return by: Monday, September 9, 2014, Poultry, Dog) Animal Birthdate:_____________________________ Breed:___________________________ Sex:________________________________ Species:_________________________ (Beef, Dairy, Goat, Poultry, Dog) Animal Birthdate

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese tibetan goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2014-07-10

    Abstract The Tibetan goat (Capra hircus), a breed native to China, is adapted to cold and hypoxia. Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tibetan goat. The mitochondrial genome is 16,640?bp in length, with a base composition of 33.6% A, 26.0% C, 13.1% G and 27.3% T. It has a typical mitogenome structure, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. This genomic data provides a strating point for future phylogenetics studies. PMID:25010078

  11. Annual rhythmicity and maturation of physiological parameters in goats.

    PubMed

    Piccione, G; Caola, G; Refinetti, R

    2007-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate seasonal rhythmicity and maturation of physiological parameters in goats. Five kids (Capra hircus, Maltese breed) were studied for 24 months, starting at 5 months of age. Rectal temperature and various blood-borne substances (melatonin, cholesterol, urea, total bilirubin, albumin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and sodium) were measured once a month at dawn and dusk. Serum bilirubin concentration exhibited statistically significant 12-month rhythmicity, and melatonin concentration exhibited 6-month rhythmicity. Changes in the dusk-to-dawn difference in rectal temperature during the course of the study provided suggestive evidence that the circadian rhythm of body temperature in goats is not fully developed until the end of the second year of life. The results documented also maturational changes in cholesterol production and blood glucose regulation. PMID:17197002

  12. Thermoregulatory response of goat kids subjected to heat stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hosam J. Al-Tamimi

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of shade (SHD) deprivation on the thermo-physiological response in goat kids. Seven Damascus kids were exposed to daytime solar radiation (SUN; days 0–20), after an initial 7-day SHD period. Another group (n=7) was maintained under a SHD regimen throughout the 28-day observation period. Daily measurements (06:00; 12:00; 19:00) included respiratory rate (RR),

  13. The ghrelin\\/GOAT\\/GHS-R system and energy metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung Thong Lim; Blerina Kola; Márta Korbonits

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a brain-gut peptide that was discovered through reverse pharmacology and was first isolated from extracts of porcine\\u000a stomach. Ghrelin binds to growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and is acylated on its serine 3 residue by ghrelin\\u000a O-acyltransferase (GOAT). Several important biological functions of ghrelin have been identified, which include its growth\\u000a hormone-releasing and appetite-inducing effects. Ghrelin exerts its

  14. Innate Immune Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Nfon, Charles K.; Marszal, Peter; Zhang, Shunzhen; Weingartl, Hana M.

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a re-emerging mosquito-borne disease of ruminants and man, was endemic in Africa but spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen, meaning it could spread even further. Little is known about innate and cell-mediated immunity to RVF virus (RVFV) in ruminants, which is knowledge required for adequate vaccine trials. We therefore studied these aspects in experimentally infected goats. We also compared RVFV grown in an insect cell-line and that grown in a mammalian cell-line for differences in the course of infection. Goats developed viremia one day post infection (DPI), which lasted three to four days and some goats had transient fever coinciding with peak viremia. Up to 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were positive for RVFV. Monocytes and dendritic cells in PBMCs declined possibly from being directly infected with virus as suggested by in vitro exposure. Infected goats produced serum IFN-?, IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines but not IFN-?. Despite the lack of IFN-?, innate immunity via the IL-12 to IFN-? circuit possibly contributed to early protection against RVFV since neutralising antibodies were detected after viremia had cleared. The course of infection with insect cell-derived RVFV (IN-RVFV) appeared to be different from mammalian cell-derived RVFV (MAM-RVFV), with the former attaining peak viremia faster, inducing fever and profoundly affecting specific immune cell subpopulations. This indicated possible differences in infections of ruminants acquired from mosquito bites relative to those due to contact with infectious material from other animals. These differences need to be considered when testing RVF vaccines in laboratory settings. PMID:22545170

  15. Cloned goats ( Capra hircus ) from adult ear cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo Jitong; An Zhixing; Li Yu; Li Xuefeng; Li Yuqiang; Guo Zekun; Zhang Yong

    2002-01-01

    The average number of available oocytes recovered per ovary collected during the breeding season in dairy goats was 5.5 (1815\\/330).\\u000a 66.17% (1201\\/1815) of oocytes extruded the first polar body after maturation in vitro for 20 h. 75.44% (906\\/1201) of matured oocytes with membrane evagination around the M II chromosomes were enucleated. Ear\\u000a skin fibroblast cells were derived from an adult

  16. Reproductive performance and preweaning growth of Spanish goats

    E-print Network

    Bogui, Nathalie Scholastique

    1986-01-01

    Agronomique d'Abidjan Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas C. Cartwright Records From 1730 Spanish kid goats sired by 37 males and born From 657 does were ana)yzed to determine genetic and environmental factors that affect birth weight. weaning... weight, preweaning average daily gain, survival rate and multiple birth rate and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for those growth and reproduction characters. The data were collected at the Winter -Wal I ranch at Brady, Texas, where...

  17. Behavioral and physiological characterization of emotional states in dairy goats 

    E-print Network

    Carbonaro, Denise Ann

    1989-01-01

    versa. All together, each goat was thwarted twice within a four week interval. The events and states recorded are summarized in Table 3 along with the operational definition of each behavior. Pawing, defecation, urination, and head movement were...: Supporting the body with the knee of the forelegs and feet of extended hindlegs Mouthing: Manipulation of an object with one's mouth Neighbor: Touching neighbor with one's nose or mouth; may include mouthing, licking or biting, Paw: Forward, striking...

  18. Enumeration and identification of lactic microflora in Algerian goats' milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Chougrani; A. M. A. Bekada; El Soda

    2007-01-01

    A total of 153 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Algerian goats' milk. The strains were identified according to morphological, biochemical and physiological criteria, as well as the use of the API system and SDS-PAGE technique. Identification of the isolates revealed the presence of six genera: Enterococcus (41.82%), Lactobacillus (29.40), Lactococcus (19.60%), Leuconostoc (4.57%), Streptococcus thermophilus (3.26%) and

  19. Deriving nutrient requirements of growing Indian goats under tropical condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Mandal; S. S. Paul; G. P. Mandal; A. Kannan; N. N. Pathak

    2005-01-01

    Data from 25 feeding trials conducted on growing goats, from different research institutes across India were subjected to multiple regression analysis to derive nutritional requirements of TDN, CP and DCP for maintenance and BW gain. Maintenance requirements for TDN, CP and DCP were 30.1, 5.83 and 3.22g\\/kg BW0.75, respectively. The corresponding requirements for one g gain in BW were 1.61,

  20. The pathology of experimental coyotillo Karwinskia humboldtiana poisoning in goats 

    E-print Network

    Dewan, Manik Lal

    1964-01-01

    THE PATHOLOGY OF EXPERINENTAL COYOTILLO (KARMINSKIA HDNBOLDTIANA) POISONING IN GOATS A Tbesis By Nanak Lal Dewan Approved as to style and content by: I Chairman oP Cosmittee I ', ' . :(. ' Head oP Department sr '~ J Nember Jannar 1964... description of tho gross and nicrescopic change in experinentally poisoned sheep, cattle, guinea pigs and chichens published in 1928, is tha only hnown investigation on tho pathelogy ef coyotillo. Litt1e progress has been node in the control...

  1. Efficacy of nitazoxanide against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri Viel; Hélène Rocques; Jennifer Martin; Christophe Chartier

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary results obtained in mice, rats and piglets experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp have indicated a partial prophylactic or curative efficacy of nitazoxanide when administered between 50 and 250 mg\\/kg\\u000a BW. In this study, the efficacy of nitazoxanide was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp oocysts. Forty-seven 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally infected once on day 0

  2. Sheep and goats as tool to suppress juniper encroachment: Influence of stocking density and mixed grazing during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing trials were conducted to evaluate the use of prescribed grazing by sheep and goats to suppress one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) sapling reinvasion. A 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted with Goats (G) or Goats + Sheep (G+S) at high or low stocking densities (SD). Ten ...

  3. Seroprevalence of, and risk factors for, peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats in Northern Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad M. Al-Majali; Nazmi O. Hussain; Nadim M. Amarin; Aggrey A. Majok

    2008-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important disease that affect sheep and goat industry in Asia and Africa. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence, and risk factors, of PPR in sheep and goat flocks from five different governorates (Irbid, Jarash, Ajloun, Mafraq and Zarka) located in Northern Jordan. Serum samples from 929 and 400 sheep and goats,

  4. Effect of Replacing Wheat Straw with Almond Hull and Shell in Diets on Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Parameters of Goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Can; N. Denek; M. ?eker

    2007-01-01

    Can, A., Denek, N. and ?eker, M. 2007. Effect of replacing wheat straw with almond hull and shell in diets on nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of goat. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 32: 181–183.To determine the effect of replacing wheat straw with almond hulls and shell in diets on nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of goat, eight male Kilis goats

  5. A comparison of space requirements of horned and hornless goats at the feed barrier and in the lying area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Loretz; Beat Wechsler; Rudolf Hauser; Peter Rüsch

    2004-01-01

    Loose housing of horned goats is more common than loose housing of horned cattle, and recommendations concerning the design of housing systems for horned goats are needed. In this study, we compared the behaviour of horned and hornless goats kept in deep litter pens to investigate their space requirements at the feed barrier and in the lying area.Two experiments were

  6. Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of duodenal infusions of EPA and DHA on the lipidic milk secretion of the dairy goat C and milk lipidic secretion. Seven lactating goats equipped with duodenal cannulae have followed 3 periods, P2, the goats were duodenally perfused, twice a day after milking with an emulsion providing 4 g

  7. Sequence conservation of microsatellites between Bos taurus (cattle), Capra hircus (goat) and related species. Examples of use in parentage testing and phylogeny analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Pépin; Yves Amigues; Andrée Lépingle; Jean-Luc Berthier; Albert Bensaid; Daniel Vaiman

    1995-01-01

    A panel of 70 bovine microsatellites was tested for amplification from goat DNA. Forty-three could be successfully amplified by PCR, 20 of which were tested for polymorphism. Three were applied for parentage testing in goat families and their exclusion probability evaluated. Fourteen were cloned and sequenced from goat DNA, and goat and bovine sequences were compared to evaluate interspecific conservation.

  8. Effect of sex and genotype on protein metabolism parameters in the liver of the young goat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of sex and genotype on protein metabolism parameters in the liver of the young goat SJ genotypes and sexes to possible differences in the liver nitrogen metabolism of the goat. Local PW male expressed as RNA/protein and protein/DNA ratios, respectively. Within both sexes the crossbreeds had higher

  9. Nursing, suckling and postpartum anoestrus of creole goats kidding in January in subtropical Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Delgadillo; P. Poindron; D. Krehbiel; G. Duarte; E. Rosales

    1997-01-01

    The nursing behavior of 10 creole goats and their 18 kids was studied during the first month of lactation by weekly observations from dawn to dusk. The study took place in northern Mexico during the months of January and February. Except for 2 goats that fostered one alien kid each, all mothers nursed only their own litter. Nursing frequencies in

  10. Hematobiochemical, immunological, antioxidant status, and residues of flumethrin following weekly dermal application in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dewangan; P. H. Patra; A. Mishra; A. K. Singh; B. K. Datta; T. K. Sar; A. K. Chakraborty; T. K. Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Flumethrin is used extensively in livestock periodically, which may cause adverse effect in goats and subsequently to human being through food chain. Flumethrin at 1.0% solution was applied weekly dermally for 84 days and hematobiochemical as well as immunological parameters, anti-oxidant status, liver enzymes, and tissue residues in goats were estimated. Flumethrin did not produce changes in hemogram except decreased

  11. Sericea lespedeza hay as a natural deworming agent against gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Shaik; T. H. Terrill; J. E. Miller; B. Kouakou; G. Kannan; R. M. Kaplan; J. M. Burke; J. A. Mosjidis

    2006-01-01

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the United States (US). Due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat GIN, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to increase profitability of small ruminant industries. A study was designed to test the efficacy of a high condensed tannin (CT) legume, sericea

  12. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. Two studies were completed in which supplemental feeds...

  13. ANKARA KEÇ ?LERNDE BAZI ÜREME ÖZELLKLER ? (Some reproduction characteristics in Angora Goats)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halil EROL; Ali BLGEN

    SUMMARY In this study some of reproduction characteristics in different ages of Angora goats were investigated. Data were collected from Angora goat flock reared at Lalahan Livestock Research Institute. The research was conducted between 2001 and 2007 years. The effects of some factors on oestrous cycle, gestation period, body weight before mating, body weight after kidding were also investigated and

  14. Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Distribution of oxidases in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram : an histochemical study G. S in the testis of buffalo, goat and ram. The results in these three species were more or less similar. Peroxidase of monoamine oxidase (MAO) has been reported in the rat testis (Bhagvat et al., 1939 ; Zeller and Joel, 1941

  15. Effects of insulin, cortisol and prolactin on lipid, protein and casein syntheses in goat mammary tissue

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of insulin, cortisol and prolactin on lipid, protein and casein syntheses in goat mammary of insulin, prolactin and cortisol on protein, lipid and casein syntheses were examined in goat mammary or not with cortisol. Casein synthesis was stimulated only when prolactin was present in the culture medium. Prolactin

  16. Instrumental Texture, Syneresis and Microstructure of Yoghurts Prepared from Goat, Cow and Sheep Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Domaga?a

    2009-01-01

    Set-yoghurts from goat, cow, and sheep milk from middle lactation period were produced. In fresh yoghurts and after 14 days cold storage the following properties were analysed: hardness, adhesiveness, and extrusion force using instrumental texture analyzer, syneresis using drainage and centrifugal methods and microstructure using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Yoghurt from goat milk was characterized by lower hardness, adhesiveness, extrusion

  17. Short Communication: Evaluation of a Color Method for Testing Immunoglobulin G Concentration in Goat Colostrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Argüello; N. Castro; J. Capote

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum samples (n = 1084) of first and second milking from Majorera goats were taken. The immuno- globulin (Ig) G concentrations estimated by measure- ment of the color of goat colostrum and by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared. Least squares analysis of the relationship between the color measurement method and IgG concentration resulted in a significant linear relationship. Using

  18. Effects of controlled seasonal breeding on reproductive performance traits of pastoral goat herds in northern Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Hary; Horst-Jürgen Schwartz; John M King; Alan B Carles

    2003-01-01

    A systematic breeding programme in a herd of Small East African goats was initiated in Isiolo District, northern Kenya. The study was undertaken to assess the effect of controlled seasonal breeding on the biological productivity of pastoral goat flocks. This paper reports the results of statistical analyses of reproductive performance traits (conception, abortion, birth, prolificacy, fecundity and weaning rates) measured

  19. Comparative gene mapping of lactoperoxidase, retinoblastoma, and ?-lactalbumin genes in cattle, sheep, and goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélène C. Hayes; Paul Popescu; Bernard Dutrillaux

    1993-01-01

    The lactoperoxidase (LPO), retinoblastoma (RB1), and a-lactalbumin (LALBA) genes have been mapped by fluorescent in situ hybridization respectively to cattle Chromosomes (Chrs) 19, 12, 5; goat Chrs 19, 12, 5; and sheep Chrs 11, 10, 3. The results confirm the homologies among cattle, sheep, and goat chromosomes, previously reported, and provide more information for the comparison between the bovine and

  20. Pig and Goat Blood as Substitutes for Sheep Blood in Blood-Supplemented Agar Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHANDAR ANAND; RHONDA GORDON; HELENE SHAW; KEVIN FONSECA; MERLE OLSEN

    2000-01-01

    In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies

  1. Analysis of production objectives and breeding practices of dairy goats in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2009-03-01

    Production objectives and breeding practices of smallholder households participating in dairy goat breeding projects were analysed in relation to their ability to bring about sustainable genetic improvement in the dairy goat flocks in Kenya. A stratified survey involving 311 goat keepers in 4 project sites was used. This employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods to get a holistic view of dairy goats, and take into account the full array of contributions of dairy goats to the smallholder households. Milk production and sales of breeding stock were high priority functions for the objective to create a financial buffer. The breeding objective traits that farmers perceived as being of primary importance were milk yield, growth rate, body size, fertility and disease tolerance. There were logical trade-offs in the choice of these traits by farmers. Female dairy goats were mainly culled due to old age, poor fertility, small body size and poor health. Farmers did not place a large significance on unsatisfactory milk performance when culling female goats, mainly due to the very small production size and the high demand existing for breeding animals. Factors affecting milk yield and flock size presented satisfied a P<0.1 significance level. The performance levels of dairy goats were mainly influenced by breeding strategies and the resource availability at the farm level. The optimisation of genotype x environment interactions remains the biggest challenge given the objectives set by the farmer. PMID:18584299

  2. Protection of goats against rinderpest by vaccination with attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Diallo

    1995-01-01

    The ability of the attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine virus to protect small ruminants against virulent rinderpest virus was investigated. Out of four susceptible goats that were infected with the highly virulent Saudi strain of rinderpest virus by intranasal ioculation, three developed mild clinical signs of disease and infected susceptible in-contact goats and cattle with rinderpest virus. However, four

  3. Histopathological study of a natural outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants in goats of Tamilnadu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Aruni; P. S. Lalitha; A. C. Mohan; P. Chitravelu; S. P. Anbumani

    1998-01-01

    The Morbilli viruses responsible for Rinderpest in cattle and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats, are important pathogens of domestic ruminants. PPR infection is most commonly recorded among the sheep population in India. This article deals with the first exclusive outbreak of PPR in goats in a mixed population that occurred in the southern districts of Tamilnadu,

  4. Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antigen in conjunctival smears of goats by indirect immunofluorescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Sumption; G. Aradom; G. Libeau; A. J. Wilsmore

    1998-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRv) antigen was detected in conjunctival epithelial cells obtained from goats in the early or late stage of the disease by the use of a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) to PPRV in an immunofluorescent antibody test (EFAT). The affected goats were sampled during an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants in Eritrea. Syncytia were also

  5. The Measurement of Carcass Characteristics of Goats Using the Ultrasound Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Corral de Mesta; Paul A. Will; J. M. Gonzalez

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if ante mortem carcass characteristics measured via the ultrasound method in live goats is associated with carcass characteristic measured postmortem. Forty crossbred Spanish goats were evaluated at five different time periods for a total of 80 days. Ante mortem measurements of fat thickness (FTU), longissimus muscle area (LMAU), longissimus muscle width (LMWU),

  6. INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...

  7. Effects of non-genetic factors on production traits of Inner Mongolia cashmere goats in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M Zhou; D Allain; J. Q Li; W. G Zhang; X. C Yu

    2003-01-01

    The effects of age, sex, age of dam, year of production, herd, and type of birth on cashmere weight, fiber diameter, fiber length, body weight at birth, weaning and yearling in goats, were based on 12 years data from an Inner Mongolia Albas cashmere goat stock farm. The year of production had significant influence on cashmere weight, fiber diameter and

  8. Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genet...

  9. SERICEA LESPEDEZA HAY AS A NATURAL DEWORMING AGENT AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION IN GOATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the United States (US). Due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat GIN, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to i...

  10. Rumen ciliated protozoa of the Turkish domestic goats (Capra hir cus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BAYRAM GÖÇMEN; SAMIYE RASTGELDI; ADEM KARAO LU; HAKAN A KAN

    Rumen contents obtained from eight adult domesticated goats ( Capra hircus L.) at slaughterhouses in the southeastern area of Turkey were surveyed for ciliate protozoa. As a result of our survey, 12 genera including 39 species were identified. Fifteen of the species were further divided into 35 formae. The average ciliate density in the rumen contents of Turkish goats (33.21x10

  11. Characteristics of goat milk collected from small and medium enterprises in Greece, Portugal and France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Morgan; T Massouras; M Barbosa; L Roseiro; F Ravasco; I Kandarakis; V Bonnin; M Fistakoris; E Anifantakis; G Jaubert; K Raynal-Ljutovac

    2003-01-01

    Characteristics of goat milk collected from seven small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Greece, France and Portugal were compared. Results of microbiological, biochemical and technological characteristics (whey draining capacity after lactic or rennet coagulation, acidification aspects, and heat stability) of goat milk with identical and standardised techniques are discussed in relation to effects on technological processes and quality of final

  12. Phenotypic Characterization of Indigenous Tswana Goats and Sheep Breeds in Botswana: Continuous Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Nsoso; B. Podisi; E. Otsogile; B. S. Mokhutshwane; B. Ahmadu

    2004-01-01

    The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783

  13. Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

    2011-08-01

    Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158

  14. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue seed on physiological parameters of mature female meat goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the study were to determine if consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue seed would affect thermoregulation and dry matter intake (DMI) in mature female meat goats. During the 4 week study, goats (n = 18) were assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6 per treatment) and f...

  15. Evidence for persistent Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F

    2008-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections. PMID:18987224

  16. Skull, mandible, and metapodials of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat (Oreamnos harringtoni)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim I. Mead; Mark C. Lawler

    1995-01-01

    Chester Stock (1936) described a late Rancholabrean species of extinct mountain goat (Oreamnos harringtoni) based on scant remains from a cave in the Great Basin, Nevada. We present a review using cranial, mandibular, and metapodial remains of O. harringtoni from 13 localities in the southwest. The extinct mountain goat is not just a smaller form of the living species, O.

  17. Placing the mountain goat: A total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron B. A. Shafer; Jocelyn C. Hall

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of a group’s evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a ‘rogue taxon’ as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as

  18. IODINE CONCENTRATION IN MILK OF SHEEP AND GOATS FROM FARMS IN SOUTH BOHEMIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. TRÁVNÍâEK; J. KURSA

    Trávníãek, J., J. Kursa: Iodine Concentration in Milk Sheep and Goats from Farms in South Bohemia. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 35-42. Iodine concentration was determined in milk samples collected from 60 sheep on 10 farms and from 94 goats of 64 farmers. The animals were grazed in the summer and fed hay of local harvests in the winter. Pregnant

  19. Development of sexual behavior over several serving capacity tests in male goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bradley Imwalle; Larry S. Katz

    2004-01-01

    Results from previous research suggest that male goats, cattle and swine do not require prior sexual experience as juveniles to exhibit their full potential in serving capacity tests as adults. Preliminary data in our laboratory indicate that juvenile goats exhibit profound separation stress from pen mates when acclimating to a novel space, such as during a sexual performance test. Performance

  20. Spatial correlation analysis of atrial activation patterns during sustained atrial fibrillation in conscious goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. T. Hoekstra; C. G. H. Diks; M. A. Allessie; J. DeGoede

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we applied both linear and nonlinear spatial correlation measures to charac- terize epicardial activation patterns of sustained atrial fibrillation in instrumented conscious goats. It was investigated if nonlinearity was involved in the spatial coupling of atrial regions and to what extent fibrillation was organized in the experimental model of sustained atrial fibrillation (AF) in instrumented goats.

  1. Ovulation rate, number of fetuses and embryo loss in Teddy goats of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Anwar; K. M Ahmad

    1999-01-01

    The genitalia of 107 pregnant Teddy goats of different ages were collected from an abattoir. Ovulation rate, number of fetuses, embryo loss and location of fetuses in the uterine horns relative to number of corpora lutea in the ovaries were recorded. In goats with no permanent teeth, with two permanent teeth, four permanent teeth, and six or eight permanent teeth,

  2. In vitro development of reconstructed goat oocytes after somatic cell nuclear transfer with fetal fibroblast cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K Das; A. C Majumdar; G Taru Sharma

    2003-01-01

    In the present study the developmental potential of fetal fibroblasts was evaluated using nuclear transfer. Studies were undertaken to workout suitable dc pulse length on electrofusion of fetal goat skin fibroblast cells with enucleated in vitro matured goat oocytes and their capability of forming embryos. Skin fibroblast cells from fetal skin were isolated and cultured in monolayer using RPMI-1640 media

  3. Cardiopulmonary effects of dexmedetomidine in goats and sheep anaesthetised with sevoflurane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. N. Kutter; S. B. R. Kästner; R. Bettschart-Wolfensberger; M. Huhtinen

    2006-01-01

    In sheep, ?2-agonists can induce severe hypoxaemia. In goats, reports on changes in oxygenation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare the cardiopulmonary effects of dexmedetomidine in six goats and four sheep anaesthetised with sevoflurane and maintained at approximately 1 minimal alveolar concentration. The animals were ventilated mechanically and held in an upright position to minimise the

  4. Housing of Norwegian goat herds and associations with milk yield and milk quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Simensen; F. Hardeng; T. Lunder

    2010-01-01

    Data from a questionnaire regarding housing factors were merged with data from the milk recording databases (herd mean annual milk yield per goat, somatic cell count (SCC) and bulk milk bacterial count), and the material included 235 herds. Associations with housing factors were tested at herd level and at individual goat level. Housing in insulated buildings with no access to

  5. Establishment and early growth characteristics of six Paulownia genotypes for goat browse in Raleigh, NC, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Paul Mueller; Jean-Marie Luginbuhl; Ben A. Bergmann

    2001-01-01

    Meat goat production in the eastern USA is increasing as a result of growing demand from various ethnic groups. Because goats naturally prefer a high proportion of browse in their diets, research was initiated to investigate various silvopastoral production systems. The genus Paulownia contains several species which exhibit rapid juvenile growth and other characteristics that justify research into their potential

  6. Ixodid ticks infesting domestic goats in communal land areas of Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Hove; I G Horak; A A Latif

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the species spectrum of ticks infesting goats owned by resource-limited farmers in the state-owned communal land areas of Zimbabwe. Ticks were collected from goats at a single locality within each of 5 communal land areas, and a total of 14 ixodid tick species was recovered. The most numerous tick was Rhipicephalus evertsi

  7. Composting of goat manure and wheat straw using pine cones as a bulking agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recep Kulcu; Osman Yaldiz

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of pine cones, goat manure and wheat straw and obtained optimal Free Air Space (FAS) values for composting. For this aim, pine cones were added at different ratios into goat manure and wheat straw mixtures. So, the FAS value of mixtures was fixed at four different levels. According to the results,

  8. Relationship of somatic cell counts in goat milk to mastitis and productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George F. W Haenlein

    2002-01-01

    This review covers research since the Symposium at Bella, Italy, in 1994, and as published in three major dairy research journals. It examines in particular non-pathological influences on somatic cell counts (SCCs) levels as they are unique for goat milk and different from cow milk in order to aid towards progress for establishing equitable quality standards for goat and sheep

  9. Composition and bulk tank somatic cell counts of milk from dairy goat herds in Southeastern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Aparecida; Vasconcelos Paiva BRITO; Carla LANGE; Rafael Guedes FONSECA; Yuri de Almeida SILVA

    The milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) are requirements for assessment milk quality and mastitis in goat herds. Studies conducted with dairy goat herds indicated that the milk composition differed among them to due to factors such as genetic, feeding, system of production, stage of lactation, year and year-season. The objective of this study was to assess SCC and

  10. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in goats J.E. LINDBERG

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    conducted to study urinary excretion of purine derivatives (i.e. allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine) in goat kids. Estimates of microbial N synthesis in dairy goats were calculated from allantoin of age). With decreasing N intake (I 222 mg N/Wl&dquo;75to 223 mg N/WO.7ó), urinary allantoin-N (All

  11. Clinical and Pathological Effects of Short-term Cyanide Repeated Dosing to Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work is to determine and describe the effects of subacute cyanide toxicity to goats. Eight female goats were divided into two groups. The first group of five animals was treated with 8.0mg KCN kg-1 body weight day -1 for seven consecutive days. The second group of three animal...

  12. Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection E of the new feed (stinging nettle) than sheep. Refusal compositions showed similar trends to Experiments 1 sheep. The consistent trend for goat feed refusals to contain less acid detergent fibre and more

  13. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk yield, kid growth and cost of Florida dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; Y. Mena; J. M. Castel; P. González-Redondo; F. P. Caravaca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and cost in Florida dairy goats. Two groups of animals were created, one with goats under natural suckling and the other under artificial rearing. In the suckling group, the kids were suckled up to

  14. Serum protein levels and neonatal growth rate of Nubian goat kids in Taiwan area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C Chen; C. J Chang; H. C Peh; S. Y Chen

    1999-01-01

    Levels of serum total protein and ?-globulin were determined in 43 newborn goat kids of up to 5 days of age on two goat farms in Taiwan using colorimetric assay and an agarose gel electrophoresis kit, respectively. The kids were sufficiently bottle-fed with the maternal colostrum every 6h for the first day and every 12h since 2 days. The overall

  15. INFECTION RATE AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF VARIOUS HELMINTHS IN GOATS IN AND AROUND LAHORE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. IJAZ; M. S. KHAN; M. AVAIS; K. ASHRAF; M. M. ALI

    2008-01-01

    The current study was carried out to find out the infection rate of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) helminths and its association with diarrhoea in goats in Lahore, Pakistan. For this purpose, 300 faecal samples from goats suffering from diarrhoea presented at the Outdoor Hospital, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, UVAS Lahore and various private as well as government hospitals located

  16. Influence of high tannin grain sorghum on gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that condensed tannin-rich forages such as sericea lespedeza can control gastrointestinal nematode infection (GIN) in goats. The objective of three experiments (EXP) was to determine the influence of high tannin grain sorghum on GIN in goats. Naturally infected B...

  17. Blood groups and evolutionary relationships among domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), domestic Goat (Capra hircus),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Blood groups and evolutionary relationships among domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), domestic Goat (Capra in this report are concerned with the results of blood typing ofaoudad (Ammotragus lervia), 20 european mouflons (Ovis musimon) and 260 domestic goats (Capra hircus). The blood samples were tested with 31 different

  18. Finishing meat goats on birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, or red clover pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats is a major challenge for producers. Some forages may contain natural compounds that can help in GI parasite control. This experiment was conducted to evaluate forage production patterns, animal performance, and health when meat goat kids were fin...

  19. Preserved goat milk as a valid sample for the PCR detection of Mycoplasma agalactiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joaquín Amores; Christian de la Fe; Ángel Gómez-Martín; Juan C. Corrales; Antonio Contreras; Antonio Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Goat milk samples routinely obtained by milk distributing companies and quality control laboratories are preserved using azidiol (AZ) or bronopol (BR). This study was designed to determine if these treated goat milk samples are suitable for Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae detection by PCR. The effects of these preservatives on the limits of M. agalactiae direct PCR detection were established using samples

  20. Influence of Storage and Preservation on Fossomatic Cell Count and Composition of Goat Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sánchez; D. Sierra; C. Luengo; J. C. Corrales; C. T. Morales; A. Contreras; C. Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different test conditions on the somatic cell count (SCC) and composition of goat milk. To this end, 3600 tests were performed on 1800 aliquots taken from 40 goat milk samples using a combined instrument set-up based on flow cytometry for SCC and Fourier transform infra- red analysis for fat, total protein,

  1. Changes in the fatty acid composition of goat milk fat after a 48-hour fast

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Changes in the fatty acid composition of goat milk fat after a 48-hour fast Anne-Marie MASSART, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Summary. Five lactating goats were milked twice daily. After a control period of 3 days, they were fasted for 48 hr. The milk was collected at each milking. At the end

  2. A Model of Radioiodine Transfer to Goat Milk Incorporating the Influence of Stable Iodine

    E-print Network

    Crout, Neil

    1 A Model of Radioiodine Transfer to Goat Milk Incorporating the Influence of Stable Iodine 1 N intake including large countermeasure doses of stable iodine, on the transfer of radioiodine to goat milk on the effect of countermeasure doses of stable iodine on radioiodine transfer to milk. To account

  3. Goat Urine and Limestone Affect Nitrogen and Cation Distributions in an Acidic Grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.) to clear overgrown pastures and woodlots of unwanted vegetation may result in high rates of urine deposition where goats congregate. Surface application of limestone to dystrophic acid soils before clearing is known to augment ammonia gas volatilization from ...

  4. Analysis on DNA sequence of GPR54 gene and its association with litter size in goats.

    PubMed

    Cao, G L; Chu, M X; Fang, L; Feng, T; Di, R; Li, N

    2011-08-01

    The kisspeptin/GPR54 pathway is crucial in the process of puberty onset. Six pairs of primers were designed to clone goat GPR54 and scan polymorphisms and one pair of primers to detect polymorphisms of GPR54 in sexual precocious and sexual late-maturing goat breeds. A DNA fragment of 4258 bp of goat GPR54 was obtained, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1137 bp and encodes 378 amino acids, having a high homology with other mammals. The protein was predicted to have seven transmembrane regions. There were no base pair variation in exons 1-4 and three base changes (G4014A, G4136A and C4152T) in exon 5 by sequencing and the three mutations may have some correlation with sexual precocity in goats. For the 4152 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype TT and CT had 1.02 and 0.84 (P<0.01) kids more than those with genotype CC, respectively. No significant difference (P>0.05) was found in litter size between TT and CT genotypes in Jining Grey goat. For the other two loci, no significant difference (P>0.05) was found in litter size between different genotypes in Jining Grey goats. The present study preliminarily indicated an association between allele T of the 4152 locus in GPR54 and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. PMID:21110113

  5. The effects of first gestation and lactation on bone metabolism in dairy goats and milk sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Liesegang; J. Risteli; M. Wanner

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare mobilization rate of calcium (Ca) from bone in pregnant and lactating goats and sheep. Blood samples were collected from goats and sheep monthly during pregnancy and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postpartum (pp) and monthly during lactation until 6 months after parturition. Total bone mineral content (BMC) and total bone

  6. Animal Model Evaluation of Dairy Goats for Milk, Fat, and Protein Yields with Crossbred Animals Included

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Wiggans

    1989-01-01

    Genetic evaluation of dairy goats was extended to include evaluation of protein yield and evaluation of Oberhasli and experimental breeds. Diverse genetic background of parents of crossbred ani- mals can be accounted for with an animal model that includes all relationships. The animal model system implemented for dairy goats differed from the one for dairy cattle in that all breeds

  7. Effect of Pregnancy and Extended Lactation on Milk Production in Dairy Goats Milked Once Daily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. K. Salama; G. Caja; X. Such; R. Casals; E. Albanell

    2005-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Murciano-Granadina dairy goats milked once daily were used to study the lactational effects of an extended 24-mo kidding interval (K24; n = 14) compared with the traditional 12-mo kidding inter- val (K12; n = 16). Goats were divided into 2 groups at wk 29 of lactation balanced with respect to parity, milk yield, and somatic cell count. Over

  8. An initial comparative map of copy number variations in the goat (Capra hircus) genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The goat (Capra hircus) represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs) in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina) using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. Results We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat), with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs): on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome). These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P < 0.0001) suggesting that several chromosome regions might contain recurrent interspecies CNVRs. Genes with environmental functions were over-represented in goat CNVRs as reported in other mammals. Conclusions We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the functional relevance of these CNVs and their effects on behavior, production, and disease resistance traits in goats. PMID:21083884

  9. The potential to control Haemonchus contortus in indigenous South African goats with copper oxide wire particles

    PubMed Central

    Vatta, A.F.; Waller, P.J.; Githiori, J.B.; Medley, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The high prevalence of resistance of Haemonchus contortus to all major anthelmintic groups has prompted investigations into alternative control methods in South Africa, including the use of copper oxide wire particle (COWP) boluses. To assess the efficacy of COWP against H. contortus in indigenous South African goats, 18 male faecal egg-count-negative goats were each given ca.1200 infective larvae of H. contortus three times per week during weeks 1 and 2 of the experiment. These animals made up an “established” infection group (ESTGRP). At the start of week 7, six goats were each given a 2-g COWP bolus orally; six goats received a 4-g COWP bolus each and six animals were not treated. A further 20 goats constituted a “developing” infection group (DEVGRP). At the beginning of week 1, seven of the DEVGRP goats were given a 2-g COWP bolus each; seven goats were treated with a 4-g COWP bolus each and no bolus was given to a further six animals. During weeks 1–6, each of these DEVGRP goats was given ca. 400 H. contortus larvae three times per week. All 38 goats were euthanized for worm recovery from the abomasa and small intestines in week 11. In the ESTGRP, the 2-g and 4-g COWP boluses reduced the worm burdens by 95% and 93%, respectively compared to controls (mean burden ± standard deviation, SD: 23 ± 33, 30 ± 56 and 442 ± 518 worms, P = 0.02). However, in the DEVGRP goats, both the 2-g and 4-g COWP treatments were ineffective in reducing the worm burdens relative to the controls (mean burdens ± SD: 1102 ± 841, 649 ± 855, 1051 ± 661 worms, P = 0.16). Mean liver copper levels did not differ between the ESTGRP goats treated with 2-g COWP, 4-g COWP or no COWP (mean ± standard error of the mean, SEM, in ppm: 93.7 ± 8.3; 101.5 ± 8.3; 71.8 ± 8.3, P = 0.07) nor did they differ between the DEVGRP goats (mean ± SEM, in ppm: 74.1 ± 9.1; 75.4 ± 9.1; 74.9 ± 10.0, P > 0.99). The copper values were considered adequate, but not high, for goats. The COWP boluses have the potential to be used in the place of conventional anthelmintics for the control of established H. contortus infections in indigenous South African goats, but their use as part of an integrated approach to control H. contortus in the field must be fully investigated. PMID:19346076

  10. Immunisation of goats against contagious caprine pleuropneumonia using sonicated antigens of F-38 strain of mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Rurangirwa, F R; Masiga, W N; Muthomi, E K

    1984-03-01

    Three groups of 15 goats each were immunised against contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) using sonicated antigens of the F-38 strain of mycoplasma incorporated in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), emulsified in aluminium hydroxide and phosphate buffered saline respectively. Three months after immunisation, five goats from each group were challenged by the in-contact method. The goats immunised with the antigen incorporated in IFA were all solidly immune to the challenge whereas only two of five of the goats in the other two groups were protected. When the remaining 10 animals from each group were challenged six months after immunisation, those immunised with the antigen in IFA were still solidly immune while only two goats from each of the other two groups were protected. These results show that effective immunity against CCPP caused by the F-38 strain can be induced by vaccination with sonicated F-38 antigens emulsified in IFA. PMID:6718817

  11. Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens. PMID:25510297

  12. Placing the mountain goat: a total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Hall, Jocelyn C

    2010-04-01

    The interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all Caprini except muskox and goral. Maximum parsimony placed mountain goats in a derived Caprini clade. Closer examination revealed that parsimony analysis failed to integrate over phylogenetic uncertainty. We then tested our mountain goat placement against nine published alternatives using non-parametric tests, and the parametric SOWH test. Non-parametric tests returned ambiguous results, but the SOWH test rejected all alternative hypotheses. Our study represents the first explicit testing of all hypotheses for the placement of mountain goats and supports a relatively basal position for the taxon. PMID:20097296

  13. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932

  14. Identification of Cryptosporidium xiaoi in diarrhoeic goat kids (Capra hircus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo; Quílez, Joaquín; Robinson, Guy; Chalmers, Rachel M; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2010-08-27

    Faecal specimens from five diarrhoeic goat kids (Capra hircus) younger than 21 days were collected in a goat farm in Galicia (NW Spain) and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Two Cryptosporidium-positive isolates were detected and selected for molecular examination. A banding pattern indicative of Cryptosporidium bovis was obtained after restriction analyses of PCR products from small-subunit rRNA genes. However, both positive isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium xiaoi by sequence analyses of SSU rRNA and actin genes. Our results demonstrate that domestic goats are a host for C. xiaoi and suggest that this parasite species may be involved in the aetiology of neonatal diarrhoeic outbreaks in goat farms. This is the first published description of C. xiaoi in goat kids in Spain. PMID:20537797

  15. Sericea lespedeza hay as a natural deworming agent against gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Shaik, S A; Terrill, T H; Miller, J E; Kouakou, B; Kannan, G; Kaplan, R M; Burke, J M; Mosjidis, J A

    2006-06-30

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the United States (US). Due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat GIN, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to increase profitability of small ruminant industries. A study was designed to test the efficacy of a high condensed tannin (CT) legume, sericea lespedeza [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)] against GIN of goats fed in confinement. The goats were given a trickle infection of 500 H. contortus larvae/animal three times per week during the trial to simulate natural infection. Twenty Boer bucks (6-8 months old) were fed bermudagrass [BG, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay plus concentrate for 5 weeks in confinement and then 10 animals were switched to SL hay for an additional 7 weeks. Throughout the trial, feces and blood were collected weekly from individual animals to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV). Fecal cultures were made weekly from pooled samples to determine treatment effects on GIN larval development. All goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial, with adult worms in the abomasum and small intestine of each goat recovered, counted, and identified to species. Feeding SL hay to goats significantly (P<0.01) reduced FEC and increased PCV compared with BG hay. In addition, a lower percentage of ova in feces from SL-fed goats developed into infective (L3) larvae. There was a direct effect of SL hay on adult worms, with significantly (P<0.01) lower numbers of both abomasal (H. contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta) and small intestinal (Trichostrongylus colubriformis) nematodes compared with goats fed BG hay. Feeding SL hay to goats is an effective means of controlling parasitic nematodes and may be a potential supplement/replacement for chemical anthelmintics. PMID:16564132

  16. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed. PMID:25285492

  17. Depletion of long-acting ampicillin in goat milk following intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, Anna Maria; Trenta, Simona; Mannoni, Veruscka; Rosati, Remo; Coni, Ettore

    2010-12-01

    Although goat milk production represents today a very small percentage of the world milk market, this percentage has been growing continuously during the past 20 years. Goat milk is the basic milk supply in many developing countries and provides tasteful derivative products in developed countries. Goats, as well as all milk-producing animals, can be affected by mastitis, but goats being considered a minor species, few drugs are specifically registered for these animals; most, at least for mastitis treatment, are usually tested and registered for use in cows. This situation leads often to the adoption for goat milk of withdrawal periods defined for cows even if these extrapolations prove almost never valid for goats. In the present study, the elimination of the ?-lactam antibacterial agent ampicillin in goat milk was investigated. Ampicillin was chosen because it is one of the most common antibiotics used by goat farmers against mastitis due to the fact that it is well tolerated and has short elimination times in cows. Goats were treated with long-acting ampicillin at 15 mg (kg of body weight)(-1) by double intramuscular injection at 72 h interval. Milk was collected in a 12 h milking scheme. The method used to determine the levels of ampicillin in goat milk was based on a liquid-liquid extraction of this drug from the matrix, successive derivatization with formaldehyde, and final separation by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The results point out a slow depletion of ampicillin and, consequently, a withdrawal period (13 milkings) longer than that extrapolated and authorized for cows and sheep. PMID:21070070

  18. Excitability scores of goats administered ascorbic acid and transported during hot-dry conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ayo, J. O.; Mamman, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) administration on goat excitability due to transportation. Ten goats administered AA (p.o.) at 100 mg/kg of body weight before transportation served as the experimental group, and seven goats administered only 10ml/kg of sterile water (p.o.) served as controls. Excitability scores were recorded for each goat; when weighed, before, immediately after, and 3 h after 8 h of transportation. A score of one to four was allocated to each goat; higher scores represent greater excitability. Immediately after transportation, excitability scores decreased significantly, especially those of control goats (p < 0.001). At 3 h post-transportation, the excitability scores of animals in the experimental group were not significantly (p>0.05) different from their pre-transportation normal values, whereas those of control goats were significantly lower (p < 0.01). The correlation i.e. the relationship between excitability score values and percent excitability (percentage of goat with particular excitability score) for different excitability score group 3 h post-transportation was positive and highly significant (p < 0.001), in both experimental and control goats. Our results indicate that road transportation induces considerable stress (depression) in goats as evidenced by a lower excitability score post-transportation. Moreover, the administration of AA pre-transportation facilitated the transition from a state of depression to excitation. In conclusion, AA administration to animals prior to transportation may ameliorate the depression often encountered after road transportation. PMID:16645336

  19. Q fever in pregnant goats: pathogenesis and excretion of Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans. PMID:23152826

  20. Q Fever in Pregnant Goats: Pathogenesis and Excretion of Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van Gelderen, Betty; Dinkla, Annemieke; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; van Zijderveld, Fred; Rebel, Johanna; van Keulen, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever. Infected pregnant goats are a major source of human infection. However, the tissue dissemination and excretion pathway of the pathogen in goats are still poorly understood. To better understand Q fever pathogenesis, we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via the intranasal route with a recent Dutch outbreak C. burnetii isolate. Tissue dissemination and excretion of the pathogen were followed for up to 95 days after parturition. Goats were successfully infected via the intranasal route. PCR and immunohistochemistry showed strong tropism of C. burnetii towards the placenta at two to four weeks after inoculation. Bacterial replication seemed to occur predominantly in the trophoblasts of the placenta and not in other organs of goats and kids. The amount of C. burnetii DNA in the organs of goats and kids increased towards parturition. After parturition it decreased to undetectable levels: after 81 days post-parturition in goats and after 28 days post-parturition in kids. Infected goats gave birth to live or dead kids. High numbers of C. burnetii were excreted during abortion, but also during parturition of liveborn kids. C. burnetii was not detected in faeces or vaginal mucus before parturition. Our results are the first to demonstrate that pregnant goats can be infected via the intranasal route. C. burnetii has a strong tropism for the trophoblasts of the placenta and is not excreted before parturition; pathogen excretion occurs during birth of dead as well as healthy animals. Besides abortions, normal deliveries in C. burnetii-infected goats should be considered as a major zoonotic risk for Q fever in humans. PMID:23152826

  1. Genetic resistance of Guadeloupe native goats to heartwater.

    PubMed

    Matheron, G; Barré, N; Camus, E; Gogue, J

    1987-09-01

    The resistance rate of different populations of the same breed of creole Guadeloupean goats to Cowdria ruminantium infection varied greatly depending on the previous heartwater history of each population. After experimental infection of goats removed decades ago from endemic areas, the observed resistance rate was 25%, while it was 54% in a population that had been isolated from the disease for 10 years and reached 78% in a flock actually exposed to heartwater. This resistance seems to be under genetic control as sex and paternity were the most important factors which could explain resistance in a group of 90 kids of the same flock, tested under controlled conditions. Resistance rate varied greatly (20-83%) depending on the sire, with a heritability estimate of 0.49 for half sibs and 0.85 for full sibs. A recessive sex-linked gene could be involved in the genetic determination of this resistance. From these observations, it can be stated that in endemic heartwater areas, each population, i.e. each flock, will have developed resistance at a definite rate according to population, age and the extent of past and present exposure to the disease, through a natural selection of resistant lines. Populations removed from exposure to heartwater will progressively lose their ability to resist infection through an increase in the frequency of susceptible stock. If our hypothesis of a recessive sex-linked gene is proved correct, it should be easy to select for improved resistance to the Guadeloupe breed of goat to heartwater. PMID:3448569

  2. Association of treponeme species with atypical foot lesions in goats.

    PubMed

    Groenevelt, M; Anzuino, K; Langton, D A; Grogono-Thomas, R

    2015-06-13

    Five UK goat farms with high levels of lameness (prevalence 14-67 per cent) were investigated. On two farms (farms 1 and 2), the animals presented with typical footrot lesions. The remaining three farms (farms 3, 4 and 5) presented with infected lesions on the foot that did not resemble footrot. These lesions were observed to start from the white line or sole but the interdigital space was rarely affected. Swabs were processed by PCR to assess the presence of Dichelobacter nodosus and three specific treponeme groups (group 1: Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, group 2: Treponema phagedenis-like and group 3: Treponema denticola/Treponema putidum-like) that are reported to be associated with bovine digital dermatitis and contagious ovine digital dermatitis. On farms 1 and 2, 85.7 per cent of samples were found to be positive for D nodosus while only 9.5 per cent were positive for treponeme groups 1, 2 and 3. In contrast, 5.3 per cent of samples from farms 3, 4 and 5 were positive for D nodosus, while 34.2, 68.4 and 36.8 per cent of samples from these farms tested positive for treponeme groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. T medium/T vincentii-like, T phagedenis-like and T denticola/T putidum-like treponemes were detected on foot lesions of lame goats suggesting that they have a role in the aetiology of this lameness, which has not previously been described in dairy goats. PMID:25977404

  3. Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat

    E-print Network

    Pike, Merritt Ivan

    1974-01-01

    22 21 20 19 18 17 MT SM SM SM SL SL SL T 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 T = 8 T = 7 PN =6 PN =5 PN =4 N = 3 N = 2 N = 1 Marbling scores were assigned according to U, S. D, A. 1965. TABLE 12. NUMERICAL SYSTEM FOR CODIFICATION... TRAITS FOR LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE SAMPLES BY SPECIES ORIGIN (PANEL COMPARISON I) Panel ratin Overall Species Flavor Juiciness Tenderness Satisfaction Goat (Angora) Lamb Beef Pork 5 3 6. 8 6. 1 b 5. 6 7. 0 5. 7 5. 3 4. 2 7. 9 5. 9 6. 6 b 4...

  4. Performance and Longevity of a Novel Intraosseous Device in a Goat (Capra hircus) Model

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Erin E; Ashley, T Clay; Snowden, Karen F; Gresham, Vincent C; Budke, Christine M; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Taylor, Destiny A

    2011-01-01

    We performed 2 studies to assess the function and longevity of a novel intraosseous catheter device. For study 1, 9 goats were assigned to 3 groups (intraosseous catheter in the proximal humerus, intraosseous catheter in the proximal tibia, or standard jugular catheter). Devices in the tibia remained in place for less time than did those in the humerus, and no goats exhibited radiographic evidence of resulting damage or structural change in surrounding bone. Positive bacterial cultures were found in all 9 goats at various time points. In study 2, 18 goats were assigned to 2 groups (intraosseous catheter in the wing of the ilium or proximal humerus). Samples for serial aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures and CBC were collected while devices remained in use. Clinical monitoring and removal criteria were identical those for study 1. Catheters in the ilium remained in place for less than 24 h on average, and those in the humerus remained in place for an average of 2.5 d. Several goats with proximal humeral catheters demonstrated moderate lameness after removal, and radiographic evidence of periosteal bone growth was noted in another goat. Bloodwork indicated mild elevations of WBC counts from baseline in some cases. Bacterial growth was found in samples from 4 of 18 goats at various time points. Our study indicated that intraosseous catheters may remain safely in place for more than 24 h, but animals should be monitored closely for negative side effects for several days after removal. PMID:21640033

  5. Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries).

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  6. Protection of goats against heartwater acquired by immunisation with inactivated elementary bodies of Cowdria ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D; Maillard, J C; Coisne, S; Sheikboudou, C; Bensaid, A

    1994-05-01

    In two experiments, four and five goats were vaccinated by giving two subcutaneous injections of a preparation of inactivated elementary bodies of Cowdria ruminantium (Gardel stock) mixed with Freund's adjuvant. All vaccinated animals together with four naive controls were challenged intravenously with 5 ml of supernatant of a culture of bovine endothelial cells infected with the same stock of Cowdria. All goats developed a high temperature. Two out of four, and four out of five vaccinated goats survived the challenge whereas all naive control animals died within 7-12 days. Vaccinated goats which died survived longer than the controls. No difference in antibody titres was observed between protected and non-protected vaccinated goats. Moreover, immune sera from surviving goats, whether heat inactivated or not, were unable to neutralize the infection of bovine endothelial cells by Cowdria in vitro. Mechanisms conferring protection on the immunized goats are unknown at the moment but the hypothesis that T-helper lymphocyte populations have been elicited seems to be likely. This method of immunization with dead organisms will help in the search for protective antigens against cowdriosis. PMID:8066991

  7. High prevalence of Eimeria infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang Hui; Lei, Li-Hui; Shang, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Man; Zhao, Yan Qing; Chen, Chao-Xi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-01

    A survey of dairy goats for infection with Eimeria species of coccidia was conducted in the Shaanxi province, northwestern China between December and November 2010, including Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. A total of 584 fecal samples (250 and 334 from Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, respectively) in six farms were collected. Eimeria oocysts were seen in 568 (97.3%) fecal samples, with six species, namely Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria arloingi, Eimeria alijevi, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria hirci, and Eimeria christenseni. The most prevalent were E. arloingi in Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, with an overall prevalence of 83.3% and 84.4%, and the lowest prevalence were E. christenseni (26.9%) and E. hirci (20.7%) for Saanen and Guanzhong Dairy goats, respectively. Two or more Eimeria species were commonly presented in all the age groups; 80.0% and 81.4% of positive Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats carried more than two species, and 1.6% and 6.5% of two breeds had six species. The results of the present survey suggested that Eimeria infection is wide and severe in the Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, which suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to prevent and control coccidial infection in dairy goats in this province. PMID:22057552

  8. Embryonic death in goats caused by the ingestion of Mimosa tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Antônio Flávio M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Lopes, José Radmácyo; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2012-04-01

    To determine the teratogenic effect of Mimosa tenuiflora, the green fresh plant was administered ad libitum to 12 goats (Group 1) from day 1 to day 30 of gestation. Upon ultrasonographic examination, on day 30, not one of these goats was pregnant, demonstrating that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. Six goats (Group 2) ingested M. tenuiflora from day 30 to day 60 of pregnancy. Four goats delivered seven healthy kids and two were not pregnant based on ultrasonographic examination on day 45 suggesting late embryonic death. Three other groups of six goats each received the plant on days 60-90 (Group 3), 90-120 (Group 4), and 120-150 (Group 5) of gestation and a control group (Group 6) all delivered normal kids, except one goat in Group 4 that aborted and one adult goat from Group 5 that was found dead. It is concluded that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. The failure to induce malformations might have resulted from a high dose of an unknown active principle of the plant causing fetal death. PMID:22178006

  9. Performance and longevity of a novel intraosseous device in a goat (Capra hircus) model.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Erin E; Ashley, T Clay; Snowden, Karen F; Gresham, Vincent C; Budke, Christine M; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Taylor, Destiny A

    2011-05-01

    We performed 2 studies to assess the function and longevity of a novel intraosseous catheter device. For study 1, 9 goats were assigned to 3 groups (intraosseous catheter in the proximal humerus, intraosseous catheter in the proximal tibia, or standard jugular catheter). Devices in the tibia remained in place for less time than did those in the humerus, and no goats exhibited radiographic evidence of resulting damage or structural change in surrounding bone. Positive bacterial cultures were found in all 9 goats at various time points. In study 2, 18 goats were assigned to 2 groups (intraosseous catheter in the wing of the ilium or proximal humerus). Samples for serial aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures and CBC were collected while devices remained in use. Clinical monitoring and removal criteria were identical those for study 1. Catheters in the ilium remained in place for less than 24 h on average, and those in the humerus remained in place for an average of 2.5 d. Several goats with proximal humeral catheters demonstrated moderate lameness after removal, and radiographic evidence of periosteal bone growth was noted in another goat. Bloodwork indicated mild elevations of WBC counts from baseline in some cases. Bacterial growth was found in samples from 4 of 18 goats at various time points. Our study indicated that intraosseous catheters may remain safely in place for more than 24 h, but animals should be monitored closely for negative side effects for several days after removal. PMID:21640033

  10. Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)

    PubMed Central

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  11. Crystallization properties and polymorphism of triacylglycerols in goat's milk fat globules.

    PubMed

    Ben Amara-Dali, Wafa; Lopez, Christelle; Lesieur, Pierre; Ollivon, Michel

    2008-06-25

    The sensorial, functional, and nutritional properties of goat dairy products result from the specific fatty acid composition of goat's milk fat. However, information on the physical and thermal properties of goat's milk fat is scarce. In this study, crystallization of triacylglycerols (TG) in goat's milk fat globules was investigated using polarized light microscopy and the coupling of time-resolved synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The molecular organization of the solid fat phase was characterized for cooling rates between 3 and 0.1 degrees C/min. Quenching of goat's milk fat globules from 50 to -8 degrees C and 4 degrees C was also examined to identify the most unstable polymorphic forms of TG. Then, the melting behavior of fat crystals was studied on subsequent heating at 1 degrees C/min. Triple chain length (3L: 68.6-70 A) and double chain length (2L: 37-45.4 A) structures were characterized and 5 polymorphic forms, alpha, sub-alpha, beta' 1, beta' 2, and beta were identified. Polymorphic transitions were observed within goat's milk fat globules as a function of time after quenching and as a function of temperature on heating. From a technological point of view, this work will contribute to a better understanding of the rheological properties as well as on the flavor evolutions of goat's milk-based products. PMID:18494497

  12. Treatment efficacy and regulatory host responses in chronic experimental Schistosoma bovis infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Monrad, J; Sörén, K; Johansen, M V; Lindberg, R; Ornbjerg, N

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the regulatory responses and the long-term effect of praziquantel treatment in chronically Schistosoma bovis-infected West African Dwarf goats. Forty-two goats were used and the design comprised a primary infection followed by treatment at week 13, challenge infection at week 36 and termination at week 52. Dependent variables included clinico-pathological data, worm numbers, faecal and tissue egg counts, and gross pathology of the liver. The results showed that primary infections remained suppressed for up to 52 weeks and, although challenge infections imposed on 36-week-old primary infections established fully, the impairment of their egg production capacity provided protection against clinico-pathological consequences measured by body weight and haemoglobin levels. The study also confirmed a high efficacy (97.7%) of praziquantel for treatment of S. bovis infection in goats and showed that anthelminthic removal of primary infections does not interfere with the ability of the goat to elicit a marked resistance to a subsequent challenge infection. Although treated goats had more fibrous scarring of livers than untreated goats, no negative effects of liver lesions were reflected in weight gains of treated goats. This study provides strong evidence for the beneficial effects of anthelminthic treatment of young domestic stock as an element of treatment and preventive programmes. PMID:16623963

  13. Methodological strategies for transgene copy number quantification in goats (Capra hircus) using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ribrio I T P; Luciano, Maria C S; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Freitas, Vicente J F; Melo, Luciana M; Andreeva, Lyudmila E; Serova, Irina A; Serov, Oleg L

    2014-01-01

    Taking into account the importance of goats as transgenic models, as well as the rarity of copy number (CN) studies in farm animals, the present work aimed to evaluate methodological strategies for accurate and precise transgene CN quantification in goats using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mouse and goat lines transgenic for human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were used. After selecting the best genomic DNA extraction method to be applied in mouse and goat samples, intra-assay variations, accuracy and precision of CN quantifications were assessed. The optimized conditions were submitted to mathematical strategies and used to quantify CN in goat lines. The findings were as follows: validation of qPCR conditions is required, and amplification efficiency is the most important. Absolute and relative quantifications are able to produce similar results. For normalized absolute quantification, the same plasmid fragment used to generate goat lines must be mixed with wild-type goat genomic DNA, allowing the choice of an endogenous reference gene for data normalization. For relative quantifications, a resin-based genomic DNA extraction method is strongly recommended when using mouse tail tips as calibrators to avoid tissue-specific inhibitors. Efficient qPCR amplifications (?95%) allow reliable CN measurements with SYBR technology. TaqMan must be used with caution in goats if the nucleotide sequence of the endogenous reference gene is not yet well understood. Adhering to these general guidelines can result in more exact CN determination in goats. Even when working under nonoptimal circumstances, if assays are performed that respect the minimum qPCR requirements, good estimations of transgene CN can be achieved. PMID:25044808

  14. Levels of hormones and cytokines associated with growth in Honaml? and native hair goats.

    PubMed

    Devrim, A K; Elmaz, O; Mamak, N; Sudagidan, M

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess alterations of hormone and cytokine levels associated with growth period during puberty in Honaml? goats which were identified as a new goat breed and had one of the highest meat production potential among the other goat breeds in Turkey. Honaml? goats are originated from native hair goats, so parallel studies of sampling and analyzing were conducted also in native hair goats which have moderate meat production. Blood serum samples of Honaml? (n=90) and native hair goats (n=90) were obtained from the pure herds in Korkuteli and Ka districts of Anatolia. Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), myostatin (MSTN), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP), leptin, transforming growth factor-betal (TGF-?1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured by ELISA in each breed in the age groups of 4, 8 and 12 months. The present results indicate interesting correlations among the age groups and all the examined hormone and cytokine parameters exhibited significant (P<0.05 and P<0.001) differences. The parameters investigated were usually begun to increase after 4 months of age in the both breeds and sexes. Therefore, this paper supported the view that the beginning of hormonal alterations of goats could occur at 4th month of age. The results reported here emphasize the primary role played by GH, MSTN, IGF-1, leptin, GHRH, GHRP, TGF-?i and VEGF in the first year growth period of goats. PMID:26172195

  15. Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

    PubMed

    Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-03-01

    Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

  16. Birth of kids after artificial insemination with sex-sorted, frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bathgate, R; Mace, N; Heasman, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; de Graaf, S P

    2013-12-01

    Successful sex-sorting of goat spermatozoa and subsequent birth of pre-sexed kids have yet to be reported. As such, a series of experiments were conducted to develop protocols for sperm-sorting (using a modified flow cytometer, MoFlo SX(®) ) and cryopreservation of goat spermatozoa. Saanen goat spermatozoa (n = 2 males) were (i) collected into Salamon's or Tris catch media post-sorting and (ii) frozen in Tris-citrate-glucose media supplemented with 5, 10 or 20% egg yolk in (iii) 0.25 ml pellets on dry ice or 0.25 ml straws in a controlled-rate freezer. Post-sort and post-thaw sperm quality were assessed by motility (CASA), viability and acrosome integrity (PI/FITC-PNA). Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa frozen in pellets displayed significantly higher post-thaw motility and viability than spermatozoa frozen in straws. Catch media and differing egg yolk concentration had no effect on the sperm parameters tested. The in vitro and in vivo fertility of sex-sorted goat spermatozoa produced with this optimum protocol were then tested by means of a heterologous ova binding assay and intrauterine artificial insemination of Saanen goat does, respectively. Sex-sorted goat spermatozoa bound to sheep ova zona pellucidae in similar numbers (p > 0.05) to non-sorted goat spermatozoa, non-sorted ram spermatozoa and sex-sorted ram spermatozoa. Following intrauterine artificial insemination with sex-sorted spermatozoa, 38% (5/13) of does kidded with 83% (3/5) of kids being of the expected sex. Does inseminated with non-sorted spermatozoa achieved a 50% (3/6) kidding rate and a sex ratio of 3 : 1 (F : M). This study demonstrates for the first time that goat spermatozoa can be sex-sorted by flow cytometry, successfully frozen and used to produce pre-sexed kids. PMID:23701168

  17. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ?95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet based mainly or exclusively on eating green grass (grazing), independently of the production system. Hence, this marker would not be useful for the actual organic policies to distinguish organic milk under the current regulations, because organic dairy ruminants can be fed organic compound feed and conserved fodder without grazing at all. PMID:23849634

  18. Natural and experimental poisoning of goats with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plant Crotalaria retusa L.

    PubMed

    Maia, Lisanka A; de Lucena, Ricardo B; Nobre, Verônica M da T; Dantas, Antônio F M; Colegate, Steven M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2013-09-01

    Crotalaria retusa L. (rattleweed), estimated to contain about 4.96% monocrotaline (MCT) in the seed, was associated with a natural poisoning outbreak in goats. The poisoning was experimentally reproduced by the administration of C. retusa seeds containing approximately 4.49% of MCT. Thus, 1 of 3 goats given a single dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (bw) of seeds (248 mg MCT/kg bw) and 2 goats given a single dose of 347 mg MCT/kg bw showed acute clinical signs and were euthanized 10-11 days after dosing. Clinical signs and gross and histologic lesions were characteristic of acute centrilobular liver necrosis. PMID:23847092

  19. Composting of goat manure and wheat straw using pine cones as a bulking agent.

    PubMed

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of pine cones, goat manure and wheat straw and obtained optimal Free Air Space (FAS) values for composting. For this aim, pine cones were added at different ratios into goat manure and wheat straw mixtures. So, the FAS value of mixtures was fixed at four different levels. According to the results, the highest organic matter degradation and temperature value were obtained at the mixture ratio of 10% pine cones, 45% goat manure and 45% wheat straw. FAS value of this mixture was 32.8. PMID:17092713

  20. Physiological responses and lactational performances of late-lactation dairy goats under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, S; Salama, A A K; Albanell, E; Such, X; Caja, G

    2013-10-01

    Eight Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation were exposed to different ambient conditions, using metabolic cages in a climatic chamber. The experimental design was a crossover (2 periods of 35 d and 4 goats each) and conditions were (1) thermal neutral (TN; 15 to 20 °C day-night) and (2) heat stress (HS; 12-h day at 37 °C and 12-h night at 30.5 °C). Humidity was maintained at 40% and light-dark was constant (12-12h). The forage:concentrate ratio was adjusted daily for maintaining similar value in TN and HS goats (70:30). Water was freely available at ambient temperature. Rectal temperature and respiratory rate (0800, 1200 and 1700 h) and milk yield were recorded daily, whereas milk composition, nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin in blood were analyzed weekly. At d 25, additional blood samples were taken for analysis of metabolites and indicators of the acid-base balance. Digestibility coefficients and N balance were determined (d 31 to 35) and body weight was recorded (d 35). Compared with TN goats, HS goats experienced greater rectal temperature (+0.58 °C), respiratory rate (+48 breaths/min), water intake (+77%) and water evaporation (+207%). Intake of HS goats rapidly declined until d 7 (-40%), partially recovered from d 7 to 19, and steadied thereafter (-14%). No changes in digestibility or N balance were detected. Blood nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin peaked at d 7 in HS goats but did not vary thereafter. Although milk yield did not vary by treatment, milk of HS goats contained -12.5% protein and -11.5% casein than TN goats. Panting reduced concentration and pressure of CO? in the blood of HS goats, but they were able to maintain their blood pH similar to the TN group by lowering HCO?(-) and increasing Cl(-) concentrations in their blood. In conclusion, HS dairy goats showed dramatic physiological changes during the first week of treatment and partially recovered thereafter. They were able to maintain milk yield by losing body mass, but milk protein content and protein yield were depressed. Further research is needed to assess the response of dairy goats to HS at earlier stages of lactation. PMID:23958010

  1. A comparison of utilization of two forages by sheep, goats, and white-tailed deer 

    E-print Network

    Allen, Marsha Lynn

    1981-01-01

    as for the other deer and sheep. The goats had a lower intake than the other two species and the ash content is higher for goats than deer or sheep which may have had some inhibitory effect on the NDF, though it is rather unlikely. These same forages were...A COMPARISON OF UTILIZATION OF TWO FORAGES BY SHEEP, GOATS, AND WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by MARSHA LYNN ALLEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  2. Comparison of manual versus semiautomatic milk recording systems in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Ghirardi, J J

    2008-04-01

    A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 x 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic ear tags, on-paper data recording, and data manually uploaded to a computer. The SA system used electronic ID, automatic ID, manual data recording on reader keyboard, and automatic data uploading to computer by Bluetooth connection. Data were collected for groups of 2 x 12 goats for 15 test days of each system during a period of 70 d. Time data were converted to a decimal scale. No difference in milk recording time between M and SA (1.32 +/- 0.03 and 1.34 +/- 0.03 min/goat, respectively) was observed. Time needed for transferring data to the computer was greater for M when compared with SA (0.20 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 min/goat). Overall milk recording time was greater in M than in SA (1.52 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.39 +/- 0.04 min/goat), the latter decreasing with operator training. Time for transferring milk recording data to the computer was 4.81 +/- 0.34 and 1.09 +/- 0.10 min for M and SA groups of 24 goats, respectively, but only increased by 0.19 min in SA for each additional 24 goats. No difference in errors of data acquisition was detected between M and SA systems during milk recording (0.6%), but an additional 1.1% error was found in the M system during data uploading. Predicted differences between M and SA increased with the number of goats processed on the test-day. Reduction in labor time cost ranged from euro0.5 to 12.9 (US$0.7 to 17.4) per milk recording, according to number of goats from 24 to 480 goats and accounted for 40% of the electronic ID costs. In conclusion, electronic ID was more efficient for labor costs and resulted in fewer data errors, the benefit being greater with trained operators and larger goat herds. PMID:18349236

  3. In vitro culture, storage and transfer of goat embryos.

    PubMed

    Bilton, R J; Moore, N W

    1976-03-01

    Goat embryos collected 5 and 7 days after mating, were cultured in vitro at 37 degrees C for 2 days, or stored at 5 degrees C for 1 or 2 days and then cultured for 2 days, or stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) for 2-4 weeks and then cultured for 1 day. After culture some of the embryos were transferred to recipient does. Culture and storage was carried out in Dulbecco phosphate buffer enriched with 25% goat serum. 1M glycerol or 2M dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) was added to the media used for frozen storage. Thirteen of 15 embryos cultured without prior storage showed apparently normal development in culture. Ten of the 13 were transferred and five kids were born. Twenty of 38 embryos stored at 5 degrees C developed in culture and six kids were born following the transfer of 17 embryos. Duration of storage at 5 degrees C had no marked effect upon subsequent development. Six of 48 frozen stored embryos developed in culture. All six were transferred and three kids were born. PMID:962719

  4. Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in the goat. II. Pathology.

    PubMed

    Dargantes, A P; Campbell, R S F; Copeman, D B; Reid, S A

    2005-11-01

    Infection of male goats aged 8-10 months with 5000 or 50 000 organisms of a Mindanao strain of Trypanosoma evansi was observed over a period of 90 days. The infection induced clinical disease which was lethal, especially at the higher dose rate. Lesions were more acute in goats that received the higher dose. Gross and microscopical changes were not pathognomonic, except in the presence of demonstrable trypanosomes. At necropsy, a combination of lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, testicular enlargement, anaemic signs and consolidation of the anterior lobes of the lungs was suggestive of surra. Testicular changes, especially aspermia, indicated probable infertility. The cytopathology of the lungs, liver, intestine, kidneys, testes, bone marrow, brain and other organs was immunological in nature, characterized by mononuclear infiltration of interstitial tissues, with minor cellular damage and the presence of trypanosomes. B- and T- cell responses were observed in the lymphatic system, but the findings indicated immunosuppression in the lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow during the third month after infection. Exudative inflammatory changes were mild. It is suggested that the cytopathology of most haemophilic trypanosomal infections is predominantly an immunological process. PMID:16213516

  5. Leptospirosis in sheep and goats under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate management practices and poor reproductive performance have been reported as fundamental factors on reducing the levels of productivity in livestock. Different pathogens have been reported in small ruminants' herds/flocks with reproductive failures. The aim of the present study was to review aspects of leptospirosis in small ruminants, mainly its impact on reproduction and consequently on productivity of the herds/flocks under tropical conditions. Leptospiral infection in goats and sheep is common in several countries, and those species can also act as carriers of leptospires. Severe disease is often associated to young animals and is frequently associated to incidental serovars. In contrast, subclinical infection is mainly characterized by reproductive problems, such as infertility, abortion, occurrence of stillbirths, and weak lambs/goat kids. Moreover, laboratorial tests are essential to achieve an accurate diagnosis of the infection. Microscopic agglutination test is the most common indirect test of leptospirosis, being used worldwide. In small ruminants, PCR consists on a recommendable method for diagnosing animals that carry leptospires. Control of leptospirosis in small ruminants involves measures such as the identification and treatment of the carriers and other sources of infection, quarantine in acquired animals, and systematic immunization with commercial vaccines containing the circulating serovars in the herd/flock. Productivity of small ruminant breeding can dramatically increase with adequate sanitary conditions and control of leptospirosis. Immunization of all the animals combined to the treatment of carriers may successfully control the infection and importantly reduce the economic reproductive hazards that are observed under tropical conditions. PMID:24085419

  6. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the goat forestomach during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Angela; Masot, Javier; Franco, Antonio; Gazquez, Antonio; Redondo, Eloy

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the detection and distribution of synaptophysin (SPY), non-neuronal enolase (NNE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin (VIM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression in the goat forestomach during prenatal development. A total of 140 embryos and fetuses were examined to evaluate protein expression from the first stage of prenatal life until birth. In all cases, SPY immunoreactivity was detected at 53 days gestation in the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis, serosa, and myenteric plexuses. Immunoreactivity to NNE was observed at 64 days gestation in the same locations as well as the epithelial layer. Glial cells were found at 64 days as indicated by signals corresponding to GFAP and VIM at 39 days. Positive staining for NPY and VIP was observed at 113, 75, and 95 days in the rumen, reticulum, and omasum, respectively, in the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis, and myenteric plexuses of each of these gastric compartments. These findings indicate possible preparation of the fetal goat forestomach for postnatal function. Compared to other ruminant species, neuroendocrine cells, glial cells and peptidergic innervations markers were detected earlier compared to sheep but at around the same stage as in deer. PMID:24136206

  7. Residues of endosulfan in the tissues of lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Indraningsih; McSweeney, C S; Ladds, P W

    1993-02-01

    The sites of tissue accumulation in lactating goats of the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan were studied. Twelve lactating goats were dosed orally with endosulfan (1 mg/kg body weight per day) for 28 days. Groups of 3 animals were killed on days 1, 8, 15, and 21 after endosulfan treatment ended and their tissues examined for the presence of endosulfan. Total residues of alpha and beta endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate (mg/kg) were detected in kidney (0.29), gastro-intestinal tract (0.20), liver (0.12), brain (0.06), muscle and spleen (0.04), lung and heart (0.01) and milk (0.02) on the first sampling day but within 15 days, concentrations had fallen to < 0.01 mg/kg in all tissues except kidney (0.20). Endosulfan could not be detected in animals 21 days after dosing had ceased. The residue in milk could only be detected on day 1 of sampling. This study indicates that kidney rather than fatty tissue should be used to monitor the presence of endosulfan in animals intended for human consumption. PMID:8457174

  8. Major proteins in goat milk: an updated overview on genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-02-01

    Milk and dairy products are very important in Mediterranean diet because of their health promoting and organoleptic properties. In many developing countries, goat rearing has a key role in livestock production. What makes goats so popular is their ability to provide high quality food under diverse climatic conditions and resilience to extreme and capricious environments. In the last years, the interest concerning caprine milk has been increasing also to find a new exploitation for local breeds. To promote the goat dairy products there is a clear need to know the quality and the technological aspects of milk produced. That being so, the purpose of this study was to review the available literature on the major goat milk proteins with a particular attention to recent findings on their genetic variability. Moreover, the main effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition were also discussed. PMID:24381104

  9. Effect of ultrasound pretreatment on rennet-induced coagulation properties of goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lily; Zhang, Shuwen; Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lu, Jing; Xue, Haixiao; Kong, Fanhua; Lv, Jiaping

    2014-12-15

    The effects of ultrasound (US) pretreatment on goat milk before rennet-induced coagulation were studied in order to improve the milk coagulation properties. Skimmed goat milk was subjected to US at 800 W for different times (0-20 min) and various parameters were evaluated. The particle sizes in US pretreated goat milk under the transmission electron microscopy were smaller than in untreated samples. For US pretreated samples, the degree of whey protein denaturation, contents of soluble calcium and phosphorus increased by 9.57%, 16.90% and 13.68%, respectively. The gel firmness, coagulum strength, final storage modulus, cohesiveness, water holding capacity and cross-linking of gels demonstrated marked increase. The turbiscan stability index (TSI) also confirmed the improvement of goat milk coagulation properties with increasing duration of US pretreatment, whereas the gelation time was prolonged. PMID:25038663

  10. Precipitating antibody in sera of goats naturally affected with peste des petits ruminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. Durojaiye

    1982-01-01

    Precipitating antibody was detected in sera of goats naturally affected with peste des petits ruminants in three locations in Western Nigeria. It was necessary to decomplement sera to obtain a good result.

  11. Toxicity of white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) and chemical extracts of white snakeroot in goats.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Zane; Lee, Stephen T; Collett, Mark G; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Green, Benedict T; Buck, Steven R; Pfister, James A

    2015-02-25

    White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) is a sporadically toxic plant that causes trembles in livestock and milk sickness in humans that drink tainted milk. The putative toxin in white snakeroot is tremetone and possibly other benzofuran ketones, even though it has not been demonstrated in vivo. Toxic white snakeroot was dosed to goats, and they developed clinical signs of poisoning, exercise intolerance, significant increases in serum enzyme activities, and histological changes. Tremetone and the other benzofuran ketones were extracted with hexane; the extracts and residues were analyzed for tremetone and dosed to goats at tremetone and benzofuran ketone concentrations similar to the original plant material. However, none of the dosed goats developed the disease. The results demonstrate for the first time that white snakeroot is a potent myotoxin in goats and that other compound(s), which may be lost or modified during the extraction process, could be involved in causing trembles and milk sickness. PMID:25641641

  12. Amino Acid Exchange by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats when Histidine Limits Milk Production

    E-print Network

    Bequette, Brian J.

    , goats) Abbreviation key: EPA = external pudic artery, GC- MS = gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, MBF requires that researchers identify nutritional regimens to optimize the cow's capacity to synthesize milk

  13. Goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous lens: A training model for phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Dhanapal, Praveen; Nath, Manas; Haripriya, Aravind; Venkatesh, Rengaraj

    2015-01-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive technique to train surgeons in phacoemulsification using a goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous nucleus is described. The goat's eye is placed on a bed of cotton within the lumen of a cylindrical container. This is then mounted on a rectangular thermocol so that the limbus is presented at the surgical field. After making a clear corneal entry with a keratome, the trainer makes a 5–5.5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in the anterior lens capsule, creates a crater of adequate depth in the cortex and inserts the human nucleus within this crater in the goat's capsular bag. The surgical wound is sutured, and the goat's eye is ready for training. Creating the capsulorhexis with precision and making the crater of adequate depth to snugly accommodate the human nucleus are the most important steps to prevent excessive wobbling of the nucleus while training. PMID:25971179

  14. Influence of insulin or glucagon, alone or combined, on glucose homeostasis in dairy goats treated

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of insulin or glucagon, alone or combined, on glucose homeostasis in dairy goats treated (Gallo and Block, 1990), this trial aimed to study glucose homeostasis with injection of INS and/or GLA

  15. 69 FR 41909 - Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-07-13

    ...mainly a disease of cattle, bison, and swine. Brucella abortus affects mainly bovines; B. suis affects mainly swine. Goats, sheep, and horses are also...indemnity for certain cattle, bison, and swine destroyed because of brucellosis....

  16. Contagious ecthyma in bighorn sheep and mountain goat in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Samuel, W M; Chalmers, G A; Stelfox, J G; Loewen, A; Thomsen, J J

    1975-01-01

    Contagious ecthyma (CE) is reported in bighorn sheep (Ovis c. canadensis) from several national parks in western Canada and in moutain goat (Oreamnos americanus) from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. (This is the first report of CE in mountain goat.) Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology, transmission experiments and the demonstration of a proxvirus with the electron microscope. The infection was transmitted from wild to domestic goat, but not to domestic sheep. Most infections, some of them severe, were found in lambs and kids. Clinical signs of disease were similar to those seen in domestic sheep and goats. General body condition was poor and animals had difficulty feeding normally. All infected herds had prolonged contact with areas where salt was provided artificially (i.e., salt blocks, highways and campgrounds). Fewer infected sheep were observed annually when salt blocks were removed from Jasper National Park. PMID:1113436

  17. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

  18. Food intake and rumen motility in dwarf goats. Effects of some serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kaya; C. T. M. van Duin; G. H. Veenendaal; A. S. J. P. A. M. van Miert

    1992-01-01

    The serotonergic regulation of feeding behaviour has not so far been studied in ruminants. Therefore, the effects of some serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on food intake and forestomach motility were studied in dwarf goats.

  19. High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in goats in southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari, Ali Asghar; Khalili, Mohammad; Sabahi, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the seroprevalence rate of bluetongue virus (BTV) in goat flocks in southeast of Iran. Methods The blood samples were collected randomly from herds of southeast of Iran. A total of 93 sera samples were collected between 2011 and 2012. Antibodies to BTV in sera were detected by using a commercial competitive ELISA 3 according to manufacturer's instructions. Results The seroprevalence rates were 67.7% for goats. Within a herd, prevalence of BTV seropositive animals ranged from 33.3% to 100.0%. All goat flocks were positive to BTV antibodies. Conclusions This study describes a high seroprevalence rate of BTV in goat flocks in southeast of Iran for the first time. PMID:25183097

  20. Fatalities in wild goats in Kurdistan associated with Peste des Petits Ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B; Wiesner, H; Maltzan, J; Mustefa, R; Eschbaumer, M; Arif, F A; Beer, M

    2012-04-01

    Between August 2010 and February 2011, over 750 deaths were recorded among wild goats (Capra aegagrus, the endangered progenitor of the domestic goat) in Kurdistan. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was suspected. This was confirmed by laboratory analysis, and the virus was found to be closely related to a Turkish strain isolated in 2000. During the outbreak in wild goats, no disease in domestic animals was reported. Domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the 'Nigeria/75/1' strain of PPRV. This is the first report of active PPRV infection in Kurdistan and most likely the immunity afforded by vaccination prevented spillover infections. It is therefore recommended to continue with the campaign. Conversely, there is no justification for the use of force to keep the endangered wild goats away from domestic flocks. PMID:22074184

  1. A Haemonchus Contortus Management Plan for Sheep and Goats in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Machen, Richard V.; Craddock, Frank; Craig, Tom; Fuchs, Thomas W.

    1998-05-22

    Internal parasites are the single largest threat to the profitability of sheep and goat production in Texas. Haemonchus contortus is the parasite of greatest concern. This publication explains common symptoms, sources of the parasite's resistance...

  2. Effects of physical and chemical traits affecting intake of woody plants by goats 

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Eric Edward

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the intake of 8 major browse species by Spanish goats (Capra hircus). Diet preference and a selection order was established for the 8 browse species by calculating instantaneous intake rates (IIR, mg/sec) following 2 types...

  3. Comparative foraging ecology of white-tailed deer and Angora goats on the Edwards Plateau, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Jacobson, Roy Arthur

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated how seasonal patterns in forage abundance and quality influenced the feeding behavior of white-tailed deer ( Odocolieus virginianus) and Angora goats; two similar-sized ungulates with different digestive morphologies. I...

  4. Role of PRNP S127 allele in experimental goat infection with classical caprine scrapie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects domestic goats and sheep. Experimental inoculation studies in sheep confirmed that classical caprine scrapie can readily transmit to sheep. Therefore, even if current scrapie eradication measures are successful in sheep, goa...

  5. PRNP variants in goats reduce sensitivity of detection of PrPSc by immunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassays are extensively utilized in disease diagnostics with monoclonal antibodies serving as critical tools within the assay. Detection of scrapie in sheep and goats relies heavily on immunoassays including immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and ELISA. In the United States, regulatory tes...

  6. Comparison of the behaviour of goats and sheep on an eroded hill pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Greaves; M. E. Wedderburn

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to sheep, which have traditionally been farmed on New Zealand hill pastures, goats have gained a reputation as causing soil erosion. To investigate this difference a trial was conducted during spring and summer of 1991\\/92 observing the behaviour of cashmere-producing goats (Capra hircus) and Romney sheep (Ovis aries) on an eroded hill pasture.A fixed remote-controlled video camera was

  7. Molecular and serologic detection of Coxiella burnetii in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Byun, Jae-Won; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kwak, Dongmi

    2014-09-17

    The occurrence of Q fever in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae) was investigated for the first time in the country using ELISA and PCR. A total of 597 blood samples were collected from goats belonging to five different provinces of Korea. To detect Coxiella burnetii, sera were separated from the whole blood and analysed by ELISA; DNA was extracted directly from the whole blood and analysed by PCR. Overall, 114 (19.1%, 95% C.I.=16.1-22.4) and 57 goats (9.5%, 95% C.I.=7.5-12.2) tested positive for C. burnetii in the ELISA- and PCR-based screening, respectively, while 18 goats (3.0%, 95% C.I.=1.9-4.7) tested positive in both the assays. There was a significant difference between the number of ELISA- and PCR-positive goats (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of Q fever was significantly higher among the adult goats (?1y, 22.0%) than among the young goats (<1y, 13.8%) (P<0.05). While the results of the serologic analysis showed no seasonal variation, data from the PCR-based assay indicated that there were a higher number of positive cases during the cold seasons. Because Q fever infection has high rates of prevalence in native Korean goats, further studies on humans at a high risk of contracting this disease should be conducted. The PCR-based assay used in this study is a useful method for the direct detection of C. burnetii in blood samples from small ruminants. PMID:25061007

  8. Laparoscopy vs. laparotomy for embryo transfer to produce transgenic goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Keun; Yang, Hong Suk; Lee, Ok Keun; Shim, Yhong Hee; Choi, Won Il; Lee, Doo Soo; Lee, Gwan Sun; Cho, Jong Ki; Lee, Young Won

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to produce transgenic Korean native goat (Capra hircus) by laparoscopic embryo transfer (ET) to overcome the limitations of ET performed by laparotomy. Transgenic embryos were produced by DNA pronuclear microinjection of in vivo zygotes. The recipient goats were synchronized for estrus by using an introvaginal progesterone devices as a controlled internal drug-releasing insert (CIDR) for 13 days and injection of 400 IU PMSG 48 h before removal of the insert. Embryos were transferred on day 3 and 4 after removal of the insert. Recipient goats were deprived of feed for 48 h, then suspended in a laparotomy cradle at an angle of 45°. After obtaining a sufficient pneumoperitoneum, the laparoscope and forceps were inserted abdominally through 5 mm trocar sleeves. Examination of the ovaries and uterus was performed and then 213 embryos were transferred into the oviducts via the infundibula of 76 recipient goats. To compare pregnancy rates, ET was also performed by laparotomy in 82 recipient goats. The pregnancies in the recipient goats were diagnosed by ultrasound on day 30 after embryo transfer. The pregnancy rate with laparoscopic ET was significantly higher than with ET performed by laparotomy (46.1% vs. 28.6%, p < 0.05). In addition, the pregnancy rates were compared between ovulated and non-ovulated ovaries of the recipient goats in the laparoscopic ET group. No significant difference was observed between the pregnancy rates of ovulated and non-ovulated ovaries (41.3% vs. 33.3%, p < 0.05) suggesting that ET may also be possible in non-ovulated recipients through artificial rupture of Graafian follicles. These results suggest that laparoscopic ET is a highly efficient method for the transfer of goat embryos. PMID:18296894

  9. Gender-specific effects of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and stress physiology of goat kids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Roussel; A. Boissy; D. Montigny; P. H. Hemsworth; C. Duvaux-Ponter

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on the emotional reactivity, the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system of goat offspring according to their gender, and to investigate the role of maternal cortisol in prenatal stress effects. Goats were exposed to ten transports in isolation or ten ACTH injections (0.125

  10. A study on contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in goats at an export oriented abattoir, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eshetu, L; Yigezu, L; Asfaw, Y

    2007-08-01

    300 goat serum samples from an export-oriented abattoir were tested for contagious caprine pleuropneumonia antibodies by the complement fixation test. The disease prevalence was 31% with no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the regions "Borena", "Bale", "Afar" and "Jinka" or the age of the goats (P > 0.05). Gross pathology and histopathology of the lung primary lesions were indicative of pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. PMID:17966273

  11. Histological Features of the Degenerating Intervertebral Disc in a Goat Disc-injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yejia; Drapeau, Susan; An, Howard S.; Markova, Dessislava; Lenart, Brett A.; Anderson, D. Greg

    2010-01-01

    Study Design An in vivo study to develop a goat large-animal model for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Objectives To determine an optimal method for inducing goat IVD degeneration suitable for testing disc regeneration therapies. Summary of Background Data Although rodent, rabbit, and other small animal studies are useful, the narrow dimensions of IVDs in these species limit studies requiring injection of a relevant volume of therapeutics or implantation of engineered tissue constructs. For this study, the goat was selected because the size and shape of their IVDs are comparable to those of adult humans. Methods A minimally invasive approach that did not cause significant morbidity or mortality to adult goats (n = 6) was used. Under fluoroscopic guidance, goat lumbar IVDs were injured with a 4.5 mm drill bit or #15 or #10 surgical blades. Two months post-injury, the goats were euthanized and their IVDs with adjacent endplates were isolated, decalcified and stained. Results A numerical histological scale to categorize the degree of goat IVD degeneration was developed based on the histological features of rabbit IVDs previously described by Masuda et al., goat IVDs described by Hoogendoorn et al., and human IVDs described by Boos et al. The inter-rater agreement of our scoring system was assessed (weighted Kappa value = 0.6646). Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the injured IVDs with uninjured control. A 4.5 mm drill bit inserted to a 15 mm depth resulted in a significantly higher histological score compared to uninjured controls (p = 0.01). Injury with a #15 or #10 blade did not result in increased histological scores compared with uninjured controls. Conclusions A comparison of the various injuries inflicted showed that the use of a 4.5 mm drill bit resulted in the most significant histological changes. PMID:21245789

  12. The detection of antibody against peste des petits ruminants virus in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Buffaloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haider Ali Khan; Muhammad Siddique; Sajjad-ur-Rahman; Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) has been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to peste des\\u000a petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in sheep, goats, cattle and Buffalo. Serum samples from sheep (n?=?232), goats (n?=?428), cattle\\u000a (n?=?43), buffalo (n?=?89) were tested. The animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or PPR. Findings suggested\\u000a that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in

  13. Costs and reliability of livestock traceability systems for the Dutch sheep and goat sectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. J. Velthuis; H. Hogeveen; M. C. M. Mourits; M. A. Dolman; H. Van Wichen; A. Gaaff

    2009-01-01

    The costs and reliability of two electronic identification and registration (I&R) systems for sheep and goats were estimated and compared to the current I&R system in the Dutch sheep and goat sectors. In the current system (farm individual registration or FIR), animals are identified with ear tags with an individual animal number, unique farm number and registered on-farm. In the

  14. Design and Characterization of a 52K SNP Chip for Goats

    PubMed Central

    Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cédric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cécile; Eggen, André; Heuven, Henri C. M.; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T.; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R.; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhière, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L.; Tircazes, Aurélie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

    2014-01-01

    The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50–60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years. PMID:24465974

  15. Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  16. Polyclonal antibody based coproantigen detection immunoassay for diagnosis of Oesophagostomum columbianum infection in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Jas; J. D. Ghosh; K. Das

    2010-01-01

    A polyclonal antibody based coproantigen detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cAg-ELISA) for diagnosis of experimental and natural Oesophagostomum columbianum infection in goats was developed and evaluated. Adult O. columbianum worms, collected from the caecum and colon of slaughtered goats, were triturated and cultured for obtaining infective third stage larvae (L3) and also used for preparation of excretory–secretory antigen (ESAg). Experimental

  17. Follow-Up of Osteochondral Plug Transfers in a Goat ModelA 6Month Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer B. Massie; Scott T. Ball; Michael E. Amiel; Albert C. Chen; Won C. Bae; Robert L. Sah; David Amiel

    2004-01-01

    Background: Osteochondral transfer procedures are increasingly used to resurface full-thickness articular cartilage defects. There has not been long-term assessment\\/description of autogenous donor and recipient sites.Hypothesis: The healing process occurs at the donor\\/host cartilage and bone interfaces.Study Design: Histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical changes were assessed 6 months after an osteochondral transfer in a goat model.Methods: Eight adult goats were studied. In

  18. Error in estimation of contained milk volume in the dairy goat with cerium- 141

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Sagan; M. B. Snipes; F. W. Lengemann

    1973-01-01

    Cerium-141 as a nonabsorbable ra- diomarker was used in nine separate trials with two goats to determine milk volume by isotopic dilution techniques. A correction procedure, developed for guinea pigs, showed an average under- estimate of contained milk volume of 1.1% (range, .61 to 4.06%) for goats having from 353 to 1,202 ml of milk per udder half. A correction

  19. Mammary Lipid Metabolism and Milk Fatty Acid Secretion in Alpine Goats Fed Vegetable Lipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bernard; J. Rouel; C. Leroux; A. Ferlay; Y. Faulconnier; P. Legrand; Y. Chilliard

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen Alpine goats at midlactation were fed a diet of hay and concentrate (55:45),without (control) or with formaldehyde-treated linseed (FLS) or oleic sunflower oil (OSO) at 11.2 or 3.5% of dry matter intake, respec- tively, in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design with three 3-wk periods. Milk yield was lower in goats fed FLS than control or OSO (2.13

  20. Habitat associations of wild goat in central Iran: implications for conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahman Shams Esfandabad; Mahmoud Karami; Mahmoud-Reza Hemami; Borhan Riazi; Mohammad-Bagher Sadough

    2010-01-01

    Wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is one of the highly valued but threatened ungulates of Iran. Seasonal habitat use of wild goat was studied from October\\u000a 2006 to September 2008 in Haftad Gholleh Protected Area, central Iran. We developed averaged logistic regression models based\\u000a on Akaike Information Criterion weights for each season. The obtained habitat suitability models showed high sensitivity (greater

  1. Variation in blood leucocytes, somatic cell count, yield and composition of milk of crossbred goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mainak Das; Mahendra Singh

    2000-01-01

    Ten multiparous crossbred goats, five each of alpine×beetal (AB) and saanen×beetal (SB) were selected from the National Dairy Research Institute goat herd immediately after parturition. These were managed as per the practices followed in the institute’s goatherd. Blood and milk samples were collected at biweekly intervals from day 14 post-kidding for 22 weeks (154 days). Somatic cell count, electrical conductivity,

  2. Nutritional status influences reproductive seasonality in Creole goats: 1. Ovarian activity during seasonal reproductive transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliab Estrada-Cortés; Héctor R. Vera-Avila; Jorge Urrutia-Morales; Eugenio Villagómez-Amezcua; Héctor Jiménez-Severiano; César A. Mejía-Guadarrama; M. Teresa Rivera-Lozano; Héctor G. Gámez-Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of body energy stores, evaluated by a body mass index (BMI), and food intake (FI), on the length of the anovulatory period and ovarian activity during the seasonal reproductive transitions in Creole goats. Non-pregnant, non-lactating Creole goats (n=28) were fed to induce two different BMI conditions: Greater (GBMI; n=15), and Lesser (LBMI; n=13).

  3. Toll-like receptor responses to Peste des petits ruminants virus in goats and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Subbiah, Elankumaran

    2014-01-01

    Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

  4. Protective immune response of live attenuated thermo-adapted peste des petits ruminants vaccine in goats.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Sen, A; Venkatesan, G; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, R K

    2014-01-01

    Virulent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) of Indian origin (PPRV Jhansi 2003) initially adapted in Vero cells was further propagated in thermo-adapted (Ta) Vero cells grown at 40 °C for attaining thermo-adaption and attenuation of virus for development of Ta vaccine against PPR in goats and sheep. The virus was attenuated up to 50 passages in Ta Vero cells, at which, the virus was found sterile, innocuous in mice and guinea pigs and safe in seronegative goats and sheep. The developed vaccine was tested for its immunogenicity in goats and sheep by subcutaneous inoculation of 100 TCID50 (0.1 field dose), 10(3) TCID50 (one field dose) and 10(5) TCID50 (100 field doses) of the attenuated virus along with controls as per OIE described protocols for PPR vaccine testing and were assessed for PPRV-specific antibodies 7-28 days post vaccination (dpv) by PPR competitive ELISA and serum neutralization tests. The PPRV antibodies were detected in all immunized goats and sheep and goats were protective when challenged with virulent PPRV at 28th dpv along with controls for potency testing of the vaccine. The attenuated vaccine did not induce any adverse reaction at high dose (10(5) TCID50) in goats and sheep and provided complete protection even at low dose (10(2) TCID50) in goats when challenged with virulent virus. There was no shedding and horizontal transmission of the attenuated virus to in-contact controls. The results indicate that the developed PPR Ta attenuated virus is innocuous, safe, immunogenic and potent or efficacious vaccine candidate alternative to the existing vaccines for the protection of goats and sheep against PPR in the tropical countries like India. PMID:25674603

  5. Detection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 in Sacral Ganglia of Latently Infected Goats by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Tempesta, Maria; Pratelli, Annamaria; Greco, Grazia; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    1999-01-01

    A study of the latency of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) was carried out with four latently infected goats. Three goats were treated with dexamethasone and euthanized after 4 and 6 days. PCR and virus isolation allowed us to detect CpHV.1 only in the third and fourth sacral ganglia of the two animals euthanized 6 days after the start of treatment. PMID:10203533

  6. Helminthosis in goats in southern Tanzania: investigations on epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Connor, R J; Munyuku, A P; Mackyao, E; Halliwell, R W

    1990-02-01

    Investigations were conducted in naturally infected goats to determine the main epidemiological factors related to gastro-intestinal nematode infections in southern Tanzania with a view to making appropriate recommendations for control. Faecal worm egg counts rose during the single rainy season and then fell to remain low during the dry season. The beneficial effect of an anthelmintic treatment after the rains was demonstrated in weaner goats under traditional management and this should form the basis of rational control. PMID:2321258

  7. Factors Affecting Body Weight of Aardi Goat Kids in Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Al-Shaikh; H. H. Mogawer

    2001-01-01

    Al-Shaikh, M.A. and Mogawer, H.H. 2001. Factors affecting body weight of Aardi goat kids in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 233–238.To study the effects of dam weight, litter size and kid sex on birth weight and weight gain from birth to weaning, 31 male and 3G female Aardi goat, kids, from 40 dams were reared under identical conditions.

  8. Diet selection among goats of different milk production potential on rangeland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mellado; R. Estrada; L. Olivares; F. Pastor; J. Mellado

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine how milk yield capacity affects diet selection of pluriparous mixed-breed goats on rangeland. Diets of goats were examined using microhistological fecal analysis at the beginning, middle and end of a 5-month lactation. Throughout lactation (158 days) diets of low (47.8±2.9l kg per lactation) or high (66.0±8.1l kg per lactation) yielding does had similar levels

  9. Fatty acid profile of milk from Saanen goats fed a diet enriched with three vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Matsushita; N. M. Tazinafo; R. G. Padre; C. C. Oliveira; N. E. Souza; J. V. Visentainer; F. A. F. Macedo; N. P. Ribas

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of fatty acid profiles and physico-chemical parameters of milk samples from Saanen goats fed diets enriched with 3% of three different vegetable oils (soybean, canola and sunflower) were carried out. Animals were arranged in a double 3×3 Latin square design and each pair of goats received diets containing one of the oils for 21 days—14 days for animal adaptation

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella antibodies among goats slaughtered for chevon in Bareilly (Northern India)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mudit Chandra; B. R. Singh; Hari Shankar; Meenu Agarwal; Ravi Kant Agarwal; Gautam Sharma; N. Babu

    2007-01-01

    We screened serum samples of 1024 goats slaughtered for chevon in Bareilly in Northern India for Salmonella antibodies with indirect ELISA, MAT-H (microagglutination test using flagellar antigens e, n, x and 1, 5) and MAT-O (microagglutination test using somatic antigens 4, 12 and 3, 10, 15). Salmonella antibodies were detected in 48, 8 and 40%, goats using Salmonella-cytotoxi-I ELISA, MAT

  11. Effects of physical and chemical traits affecting intake of woody plants by goats

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Eric Edward

    2002-01-01

    EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TRAITS AFFECTING INTAKE OF WOODY PLANTS BY GOATS A Thesis by ERIC EDWARD ZIMMERMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2002 Major Subject: Rangeland Ecology and Management EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TRAITS AFFECTING INTAKE OF WOODY PLANTS BY GOATS A Thesis by ERIC EDWARD ZIMMERMAN Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial...

  12. Coronary effects of endothelin-1 and vasopressin during acute hypotension in anesthetized goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuria Fernández; Ma Angeles Martínez; Angel Luis García-Villalón; Luis Monge; Godofredo Diéguez

    2005-01-01

    Coronary effects of endothelin-1 and vasopressin during acute hypotension, and the role of NO and prostanoids in these effects were examined in anesthetized goats. Left circumflex coronary artery flow was measured electromagnetically, and hypotension was induced by constriction of the caudal vena cava in animals non-treated (7 goats) or treated with the inhibitor of NO synthesis Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME,

  13. Lactational effects of adding a fi brolytic enzyme complex to the concentrate of lactating dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. González; G. Caja; E. Albanell; C. Flores; R. Casals

    Twenty-four multiparous Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in mid-lactation (wk 8 to 30) were used in a single cross-over design to evaluate the effects of supplementation with an exogenous fi brolytic enzyme preparation, characterized by cellulase and xylanase activities, on feed intake, milk yield and composition, and liveweight and body condition changes. Goats received ad libitum a basal total mixed ration composed

  14. Spanish goat diets as influenced by brush management in the Post Oak Savannah of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Lopes, Expedito Aguiar

    1982-01-01

    . No nutrient deficiency existed for dietary crude protein throughout th year. Energy appeared to be deficient during winter. Goats appeared capable to suppress some problem brush species in the region with limited competition with cattle except...SPANISH GOAT DIETS AS INFLUFNCED BY BRUSH MANAGEMENT IN THE POST OAK SAVANNAH OF TEXAS A Thesis by EXPEDITO AGUIAR LOPES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

  15. The effect of Haemonchus contortus on mohair production in Angora goats 

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Barbara Anne

    1992-01-01

    THE EFFECI' OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS ON MOHAIR PRODUCTION IN ANGORA GOATS A Thesis by BARBARA ANNE WALSH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Epidemiology THE EFFECT OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS ON MOHAIR PRODUCTION IN ANGORA GOATS A Thesis by BARBARA ANNE WALSH Approved as to style and content by: Margaret R. Slater (Chair of Committee) A. B. Childers...

  16. Urea space and body condition score to predict body composition of meat goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Ngwa; L. J. Dawson; R. Puchala; G. Detweiler; R. C. Merkel; I. Tovar-Luna; T. Sahlu; C. L. Ferrell; A. L. Goetsch

    2007-01-01

    Yearling Boer×Spanish goat wethers (40) were used to develop and compare body composition prediction equations for mature meat goats based on urea space (US) and body condition score (BCS). Before the experiment, one-half of the animals were managed to have high BW and BCS (1–5, with 1 being extremely thin and 5 very fat) and the others were managed to

  17. Effect of chronic gamma irradiation on leukocyte chromosomes of the Spanish goat

    E-print Network

    Wortman, Donna Chesser

    1967-01-01

    ~ Damage to human chromosomes ha s a iso been reported a f t er. radiation therapy, both in acute and fractionated doses, for a variety o f ailments ( 7, 8, 9, ] 0 ) . Chromos oma 1 a berrat ions have resulted from human exposures to such. i nternal... OF ABNORNALITIES OBSERVED ~ ~, ~ ~ 33 II ~ FEMALE GOAT KARYOTYPE ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 36 III ' KALE GOAT KARYOTYPE ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 38 Studies of radiation damage to genes a;;d chromo- some have tradit" one lly been carried out on such laboratory K...

  18. Mineral Metabolism in Singleton and Twin-pregnant Dairy Goats

    PubMed Central

    Härter, C. J.; Castagnino, D. S.; Rivera, A. R.; Lima, L. D.; Silva, H. G. O.; Mendonça, A. N.; Bonfim, G. F.; Liesegang, A.; St-Pierre, N.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (49.5 kg±7.6 body weight [BW]) were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen), 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin) and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days). Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg) decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg) was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g). Mineral retention (mg/g) increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g) increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal absorption. Finally, mineral metabolism was specific to each genotype and, except for Na, was not affected by the number of fetuses. PMID:25557674

  19. Consumption of Pistacia lentiscus foliage alleviates coccidiosis in young goats.

    PubMed

    Markovics, A; Cohen, I; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Dvash, L; Ungar, E D; Azaizeh, H; Landau, S Y

    2012-05-25

    Coccidiosis near weaning is a major cause of diarrhea, ill-thrift, and impaired performance in small ruminants. A recent survey showed that in villages of the Samaria Hills, Israel, shepherds treat young, weaned goat kids afflicted with diarrhea by cutting and feeding them the foliage of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk) or by tethering them close to lentisk bushes which they browse. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lentisk leaves do indeed have anti-coccidial value, and, if positive, to ascertain the role of tannins in this effect. We monitored for 24 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) days the effect of lentisk feeding on the development of naturally occurring coccidiosis in weaned kids artificially infected with parasitic nematodes. In Experiment 1, kids were infected with nematodes and fed lentisk foliage (PIS) or cereal hay (HAY). Coccidiosis developed at the early stage of the nematode infection, when dietary treatments were initiated. Kids in the PIS group had a lower (P<0.02) concentration of oocysts per gram feces (opg). In Experiment 2, aimed at verifying if tannins are the active component in lentisk foliage, coccidiosis occurred at the peak of the nematode infection, before experimental diets were initiated. Dietary treatments were: cereal hay (HAY), or lentisk foliage consumed without (PIS) or with (PISPEG) a 20-g daily supplement of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 4000), a molecule that impairs tannin-bonding with proteins. Goats fed the PIS diet had lower fecal opg counts than counterparts of the HAY (P<0.001) and PISPEG (P<0.002) treatments. Fecal opg counts for the HAY and PISPEG treatments did not differ, suggesting that the anti-coccidial moiety in lentisk was indeed tannins. Our results strongly suggest that: (i) in agreement with the ethno-veterinary anecdotal evidence, exposure of young, weaned goat kids to lentisk foliage alleviates coccidiosis; and (ii) this positive effect is associated with tannins. As coccidiosis is a major affliction of kids, providing them with tannin-rich browse near weaning could be an environmentally friendly way of improving their welfare and health status, in particular under bio-organic farm management. PMID:22196852

  20. Molecular Characterization of Heat Shock Protein 70-1 Gene of Goat (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Nitin; Mahapatra, R. K.; Sonawane, Arvind; Singh, V. K.; Doreswamy, Ramesh; Saini, Mohini

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) plays a vital role by bestowing cytoprotection against diverse kinds of stresses. The ubiquitous HSP 70 proteins are the most abundant and temperature sensitive among all the HSPs. The present paper has characterized HSP70-1 cDNA in goat (Capra hircus). Total RNA isolated from goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reverse transcribed to cDNA that was used for amplification of HSP 70-1 gene. PCR product (1926?bp) was cloned in pGEM-T easy vector and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed 1926-bp-long open reading frame of HSP 70-1 gene encoding 641 amino acids in goat, as reported in cattle. At nucleotide level, goat HSP 70-1 was found to be 96–99% similar to that of sheep (partial), cattle, and buffalo whereas the similarity at amino acid level was 95–100%. Nonsynonymous substitutions exceeding synonymous substitutions indicate the evolution of this protein through positive selection among domestic animals. Goat and sheep appear to have diverged from a common ancestor in phylogenetic analysis. Predicted protein structures of goat HSP 70 protein obtained from deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the functional amino acids involved in chaperoning through ATPase hydrolytic cycle and in uncoating of clathrin coated vesicles are highly conserved. PMID:22110953

  1. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Spi?ic, Silvio; Ra?i? Ivana; Andrijani?, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepani?, Maja; Cvetni?, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus. PMID:26054222

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China. Results Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1%) serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461) and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290) dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location) reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province. PMID:21457538

  3. Peste des petits ruminants virus tissue tropism and pathogenesis in sheep and goats following experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B; Babiuk, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

  4. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Tissue Tropism and Pathogenesis in Sheep and Goats following Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B.; Babiuk, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

  5. Cerebellar ataxia suspected to be caused by Oxytropis glabra poisoning in western Mongolian goats.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Akinori; Morita, Takehito; Ishihara, Atsushi; Adilbish, Altanchimeg; Delgermaa, Bayarmunkh; Gungaa, Oyuntsetseg

    2014-06-01

    In the last five years in western Mongolia, a neurological disorder and resultant economic loss have developed in goats, sheep, cattle and horses: association of the disease with ingestion of Oxytropis glabra, a toxic plant, was suggested. Affected goats showed neurological signs, including ataxia, incoordination, hind limb paresis, fine head tremor and nystagmus. Three goats, one with moderate clinical signs and the other two with severe clinical signs, were necropsied and examined to describe and characterize the histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural lesions. Although no gross pathological changes were observed in a variety of organs including the central nervous system of these goats, microscopic examination of the cerebellum demonstrated degenerative changes in all these goats, such as vacuolar changes and loss of Purkinje cells, torpedo formation in the granular layer, increased number of spheroids in the cerebellar medulla, and loss of axons and myelin sheaths of Purkinje cells. The chemical analysis of the dried plant detected 0.02-0.05% (dry weight basis) of swainsonine. This is the first report describing the clinical and pathological findings in Mongolian goats suspected to be affected by O. glabra poisoning. PMID:24572629

  6. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dairy goats from Romania.

    PubMed

    Iovu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Gavrea, Raluca; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-05-25

    Little information is available about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goats in Romania and even in Europe. During 2007-2010, 735 serum samples were collected from dairy goats located in 4 historical regions (Cri?ana, Maramure?, Transylvania and Muntenia) of Romania. Sera were analyzed for T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies (IgG type) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two commercial kits (Chekit Toxotest Antibody ELISA and Chekit Neospora caninum Antibody ELISA; Idexx-Bommeli, Switzerland). Three hundred and eighty-eight out of 735 (52.8%) goats presented T. gondii antibodies and 12 out of 512 (2.3%) goats had N. caninum antibodies. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests that infection with this parasite is common in dairy goats in Romania, and less common the infection with N. caninum. This is the first time that infection with N. caninum in goats has been reported in Romania and the first extended study on seroepidemiology of T. gondii. PMID:22177331

  8. Cerebellar Ataxia Suspected to Be Caused by Oxytropis glabra Poisoning in Western Mongolian Goats

    PubMed Central

    TAKEDA, Shuji; TANAKA, Hiroyuki; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito; ISHIHARA, Atsushi; ADILBISH, Altanchimeg; DELGERMAA, Bayarmunkh; GUNGAA, Oyuntsetseg

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the last five years in western Mongolia, a neurological disorder and resultant economic loss have developed in goats, sheep, cattle and horses: association of the disease with ingestion of Oxytropis glabra, a toxic plant, was suggested. Affected goats showed neurological signs, including ataxia, incoordination, hind limb paresis, fine head tremor and nystagmus. Three goats, one with moderate clinical signs and the other two with severe clinical signs, were necropsied and examined to describe and characterize the histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural lesions. Although no gross pathological changes were observed in a variety of organs including the central nervous system of these goats, microscopic examination of the cerebellum demonstrated degenerative changes in all these goats, such as vacuolar changes and loss of Purkinje cells, torpedo formation in the granular layer, increased number of spheroids in the cerebellar medulla, and loss of axons and myelin sheaths of Purkinje cells. The chemical analysis of the dried plant detected 0.02–0.05% (dry weight basis) of swainsonine. This is the first report describing the clinical and pathological findings in Mongolian goats suspected to be affected by O. glabra poisoning. PMID:24572629

  9. Swainsonine Induces Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathway and Caspase Activation in Goat Trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Dong, Feng; Du, Qian; Zhang, Hongling; Luo, Xiaomao; Song, Xiangjun; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    The indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine (SW) has been reported to impair placentae and ultimately cause abortion in pregnant goats. Up to now, however, the precise effects of SW on goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) are still unclear. In this study, the cytotoxicity effects of SW on GTCs were detected and evaluated by MTT assay, AO/EB double staining, DNA fragmentation assay and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that SW treatment significantly suppressed GTCs viability and induced typical apoptotic features in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. SW treatment increased Bax protein levels, reduced Bcl-2 protein levels, induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, which in turn activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, resulting in GTCs apoptosis. However, caspase-8 activity and the level of Bid did not exhibit significant changes in the process of SW-induced apoptosis. In addition, TUNEL assay suggested that SW induced GTCs apoptosis but not other cells in goat placenta cotyledons. Taken together, these data suggest that SW selectively induces GTCs apoptosis via the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in goat placenta cotyledons, which might contribute to placentae impairment and abortion in pregnant goats fed with SW-containing plants. These findings may provide new insights to understand the mechanisms involved in SW-caused goat's abortion. PMID:25076855

  10. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed. PMID:23050494

  11. GPTS functionalized carbon nanotubes integrated with PZT sensors for detection of anti-goat IgG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting Xu; Jianmin Miao; Y. Liu; C. M. Li

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of using functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to specifically detect anti-goat IgG. 3-Glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (GPTS) was immobilized onto the CNT surface to introduce epoxy ring and goat IgG was used as a biological probe. Afterwards, blockers were used to occupy the open space in the CNT surface, and finally anti-goat IgGs were detected

  12. Importance of intense male sexual behavior for inducing the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation in seasonally anovulatory female goats.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alfaro, J C; Hernández, H; Flores, J A; Duarte, G; Fitz-Rodríguez, G; Fernández, I G; Bedos, M; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A; Vielma, J

    2014-10-15

    The present study was carried out to determine whether the presence of photostimulated sedated male goats could stimulate the LH preovulatory surge and ovulation in seasonal anestrous goats. Sexually experienced male goats were treated with artificial long days (16 hours light per day) from 1 November to 15 January to stimulate their sexual activity in March and April, corresponding to the natural sexual rest. A female group of goats (n=20) was exposed to non-sedated males who displayed an intense sexual behavior and provided strong odor (non-sedated group). Another female group of goats (n=20) was exposed to the photo-stimulated male goats, but these males were sedated with Xylazine 2% to prevent the expression of sexual behavior (sedated group). The sedated males also provided a strong odor. Females of both groups had full physical and visual contact with non-sedated or sedated males. In both groups, the males remained with females during 4 days. The LH preovulatory surge of 10 female goats per group was measured by determination of LH plasma concentrations in samples taken every 3 hours. In addition, in all goats, (n=20 by group), ovulation was determined by measuring plasma concentrations of progesterone. The proportion of female goats showing a preovulatory LH surge was higher in goats exposed to non-sedated (10/10) than in those exposed to sedated bucks (0/10; P<0.0001). Similarly, most of does in contact with non-sedated males ovulated (19/20), but none of those in contact with sedated males did so (0/20; P<0.0001). We conclude that the expression of an intense sexual behavior by male goats is necessary to induce LH preovulatory surge and ovulation in seasonally anovulatory goats. PMID:25139756

  13. Effects of Dietary Iodine and Selenium on Nutrient Digestibility, Serum Thyroid Hormones, and Antioxidant Status of Liaoning Cashmere Goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Qin; Xiaoping Zhu; Wei Zhang; Jiaping Zhou; Shiwei Zhang; Zhihai Jia

    Forty-eight 2-year-old Liaoning Cashmere goats (body weight?=?38.0?±?2.94 kg) were used to investigate the effects of dietary\\u000a iodine (I) and selenium (Se) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, serum thyroid hormones, and antioxidant status during\\u000a the cashmere telogen period to learn more about the effects of dietary I and Se on nutrition or health status of Cashmere\\u000a goats. The goats were equally divided into

  14. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  15. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  16. The role of sheep and goats in the epizootiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, E. C.; Doughty, W. J.; Anderson, J.

    1976-01-01

    The pathogenicity of two bovine field strains of virus for indigenous goats was examined in the laboratory. The goats failed to develop clinical disease or become virus carriers although the majority showed a definite immune response. A field survey in a foot-and-mouth disease enzootic area showed that the indigenous sheep and goat populations were frequently exposed to infection as evidenced by a high proportion of sero-positive animals but the incidence of virus carriers was very low in goats and no carriers were detected in sheep. PMID:180176

  17. Cell-surface expression of PrPC and the presence of scrapie prions in the blood of goats.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Schneider, David A; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Truscott, Thomas C; Davis, William C; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2012-05-01

    Although host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) expression in ovine PBMCs and prion infectivity in scrapie-infected sheep blood have been demonstrated, such studies have not been reported in goats. Therefore, this study characterized cell-surface expression of PrP(C) on PBMC subsets derived from normal goats and sheep, by flow cytometry, and determined prion infectivity in blood from a scrapie-infected goat using a transfusion bioassay in goat kids. Cell-surface PrP(C) expression was detected on all subsets of goat PBMCs. The highest PrP(C) cell-surface expression was found in CD2(+) T lymphocytes in goats. Transmission of infection was detected in all three recipients who received whole blood from a goat with classical scrapie. It was concluded that caprine PBMCs express PrP(C) similarly to sheep but with relative differences among PBMCs subsets, and that blood-borne infectious prions can be detected in scrapie-infected goats. Thus, similar to sheep, goat blood may be a suitable diagnostic target for the detection of scrapie infection. PMID:22278824

  18. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon footprint per area of land farmed compared with outdoor farming systems, although the 2 systems were not significantly different when results were expressed per kilogram of FPCM, at 0.81kg CO2e and 1.03kg CO2e per kg of FPCM, respectively. Both systems had footprints less than other reported dairy goat carbon footprints and on par with those for New Zealand dairy cows. The methodology used to determine enteric methane is important for an accurate and meaningful assessment. The choice of manure management system and supplementary feed can substantially affect the carbon footprint. PMID:25981064

  19. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  20. Ultrasonographic examination of the spleen in 30 goats.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Steininger, K

    2010-10-01

    The ultrasonographic appearance, location and size of the spleen in 30 healthy female Saanen goats are described. The intercostal spaces of the left thoracic wall were scanned with a 5.0 MHz linear transducer in standing goats. The appearance of the splenic parenchyma, the position of the ultrasonographically visible dorsal and ventral margins of the spleen and the distance between them, the thickness of the spleen and the diameter of the splenic vessels were determined. The spleen could be visualised in at least one examination position and it always lay between the rumen and abdominal wall. The spleen bordered the lung dorsally and was located adjacent to the left abdominal wall in the last intercostal space and area immediately caudal to the last rib. The spleen had an echogenic capsule, and its parenchyma showed a homogenous fine echotexture / echo pattern throughout the whole visible part of the spleen. The splenic vessels were seen within the parenchyma. The visible dorsal margin of the spleen ran from cranioventral to caudodorsal. The distance from the dorsal margin of the spleen to the midline of the back was greatest in the 8th intercostal space (19.7 ± 4.19 cm) and smallest in the region immediately caudal to the last rib (7.0 ± 1.07 cm). The size of the spleen was smallest in the 8th intercostal space (3.1 ± 1.24 cm) and greatest in the 11th intercostal space (8.7 ± 2.78 cm). The thickness of the spleen ranged from 2.2 ± 1.14 cm caudal to the last rib to 6.4 ± 1.78 cm in the 11th intercostal space. PMID:20886444

  1. B-mode and Doppler sonography of the mammary glands in dairy goats for mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats. PMID:25601226

  2. In vitro maturation and fertilization of prepubertal and pubertal black Bengal goat oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Momena; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Musharraf Uddin; Ahmed, Jalal Uddin; Haque, Aminul; Shamsuddin, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Oocytes retrieval, in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) efficiency are inevitable steps towards in vitro production of embryos. In the present study, these parameters were investigated in the ovaries of prepubertal (n = 31) and pubertal (n = 61) black Bengal goats obtained from a slaughterhouse. Nuclear maturation was evaluated upon aspiration and following IVM in TCM-199 (Earle's salt with L-glutamine and sodium bicarbonate) for 27 h at 39? under 5% CO2 in humidified air. The oocytes retrieval and efficiency (mean ± SD) per prepubertal and pubertal goats were 5.2 ± 0.6 and 6.8 ± 0.6, and 77.3 ± 0.1% and 80.5 ± 0.6%, respectively. Anaphase I - telophase I stages differed significantly (7.3 ± 0.8 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.05) between the two groups of goats. After IVM, the percentages of metaphase II were significantly higher (66.3 vs. 60.3, p < 0.05) in pubertal goats than in their prepubertal counterparts. The percentages of normal in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Fert-Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate of pubertal goat oocytes did not differ between Percoll and swim-up sperm separation methods (36.7 ± 0.9% vs. 32.7 ± 1.3%, p > 0.05). Furthermore, sperm capacitation by heparin alone or in combination with ionomycin did not lead to a significant increase in the normal fertilization rate (34.8 ± 1.7 vs. 32.2 ± 1.5%, respectively) in the oocytes of pubertal goats. In conclusion, the ovaries of pubertal black Bengal goats obtained from the slaughterhouse could be used for in vitro embryo production. However, further optimization of the IVM and IVF techniques are necessary for satisfactory in vitro embryo production. PMID:21368566

  3. Introgression from Domestic Goat Generated Variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex of Alpine Ibex

    PubMed Central

    Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

  4. Vasoconstrictive responses by the carotid and auricular arteries in goats to ergot alkaloid exposure1

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Glen E.; Flythe, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of “Kentucky 31” tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E?) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E? and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E? seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 ?g per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E? treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation. PMID:25478559

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetics of levamisole-oxyclozanide combination in sheep and goats following per os administration

    PubMed Central

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Aksit, Dilek; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Since there is no registered anthelmintic drug available for use in goats, extra-label use of drugs is a common practice in most countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic disposition of levamisole (LVM)-oxyclozanide (OXZ) combination in sheep and goats following per os administration. Goats (n = 8) and sheep (n = 8) 12- to 16-months-old were used for this study. The animals received tablet formulation of LVM and OXZ combination orally at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Blood samples were collected by jugular vein at different times between 5 min and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of LVM and OXZ were analyzed by HPLC following liquid-liquid phase extraction procedures. The plasma concentrations and systemic availabilities of both LVM and OXZ in goats were lower and the plasma persistence of LVM was shorter compared with those observed in sheep. Terminal half-lives (t1/2?z) of both molecules are shorter in goats compared with those in sheep. Goats treated with LVM-OXZ combination at the recommended dose for sheep may result in a reduced efficacy, because of under-dosing, which may increase the risk of drug resistance in parasites. Increased or repeated dose could be a strategy to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to improve the efficacy against the target parasites in goats compared with sheep. However, some adverse reactions may occur since LVM has relatively very narrow therapeutic index due to its nicotine-like structure and effect. PMID:25356001

  6. Production of transgenic dairy goat expressing human ?-lactalbumin by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao

    2015-02-01

    Production of human ?-lactalbumin (h?-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat ?-lactoglobulin (?LG) promoter, the h?-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of h?-LA was investigated. Both the h?-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ?60-70%) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these h?-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0%, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried h?-LA and the h?-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins. PMID:25139669

  7. Modulation of joint moments and work in the goat hindlimb with locomotor speed and surface grade

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Allison S.; Lee, David V.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Goats and other quadrupeds must modulate the work output of their muscles to accommodate the changing mechanical demands associated with locomotion in their natural environments. This study examined which hindlimb joint moments goats use to generate and absorb mechanical energy on level and sloped surfaces over a range of locomotor speeds. Ground reaction forces and the three-dimensional locations of joint markers were recorded as goats walked, trotted and galloped over 0, +15 and ?15 deg sloped surfaces. Net joint moments, powers and work were estimated at the goats' hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the stance phase via inverse dynamics calculations. Differences in locomotor speed on the level, inclined and declined surfaces were characterized and accounted for by fitting regression equations to the joint moment, power and work data plotted versus non-dimensionalized speed. During level locomotion, the net work generated by moments at each of the hindlimb joints was small (less than 0.1 J kg?1 body mass) and did not vary substantially with gait or locomotor speed. During uphill running, by contrast, mechanical energy was generated at the hip, knee and ankle, and the net work at each of these joints increased dramatically with speed (P<0.05). The greatest increases in positive joint work occurred at the hip and ankle. During downhill running, mechanical energy was decreased in two main ways: goats generated larger knee extension moments in the first half of stance, absorbing energy as the knee flexed, and goats generated smaller ankle extension moments in the second half of stance, delivering less energy. The goats' hip extension moment in mid-stance was also diminished, contributing to the decrease in energy. These analyses offer new insight into quadrupedal locomotion, clarifying how the moments generated by hindlimb muscles modulate mechanical energy at different locomotor speeds and grades, as needed to accommodate the demands of variable terrain. PMID:23470662

  8. Peripartal hormonal changes in Alpine goats: a comparison between physiological and pathological parturition.

    PubMed

    Probo, M; Cairoli, F; Kindahl, H; Faustini, M; Galeati, G; Veronesi, M C

    2011-12-01

    In this study, 31 pregnant Alpine does were used to investigate the peripartal plasma profiles of progesterone, estradiol-17?, 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2?) and cortisol, assessing differences between goats with physiological and pathological parturition. The goats were observed around the time of parturition; all peripartum abnormalities were recorded, and veterinary assistance was provided if necessary. Blood samples were collected every 12 h from 7 days before to 7 days after delivery, and plasma used for hormonal analysis by radioimmunoassay. Two animals died during the study, and their data were excluded from the study. Of the remaining 29 animals, 23 goats had a spontaneous and physiological delivery, while six goats showed pathological parturition, including dystocia and retained placenta. The 65 alive kids were viable at birth and at 7 days of age. The results concerning the hormonal concentrations in the normal parturition confirm and define more precisely the patterns already described in the goat, while the comparison between physiological and pathological parturition has never been previously reported in this species. Highest peripartum levels of cortisol were found in the pathological group at delivery (30.6 vs 15.9 ng/ml) (p<0.01) and 12 h later (26.2 vs 11.1 ng/ml) (p<0.05); the greater cortisol concentrations found in goats with dystocia and retained placenta could suggest a higher level of stress. No significant differences between the two groups were found with respect to the circulating values of the other hormones, but the individual variability and the small number of goats enrolled in the pathological delivery group could have masked possible differences. PMID:21395842

  9. Short communication: Determination of withdrawal time for oxytetracycline in different types of goats for milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela; Woldesenbet, Sela

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry and the presence of antibiotics in milk is a health hazard. The objective of this study was to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in fresh, aged, and pasteurized milk of 3 breeds of goats using HPLC analysis. It was also essential to determine the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats. The quantitative results obtained using the HPLC system were compared with the tolerance limit of oxytetracycline in milk in the United States. Fifteen milking does, 5 Nubians, 5 Alpines, and 5 LaManchas were randomly selected from the milking herd at the International Goat Research Center at Prairie View A&M University. A simple sample preparation and isocratic HPLC method using ultraviolet detection was used for analysis of milk samples. The HPLC results indicated that the withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in treated Alpine does was 82h (7 milking), whereas for Nubian does the period was 58h (5 milking), and for LaManchas the period was 72h (6 milking) after drug administration. The overall withdrawal period for all the treated goats of 3 breeds was 72h. Although these results indicated that the depletion rate of this antibiotic was faster in goats than the reported data for cows, the 96-h withdrawal period that is currently used for lactating cows is still necessary for these 3 breeds of goats. Additionally, our results indicated that oxytetracycline is not stable in goat milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and will decrease significantly. PMID:25958275

  10. Detection of Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, in oviducts and uterine flushing media and in genital tract tissues of the non pregnant goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf Alsaleh; Jean-Louis Pellerin; Annie Rodolakis; Myriam Larrat; Denis Cochonneau; Jean-François Bruyas; Francis Fieni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii DNA in the flushing media (oviducts and uterine horns) and genital tract tissues of non pregnant goats from 20 goats chosen at random from 86 goats originating from 56 different breeding herds in south-west France. The serological prevalence rate of C. burnetii in the study population

  11. Phytologia (August 2013) 95(3)238 Goats and deer do not use terpenoids to select or avoid browsing on Juniperus pinchotii Sudw. trees

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    Phytologia (August 2013) 95(3)238 Goats and deer do not use terpenoids to select or avoid browsing-245 (August 1, 2013). KEY WORDS: Juniperus pinchotii, goats, deer, browsing, terpenes, fiber, condensed to find trees that have been browsed by deer (as well as domestic goats and sheep). Schwartz et al. (1980a

  12. Effects of breed, sex, and age on the variation and ability of fecal near-infrared reflectance spectra to predict the composition of goat diets1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Walker; E. S. Campbell; C. J. Lupton; C. A. Taylor Jr; D. F. Waldron; S. Y. Landau; N. San Angelo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of breed, sex, and age of goats on fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy- predicted percentage juniper in the diet were investi- gated, as were spectral differences in feces from goats differing in estimated genetic merit for juniper con- sumption. Eleven goats from each breed, sex, and age combination, representing 2 breeds (Angora and meat- type), 3 sex classifications (female,

  13. The effect of grazing on the composition of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and other fatty acids of milk and cheese in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pajor; O. Galló; O. Steiber; J. Tasi; P. Póti

    2009-01-01

    The effect of grazing on the fatty acid profile of milk and cheese was evaluated on 20 goats divided into two groups. The goats in the first group were kept indoors and fed with lucerne hay, the goats from the second group were kept on a natural pasture. Utilization of native pasture has been on a low level (extensive) for

  14. Ruminal metabolism of leafy spurge in sheep and goats: A potential explanation for differential foraging on spurge by sheep, goats, and cattle.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Walker, J W

    1993-09-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an introduced forb that is invading western rangelands. Goats (Capra hircus) readily graze the plant, but cattle (Bos tarus) generally and sheep (Ovis aries) locally appear to develop conditioned flavor aversions to leafy spurge. They either avoid the plant entirely or graze it reluctantly. We hypothesized that: (1) a diterpene diester that can occur in leafy spurge was an aversive agent, and (2) diet selection differences among ruminant species may be partly a function of differential ruminai metabolism of aversive phytochemicals, and further that cattle and sheep may be reluctant to graze leafy spurge because their ruminai microbes do not metabolize certain leafy spurge chemicals as do ruminai microbes in goats. Sheep did not develop an aversion to a novel food when its consumption was followed by an intravenous injection of ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (P=0.34). Sheep did develop an aversion to a novel food when its intake was followed by a dose of leafy spurge fermented with sheep ruminai digesta, but not when followed by a dose of leafy spurge fermented with goat ruminai digesta (P= 0.03). This suggests that goat ruminai microbes may modify leafy spurge such that it does not elicit an aversion in sheep. PMID:24249375

  15. Effect of pelleting on efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats.

    PubMed

    Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Moore, D A; Shaik, S A; Miller, J E; Burke, J M; Muir, J P; Wolfe, R

    2007-05-15

    Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) to anthelmintic treatment has increased pressure to find alternative, non-chemical control methods. Feeding hay of the high condensed tannin (CT) forage sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] to sheep and goats has reduced GIN fecal egg count (FEC) and worm numbers in the abomasum and small intestines. This effect has been reported with both unground (long) and ground hay. Pelleting of ground hay increases ease of storage, transport, and feeding, but heating during the pelleting process could reduce biological activity of CT. Eighteen naturally GIN-infected 5-6-month-old Kiko-Spanish cross bucks were fed pelleted and ground SL hay and ground bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactyon (L.) Pers.] hay diets (n=6 per treatment) in a confinement trial. The bucks were fed the ground BG hay (75% of daily intake) plus a pelleted 16% CP commercial goat chow (25% of daily intake) for 3 weeks, after which they were assigned to treatment groups based upon FEC, 12 animals were switched to ground and pelleted SL hay plus goat chow for 4 weeks, and then all animals were fed the BG ration for one additional week. Throughout the trial, feces and blood were collected from individual animals weekly to determine FEC and blood packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. All goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial, with adult worms in the abomasum and small intestines recovered, counted, and identified to species. Both forms of SL hay reduced (P<0.05) FEC in goats relative to BG hay-fed animals, with a greater reduction in goats fed the SL pellets. There was no effect on PCV until the final sampling date, when the SL pellet-fed goats' PCV increased (P<0.05) compared with the other treatments. Feeding pelleted SL reduced (P<0.05) abomasal worms, primarily Haemonchus contortus, relative to the BG hay-fed goats. Worm numbers in the goats fed ground SL hay were intermediate. Pelleting SL hay enhanced its efficacy against parasitic nematodes and may facilitate the broader use of this forage in small ruminant GIN control programs. PMID:17383822

  16. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on gastrointestinal nematode infection in grazing goats.

    PubMed

    Gujja, S; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Shaik, S A; Lambert, B D; Cherry, N M; Burke, J M

    2013-01-16

    Feeding sun-dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] reduces gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goats fed in confinement, but effects of this forage when fed as a supplement to goats on pasture are unclear. A study was completed in which supplemental feeds (75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets and a commercial pellet, all fed at 0.91 kg/head/day) were offered to thirty growing male Spanish goats (9 months old, 20.6 ± 2.8 kg, 10/treatment) grazing perennial warm-season grass pastures in Fort Valley, GA, from September to November, 2010. Fecal and blood samples were taken from individual animals weekly to determine fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively, and animal weights were recorded at the start and end of the trial. After 11 weeks grazing, animals were slaughtered for recovery, counting, and speciation of adult GIN from the abomasum and small intestines. There was no difference in FEC between goats fed the 75 and 95% SL leaf meal pellets, but both groups had lower (P<0.05) FEC than the goats fed the commercial pellets from days 35 to 77. The PCV values were not affected by the dietary treatments. Animal gain per day averaged 102.0, 77.2, and 53.3g for goats fed 95% SL, commercial, and 75% SL pellets, respectively (P<0.05). The 95% SL leaf meal pellet goats had 93.0 and 47.3% fewer (P<0.05) total (male+female) adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, respectively, than control animals, while only male H. contortus were lower (47.6%; P<0.05) in 75% SL-fed goats compared with commercial pellet-fed animals. Feeding supplemental SL leaf meal pellets improved animal performance (95% SL pellets) and reduced worm burdens (75 and 95% SL pellets) in young grazing goats and is a useful tool for natural GIN control in small ruminants. PMID:22985929

  17. The Garfagnina goat: a zootechnical overview of a local dairy population.

    PubMed

    Martini, M; Salari, F; Altomonte, I; Rignanese, D; Chessa, S; Gigliotti, C; Caroli, A

    2010-10-01

    Domestic livestock with a limited distribution are increasingly recognized in the action plans of the European Union as a reason for protecting rural land. The preservation and enhancement of the native germplasm and traits selected through the ages in different areas of farming is the first step in increasing typical products at a time when high quality products are increasingly in demand. This is the first time that a zootechnical overview has been performed on the Italian native goat population named "Garfagnina," which is registered on the Tuscan regional repertory of genetic resources at risk of extinction. The aim of the study was to give added value to this population by focusing on particular traits that could be used for promoting typical products. Data on the size of the local goats, zoometric measures, breeding system, milk quality, and genetic polymorphisms were collected to get insight into the current state of the population of this type of goat. The native goat population is reared in Tuscany in central Italy, mostly for its milk. The local goat farms considered in our study are located in the hills and mountains of the northwestern Tuscan Apennine area. For every farm we measured at least 10% of the reproductive females (273), randomly chosen, and all reproductive males (47) for a total of 320 subjects. Regarding the management of the animals and the feeding system, semi-extensive farming is practiced in all the flocks. From a morphological point of view the animals are relatively homogeneous, especially in terms of zoometric data, whereas they show a wider variability regarding coat. Milk gross and fatty acid composition were similar to that reported in the literature for bulk goat milk. Moreover, the average of somatic cell count and standard plate count found in Garfagnina goat milk indicated good hygienic farm management and correct milking practices, although milking is mainly manual. The average number of globules per milliliter found in Garfagnina goat milk was almost double compared with the literature, whereas the average diameter was lower. Milk coagulation properties were scarce, thus indicating poor cheesemaking aptitude of Garfagnina milk. Selecting haplotypes carrying alleles associated with a higher expression of the specific casein could help improve milk cheesemaking aptitude. Moreover, the rather high frequency of the faint CSN1S1*F allele and the occurrence of CSN2*0 might suggest that Garfagnina goat milk could be used, after an appropriate selection, for direct consumption of milk at low casein content for intolerant human subjects. PMID:20855000

  18. Experimental study of a mixed vaccine against peste des petits ruminants and capripox infection in goats in northern Cameroon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Martrenchar; N. Zoyem; A. Diallo

    1997-01-01

    A mixed vaccine against peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and capripox infection was investigated in northern Cameroon. The vaccine strains were the attenuated PPRV 75\\/1 strain for PPR and the RM 65 strain for Capripox disease. 25 goats were vaccinated with different doses of the vaccine to study the seroconversion. In another experiment, 20 goats were vaccinated and then challenged

  19. SEROPREVALENCE OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR) VIRUS IN SHEEP AND GOATS IN PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. KHAN; M. SIDDIQUE; M. J. ARSHAD; S. U. REHMAN

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute febrile viral disease of sheep and goats characterized by mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharge, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. The disease is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses due to high rates of mortality and morbidity in infected sheep and goats. In the present study, 660 serum samples

  20. Effect of Lasalocid on Growth, Blood Gases, and Nutrient Utilization in Dairy Goats Fed a High Forage, Low Protein Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-M. J. Yang; C. T. Chang; S.-C. Huang

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of lasalocid on weight gain, blood gases, nutrient digestibility, and ni- trogen utilization in growing dairy goats. In a growth experiment, 24 crossbred dairy does were assigned to diets without or with lasalocid (approximately 30 mg per head per day) for 12 wk. Goats were group fed bermudagrass hay for free choice plus concentrate at

  1. Use of deciduous woody species as a diet supplement for goats grazing Mediterranean shrublands during the dry season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G Papachristou; P. D Platis; V. P Papanastasis; C. N Tsiouvaras

    1999-01-01

    Nutritional stress during the dry summer period is considered as a primary factor limiting goat production in the Mediterranean region. This study was conducted to determine if the browse of deciduous woody fodder plants is useful as a supplement for goats grazing kermes oak shrublands during July and September. Browses used were of Amorpha fruticosa L., Carpinus orientalis Mill., Colutea

  2. Divergent mtDNA lineages of goats in an Early Neolithic site, far from the initial domestication areas

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Helena; Hughes, Sandrine; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Helmer, Daniel; Hodgins, Greg; Miquel, Christian; Hänni, Catherine; Luikart, Gordon; Taberlet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Goats were among the first farm animals domesticated, ?10,500 years ago, contributing to the rise of the “Neolithic revolution.” Previous genetic studies have revealed that contemporary domestic goats (Capra hircus) show far weaker intercontinental population structuring than other livestock species, suggesting that goats have been transported more extensively. However, the timing of these extensive movements in goats remains unknown. To address this question, we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 19 ancient goat bones (7,300–6,900 years old) from one of the earliest Neolithic sites in southwestern Europe. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two highly divergent goat lineages coexisted in each of the two Early Neolithic layers of this site. This finding indicates that high mtDNA diversity was already present >7,000 years ago in European goats, far from their areas of initial domestication in the Near East. These results argue for substantial gene flow among goat populations dating back to the early neolithisation of Europe and for a dual domestication scenario in the Near East, with two independent but essentially contemporary origins (of both A and C domestic lineages) and several more remote and/or later origins. PMID:17030824

  3. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

  4. Evaluating effects of an expanding mountain goat population on native bighorn sheep: a simulation model of competition and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E Gross

    2001-01-01

    Biological invasions create serious conservation problems at local to global scales, and decisions about their management require evaluation of the likely environmental consequences of an expanding population. An expanding population of exotic mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) occupy an area near Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA (RMNP), an area managed for preservation of natural communities and processes. If mountain goats

  5. Feed intake and social interactions in dairy goats—The effects of feeding space and type of roughage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grete Helen Meisfjord Jørgensen; Inger Lise Andersen; Knut Egil Bøe

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine how an increased number of animals per feeding place and type of roughage affected feeding time, feed intake and the level of aggressive competition in groups of dairy goats. We conducted a 3×2 factorial experiment with type of roughage (hay or grass silage) and number of goats per feeding place (1, 2

  6. Effects of stage of lactation, production, parity and season on somatic cell counts in infected and uninfected dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Wilson; Keith N. Stewart; Philip M. Sears

    1995-01-01

    A commercial dairy goat farm with 380 Alpine milking does maintained monthly records of milk production and somatic cell counts (SCC). Composite milk samples from all lactating does were cultured for mastitis pathogens every 6 months. Dairy Herd Improvement Association records were combined with culture results. Goats' SCC increased with intramammary infection (IMI). Increasing stage of lactation was also associated

  7. Recent data on nitrogen utilization and requirements in dairy goats J. BRUN-BELLUT S. GIGER D. SAUVANT G. BLANCHART

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nitrogen balances in lactating goats, we showed that urinary allantoin (U. All) was strongly correlated into account. Mean blood allantoin level in dairy goats was 35.7 mg/i (a = 6.3, n = 58). We did not find any correlation between U. All and blood allantoin level. Orotic acid content of milk measured for the first five

  8. Goat and sheep ovarian tissue cryopreservation: Effects on the morphology and development of primordial follicles and density of stromal cell.

    PubMed

    Faustino, L R; Santos, R R; Silva, C M G; Pinto, L C; Celestino, J J H; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R; Rodrigues, A P R

    2010-10-01

    The effect of exposure to cryoprotectant and cryopreservation of goat and sheep ovarian cortical fragments on the morphology of primordial follicles, stromal cell density and follicular development was performed. Goat and sheep ovarian fragments were exposed to 1.0 or 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5, 10 or 20min, followed or not by conventional cryopreservation. Follicular morphology and stromal cell density were evaluated by means of classical histological analysis. In addition, ovarian fragments were cultured for 1 or 7 days after cryopreservation to evaluate follicular development. Both exposure to cryoprotectant and cryopreservation of goat and sheep ovarian tissue did affect the morphology of primordial follicles and stromal cell density, except when goat ovarian tissue was exposed to EG for 5min. Although exposure time did not influence follicular morphology in both species, increase in the exposure time from 5 to 20min did reduce goat stromal cell density. Increase in EG concentration from 1.0 to 1.5M did result in the decrease of the percentage of goat morphologically normal primordial follicles evaluated after exposure only. In vitro culture of frozen-thawed goat and sheep ovarian tissue showed that exposure to 1.0M, for 10min, before freezing of goat and sheep ovarian tissue does not impair follicular developmental capacity. In addition, stromal cell density may play a role in follicular survival and development after cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. PMID:20800393

  9. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276

  10. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with...

  11. Forage of Different Physical Forms in the Diets of Lactating Granadina Goats: Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production and Composition1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Sanz Sampelayo; L. Perez; J. Boza; L. Amigo

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether the energy balance of goats or characteristics of the diet consumed were the prin- cipal factors that determined milk production, feeding and digestion trials were carried out using two groups of 5 Granadina goats. The concentrate fraction of both diets was the same, but the forage fraction of the diets differed. In diet 1, the forage was

  12. Effect of artificial vs. natural rearing on milk yield, kid growth and cost in Payoya autochthonous dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; F. P. Caravaca; J. M. Castel; F. A. Ruiz; P. González-Redondo; M. J. Alcalde

    2009-01-01

    Seventy full lactations of Payoya dairy goats were used to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and rearing cost. Two animal groups were established, one with goats under natural rearing (NS) and the other under artificial rearing (AR). In the NS group, the kids had free access

  13. Detection of antibodies to Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory antigens in experimentally infected goats by enzyme immunosorbent assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Martínez; M. S. Martínez-Cruz; F. J. Martínez; P. N. Gutierrez; S. Hernández

    1996-01-01

    An ELISA with excretory-secretory (ES) antigens has been evaluated as a technique for the early detection of specific antibodies in Fasciola hepatica infections in goats. Goats were experimentally infected with 100 or 200 metacercariae of bovine origin and serum samples were taken periodically over 365 days. The ELISA test was performed with ES antigens (10 ?g ml?1), a single dilution

  14. Use of pelleted sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) for natural control of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Eimeria spp. (coccidia) can be devastating in goats, particularly for young, recently-weaned kids, resulting in diarrhea, dehydration, and even death. Feeding dried sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don.] to young goats has been reported to reduce the effects ...

  15. Growth and carcass characteristics in goat kids fed grass and alfalfa hay-based diets with limited concentrate supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding legume hay (alfalfa; Medicago sativa L.) or mixed grass hay on ADG and carcass characteristics of growing goats. In Experiment 1, 24 Spanish kids, equally representing intact male, female, and wether goats, were pen-fed ad libitum eit...

  16. Effect of Clinical Contagious Agalactia on the Bulk Tank Milk Somatic Cell Count in Murciano-Granadina Goat Herds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Corrales; A. Sánchez; C. Luengo; J. B. Poveda; A. Contreras

    2004-01-01

    From 19 herds of Murciano-Granadina goats, weekly bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) were performed from October to April, and suspicious milk (n = 182), synovial fluid, and ocular swabs (n = 15) from diseased goats were processed for mycoplasma isolation and identification. Also BTSCC from 65 herds were deter- mined (n = 2693). A mixed model procedure was used

  17. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on nutrient intake and weight gain of Red Sokoto goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Belewu; A. A. Yahaya

    2008-01-01

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% Aspergillus treated SBC), C (15% untreated SBC), D (7.5% Aspergillus treated SBC) and

  18. Pathogenicity of the subspecies mycoides of Mycoplasma mycoides for cattle, sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Cottew, G S

    1979-10-01

    Recent work has shown that strains classified as M. mycoides subsp. mycoides may be separated into 2 types according to their growth rate and their behaviour in certain biochemical tests. The large colony (LC) types, most of which are from goats, are pathogenic for sheep and goats but apparently not for cattle. The small colony (SC) types include the classical contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) strains from cattle and four strains from goats. These SC types are potentially pathogenic for cattle, sheep and goats. Strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides from CBPP differ in their virulence in cattle. The degree of virulence is correlated with the quantity of galactan produced in cultures of the organism, suggesting an important role for galactan in pathogenicity. This is consistent with the production by galactan of physiological effects in calves and in the enhancement of infection in cattle given galactan at the same time as cultures of the organism. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) can be produced experimentally in goats using cultures of M. mycoides subsp. capri. Whether the glucan produced in such cultures is a factor in pathogenicity of this organism has not been determined. Hydrogen peroxide demonstrated in tracheal organ cultures of M. mycoides subsp. capri may contribute to its pathogenicity. PMID:44610

  19. Transgenic goats produced by DNA pronuclear microinjection of in vitro derived zygotes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Baldassarre, H; Tao, T; Gauthier, M; Neveu, N; Zhou, J F; Leduc, M; Duguay, F; Bilodeau, A S; Lazaris, A; Keefer, C; Karatzas, C N

    2002-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate various factors affecting the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) of oocytes retrieved by laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) technique from prepubertal and adult goats, as well as to evaluate the developmental competence of in vitro produced embryos. Oocyte-cumulus complexes recovered by LOPU from donors stimulated with gonadotrophins were matured in vitro. Fresh semen was used for IVF following various capacitation treatments. In vitro produced zygotes were either cultured to assess in vitro development or were transferred into recipients for full term development. The results indicated that successful IVF of the goat oocytes was affected by factors such as sperm capacitation treatment, oocyte quality, and abundance of cumulus cells on zona pellucida. Oocytes from both prepubertal and adult goats demonstrated similar full term developmental competence despite the fact that in vitro developmental rates were lower for prepubertal goats. The births of transgenic offspring demonstrated that the established LOPU-IVF technology combined with pronuclear microinjection can be successfully used to produce transgenic goats. PMID:12412045

  20. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  1. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Micha?; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strza?kowska, Nina; Kaba, Jaros?aw

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (? = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all). PMID:25499464

  2. Productivity of Angora goats in the communal rangelands of Molimo-Nthuse area in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Matebesi, P A; Khitsane, L

    2006-01-01

    Production parameters were determined for kidding, offtake and mortality rates, and milk production and composition of Angora goats in two communal agro-ecological zones, Mountains and Lowlands, of Molimo-nthuse area in Lesotho. True incidence rates and risk rates as used in dynamic populations were used to calculate the different production parameters. A completely randomized design was used to compare the differences between the two agro-ecological zones. Angora goats in the two agro-ecological zones produced milk similarly (p > 0.05) in amounts and composition. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in annual kidding, mortality and offtake rates between Angora goats kept in the Lowlands and those in the Mountains. However, high mortality rates and mortality risk rates were observed in both zones. Thus, the risk rates that suckling Angora goats would die within their first 6 months after birth were 28% and 34% for the Mountains and Lowlands, respectively. It is suggested that future emphasis should be on reducing kid mortality through better herding of the goats and improvement of pre- and post-partum nutrition of the doe in this communal livestock farming system. PMID:17265776

  3. Ixodid ticks infesting domestic goats in communal land areas of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Hove, T; Mukandi, R; Bere, M; Horak, I G; Latif, A A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the species spectrum of ticks infesting goats owned by resource-limited farmers in the state-owned communal land areas of Zimbabwe. Ticks were collected from goats at a single locality within each of 5 communal land areas, and a total of 14 ixodid tick species was recovered. The most numerous tick was Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, which was present in all areas at each sampling, and a Rhipicephalus sp. (near R. punctatus), which was most abundant on goats in the central regions of Zimbabwe during the March rainy season. Amblyomma hebraeum was present on goats in all areas sampled. In the eastern central region its distribution overlapped that of Amblyomma variegatum, while in the northwest it overlapped those of both Amblyomma marmoreum and A. variegatum. Hyalomma truncatum was present at all localities, whereas only a single Hyalomma rufipes was recovered. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was collected from goats in the moist, slightly cooler regions, while the few Rhipicephalus zambeziensis recovered were present in the hotter, drier regions. Species recorded in lower numbers were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus tricuspis and Rhipicephalus turanicus. Attachment in the inter-digital space of adult A. hebreaum and H. truncatum was sometimes associated with lameness. PMID:19244819

  4. Hydrology of the Goat Lake watershed, Snohomish County, Washington, 1982-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Ebbert, J.C.; Poole, J.E.; Peck, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Goat Lake watershed in Snohomish County, Washington, functions as an ' experimental watershed ' for long-term studies to determine the effects of acidic precipitation on water resources. Data have been collected there by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1982. The watershed is in a wilderness area of the Cascade Range and is downwind of an industrial and urban area that produces chemical compounds found in acidic precipitation. The lake is considered sensitive to acidic inputs from atmospheric deposition and streamflow. The mean annual discharge of the Goat Lake outflow is 35 cu ft/sec; precipitation on the watershed is calculated to be about 170 in/yr. The inflow to Goat Lake is sufficient to replace the entire contents of the lake basin on an average every 21.5 days, or 17 times/year. Water in Goat Lake, and that of the inlet and outlet, is of low ionic strength and of calcium-bicarbonate type. The lake, although considered oligotrophic, is sufficiently deep to stratify thermally, and summer dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion are depressed. Even though alkalinity and specific conductance at Goat Lake are in the range considered sensitive to acidic inputs , the pH of water in the lake has consistently ranged from 6.1 to 7.2, indicating that the lake is not acidified at this time. (USGS)

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Bressani, F A; Tizioto, P C; Giglioti, R; Meirelles, S L C; Coutinho, R; Benvenuti, C L; Malagó-Jr, W; Mudadu, M A; Vieira, L S; Zaros, L G; Carrilho, E; Regitano, L C A

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are small cell-signaling proteins that play an important role in the immune system, participating in intracellular communication. Four candidate genes of the cytokine family (IL2, IL4, IL13, and IFNG) were selected to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that might be associated with resistance to gastrointestinal endoparasites in goats. A population of 229 goats, F2 offspring from an F1 intercross was produced by crossing pure Saanen goats, considered as susceptible to gastrointestinal endoparasites, with pure Anglo-Nubian goats, considered resistant. Blood was collected for DNA extraction and fecal samples were also collected for parasite egg count. Polymorphisms were prospected by sequencing animals with extreme phenotype for fecal egg count (FEC) distribution. The association between SNPs and phenotype was determined by using the Fisher exact test with correction for multiple tests. Three of the 10 SNPs were identified as significant (P ? 0.03). They were found in intron 1 of IL2 (ENSBTA00000020883), intron 3 of IL13 (ENSBTA00000015953) and exon 3 of IFNG (ENSBTA00000012529), suggesting an association between them and gastrointestinal endoparasite resistance. Further studies will help describe the effects of these markers accurately before implementing them in marker assisted selection. This study is the pioneer in describing such associations in goats. PMID:25366747

  6. Associations between polymorphisms of the GFI1B gene and growth traits of indigenous Chinese goats.

    PubMed

    Cai, H F; Chen, Z; Luo, W X

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate polymorphisms of the eighth exon in the GFI1B gene among three indigenous Chinese goat breeds (QianBei Ma goats, GuiZhou white goats, and GuiZhou black goats). Furthermore, association analysis was conducted between these polymorphisms and growth traits. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), direct DNA sequencing, and PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were applied to detect polymorphism sites, and a general linear model was used to analyze their association with growth traits. We found two consistent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the eighth exon of the GFI1B gene among the three breeds: 263 bp G?T and 340 bp G?A. The fixed effects model used to analyze growth traits revealed significant differences in body weight, body length, chest depth, and chest breadth between genotypes CD, CC, and DD (P < 0.01). The 340(G/C) polymorphic sites identified here will provide a basis to further study associations between the GFI1B gene and growth traits, as well as establish a theoretical foundation to develop better feeding and genetic resources of indigenous goats. PMID:24615051

  7. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50?Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250?V, 90?sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L?, a?, b?) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699

  8. Fertility of the West African dwarf goat in its native environment following prostaglandin F2-alpha induced estrus.

    PubMed

    Akusu, M O; Egbunike, G N

    1984-07-01

    The fertility of ten West African Dwarf goats in which oestrus was induced with PGF2 alpha was comparable to that of the five West African Dwarf goats in the control group. Performance indices as determined by duration of oestrus and length of gestation were not affected. Similarly the birth weight of kids was not significantly influenced. However, treated goats were superior to controls when the interval from commencement of experiment to oestrus is considered, although there was no difference between the two treated groups of goats (5 mg vs 10 mg PGF2 alpha). Results showed that PGF2 alpha could be an important tool in oestrus synchronization and thus in controls of the reproductive performance of the West African Dwarf goats under humid lowland tropical environmental conditions. PMID:6592874

  9. Comparison of isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri from asymptomatic and septicaemic goats.

    PubMed

    Tardy, F; Maigre, L; Tricot, A; Poumarat, F; Nguyen, L; Le Grand, D

    2011-01-01

    Strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) are frequently isolated from goats with contagious agalactia, but they can also be recovered from herds that have shown no clinical signs of mycoplasmosis for several years. The present study was conducted in order to explore the potential genetic and antigenic differences existing between an Mmc strain isolated from an outbreak (septicaemic) and a strain isolated from the ear canal of a goat belonging to a herd with no recent episode of mycoplasmosis (carriage strain). The genomes of the two strains, compared by suppression subtractive hybridization, were shown to be poorly divergent. The two strains were inoculated into goats to produce specific antisera, but both induced fatal mycoplasmosis. These results indicate that septicaemic and carriage strains cannot be distinguished by their genetic background or by their pathogenic capacity under experimental conditions. PMID:20708197

  10. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  11. Lack of interference with diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in goats experimentally exposed to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bezos, Javier; Casal, Carmen; Romero, Beatriz; Liandris, Emmanouil; Sánchez, Natalia; Vigo, Virginia; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-07-01

    It has been suggested that infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the pathogen responsible for caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), might interfere with diagnostic testing for tuberculosis (TB), due to antigenic similarities between this particular type of bacterium and those expressed by mycobacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether experimental infection with C. pseudotuberculosis in goats impacted on TB testing, using single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and SCIT respectively) tests and interferon (IFN)-? assay. No positive reactors were detected among the CLA-affected goats using the SIT/SCIT tests or the interferon IFN-? assay. A proportion of goats showed inconclusive results to the SIT test and reactions to Mycobacterium avium. There was no evidence that infection with C. pseudotuberculosis interferes with diagnostic testing for TB using standard interpretation of the SIT, SCIT and IFN-? tests. PMID:25975852

  12. The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-02-15

    GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABA? receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABA?1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABA? receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen. PMID:24128504

  13. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-09-01

    To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-?-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

  14. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-?-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

  15. Digestion of 14C-labelled condensed tannins from Desmodium intortum in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Maldonado, R A; Norton, B W

    1996-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the metabolism of condensed tannin (CT) in sheep and goats offered a mixture of Digitaria decumbens (700 g/kg) and Desmodium intortum (300 g/kg) hay. Radioactive 14CO2 was used to label CT in young growing desmodium plants, [14C]CT was extracted, purified and infused intraruminally, and the metabolism of [14C]CT was followed in the rumen and lower digestive tract of both species. Digestion of DM, organic matter (OM), cell-wall constituents (CWC), N and the efficiency of rumen microbial synthesis were determined using a continuous intraruminal infusion of 51Cr EDTA, YbCl3 and Na235SO4. The measurements taken for sheep and goats respectively were: intake, 21 and 30 g/kg0.9 per d; digestibilities (g/g) of DM, 0.566 and 0.505; OM 0.578 and 0.508; neutral-detergent fibre, 0.584 and 0.532; and acid-detergent fibre, 0.535 and 0.435. None of these measurements was significantly different (P > 0.05) between animal species. There was an apparent net gain in lignin across the rumen and whole intestinal tract for both animal species (19 and 29% for sheep and goats respectively). There were no significant differences between sheep and goats (P > 0.05) detected for any measurements of N excretion and utilization. The overall efficiency of N digestion and utilization was also similar between species. The routes of CT metabolism were compared for both colorimetric estimates (butanol-HCl) of dietary CT (DCT) and the specific radioactivity of [14C]CT in digesta (abomasum) and excreta (urine and faeces) of both sheep and goats. [14C]CT showed total losses of 57 and 56% in sheep and goats respectively whilst losses of DCT of 71 and 70% were detected with butanol-HCl in sheep and goats respectively. The apparent losses of DCT across the rumen of sheep and goats were 12 and 9% whilst higher losses (49 and 42% for sheep and goats respectively) were observed for [14C]CT. Losses of DCT in the lower intestinal tract accounted for 69 and 71% of the total CT leaving the abomasum. By comparison, only 40 and 35% of [14C]CT was lost during intestinal passage in sheep and goats respectively. It was concluded that the infused free [14C]CT interacted with DCT and entered the protein and fibre-bound DCT pools. The loss of DCT during passage through the intestines was considered to be a consequence of either absorption of free CT or the degradation products of CT. It was assumed that free CT arose in the lower gastrointestinal tract from protein-CT and fibre-CT dissociation to be digested and/or absorbed. The higher recoveries of [14C]CT in faeces (32 and 35%) compared with DCT (27 and 26%) for sheep and goats respectively) were associated with the excretion of [14C] degradation products or conjugates which were not reactive to butanol-HCl. It was concluded that both methods (butanol-HCl and labelling CT with 14C) detected a substantial disappearance of CT (free, protein, and fibre-bound) during metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract in sheep and goats. PMID:8942359

  16. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

  17. Healing action of nerve growth factor on lameness in adult goats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Nicola; Fiore, Marco; Aloe, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of nerve growth factor in goats affected by lameness, a condition that is associated with cutaneous ulcers, abscesses and granulomas. Lesions were treated daily with 1 microgram of nerve growth factor (NGF), dissolved in 100 microliters of sesame oil or with sesame oil only. Healthy controls were treated with sesame oil only for periods ranging from two to four weeks and behavioral, biochemical and histopathological conditions were evaluated. Topical application of NGF, but not sesame oil, promoted ulcer healing in all goats within two-three weeks of treatment. The effect of NGF was to re-establish in about 60 days normal locomotion and indirectly to improve feeding behavior and milk production. These findings suggest that NGF might be clinically useful for healing damaged skin in goats and confirm previous studies on human corneal ulcers. PMID:12387143

  18. Clinico-biochemical studies on acute toxic nephropathy in goats due to uranyl nitrate.

    PubMed

    Dash, P K; Joshi, H C

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxic nephropathy was produced in 6 healthy goats by injecting intravenously 1% uranyl nitrate (UN) (15 mg/kg body weight). The early painful clinical signs simulating shock progressed with subnormal temperature, slow-shallow respiration and arrhythmic pulse followed by death due to respiratory failure within 96 to 120 hr. All the affected goats had normocytic normochromic anemia, leucocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift eosinopenia, decreased monocytes and presence of 1-2% reticulocytes in the peripheral blood smears. On blood chemical analysis, a uniform and continuous rise was seen in serum creatinine with a concomitant daily increase of serum urea and uric acid. Simultaneous analysis of urine indicated polyuria leading to oliguria, acidic pH, albuminuria, glycosuria with presence of neutrophils, RBC's, epithelial and fatty casts, increase of triple phosphate, and cystine crystals reflecting acute damage of kidneys in the affected goats. PMID:2711608

  19. The prevalence and distribution of Brucella melitensis in goats in Malaysia from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, P H; Hassan, L; Khairani-Bejo, S; ZainalAbidin, M; Ramlan, M; Adzhar, A; Abdullah, N; Hamidah, N H M; Norsuhanna, M M; Hashim, S N

    2015-05-01

    A study was conducted to describe the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic Brucella melitensis in goats in Peninsular Malaysia. Using serosurveillance data of the last decade (2000-2009) involving 119,799 goats and 3555 farms, the seroprevalence of brucellosis among goats was 0.91% (95% CI=0.86-0.96) and among farms was 7.09% (95% CI=6.27-7.98). The odds of brucellosis was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the later part of the decade, in larger herd size and among the states located in the peninsula as compared to eastern Malaysia. The infection was detected throughout Malaysia but at generally low seroprevalences with states like Perlis that border neighbouring countries having higher seroprevalence of brucellosis than other non-border states. PMID:25746928

  20. Transmural ileal ganglioneuromatosis in a young Boer goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Sheley, M F; Higgins, R J; Mete, A

    2014-01-01

    A diagnosis of transmural ileal ganglioneuromatosis was made in a 15-day-old goat that was found dead following a period of diarrhoea and inappetence. Grossly, the entire length of the wall of the ileum was pale and firm with a variably segmental to transmural thickening. Microscopically, the ileal transmural thickening was due to a diffuse proliferation of both ganglionic and glial cells forming cell nests or packets that infiltrated the wall and into the mesentery surrounding a mesenteric lymph node. The neoplastic ganglionic cells were immunoreactive for S100, synaptophysin and triple neurofilament, while the glial spindle cells were immunoreactive with glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100 and laminin confirming their Schwann cell identity. Nerve fibres expressing neurofilament protein 200 and phosphorylated neurofilament (SMI-31) were observed rarely. Ganglioneuromatosis is defined as diffuse exuberant proliferation of all components of the intestinal ganglionic plexuses. In man, the transmural form has more grave clinical consequences than a focal pattern and is commonly associated with germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Whether there is any comparable molecular genetic abnormality in animals remains unknown; however, ganglioneuromatosis needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of tumours of the autonomic enteric nervous system. PMID:24975898

  1. Characterization of a lectin from goat peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kayestha, R; Sumati; Hajela, K

    1996-12-01

    A D-glucose specific lectin was isolated from goat peripheral blood lymphocytes by affinity chromatography on N-acetyl D-glucosamine agarose gel. The fluorescence intensity of 4 methyl umbelliferyl D-glucose was quenched to about 62% on addition of the lectin. This lectin gave a single band corresponding to 112 kDa in SDS-PAGE irrespective of treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol. The molecular weight and the Stoke's radius of the lectin in the native conditions were found to be 114 kDa and 4.54 nm, respectively, as determined by gel filtration on Sephacryl S 500 column. The lectin was found to be a glycoprotein with 5.6% of neutral hexose content and 5.5% of sialic acid. The lectin agglutinated trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes and human type A erythrocytes. The hemagglutinating activity was dependent on the presence of divalent cations like Mn2+ and Ca2+. Optimum pH, ionic strength and temperature for rebinding of lectin to acid treated Sephadex G200 were found to be 7.5, 0.16 and 30-37 degrees C, respectively. PMID:9219437

  2. Conformational variability of goat ?-lactoglobulin: crystallographic and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Loch, Joanna I; Bonarek, Piotr; Polit, Agnieszka; ?wi?tek, Sylwia; Czub, Mateusz; Ludwikowska, Mira; Lewi?ski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Goat ?-lactoglobulin (GLG), lipocalin protein sharing high sequence similarity to bovine ?-lactoglobulin (BLG), has been structurally and thermodynamically characterized. Two crystal forms of GLG have been obtained, trigonal (P3121) and orthorhombic (P21212), with unique molecular packing, not observed previously for BLG. In the trigonal structure, GLG molecules have EF-loop in closed conformation while in the orthorhombic structure, for the first time, symmetric and asymmetric dimers of ?-lactoglobulin are observed simultaneously. It indicates that the opening or closing EF-loop does not occur in both subunits at the same time but might be sequential and cooperative. Comparison of GLG and BLG structures revealed presence of various conformers of EF and GH. ITC studies showed that at pH 7.5 GLG binds sodium dodecyl sulfate with Gibbs energy similar to BLG, however, with different contribution from enthalpic and entropic component. At pH 7.5 GLG forms dimers with dimerization constant Ka = 34.28 × 10(3) M(-1), significantly higher than observed for BLG. Similar mechanism of conformational changes and ligand binding indicates that GLG and BLG may play analogous biological role. PMID:25450833

  3. Identification and gene expression analyses of natriuretic peptide system in the ovary of goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Xin, Hai-Yun; Han, Peng; Zhao, Hai-Bo; Bai, Long; An, Xiao-Peng; Cao, Bin-Yun

    2013-07-25

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are involved in maintaining cardiovascular and fluid homeostasis, regulating reproductive processes and bone growth, and other numerous functions. To better understand the role of NPs in goat (Capra hircus), in the present study, full-length cDNAs of goat Nppa (natriuretic peptide precursor A), Nppb (natriuretic peptide precursor B) and Nppc (natriuretic peptide precursor C), respectively encoding ANP, BNP and CNP, were cloned from adult goat heart and ovary. The putative prepropeptide ANP (prepro-ANP) and prepro-CNP share a high amino acid sequence identity with other species. Real-time PCR showed that Nppa, Nppb and Nppc were widely expressed in adult goat tissues. The mRNA expression of Nppa and Nppb in the heart was extremely higher compared with other tissues. Nppc mRNA expression in the lung and uterus was also higher than in other tissues. The expression of Nppa, Nppb and Nppc genes was examined at different ovarian follicle stages using RT-PCR. The mRNAs of Nppa and Nppb were detected in secondary follicles as well as in COCs (cumulus-oocyte-complexes) and granulosa cells of antral follicles. However, the mRNA expression of Nppc was observed throughout ovarian follicle development, and it was especially higher in granulosa cells of antral follicles. In vitro, stimulating goat granulosa cells with FSH led to an increase in the expression of Nppc by dose- and time-dependent manners and a rapid decline was induced by LH stimulation, but the expression of Nppa and Nppb did not change after FSH or LH treatment. These results suggest that Nppc is a gonadotropin-induced gene in granulosa cells of goat ovary and CNP may be involved in the regulation of ovarian follicle development and oocyte maturation. PMID:23644022

  4. Public health and the safety of milk and milk products from sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Klinger, I; Rosenthal, I

    1997-08-01

    Goats and sheep rank third and fourth in terms of global milk production from different species, but unlike cow milk, which has stringent hygiene and quality regulations, microbiological standards for the production and distribution of goat milk and sheep milk are more relaxed. Difficulties in managing the sanitary quality of sheep and goat milk derive from a series of factors including the low level of production per head, the milking system, the difficulty involved in machine milking, the conditions under which the herds or flocks are raised, adverse climatic conditions and the spread of production over a wide geographic area. Fresh goat milk is consumed by infants and others with allergies to cow milk and is also used for on-farm manufactured cheese, with or without thermal treatment. The high fat content and peculiar taste of cheeses made from ewe milk are also very popular. These cheese varieties, which are mostly still of 'artisan-type', are not covered by regulatory definitions and the dispute over the use of raw versus pasteurised milk is still alive. However, in documented intoxications recorded after the consumption of cheese, there has always been evidence of incorrect temperature control during pasteurisation, the deliberate addition of raw milk, or contamination during storage. Compositional differences between the milk from cows, ewes and goats (chemical composition of lipids, phosphatase level, freezing point, natural bacterial inhibitor levels, somatic cell count, etc.) preclude the nondiscriminatory use of bovine standards for regulatory purposes. Quality standards adjusted for the specifics of ewe/goat milk should be considered. The production of safe cheese is linked to a series of conditions which ensure consumer health, primarily pasteurisation. In the absence of pasteurisation, all cheeses made from raw milk should be subjected to strict periodic controls. PMID:9501361

  5. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. PMID:24819129

  6. Modulation of aquaporin 2 expression in the kidney of young goats by changes in nitrogen intake.

    PubMed

    Elfers, Kristin; Breves, Gerhard; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S

    2014-10-01

    In ruminants, a decrease of dietary nitrogen (N) is an appropriate feeding concept to reduce environmental pollution and costs. In our previous study, when goats were kept on an N-reduced diet, a decrease of plasma urea concentration and an increase of renal urea transporters were demonstrated. Renal urea absorption plays a crucial role for renal water absorption and urine concentration. Renal collecting duct water absorption is mainly mediated by the water channel aquaporin 1 and 2 (AQP1 and AQP2). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a dietary N reduction on expression of renal AQP1 and AQP2 in young goats. Twenty male White Saanen goats, 3 months old, were divided equally into two feeding groups, receiving either a diet with an adequate or a reduced-N supply. Goats fed a reduced-N diet showed significantly higher amounts of AQP1 mRNA in cortical tissue, and the expression of AQP2 mRNA and protein were highly elevated in renal outer medulla. An increase of vasopressin concentrations in plasma were detected for the N-reduced fed goats. Therefore, a stimulation of renal water absorption can be assumed. This might be an advantage for ruminants in times of N reduction due to higher urea concentrations in the tubular fluid and which might result in higher absorption of urea by renal urea transporters. Therefore, interplay of aquaporin water channels and urea transporters in the kidney may occur to maintain urea metabolism in times of N scarcity in young goats. PMID:25095973

  7. Adaptive responses of calcium and phosphate homeostasis in goats to low nitrogen intake: renal aspects.

    PubMed

    Starke, S; Huber, K

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study, in goats, we showed that apart from variations in dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus intake, also low dietary nitrogen (N) intake altered plasma concentrations of hormones, which regulate Ca and phosphate (Pi ) homeostasis. These hormonal responses in goats were in accordance with findings in monogastric animals and humans with low protein intake. In the aforementioned studies, alterations of electrolyte transport in the kidneys were also observed. However, whether renal electrolyte transport in goats is also involved in the adaptation of Ca and Pi homeostasis to low N intake remains unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether in addition to the hormonal changes, as observed in our former study, renal Ca transport and renal Pi transport were also altered by low N intake in goats. Therefore, in kidney samples from the goats used in our former study, the protein expression of Ca and Pi transporters and of related regulatory proteins was examined. Furthermore, the uptake of Pi into isolated brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was detected. The results showed that the protein amount of the renal sodium-dependent Pi transporter NaPi IIa was elevated, and concomitantly, protein expression of its upstream regulators, the parathyroid hormone receptor and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 was decreased. However, Pi uptake into renal BBMV was not enhanced. Furthermore, protein expression of the renal Ca channel, the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5) and of the vitamin D receptor was not influenced by dietary N reduction. We conclude that regulation of renal Pi transporter expression in goats is involved in the adaptation of electrolyte homeostasis to low N intake. PMID:24283774

  8. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25–35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam’s acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  9. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality. PMID:23369514

  10. Shedding Rates and SeroPrevalence of Brucella melitensis in Lactating Goats of Shahrekord, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Milan, Jalal Sheykh kanluye; Mahzoonieh, Mohamad Reza; Khaksar, Khadijeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis remains a major worldwide zoonosis. Caprine brucellosis is a significant problem for both public health and animal production. Brucella melitensis causes disease in goats, sheep, humans, and occasionally cattle. Transmission is by ingestion or contact with infected materials, vaginal discharge, or milk. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the rate of B. melitensis seropositives and its probable shedding in lactating goats from flocks in Shahrekord district, Iran. Materials and Methods: In the current study, 1080 samples of milk, blood and vaginal swabs of 360 lactating goats (three samples from each animal) were randomly collected from 12 flocks in Shahrekord district. Serums from blood samples were examined by Rose Bengal plate (RBT) test and the titre of positives determined by tube agglutination test (TAT). Vaginal swab and milk (cream and sediment) samples were cultured on Brucella agar. Brucella spp. suspected pure cultures were incubated in the same conditions and then examined by Modified Zeil-Nelson (MZN) staining, oxidase and catalase tests. Positive isolates were examined by PCR. Results: Out of 360 serum samples, 50 (13.9%) were positive by RBT, and six (1/66%) were positive by TAT. Culturing of milk and vaginal samples lead to isolation of 12 (3.33%) and 10 (2.77%) Brucella spp. suspected colonies, respectively. The PCR examinations of these isolates showed that ten (2.77%) milk and 6 vaginal swab samples (1.66%) belonged to B. melitensis species. Eight goats (2.22%) had positive results in RBT, culture and PCR examinations, simultaneously. Conclusions: The regional distribution of caprine brucellosis and shedding of B. melitensis through vaginal secretions and milk secretions of lactating goats indicated that 50% and 83.33% of the goat flocks contained vaginal and milk shedders, respectively. PMID:25147691

  11. Gene organization and characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Hainan black goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiangtao; Zhao, Wei; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2014-09-11

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hainan black goat was determined for the first time by the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,641?bp, including 33.54% A, 26.04% C, 27.31% T, 13.11% G. The genome structure contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). These results have extended more detail information of mitochondrial genome, thus being useful for further study on the genetic divergence and phylogenetic resolution of global goats. PMID:25211090

  12. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

    2015-01-15

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91 kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work suggests that a possible mechanism of action of SL against female H. contortus in the animal's abomasum is a direct action of CT on the cuticle of the worm. PMID:25465738

  13. Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis of Goat Fats: Comparison of Chemical Composition and Thermal Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Tahsin Y?lmaz; M. Karakaya

    2009-01-01

    The physical–chemical properties, fatty acid composition and thermal properties of goat subcutaneous (SF), tallow (TF) and\\u000a intestinal (IF) fats were determined. SF differed from other fat types with respect to its lower melting (41.6 °C), lower\\u000a saponification (190.3 mg KOH\\/g) and higher iodine (40.4) values as compared to those of other fats. Goat fat types contained\\u000a palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0),

  14. Large-scale production of functional human lysozyme in transgenic cloned goats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huiqing; Chen, Jianquan; Liu, Siguo; Zhang, Aimin; Xu, Xujun; Wang, Xuebin; Lu, Ping; Cheng, Guoxiang

    2013-12-01

    Human lysozyme (hLZ), an essential protein against many types of microorganisms, has been expressed in transgenic livestock to improve their health status and milk quality. However, the large-scale production of hLZ in transgenic livestock is currently unavailable. Here we describe the generation of transgenic goats, by somatic cell-mediated transgenic cloning, that express large amounts of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) in milk. Specifically, two optimized lysozyme expression cassettes (?-casein/hLZ and ?-lactoglobulin/hLZ) were designed and introduced into goat somatic cells by cell transfection. Using transgenic cell colonies, which were screened by 0.8 mg/mL G418, as a nuclear donor, we obtained 10 transgenic cloned goats containing one copy of hLZ hybrid gene. An ELISA assay indicated that the transgenic goats secreted up to 6.2 g/L of rhLZ in their milk during the natural lactation period, which is approximately 5-10 times higher than human milk. The average rhLZ expression levels in ?-casein/hLZ and ?-lactoglobulin/hLZ transgenic goats were 2.3 g/L and 3.6 g/L, respectively. Therefore, both rhLZ expression cassettes could induce high levels of expression of the rhLZ in goat mammary glands. In addition, the rhLZ purified from goat milk has similar physicochemical properties as the natural human lysozyme, including the molecular mass, N-terminal sequence, lytic activity, and thermal and pH stability. An antibacterial analysis revealed that rhLZ and hLZ were equally effective in two bacterial inhibition experiments using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Taken together, our experiments not only underlined that the large-scale production of biologically active rhLZ in animal mammary gland is realistic, but also demonstrated that rhLZ purified from goat milk will be potentially useful in biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24432381

  15. Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The computational demands of sociality (maintaining group cohesion, reducing conflict) and ecological problems (extractive foraging, memorizing resource locations) are the main drivers proposed to explain the evolution cognition. Different predictions follow, about whether animals would preferentially learn new tasks socially or not, but the prevalent view today is that intelligent species should excel at social learning. However, the predictions were originally used to explain primate cognition, and studies of species with relatively smaller brains are rare. By contrast, domestication has often led to a decrease in brain size, which could affect cognition. In domestic animals, the relaxed selection pressures compared to a wild environment could have led to reduced social and physical cognition. Goats possess several features commonly associated with advanced cognition, such as successful colonization of new environments and complex fission-fusion societies. Here, we assessed goat social and physical cognition as well as long-term memory of a complex two-step foraging task (food box cognitive challenge), in order to investigate some of the main selection pressures thought to affect the evolution of ungulate cognition. Results The majority of trained goats (9/12) successfully learned the task quickly; on average, within 12 trials. After intervals of up to 10 months, they solved the task within two minutes, indicating excellent long-term memory. The goats did not learn the task faster after observing a demonstrator than if they did not have that opportunity. This indicates that they learned through individual rather than social learning. Conclusions The individual learning abilities and long-term memory of goats highlighted in our study suggest that domestication has not affected goat physical cognition. However, these cognitive abilities contrast with the apparent lack of social learning, suggesting that relatively intelligent species do not always preferentially learn socially. We propose that goat cognition, and maybe more generally ungulate cognition, is mainly driven by the need to forage efficiently in harsh environments and feed on plants that are difficult to access and to process, more than by the computational demands of sociality. Our results could also explain why goats are so successful at colonizing new environments. PMID:24666734

  16. Fecal nitrogen and phosphorus as indicators of intake and quality of Angora goat diets 

    E-print Network

    Carter, Heidi Christina

    1985-01-01

    for maintenance of goats fed the 755 llveoak ration. Only ratIon 4 had sufficient feed energy to support 50 grams pet day growth. Rations I, 2, and 3 were deficient In GRCP. Except for ration 3, the rations had adequate P for maintenance. None of the rations...FECAL NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS AS INDICATORS OF INTAKE AND QUALITY OF ANGORA GOAT DIETS A Thesis by Held I Chr1stlna Carter Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University ln partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  17. Effect of copper on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition of meat goat kids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Wang, Y; Spears, J W; Lin, X; Guo, C H

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Cu on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition in meat goats. Thirty five Jianyang Big-ear goat (JYB) kids (average BW 20.3 ± 0.6 kg and age 3 to 4 mo) were stratified by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 7 experimental treatments (n = 5 goats per treatment). Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu; 14.3 mg Cu/kg DM), 2) 20 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 3) 40 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 4) 80 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 5) 160 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 6) 320 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, and 7) 640 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM. Copper was supplemented from CuSO4•5H2O (25.2% Cu). Goats were individually fed a concentrate-hay based diet for 96 d. Performance was not affected by Cu concentration. Liver Cu concentration was increased (P < 0.01) with Cu supplementation. Goats supplemented with 0 or 20 mg Cu/kg DM had lower (P < 0.01) liver Cu concentrations than the other treatments. Backfat depth (P < 0.01) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (P < 0.01) were also increased with Cu supplementation. However, Cu-supplemented goats had lower (P = 0.04) longissimus muscle area (LMA) compared with control. Dietary Cu supplementation increased the percentage of C14:0 (P < 0.01), C20:4 (P < 0.01), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.03), decreased C18:1 trans (P = 0.04), and tended to decrease C18:0 (P = 0.08) in LM. Other fatty acids detected were not affected by dietary Cu supplementation (P > 0.10). These results indicate that JYB goats can tolerate up to 640 mg Cu/kg DM for 96 d without adverse effects on performance, but fat deposition and fatty acid composition in the body could be altered by Cu supplementation as low as 20 mg/kg of diet with high concentrate-hay. Copper supplementation increased backfat depth, IMF, and percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in LM and decreased LMA in the carcass of JYB goats. PMID:23893982

  18. Effect of fall-grazed sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) on gastrointestinal nematode infections of growing goats.

    PubMed

    Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Gujja, S; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Kannan, G; Lee, J H; Kouakou, B; Terrill, T H

    2014-08-29

    High prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in goats has increased pressure to find effective, alternative non-synthetic control methods, one of which is adding forage of the high condensed tannin (CT) legume sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) to the animal's diet. Previous work has demonstrated good efficacy of dried SL (hay, pellets) against small ruminant GIN, but information is lacking on consumption of fresh SL, particularly during the late summer-autumn period in the southern USA when perennial warm-season grass pastures are often low in quality. A study was designed to determine the effects of autumn (September-November) consumption of fresh SL forage, grass pasture (predominantly bermudagrass, BG; Cynodon dactylon), or a combination of SL+BG forage by young goats [intact male Spanish kids, 9 months old (20.7 ± 1.1 kg), n = 10/treatment group] on their GIN infection status. Three forage paddocks (0.40 ha) were set up at the Fort Valley State University Agricultural Research Station (Fort Valley, GA) for an 8-week trial. The goats in each paddock were supplemented with a commercial feed pellet at 0.45 kg/head/d for the first 4 weeks of the trial, and 0.27 kg/head/d for the final 4 weeks. Forage samples taken at the start of the trial were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and a separate set of SL samples was analyzed for CT in leaves, stems, and whole plant using the benzyl mercaptan thiolysis method. Animal weights were taken at the start and end of the trial, and fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. Adult GIN was recovered from the abomasum and small intestines of all goats at the end of the experiment for counting and speciation. The CP levels were highest for SL forage, intermediate for SL+BG, and lowest for BG forage samples, while NDF and ADF values were the opposite, with highest levels in BG and lowest in SL forage samples. Sericea lespedeza leaves had more CT than stems (16.0 g vs. 3.3g/100g dry weight), a slightly higher percentage of PDs (98% vs. 94%, respectively) and polymers of larger mean degrees of polymerization (42 vs. 18, respectively). There were no differences in average daily gain or blood PCV between the treatment groups, but SL goats had lower FEC (P < 0.05) than the BG or SL+BG forage goats throughout most of the trial. The SL+BG goats had lower FEC than the BG forage animals by the end of the trial (week 8, P < 0.05). The SL goats had lower numbers (P < 0.05) of male Haemonchus contortus and tended to have fewer female (P < 0.10) and total (P < 0.07) H. contortus compared with the BG goats. The predominant GIN in all the goats was Trichostrongylus colubriformis (73% of total GIN). As a low-input forage with activity against pathogenic GIN (H. contortus), SL has a potential to reduce producers' dependence upon synthetic anthelmintics and also to fill the autumn 'window' in good-quality fresh forages for goat grazing in the southern USA. PMID:24996964

  19. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape.

    PubMed

    Chynoweth, Mark W; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Litton, Creighton M; Hess, Steven C; Kellner, James R; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world's most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities. PMID:25807275

  20. The in vitro and in vivo development of goat embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection using tail-cut spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Baldassarre, H; Pierson, J; Cote, F; Rao, K M; Karatzas, C N

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a novel intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure, as well as the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of goat embryos produced by ICSI. Oocyte-cumulus complexes recovered by LOPU from donors stimulated with gonadotrophins were matured in vitro. Fresh goat semen was used for ICSI following Percoll gradient washing. Tail-cut spermatozoa were microinjected into the ooplasm of goat oocytes using a piezo micropipette-driving system (PiezoDrill). In order to assess developmental competence, the ICSI-derived zygotes were cultured in one of two media systems (mTALP-mKSOM vs G1.3-G2.3) for in vitro development or were transferred into recipients for full-term development. The results suggest that cutting sperm tails using the oocyte-holding pipette coupled with the PiezoDrill is an efficient approach for goat ICSI in terms of oocyte survival, pronuclear development and initial cleavage. The mTALP-mKSOM culture system was more suitable for in vitro development of ICSI-derived goat embryos than G1.3-G2.3. This first report of full-term development of an ICSI-derived goat embryo suggests that ICSI can be applied to assisted reproduction in goats. PMID:14640186

  1. Genotypes, Antibiotic Resistance, and ST-8 Genetic Clone in Campylobacter Isolates from Sheep and Goats in Grenada

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Diana M.; Chander, Yogesh; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Tiwari, Keshaw

    2014-01-01

    Rectal swabs from 155 sheep and 252 goats from Grenada were evaluated to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance, and multilocus sequence types. Fifteen Campylobacter isolates were obtained (14 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli). The prevalence (3.7%) did not differ significantly between sheep (4.5%) and goats (3.2%). Among the seven antimicrobials tested, resistance was only detected for tetracycline (30.8%) and metronidazole (38.5%). Campylobacter isolates showed no significant difference between sheep and goats for type of antimicrobial resistance or percent of resistant isolates. Twelve of the isolates were successfully genotyped consisting of four recognized clonal complexes and three novel sequence types. Importantly, one isolate from one goat was identified as the C. jejuni sequence type-8, a zoonotic and tetracycline-resistant clone reported to be a highly virulent clone associated with ovine abortion in the USA. Although most samples were from comingled sheep and goat production units, there were no shared sequence types between these two host species. None of the sequence types identified in this study have previously been reported in poultry in Grenada, suggesting sheep- and goat-specific Campylobacter clones in Grenada. This is the first report of genotyping of Campylobacter isolates from sheep and goats in the Eastern Caribbean. PMID:24693459

  2. [Use of estrone sulfate determination in goat blood for the detection of pregnancy and prediction of fetal number].

    PubMed

    Janowski, T; Zdu?czyk, S; Ra?, A; Mwaanga, E S

    1999-04-01

    The study was carried out on 50 goats of Polish White breed. Blood samples were taken on day 60 after mating from V. jugularis. Pregnancy diagnosis was made using transcutan ultrasound scanning (Pie Medical Scanner 2000 with a 5 MHz curved array probe). The estrone sulphate level was determined by RIA method after extraction and hydrolysis with arylsulphatase/glucuronidase from Helix pomatia. As a threshold value for differentiation of pregnant from nonpregnant goats 1 ng/ml was assumed. In eight nonpregnant goats the estrone sulphate level was 0.61 +/- 0.21 ng/ml. In 42 pregnant goats the level was 6.1 +/- 3.5 ng/ml. The diagnosis was correct in all cases. The number of single, twin and triplet pregnancies was six, 34 and two, respectively. Estrone values in goats with twin pregnancies were significantly higher compared to those with single pregnancies (7.2 +/- 4.1 ng/ml vs. 4.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml; p < or = 0.01). The results of this study indicate, that the determination of estrone sulphate in blood of goats may be useful for pregnancy diagnosis. The estrone sulphate level in goats with twins is higher, but due to high variation between animals the number of fetuses cannot be exactly predicted. PMID:10326236

  3. A Sensitive and Effective Proteomic Approach to Identify She-Donkey’s and Goat’s Milk Adulterations by MALDI-TOF MS Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Scapaticci, Margherita; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    She-donkey’s milk (DM) and goat’s milk (GM) are commonly used in newborn and infant feeding because they are less allergenic than other milk types. It is, therefore, mandatory to avoid adulteration and contamination by other milk allergens, developing fast and efficient analytical methods to assess the authenticity of these precious nutrients. In this experimental work, a sensitive and robust matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling was designed to assess the genuineness of DM and GM milks. This workflow allows the identification of DM and GM adulteration at levels of 0.5%, thus, representing a sensitive tool for milk adulteration analysis, if compared with other laborious and time-consuming analytical procedures. PMID:25110863

  4. Characterization of the goat feeding system among rural small holder farmers in the semi-arid regions of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nampanzira, Dorothy Kalule; Kabasa, John David; Nalule, Sara Agnes; Nakalembe, Immaculate; Tabuti, John Robert Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are widely distributed in Africa and Asia, and are important to the subsistence and economic livelihoods of many people in these areas. The goat feeding system among rural small holder farmers in Buyende district (Uganda) was characterised by determining the goat rearing practices, feed resources fed on by goats and availability of browse species mentioned by small holder farmers. Data was gathered using ethnobotanical and ecological approaches. Results from the ethnobotanical survey revealed that farmers were rearing indigenous goat breeds that are managed by tethering in natural pastures during the rainy season but free ranging during the dry season (i.e. when no crops are susceptible of damage). Major challenges facing goat production in the study area were diseases, shortage of land and inadequate pastures. The reduction of grazing land due to crop farming, has led to tethering of animals which in turn leads to restricted feeding. Goats were known to feed on 48 plant species distributed in 18 families and 39 genera dominated by trees and shrubs. Browse species were known to stay longer in the dry season when the grass and herbaceous species were no longer available. The most frequently mentioned browse species were Ficus natalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Acalypha psilostachya, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Lantana camara while Panicum maximum and Impeata cylindrica were the most mentioned herbaceous species. 31 browse species were encountered in the ecological survey. These were dominated by Combretum molle, L. camara, A. zygia, M. indica, and Albizia coriaria. In conclusion, the rearing practices of goats in Buyende district are comprised of indigenous goats tethered in natural pastures especially browses which stay longer through the dry season. However, most of the preferred browses are rare according to the computed IVI (i.e. less than 30%). PMID:25932373

  5. ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.

    PubMed

    Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

    2009-01-01

    Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research. PMID:18791137

  6. Stockmanship competence and its relation to productivity and economic profitability: the context of backyard goat production in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Alcedo, M J; Ito, K; Maeda, K

    2015-03-01

    A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of his animals depending on his stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of his animals by providing his animals' needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the SC of backyard goat raisers and examine its relationship to goat productivity and economic profitability. There were 101 respondents for this study who have all undertaken farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS-IGM). Interview was conducted in Region I, Philippines on September 3 to 30, 2012 and March 4 to 17, 2013. Data on SC, goat productivity and farmer's income were gathered. Questions regarding SC were formulated based on the Philippine Recommendations for Goat Production and from other scientific literature. Housing, feeding, breeding and health and husbandry management were the indicators used in computing stockmanship competence index score (SCIS). Pearson correlation using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was carried out to analyse the relationship between SCIS, productivity and income. Based from the results of the study, a majority of the respondents raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM were 38.52% and 75.81% respectively, a percentage difference of 65.23%. Both index scores resulted in significant differences in productivity and income. The median mature weight and mortality rate of goats before FLS-IGM was 14 kg and 30% respectively. After FLS-IGM, median mature weight was 19 kg and mortality rate decreased from 30% to 11.11%. Likewise, fewer goat diseases were observed by farmers who were able to undergo FLS-IGM. With regard to income, there was a 127.34% difference on the median net income derived by farmers. Result implies that improved SC could lead not only to increased productivity and income of backyard goat raisers but also to better animal welfare. PMID:25656178

  7. Neurophysiological and biomechanical characterization of goat cervical facet joint capsules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Chen, Chaoyang; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Patwardhan, Ajit; Cavanaugh, John M

    2005-07-01

    Cervical facet joints have been implicated as a major source of pain after whiplash injury. We sought to identify facet joint capsule receptors in the cervical spine and quantify their responses to capsular deformation. The response of mechanosensitive afferents in C5-C6 facet joint capsules to craniocaudal stretch (0.5 mm/s) was examined in anaesthetized adult goats. Capsular afferents were characterized into Group III and IV based on their conduction velocity. Two-dimensional strains across the capsules during stretch were obtained by a stereoimaging technique and finite element modeling. 17 (53%) Group III and 14 (56%) Group IV afferents were identified with low strain thresholds of 0.107+/-0.033 and 0.100+/-0.046. A subpopulation of low-strain-threshold afferents had discharge rate saturation at the strains of 0.388+/-0.121 (n=9, Group III) and 0.341+/-0.159 (n=9, Group IV). Two (8%) Group IV units responded only to high strains (0.460+/-0.170). 15 (47%) Group III and 9 (36%) Group IV units could not be excited even by noxious capsular stretch. Simple linear regressions were conducted with capsular load and principal strain as independent variables and neural response of low-strain-threshold afferents as the dependent variable. Correlation coefficients (R2) were 0.73+/-0.11 with load, and 0.82+/-0.12 with principal strain. The stiffness of the C5-C6 capsules was 16.8+/-11.4 N/mm. Our results indicate that sensory receptors in cervical facet joint capsules are not only capable of signaling a graded physiological mechanical stimulus, but may also elicit pain sensation under excessive deformation. PMID:16022990

  8. ONE SEED JUNIPER INTAKE BY SHEEP AND GOATS SUPPLEMENTED WITH DEGRADABLE OR BY-PASS PROTEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Re-invasion of one seed juniper previously cleared woodlands is a concern of range managers throughout the southwestern United States. Prescribed browsing with sheep and goats could be used as a juniper control method. Success with this tool may depend on improving the herbivore’s ability to detoxif...

  9. One seed juniper intake by sheep and goats supplemented with degradable or by-pass protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful prescribed grazing of one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) with sheep and goats may depend on identifying times of the year when juniper terpenoid levels are less likely to deter herbivory and could be contingent on the use of protein supplements to help animals detoxify ...

  10. Photoperiodic and melatonin treatments for the control of seasonal reproduction in sheep and goats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    breeding season by allowing males to reach their maximum testis volume and sperm production earlier than production when applied soon after kidding. So, total control of reproduction in sheep and goats the inductive effect of SD at the end of winter and to prevent refractoriness to photoperiodic stimulation

  11. Sensory and physiological determinants of maternal behavior in the goat ( Capra hircus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Poindron; Angélica Terrazas; María de la Luz Navarro Montes de Oca; Norma Serafín; Horacio Hernández

    2007-01-01

    Maternal behavior in the goat appears at the time of parturition, partly under the activating influence of vaginocervical stimulation. Mothers actively lick their neonate and rapidly establish a selective bond with their kid through olfactory recognition. They also develop visual and acoustic recognition of the kid within 4 h following birth. Acoustic recognition is present at 48 h. The establishment of maternal

  12. The effects of diet and age on serum complement system activity in goat kids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Castro; F. Acosta; T. Niño; J. Vivas; E. Quesada; J. Capote; A. Argüello

    2008-01-01

    Thirty new born male kids were allotted into three groups to evaluate the effects of diet and age on complement system activity in serum. After the colostrum feeding period, the control group (C) received a commercial milk replacer; the CLA group received 20 g\\/kg milk replacer DM of conjugated linoleic acid; and the GMK group was fed with goat milk. The

  13. Mother?offspring interactions in feral goats—a behavioural perspective of maternal investment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Alley; R. A. Fordham; E. O. Minot

    1995-01-01

    In a herd of captive feral goats, suckling behaviour, mother?offspring distance, kid activity, and kid growth were measured during the first 3 months of life to investigate whether male kids gained greater maternal investment than female kids. Male kids were born heavier and grew faster than female kids. Single male kids suckled more frequently than their female counterparts. Other measurements

  14. SPATIAL BEHAVIOR OF DOMESTIC GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS) GRAZING A CENTRAL OREGON RANGELAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are inquisitive and intelligent animals that have been used for meat, milk, skins and fiber since their domestication approximately 6,000 years ago. They have dynamic social orders and are adept at grazing a wide variety of landscapes and vegetation types. In spite of a long association with h...

  15. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of goat (Capra hircus) phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx)

    PubMed Central

    SHI, Li-guang; XUN, Wen-juan; YUE, Wen-bin; ZHANG, Chun-xiang; REN, You-she; WANG, Qian; WU, Xiao-ying; SHI, Lei; YANG, Ru-jie; LEI, Fu-lin

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), as a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme in the glutathione peroxidases (GPx) family, plays multiple roles in organisms. However, there is very little information on PHGPx in goats (Capra hircus). In this study, a full-length cDNA was cloned and characterized from Taihang black goat testes. The 844 bp cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 597 bp. The goat PHGPx nucleotide sequence contains a selenocysteine (sec) codon TGA244-246, two potential start codons ATG20-22 and ATG108-110, a polyadenylation signal AATAAA813-818 and selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) motif AUGA688-691, UGA729-731 and AAA703-705. As a selenoprotein, the active-site motifs and GPx family signature motifs LAFPCNQF101-108 and WNFEK165-170 were also found. The order of PHGPx mRNA expression levels was: testes >> heart > brain > epididymis > kidney > liver > lung > spleen > muscle. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed similar expression differences in different age testes, with high expression levels during adolescence. Immunofluorescence results suggested that PHGPx mainly expressed in Leydig cells and spermatids in mature goat testes. PMID:20582224

  16. Efficacy of flumethrin pour-on against Damalinia caprae of goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Katoch, R; Bhushan, C

    1998-10-01

    Goats naturally infested with Damalinia caprae lice were used to evaluate the efficacy of flumethrin pour-on. The maximum load of lice infestation was detected in the neck region. The LC50 value of flumethrin pour-on against D. caprae was found to be 119.35 ppm and the 95% confidence limits were calculated to be 104.10 and 136.85 ppm. Flumethrin at the rate of 1 mg/kg body weight by pour-on application along the mid-dorsal line was found to be 100% effective in treating lice-infested goats compared with the control goats. The residual action of flumethrin was found to be at least 42 days during which period no apparent signs of any local or general adverse effects were observed. Based on these studies, it is suggested that flumethrin pour-on may be successfully used for both the prophylaxis and treatment of D. caprae infestation in goats and it is necessary to repeat the treatment after 42 days. The method of application is highly advantageous as it can be conveniently applied, even in animals with thick hair coat and during the winter months. PMID:9881431

  17. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight in West African Dwarf goat and Djallonké sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Bosso; M. F. Cissé; E. H. van der Waaij; A. Fall; J. A. M. van Arendonk

    2007-01-01

    The International Trypanotolerance Centre's small ruminant breeding programme was initiated in 1995. The aim was to increase the efficiency of meat production and the trypanotolerance of the animals (sheep and goat). To achieve that goal, selection was based on estimated breeding values for daily weight gain from 4 to 12 months of age measured on trypanotolerance challenge. The purpose of

  18. Effect of pelleting on efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Terrill; J. A. Mosjidis; D. A. Moore; S. A. Shaik; J. E. Miller; J. M. Burke; J. P. Muir; R. Wolfe

    2007-01-01

    Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) to anthelmintic treatment has increased pressure to find alternative, non-chemical control methods. Feeding hay of the high condensed tannin (CT) forage sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] to sheep and goats has reduced GIN fecal egg count (FEC) and worm numbers in the abomasum and small intestines. This effect has been reported with

  19. The effect of a condensed tannin-containing forage on methane emission by goats1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Puchala; B. R. Min; A. L. Goetsch; T. Sahlu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to com- pare methane emission by goats consuming the con- densed tannin-containing forage sericea lespedeza (Les- pedeza cuneata) or a mixture of crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum) and Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arun- dinacea). Two groups of 12 Angora does (initial average BW = 41.5 ± 2.7 kg) that previously grazed a pasture of sericea

  20. Effect of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal in goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Joshi; D. S. Kommuru; T. H. Terrill; J. A. Mosjidis; J. M. Burke; K. P. Shakya; J. E. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Effect of sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] leaf meal feeding was evaluated in two experiments in indoor reared goats with experimental infection of Haemonchus contortus larvae. In the first experiment, ten 8–10 month old male Spanish and Alpine cross kids pair matched for body weight and age were fed SL or bermudagrass [BG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

  1. Factors that Affect Yield and Composition of Goat Milk: A Bibliographic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Salvador; Gonzalo Martínez

    A review of the literature on several factors that affect the production and composition of goat milk was done. The search was based on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors involved were classified as: genetic, taking into consideration the difference in milk production and composition among breeds and groups as well as the different polymorphisms that affect milk's

  2. Repairing of goat Tibial Bone Defects with BMP2 Gene–Modified Tissue-Engineered Bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Dai; X. L. Xu; T. T. Tang; Z. A. Zhu; C. F. Yu; J. R. Lou; X. L. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Bone defects larger than a critical size are major challenges in orthopedic medicine. We combined tissue-engineered bone and gene therapy to provide osteoprogenitor cells, osteoinductive factors, and osteoconductive carrier for ideal bone regeneration in critical-sized bone defects. Goat diaphyseal bone defects were repaired with tissue and genetically engineered bone implants, composed of biphasic calcined bone (BCB) and autologous bone marrow

  3. Studies on the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis in sheep and goats in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Griffin; E. W. Allonby

    1979-01-01

    The epidemiology of trypanosomiasis in a tsetse-infested range area of Kenya was studied for 2 years in various breeds of sheep and goats. Observations, including infection rates, PCV, temperature and weight loss indicated that the exotic breeds were more susceptible to natural trypanosomal infection than the indigenous breeds and that the infection may be severely debilitating and in many cases

  4. INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning in goats is reported from eating two species of plants belonging to the sweet potato family. The poisoning causes damage to the nervous system, resulting in tremors, depression, and difficulty in rising and walking. Analysis for compounds that might be responsible for these problems sho...

  5. Frequency of eprinomectin resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in canton Berne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Murri, Sarah; Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela; Torgerson, Paul; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2014-06-16

    Eprinomectin (EPN) is a member of the avermectin class of compounds and the only anthelmintic registered for goats in Switzerland with a zero milk withdrawal period. The aim of the present study was to identify the actual efficacy of EPN in an area with a higher density of goat enterprises. Forty-three randomly chosen farms from canton Berne were investigated. At least eight goats were investigated on every farm. Conditions for inclusion in the study were the absence of anthelmintic treatment during the previous six weeks and a pooled faecal sample showing a mean faecal egg count (FEC) higher than 600 epg faeces. Pre- and 14-16 days post-treatment samples were individually collected directly from the rectum. Animals were treated with the recommended dose of EPN (1 mg/kg body weight) after taking the pre-treatment samples. Efficacy of EPN was tested with the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and faecal cultures were performed on every farm from pooled faeces samples before and after treatment. Additionally the farmers completed a questionnaire. None of the gastrointestinal nematode populations of the 43 investigated farms were susceptible to EPN at the required level. The mean egg count reduction was 40%. None of the typical risk factors, such as production type, stocking rate, animal traffic and quarantine measures showed an association with the level of eprinomectin resistance. It can be concluded with 80% certainty that the prevalence of EPN resistance on goat farms is at least 95% in canton Berne. PMID:24661808

  6. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of donkey's and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Jirillo, Felicita; Magrone, Thea

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, donkey's and goat's milk consumption has been reevaluated for its potential benefits to human health. For example, in infants with intolerance to cow's milk, donkey's milk represents a good alternative due to its chemical characteristics similar to those of human milk. On the other hand, goat's milk in virtue of its higher content in short chain, medium chain, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids than that of cow's milk, is more digestible than the bovine counterpart. From an immunological point of view, donkey's milk is able to induce release of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines from normal human peripheral blood lymphomononuclear cells, thus maintaining a condition of immune homeostasis. Similarly, goat's milk has been shown to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses in an in vitro human system, also inhibiting the endotoxin-induced activation of monocytes. Finally, in these milks the presence of their own microbiota may normalize the human intestinal microbiota with a cascade of protective effects at intestinal mucosal sites, even including triggering of intestinal T regulatory cells. In the light of the above considerations, donkey's and goat's milk should be recommended as a dietary supplement in individuals with inflammatory and allergic conditions, even including elderly people. PMID:24450455

  7. Estimation of heterosis and heterosis retention in the development of a synthetic breed of goat 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Matthew Blain

    1994-01-01

    ) weights at two and four months of age. Data resulted from the development of a composite breed of goat in Kenya (KDPG) which is composed of 1/4 East African, 1/4 Gak 1/4 Toggenburg, and 1/4 Anglo-Nubian. Genetic models included a breed specific dominance...

  8. Beneficial Effect of Goat Milk on Nutritive Utilization of Iron and Copper in Malabsorption Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Barrionuevo; M. J. M. Alferez; I. Lopez Aliaga; M. R. Sanz Sampelayo; M. S. Campos

    2002-01-01

    The search for diets that improve the digestive and metabolic use of iron and copper in malabsorption syn- drome led us to study goat milk for particular nutri- tional characteristics and compare it with cow milk, which is usually supplied. We studied the metabolism of iron and copper in transected rats (control) and in resected rats (resection of 50% of

  9. Antigenic stimulation with goat and cow milk by oral and parenteral route in guinea pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sanz Ceballos; M. R. Sanz Sampelayo; F. Gil Extremera; M. Rodríguez Osorio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sensitisation capacity of goat milk (GM) and cow milk (CM) by the oral or the parenteral route, and thus determine whether the serologic responses developed are different, identify the proteins targeted by the antibodies thus formed, and determine whether these antibodies depend on the immunisation route employed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was

  10. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia in goats caused by an undescribed Porphyromonas species, "Porphyromonas katsikii".

    PubMed

    Filioussis, George; Petridou, Evanthia; Karavanis, Emmanouel; Frey, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    A yet-undescribed bacterial species, tentatively named "Porphyromonas katsikii," was isolated from individuals of a small goat herd with pyogranulomatous pneumonia during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease. The isolated bacteria grew in the form of black-pigmented colonies after 14 days of incubation under anaerobic conditions at 37°C on a tryptic soy blood agar medium. The bacteria were identified as a yet-undescribed Porphyromonas species by determination of the nucleotide sequence of the rrs 16S rRNA gene, and this species was tentatively named Porphyromonas katsikii. PCR amplification with specific primers for this yet-undescribed species revealed the presence of P. katsikii in the lung tissue of all affected animals, while no PCR signals were evidenced from the lungs of healthy goats or from goats with pasteurellosis caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. These data indicate P. katsikii as the causative agent of acute respiratory distress. P. katsikii is phylogenetically related to Porphyromonas somerae and Porphyromonas levii, which cause pathologies in humans and animals, respectively. P. katsikii was not detected by PCR from samples of the gingival pockets or of the faces of healthy goats. PMID:25540395

  11. Goat River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) biotelemetry and spawning assessments 2002-03

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Pillipow; Cory Williamson

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection radio-tagged and tracked 16 sexually mature bull trout in the Goat River to determine the river's status as a bull trout spawning system, to identify and rank important spawning areas for habitat protection considerations, and to develop index sites to monitor population trends. Five tagged bull trout spawned

  12. Vitamin E concentration in blood plasma of goats fed palm oil leaves

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Vitamin E concentration in blood plasma of goats fed palm oil leaves AR Alimon, B Nor Azam.5 MJ/kg. OPF is also known to contain substantial amounts of vitamin E. Studies by Gapor (1988, JOCS World Congress, 1323-1328) indicated that palm leaves contain 0.14 - 0.28 % vitamin E mainly in the form

  13. Sensory analysis of full-, reduced- and low-fat cheese elaborated with raw goat milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davinia Sánchez-Macías; Isabel Moreno-Indias; Sergio Álvarez; Megan Clevelan; Noemi Castro; Anastasio Argüello; María del Rosario Fresno

    2012-01-01

    The market for goat milk cheese has grown due to the new tendencies to consume innovative products, and the fact that it has provided a profitable alternative to cow milk cheese due to its inherent health-promoting attributes. The trends toward healthier eating have increased the interest in low-fat cheese (LFC). The objective of this study is to enable an understanding

  14. PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS ANTIGEN IN MESENTERIC LYMPH NODES OF GOATS SLAUGHTERED AT D. I. KHAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ashfaque; S. U. Rahman; M. Akhtar; S. Ullah

    Two hundred and fifty samples of mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from goats of Damani and Teddy breeds slaughtered at Dera Ismail Khan slaughter house. Each of these samples was triturated and vigorously shaken with sterilized normal saline and the suspension was centrifuged. The supernatant was subjected to counter immunoelectrophoresis with Peste des petits ruminants hyperimmune serum. Out of 250

  15. Experimental studies on immunosuppressive effects of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Rajak; B. P. Sreenivasa; M. Hosamani; R. P. Singh; S. K. Singh; S. K. Bandyopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Effect of virulent and attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus on the immune response to nonspecific antigen (ovalbumin) was investigated. Clinical and serological responses were monitored in goats administered with ovalbumin concurrently with either PPR vaccine or virulent virus. Study showed that PPR virulent virus causes marked immunosuppression as evidenced by leukopenia, lymphopenia, and reduced early antibody response to

  16. RESPONSES OF HAWAIIAN ECOSYSTEMS TO REMOVAL OF FERAL PIGS AND GOATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P. Stone; Linda W. Cuddihy; J. Timothy Tunison

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and goats (Capra hircus) damage a wide range of native ecosystems in Hawai'i, from dry to wet communities and from low to high elevations. Comparative studies suggest that once ungulate disturbance is curtailed, some communities recover better than others, depending on a number of interrelated variables. Remote and\\/or lightly disturbed rain forest, coastal strand, '&'a (Metrosideros

  17. Behavior of Enterobacter amnigenus and Salmonella typhimurium in Crottin goat's cheese: Influence of fluctuating storage temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Tamagnini; G. B. de Sousa; R. D. González; C. E. Budde

    2008-01-01

    The fully integrated cold chain is an important part in the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points procedures by food industry. The aim of this work was to determine the behavior of Enterobacter amnigenus (ATCC 33072 and an isolated cheese strain: LAM 200) and Salmonella typhimurium in Crottin goat's cheese during chill storage and when the cold chain

  18. Effect of pelleting on efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) to anthelmintic treatment has increased pressure to find alternative, non-chemical control methods. Feeding hay of the high condensed tannin (CT) forage sericea lespedeza [SL; Lespedeza cuneata (Dum-Cours.) G. Don.] to sheep and goats has reduced GIN f...

  19. Genetic parameters of dairy traits in the Alpine and Saanen goat breeds

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Genetic parameters of dairy traits in the Alpine and Saanen goat breeds Sophie Bélichon cedex 12, France (Received 4 May 1999; accepted 16 August 1999) Abstract - Genetic parameters for milk.50 to 0.60 for solid contents. The main feature observed on genetic correlations was a low genetic

  20. Domestic goats, Capra hircus, follow gaze direction and use social cues in an object choice task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliane Kaminski; Julia Riedel; Josep Call; Michael Tomasello

    2005-01-01

    Gaze following is a basic social cognitive skill with many potential benefits for animals that live in social groups. At least five primate species are known to follow the gaze of conspecifics, but there have been no studies on gaze following in other mammals. We investigated whether domestic goats can use the gaze direction of a conspecific as a cue