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1

car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat  

E-print Network

car goat goat 1 Car Goat Goat One of the most successful problems I have used with high school kids is the now notorious "car and two goats" problem. Its fascinating history certainly accounts, in some measure by the (male) host. Behind one of these there is a car, and behind each of the other two there is a goat. She

McCann, Robert J.

2

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by  

E-print Network

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by and the California Dairy Herd Improvement Association DepartmentofAnimalScience UniversityofCalifornia One University of California Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 And

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

3

Brazilian goat breeding programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, several goat breeds and types have been introduced into Brazil with the intention of increasing goat production efficiency. Selection and multiplication of genotypes appropriate to several production systems found in the country have been important to the development of the goat sector in Brazil. Until 2002 there were no formal breeding programs for goats in the country. Attempts for

R. N. Braga Lôbo; O. Facó; A. M. Bezerra Oliveira Lôbo; L. C. Vasques Villela

2010-01-01

4

Texas Angora Goat Production.  

E-print Network

fond of them. Use mature goats for this purpose because the briars can catch and hold young goats, which often do not have strength to pull free. Catclaws provide nutritious browse that goats , eat during spring and summer. Do not run kids... Angora goats is detailed 1 business and requires accurate records on breed- ing and kidding dates, sires and dams. Individuals entering the registered goat busi- ness should have good knowledge of genetics, nutrition, as well as advertising...

Gray, James A.; Groff, Jack L.

1959-01-01

5

Marketing Texas Goats.  

E-print Network

by goating the range and permitting the desired native grasses to be developed. As grass becomes coarse and tough in the fall, goats tend to eat more brush and* less grass. When the brush supply is depleted, some farmers and ranchmen c.ut small... producers. Producers who sell direct tn I the packer or butcher represent only 6 percent 1 of the total number of producers. Most goats are shipped to market in pickup.: I or larger trucks. Less than 1 percent of the ( producers ship by rail. Pickup...

McNeely, John G.; Tieken, A. W.

1956-01-01

6

4-H Meat Goat Guide  

E-print Network

soremouth vaccine. As with all live-virus vac- cines, use extreme caution when administering the product. #24; Ringworm Ringworm has become a serious problem in the lamb industry. Because most club goats are shown in the same barns and show rings as lambs..., it is probable that ringworm will become a problem in goats as well. Ringworm is contagious and can be transmitted from goat to goat, from goat to human, or from infected equipment to goat. A good prevention program is neces- sary. The following products have...

Craddock, Frank; Stultz, Ross

2006-10-30

7

Marketing goat fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat fibres that are produced, marketed and processed in commercial volumes are mohair and cashmere. These fibres constitute approximately 0.3% of all textile fibres. Mohair is produced in South Africa, Turkey, United States of America, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand and Lesotho. Production is dictated by price that is dependant on very fickle fashion trends. Over the past 15 years production

J. M. van der Westhuysen

2005-01-01

8

Goat pox in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of goat pox occurred among 60 adult and young goats in the Sudan. Among the findings of special interest was the extensive and wide distribution of pox lesions on the bodies of the animals. The severe involvement of the mucous membranes of the muzzle, eyes and nostrils gave rise to acute respiratory distress and systemic reaction. The suppression

K. A. Mohamed; B. E. D. Hago; W. P. Taylor; A. A. Nayil; M. T. Abu-Samra

1982-01-01

9

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

10

RUNNING HEAD: RADIOSTRONTIUM IN DAIRY GOATS A Model of Radiostrontium Transfer in Dairy Goats  

E-print Network

1 RUNNING HEAD: RADIOSTRONTIUM IN DAIRY GOATS A Model of Radiostrontium Transfer in Dairy Goats _________________ Received November 12, 1996 #12;2 ABSTRACT1 A model of radiostrontium transfer in dairy goats is presented different circumstances.13 14 15 (Key words: radiostrontium, Ca, model, dairy goats)16 Abbreviation key

Crout, Neil

11

GOATS Image Projection Component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

2011-01-01

12

9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (5) All goats intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator, except that goats for export to Canada or Mexico for immediate slaughter may be...

2013-01-01

13

9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1), (2), (3), and (5) of this section. (5) All goats intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator, except that goats for export to Canada or Mexico for immediate slaughter may be...

2011-01-01

14

9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.  

...described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (5) All goats intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator, except that goats for export to Canada or Mexico for immediate slaughter may be...

2014-01-01

15

9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (5) All goats intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator, except that goats for export to Canada or Mexico for immediate slaughter may be...

2012-01-01

16

9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1), (2), (3), and (5) of this section. (5) All goats intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator, except that goats for export to Canada or Mexico for immediate slaughter may be...

2010-01-01

17

Chitotriosidase Activity in Goat Blood and Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitotriosidase (ChT) activity has not been investi- gated in ruminants, and therefore, we studied this ac- tivity in blood and colostrum of 25 pregnant goats and 60 goat kids. Blood samples were taken from pregnant goats at 3, 2, and 1 d prepartum; at partum; and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Colostrum samples were obtained by machine-milking

A. Argüello; N. Castro; M. Batista; I. Moreno-Indias; A. Morales-delaNuez; D. Sanchez-Macias; E. Quesada; J. Capote

2008-01-01

18

GOAT induced ghrelin acylation regulates hedonic feeding.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates homeostatic and reward-related feeding behavior. Recent evidence indicates that acylation of ghrelin by the gut enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is necessary to render ghrelin maximally active within its target tissues. Here we tested the hypothesis that GOAT activity modulates food motivation and food hedonics using behavioral pharmacology and mutant mice deficient for GOAT and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR). We evaluated operant responding following pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin and assessed the necessity of endogenous GOAT activity for operant responding in GOAT and GHSR-null mice. Hedonic-based feeding behavior also was examined in GOAT-KO and GHSR-null mice using a "Dessert Effect" protocol in which the intake of a palatable high fat diet "dessert" was assessed in calorically-sated mice. Pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin augmented operant responding; notably, this effect was dependent on intact GHSR signaling. GOAT-KO mice displayed attenuated operant responding and decreased hedonic feeding relative to controls. These behavioral results correlated with decreased expression of the orexin-1 receptor in reward-related brain regions in GOAT-KO mice. In summary, the ability of ghrelin to stimulate food motivation is dependent on intact GHSR signaling and modified by endogenous GOAT activity. Furthermore, GOAT activity is required for hedonic feeding behavior, an effect potentially mediated by forebrain orexin signaling. These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding. PMID:22982020

Davis, J F; Perello, M; Choi, D L; Magrisso, I J; Kirchner, H; Pfluger, P T; Tschoep, M; Zigman, J M; Benoit, S C

2012-11-01

19

Reproductive Efficiency in Angora Goats.  

E-print Network

workable. LITERATURE CITED I Huston, J. E., Maurice Shelton and W. C. Ellis. If);l Nutritional requirements of the Angora go:\\. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bu. 1105. 1 Shel ton, Maurice. 196 1 a. Kidding behavior o: Angora goats. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. PR...-2189. ' Shel ton, Maurice. 1961 b. Factors affecting kill pul- I duction of Angora does. Texas Agr. Exp. SL;~. MP-496. Shelton, Maurice, and Joe Stewart. 1973. Partition- ! ing losses in reproductive efficiency in Ango;: : goats. Texas Agr. Exp...

Shelton, Maurice; Groff, Jack L.

1974-01-01

20

Goat reproductive biotechnology in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, such as Brazil, goat business is in a considerable expansion and the use of biotechnology may be an important tool to increase productivity of livestock in genetic improvement programs. However, more studies are necessary to gain a better understanding of the potential uses of such techniques, including their usefulness to improve reproductive efficiency, which could contribute to

M. M. P. Guerra; S. V. Silva; A. M. Batista; Z. F. Coleto; E. C. B. Silva; P. L. J. Monteiro; G. F. Carneiro

2011-01-01

21

4-H Club Goat Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

Brown, R. Kipp

22

Goat milk in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat milk and its products of yoghurt, cheese and powder have three-fold significance in human nutrition: (1) feeding more starving and malnourished people in the developing world than from cow milk; (2) treating people afflicted with cow milk allergies and gastro-intestinal disorders, which is a significant segment in many populations of developed countries; and (3) filling the gastronomic needs of

G. F. W. Haenlein

2004-01-01

23

Social dominance in adult female mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

1995-01-01

24

Fertilisation of sheep ova following their transfer to goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN interesting feature which has emerged from attempts to hybridise domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus) is the marked difference in conception rate according to the direction in which the cross is made. In goats inseminated with sheep semen the conception rate is similar to that in goats mated naturally with male goats; whereas in sheep inseminated with

P. T. McGovern

1974-01-01

25

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

associated with parasites, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract of sheep and goats can cause States is the gastrointestinal roundworm Haemonchus contortus, also known as the barber pole worm of the parasites most common to sheep and goats. Figure 1: The lifecycle of a gastrointestinal parasite. This image

26

Poisoning by Jatropha ribifolia in goats.  

PubMed

Human poisoning by Jatropha species and poisoning when livestock have been fed processed plant material has been described. Additionally, poisoning has been experimentally reproduced in various animal models. But, no cases of poisoning in livestock grazing standing and unprocessed Jatropha spp. has been reported. This study reports the poisoning of goats with Jatropha ribifolia in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil during the dry season. The mortality of the goats ranged from 6% to 40%. The main clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, soft feces, weight loss, and severe dehydration. The skin, lips, horns, and teeth of the affected goats were stained with a reddish pigment that is present in the J. ribifolia plant. Emaciation was the main lesion observed in one necropsied goat. In 2 out of 3 goats that ingested a single dose of J. ribifolia, 10 g or 20 g of leaves of the plant per kg body weight (g/kg), mild dehydration and soft feces were observed. The plant was also administered daily to two goats for 8 days. One animal received 10 g/kg per day, and the other received 20 g/kg per day and the goats showed clinical signs after 4 and 3 days, respectively. The goat that received 10 g/kg daily recovered, and the other was euthanized. The clinical signs and lesions that were observed were similar to those observed in the spontaneous cases. This is the first case of Jatropha spp. poisoning in grazing animals that ingested the plant spontaneously. PMID:22306581

Pimentel, Luciano A; Riet-Correa, Beatriz; Dantas, Antônio F; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2012-04-01

27

Nutritionally related strategies for organic goat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic goat production contributes to the alleviation of poverty of producers who rely on marginal land for their livelihoods, while meeting the increasing demand for organic products globally. Nutritional strategies that are naturally occurring, low cost and easy to apply can improve the productive performance of goats and render organic production profitable and successful. Adequate protein intake enhances immunity and

Christopher D. Lu

2011-01-01

28

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep,...

2010-01-01

29

Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

2013-01-01

30

Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats  

PubMed Central

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

2013-01-01

31

Haematological values of Nigerian goats and sheep.  

PubMed

Haematological parameters were determined in healthy Nigerian breeds of goats and sheep. Most values in the Nigerian goats were similar to those reported for temperate breeds of goats although the haemoglobin concentrations and the MCHC were lower. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and red cell counts of the West African Dwarf sheep were lower while the MCV were higher than those reported for sheep in the temperate climate. RBC values decreased with age in both Nigerian goats and sheep. Although sex pregnancy appeared to have little or no influence on the erythrocytic values, pregnant ewes had higher haematocrit and haemoglobin values. The low erythrocytic values were attributed to a low but constant parasitic burden which affected the flocks studied. Total leucocyte counts were considerably higher in the Nigerian goats and sheep than those reported for temperate breeds of animals. Young goats had higher total leucocyte counts while pregnant goats had reduced leucocyte counts. The leucocytic values were not affected by age and sex. Pregnant ewes also had higher leucocyte counts than non-pregnant ewes and rams. PMID:968949

Oduye, O O

1976-08-01

32

Transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in goats with paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

This study describes the transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in 54 goats with confirmed Johne’s disease (JD). Compared with the control group (0.8 ± 0.4 mm thick), the test group presented with mild (2.8 ± 0.2 mm), moderate (4.2 ± 0.4 mm), and severe (6.9 ± 1.1 mm) thickening of the intestinal wall. The most outstanding ultrasonographic findings were pronounced enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 49 goats. In 36 goats, the enlarged lymph nodes showed a hypoechoic cortex and a hyperechoic medulla. In 7 goats, the cortex and medulla were hypoechoic. In 5 goats, the cortex and the medulla could not be differentiated. In the remaining cases, the cortex and medulla contained small hypoechoic lesions. Necropsy findings included enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 goats and thickening of the small intestinal wall in 30 goats. Compared with the postmortem results, the antemortem ultrasound sensitivity in detecting intestinal wall thickness and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes was 80% and 94%, respectively. PMID:23543924

Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien

2012-01-01

33

Mandibular pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis in a Sannen goat.  

PubMed

Mandibular pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis was diagnosed in a female Sannen goat. The doe presented for difficulty prehending and chewing food. The left mandible was swollen and firm on palpation. Radiographs revealed changes consistent with osteomyelitis of the affected mandible. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from aspirates of swollen mandible. Despite antimicrobial therapy, the goat died. Histopathological findings were consistent with pyogranulomatous disease of the affected mandible. The histopathological findings were similar to those reported for actinomycosis, caused by Actinomyces bovis. Mandibular osteomyelitis is a common condition in cattle and very rare in goat. PMID:12948160

Seifi, H A; Saifzadeh, S; Farshid, A A; Rad, M; Farrokhi, F

2003-05-01

34

Application of wild goats in cashmere breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Xinjiang goat had a lower cashmere weight (137 g), shorter cashmere length (5.0 cm), but finer cashmere diameter (12.74 ?m) than other types. If graded up with the Liaoning cashmere goat to the 2nd generation, cashmere weights were 320 g and 300 g for yearling bucks and yearling does, respectively, cashmere length was 7.0 cm and cashmere diameter increased

M. Yerxat; Yalejean

1995-01-01

35

Dicrocoeliosis in goats in Jammu, India.  

PubMed

The prevalence of dicrocoeliosis was estimated by the examination of liver of slaughtered goats (n = 228) brought from two major goat rearing regions (Kandi and R.S. Pura) of Jammu province of India. Dicrocoelium dendriticum was found in 18.9 % of the goats, with mean fluke count (±SEM) of 24.9 ± 4.4 (ranged from 0 to 478). A significant seasonal variation (p < 0.01) was recorded with maximum prevalence in winter (28.9 %), followed by post-rainy (22.2 %) and minimum in rainy season (9.4 %). The highest fluke count was observed in January (47.8 ± 24.6) while none of the examined animals was found positive in May and June. The origin of the goats had a significant association (p < 0.0001) with prevalence rates and the goats from Kandi region (27.3 %) showed higher prevalence rates as compare to R.S. Pura (8.0 %). However, the age and sex had no significant effect on the prevalence of dicrocoeliosis in goats. The histopathological examination of infected livers revealed excessive thickening and proliferation of bile duct glandular epithelium with inflammatory exudates. Also, intense mononuclear cells infiltration with young fibroblasts was observed in the surroundings of bile ducts in portal areas along with atrophy of hepatocytes. PMID:24808653

Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Borah, M K

2014-06-01

36

Seasonal variation in semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal effects on semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats were studied in this experiment. A definite breeding season for the two breeds was determined. Semen quality parameters that were quantified include semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, percentage live sperm, dead sperm and scrotal circumference. Scrotal circumference, semen volume, concentration and sperm concentration of

E. C. Webb; M. H. Dombo; M. Roets

37

Sensory and chemical characteristics of ground goat meat products  

E-print Network

. 41 6 Trained sensory panel scores of feeling factors, tastes, and aflertastes for plain goat meat loaves aerobically stored at 4'C for 0, 3, or 6 days. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7 Trained sensory panel scores of texture attributes for plain goat... taste ratings were similar. There are no published studies documenting the relationship between the flavor intensity of goat meat and its acceptability as rated by consumers, nor has the ability of consumers to differentiate goat meat &om beef been...

Myers, Cheri Elizabeth

2012-06-07

38

Predictive formulae for goat cheese yield based on milk composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of the yield and quality of different types of cheeses that could be produced from a given type and\\/or amount of goat milk is of great economic benefit to goat milk producers and goat cheese manufacturers. Bulk tank goat milk was used for manufacturing hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses (N=25, 25 and 24, respectively) to develop predictive formulae of

S. S. Zeng; K. Soryal; B. Fekadu; B. Bah; T. Popham

2007-01-01

39

Adrenal function in Angora goats: a comparative study of adrenal steroidogenesis in Angora goats, Boer goats, and Merino sheep.  

PubMed

South African Angora goats (Capra aegagrus) are susceptible to stress conditions, possibly due to adrenal cortex malfunction. Selection for mohair production may reduce adrenal function and decrease cortisol production. Secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex is essential for the induction of several gluconeogenic enzymes that enable animals to survive stressful conditions, and adrenocortical insufficiency, therefore, precipitates a vulnerability to stress. In this study, Angora goats were compared with two breeds generally accepted as hardy, Boer goats (Capra hircus) and Merino sheep (Ovis aries). Adrenal steroidogenesis was studied using subcellular fractions prepared from the adrenal glands of freshly slaughtered animals. Adrenal microsomes and mitochondria were incubated with the relevant steroid substrates, and products were analyzed and quantified with TLC, HPLC, or RIA. Subsequently, the activity of individual enzymes involved in this pathway were further investigated. The cytochrome P450 content in the preparations was also compared. The results from these studies indicated that the activity of the cytochrome P450c17 enzyme in Angora goats differed (P < .01) from that of the other species investigated. This difference may contribute to the cause of the observed hypoadrenocorticism in Angora goats. PMID:10784196

Engelbrecht, Y; Swart, P

2000-04-01

40

Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.  

PubMed

Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly. PMID:559107

Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

1977-04-01

41

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for...

2013-01-01

42

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for...

2010-01-01

43

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for...

2011-01-01

44

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for...

2012-01-01

45

9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.  

...2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal...CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for...

2014-01-01

46

Plasma vasopressin and oxytocin levels in intact goats and in castrated goats given testosterone.  

PubMed

Oxytocin, vasopressin, cortisol and testosterone levels in the plasma were measured by radioimmunoassay in intact male goats as well as in prepubertally castrated goats injected daily, for 2 weeks, with oil vehicle and then, for 4 weeks, with testosterone propionate in oil to study the influence of gonadal steroids on posterior pituitary hormones. Packed cell volume, plasma osmolality and sodium concentration were also measured in all blood samples. Plasma levels of oxytocin, vasopressin and cortisol were similar in the intact and oil-injected castrated goats. Testosterone treatment significantly increased plasma levels of oxytocin (P less than 0.01) in castrated goats but the increased levels were similar to those seen in the intact goats at the same time of year. Plasma levels of cortisol and vasopressin were unaffected by testosterone propionate treatment, whereas packed cell volume was significantly decreased (P less than 0.01). Testosterone treatment of castrated male goats appears not to have any action on pituitary hormones and oxytocin increases in the spring in both intact and castrated male goats. PMID:3381635

Thornton, S N; Delaney, C E; Chapman, C

1988-02-01

47

Studies on improvement of the productivity of Turkish Angora goats by crossing with South African Angora goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three leading countries in the world in rearing Angora goats are Turkey, the USA and the Republic of South Africa. In order to improve the important yield characteristics of Turkish Angora goats by using North American gene sources, studies have been carried out since 1982. In this study, the effect of South African genotype on Turkish Angora goats was

H Günes; P Horst; M Evrim; A Valle-Zárate

2002-01-01

48

Detection of casein phosphopeptides in goat milk.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to profile casein phosphopeptides in goat milk, to accurately determine the site of phosphorylation, and to evaluate whether or not any of the casein phosphorylation patterns were specific to a given physiological condition. Goat milk, collected before and after experimental induction of endotoxin mastitis, was separated by SDS-PAGE. Casein bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by nLC-MS/MS. Eight out of nine predicted tryptic phosphopeptides corresponding to 18 different phosphorylation sites were detected in ?S1-, ?S2-, and ?-casein. Characterization of the phosphorylation sites illustrated the capability of tandem MS to accurately localize phosphorylated residues among a number of other putative sites. Despite an apparent lower abundance, almost all of the phosphopeptides were also detected in milk samples obtained from the goats following experimental induction of endotoxin mastitis. However, a tetra-phosphopeptide in ?S2-casein was only observed in the milk samples obtained from healthy animals. The absence of this multiphosphopeptide in the mastitic goat milk samples could indicate changes in phosphorylation as a result of disease and potentially be used as a marker for milk quality. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of casein phosphoproteome and reveals a much higher level of phosphorylation than previously demonstrated in goat milk. PMID:23586903

Olumee-Shabon, Zohra; Boehmer, Jamie L

2013-06-01

49

Nasal Oestrosis in a Jamunapari goat.  

PubMed

Oestrus ovis is a well-known parasite of the nasal cavities and adjoining sinuses in sheep and goats. A 3-year-old female Jamunapari goat was presented with a history of anorexia, weight loss, in-coordinated movements, nasal discharge since 10 days and two nasal bots expelled during sneezing 3 days back. Upon clinical examination the animal was dull, dysphonic, unsteady gait and having blocked nostrils with thick mucoid discharge along with an increased respiratory rate. Parasitiological examination revealed it as an O. ovis (nasal bots). The occurrence of nasal bots in a goat and its successful therapeutic management and public health significance have been reported and discussed in the present communication. PMID:25320491

Madhu, D N; Sudhakar, N R; Maurya, P S; Manjunathachar, H V; Sahu, Shivani; Pawde, A M

2014-12-01

50

Androgen induces production of male effect pheromone in female goats.  

PubMed

Previously we showed that the primer pheromone responsible for the "male effect" was produced in specific skin regions of castrated male goats by androgen treatments. In the present study, we examined whether androgen can also induce production of the male effect pheromone in female goats. Capsules containing dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or testosterone (T) were subcutaneously implanted into six ovariectomized (OVX) goats for 28 days. Small skin samples were collected from the head and rump regions, and the pheromone activity of their ether extracts was examined using a bioassay that monitors the electrophysiological manifestation of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator as multiple-unit activity. Behaviors of OVX goats towards ovary-intact estrous goats were also examined before and at the end of DHT or T treatment. Before androgen treatment, neither the head nor rump skin samples in OVX goats showed pheromone activity. DHT treatment induced pheromone activity in the head skin sample of six OVX goats and in the rump skin sample of two OVX goats. Similar results were obtained by T treatment. In addition, OVX goats treated with T showed masculine-type sexual behaviors such as courtship and mounting behaviors towards the estrous goats. These results demonstrate that androgen is capable of inducing primer pheromone activity in the female and suggest that the synthesis pathway of the male effect pheromone exists in both sexes in the goat. PMID:17460391

Kakuma, Yoshie; Ichimaru, Toru; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Momozawa, Yukihide; Hashizume, Chie; Iwata, Eri; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Ohkura, Satoshi; Okamura, Hiroaki; Mori, Yuji

2007-08-01

51

Genetic Differentiation of Chinese Indigenous Meat Goats Ascertained Using Microsatellite Information  

PubMed Central

To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats. PMID:25049548

Ling, Y. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Yao, N.; Ding, J. P.; Chen, H. Q.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ren, C. H.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhang, X. R.

2012-01-01

52

Improving Reproductive Efficiency in Angora Goats.  

E-print Network

or around the vulva. (It is important that blood stains be distinguished from urine or fecal stains.) However, some goats that have aborted will not be identifiable by this procedure. A second form of loss is due to repeat aborters, i.e., the same does... or around the vulva. (It is important that blood stains be distinguished from urine or fecal stains.) However, some goats that have aborted will not be identifiable by this procedure. A second form of loss is due to repeat aborters, i.e., the same does...

Shelton, Maurice; Groff, Jack

1984-01-01

53

An economic analysis of communal goat production.  

PubMed

The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to control diseases or select management practices in commercial herds. It is suggested that the inputs and outputs of small-scale farming systems should be carefully analysed and that veterinary economics should also be used to evaluate the probable impact of extension messages formulated by veterinarians and animal health technicians. PMID:15214690

Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C

2004-03-01

54

The cardiac biomarkers troponin I and CK-MB in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth, and goats with pregnancy toxemia.  

PubMed

This study was designed to establish the reference range for the cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth associated with dystocia, and goats with pregnancy toxemia. Fifty-seven does, categorized into three groups (G1 to G3), were used. These groups were comprised of 20 healthy does (G1), 19 does with prolonged birth (G2), and 18 does with pregnancy toxemia (G3). Six blood samples (T0 to T5) were collected from G1. The first blood sample (T0) was taken before insemination, the second (T1) at the first trimester, the third (T2) at the second trimester, the fourth (T3) at the last trimester, the fifth (T4) within 12 h of parturition, and the sixth blood sample (T5) was taken 10 days after parturition. A sample of blood was obtained from G2 and G3 upon admission to the hospital. At T0 to T3, no cTnI was detected in any of the 20 does in G1. At parturition (T4), seven of the 20 goats (35%) exhibited slightly elevated cTnI concentrations (range, 0.01 to 0.04 ng/mL). Ten days after parturition (T5), cTnI was not detected in any of the 20 goats. In 10 of the 19 goats (53%) with prolonged birth (G2), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a mean value of 0.094 ± 0.155 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 0.61 ng/mL. In 16 of the 18 goats (89%) with pregnancy toxemia (G3), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a value of 0.852 ± 1.472 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 5.219 ng/mL. Comparing the values of CK-MB in G1 (T0 to T5), G2 and G3 revealed nonsignificant differences. Only a slight elevation in the CK-MB levels in goats with prolonged birth (G2) was noted. We concluded that in healthy does, the cardiac biomarker cTnI is not elevated during normal pregnancy. The serum cTnI concentration may be elevated in a number of goats at normal vaginal or cesarean delivery. Finally, cTnI is significantly elevated in does with pregnancy toxemia and could be used as a prognostic indicator in such cases. The cardiac biomarker CK-MB is not a good indicator of parturition stress in does. Serum cTnI is elevated in goats with pregnancy toxemia, indicating some degree of cardiac dysfunction. PMID:22980083

Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Al-Sobayil, K

2012-10-15

55

In vitro development of goat-sheep and goat-goat zona-free cloned embryos in different culture media.  

PubMed

The gradual decline in the genetic diversity of farm animals has threatened their survival and risk of their extinction has increased many fold in the recent past. Endangered species could be rescued using interspecies embryo production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three different culture media on the development of Handmade cloned intraspecies (goat-goat) and interspecies (goat-sheep) embryo reconstructs. Research vitro cleave media (RVCL) yielded higher cleavage and morula-blastocyst development in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer groups compared with G1.G2 and modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOFaaci). Cleavage frequency of intraspecies cloned embryos in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 did not differ significantly (87.12%, 82.45%, and 92.52%, respectively). However, the morula/blastocyst frequency in RVCL was greater in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (51.18% vs. 38.28% vs. 36.50%, respectively). Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in interspecies cloned embryos was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (76.14% and 42.3% vs. 65.9% and 38.3% vs. 58.56% and 33.1%, respectively). Goat oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 and kept as control. Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in this group was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (89.66% and 65.26% vs. 85.44% and 48.05% vs. 86.58% and 42.06%, respectively). Conclusively, the results suggest that not only can the interspecies embryos of goat be produced using sheep oocytes as donor cytoplast but also the percentages can be improved by using RVCL media for culturing of the embryos. PMID:24210966

Khan, F A; Bhat, M H; Yaqoob, S H; Waheed, S M; Naykoo, N A; Athar, H; Khan, H M; Fazili, M R; Ganai, N A; Singla, S K; Shah, R A

2014-02-01

56

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must...

2010-01-01

57

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The...

2010-01-01

58

Fatal Melioidosis in Goats in Bangkok, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand. PMID:24891468

Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

2014-01-01

59

Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a goat herd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthelmintic resistance was monitored over a 30 month period within a goat herd in eastern Virginia, USA. Resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and benzimidazole drugs was detected in Haemonchus contortus using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). When levamisole use was discontinued for 1 year, susceptibility to levamisole appeared to return. Although a single treatment with fenbendazole was able to

Anne M Zajac; Terry A Gipson

2000-01-01

60

Gonadotrophin-induced ovulation in melengestrol acetate treated female goat.  

PubMed

Adult, Black Bengal goats synchronized to oestrus with Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) could be subjected to superovulation with 1000 IU of the Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG). However, with 500 IU of PMSG higher rate of ovulation observed only in goats above one year age was not significant. Results indicate that the successful superovulation in MGA synchronized goats depend both on the dosage of the PMSG, as well as upon the age of the treated animal. PMID:6682831

Sanwal, P C; Pande, J K; Varshney, V P; Mogha, I V

1983-01-01

61

Facial eczema in goats: the toxicity of sporidesmin in goats and its pathology.  

PubMed

Groups of six goats were orally dosed with sporidesmin at rates of 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 mg of sporidesmin per kg body weight and their responses up to 6 weeks later compared with those of sheep dosed at the same time. Clinical facial eczema and pathological lesions similar to those found in sheep were found in all the goat breeds, but at higher dose rates of sporidesmin than those which caused equivalent lesions in sheep. Saanens were the most susceptible goat breed, requiring 2-4 times as much sporidesmin as sheep to achieve similar effects. G4 and feral goats required 4-8 times the sheep dose of sporidesmin to obtain similar responses. Gamma-glutamyltransferase reached its highest serum levels after 20 days while glutamate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase reached their highest levels between 10 and 20 days. Alkaline phosphatase did not rise consistently to high levels in affected goats. The elevation in aspartate aminotransferase levels tended to be early and transient; glutamate dehydrogenase early and prolonged; gamma-glutamyltransferase late and prolonged, and'alkaline phosphatase late and minor. There was considerable individual variation in the time at which elevations occurred and the levels which enzymes reached. Cholesterol and bilirubin levels were high if liver injury was severe. PMID:16031610

Smith, B L; Embling, P P

1991-03-01

62

Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

1980-01-01

63

A functioning udder in a male goat.  

PubMed

A functioning udder is described in a 7-year-old Nubian male goat. The defect was not observed in any of his several off-spring. His semen had few dead sperm and his serum testosterone level was low. The udder was removed surgically. Histologically, the udder showed dense connective tissue lobules composed of acinar or tubulo-acinar structures and the teat orifice had no muscle sphincter. PMID:2127974

Dafalla, E A; Ramadan, R O; Gameel, A A; Galil, A K; Alhendi, A B; Moudawi, M M

1990-10-01

64

Epidemiological features of Morel's disease in goats.  

PubMed

Morel's disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius was diagnosed for the first time in Poland in October 2006 in a goat flock. A second infected flock was found two months later. The course of the disease in both flocks was observed for 15-17 months. Clinical manifestation was confined to abscesses located near major superficial lymph nodes, mostly: superficial cervical, subiliac, parotid and mandibular. At necropsy no other lesions were found. The incubation period was estimated at 3 weeks. Clinical signs were seen both in young and adult goats and up to 7 abscesses in one animal were noted. Abscesses tended to persist for 1 to 5 months, then rupture and heal completely. The initial high in-flock point prevalence in both flocks (93.6% and 84.4%) dropped to approximately 10-30% during next 3-4 months. Until the end of the observation period the in-flock point prevalence remained at this level and only single abscesses were observed, mainly in young animals. No influence of the concurrent caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on the clinical course of Morel's disease was noticed. It is to be concluded that the clinical course of Morel's disease in a goat flock resembles caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). However, in Morel's disease abscesses occur more frequently in young goats and are located near, not inside, the lymph nodes, as in the case with CLA. Also, the incubation period of Morel's disease seems to be shorter (3 weeks versus 2-6 months in CLA). PMID:21033557

Szalu?-Jordanow, O; Kaba, J; Czopowicz, M; Witkowski, L; Nowicki, M; Nowicka, D; Stefa?ska, I; Rzewuska, M; Sobczak-Filipiak, M; Binek, M; Frymus, T

2010-01-01

65

Potential of goat probiotic to bind mutagens.  

PubMed

The mutagen binding ability of the goat probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum DDBA) was evaluated. The oral administration of these probiotics reduced fecal mutagens and intestinal cancer markers in goats. Secondly, the effects of probiotics against the mutagenesis induced by sodium azide (SA), and Benzopyrene (B[?]P) by performing the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was investigated. The capacity to bind benzopyrene and the stability of the bacterial-mutagen complex was analyzed by HPLC. The dismutagenic potential against both mutagens was proportional to probiotic concentration. Results showed that probiotic antimutagenic capacity against SA was ranging from 13 to 78%. The mixture of four goat probiotics (MGP) displayed higher antimutagenic activity against SA than any individual strains at the same cell concentration. This study shows that the highest diminution of mutagenicity in presence of B[?]P (74%) was observed in presence of MGP. The antimutagenic activity of nearly all the individual probiotic and the MGP were in concordance with the B[?]P binding determined by HPLC. According to our results, the B[?]P binding to probiotic was irreversible still after being washed with DMSO solution. The stability of the toxic compounds-bacterial cell binding is a key consideration when probiotic antimutagenic property is evaluated. MGP exhibits the ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in supplemented foods for goats since it can lead to the removal of potent mutagens and protect and enhance ruminal health and hence food safety of consumers. PMID:24785349

Apás, Ana Lidia; González, Silvia Nelina; Arena, Mario Eduardo

2014-08-01

66

Effects of crossbreeding East African, Galla and Boer goats on body size, growth rate and kid survivability in Kenya  

E-print Network

, 1982) in these countries, making it the most important and primary function of goats. Goats are widely distributed in ecological habitats and farm- ing systems (Gall, 1981a). A prominent characteristic of goats dis- tribution... variability in mature weight in these goat breed is indicated, Boer goats are noted to be heaviest in mature weight, followed by Galls goats and East Africans have lowest mature weight of the three breeds. Kid Survival Goats are recognized for their high...

Angwenyi, Geoffrey Noah

2012-06-07

67

Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.  

PubMed

The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P < 0.05) in the goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol concentrations was detected. From this point of view, distillate rosemary leaves can be proposed as an ingredient in ruminant feed because they both alter neither the yield nor the quality of Murciano-Granadina goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid. PMID:20608728

Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

2010-07-28

68

Can Horn Length of Mountain Goats Be Used as a Measure of Habitat Quality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the horn growth of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) from two areas with different histories and levels of habitat quality. In 1952 and 1953, 18 goats were introduced to Kodiak Island, Alaska. The population now numbers around 1,900 goats and continues to increase. Animals for this transplant were taken from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, where goats have been widespread

THOMAS J. MCDONOUGH; JOHN R. CRYE; GINO G. DEL FRATE

69

Introduction to the NH 4-H Dairy Goat Project  

E-print Network

of the Fair. Required Animal Identification: Permanent ID ­ The animal must have an ear tag, ear tattoo, tail tattoo or microchip (providing a reader is available) and an official scrapie ID. Dairy goats do not usually have ear tags. Most goats have a tattoo in their ear, or in the case of a LaMancha, on the bottom

New Hampshire, University of

70

Transgenesis applied to goat: current applications and ongoing research.  

PubMed

Compared to experiments involving pigs, cows and/or sheep, transgenesis applied to goats is probably less advertised. However, recent successes and increasing amount of dedicated research make this species of special interest for ongoing biological and physiological questions on genome engineering in large animals. This short review aims at highlighting the current applications and limitations of the goat genome manipulation. PMID:22528467

Boulanger, Laurent; Passet, Bruno; Pailhoux, Eric; Vilotte, Jean-Luc

2012-12-01

71

Effect of different diluents on goat semen fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skim milk (SM) is considered to be the most widely employed extender for goat sperm used for artificial insemination (AI). However, the fertilizing life span of sperm stored in milk or milk-based extenders does not exceed 12h. Besides some seminal plasma components, such as a protein fraction from the goat bulbourethral gland secretion (SBUIII), interacts with some milk fractions and

L. Mara; M. Dattena; S. Pilichi; D. Sanna; A. Branca; P. Cappai

2007-01-01

72

Mycoplasma agalactiae detected in the semen of goat bucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious agalactia (CA) is among the most significant diseases affecting small ruminant populations in Mediterranean countries. This study was designed to detect the excretion in semen of CA-causing mycoplasmas in goats (Capra hircus) reared in Spain, where the disease is considered endemic. Culture techniques and PCR were conducted on 147 semen samples collected from 113 goat bucks to detect mycoplasmas.

C. de la Fe; J. Amores; A. Gómez Martín; A. Sánchez; A. Contreras; J. C. Corrales

2009-01-01

73

Evaluating demographic models for goat domestication using mtdna sequences  

E-print Network

Evaluating demographic models for goat domestication using mtdna sequences Pascale GErbault demographic models for goat domestication using mtDNa sequences. Anthropozoologica 47.2 : 65-78. Routes of migration and exchange are important factors in the debate about how the Neolithic transition spread

74

Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico.  

PubMed Central

A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464

Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setien, A

1999-01-01

75

The vomeronasal organ in Angora goats (Capra hircus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the morphology of the vomeronasal organ in Angora goats (Capra hircus). The heads of eight adult Angora goats (Capra hircus) obtained from the slaughterhouse were used as materials. Six heads with vomeronasal organ were examined by macro and micro dissections, the others were removed from the longitudinal ridge of mucosa in the

Kamil Besoluk; Emrullah Eken; Murat Boydak

2001-01-01

76

INFECTION OF ALIMENTARY TRACT NEMATODES OF GOATS AND MILK QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

attention has been paid to the goat keeping in the world. The goat's milk is also rich in casein, moreover, the protein casein and albumin are not as dense as they are in the cow's milk, for that reason they fall out in light flakes under the influence of the stomach juice, and they are easy to consume (Smith, Sherma,

Aija Ilga

77

[Veterinary aspects of the raising of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus)].  

PubMed

An empirical report outlines veterinary problems in Rocky Mountain Goats kept in climatic conditions of Central Europe. Described are therapeutic findings in the treatment of infections, parasitosis, disorders of the extremities, disturbances of reproduction, and injuries as well as haematological findings and experiences made during immobilization of Rocky Mountain Goats. PMID:2049057

Seidel, B

1991-03-01

78

The Status Of Mountain Goats In Canada's Northwest Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) are the least studied ungulate species that occurs in the Northwest Territories. The distribution of goats in the territory - both historically and at present - is limited to the lower half of the 130,000 km 2 Mackenzie Mountains between the Yukon-NWT border and the east edge of the range, including a portion of Nahanni National

ALASDAIR VEITCH; ELLEN SIMMONS; MIKI PROMISLOW; DOUGLAS TATE; MICHELLE SWALLOW; RICHARD POPKO

79

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats -- AS-595-W Restricting traffic in and outCommon Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student will not be as efficient as possible. There are some human health risks when dealing with diseased animals. While most

80

Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (< 3 mm and ? 3 mm) from prepubertal goats with

R. Romaguera; X. Moll; R. Morató; M. Roura; M. J. Palomo; M. G. Catalá; A. R. Jiménez-Macedo; S. Hammami; D. Izquierdo; T. Mogas; M. T. Paramio

2011-01-01

81

Experimental peste des petits ruminants (goat plague) in goats and sheep.  

PubMed Central

In order to study the pathomorphology and immunohistochemistry of peste des petits ruminants, four goats and two sheep were inoculated intranasally with the Malig-Yemen strain of peste des petits ruminants virus. The animals developed fever, nasal discharge, oral erosions, cough and diarrhea. One goat and one sheep died and one moribund goat was killed. Three animals survived the infection. At necropsy, erosive stomatitis, pneumonia and gastroenteritis were found. Histopathologically the pneumonocytes and epithelial cells of the ileum had eosinophilic cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions. By an indirect immunoperoxidase method, the nuclei and cytoplasm of the ileal epithelial cells of one goat contained positively (brown) stained antigen, which corresponded to viral nucleocapsids by electron microscopy. Virus appeared to be released through the microvilli of the epithelial cells. We also confirmed the formation of giant cells due to peste des petits ruminants virus. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18.,Fig. 19.,Fig. 20. PMID:3280108

Bundza, A; Afshar, A; Dukes, T W; Myers, D J; Dulac, G C; Becker, S A

1988-01-01

82

[Relation between Muellerius capillaris infestation of molluscan intermediary hosts and of goats in Touraine].  

PubMed

32 dairy-goat farms of Touraine were investigated for Muellerius capillaris infection. Faecal and Molluscs samples were collected in Spring and Autumn. The factors of risk for goat were the abundance of Helix aspersa in Spring and of Deroceras reticulatum in Autumn. The infestivity of pasture was related to the infection of goat in Spring but not in Autumn. The faecal larval output in goats depended on the breed of goat at both periods; environmental factors were also of importance. PMID:3566083

Cabaret, J; Mangeon, N; Anjorand, N

1986-01-01

83

Effects of castration on grooming in goats.  

PubMed

In African antelope and North American cervids, breeding males during the rut engage in less oral self-grooming, and harbor a greater density of ticks, compared with conspecific females and non-breeding males. The purpose of this study was to experimentally test the proposition that down-regulation of self grooming in some male bovids occurs via the direct or indirect action of testosterone. Domestic dairy goats (Capra hircus) were used as a model. In Experiment 1, comparative observations conducted on twelve gonadally intact male goats (bucks), nine males castrated at 3 weeks of age (wethers), and twelve intact females (does) supported the prediction that the grooming rate of intact males would be depressed relative to wethers and does. Bucks oral groomed at one-third and one-fourth the rate of wethers and does, respectively, and they scratch groomed half as much as does. There was no significant difference between wethers and does in oral or scratch grooming rates. Experiment 2 involved castration of eleven bucks from Experiment 1, followed by 2 months of observation. Similar to the pattern of other testosterone-dependent behavioral changes after castration in adult males, there was a good deal of variation in the individual grooming response of males to castration, with increases in grooming taking 2 to 8 weeks to be manifested in ten of eleven goats. Overall, castrated males oral groomed about 3 x above their intact rates, supporting the prediction that castration removes testosterone-mediated suppression of grooming. This is the first example of alteration of grooming behavior in males by gonadal androgen, and the first demonstration of enhancement of any mammalian behavior by removal of gonadal androgen. PMID:9817585

Mooring, M S; Gavazzi, A J; Hart, B L

1998-07-01

84

Healthy goats naturally devoid of prion protein.  

PubMed

Prion diseases such as scrapie in small ruminants, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in man, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. These diseases result from the accumulation of misfolded conformers of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP) in the central nervous system. To date naturally-occurring PrP free animals have not been reported. Here we describe healthy non-transgenic animals, Norwegian Dairy Goats, lacking prion protein due to a nonsense mutation early in the gene. These animals are predicted to be resistant to prion disease and will be valuable for research and for production of prion-free products. PMID:23249298

Benestad, Sylvie L; Austbø, Lars; Tranulis, Michael A; Espenes, Arild; Olsaker, Ingrid

2012-01-01

85

Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection. PMID:24703974

Koinari, M; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

2014-06-01

86

Comparison of the fecal microbiota in feral and domestic goats.  

PubMed

Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M), tet(S), tet(O), tet(Q) and tet(W)] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats' feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O) and tet(W), but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q). Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota. PMID:24704840

De Jesús-Laboy, Kassandra M; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Piceno, Yvette M; Tom, Lauren M; Pantoja-Feliciano, Ida G; Rivera-Rivera, Michelle J; Andersen, Gary L; Domínguez-Bello, María G

2011-01-01

87

Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats in Jammu, India.  

PubMed

Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats was studied using field and abattoir samples at Jammu, India. Abattoir examination revealed that 36.2 % of sheep and 30.9 % of goats were positive for paramphistomosis. The mean worm counts (±SEM) were 23.5 ± 5.7 in sheep and 19.9 ± 3.5 in goats. On coprological examination, 16.3 % of sheep and 13.6 % of goats were found positive for paramphistomosis. The mean egg counts (±SEM) were 4.4 ± 2.6 in sheep and 3.6 ± 2.1 in goats. Season was found to have a significant (p < 0.05) influence on the prevalence of paramphistomosis. A higher percentage of animals were found positive in rainy and post-rainy seasons as compared with summer and winter seasons. The distributions of eggs and adult flukes were significantly (p < 0.01) different among seasons. The prevalences observed according to age and sex of sheep and goats were not significant. The study conclude that the late summer months are major risk period for paramphistomosis in the pasture grazing sheep and goats and the administration of an efficient anthelmintic in May-June and September-October should be strongly recommended to reduce the infection and minimise the perpetuating financial losses to animal owners in the region. PMID:25320497

Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Rastogi, Ankur

2014-12-01

88

Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota in Feral and Domestic Goats  

PubMed Central

Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M), tet(S), tet(O), tet(Q) and tet(W)] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats’ feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O) and tet(W), but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q). Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota. PMID:24704840

De Jesus-Laboy, Kassandra M.; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Pantoja-Feliciano, Ida G.; Rivera-Rivera, Michelle J.; Andersen, Gary L.; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.

2011-01-01

89

Ultrasonography of the reticulum in 30 healthy Saanen goats  

PubMed Central

Background The reticulum plays a crucial role in the ruminant digestive tract because the primary cycle of rumen motility always starts with a reticular contraction. In contrast to cattle, there are only few results on the ultrasonographic examination of the reticulum in goats. Therefore, it was the goal of the present study, to describe the results of ultrasonography of the reticulum of 30 healthy Saanen goats. Methods Ultrasonography was carried out on standing, non-sedated animals using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer. The shape, contour and motility of the reticulum were investigated. A nine-minute video recording of the reticulum was made for each goat and the frequency, duration and amplitude of reticular contractions were calculated as described for cattle. Results The reticulum appeared as a crescent-shaped structure with a smooth contour located immediately adjacent to the diaphragm. 0.8 to 2.1 (1.41 ± 0.31) reticular contractions were seen per minute. In all goats, biphasic reticular contractions were observed. 90% of the goats also had monophasic reticular contractions, and two had triphasic contractions. During the nine-minute observation periods, there were 0 to 6 monophasic reticular contractions and 6 to 15 biphasic contractions per goat. The duration of the biphasic contractions was 6.56 ± 0.74 s, which was significantly longer than the monophasic contractions at 4.31 ± 0.81 s. The average interval between two reticular contractions was 45.06 ± 12.57 s. Conclusion Ultrasonography of the reticulum in goats is a valuable tool to characterise the appearance and motility of this organ. In addition to the biphasic motility pattern seen in cattle the reticular motility of goats is characterized by monophasic reticular contractions. The results of the present study are an important contribution for better understanding of the reticular motility in goats. PMID:21401932

2011-01-01

90

Prevalence of alphas1-casein genotypes in American dairy goats.  

PubMed

Widespread genotyping of US dairy goat breeds for casein variants has not been reported, even though the genetic data could be of use in selective breeding programs. For instance, variability in the content of protein and solids in goat milk is attributed to allelic differences in the goat alpha(s1)-casein gene. Concentrations of alpha(s1)-casein in goat milk are positively correlated with milk components and coagulation properties. The alleles A and B are designated as strong alleles, resulting in the greatest amount of alpha(s1)-casein in goat milk, whereas the E allele produces intermediate amounts and the weak allele F produces the least concentrations of alpha(s1)-casein in goat milk. Here we report on one of the first surveys of the distribution of alpha(s1)-casein genotypes in US dairy goats. The population surveyed, consisting of a total of 257 American dairy goats representing 7 main dairy breeds, contained a greater predominance of the weaker alleles, E and F, than the strong alleles, A and B. Allele distribution was related to breed, with Toggenburg, Alpine, Saanen, and Oberhasli containing the most E and F alleles and LaMancha, Nubian, and Nigerian Dwarf the fewest. Quantification of alpha(s1)-casein production by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated that F/F animals had the least amount of alpha(s1)-casein protein in their milk compared with all other genotypes. The results indicate that genetic improvement of dairy goats in the United States could be achieved if an alpha(s1)-casein breeding scheme were adopted. PMID:19648483

Maga, E A; Daftari, P; Kültz, D; Penedo, M C T

2009-11-01

91

Saluda 4-H Dairy, Beef, Goat, Dog, and Poultry Show Entry Form Return by: Monday, September 9, 2014  

E-print Network

Saluda 4-H Dairy, Beef, Goat, Dog, and Poultry Show Entry Form Return by: Monday, September 9, 2014/1/14:_________ Animal Name:________________________________ Species:_________________________ (Beef, Dairy, Goat:________________________________ Species:_________________________ (Beef, Dairy, Goat, Poultry, Dog) Animal Birthdate

Stuart, Steven J.

92

Tigers and Goats is a draw  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. Bagha Chal, or “Moving Tiger”, is an ancient Nepali board game also known as Tigers and Goats. We briefly describe the game, some of its characteristics, and the results obtained from an earlier computer analysis. As in some other games such as Merrill’s, play starts with a placement phase where 20 pieces are dropped on the board, followed by a sliding phase during which pieces move and may be captured. The endgame sliding phase had been analyzed exhaustively using retrograde analysis, yielding a database consisting of 88,260,972 positions, which are inequivalent under symmetry. The placement phase involves a search of 39 plies whose game tree complexity is estimated to be of the order 10 41. This search has now been completed with the help of various optimization techniques. The two main ones are: confronting a heuristic player with an optimal opponent, thus cutting the search depth in half; and constructing a database of positions halfway down the search tree whose game-theoretic value is determined exhaustively. The result of this search is that Tigers and Goats is a draw if played optimally. 1.

Lim Yew; Jin; Jurg Nievergelt

93

Conservation genetics of cattle, sheep, and goats.  

PubMed

Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters. PMID:21377620

Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François

2011-03-01

94

Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.  

PubMed

Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (< 3 mm and ? 3 mm) from prepubertal goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ? 3 mm and < 3 mm (68.6%, 80.8% and 73.6%, respectively). In conclusion, IVP of blastocysts coming from follicles larger than 3 mm of goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:21295839

Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

2011-07-01

95

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cream made with goat's milk”. (2) Until September 14, 1998, when safe and suitable sweeteners other than nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners are used in the food, their presence shall be declared by their common or usual name on the principal...

2011-04-01

96

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

...cream made with goat's milk”. (2) Until September 14, 1998, when safe and suitable sweeteners other than nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners are used in the food, their presence shall be declared by their common or usual name on the principal...

2014-04-01

97

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cream made with goat's milk”. (2) Until September 14, 1998, when safe and suitable sweeteners other than nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners are used in the food, their presence shall be declared by their common or usual name on the principal...

2010-04-01

98

21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cream made with goat's milk”. (2) Until September 14, 1998, when safe and suitable sweeteners other than nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners are used in the food, their presence shall be declared by their common or usual name on the principal...

2012-04-01

99

Copper metabolism in small ruminants : with special emphasis on goats.  

E-print Network

??Twenty-four 1 ??? 1??year-old castrated Cashmere goats and 24 1??year-old Corriedale wethers were individually penned and offered ryegrass-white clover silage at maintenance level. Mineral content… (more)

Mahuyemba, Alphonse Shija

1990-01-01

100

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in a goat: case report  

PubMed Central

Background This report describes the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examination of a 16-year-old goat with extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax. Case presentation The lead clinical signs were abnormal condition and demeanour, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and dilated jugular veins. Ultrasonographic examination of the thorax revealed a precardial mass, measuring 16.4 by 11.4 by 14.2 cm. Computed tomographic examination showed dorsocaudal displacement of the trachea, heart and lungs to the right. A tentative diagnosis of mediastinal or pleural neoplasia was made, and the goat was euthanased and necropsied. A definitive diagnosis was based on histological examination of the mass. Conclusions To our knowledge, this case report is the first description of extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in goats and serves to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of thoracic diseases in this species. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in goats with thoracic tumours. PMID:21929794

2011-01-01

101

Management Tips for Internal Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

The primary control strategy for internal parasites in sheep and goats has been the use of anthelmintics. Because overuse has caused the development of resistant strains, new strategies must be used. This publication lists available anthelmintics...

Craddock, Frank; Machen, Richard V.; Craig, Tom

2003-02-20

102

Immobilization of mountain goats with xylazine and reversal with idazoxan.  

PubMed

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were captured in traps and immobilized with xylazine, later reversed with idazoxan. One hundred and forty-one goats were immobilized, 94 with a single injection and 47 with multiple injections. Dosage (mg/kg of body weight) of xylazine received, induction time, and recovery time after handling did not differ among sex-age classes. Increasing the dosage did not shorten induction time. The first injection of xylazine in multiple-injection captures was lower than the dose given in single-injection captures, suggesting that insufficient initial doses of xylazine made multiple injections necessary. Xylazine is an effective drug for immobilization of mountain goats captured in traps, at dosages of about 4.9 mg/kg. The dosage of xylazine required to immobilize mountain goats is higher than that reported for bighorn sheep and white-tailed deer. PMID:9577782

Haviernick, M; Côté, S D; Festa-Bianchet, M

1998-04-01

103

Reproductive performance and preweaning growth of Spanish goats  

E-print Network

and Latin America (Devendra and Burns, 1970; Gall, 1981). ln developed countries, the general prejudices against goat rearing have been successfu)))4 counterbalanced by the now well accepted economic value of goat milk and mohair. Consequently... and North America, its contribution to total meat consumption is almost nonexistant (Oevendra and Burns, 1970; Gall, 1981; Garcia and Gall, 1981). In addition, earlier investigations had concluded that relative to other classes of livestock, the economic...

Bogui, Nathalie Scholastique

2012-06-07

104

Goat Immunoglobulin Purification on Phosphocellulose and Deae Affi Gel Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for the efficient purification of immunoglobulins G (IgG) to near homogeneity from goat serum. This was achieved by performing first an AS-40 fractionation on goat serum, followed by chromatography on phosphocellulose (P11) equilibrated in citrate buffer at pH 5.7. Peak I, eluted at V0 from P11, contained all IgG and the other serum proteins, except ?

P. Ninfali; L. Baronciani; S. Rapa; D. Marzioni; F. Mannello

1994-01-01

105

Besnoitiosis of the reproductive tract of male goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of high morbidity of caprine besnoitiosis in different provinces of Iran and its significant adverse economic impact\\u000a on goat production in this area, this study was undertaken to study the macroscopic and microscopic changes of the scrotum,\\u000a testis, and epididymis of animals at different age groups associated with Besnoitia spp. The testicles, epididymides, and scrotums of 106 male goats

A. Oryan; M. Kafi; N. Morgan-Azghadi

2008-01-01

106

THE TRANSPORT OF SHEEP AND GOAT SPERMATOZOA IN THE EWE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Counts were made of the numbers of spermatozoa in the Fallopian tubes of ewes 24 hr after mating or after insemination with either sheep or goat semen. Spermatozoa were recovered from all five mated ewes (10\\/10 tubes), from all eight ewes inseminated with sheep semen (13\\/15 tubes) and from four of eight ewes inseminated with goat semen (7\\/16 tubes).

J. L. HANCOCK; P. T. McGOVERN

1968-01-01

107

Monitoring of clinical signs in goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies  

PubMed Central

Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response) and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits) at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of individual neurological signs. PMID:20202205

2010-01-01

108

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (? 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction and minimize airborne transmission from affected dairy goat farms to prevent further spread to the near environment. PMID:22208798

2011-01-01

109

Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population  

E-print Network

Temporal dynamics of genetic variability in a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) population JOAQUI diversity over 14 cohorts in a small and relatively isolated population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) during a period of demographic increase. Offspring heterozygosity decreased while parental

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

110

Wesselsbron virus infection in West African dwarf goats (Fouta djallon): virological and immunological studies.  

PubMed

West African dwarf goats were experimentally infected with Nigerian strain of Wesselsbron virus. Viraemia was detected in infected goats 2 days after infection and lasted for one day. A 100% mortality was observed among the infected animals; the virus was reisolated in mice from almost every tissue obtained from the bodies of infected goats. In addition, the infected goats developed complement-fixing and haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to Wesselsbron virus. PMID:2565679

Baba, S S; Fagbami, A H; Omilabu, S A

1989-01-01

111

Status of sheep and goat farming in Lagkada Province of Thessalonika prefecture, in Central Macedonia, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagkada Province of Thessalonika prefecture is located in Central Macedonia-Greece. In this region, 103,943 sheep and 100,281 goats are farmed. The total number of sheep and goat farms is 898. The number of sheep farms, goat farms and mixed farms with sheep and goat are 278, 357 and 263 respectively. With regard to the farm size 12.9, 23.6, 26.5, 31.8

J. Katanos; K. Karabalis

112

A comparison between non-surgical and laparoscopic embryo collection and transfer in goats  

E-print Network

commercial trial involving 252 angora and 84 cashmere goats. The numbers of ovulations were not known, therefore, the recovery rate was not calculated. Hays, (1988) collected goat embryos non-surgically 5 days after breeding. The flushing device was made... commercial trial involving 252 angora and 84 cashmere goats. The numbers of ovulations were not known, therefore, the recovery rate was not calculated. Hays, (1988) collected goat embryos non-surgically 5 days after breeding. The flushing device was made...

Flores-Foxworth, Ana Gabriela

2012-06-07

113

Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.  

PubMed

Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation. PMID:22890482

Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

2012-12-01

114

The helical flow total artificial heart: implantation in goats.  

PubMed

To realize a total artificial heart (TAH) with high performance, high durability, good anatomical fitting, and good blood compatibility, the helical flow TAH (HFTAH) has been developed with two helical flow pumps having hydrodynamic levitation impeller. The HFTAH was implanted in goats to investigate its anatomical fitting, blood compatibility, mechanical stability, control stability, and so on. The size of the HFTAH was designed to be 80 mm in diameter and 84 mm wide. The maximum output was 19 L/min against 100 mmHg of pressure head. Eight adult female goats weighting from 45 to 56.3 kg (average 49.7 kg) were used. Under the extracorporeal circulation, natural heart was removed at the atrioventricular groove and the HFTAH was implanted. The HFTAH was driven with a pulsatile mode. The 1/R control was applied when the right atrial pressure recovered. The HFTAH could be implanted with good anatomical fitting in all goats. Two goats survived for more than a week. One goat is ongoing. Other goats did not survive for more than two days with various reasons. In the goats that survived for more than a week, the hydrodynamic bearing was worn and broken, which indicated that the bearing touched to the shaft. The cause was supposed to be the influence of the sucking effect. The potential of the HFTAH could be demonstrated with this study. The stability of the hydrodynamic bearing in a living body, especially the influence of the sucking effect, was considered to be very important and a further study should be necessary. PMID:24110289

Abe, Yusuke; Ishii, Kohei; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Sato, Masami; Hara, Shintaro; Hosoda, Kyohei; Ariyoshi, Koki; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Ono, Toshiya; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Imachi, Kou

2013-01-01

115

Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry

Anthony Lopez; W. F. Collins; H. L. Williams

1985-01-01

116

Semen characteristics in furazolidone-treated goats A.I. MUSTAFA, B. H. ALI, T. HASSAN  

E-print Network

Semen characteristics in furazolidone-treated goats A.I. MUSTAFA, B. H. ALI, T. HASSAN Department on the fertility of male goats by assessing the morphological and biochemical properties of their semen. Materials. Summary. Furazolidone was given to male Nubian goats for 5 days at a therapeutic dose of 10 mg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Histopathological lesions in central nervous system of goats poisoned by Ipomoea carnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ríos, E.; Cholich, L.; Silva, J.; Acosta de Pérez, O.: Histopathological lesions in central nervous system of goats poisoned by Ipomoea carnea. Rev. vet. 19: 2, 130-134, 2008. Ipo- moea carnea var. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae) is a perenne poisonous plant, found through - out the Argentine Northeastern. The intoxication produces a lysosomal storage disease in goats, sheep and cattle. Five goats

E. Ríos; L. Cholich; J. Silva; Acosta de Pérez

118

Effects of dietary protein level on performance of Angora and cashmere-producing Spanish goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of dietary crude protein level on fiber production of Angora and cashmere-producing Spanish goats were studied in 16 yearling doelings (eight Spanish, eight Angora) for 8 weeks. Goats were housed in individual stalls and maintained at constant temperature (21 °C) with 9 h light and 15 h darkness each day. Goats were initially sheared, blocked by body weight (BW)

Z. H. Jia; T. Sahlu; J. M. Fernandez; S. P. Hart; T. H. Teh

1995-01-01

119

Social rank and response to the “male effect” in the Australian Cashmere goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine if the social status of Australian Cashmere goats affects their response to the male effect in terms of LH secretion, ovulation and expression of estrus. Australian Cashmere goats were kept isolated from the males during 5 months. The index of success (SI) of each goat was calculated to establish their social rank. In

L. Alvarez; L. Zarco; F. Galindo; D. Blache; G. B. Martin

2007-01-01

120

Forage utilization from native shrubs Acacia rigidula and Acacia farnesiana by goats and sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials, (in vivo and in situ) were conducted to evaluate the influence of shrub leaves on digestion and N retention by goats and ruminal digestion by sheep. In trial one, 12 male castrated Spanish goats (32.5 ± 2.1 kg LW) were housed in metabolism stalls and randomly assigned to three diets (four goats per treatment): (1) 23% alfalfa hay

R. G. Ramírez; R. A. Ledezma-Torres

1997-01-01

121

213 WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos  

E-print Network

213� WILDLIFE BIOLOGY � 9:3 (2003) The population dynamics of mountain goats Oreamnos americanus and unhunted mountain goat Oreamnos americanus populations Alejandro Gonzalez Voyer, Kirby G. Smith & Marco and unhunted mountain goat Oreamnos americanus populations. - Wildl. Biol. 9: 213-218. Native populations

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

122

Bienn. Symp. North. Wild Sheep and Goat Counc. 14:115-130  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) are native to Idaho, the southernmost portion of their recent distribution in North America. Mountain goat populations apparently declined sharply early in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries due to unregulated hunting. The first survey of known mountain goats ranges indicated approximately 2,785 animals in 1955. Populations have increased only slightly over the 5 decades

123

Titres of Specific Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Goats and their Kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to perform repeated determination of specific antibody levels in mothers and their kids in order to assess indirectly the possibility of vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis in goats. Twenty-eight goats with their kids were included in the study. The following variables were assessed: number of born kids in relation to antibody titres of goats; levels

?ubica Mišurová; Vlasta Svobodová; Leoš Pavlata; Rudolf Dvo?ák

2009-01-01

124

Las vocalizaciones de machos cabríos no estimulan la secreción de la LH ni la ovulación en las cabras anovulatorias Vocalizations of male goats do not stimulate neither LH secretion nor ovulation on anovulatory female goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine if the reproduction of goat buck vocalizations stimulate the secretion of LH and ovulation of anoestrus female goats. Forty multiparous Creole goats, isolated from male goats three months before the onset of experiment, were allocated to four groups (n = 10 each). The first group was exposed to one sexually active male. The second group

Jesús Vielma; Angélica Terrazas; Francisco Gerardo Véliza; José Alfredo Flores; Horacio Hernandez; Gerardo Duarte; Benoît Malpaux; José Alberto Delgadillo

125

Oxytocin gene expression and action in goat testis.  

PubMed

Gene expression, immunohistochemical localization, binding and effects of oxytocin (OT) on androgen production in the testis of adult goats were studied. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis we were able to detect OT gene transcripts in the goat testis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both OT and neurophysin epitopes were expressed together in the intratubular regions, especially in the Sertoli cells, suggesting the production of OT in these cells. However, enzyme immunoassay found no difference in OT concentration between testicular arterial and venous plasma. Saturable, specific [3H]-OT binding sites were present in membrane fractions of the goat testis. Scatchard analysis indicated an apparent affinity of 42 +/- 7 L/nmol and binding capacity of 24 +/- 4 fmol OT bound/mg DNA. In vitro treatment of goat testes for 6 h with 100 nM OT led to a 3.5-fold increase (P < 0.001) in 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) production in spite of the induced decrease in testosterone, suggesting that OT not only affects testosterone production but also modulates its conversion to DHT. These results indicate that the goat testis produces OT, which may be involved in the local control of androgen biosynthesis. PMID:10734377

Inaba, T; Nakayama, Y; Tani, H; Tamada, H; Kawate, N; Sawada, T

1999-08-01

126

Introducing young dairy goats into the adult herd after parturition reduces social stress.  

PubMed

The aim of this experiment was to compare social stress, as measured by social behavior and adrenocortical activity, in young dairy goats during the first week after introduction into a herd of adult goats either during the dry period of the herd (i.e., all goats in the herd being pregnant or dry: PD) or shortly after parturition (i.e., all animals lactating or with their kids: LK). Thirty-two young goats that had had no contact with adult goats from the age of 7 wk were introduced into adult goat groups. Adult goats were kept in 2 groups of 36 animals each. Young goats were introduced (in groups of 4 animals each) into each of these 2 groups either during the PD period (2 repetitions) or during LK (2 repetitions); goats with different rearing experience were balanced over introduction periods. Young goats were more often receivers of agonistic social interactions when introduced during PD than during LK. Irrespective of the period of introduction, young goats had other young goats as neighbors more frequently than expected by chance alone, although this was even more distinct during PD. Cortisol metabolite levels increased markedly from baseline during PD, but not after parturition. Rearing showed an effect only on the nearest neighbors, with mother-reared young goats staying closer together. Our results indicate that young goats experience less social stress when being introduced into a herd of adult dairy goats shortly after parturition and with kids still present rather than during the dry period. Whether this effect is due to the period and lactational stage itself or to the presence of kids needs to be tested in future studies. PMID:23849642

Szabò, S; Barth, K; Graml, C; Futschik, A; Palme, R; Waiblinger, S

2013-09-01

127

A novel genetic variant of the goat Six6 gene and its association with production traits in Chinese goat breeds.  

PubMed

We looked for novel genetic variations within the Six6 gene by PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and forced RFLP-PCR and estimated their associations with production traits in 2132 goats of eight indigenous Chinese breeds. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (NM_001104993.1: g.232T>C) within the goat Six6 gene was identified. The frequencies of allele "C" varied from 0.8621 to 1.000, which were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotype and allele frequencies were found to be significantly different in the breeds. Association analysis revealed a significant relationship between genotypes and cannon circumference in Hainan black goats (P = 0.047); adult individuals with genotype CT showed higher cannon circumference than those with genotype CC. Another significant association of genotypes with five-year-old fiber length was found in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats (P = 0.002). In addition, individuals with genotype CT had longer fiber length than those with genotype CC. The data revealed that the Six6 gene positively affects growth traits and cashmere traits. Polymorphism of Six6-PstI could be useful as a DNA marker for goat breeding and genetics via marker-assisted selection. PMID:22179999

Pan, C Y; Lan, X Y; Zhao, H Y; Hu, S R; Huai, Y T; Lei, C Z; Chen, H

2011-01-01

128

Etiology of the stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex in Nigerian dwarf goats.  

PubMed Central

The causative agent of stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex was isolated in domesticated goats and Vero cell culture. It was identified immunologically and morphologically as identical with the "Peste des Petits Ruminants" virus. There were cross reactions between stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex virus isolate and rinderpest virus by immunodiffusion and complement fixation tests but no cross neutralization. Goats recovered from stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex were protected against a challenge with rinderpest virus that was lethal to control goats. Ultrastructural morphology revealed intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions made up of random arrays of fibrillar strands. Pleomorphic particles budded from the plasma membrane of infected cells and enveloped virions were seen extracellularly. Specific ferritin tagging was demonstrated in the stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex virus infected cells treated with homologous and peste des petits ruminants viral antibody systems but little, if any, tagging in the heterologous rinderpest system. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:826310

Hamdy, F M; Dardiri, A H; Nduaka, O; Breese, S S; Ihemelandu, E C

1976-01-01

129

Etiology of the stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex in Nigerian dwarf goats.  

PubMed

The causative agent of stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex was isolated in domesticated goats and Vero cell culture. It was identified immunologically and morphologically as identical with the "Peste des Petits Ruminants" virus. There were cross reactions between stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex virus isolate and rinderpest virus by immunodiffusion and complement fixation tests but no cross neutralization. Goats recovered from stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex were protected against a challenge with rinderpest virus that was lethal to control goats. Ultrastructural morphology revealed intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions made up of random arrays of fibrillar strands. Pleomorphic particles budded from the plasma membrane of infected cells and enveloped virions were seen extracellularly. Specific ferritin tagging was demonstrated in the stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex virus infected cells treated with homologous and peste des petits ruminants viral antibody systems but little, if any, tagging in the heterologous rinderpest system. PMID:826310

Hamdy, F M; Dardiri, A H; Nduaka, O; Breese, S S; Ihemelandu, E C

1976-07-01

130

Hormonal control of grooming behavior in domestic goats.  

PubMed

In this study, further documentation of the modulation of self-grooming by testosterone was provided by an experiment which showed that self oral grooming in long-term castrated male goats of the dwarf Shiba breed was significantly down-regulated to one-third of the baseline grooming rate by testosterone supplementation. Observations on grooming in gonadally intact female Shiba goats in the summer (July) and in the fall (October) showed that the oral grooming rate was significantly higher in the fall, occurring at about twice the rate in the summer. The female oral grooming rate in the fall was the same as the baseline rate of castrated males before testosterone supplementation. The seasonal increase in females was not attributed to changes in gonadal hormones. The adaptive significance of hormonal regulation of the timing mechanism for grooming in both male and female goats, and possibly other ungulates, is discussed. PMID:12536011

Kakuma, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji; Hart, Benjamin L

2003-01-01

131

[Genetic diversity in goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis].  

PubMed

Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301

Xu, Limei; Liu, Chousheng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Zhigang; Han, Xu; Li, Xiaoxia; Chang, Shuang

2010-05-01

132

Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in goat kids.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from male and female goat kids, of different breeds and up to one year of age, were analyzed to determine egg and oocyst counts per gram of feces (EPG and OPG, respectively), and fecal culturing was performed to identify nematode genera. Helminth eggs and Eimeria spp. oocysts were found in 93.06% (188/202) and 77.22% (156/202) of the fecal samples, respectively. From fecal cultures, the following genera were identified: Cooperia in 11.88% (24/202), Haemonchus in 51.98% (105/202), Oesophagostomum in 9.4% (19/202), Strongyloides in 5.94 (12/202) and Trichostrongylus in 20.79% (42/202) of the samples. The Eimeria species found were E. alijevi in 25.24% (51/202), E. arloingi in 7.42% (15/202), E. caprina in 2.97% (6/202), E. caprovina in 10.39% (21/202), E. christenseni in 4.45% (9/202), E. joklchijevi in 11.38% (23/202), E. hirci in 9.4% (19/202) and E. ninakohlyakimovae in 28.71% (58/202) samples. Among the gastrointestinal parasites, the genus Haemonchus and two Eimeria species (E. ninakohlyakimovae and E. alijevi) were predominants. PMID:22534948

Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

2012-01-01

133

Adrenocortical response to ACTH in Angora and Spanish goat wethers.  

PubMed

Angora goats do not cope well with stress compared with goats of other breeds. Our hypothesis that this involves subclinical primary hypoadrenocorticism associated with low cortisol release in response to ACTH stimulation was tested by measuring adrenocortical response (plasma cortisol) in six Spanish (37 +/- 2 kg BW) and six Angora wethers (39 +/- 3 kg BW) under simulated acute and chronic ACTH challenges. In Exp. 1 (acute ACTH challenge), wethers were dosed i.v. with high (2.5 IU/kg BW) or low (.4 IU/kg BW) quantities of ACTH. In Exp. 2 (chronic ACTH challenge), ACTH at the rate of .015 IU/(kg BW x min) or saline (.15 M NaCl) was infused i.v. at 15 mL/h for 6 h. The mean baseline plasma cortisol concentration before ACTH stimulation was similar (P > .05) between Angora and Spanish goats in Exp. 1 (averaged over days) and in Exp. 2. The cortisol concentration response area (ng/ (mL x min) x 10(-3)) above the baseline was similar (P > .05) between Angora and Spanish goats during low (7.6 +/- .5 and 9.0 +/- 1.7, respectively) and high (12.8 +/- 1.0 and 16.0 +/- 1.8, respectively) levels of acute ACTH challenge (Exp. 1) and during chronic ACTH challenge (45.1 +/- 5.9 and 41.8 +/- 7.3, respectively; Exp. 2). In conclusion, these data indicate that, under the conditions of this study, adrenocortical responsiveness to ACTH stimulation is not different between Angora and Spanish goat wethers and, thus, may not contribute to stress susceptibility in Angora goats. PMID:10375233

Toerien, C A; Puchala, R; McCann, J P; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L

1999-06-01

134

The Texas A&M Sheep and Goat Simulation Models  

E-print Network

I UV\\... Z TA24S.7 B873 no.1559 .. ' 8-1559 January 1987 The Texas A&N Sheep and Goat Simulation' Models LIBRARY . MAR 1 2 1987 ? r-----~--------~. I L_===============~~-~_J The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Neville P. Clarke... Station are available to everyone without regard to race, color, religion, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. /17 /t~7-. B"/o 5 /9~7: I'\\. The Texas A&M Sheep And Goat Simulation Models Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas 77843 H...

Blackbur, H.D.; Cartwright, T.C.; Smith, G.M.; Graham, N.McC.; Ruvuna, F.

1987-01-01

135

A study on the cardiovascular physiology of the goat  

E-print Network

is becoming an animal of importance in research and is now being used increasingly as a laboratory animal. As a laboratory animal it can be used as representative of the ruminants. Goats are used in experimental surgery, in radiation studies and various... is becoming an animal of importance in research and is now being used increasingly as a laboratory animal. As a laboratory animal it can be used as representative of the ruminants. Goats are used in experimental surgery, in radiation studies and various...

Ahmad, Alauddin

2012-06-07

136

The Effect of C. burnetii Infection on the Cytokine Response of PBMCs from Pregnant Goats  

PubMed Central

In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection). In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-? mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-? mRNA and IFN-? mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-? protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-? protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection. PMID:25279829

Ammerdorffer, Anne; Roest, Hendrik-I J.; Dinkla, Annemieke; Post, Jacob; Schoffelen, Teske; van Deuren, Marcel; Sprong, Tom; Rebel, Johanna M.

2014-01-01

137

Anatomical and Cytological Sex of a Saanen Goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Saanen goat registered as female was found to have a pair of abdominal testes, a well developed uterus and a prominent clitoris. The chromosome features of peripheral leukocytes and the nuclear sex chromatin pattern of lymphocytes and testicular cells conformed to those of a cytological female. The testicular tissue showed all stages of meiosis and fully formed sperm indicating

Parvathi K. Basrur; R. I. Coubrough

1964-01-01

138

Telomere length analysis in goat clones and their offspring.  

PubMed

Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome is believed to be the cause behind the high rate of developmental mortality and post-natal anomalies observed in animal clones. It appears that overt phenotypic abnormalities are not transmitted to their progeny suggesting that epigenetic errors are corrected in the germline of clones. Here, we show variation in telomere lengths among Nigerian dwarf goat clones derived from different somatic cell types and that the offspring of two male clones have significantly shorter telomere lengths than age-matched noncloned animals. Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in skin biopsies of goat clones derived from adult granulosa cells compared to those measured for controls. Telomere lengths were highly variable in male goat clones reconstructed from fetal fibroblasts but their mean terminal repeat fragment (TRF) length was within normal range of normal goats. However, in the progeny of two male clones, mean TRF lengths were considerably shorter than age-matched controls for both skin and leukocyte samples. Evidence for possible inheritance of shortened telomeres was obtained by measuring telomere lengths in testicular biopsies obtained from the clones, which when compared with those from noncloned animals of a similar age were significantly shorter. The offspring exhibited telomere lengths intermediate to the TRF values obtained for their cloned fathers' and age-matched control testes. These results demonstrate that telomere length reprogramming in clones is dependent on the type of donor cell used and that the progeny of clones may inherit telomere length alterations acquired through the cloning procedure. PMID:16142795

Betts, Dean H; Perrault, Steven D; Petrik, Jim; Lin, Lucy; Favetta, Laura A; Keefer, Carol L; King, W Allan

2005-12-01

139

Goats' milk xanthine oxidoreductase is grossly deficient in molybdenum.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified from goats' milk. The u.v.-visible absorption spectrum was essentially identical to those of the corresponding bovine and human milk enzymes and showed an A280/A450 ratio of 5.20+/-0.12, indicating a high degree of purity. Like bovine and human milk XORs, enzyme purified from goats' milk showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a subunit with approximate Mr 150,000. On Western blotting, mouse monoclonal anti-human XOR antibody cross-reacted with purified caprine and bovine XORs. The specific xanthine oxidase activity of goats' milk XOR, however, was very much lower than that of bovine XOR, although NADH oxidase activities of XOR from the two sources were similar. In these respects, the caprine milk XOR mirrors the human milk enzyme, in which case the kinetic effects have previously been attributed to relatively low molybdenum content. The molybdenum content of goats' milk XOR also was shown to be relatively low, with 0.09 atoms Mo per subunit, compared with 055 atoms Mo per subunit for the bovine enzyme. A parallel purification of human milk XOR showed 0.03 atoms Mo per subunit. The possible physiological significance of the low molybdenum content of the caprine milk enzyme and of its correspondingly low enzymic activity is discussed. PMID:15068060

Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha; Harrison, Roger

2004-02-01

140

Genotypic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in Iranian goats  

PubMed Central

Objective To isolate and characterize the genotype of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) from goats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Methods A total of 120 goats were screened from abattoirs of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Forty out of 120 samples were infected with cystic echinococcosis and 29 out of 40 infected samples were fertile hydatid cysts (containing protoscolices) which were collected from the livers and lungs of infected goats. DNA samples were extracted from the protoscolices and characterized by mitochondrial DNA sequencing of part of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. Results Sequences analysis of nine fertile hydatid cysts indicated that all isolated samples were infected with the G1 sheep strain and two sequences were belonged to G14 and G1c microvarients of the G1 genotype. Conclusions The results showed that goats act as alternative intermediate hosts for sheep strain. G1 genotype seems to be the main route of transmission and it should be considered in further studies.

Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Reza; Omrani, Vahid Fallah; Spotin, Adel; Esfandiari, Behzad

2013-01-01

141

Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in Desert sheep and Nubian goats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin were studied in five Desert sheep and five Nubian goats after intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Following i.v. injection, the plasma concentration-versus-time data were best described by a two-compartment open model. The kinetic variables were similar in both species except for the volume of the central compartment (Vc), which was larger in sheep (p<0.05). Following i.m. injection, except for the longer half-life time of absorption in goats (p<0.05), there were no significant differences in other pharmacokinetic parameters between sheep and goats. The route of amoxicillin administration had no significant effect on the terminal elimination half-life in either species. The bioavailability of the drug (F) after i.m. administration was high (> 0.90) in both species. These results indicate that the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin did not differ between sheep and goats; furthermore, because of the high availability and short half-life of absorption, the i.m. route gives similar results to the i.v. route. Therefore, identical intramuscular and intravenous dose regimens should be applicable to both species. PMID:10672967

Elsheikh, H A; Taha, A A; Khalafalla, A E; Osman, I A; Wasfi, I A

1999-12-01

142

Effect of semen preparation on IVF of prepubertal goat oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of these experiments was to study the effects of different methods of washing and selection of spermatozoa on the IVF of IVM oocytes from prepubertal goats. Fresh ejaculates from 3 males of proven fertility were processed according to the following treatments: 1) centrifugation in TALP, 2) centrifugation in sucrose-based Ficoll medium, 3) centrifugation in Percoll gradients at 40

M. J Palomo; D Izquierdo; T Mogas; M. T Paramio

1999-01-01

143

Melatonin and fleece growth in Australian cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups each of eight Australian cashmere goats (four males, four females, 10 months old) were implanted at the base of the ear with melatonin pellets (18 mg) between July and October (July group), January and April (January group), or sham implanted (control). Cashmere and hair length changes were measured during the year following implantation. Rates of growth, maximum length,

W. R. L. Klören; B. W. Norton

1995-01-01

144

Identification of the secondary follicle cycle of Hexi cashmere goat.  

PubMed

This experiment conducted to identify a periodic change of ultrastructures of secondary follicle characteristics during a whole year, reveal the molecule regulation of growth of cashmere. A total of 10 cashmere goats of 1-year old were studied. The paraffin section and ultrathin slices of skin were made each month in a whole year, observed, photographed, and analyzed under light microscope and transmission electron microscope after stained. Following the development of down fiber, the ultrastructures of secondary follicle of Hexi cashmere goat showed a periodic change within a year. There were five different periods during a down fiber cycle. It was observed that the stage of telogen, proanagen, anagen, procatagen, and catagen was in January and February, March and April, May to August, September and October, and November and December, respectively. The key change observed in secondary follicle under transmission electron microscope was inner root sheath. This study illustrated the five different stage of secondary follicle of Hexi Cashmere goat within a whole growth cycle, and has provided more detailed information about the research field of Hexi cashmere goat. Choosing the suitable time to harvest the cashmere may get the profit maximization. PMID:22753049

He, Yanyu; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu

2012-09-01

145

GOAT ADIPOSE TISSUE MOBILIZATION AND MILK PRODUCTION LEVEL  

E-print Network

GOAT ADIPOSE TISSUE MOBILIZATION AND MILK PRODUCTION LEVEL D. SAUVANT Y. CHILLIARD, P. BAS P weight that high levels of milk production are closely associated with an intense mobili- zation of body work was conducted to study the relationships which associate milk yield and lipomobilization levels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

2014-04-01

147

NEW YORK STATE 4-H MEAT GOAT PROJECT  

E-print Network

exercise just like a dog although you can usually slack off in the winter months. A goat needs to be about well with the person who milks and feeds them, live about as long as a dog and make great companions

New Hampshire, University of

148

NEW YORK STATE 4-H DAIRY GOAT PROJECT  

E-print Network

exercise just like a dog although you can usually slack off in the winter months. A goat needs to be about well with the person who milks and feeds them, live about as long as a dog and make great companions

New Hampshire, University of

149

Habitat Selection by Mountain Goats in South Coastal British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed data from 18 Global Positioning System collars from 2001 to 2003 in southwestern coastal British Columbia to improve understanding of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) habitat use and its relation to forestry operations. We described seasonal home ranges, movements, and winter habitat selection patterns to predict winter habitat use in similar geographic areas. Seasonal periods were determined for individual

SHAWN TAYLOR; WAYNE WALL

150

Production of goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we demonstrate the production of transgenic goats by nuclear transfer of fetal somatic cells. Donor karyoplasts were obtained from a primary fetal somatic cell line derived from a 40-day transgenic female fetus produced by artificial insemination of a nontransgenic adult female with semen from a transgenic male. Live offspring were produced with two nuclear transfer procedures. In

Alexander Baguisi; Esmail Behboodi; David T. Melican; Julie S. Pollock; Margaret M. Destrempes; Christine Cammuso; Jennifer L. Williams; Scott D. Nims; Catherine A. Porter; Patricia Midura; Monica J. Palacios; Sandra L. Ayres; Richard S. Denniston; Michael L. Hayes; Carol A. Ziomek; Harry M. Meade; Robert A. Godke; William G. Gavin; Eric W. Overström; Yann Echelard

1999-01-01

151

Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats  

PubMed Central

A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

2013-01-01

152

Polymorphism of GDF9 gene and its association with litter size in goats.  

PubMed

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was studied as a candidate gene for high prolificacy in goats. The polymorphism of exon 1 and flanking of GDF9 gene was detected by PCR-SSCP in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. Three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in goat breeds joined and two silent mutations (c.183A>C and c.336C>T) were identified in comparison genotype AA with genotype BB. Heterozygous genotype AB and wild type BB were detected in all five goat breeds and homozygous genotype AA was only detected in Jining Grey goats. The frequencies of genotypes AA, AB and BB were 0.18, 0.42 and 0.40 in Jining Grey goats, respectively. The genotype distribution was different (P?goat) and low prolificacy breeds (Boer, Wendeng Dairy, Liaoning Cashmere and Beijing native goats). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype AA and AB had 0.72 (P??0.05) kids more than those with genotype AB. These indicated that the allele A may have certain correlation with prolificacy in Jining Grey goats. PMID:21547534

Chu, M X; Wu, Z H; Feng, T; Cao, G L; Fang, L; Di, R; Huang, D W; Li, X W; Li, N

2011-08-01

153

Polymorphisms of caprine GDF9 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

The exons 1, 2 and flanking region of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene in five randomly selected does of Jining Grey, Boer and Liaoning Cashmere goats were amplified and analyzed. Thirteen nucleotide differences were identified in GDF9 gene between sheep (AF078545) and goats. Four SNPs (G3288A in intron 1, G423A, A959C [Gln320Pro] and G1189A [Val397Ile] in exon 2) were detected in four goat breeds with different prolificacy, in which G3288A was a new SNP in goats. The results showed that loci 3288, 423 and 1189 in Boer goats, loci 3288 and 423 in Guizhou White goats, loci 423 and 1189 in Liaoning Cashmere goats were all in complete linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1, r (2) = 1), respectively. In moderate (Boer goat) and low prolificacy (Liaoning Cashmere goat) breeds, linkage analysis indicated that there were more fervent linkage disequilibrium among loci 3288, 423 and 1189 than high prolificacy (Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats) breeds. For the 959 locus, the genotype distribution showed obvious difference between high prolificacy breeds and moderate or low prolificacy breeds (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The Jining Grey goat does with genotype CC or AC had 0.81 (P < 0.01) or 0.63 (P < 0.01) kids more than those with genotype AA, respectively. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele C at 959 locus of GDF9 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. These results provide further evidence that the GDF9 gene may be significantly correlated with high prolificacy in goats. PMID:21181498

Feng, T; Geng, C X; Lang, X Z; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Di, R; Fang, L; Chen, H Q; Liu, X L; Li, N

2011-11-01

154

Influence of pasture on fatty acid profile of goat milk.  

PubMed

The effect of pasture on the fatty acid profile of milk was evaluated using 30 pluriparous goats, which were divided into two homogeneous groups (H and P) of 15 goats each after kidding. Group H (control) goats were housed in a stall and received alfalfa hay, while group P was led to pasture. The goats of both the groups received the same concentrate. Average milk yield did not differ statistically between the groups. The goats of the P group had significantly higher fat content in milk than those of group H (53.7 vs. 61.5 g/day, p < 0.01), while lactose content was significantly higher for group H (66.2 and 61.4 g/day, for groups H and P, respectively, p < 0.05). Among milk fatty acids, pasture significantly affected the percentages of C18:1 cis9, C18:1 trans11, octadecadienoic acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid. Pasture highly influenced the c9 t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (0.778 and 0.513 g/100 g of fat, for group P and H, respectively, p < 0.01), t10 c12 CLA (0.046 vs. 0.029 g/100 g of fat: p < 0.01, for group P and H, respectively, p < 0.01) and SigmaCLA (0.84 vs. 0.56 g/100 g of fat for group P and H, respectively, p < 0.01) concentrations of milk. PMID:18477324

D'Urso, S; Cutrignelli, M I; Calabrò, S; Bovera, F; Tudisco, R; Piccolo, V; Infascelli, F

2008-06-01

155

Bacteriological findings and hormonal profiles in the postpartum Balady goats.  

PubMed

Twenty-six Balady goats categorized according to parity into primiparous and pluriparous goats were used to investigate bacterial flora of the genital tract and hormonal profiles during the postpartum (PP) period. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in pure or mixed culture from the uterus. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from swabs obtained from the vagina and cervix of one primiparous goat. Uteri and cervices but not vaginas were free of bacterial contamination by day 10 PP except for one pluriparous goat with scanty E. coli contamination on day 25 PP. Fluctuating oestradiol 17beta (E2) levels demonstrated resumption of follicular activity as early as day 13 PP in both parity groups. Progesterone (P4) levels remained low at basal levels throughout the study period. Higher concentrations of 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2alpha (PGFM) were observed during the first week PP compared with the rest of the PP period. PGFM concentrations dropped to low basal level by day 10 PP and remained constantly low throughout the study period. P4, E2 and PGFM profiles were not different between the different parity groups. In conclusion, intrauterine infection is not common in goats with normal kidding. E. coli was the most common intrauterine bacterial isolate. E2 and P4 profiles were consistent with resumption of follicular growth but not ovulation. High PGFM concentrations coincided with the fast regression phase of uterine involution. Hormonal profile and bacterial contamination and clearance were similar to those reported in other related species and not related to parity. PMID:16420321

Ababneh, M M; Degefa, T

2006-02-01

156

This information sheet is for the care and use of Goats Potential Injury & Zoonotic Diseases: Goats are more  

E-print Network

is a list of zoonotic diseases associated with goats: Q-Fever: This rickettsial disease, caused by Coxielia animals. Q-fever is spread by aerosolization of infected body fluids. Disease transmission can be reduced by careful disposal of birth products. In most cases, Q -fever is manifested by flu-like symptoms

Wood, Marcelo A.

157

Tuberculosis in Goats and Sheep in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia and Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Goat  

PubMed Central

A cross sectional study was conducted on 2231 small ruminants in four districts of the Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia to investigate the epidemiology of tuberculosis in goats and sheep using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test, postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culture and molecular typing methods. The overall animal prevalence of TB in small ruminants was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%–0.7%) at ?4?mm and 3.8% (95% CI: 3%–4.7%) at cutoff ?2?mm. The herd prevalence was 20% (95% CI: 12–28%) and 47% (95% CI: 37–56%) at ?4?mm and ?2?mm cut-off points, respectively. The overall animal prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.1–3.5%) and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8–7.9%) at ?4?mm and ?2?mm cut-off points, respectively. Mycobacteriological culture and molecular characterization of isolates from tissue lesions of tuberculin reactor goats resulted in isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SIT149) and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria as causative agents of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like diseases in goats, respectively. The isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in goat suggests a potential transmission of the causative agent from human and warrants further investigation in the role of small ruminants in epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the region. PMID:22852105

Kassa, Gezahegne Mamo; Abebe, Fekadu; Worku, Yalelet; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Bjune, Gunnar; Ameni, Gobena

2012-01-01

158

Microbial dynamics during the ripening of a mixed cow and goat milk cheese manufactured using frozen goat milk curd.  

PubMed

To overcome the seasonal shortage of goat milk in mixed milk cheese manufacture, pasteurized goat milk curd and high-pressure-treated raw goat milk curd manufactured in the spring were held at -24 °C for 4 mo, thawed, and mixed with fresh cow milk curd for the manufacture of experimental cheeses. Control cheeses were made from a mixture of pasteurized cow and goat milk. The microbiota of experimental and control cheeses was studied using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Bacterial enumeration by classical methods showed lactic acid bacteria to be the dominant population in both control and experimental cheeses. In total, 681 isolates were grouped by partial amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) into 4 groups and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (563 isolates), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (72 isolates), Lactobacillus spp. (34 isolates), and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris (12 isolates). Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of cheese showed (1) the predominance of Lc. lactis in all cheeses; (2) the presence of Leu. pseudomesenteroides population in all cheeses from d 15 onward; (3) the presence of a Lactobacillus plantarum population in control cheese until d 15 and in experimental cheeses throughout the ripening period. Due to the most diverse and complete set of peptidases present in the genus Lactobacillus, the prevalence of this population in experimental cheeses could give rise to differences in cheese flavor between experimental and control cheeses. PMID:21943728

Campos, G; Robles, L; Alonso, R; Nuñez, M; Picon, A

2011-10-01

159

Anthelmintic resistance on goat farms in Georgia: efficacy of anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes in two selected goat herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is a major constraint to production of goats in the southeastern United States. The conventional method of control used by producers in this region is frequent use of anthelmintics during the warm season. Overuse of anthelmintics has led to an increase in the incidence of anthelmintic resistance in many parts of the world, but data on

Thomas H Terrill; Ray M Kaplan; Michael Larsen; Oreta M Samples; James E Miller; Seyoum Gelaye

2001-01-01

160

Effect of various combinations of goat, pork and sodium acid pyrophosphate on the properties of fresh link sausage  

E-print Network

, cashmere and mohair (from Angora goats) are considered to be their most valuable con- tribution. There are 2. 6 million goats in Texas (U. S. D. A. , 1972) There are two general kinds -- Angora and Spanish. Angora goats are raised primarily for mohair..., cashmere and mohair (from Angora goats) are considered to be their most valuable con- tribution. There are 2. 6 million goats in Texas (U. S. D. A. , 1972) There are two general kinds -- Angora and Spanish. Angora goats are raised primarily for mohair...

Reddy, Bokka Rajendra

2012-06-07

161

Proliferation and transmission patterns of Pasteurella multocida B:2 in goats.  

PubMed

This report describes the proliferation and transmission patterns of Pasteurella multocida B:2 among stressful goats, created through dexamethasone injections. Thirty seven clinically healthy adult goats were divided into three groups consisted of 15 goats in group A, 11 goats in group B and the remaining 11 in group C. At the start of the study, all goats of group A were exposed intranasally to 1.97 x 10(10) CFU/ml of live P multocida B:2. Dexamethasone was immediately administered intramuscularly for 3 consecutive days at a dosage rate of 1 mg/kg. The exposed goats were observed for signs of HS for a period of 1 month. At the end of the 1-month period, 11 goats from group B were introduced into and commingled with the surviving goats of group A before all goats from both groups were immediately injected intramuscularly with dexamethasone for 3 consecutive days. The treatment with dexamethasone was then carried out at monthly interval throughout the 3-month study period. Goats of group C were kept separately as negative control. Three surviving goats from each group were killed at 2-week interval for a complete post-mortem examination. Two (13%) goats of group A were killed within 24 hours after intranasal exposure to P multocida B:2 while another two (13%) goats from the same group were killed on day 40, approximately 10 days after the second dexamethasone injection. All four goats showed signs and lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bacteraemia was detected in 3 goats of group A that were having rectal temperature higher than 41degrees C. The P. multocida B:2 isolation pattern was closely associated with dexamethasone injections when significantly (p < 0.05) higher rate of isolations from both groups were observed after each dexamethasone injection. Transmission of P multocida B:2 from goats of group A to group B was successful when P multocida B:2 was isolated from goats of group B for a period of 28 days. There was a strong correlation between dexamethasone injections, rate of bacterial isolation and serum cortisol level. The IgG level showed an increasing trend 2 weeks after exposure to P multocida B:2 and remained high throughout the study period. PMID:18509941

Shafarin, M S; Zamri-Saad, M; Khairani, B Siti; Saharee, A A

2008-06-01

162

Mammogenesis and induced lactation with or without reserpine in nulliparous dairy goats.  

PubMed

Nulliparous goats were used to evaluate the effects of a standard protocol for inducing lactation with or without using a prolactin-releasing agent (reserpine). Estrus was synchronized and goats were submitted to daily s.c. injections of estradiol-17beta and progesterone (0.5 and 1.25 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) for 7 d. The goats were divided into 2 groups and injected i.m. with 1 mg/d of reserpine (n = 7) or the vehicle (n = 7) on d 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Lactation was initiated by i.m. injections of dexamethasone (10 mg/d) from d 18 to 20. Goats were machine milked once daily from d 21 to 120, at which time they were mated with herd sires. Milk was measured and sampled daily during wk 1 of lactation and weekly thereafter. Udder traits were measured in all goats at d -2 (before the induction treatment) and on d 35 and 100 (during lactation). Goats initiated lactation on d 21 (100%) and milk yield increased thereafter. The milk yield of control and reserpine-treated goats increased as lactation advanced, peaking at wk 10 of lactation, when reserpine-treated goats yielded 1,079 +/- 89 mL/d of milk compared with 850 +/- 96 mL/d for control goats. Yet milk yield at the peak was only 55% of the peak milk yield observed in contemporary primiparous goats. The composition of initial milk (d 21) was different from that expected for colostrum. Milk composition stabilized after d 3 of lactation. There were no differences among groups for milk fat, protein, casein, or whey protein, but milk from control goats contained greater nonprotein nitrogen than that from reserpine-treated goats (0.48 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%). Teat length increased from 24.7 +/- 1.1 to 34.5 +/- 2.4 mm in control goats during mammogenesis (d -2 to 35), but stabilized in reserpine goats (25.2 +/- 2.2 mm). The distance between teats (11.5 +/- 0.4 cm), and the volume (922 +/- 63 mL) and depth (15.6 +/- 0.60 cm) of the udder increased similarly in both groups during mammogenesis and lactation. After mating, 82% of herdmates became pregnant, whereas only 21% of the lactation-induced goats conceived (1 reserpine-treated and 2 control goats). In conclusion, lactation induction was effective in nulliparous goats, but neither milk yield nor the side effects on fertility seem to support its recommendation. PMID:17638986

Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Albanell, E; Carné, S; Casals, R; Such, X

2007-08-01

163

Experimental vaginal infection of goats with semen contaminated with the "CPG" strain of Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The objective was to characterize the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in goats experimentally infected vaginally with semen contaminated with the CPG strain (genotype III). Ten female goats were randomly allocated into 2 groups (G1 and G2), each with 5 animals, and inseminated during estrus. Goats in G1 were inseminated with semen containing 1 × 10(5) tachyzoites, whereas those in G2 (control) were inseminated with semen free from tachyzoites (insemination = day 0). In G1, seroconversion (indirect immunofluorescence reaction) and DNA (polymerase chain reaction) in the blood was present in 4/5 and 3/5, respectively, from the 7th day. In G2, all goats were negative in all tests. Embryonic reabsorption occurred in 4 of 5 goats from G1 between days 21 and 49. In conclusion, artificial vaginal insemination with semen containing tachyzoites of T. gondii -infected goats and is a potential transmission route of this parasite through semen. PMID:23391103

Wanderley, Flaviana Santos; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Câmara, Diogo Ribeiro; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Feitosa, Bruna Catarina de Oliveira; Freire, Roberta Lemos; de Moraes, Erica Paes Barreto Xavier; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

2013-08-01

164

Molecular characterization of lentiviruses from goats from Poland based on gag gene sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection in goats is worldwide but with higher prevalence in industrialized countries. While positive serology of CAEV in Polish goats was reported there was no genetic study of this virus. In this study, we described the molecular characterization of lentiviruses isolated from seropositive goats from Poland. We cloned and sequenced a fragment from the gag gene covering part of the coding sequences for the matrix (MA) p17 and for the capsid (CA) p25 proteins. Resulting nucleotide sequences were aligned with those from other ovine/caprine lentivirus isolates. We present data showing that the sequences of most goat lentivirus isolates are closer to the prototypic CAEV-Co isolate, nevertheless from one goat we isolated a virus that is closer to the sheep Maedi Visna virus (MVV) isolate. This might indicate a recent cross-species infection from sheep to goat. PMID:17337054

Kuzmak, Jacek; Rola, Marzena; Gallay, Kathy; Chebloune, Yahia

2007-07-01

165

Semen characteristics and production of germ cells in male sheep-goat chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen from 11 male sheep-goat chimeras and one male sheep-goat hybrid-sheep chimera was evaluated on criteria commonly used as in vitro measures of semen quality. In addition, the species origin of germ cells was determined. Five males that were sex chimeras produced spermatozoa only from their XY cells. Three XY\\/XY sheep-goat males were shown by electrophoretic separation of sperm isozymes

G. B Anderson; D. L Anderson; R. H Bondurant; J. M Cash; L. A MacLaren; A. L Moyer; M. C. T Penedo

1995-01-01

166

Physiological adaptation to the humid tropics with special reference to the West African Dwarf (WAD) goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are widely distributed in the subhumid and humid zones of Africa but are particularly associated\\u000a with less favourable environments. Adaptive features such as feeding behaviour, efficiency of feed use and disease tolerance\\u000a enable WAD goats to thrive on natural resources left untouched by other domestic ruminants. In marginal environments this\\u000a goat remains the only domestic

J. O. Daramola; A. A. Adeloye

2009-01-01

167

Bio-preservative activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus U1during fermentation of fresh minced goat meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of bacteriocinog enic Lactobacillus acidophilus U1 (LacU1) isolated from pygmy goat meat on food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms during the fermentation of minced goat meat. Methodology and results: Bacteriocin obtained from LacU1 was purified and characterized. Survival of food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria artificially inoculated aseptically in fermenting minced goat meat was investigated. The

168

Susceptibility of Nigerian west African dwarf and red Sokoto goats to a strain of Trypanosoma congolense.  

PubMed

West African Dwarf (WAD) and Red Sokoto (RS) goats were experimentally infected with the Kafanchan strain of Trypanosoma congolense and the course of the infection was monitored. The organism was pathogenic and produced fatal disease in the goats, which was characterized by rapid progressive anaemia, leucocytosis, weight loss and death. All RS goats died within 11 days of infection, and had a mean reduction in packed cell volume (PCV) of 11%. In West African Dwarf goats, one death occurred on Day 13 post-infection with a mean drop in PCV of 9%. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) mean reductions in values of PCV, haemoglobin and red blood cell counts were observed between the infected and control animals of both breeds, and also between the infected WAD and infected RS goats. The anaemia produced was macrocytic. Leucocytosis characterized by neutropenia and lymphocytosis was observed among infected WAD goats, but leucopenia characterized by neutrophilia and lymphopenia was observed in infected RS goats. Infected WAD goats recorded some positive unit weight gain in spite of the infection. It was concluded that the RS breed of goats is more susceptible to T. congolense infection than the WAD breed. PMID:8333125

Adah, M I; Otesile, E B; Joshua, R A

1993-05-01

169

Differences in growth and carcass characteristics in young goats of different genotypes  

E-print Network

-year quarantine in New Zealand cxpirccl allowing thc Boer goat to be imported into &he Unite&1 States with ouL resiriction. The arr&val of the Boer goat shifted industry emphas&s I'rom primarily the produc:iion of I'iher, mohair and cashmere, Lo meaL production...-year quarantine in New Zealand cxpirccl allowing thc Boer goat to be imported into &he Unite&1 States with ouL resiriction. The arr&val of the Boer goat shifted industry emphas&s I'rom primarily the produc:iion of I'iher, mohair and cashmere, Lo meaL production...

Roeder, Brad William

2012-06-07

170

Identification of sex-specific polymorphic sequences in the goat amelogenin gene for embryo sexing.  

PubMed

Amelogenin (AMEL) is a conserved gene located on the sex chromosomes of mammals. It is involved in the formation of enamel, which is the hard, white material that forms the protective outer layer of each tooth. In this study, we first cloned and determined the intron sequences of the goat AMELX and AMELY genes from female and male ear tissues. The polymorphic AMEL alleles were further analyzed by PCR-based RFLP and Southern blot hybridization analyses. Results showed that intron 5 nucleotide sequences of the goat AMELY gene contains multiple deletions/insertions and shares only 48.5% identity to intron 5 of the goat AMELX gene. Based on the polymorphic AMEL intron sequences, a set of sex-specific triplex primers was designed to PCR amplify a single fragment of 264 bp from the X chromosome of female goats and 2 fragments of 264 and 206 bp from the X and Y chromosomes, respectively, of male goats. An increased sensitivity for sex determination was reached with a single blastomere at the blastula stage isolated from goat embryos. A total of 43 goat embryos were used to estimate a 100% accuracy rate of this method confirmed by chromosomal karyotyping and live births. The embryo sexing technique has been successfully applied in different strains of goats including Alpine, Saanen, Nubian, and Taiwan goats. PMID:21421829

Tsai, T C; Wu, S H; Chen, H L; Tung, Y T; Cheng, W T K; Huang, J C; Chen, C M

2011-08-01

171

Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.  

PubMed

Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats. PMID:480512

Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

1979-04-01

172

Feeding habit of goats in the scavenging system of Bangladesh Dept of General Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh  

E-print Network

the determination of nutritive values and feeding behaviour of the herbages available to goats. Twenty goats of 6, Moringa oleifera, Zizyphus jujuba, Streblus asper) and shrubs (Mikania scandens wild, Dioscorea spp

Boyer, Edmond

173

Weed Technology. 1997. Volume 11:734-738 Diets of Angora Goats Grazing Leafy Spurge Euphorbia esula-Infested  

E-print Network

Weed Technology. 1997. Volume 11:734-738 Diets of Angora Goats Grazing Leafy Spurge Euphorbia esula spurge, Euphorbia esula L. #3 EPHES, Angora goat, rangeland. Additional index words: Biological control

174

Plasma testosterone in Trypanosoma congolense-infected Toggernburg goats.  

PubMed

Trypanosomiasis induces histological testicular degenerative changes leading to suppression of spermatogenesis in goats and laboratory animals. We present evidence associating these changes with trypanosome-induced endocrine dysfunction. Toggenburg goats were infected with approximately 100,000 trypanosomes. They were bled every 2 days, and the plasma testosterone was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Testes were perfused with and fixed in Bouin's fixative for histological evaluation. The infected plasma samples showed depressed testosterone levels with episodic peaks reduced in both amplitude and frequency. Histological characteristics of the testicular and epididymal tissues revealed aspermic tubules and epididymides and desquamation of the tubular germinal epithelia. These testicular degenerative changes may be partly due to the depressed plasma testosterone levels. PMID:3789879

Waindi, E N; Gombe, S; Oduor-Okelo, D

1986-01-01

175

CYP17 causes hypocortisolism in the South African Angora goat.  

PubMed

Two cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17) isoforms have been identified in the South African Angora goat (Capra hircus) and have been implicated as the primary cause of hypocortisolism in this subspecies. These goats are the most efficient fibre producing, but least hardy, small stock breed in Southern Africa. Their inability to cope with prolonged exposure to cold and the resulting stock loss which occurs during winter have been the subject of numerous studies. The two isoforms are encoded for by two separate genes, a novel finding for a mammalian species. The enzymes have unique catalytic properties and differ with respect to their 17,20-lyase activities towards 17-hydroxypregnenolone and subsequent androgen production. In vivo assays confirmed that the three resulting genotypes differed in their ability to produce cortisol in response to intravenous insulin injection implicating CYP17 as the primary cause of the observed hypocortisolism. PMID:18840497

Storbeck, Karl-Heinz; Swart, Amanda C; Swart, Pieter

2009-03-01

176

Isolation of prion with BSE properties from farmed goat.  

PubMed

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Scrapie is not considered a public health risk, but BSE has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Small ruminants are susceptible to BSE, and in 2005 BSE was identified in a farmed goat in France. We confirm another BSE case in a goat in which scrapie was originally diagnosed and retrospectively identified as suspected BSE. The prion strain in this case was further characterized by mouse bioassay after extraction from formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue embedded in paraffin blocks. Our data show that BSE can infect small ruminants under natural conditions and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie. Surveillance should continue so that another outbreak of this zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy can be prevented and public health safeguarded. PMID:22172149

Spiropoulos, John; Lockey, Richard; Sallis, Rosemary E; Terry, Linda A; Thorne, Leigh; Holder, Thomas M; Beck, Katy E; Simmons, Marion M

2011-12-01

177

Isolation of Prion with BSE Properties from Farmed Goat  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Scrapie is not considered a public health risk, but BSE has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Small ruminants are susceptible to BSE, and in 2005 BSE was identified in a farmed goat in France. We confirm another BSE case in a goat in which scrapie was originally diagnosed and retrospectively identified as suspected BSE. The prion strain in this case was further characterized by mouse bioassay after extraction from formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue embedded in paraffin blocks. Our data show that BSE can infect small ruminants under natural conditions and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie. Surveillance should continue so that another outbreak of this zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy can be prevented and public health safeguarded. PMID:22172149

Lockey, Richard; Sallis, Rosemary E.; Terry, Linda A.; Thorne, Leigh; Holder, Thomas M.; Beck, Katy E.; Simmons, Marion M.

2011-01-01

178

Pulmonary function changes in goats given 3-methylindole orally.  

PubMed

Six adult goats were given 0.2 g of 3-methylindole (3MI)/kg of body weight orally. Lung mechanics and ventilatory function were obtained before 3MI and 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after 3MI administration. Clinical signs were also monitored. Lungs were removed for gross and microscopic examination and for morphometric analysis from goats that died spontaneously or were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital after 72 hours. The major pulmonary function changes observed included a marked decrease in dynamic lung compliance with a moderate increase in airway resistance, a concomitant hypoxemia, sustained increase in respiratory frequency, a progressive decrease in tidal volume and alveolar ventilation, and increased dead space to tidal volume ratio. A mild metabolic acidosis was also noticed. PMID:6476565

Mesina, J E; Bisgard, G E; Robinson, G M

1984-08-01

179

Follicular persistence induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone administration in goats.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the induction of persistent cystic follicle in the goat in order to establish a method to experimentally induce cystic follicle. Four cross-bred goats were intramuscularly administered ACTH at 0.78 and 6.25 µg/10 kg twice a day from Days 15 to 21 (Day 0 was defined as the day of last estrus). Follicular status in the ovary was monitored by ultrasound examination. The plasma concentrations of estradiol, progesterone and cortisol were measured. Treatment with ACTH at the 0.78 and 6.25 µg/10 kg levels caused persistent follicles (> 10 days delay from the expected ovulation date) in 50% of the goats in both treatment groups. In those animals, ovulation occurred 17 and 27 days and 11 and 12 days after the expected days in the 0.78 and 6.25 µg/10 kg groups, respectively. The maximum follicle diameters were 10 and 9 mm in the 0.78 and 6.25 µg/10 kg ACTH groups, respectively. In the control group, the estradiol concentration increased on Day 18 and remained at a high level for a few days. However, such an increase was not seen in both ACTH groups. The estradiol concentration increased gradually from Days 21 to 27 in the 6.25 µg/10 kg ACTH group. These results suggest the possibility that ACTH induces persistent follicles in goats, which may be related to the delay of the onset of estradiol secretion followed by its maintenance at a high concentration. PMID:21123962

Sato, Mai; Sugino, Toshihisa; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki

2011-04-01

180

Productive performances of Guadeloupean Creole goats during the suckling period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-genetic sources of variation were investigated for preweaning performance of Creole goats of Guadeloupe using 6375 individual records collected from 1980 to 1994. The analyzed sources of variation were litter size, sex, rank of lactation, year and season of kiddings. Age at first kidding averaged 17.2±3.1 months and the mean kidding interval was 8.5±1.2 months. Litter size (LS) at birth,

G Alexandre; G Aumont; J. C Mainaud; J Fleury; M Naves

1999-01-01

181

Efficacy of nitazoxanide against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results obtained in mice, rats and piglets experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp have indicated a partial prophylactic or curative efficacy of nitazoxanide when administered between 50 and 250 mg\\/kg\\u000a BW. In this study, the efficacy of nitazoxanide was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp oocysts. Forty-seven 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally infected once on day 0

Henri Viel; Hélène Rocques; Jennifer Martin; Christophe Chartier

2007-01-01

182

Investigation of the primary cause of hypoadrenocorticism in South African angora goats (Capra aegagrus): a comparison with Boer goats (Capra hircus) and Merino sheep (Ovis aries).  

PubMed

Our objective was to identify the primary site of the reduced adrenal function in South African Angora goats (Capra aegagrus) that causes a decrease in cortisol production and leads to severe losses of Angora goats during cold spells. Angora goats, Boer goats (Capra hircus), and Merino sheep (Ovis aries) were assigned to three intravenous treatments: 1) insulin, 2) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and 3) ACTH. Blood cortisol concentrations were determined over a 90-min period to determine any differences in the response of the experimental animals to these treatments. For both the insulin and ACTH treatments, cortisol concentrations were less in Angora goats than in the other experimental animals. The adrenal gland was subsequently investigated as a possible cause for the observed hypoadrenocorticism. Primary adrenal cell cultures were prepared from these species, subjected to different treatments, and the cortisol production determined. Upon pregnenolone (PREG) addition, all the experimental animals' cortisol production increased significantly, with the production in Boer goats higher (P<.01) when compared with that in the other species. The stimulation of cortisol biosynthesis by ACTH was only obtained for Boer goats and Merino sheep. The stimulation of cortisol production by forskolin and cholera toxin were compared with ACTH, and, for Angora goats, only cholera toxin caused a significant increase in cortisol production. For Boer goats, no difference (P>.05) between the PREG, ACTH, forskolin, or cholera toxin treatments were observed. The Merino adrenal cells were increasingly stimulated in the following order: PREG, ACTH, forskolin, and cholera toxin (forskolin and cholera toxin stimulated cortisol production to the same extent). This investigation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, therefore, identified the adrenal gland as the primary site of the Angora's hypoadrenocorticism. PMID:10709928

Engelbrecht, Y; Herselman, T; Louw, A; Swart, P

2000-02-01

183

Clinical pharmacology of buprenorphine in healthy, lactating goats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics and the effects of the opioid buprenorphine on behavior, cardiovascular parameters, plasma concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin were studied in the goat. After intravenous injection at a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg bw, the terminal half-life was 73.8+/-19.9 min (mean+/-SD), the apparent volume of distribution 5.22+/-1.01 L/kg, and total body clearance 79.1+/-18.5 mL/min/kg. After intramuscular administration of buprenorphine at the same dosage, bioavailability was complete and clearance was 54.7+/-16.6 mL/min/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure and concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin in plasma increased after drug administration. The goats became agitated and stopped ruminating. The effects were more pronounced the first time the animals received the drug, especially the influence on the hormone levels. The concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin in plasma remained unaffected after the second dose despite a wash-out period of 3-6 weeks. Buprenorphine may be an unsuitable drug in goats because of the profound inhibition of rumination and the agitation it causes. The short half-life of buprenorphine may limit its use if long-term analgesia is required but be advantageous if a short acting drug is desirable. PMID:17472657

Ingvast-Larsson, C; Svartberg, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Bondesson, U; Olsson, K

2007-06-01

184

Mycoplasma agalactiae detected in the semen of goat bucks.  

PubMed

Contagious agalactia (CA) is among the most significant diseases affecting small ruminant populations in Mediterranean countries. This study was designed to detect the excretion in semen of CA-causing mycoplasmas in goats (Capra hircus) reared in Spain, where the disease is considered endemic. Culture techniques and PCR were conducted on 147 semen samples collected from 113 goat bucks to detect mycoplasmas. No animal showed clinical symptoms of CA at the moment of the screening. M. agalactiae was identified using both diagnostic methods in three semen samples collected from three different bucks. These animals belonged to a group of animals in which semen had been analyzed twice and only the second sample proved positive, suggesting the possibility of intermittent excretion. This is the first report of the isolation of M. agalactiae from semen collected from naturally infected goats. Future studies should investigate whether semen could be a real source of CA infection by determining if the agent may be transmitted during natural service or when semen is used for artificial insemination. PMID:19773063

de la Fe, C; Amores, J; Martín, A Gómez; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C

2009-12-01

185

Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein secretion in North Moroccan goats.  

PubMed

The plasma profile of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) and its relationship with fetal number were studied in 14 North Moroccan goats using a semi-heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA). Peripheral blood was collected every day during the first month of pregnancy, afterward the blood samples were collected trice a week. The PAG were first detected at day 20 of pregnancy, their levels increase to week 8 of gestation then decrease slightly until parturition. Statistical differences between goats carrying one or two foetuses are observed from week 5 of pregnancy until parturition. Factorial Discriminant Analysis provides mathematical models for the discrimination between the litter size using the PAG level and the week of pregnancy. Using only one blood sample per week, high sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy (74%, 88% and 81%) were obtained using these models. It is concluded that the PAG RIA is an effective tool for early diagnosis of pregnancy and for discrimination between the litter sizes in North Moroccan goats. PMID:18507794

Chentouf, M; El Amiri, B; Sulon, J; Beckers, J F; Kirschvink, N; Boulanouar, B; Bister, J L

2008-12-01

186

Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

1987-05-01

187

Genetic characterization of Barbari goats using microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in Barbari goats, a highly prolific breed distributed widely in the northern part of India, known for better milk and meat quality, was studied as a part of genetic characterization and conservation. The genomic DNA from 50 unrelated Barbari goats were amplified via PCR with a panel of 21 microsatellite markers, and resolved through 6 per cent denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. The number of alleles ranged from 4 to 11, with allele sizes ranging from 88 to 220 bp. The distribution of allele frequencies was between 0.0104 and 0.5208. Polymorphism information content varied from 0.5563 to 0.8348. The population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all except two microsatellite loci (ILSTS044 and ILSTS060). The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.8478 to 1.0000 while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.6208 to 0.8509. Based on the results of the present study, there is a good scope for exploiting the genetic variability in the Barbari goats for further improvement of performance. PMID:19255527

Ramamoorthi, J.; Thilagam, K.; Karthickeyan, S. M. K.

2009-01-01

188

Effect of donor stimulation, frozen semen and heparin treatment on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations on in vitro embryo production in goats in comparison with other domestic species, especially cattle, have been the subject of few reports despite their usefulness for both basic research and commercial application. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficiency of IVP in goats using immature follicular oocytes recovered from FSH-primed and control goats. After IVM, oocytes

Lucyna K; Bo?enna Ry?ska; Barbara Gajda; Zdzis?aw Smor

2004-01-01

189

Detection of antibody to Mycoplasma F38 in goat sera by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen goat sera at a single dilution for antibody to mycoplasma F38. Antibody was detected in sera of six convalescent goats following experimental infection. Antibody was also detected in 34 sera three to four weeks after vaccination. No antibody was detected in 164 sera from goats without a history of vaccination

H. M. Wamwayi; J. S. Wafula; J. K. Litamoi; E. N. NArcOOra-IA

1989-01-01

190

Anthelmintic and nutritional effects of heather supplementation on Cashmere goats grazing perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate anthelmintic and nutri- tional effects of heather supplementation in goats graz- ing perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures, 40 dry Cashmere goats were randomly assigned to 4 treat- ments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 grazing man- agement treatments (supplementation with heather vs. nonsupplementation) and 2 anthelmintic treatments (treatment vs. nontreatment). Goats grazed continu- ously from May to

K. Osoro; A. Mateos-Sanz; P. Frutos; U. Garcõ ´ a; L. M. Ortega-Mora; L. M. M. Ferreira; R. Celaya; I. Ferre

191

Rumen ciliated protozoa of the Turkish domestic goats (Capra hir cus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rumen contents obtained from eight adult domesticated goats ( Capra hircus L.) at slaughterhouses in the southeastern area of Turkey were surveyed for ciliate protozoa. As a result of our survey, 12 genera including 39 species were identified. Fifteen of the species were further divided into 35 formae. The average ciliate density in the rumen contents of Turkish goats (33.21x10

BAYRAM GÖÇMEN; SAMIYE RASTGELDI; ADEM KARAO LU; HAKAN A KAN

192

Indigenous knowledge of fodder tree selectivity by local goats in the mid-hills of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Tree fodder is an important constituent of livestock feed in the mid-hills of Nepal, particularly so during the dry winter. The purpose of this paper is to compare the ranking of tree fodders by indigenous goat raisers to the selectivity of fodder by goats. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Fodder from six trees, namely, khanayo (Ficus semicordata), sal (Shorea robusta), kabro

Luma Nidhi Pandey; Michael Kam; Shambhu B. Pandey; Chet R. Upreti; Netra P. Osti; A. Allan Degen

2009-01-01

193

Effects of Green Tea and Grape Seed and TBHQ on Physicochemical Properties of Baladi Goat Meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of natural extracts of green tea or commercial grape seed in combination with synthetic tert methyl-butylhydroquinone at different concentrations on lipid oxidation and the redness of goat meats stored at 5°C for 9 days was evaluated. Fresh boneless Baladi goat meats were ground and mixed at varying concentrations of green tea or grape seed extract alone or combined

Taha M. Rababah; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Khaled M. Al-Qudah; Laith M. Rousan; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Muhammad H. Al-udatt; Wade Yang

2011-01-01

194

EFFECT OF GREEN TEA AND GRAPE SEED AND TBHQ ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BALADI GOAT MEATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of natural extracts of green tea or commercial grape seed in combination with synthetic tert methyl-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) at different concentrations on lipid oxidation and the redness of goat meats stored at 5 °C for 9 days was evaluated. Fresh boneless baladi goat meats were ground and mixed at varying concentrations of green tea or grape seed extract alone

Taha M. Rababah; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Khaled M. Al-Qudah; Laith M. Rousan; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Muhammad H. Al-udatt; Wade Yang

2011-01-01

195

Prevention of Clinical Mastitis with Barium Selenate in Dairy Goats from a Selenium-Deficient Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mastitis is one of the most negative factors involved in the economy of dairy goat farms. The effect of sele- nium on mammary gland resistance to infectious dis- eases has been demonstrated. This work evaluates the efficacy of a slow-release Se salt (barium selenate) to reduce the incidence of clinical mastitis in goats reared on Se-deficient areas. Six hundred milking

J. Sánchez; P. Montes; A. Jiménez; S. Andrés

2007-01-01

196

Association of Raillietia caprae with the presence of Mycoplasmas in the external ear canal of goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We did a descriptive study to determine whether the presence in the external ear canal of the Raillietia caprae mites and Mycoplasmas were associated. For that we sampled 360 goats slaughtered at abattoirs in the summer to identify those infested with the mite. We found only 20 infested, so used all of those plus another 47 uninfested goats selected systematically

Otero Negrete Jimena; Jaramillo Meza Laura; Miranda Morales Rosa Elena; Navarro Hernández Jaime Alonso; Quintero Martínez María Teresa

2009-01-01

197

Genetic and phenotypic relationships between milk production and body weight in Chios sheep and Damascus goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on 2087 lactations from 737 Chios ewes collected between 1978 and 1989, and 1611 lactations from 486 Damascus goats collected from 1982 to 1998 at the experimental station of the Agricultural Research Institute were utilized. The ewes were the progeny of 101 sires (mean sire family size 7.3) and the goats of 101 sires (mean sire family size 4.8).

A. P Mavrogenis; C Papachristoforou

2000-01-01

198

COMPARATIVE UTILIZATION OF WARM AND COOL-SEASON FORAGES BY CATTLE, SHEEP AND GOATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of different classes of forage hay (C3, C4 grasses and legumes) was determined in intake and digestibility trials with mature cattle, sheep and goats. For all nine hays, DM and NDF digestibility by cattle and goats was higher (P c .05) than by sheep, with no differences due to forage class. Cattle had a higher (P c .01)

R. L. Reid; G. A. Jung; J. M. Cox-Ganser; B. F. Rybeck; E. C. Townsend

2010-01-01

199

Effect of sex and genotype on protein metabolism parameters in the liver of the young goat  

E-print Network

Effect of sex and genotype on protein metabolism parameters in the liver of the young goat SJ genotypes and sexes to possible differences in the liver nitrogen metabolism of the goat. Local PW male expressed as RNA/protein and protein/DNA ratios, respectively. Within both sexes the crossbreeds had higher

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Status of World Literature on Dairy Goats, Introductory Remarks[1], [2] and [3  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to wide interest in the United States and around the globe, a world literature search has been initiated with this symposium. A representative selection of some 240 publications on goat management from various countries is included with this introduction. They are intended to aid efforts of the first National Research Council Committee on nutrient requirements of goats, projects

G. F. W. Haenlein

1980-01-01

201

Effects of insulin, cortisol and prolactin on lipid, protein and casein syntheses in goat mammary tissue  

E-print Network

Effects of insulin, cortisol and prolactin on lipid, protein and casein syntheses in goat mammary of insulin, prolactin and cortisol on protein, lipid and casein syntheses were examined in goat mammary or not with cortisol. Casein synthesis was stimulated only when prolactin was present in the culture medium. Prolactin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

Effect of season on the freezability of Boer goat semen in the northern temperate zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of season (spring, summer, autumn and winter) on pre- and post-freezing percentage of motile spermatozoa and percentage of live spermatozoa in Boer breed goat semen was studied between February 1, 1989, and January 1, 1990. Of the available 195 ejaculates collected from 6 healthy sexually mature Boer goat bucks, 177 had a mass activity greater than 3 (0

R. K. Tuli; W. Holtz

1995-01-01

203

Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on cryopreservation of Boer goat semen in Tris egg yolk extender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant added in different concentrations to the Tris egg yolk extenders on semen cytological parameters pre freezing and post thawing (motility, morphology, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity) of Boer goat spermatozoa. A total of 40 ejaculates from four Boer goat bucks were collected

Akeel Ahmed Memon; H. Wahid; Y. Rosnina; Y. M. Goh; M. Ebrahimi; F. M. Nadia; G. Audrey

204

Comparison of two commercial extenders for cryopreservation of goat semen without sperm washing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two commercially available semen extenders on the motility of cryopreserved goat sperm and to simplify the cryopreservation protocol. Individual goat ejaculates were split and processed in parallel for freezing in either commercially available soy-based extender (Bioxcell®) or egg yolk-based extender (Irvine TYB). Sperm quality was assessed using total and

D. J. Roof; S. Bowley; L. L. Price; D. J. Matsas

205

Clinical and antigenic relationship between isolates of sheep and goat pox viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of sheep pox and goat pox from Nigeria, Sudan, Kenya, Yemen Arab Republic, Turkey, Pakistan and India were inoculated into British breeds of sheep and goats. Although the isolates displayed a host preference the gross clinical pathology of the disease produced by the different isolates was indistinguishable. The Yemen, Nigeria and India isolates could not be distinguished using homologous

R. P. Kitching; W. P. Taylor

1985-01-01

206

Effects of non-genetic factors on production traits of Inner Mongolia cashmere goats in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of age, sex, age of dam, year of production, herd, and type of birth on cashmere weight, fiber diameter, fiber length, body weight at birth, weaning and yearling in goats, were based on 12 years data from an Inner Mongolia Albas cashmere goat stock farm. The year of production had significant influence on cashmere weight, fiber diameter and

H. M Zhou; D Allain; J. Q Li; W. G Zhang; X. C Yu

2003-01-01

207

Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158

Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

2011-08-01

208

Cheese production potential of milk of Dahlem Cashmere goats from a rheological point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation properties, along with the main components (protein, casein, fat), of goat milk during cheese processing were rheologically evaluated on milk of two breeds of goats (Dahlem Cashmere: DC and German Fawn: GF) using dynamic mechanical analyses. Coagulation time (CT) was estimated during gel formation at 1Hz and 1% strain for 79min after rennet addition. In the sol–gel transition range,

O. Dimassi; S. Neidhart; R. Carle; L. Mertz; G. Migliore; A. Mané-Bielfeldt; A. Valle Zárate

2005-01-01

209

Amino Acid Exchange by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats when Histidine Limits Milk Production  

E-print Network

Amino Acid Exchange by the Mammary Gland of Lactating Goats when Histidine Limits Milk Production B gland in response to an imposed limitation on His supply for milk production. Lactating goats (n = 4% of energy requirements for milk production. The protein deficiency was alleviated by infusion

Bequette, Brian J.

210

Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in vivo.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission. PMID:22276529

Ali Al Ahmad, Mohamad Z; Dubreil, Laurence; Chatagnon, Gérard; Khayli, Zakaria; Theret, Marine; Martignat, Lionel; Chebloune, Yahia; Fieni, Francis

2012-01-01

211

The length of the cycle of seminiferous epithelium in goats ( Capra hircus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report in literature showing the length of the seminiferous epithelium cycle in goats. In the present study, the duration of spermatogenesis was estimated using intratesticular injections of tritiated thymidine. Animals were castrated at 4 h, 7 days, and 11 days after injections. The duration of each spermatogenic cycle in goats is 10.6 ± 0.5 days (SEM).

L. R. França; S. C. Becker-Silva; H. Chiarini-Garcia

1999-01-01

212

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

the herbaceous vegetation becomes scarce. Unfortunately, the high content of this forage is suspected to limit on the fermentation capacity of sheep and goat rumen fluid were also investigated. Results indicate that the infusion the fermentation capacity of sheep rumen fluid by five points and improved that of goats by the same amount

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Effectof Exerciseon the PlasmaNonesterified FattyAcid Composition of Dogsand Goats:Specieswith Different  

E-print Network

as tracers for turnover studies. Individual NEFA were measured in trained dogs and goats (VO2max dog/VO2max goat = 2.2; where VO2max = max- imal oxygen consumption) during treadmill exercise at 40 and 60% VO2max in aero- bic capacity. The more aerobic species (dog) had much higher plasma NEFAconcentrations for all

McClelland, Grant B.

214

Immunohistochemical Features of PrP d Accumulation in Natural and Experimental Goat Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion disease, which naturally affects sheep and goats. Immunohistochemical epitope mapping of abnormal PrP accumulations (PrPd) in brain can help in characterizing sheep TSE sources or strains and in identifying potential bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infections of sheep. Natural and experimental TSE infections of goats were examined to determine whether the epitope

M. Jeffrey; S. Martin; L. González; J. Foster; J. P. M. Langeveld; F. G. van Zijderveld; J. Grassi; N. Hunter

2006-01-01

215

GOAT MAMMARY, ADIPOSE AND MILK LIPOPROTEIN LIPASES Y. CHILLIARD D.SAUVANT P. MORAND-FEHR  

E-print Network

GOAT MAMMARY, ADIPOSE AND MILK LIPOPROTEIN LIPASES Y. CHILLIARD D.SAUVANT P. MORAND. It is generally assumed that milk LPL is synthetized within mammary epithelial cells (Hamosh and Scow, 1971, adipose, mammary and milk LPL activities were simultaneously measured in lac- tating goats to specify

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

Lysozyme Transgenic Goats' Milk Influences Gastrointestinal Morphology in Young Pigs1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenesis provides a method of expressing novel proteins in milk to increase the functional benefits of milk consumption. Transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme (hLZ) at 67% of the concentration in human breast milk were produced, thereby enhancing the antimicrobial properties of goats' milk. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of pasteurized milk containing hLZ on growth,

Dottie R. Brundige; Elizabeth A. Maga; Kirk C. Klasing; James D. Murray

217

True hermaphroditism in a horned goat with 60XX/60XY chimerism.  

PubMed Central

Anatomical, behavioral, histological, endocrinological, and cytogenetic characteristics were determined in a horned intersex goat. Histology of the gonads confirmed that the goat was a true hermaphrodite. Cytogenetic analysis showed that it was a chimera (60XX/60XY). Use of laparoscopy allowed determination of characteristics of the internal gonads. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10907580

Batista, M; Gonzalez, F; Cabrera, F; Palomino, E; Castellano, E; Calero, P; Gracia, A

2000-01-01

218

Preference Indices for Forage Species Grazed by Spanish Goats on a Semiarid Shrubland in México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramirez, R. G., Sauceda, J. G., Narro, J. A. and Aranda, J. 1993. Preference indices for forage species grazed by Spanish goats on a semiarid shrubland in Mexico. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 3: 55–66.Botanical composition of diets of Spanish goats was studied on the Facultad de Agronomia, V. A N. L. Experimental Station with the objectives to determine monthly differences

R. G. Ramírez; J. G. Sauceda; J. A. Narro; J. Aranda

1993-01-01

219

Placing the mountain goat: A total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of a group’s evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a ‘rogue taxon’ as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as

Aaron B. A. Shafer; Jocelyn C. Hall

2010-01-01

220

Skull, mandible, and metapodials of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat (Oreamnos harringtoni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chester Stock (1936) described a late Rancholabrean species of extinct mountain goat (Oreamnos harringtoni) based on scant remains from a cave in the Great Basin, Nevada. We present a review using cranial, mandibular, and metapodial remains of O. harringtoni from 13 localities in the southwest. The extinct mountain goat is not just a smaller form of the living species, O.

Jim I. Mead; Mark C. Lawler

1995-01-01

221

Evidence for persistent Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) viruses are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. There is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-range and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that are immunotolerant to the infecting strain of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and shed virus throughout their lives. Seven species (white-tailed deer, mouse deer, eland, domestic cattle, alpaca, sheep, and pigs) have been definitively identified as persistently infected with BVDV. This study provides serological, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histological evidence for BVDV infection in 2 captive mountain goats from a zoological park in Idaho. The study was triggered by isolation of BVDV from tissues and immunohistochemical identification of viral antigen within lesions of a 7-month-old male mountain goat (goat 1). Blood was collected from other mountain goats and white-tailed and mule deer on the premises for BVDV serum neutralization, viral isolation, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. One 3-month-old mountain goat (goat 2) was antibody negative and BVDV positive in serum samples collected 3 months apart. This goat subsequently died, and though still antibody negative, BVDV was isolated from tissues and identified by immunohistochemistry within lesions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as BVDV-2. These findings provide evidence of persistent infection in a mountain goat, underscoring the need for pestivirus control strategies for wild ruminants in zoological collections. PMID:18987224

Nelson, Danielle D; Dark, Michael J; Bradway, Daniel S; Ridpath, Julia F; Call, Neill; Haruna, Julius; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Evermann, James F

2008-11-01

222

Animal Model Evaluation of Dairy Goats for Milk, Fat, and Protein Yields with Crossbred Animals Included  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic evaluation of dairy goats was extended to include evaluation of protein yield and evaluation of Oberhasli and experimental breeds. Diverse genetic background of parents of crossbred ani- mals can be accounted for with an animal model that includes all relationships. The animal model system implemented for dairy goats differed from the one for dairy cattle in that all breeds

G. R. Wiggans

1989-01-01

223

Production GH transgenic goat improving mammogenesis by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Growth hormone is a positive regulator of mammary gland development. Dairy animals that are administered growth hormone display enhanced lactation performance, a desirable agricultural trait. The objective of the current research was to generate an improved milk production phenotype in a large animal model using over-expressed GH in the mammary gland to promote mammogenesis. To this end, we constructed a mammary gland-specific expression vector, pcGH, and demonstrated effective GH expression in goat mammary epithelial cells in vitro by ELISA. Then, to produce transgenic offspring that were capable of stable GH expression in vivo, the linearized pcGH vector was electroporated into goat fetal fibroblasts. Cell colonies that were positive for GH were used as donors for nuclear transfer to enucleated oocytes. A total of 253 morulae or blastocytes developed from the reconstructed embryos were transferred to 56 recipients, resulting in 24 pregnancies at day 35. Finally, six transgenic goats were born. PCR detection confirmed the success of the cloning procedure. To observe the mammogenesis of dairy goats, the GH transgenic goats were mated with a completely healthy buck. In the later pregnancy period, the mammary gland of the GH transgenic goats were extensive than non-transgenic goats. These experiments indicated that the pcGH vector was incorporated into the transgenic goats and affected mammogenesis, which laid a solid foundation for elucidating the impact of GH on mammogenesis and lactation performance. PMID:24706058

Zhang, Q; Chen, J Q; Lin, J; Yu, Q H; Yu, H Q; Xu, X J; Liu, G H; Yang, Q

2014-07-01

224

How Did Domestication Change the Hair Morphology in Sheep and Goats?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed macro-and microscopic features of dorsal guard hairs in 21 specimens of wild and domestic sheep and goats. We integrated and extended the available data on hair morphology of wild species and provide a first comparative analysis of hair structure of domestic forms. Domestic sheep and goats, probably due to a convergence process under artificial selection, show similar medullary

Anna Maria De Marinis; Alessandro Asprea

2006-01-01

225

Risk factors associated with the incidence of seroconversion to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goats on California dairies.  

PubMed

Incidence of seroconversion to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was determined for 1,194 goats on 11 dairies, using 2 repeated annual herd tests for CAEV. Current life table methods were used to compare age-specific incidence of seroconversion for pasteurized milk-raised and unpasteurized milk-raised goats. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risk factors associated with CAEV seroconversion, and to estimate odds ratios for seroconversion for various factor levels. Goats raised by unpasteurized milk-feeding methods were 2.5 to 6.7 times more likely to seroconvert than were goats raised by pasteurized milk-feeding methods, depending on the method of comparison. Similarly, 61.6 to 85.0% of seroconversions in yearling goats possibly were attributable to unpasteurized milk feeding. Among yearling goats, CAEV seroconversion was associated with feeding method, breed, and source of goat (herd of origin) when the effect of dairy was considered. In addition to the 6.7 times greater risk of seroconversion for unpasteurized milk-raised goats, yearling goats of the Saanen and Toggenburg breeds were 2.2 and 3.3 times, respectively, more likely to seroconvert than were Alpine yearling goats. Yearling goats purchased from another source were less likely to seroconvert than were yearlings raised on the dairy where they were studied. Among goats > 1 year old, age was associated with risk of seroconversion. Goats that were 3 years old or were > or = 4 years old were 1.7 and 3.2 times, respectively, more likely to seroconvert than were 2-year-old goats, when adjusted for effect of dairy. The effects of dairy were significant (P < or = 0.001) in yearling and older goats. PMID:1335710

Rowe, J D; East, N E; Franti, C E; Thurmond, M C; Pedersen, N C; Theilen, G H

1992-12-01

226

Vitrification of in vitro produced goat blastocysts: effects of oocyte donor age and development stage.  

PubMed

This study examines the effectiveness of the cryotop vitrification method for the cryopreservation of goat blastocysts. To determine the effects of embryo development stage and donor age on in vitro survival rates, good-quality blastocysts from adult and prepubertal goats were sorted into non-expanded, expanded, hatching and completely hatched. In vitro produced (IVP) blastocysts were derived from prepubertal goat oocytes by slicing of ovaries from slaughtered animals while adult goat oocytes were collected by the laparoscopic ovum pick up (LOPU) method. Blastocysts were vitrified/warmed using the cryotop technique. Survival rates were determined in terms of blastocoele re-expansion at 3 and 20 h post-warming. For prepubertal goats, survival rates at 3h post-warming were significantly higher when expanded blastocysts (78.3%) were vitrified/warmed compared to hatched blastocysts (57.4%), whereas non-expanded (62.5%) or hatching blastocysts (71.4%) showed similar rates. For adult goats, survival rates were significantly higher after warming in expanded (36.4%), hatching (75%) or hatched (50%) blastocysts when compared to non-expanded (0%) blastocysts. When survival rates were assessed at 20 h post-warming, no differences were observed when we compared non-expanded (45.8%), expanded (56.5%), hatching (64.3%) and hatched (50.5%) blastocysts from prepubertal goats; and for blastocysts from adult goats, survival rates were only significantly lower for the non-expanded stage (0%) compared to the other stages. For adult versus prepubertal blastocysts at the same developmental stage, our data indicate significantly higher survival rates at 3 h post-warming for non-expanded and expanded blastocysts from prepubertal goats over their counterparts from adult goats. At 20 h post warming, survival rates were only higher for non-expanded blastocysts from prepubertal goats versus adult goats. Collectively, our data reveal that blastocysts produced in vitro from prepubertal goats return similar survival rates regardless of their development stage, whereas blastocysts derived from adult goats are best for vitrification at the expanded, hatching or hatched stage. PMID:21963380

Morató, Roser; Romaguera, Roser; Izquierdo, Dolors; Paramio, Maria Teresa; Mogas, Teresa

2011-12-01

227

An initial comparative map of copy number variations in the goat (Capra hircus) genome  

PubMed Central

Background The goat (Capra hircus) represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs) in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina) using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. Results We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat), with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs): on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome). These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P < 0.0001) suggesting that several chromosome regions might contain recurrent interspecies CNVRs. Genes with environmental functions were over-represented in goat CNVRs as reported in other mammals. Conclusions We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the functional relevance of these CNVs and their effects on behavior, production, and disease resistance traits in goats. PMID:21083884

2010-01-01

228

A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats submitted to 3 veterinary diagnostic laboratories.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of arriving at a definitive etiologic diagnosis in goats with clinical signs referable to the spinal cord. Twenty-seven goats with a spinal cord lesion were identified. The most common lesion recognized, in 13 of 27 goats, was degenerative myelopathy. Eight goats with degenerative myelopathy were diagnosed with copper deficiency. Non-suppurative inflammation due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, necrosis due to parasite larvae migration, and neoplasia were each diagnosed 3 times. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to careful handling and histologic examination of the spinal cord, samples of other tissues, including the brain, liver, and serum, be collected for ancillary testing if warranted. PMID:23204583

Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

2012-06-01

229

Small ruminant lentivirus proviral sequences from wild ibexes in contact with domestic goats.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are widespread amongst domesticated goats and sheep worldwide, but have not been clearly identified in wild small ruminants, where they might constitute an animal health risk through contamination from local domesticates. SRLV proviruses from three ibexes from the French Alps are described and sequences from their gag gene and long terminal repeats (LTRs) were compared with sequences from local goats and goat/ibex hybrids. The ibex and hybrid proviruses formed a closely related group with <2 % nucleotide difference. Their LTRs were clearly distinct from those of local goats or reference SRLV sequences; however, their gag sequences resembled those from one local goat and reference sequences from caprine arthritis encephalitis virus rather than visna/maedi virus. One SRLV-positive ibex from a distant site shared similarities with the other ibexes studied in both its gag and LTR sequences, suggesting that a distinct SRLV population could circulate in some wild ibex populations. PMID:18474564

Erhouma, Esadk; Guiguen, François; Chebloune, Yahia; Gauthier, Dominique; Lakhal, Laila Mselli; Greenland, Timothy; Mornex, Jean François; Leroux, Caroline; Alogninouwa, Théodore

2008-06-01

230

Placing the mountain goat: a total evidence approach to testing alternative hypotheses.  

PubMed

The interpretation of a group's evolutionary history can be altered based on the phylogenetic placement of problematic taxa. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) epitomize a 'rogue taxon' as many placements within the Caprini tribe have been suggested. Using a total evidence approach, we reconstructed the Caprini phylogeny using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Bayesian and likelihood methods placed mountain goats as an independent lineage sister to all Caprini except muskox and goral. Maximum parsimony placed mountain goats in a derived Caprini clade. Closer examination revealed that parsimony analysis failed to integrate over phylogenetic uncertainty. We then tested our mountain goat placement against nine published alternatives using non-parametric tests, and the parametric SOWH test. Non-parametric tests returned ambiguous results, but the SOWH test rejected all alternative hypotheses. Our study represents the first explicit testing of all hypotheses for the placement of mountain goats and supports a relatively basal position for the taxon. PMID:20097296

Shafer, Aaron B A; Hall, Jocelyn C

2010-04-01

231

Agricultural niche market risk-takers: analysis of production practices and information sources of Texas meat goat producers  

E-print Network

by Meat Goat Producers (n= 303) . . 54 Table 19. Importance Ranked Factors That Affect Fertility of Doe Herd (n= 303), . 55 Table 20. Percent Kidding (? of Kids Born/? of Does Bred) of Meat Goat Herd (n= 310). 55 Table 21. Percent Weaning (?of Kids... Weaned/? of Kids Bom) of Meat Goat Herd (n= 305) . . 56 Table 22. Practices Used to Improve Reproductive Performance of Meat Goat Doe Herd (n= 307) 57 Table 23. Breeding Systems Used by Meat Goat Producers (n= 310). . . 57 Table 24. Number...

Coleman, Kelly Lee Ann

2012-06-07

232

Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.  

PubMed

Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. PMID:24140164

Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

2013-12-01

233

Polymorphisms of BMPR-IB gene and their relationship with litter size in goats.  

PubMed

The bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) gene was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. According to mRNA sequence of ovine BMPR-IB gene, ten pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of exon 1, exon 2, exon 6 to exon 10 and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the BMPR-IB gene in both high prolificacy breed (Jining Grey goat) and low prolificacy breeds (Wendeng Dairy and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method. Only the products amplified by primers P8 and P10 of the 3'UTR displayed polymorphisms. For primer P8, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in Jining Grey and Wendeng Dairy goats, two genotypes (AA and AB) were in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (71C?T) of the BMPR-IB gene in genotype BB compared with AA. The differences of least squares mean (LSM) for litter size between genotypes AA, AB and BB were non-significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. For primer P10, three genotypes (CC, CD and DD) were detected in Jining Grey and Wendeng Dairy goats and one genotype (CC) in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (130T?C) of the BMPR-IB gene in genotype DD compared with CC. The differences of LSM for litter size between genotypes CC, CD and DD were non-significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. These results preliminarily showed that the detected loci of the BMPR-IB gene had no significant effect on prolificacy of Jining Grey goats. PMID:20300862

Chu, M X; Zhao, X H; Zhang, Y J; Jin, M; Wang, J Y; Di, R; Cao, G L; Feng, T; Fang, L; Ma, Y H; Li, K

2010-12-01

234

A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of making a definitive diagnosis in goats that may have had clinical signs referable to the brain. One hundred thirty-nine goats with a brain lesion were identified. The most common lesion, in 52.5% of the goats, was suppurative inflammation. Approximately two-thirds of these goats had encephalitic listeriosis. Other goats were found to have suppurative inflammation in association with septicemia, pituitary abscesses, dehorning injury, and otitis. Thirty goats (21.6%) were diagnosed with polioencephalomalacia. Twenty-one goats (15.1%) were diagnosed with nonsuppurative inflammation. In more than half of these goats, no definitive diagnosis was made, while 8 were infected with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and 1 with Rabies virus. However, few goats were tested for rabies. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to appropriate handling of the brain, the head should be examined with attention paid to the sella turcica and the temporal bones for evidence of a pituitary abscess and otitis, respectively. Histologic examination should include multiple areas of the brain, including the brainstem, for lesions of encephalic listeriosis; the cerebral cortex, for lesions of polioencephalomalacia; and the hippocampus, for Negri bodies associated with Rabies virus infection. Consideration should be given to collecting samples of other tissues including, but not limited to, the spinal cord and liver for ancillary testing if warranted. PMID:23794017

Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

2013-07-01

235

Detection and Survival of Toxoplasma gondii in Milk and Cheese from Experimentally Infected Goats.  

PubMed

The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed. PMID:25285492

Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

2014-10-01

236

Effects of cysteine and different incubation temperatures on the microflora, chemical composition and sensory characteristics of bio-yogurt made from goat’s milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yogurt and bio-yogurts were made from goat’s milk using a starter culture and probiotic culture, with or without cysteine addition (0.5%). Incubation was carried out at 37 and 42°C until pH 4.6 was reached and yogurts were stored 4±1°C for 14 days. Yogurts were analysed 1, 7 and 14 days after production. The addition of cysteine, incubation temperature and storage

Mutlu B. Güler-Ak?n; M. Serdar Ak?n

2007-01-01

237

Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in goats in areas of Mexico with and without brucellosis control campaign.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a major constraint for small-scale goat farming systems in Mexico. This study estimated the prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis and identified and quantified risk factors in goats from small-scale farms of Michoacán that had participated in a brucellosis campaign (i.e. vaccination, serological testing, culling and awareness) and of Jalisco that had negligible brucellosis campaign participation. A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted among 1,713 goats of 83 flocks. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis was higher (38%) in Jalisco than in Michoacán (11%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that goats from Michoacán had lower odds to test positive for brucellosis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.48) compared to goats from Jalisco. Goats in zero-grazing systems had lower odds than goats in grazing systems (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.57). When goats were kept in pens with low density (0.002 to 0.22 goat/m(2)), odds was lower (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.67) compared to goats kept in pens with higher density (0.23 to 1 goat/m(2)). Odds was higher for testing positive when farmers bought goats from goat traders (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.87) compared to farmers who did not. If scavenger poultry had access to goat pens, the odds was half (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.33-0.83) of those where poultry had no access. Regular disinfection of the pen reduced the odds (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) compared to where disinfection was not regular. The brucellosis control campaign was effective in reducing brucellosis seropositivity. PMID:23420068

Oseguera Montiel, David; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; Keilbach Baer, Nícola Maria; van der Zijpp, Akke

2013-08-01

238

Analysis of weaning-induced stress in Saanen goat kids.  

PubMed

In young ruminants' life, weaning often coincides with a period of growth stasis and poor welfare. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of coping with the new diet on behavioural and haematological stress indicators in goat kids subjected to a commonly adopted weaning practice. Immediately after birth, male Saanen goat kids were divided into two groups: MILK and WMIX. All were fed colostrum for the first 3 days and then goat milk to the age of 29 days. After that, MILK kids continued to receive milk, while the WMIX kids underwent weaning and were completely weaned by day 48. Animal behaviour was recorded daily. From day 23-50, blood samples were taken weekly and analysed for indicators of stress and immune function. No abnormal behaviour, such as injurious behaviours or stereotypies, was observed in either of the experimental groups throughout the experimental period. During the last week, fasting plasma cortisol level was significantly lower, whereas plasma activity of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly higher in WMIX kids, in relation to the MILK ones. Anyway, data were within the normal physiological range and no difference was observed neither in plasma haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, albumin and antithrombin III, nor in plasma immunoglobulin A and G, at any time, signalling no stressful condition. Therefore, differences observed in cortisol, ALT and AST could be the consequence of the metabolic changes that occur during the transition from pre-ruminant to ruminant state. The gradual weaning at 48 days of age did not result in any stressful condition and had no negative effect on weight gain. Results suggest that parameters commonly adopted to provide information on animal stress, such as cortisol and aminotransferase activity, can vary in relation to the physiological status of the animals and may bias stress assessment. PMID:22715986

Magistrelli, D; Aufy, A A; Pinotti, L; Rosi, F

2013-08-01

239

Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds?  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark. PMID:25076056

Holm, Signe A.; Sorensen, Camilla R. L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

2014-01-01

240

Control strategies using diclazuril against coccidiosis in goat kids.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis is probably the main parasitic disease affecting goat kids around the weaning period, leading to high economic losses in goat production due to deaths and delayed growth rates of infected animals. A total of 101 kids of 2-4 weeks of age, naturally infected with Eimeria spp., were divided into five groups and studies were conducted to analyse the effects of metaphylactic administration of diclazuril (Vecoxan®) on parasitological and productive parameters. Two different doses of diclazuril (1 and 2 mg/kg BW, p.o.) were given either at 3 weeks (single treatment) or at 3 and 5 weeks of life (double treatment). The faecal oocyst shedding and the body weights of the animals were monitored at 2-weeks intervals for 6 consecutive weeks. Treatments of goat kids with diclazuril were effective against the three most predominant Eimeria species recorded in this study (E. arloingi, E. ninakohlyakimovae and E. christenseni) and also against other minor species found in faecal examinations, including E. alijevi, E. caprina, E. jolchijevi, E. caprovina, E. hirci and E. aspheronica). In consequence, OPG values lower than 1?×?10(3) were detected in 90 to 100% of the animals up to 15-20 days post-treatment depending on the treatment regimen. Even a single dose of 1 mg/kg BW p.o. resulted in an increase of growth rates in treated animals and therefore should be considered as a control strategy in farms precluding coccidian infections, whilst double and multiple dose treatments could be the recommendation for environments heavily contaminated with Eimeria oocysts. In relation to the OPG reduction and increased growth rates, the severity of the clinical signs (i.e., diarrhoea) was ameliorated in treated animals during the course of infection compared to that of non-treated or control kids. The precise timing of treatment appears crucial in order to prevent severe clinical coccidiosis and thereby enabling the adequate development of protective immune response against Eimeria challenge infections. PMID:22193521

Ruiz, Antonio; Guedes, Aránzazu C; Muñoz, María C; Molina, José M; Hermosilla, Carlos; Martín, Sergio; Hernández, Yeray I; Hernández, Alvaro; Pérez, Davinia; Matos, Lorena; López, Adassa M; Taubert, Anja

2012-06-01

241

High excretion of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum by peri-parturient goats in one flock in western France.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium spp. is an important agent of neonatal diarrhoea in goat kids. Little is known about its molecular characterization in adult goats. A longitudinal study was set up to identify the species excreted by adult goats around parturition. Individual faecal samples were collected from 20 pregnant adult goats between 1 and 5 years old in one flock. Samplings began 3 weeks before the estimated kidding date and were done weekly until kidding and for 2 weeks after kidding. Cryptosporidium oocysts were concentrated from 15 g of faeces using a caesium chloride (CsCl) method. Oocyst output was determined using a direct immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Genomic DNA was extracted from each CsCl-concentrated faecal sample positive by IFAT and submitted to a nested PCR-RFLP on the SSU rDNA gene followed by sequencing to identify the isolates at species level. According to their kidding date, goats were sampled between 4 and 8 times. Sixteen goats, out of the eighteen which kidded, were found positive at least at one sampling date. Infection was asymptomatic. Prevalence of excretion was maximal 14 days before kidding with half of the goats excreting oocysts at this date. Excretion was higher before kidding than after kidding. Unexpected levels of excretion were observed with individual oocyst excretion ranging from 6 to 2.5 × 10(5) oocysts per gram of faeces. All isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. PMID:24746237

Paraud, C; Pors, I; Rieux, A; Brunet, S

2014-05-28

242

Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.  

PubMed

Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range. PMID:19395736

Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

2009-04-01

243

Recovery of Mycoplasma agalactiae from the ears of goats experimentally infected by the intramammary route.  

PubMed

The role of inapparent carriers of Mycoplasma agalactiae and the strategies used to colonise the external ear canal in goats remain unclear. This study examined the ability of M. agalactiae to colonise the ears of goats infected experimentally by the intramammary route. The right mammary glands of 15 lactating goats were inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units (cfu) of M. agalactiae. The goats were randomly assigned to three groups of five animals each and sampled at slaughter at 5, 15 or 45 days post-infection (dpi). A further four goats served as uninfected controls. Right and left ear swabs were collected for detection of M. agalactiae by culture before and after sacrifice. M. agalactiae was detected in 19/20 (95%) ear swabs from goats sampled at 15 and 45dpi, whereas all ear swabs collected before inoculation, ear swabs collected from the group sampled at 5dpi and ear swabs from control goats at the time of sacrifice were negative for M. agalactiae. Blood samples collected at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h post-infection for detection of M. agalactiae by culture were also negative. There were differences in the antigenic profiles of isolates recovered from the ears compared to the 7MAG strain used to inoculate the animals and most isolates from the mammary gland, milk and supramammary lymph nodes. PMID:20961778

de la Fe, Christian; Castro-Alonso, A; Herráez, P; Poveda, José B

2011-10-01

244

Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

2009-01-01

245

Performance and Longevity of a Novel Intraosseous Device in a Goat (Capra hircus) Model  

PubMed Central

We performed 2 studies to assess the function and longevity of a novel intraosseous catheter device. For study 1, 9 goats were assigned to 3 groups (intraosseous catheter in the proximal humerus, intraosseous catheter in the proximal tibia, or standard jugular catheter). Devices in the tibia remained in place for less time than did those in the humerus, and no goats exhibited radiographic evidence of resulting damage or structural change in surrounding bone. Positive bacterial cultures were found in all 9 goats at various time points. In study 2, 18 goats were assigned to 2 groups (intraosseous catheter in the wing of the ilium or proximal humerus). Samples for serial aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures and CBC were collected while devices remained in use. Clinical monitoring and removal criteria were identical those for study 1. Catheters in the ilium remained in place for less than 24 h on average, and those in the humerus remained in place for an average of 2.5 d. Several goats with proximal humeral catheters demonstrated moderate lameness after removal, and radiographic evidence of periosteal bone growth was noted in another goat. Bloodwork indicated mild elevations of WBC counts from baseline in some cases. Bacterial growth was found in samples from 4 of 18 goats at various time points. Our study indicated that intraosseous catheters may remain safely in place for more than 24 h, but animals should be monitored closely for negative side effects for several days after removal. PMID:21640033

Jackson, Erin E; Ashley, T Clay; Snowden, Karen F; Gresham, Vincent C; Budke, Christine M; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Taylor, Destiny A

2011-01-01

246

Identification of conservative microRNAs in Saanen dairy goat testis through deep sequencing.  

PubMed

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a kind of small non-coding RNA molecules that function as important gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. In this study, small RNA libraries were constructed based on adult dairy goat testicular tissues and sequenced using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. Blasted to miRNAs of cow and sheep in miRBase 19.0, 373 conserved miRNAs were identified in dairy goat testis and 91 novel paired-miRNAs were found. Expression of miRNAs in the dairy goat testis (miR-10b, miR-126-3p, miR-126-5p, miR-34c, miR-449b and miR-1468) was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In addition, the 128 conserved miRNAs were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in dairy goat testis with those in cow and mouse, which all might be involved in dairy goat testis development and meiosis. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the biology of testis in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology and development in the dairy goat. PMID:23981187

Wu, J; Zhu, H; Song, W; Li, M; Liu, C; Li, N; Tang, F; Mu, H; Liao, M; Li, X; Guan, W; Li, X; Hua, J

2014-02-01

247

Antioxidative probiotic fermented goats' milk decreases oxidative stress-mediated atherogenicity in human subjects.  

PubMed

The increasing interest in a healthy diet is stimulating innovative development of novel scientific products in the food industry. The viable lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products, such as yoghurt, have been associated with increased lactose tolerance, a well-balanced intestinal microflora, antimicrobial activity, stimulation of the immune system and antitumoural, anticholesterolaemic and antioxidative properties in human subjects. Recently, we have studied a human Lactobacillus spp. strain that possesses antioxidative activity. The aim of the present pilot study was to develop goats' milk fermented with the human antioxidative lactobacilli strain, Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3, and to test the effect of the fermented probiotic goats' milk on oxidative stress markers (including markers for atherosclerosis) in human blood and urine and on the gut microflora. Twenty-one healthy subjects were assigned to two treatment groups: goats' milk group and fermented goats' milk group (150 g/d) for a period of 21 d. Consumption of fermented goats' milk improved anti-atherogenicity in healthy subjects: it prolonged resistance of the lipoprotein fraction to oxidation, lowered levels of peroxidized lipoproteins, oxidized LDL, 8-isoprostanes and glutathione redox ratio, and enhanced total antioxidative activity. The consumption of fermented goats' milk also altered both the prevalence and proportion of lactic acid bacteria species in the gut microflora of the subjects. We conclude that the goats' milk fermented with our special antioxidative lactobacilli strain Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 exhibits anti-atherogenic effects. PMID:12908907

Kullisaar, Tiiu; Songisepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Kersti; Vihalemm, Tiiu; Zilmer, Mihkel

2003-08-01

248

Embryonic death in goats caused by the ingestion of Mimosa tenuiflora.  

PubMed

To determine the teratogenic effect of Mimosa tenuiflora, the green fresh plant was administered ad libitum to 12 goats (Group 1) from day 1 to day 30 of gestation. Upon ultrasonographic examination, on day 30, not one of these goats was pregnant, demonstrating that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. Six goats (Group 2) ingested M. tenuiflora from day 30 to day 60 of pregnancy. Four goats delivered seven healthy kids and two were not pregnant based on ultrasonographic examination on day 45 suggesting late embryonic death. Three other groups of six goats each received the plant on days 60-90 (Group 3), 90-120 (Group 4), and 120-150 (Group 5) of gestation and a control group (Group 6) all delivered normal kids, except one goat in Group 4 that aborted and one adult goat from Group 5 that was found dead. It is concluded that M. tenuiflora causes embryonic death. The failure to induce malformations might have resulted from a high dose of an unknown active principle of the plant causing fetal death. PMID:22178006

Dantas, Antônio Flávio M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Lopes, José Radmácyo; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip; Mota, Rinaldo A

2012-04-01

249

Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)  

PubMed Central

Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

2014-01-01

250

The copy number and integration site analysis of IGF-1 transgenic goat.  

PubMed

Transgenic animals have been used previously to study gene function, produce important proteins, and generate models for the study of human diseases. As the number of transgenic species increases, reliable detection and molecular characterization of integration sites and copy number are crucial for confirming transgene expression and genetic stability, as well as for safety evaluation and to meet commercial demands. In this study, we generated four transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). After birth, the cloned goat contained transferred insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) gene was initially confirmed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?based method. The four cloned goats were identified as IGF-1 transgenic goats by southern blotting. The number of copies of the IGF-1 gene in each of the transgenic goats was determined. Additionally, four integration sites of the transgene in the transgenic goats with a modified thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR method were identified. The four different integration sites were located on chromosomes 2, 11, 16 and 18. The present study identified the copy number and integration sites using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and TAIL-PCR, enabling the bio-safety evaluation of the transgenic goats. PMID:25018125

Lin, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Li Q; Yu, Qing H; Yang, Qian

2014-09-01

251

Induced expression of c-fos in the diencephalon and pituitary gland of goats following transportation.  

PubMed

To identify regions of the caprine diencephalone and pituitary gland related to transportation stress, the expression of c-fos protein was examined immunohistochemically as an indicator of neural activation. Ten castrated Shiba goats (Capra hircus), five transported and five controls, were used. Transported goats were trucked for 1 h and killed by transcardiac perfusion 1 h after the end of transportation. Control goats were housed in single pens killed in the same manner and at the same time as the transported goats. The diencephalon and the pituitary gland were removed after perfusion and used for immunostaining. Plasma cortisol concentrations during and after transportation also were investigated. During transportation, plasma cortisol concentrations increased (P < 0.05) compared with those in the controls. In the diencephalon, c-fos immunoreactive cells were detected in the subcallosa, the lateral septal area, the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), the preoptic hypothalamic area (POA), the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the supraoptic nucleus, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus parvocellular (PVNp), the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus magnocellular (PVNm), the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, and the stria medullaris in both control and transported goats. The numbers of c-fos immunoreactive cells were increased (P < 0.05) by transportation in the PVNm, the PVNp, the BNST, the POA, the ARC, and the SCN (P < 0.10). In the anterior pituitary gland, the number of c-fos immunoreactive cells in transported goats was 4 to 30 times as much as in control goats; however, there were no differences in the intermediate and posterior lobes between control and transported goats. This study has identified regions in the caprine diencephalon and pituitary gland that show transport-induced increases in c-fos immunoreactive cells. In conclusion, the PVNm, the PVNp, the BNST, the POA, the SCN in the diencephalons, and the anterior lobe of pituitary gland may be involved in the stress responses of goats to transportation. PMID:16024703

Maejima, Y; Aoyama, M; Abe, A; Sugita, S

2005-08-01

252

Characterization of Liaoning Cashmere Goat Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Functional Annotation and Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology. Results Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51%) unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17%) unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes. Conclusion The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses. PMID:24130835

Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Jinke; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

2013-01-01

253

Fatal Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-like infection in 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).  

PubMed

Over a 3.5-year period, 4 Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), housed at a single facility, developed clinical disease attributed to infection by Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Ages ranged from 1 to 10 years. Three of the goats, a 1-year-old female, a 2-year-old male, and a 5-year-old male, had been fed raw domestic goat milk from a single source that was later found to have CAEV on the premises. The fourth animal, a 10-year-old male, had not ingested domestic goat milk but had been housed with the other 3 Rocky Mountain goats. All 4 animals had clinical signs of pneumonia prior to death. At necropsy, findings in lungs included marked diffuse interstitial pneumonia characterized histologically by severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with massive alveolar proteinosis, interstitial fibrosis, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. One animal also developed left-sided hemiparesis, and locally extensive lymphoplasmacytic myeloencephalitis was present in the cranial cervical spinal cord. Two animals had joint effusions, as well as severe lymphoplasmacytic and ulcerative synovitis. Immunohistochemical staining of fixed sections of lung tissue from all 4 goats, as well as spinal cord in 1 affected animal, and synovium from 2 affected animals were positive for CAEV antigen. Serology testing for anti-CAEV antibodies was positive in the 2 goats tested. The cases suggest that Rocky Mountain goats are susceptible to naturally occurring CAEV infection, that CAEV from domestic goats can be transmitted to this species through infected milk and by horizontal transmission, and that viral infection can result in clinically severe multisystemic disease. PMID:22379056

Patton, Kristin M; Bildfell, Robert J; Anderson, Mark L; Cebra, Christopher K; Valentine, Beth A

2012-03-01

254

Rumen ciliate faunae of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and goat (Capra hircus) in Nepal.  

PubMed

Rumen ciliate composition of river-type water buffalo and goat in Nepal was surveyed. As the result of survey, 13 genera representing 52 species and 20 formae of the ciliates were identified. Of them 13 genera with 44 species and 9 formae were found from the water buffalo and 8 genera with 21 species and 12 formae from the goat. The present paper shows the first report of Hsiungella triciliata, Entodinium brevispinum, E. convexum, E. javanicum, E. rectangulatum f. rectangulatum, E. rectangulatum f. lobosospinosum, Diplodinium nanum, D. psittaceum, D. sinhalicum and Ostracodinium quadrivesiculatum from water buffalo and Epidinium ecaudatum f. parvicaudatum from goat. PMID:11999448

Gurung, Yam Bahadur; Parajuli, Nirmal; Miyazaki, Yutaka; Imai, Soichi; Kobayashi, Kosaku

2002-03-01

255

The preparation and properties of a protein concentrate from goat (Capra hirens) muscle  

E-print Network

, heating of GPC prior to emulsification slightly reduced the emulsifying capacity. The salt-soluble protein (SSP) in GPC emulsi- fied oil readily, but SSP constituted less than 3X of the GPC. The SSP of goat meat emulsified 0. 66 ml oil/mg N. Considering... that the SSP constituted only about 36K of the protein of the goat muscle and provided that only SSP had emulsifying capacity, the GPC had about the same emulsifying capacity as the SSP of the goat meat. Bacteriolo ical examination of oat meat and GPC Prior...

Lee, Nong-Shein

2012-06-07

256

Trend analysis of plasma insulin level around parturition in relation to parity in Saanen goats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of parity on plasma insulin level around parturition in Saanen goats. On d -14, -7, 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 from parturition, plasma glucose, NEFA, free AA, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were analyzed in 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous goats. At parturition, BW of primiparous goats was about 75% of that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001) and then their milk production was lower than that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001). At parturition, glucose increased (P < 0.01) in both primiparous and multiparous goats and then decreased (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation, remaining higher (P < 0.01) in primiparous than multiparous goats until the end of the study period. In both groups, free AA decreased (P < 0.01) at parturition, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation without difference between groups. Only in multiparous goats, plasma NEFA increased at parturition (P < 0.01), returning to prepartum levels on d 14 (P < 0.01). Changes in glucose and AA could have been caused by cortisol, which increased (P < 0.01) at parturition in both primiparous and multiparous goats, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 7 of lactation, without difference between the parity groups. In multiparous goats, insulin decreased soon after parturition (P < 0.05), remaining at low levels until the end of the study period, whereas in primiparous goats, insulin did not vary until d 14 of lactation, when it decreased (P < 0.05) also in this group. Therefore, between d 3 and 14 of lactation, insulin was higher in primiparous than multiparous goats (P < 0.05). Only in primiparous goats, at kidding, insulin was negatively correlated to BW (P < 0.01), and after parturition it was negatively correlated with milk yield (P < 0.05) and plasma NEFA (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that higher insulin levels in primiparous Saanen goats, which are still immature at their first breeding season, acted to limit both the mobilization of bodily reserves and the capture of nutrients by the lactating mammary gland, thus providing nutrients for their own physical and physiological development. PMID:24778336

Magistrelli, D; Rosi, F

2014-06-01

257

Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.  

PubMed

Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The average interval between treatments was significantly longer in dairy goat herds (4.8 months) than in the beef herds (3.6 months). The most commonly used drugs were macrocyclic lactones (37.7% in dairy and 39.5% in beef herds) and benzimidazoles (48.9% in dairy and 31.5% in beef herds). Goat production in Minas Gerais is still in its infancy, and even though using a control program associated with other health practices, producers still rely heavily on chemicals to get satisfactory results. PMID:21232868

Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

2011-03-10

258

Comparison of manual versus semiautomatic milk recording systems in dairy goats.  

PubMed

A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 x 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic ear tags, on-paper data recording, and data manually uploaded to a computer. The SA system used electronic ID, automatic ID, manual data recording on reader keyboard, and automatic data uploading to computer by Bluetooth connection. Data were collected for groups of 2 x 12 goats for 15 test days of each system during a period of 70 d. Time data were converted to a decimal scale. No difference in milk recording time between M and SA (1.32 +/- 0.03 and 1.34 +/- 0.03 min/goat, respectively) was observed. Time needed for transferring data to the computer was greater for M when compared with SA (0.20 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 min/goat). Overall milk recording time was greater in M than in SA (1.52 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.39 +/- 0.04 min/goat), the latter decreasing with operator training. Time for transferring milk recording data to the computer was 4.81 +/- 0.34 and 1.09 +/- 0.10 min for M and SA groups of 24 goats, respectively, but only increased by 0.19 min in SA for each additional 24 goats. No difference in errors of data acquisition was detected between M and SA systems during milk recording (0.6%), but an additional 1.1% error was found in the M system during data uploading. Predicted differences between M and SA increased with the number of goats processed on the test-day. Reduction in labor time cost ranged from euro0.5 to 12.9 (US$0.7 to 17.4) per milk recording, according to number of goats from 24 to 480 goats and accounted for 40% of the electronic ID costs. In conclusion, electronic ID was more efficient for labor costs and resulted in fewer data errors, the benefit being greater with trained operators and larger goat herds. PMID:18349236

Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Ghirardi, J J

2008-04-01

259

Outside enclosure and additional enrichment for dairy goats - a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background Dairy goats are commonly housed at a space allowance of 0.7 – 0.8 m2/goat in commercial Norwegian goat herds, which is very low compared to regulations and recommendations in other European countries. One easy and cheap way to increase space allowance is to allow the animals’ access to outdoor area. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of access to an outside enclosure and environmental enrichment for dairy goats kept in slatted floor pens with low space allowance on their activity pattern and social behaviour. Methods A group of 82 dairy goats on a commercial Norwegian dairy farm were kept inside during the winter period from October to April. In April the goats were given access to an outside enclosure for 8 hours per day. After having access to the enclosure for another for two days, enrichment (branches) was provided, and after 19 days the enrichment were removed. The goats were observed for 5 hours per day for the two last days before they got access to the outside enclosure, the two days in the enclosure, the two first and the two last days with enrichment and for the following two days without enrichment by two trained observers. Results When allowed access to the enclosure, the goats spent nearly 50% of the time outside, and later the time spent outside was reduced to less than 40% (P?goats appeared to have a regular use of the enclosure. Time spent resting decreased 59.2% to only 25.2% when the goats first got access to the enclosure, but then started to increase again (P?goats were allowed access to the outdoor enclosure whereas play behaviour was only observed in the outside enclosure (P?goats preferred to use the outside enclosure when being active, and branches were perceived as an attractive enrichment. PMID:23173769

2012-01-01

260

Recombinant small ruminant lentivirus subtype B1 in goats and sheep of imported breeds in Mexico.  

PubMed

Nucleotide sequences of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) were determined in sheep and goats, including progeny of imported animals, on a farm in Mexico. On the basis of gag-pol, pol, env and LTR sequences, SRLVs were assigned to the B1 subgroup, which comprises caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like prototype sequences mainly from goats. In comparison with CAEV-like env sequences of American and French origin, two putative recombination events were identified within the V3-V4 and V4-V5 regions of the env gene of a full length SRLV sequence (FESC-752) derived from a goat on the farm. PMID:20932787

Ramírez, H; Glaria, I; de Andrés, X; Martínez, H A; Hernández, M M; Reina, R; Iráizoz, E; Crespo, H; Berriatua, E; Vázquez, J; Amorena, B; de Andrés, D

2011-10-01

261

Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.  

PubMed

Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ?95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet based mainly or exclusively on eating green grass (grazing), independently of the production system. Hence, this marker would not be useful for the actual organic policies to distinguish organic milk under the current regulations, because organic dairy ruminants can be fed organic compound feed and conserved fodder without grazing at all. PMID:23849634

Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

2013-09-01

262

Physiological responses and lactational performances of late-lactation dairy goats under heat stress conditions.  

PubMed

Eight Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation were exposed to different ambient conditions, using metabolic cages in a climatic chamber. The experimental design was a crossover (2 periods of 35 d and 4 goats each) and conditions were (1) thermal neutral (TN; 15 to 20 °C day-night) and (2) heat stress (HS; 12-h day at 37 °C and 12-h night at 30.5 °C). Humidity was maintained at 40% and light-dark was constant (12-12h). The forage:concentrate ratio was adjusted daily for maintaining similar value in TN and HS goats (70:30). Water was freely available at ambient temperature. Rectal temperature and respiratory rate (0800, 1200 and 1700 h) and milk yield were recorded daily, whereas milk composition, nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin in blood were analyzed weekly. At d 25, additional blood samples were taken for analysis of metabolites and indicators of the acid-base balance. Digestibility coefficients and N balance were determined (d 31 to 35) and body weight was recorded (d 35). Compared with TN goats, HS goats experienced greater rectal temperature (+0.58 °C), respiratory rate (+48 breaths/min), water intake (+77%) and water evaporation (+207%). Intake of HS goats rapidly declined until d 7 (-40%), partially recovered from d 7 to 19, and steadied thereafter (-14%). No changes in digestibility or N balance were detected. Blood nonesterified fatty acids and haptoglobin peaked at d 7 in HS goats but did not vary thereafter. Although milk yield did not vary by treatment, milk of HS goats contained -12.5% protein and -11.5% casein than TN goats. Panting reduced concentration and pressure of CO? in the blood of HS goats, but they were able to maintain their blood pH similar to the TN group by lowering HCO?(-) and increasing Cl(-) concentrations in their blood. In conclusion, HS dairy goats showed dramatic physiological changes during the first week of treatment and partially recovered thereafter. They were able to maintain milk yield by losing body mass, but milk protein content and protein yield were depressed. Further research is needed to assess the response of dairy goats to HS at earlier stages of lactation. PMID:23958010

Hamzaoui, S; Salama, A A K; Albanell, E; Such, X; Caja, G

2013-10-01

263

Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia (Mascagnia) septentrionalis in goats.  

PubMed

Amorimia septentrionalis contains sodium monofluoroactetate (MFA) and can cause acute heart failure in ruminants when ingested in toxic doses. In this study, we demonstrate that resistance to poisoning by A. septentrionalis can be improved in goats by the repeated administration of non-toxic doses of A. septentrionalis. We also show that increased resistance to poisoning by A. septentrionalis can also be achieved by the transfaunation of ruminal content from goats previously conditioned to be resistant to naïve goats. These methods of improving resistance require further study, but appear to provide potential management solutions to mitigate toxicity problems from A. septentrionalis, and perhaps other plant species containing MFA. PMID:23400835

Duarte, Amélia L L; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Carvalho, Fabrício K L; Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Costa, Valéria M M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2014-02-01

264

Natural and experimental poisoning of goats with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plant Crotalaria retusa L.  

PubMed

Crotalaria retusa L. (rattleweed), estimated to contain about 4.96% monocrotaline (MCT) in the seed, was associated with a natural poisoning outbreak in goats. The poisoning was experimentally reproduced by the administration of C. retusa seeds containing approximately 4.49% of MCT. Thus, 1 of 3 goats given a single dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (bw) of seeds (248 mg MCT/kg bw) and 2 goats given a single dose of 347 mg MCT/kg bw showed acute clinical signs and were euthanized 10-11 days after dosing. Clinical signs and gross and histologic lesions were characteristic of acute centrilobular liver necrosis. PMID:23847092

Maia, Lisanka A; de Lucena, Ricardo B; Nobre, Verônica M da T; Dantas, Antônio F M; Colegate, Steven M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2013-09-01

265

Effects of Streblus asper Lour foliage on digestibility, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen balance of growing goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen crossbred (Thai native x Anglo-Nubian) goats were chosen from a Suranaree University of Technology’s farm on the\\u000a basis of similar bodyweight (15.5?±?3.5 kg). The goats were randomly allocated to three treatments in randomized complete\\u000a block design. Each goat was given urea-treated rice straw as roughage plus the respective treatment diets. The diets were\\u000a iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic containing cassava pulp, molasses,

Pramote Paengkoum

2011-01-01

266

Composting of goat manure and wheat straw using pine cones as a bulking agent.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of pine cones, goat manure and wheat straw and obtained optimal Free Air Space (FAS) values for composting. For this aim, pine cones were added at different ratios into goat manure and wheat straw mixtures. So, the FAS value of mixtures was fixed at four different levels. According to the results, the highest organic matter degradation and temperature value were obtained at the mixture ratio of 10% pine cones, 45% goat manure and 45% wheat straw. FAS value of this mixture was 32.8. PMID:17092713

Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

2007-10-01

267

Effects of androgen deprivation in the goat epididymis.  

PubMed

With the deprivation of both circulating androgen (CA) and luminal androgen (LA; orchiectomized goats), the epithelial height (EH) in regions I-IV of the epididymis was reduced to 28, 67, 58 and 56% of that of controls, respectively, but it was increased to 109% of that of controls in region V. Similarly, the volume density of epithelium (VDE) in regions I-V was reduced to 33, 49, 45, 41 and 70% of that of controls, respectively. Conversely, in the absence of LA only (extratesticular-rete-ligated goats), while both EH and VDE were reduced to almost 50% of those of controls in region I, they remained similar to those of controls in other regions. The morphological changes in the epithelium such as cytoplasmic regression, loss of stereocilia and disorderly arrangement of epithelial cells were maximal in region I, moderate in regions II-IV and minimal in region V. Testosterone treatment appreciably reduced the degenerative changes caused by orchiectomy in all regions except region I where the restorations were marginal at best. Hence, the results suggest a differential epididymal response to androgen deprivation. Whereas the LA and/or other rete fluid components seem essential for maintaining the epithelial structure of region I, the CA alone can maintain, at least partially, the epithelial structure of regions II-IV and almost completely that of region V. PMID:7976193

Goyal, H O; Hutto, V; Maloney, M A

1994-01-01

268

Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls  

PubMed Central

Parent–offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids’ calls 7–13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers’ responses to calls of their previous kids with their responses to the same calls at five weeks postpartum. Subjects tended to respond more to their own kids at five weeks postpartum than 11–17 months later, but displayed stronger responses to their previous kids than to familiar kids from other females. Acoustic analyses showed that it is unlikely that mothers were responding to their previous kids simply because they confounded them with the new kids they were currently nursing. Therefore, our results provide evidence for strong, long-term vocal memory capacity in goats. The persistence of offspring vocal recognition beyond weaning could have important roles in kin social relationships and inbreeding avoidance. PMID:22719031

Briefer, Elodie F.; Padilla de la Torre, Monica; McElligott, Alan G.

2012-01-01

269

Some immunohormonal changes in experimentally pregnant toxemic goats.  

PubMed

Pregnancy toxemia was induced in nine pregnant goat does with twins by the stress of fasting with access to water in late pregnancy to investigate the effect of pregnancy toxemia on immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG), cortisol, insulin, thyroid, and growth hormones and their correlations with the plasma levels of glucose and beta-Hydroxybutyrate. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after induction of pregnancy toxemia. The result revealed that experimental animals developed neurological findings with convulsions and acetone odor from the mouth with recumbency after 72 hours. Laboratory findings showed a significant increase in beta-Hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while there were significant decreases in glucose, thyroid, and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG). Plasma glucose concentrations had significant negative correlations with beta-hydroxybutyrate, cortisol, and insulin while the correlations were significantly positive with immunoglobulins and thyroid hormone. Plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration was significantly positively correlated with cortisol and negatively correlated with immunoglobulins, insulin, and thyroid hormone. From this study we can conclude that pregnancy toxemia might affect humoral immune responses as well as insulin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Moreover, insulin might have a compensatory role to increase suppressive effect on ketogenesis in experimentally pregnant toxemic goats. PMID:20613964

Hefnawy, Abd-Elghany; Youssef, Seham; Shousha, Saad

2010-01-01

270

Association of vitamin E with rapid thawing on goat semen.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100 ?M. Semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (-155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20 ?L aliquot of thawed semen to 1 mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm · Kg(-1)) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process. PMID:24955428

Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Carrascal, Erly; Dias, Júlio César Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

2014-01-01

271

Association of Vitamin E with Rapid Thawing on Goat Semen  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100??M. Semen was packaged into 0.25?mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (?155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (?196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20??L aliquot of thawed semen to 1?mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm·Kg?1) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process. PMID:24955428

Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabricio Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Dias, Julio Cesar Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

2014-01-01

272

Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.  

PubMed

Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. PMID:24387851

Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kova??ík, Kamil; Koudela, B?etislav

2014-05-01

273

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

...testing, the name of the consignor and of the consignee, and a description of the animals including breed, ages, markings, and tattoo and eartag numbers. Notwithstanding such certification, such goats shall be detained or quarantined as provided in §...

2014-01-01

274

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...testing, the name of the consignor and of the consignee, and a description of the animals including breed, ages, markings, and tattoo and eartag numbers. Notwithstanding such certification, such goats shall be detained or quarantined as provided in §...

2012-01-01

275

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...testing, the name of the consignor and of the consignee, and a description of the animals including breed, ages, markings, and tattoo and eartag numbers. Notwithstanding such certification, such goats shall be detained or quarantined as provided in §...

2011-01-01

276

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...testing, the name of the consignor and of the consignee, and a description of the animals including breed, ages, markings, and tattoo and eartag numbers. Notwithstanding such certification, such goats shall be detained or quarantined as provided in §...

2013-01-01

277

Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasma mycoides Subspecies capri from Milk of Natural Goat Mastitis Cases  

PubMed Central

Association of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) with natural goat mastitis has been studied earlier largely by detecting the Mmc DNA using molecular methods. However, report on detection of cultivable Mmc isolates from natural goat-mastitis milk is still very rare. In this study, Mmc was isolated from milk samples (n = 171) of goats with or without clinical signs of mastitis. Mmc isolates were further characterized by biochemical and species-specific PCR methods. Intra species strain variation was also studied by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (16S ARDRA). The study recovered a total of 6 Mmc isolates (3.5%). Three types of intraspecies variants among the recovered Mmc isolates were found by 16S ARDRA. The study concluded that Mmc may be an etiological agent of mycoplasmal mastitis in Indian goat herds. PMID:23762593

Kumar, Vijay; Rana, Rajneesh; Mehra, Somya; Rout, Pramod Kumar

2013-01-01

278

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone and dexamethasone failed to affect milk yield in dairy goats: comparative aspects.  

PubMed

The ability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH; single i.v. injection of 2.5IU/kg BW) and dexamethasone (single i.m. injection of 36mg/kg BW) to affect milk production was studied in mid-lactating Israeli Saanen goats. None of these treatments produced changes in milk yield and composition of the goats. The effects of ACTH on blood cortisol levels, and the effects of ACTH and dexamethasone on blood plasma concentrations of glucose, however, were consistent with previous reports in goats and cows. These responses suggest that ACTH and dexamethasone treatments produced their expected glucocorticoid effects. It is suggested that obstructing the axis: stress-ACTH-glucocorticoid-down regulation of milk yield, which was demonstrated in dairy cows, reflects the adaptation of goats to harsh conditions, and the selection pressure to produce milk under conditions which are considered stressful for other ruminants. PMID:11024343

Shamay; Mabjeesh; Shapiro; Silanikove

2000-11-01

279

Incidence of abortions caused by leptospirosis in sheep and goats in Spain.  

PubMed

From 1970 to 1985, 973 outbreaks of abortion in sheep and 262 outbreaks of abortion in goats from southern Spain were studied. Of these, 1.7 and 2.6% respectively were caused by leptospiras, chiefly by the serovar pomona (11 flocks of sheep, 64.7%, and six herds of goats, 75.0%) and in a lower proportion the serovars sejroe (three flocks of sheep 17.6%, and one herd of goats, 12.5%), icterohaemorrhagiae (two and one outbreaks respectively) and grippotyphosa in one ovine flock (5.8%). The mean rates of attach (X + SD) of abortions by leptospirosis have been estimated as 16.9 + 6.5% in ovine outbreaks and 20.7 + 8.3% among goats. PMID:3304822

Leon-Vizcaino, L; Hermoso de Mendoza, M; Garrido, F

1987-01-01

280

Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos fibres in the lungs and parietal pleura of Corsican goats  

PubMed Central

Methods: Ten goats from areas with asbestos outcrops and two from other areas were slaughtered. Fibre content of lung and parietal pleural samples was determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Results: Both chrysotile and tremolite fibres were detected. In the exposed goats, the geometric mean concentrations of asbestos fibres longer than 1 µm were 0.27 x 106 fibres/g dry lung tissue and 1.8 x 106 fibres/g dry pleural tissue. Asbestos fibres were not detected in the lungs of the two control goats. Chrysotile fibres shorter than 5 µm were predominant in the parietal pleura. Tremolite fibres accounted for 78% and 86% of the fibres longer than 5 µm in lung and parietal pleural samples, respectively. Conclusions: Environmental exposure in northeast Corsica results in detectable chrysotile and tremolite fibre loads in the lung and parietal pleura of adult goats. Tremolite fibres of dimensions with a high carcinogenic potency are detected in the parietal pleura. PMID:12205241

Dumortier, P; Rey, F; Viallat, J; Broucke, I; Boutin, C; De Vuyst, P

2002-01-01

281

75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding...

2010-09-17

282

Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other. PMID:22217267

EIBACH, R.; BOTHE, F.; RUNGE, M.; FISCHER, S. F.; PHILIPP, W.; GANTER, M.

2012-01-01

283

Comparison between a modified haemocytometric technique and electronic counters in goat blood cell counting.  

PubMed

Dilutions of goat blood with Hayem-Jørgensen's fluid ranging from 1:200 to 1:1,000 were used for haemocytometer counting of red blood cells (RBC) in 27 goats. The optimal dilutions were 1:400-1:500. Correlation studies between the results obtained by the haemocytometer and the Coulter counter red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts were performed in 551 goat blood samples. The haemocytometer RBC counts were 5.63% higher and WBC counts 2.79% lower than those of the electronic counter. The method of blood cell counting therefore influences the clinical haematological diagnoses and reference values in domestic animals. New cell counters specifically designed to measure cells of small volumes, e.g. goat erythrocytes, are needed. PMID:1910237

Mbassa, G K; Poulsen, J S

1991-06-01

284

Influence of insulin or glucagon, alone or combined, on glucose homeostasis in dairy goats treated  

E-print Network

Influence of insulin or glucagon, alone or combined, on glucose homeostasis in dairy goats treated (Gallo and Block, 1990), this trial aimed to study glucose homeostasis with injection of INS and/or GLA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Contagious ecthyma in bighorn sheep and mountain goat in western Canada.  

PubMed

Contagious ecthyma (CE) is reported in bighorn sheep (Ovis c. canadensis) from several national parks in western Canada and in moutain goat (Oreamnos americanus) from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. (This is the first report of CE in mountain goat.) Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology, transmission experiments and the demonstration of a proxvirus with the electron microscope. The infection was transmitted from wild to domestic goat, but not to domestic sheep. Most infections, some of them severe, were found in lambs and kids. Clinical signs of disease were similar to those seen in domestic sheep and goats. General body condition was poor and animals had difficulty feeding normally. All infected herds had prolonged contact with areas where salt was provided artificially (i.e., salt blocks, highways and campgrounds). Fewer infected sheep were observed annually when salt blocks were removed from Jasper National Park. PMID:1113436

Samuel, W M; Chalmers, G A; Stelfox, J G; Loewen, A; Thomsen, J J

1975-01-01

286

Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.  

PubMed

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

2009-07-01

287

Goat Production and Fodder Leaves Offered by Local Villagers in the Mid-Hills of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 50% of Nepal’s population lives in the hill regions, usually with small land holdings, and over 60% are considered\\u000a below the poverty line. Livestock, and particularly goats, provide these small-scale farmers with about 55% of their on-farm\\u000a income. We studied goat production in Katteldanda, a mid-hill village of 78 households, mainly Brahmins, in Ghorka District.\\u000a Subsistence farmers raise

A. Allan Degen; Luma Nidhi Pandey; Michael Kam; Shambhu B. Pandey; Chet R. Upreti; Netra P. Osti

2010-01-01

288

Effects of refrigeration, freezing-thawing and pasteurization on IgG goat colostrum preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of refrigeration, several different methods of thawing, and pasteurization on the concentration of IgG in goat colostrum. Three different experiments were designed to analyse these effects. In the first of these, 50 samples of goat colostrum were stored in a cold-storage room at a temperature of 4°C for a 3-month

A Argüello; N Castro; J Capote; R Ginés; F Acosta; J. L López

2003-01-01

289

Effect of Dehydration on the Pharmacokinetics of Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride Administered Intravenously in Goats ( Capra hircus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The effects of various levels of dehydration induced by water deprivation were studied in six Nubian goats on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline after intravenous administration (5 mg\\/kg).2.In goats that had lost an average of 7.6% body weight after 2 days of water deprivation, the elimination rate constant of the drug was significantly decreased (P<0.01) and the total body clearance was

H. A. Elsheikh; A. M. Osman Intisar; I. B. Eltayeb; A. Salam Abdullah

1998-01-01

290

Estimation of direct additive, maternal additive, heterotic and maternal heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya  

E-print Network

. , 1983). Traditionally goats have been raised exten- sively in rough dry areas and kept with minimum inputs for milk pro- duction in areas where cattle are excluded due to tsetse fly (Hornby and van Rensburg, 1948) or poor rangelands (Gaili, 1978..., 1970; Gall, 1981). Scientists from industrialized countries have paid little attention in the past to goats partly because of their small contribution to the national food supply of those countries compared to other food animals (Amoah and Bryant...

Ahuya, Camillus Osundo

2012-06-07

291

Social information, social feeding, and competition in group-living goats (Capra hircus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are both benefits (e.g., social information) and costs (e.g., intraspecific competition) for individuals foraging in groups. To ascertain how group-foraging goats (Capra hircus) deal with these trade-offs, we asked 1) do goats use social information to make foraging decisions and 2) how do they adjust their intake rate in light of having attracted by other group members? To establish

Adrian M. Shrader; Graham I. H. Kerley; Burt P. Kotler; J. S. Brown

2006-01-01

292

Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium in Goats across Four Provincial Level Areas in China  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium in goats from Guangdong Province, Hubei Province, Shandong Province, and Shanghai City of China. Six hundred and four fecal samples were collected from twelve goat farms, and the overall infection rate was 11.4% (69/604). Goats infected with Cryptosporidium were found in eleven farms across four provincial areas, and the infection rate ranged from 2.9% (1/35) to 25.0% (9/36). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified. Cryptosporidium xiaoi (45/69, 65.2%) was the dominant species, followed by C. parvum (14/69, 20.3%) and C. ubiquitum (10/69, 14.5%). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was varied with host age and goat kids were more susceptible to be infected than adult goats. Subtyping C. parvum and C. ubiquitum positive samples revealed C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 and C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa were the most common subtypes. Other C. parvum subtypes were detected as well, such as IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA17G2R1. All of these subtypes have also been detected in humans, suggesting goats may be a potential source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. This was the first report of C. parvum subtypes IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA17G2R1 infecting in goats and the first molecular identification of C. parvum and its subtypes in Chinese goats. PMID:25343501

Mi, Rongsheng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Yuxuan; Chen, Yongjun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Zhaoguo

2014-01-01

293

Differential immunoreactivity of goat derived scrapie following in vitro misfolding versus mouse bioassay.  

PubMed

The protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay allows for detection of prion protein misfolding activity in tissues and fluids from sheep with scrapie where it was previously undetected by conventional western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Studies of goats with scrapie have yet to take advantage of PMCA, which could aid in discerning the risk of transmission between goats and goats to sheep. The aim of the current study was to adapt PMCA for evaluation of scrapie derived from goats. Diluted brain homogenate from scrapie-infected goats (i.e., the scrapie seed, PrP(Sc)) was subjected to PMCA using normal brain homogenate from ovinized transgenic mice (tg338) as the source of normal cellular prion protein (the substrate, PrP(C)). The assay end-point was detection of the proteinase K-resistant misfolded prion protein core (PrP(res)) by western blot. Protein misfolding activity was consistently observed in caprine brain homogenate diluted 10,000-fold after 5 PMCA rounds. Epitope mapping by western blot analyses demonstrated that PrP(res) post-PMCA was readily detected with an N-terminus anti-PrP monoclonal antibody (P4), similar to scrapie inoculum from goats. This was in contrast to limited detection of PrP(res) with P4 following mouse bioassay. The inverse was observed with a monoclonal antibody to the C-terminus (F99/97.6.1). Thus, brain homogenate prepared from uninoculated tg338 served as an appropriate substrate for serial PMCA of PrP(Sc) derived from goats. These observations suggest that concurrent PMCA and bioassay with tg338 could improve characterization of goat derived scrapie. PMID:22713450

Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Schneider, David A

2012-07-13

294

Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo  

PubMed Central

Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R.; Ramya, R.; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

2014-01-01

295

The detection of antibody against peste des petits ruminants virus in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) has been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to peste des\\u000a petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in sheep, goats, cattle and Buffalo. Serum samples from sheep (n?=?232), goats (n?=?428), cattle\\u000a (n?=?43), buffalo (n?=?89) were tested. The animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or PPR. Findings suggested\\u000a that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in

Haider Ali Khan; Muhammad Siddique; Sajjad-ur-Rahman; Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Ashraf

2008-01-01

296

The inheritance of fibre traits in a crossbred population of cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Genetic parameters were calculated for fibre traits measured on patch samples taken at 5 months of age on a crossbred population of cashmere goats, comprising goats of Scottish feral, Icelandic, Tasmanian, New Zealand and Siberian origin. Within-strain heritabilities, fitting genetic origin as a covariable, were: live weight, 0.71 (s.e. 0.08), fibre diameter, 0.63 (0.07), diameter standard deviation 0.43 (0.08),

S. C. Bishop; A. J. F. Russel

1997-01-01

297

Oestrus induction and synchronisation during anoestrus in cashmere goats using hormonal treatment in association with \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY During the anoestrous period, induction and synchronisation of oestrous was obtained in 30 cashmere goats at 54±5 days after kidding. A treatment for 11 days with vaginal sponges containing FGA (Fluorogestone-acetate) 45 mg and an injection of 400 I.U. of PMSG and 125 mg of PGF 2a i.m. two days before sponge removal, was used. Goats were equally divided

Fiorella Carnevali; Gabriele Schino; Silvana Diverio; Sandro Misiti

298

Genetic diversity and investigation of polledness in divergent goat populations using 52 088 SNPs.  

PubMed

The recent availability of a genome-wide SNP array for the goat genome dramatically increases the power to investigate aspects of genetic diversity and to conduct genome-wide association studies in this important domestic species. We collected and analysed genotypes from 52 088 SNPs in Boer, Cashmere and Rangeland goats that had both polled and horned individuals. Principal components analysis revealed a clear genetic division between animals for each population, and model-based clustering successfully detected evidence of admixture that matched aspects of their recorded history. For example, shared co-ancestry was detected, suggesting Boer goats have been introgressed into the Rangeland population. Further, allele frequency data successfully tracked the altered genetic profile that has taken place after 40 years of breeding Australian Cashmere goats using the Rangeland animals as the founding population. Genome-wide association mapping of the POLL locus revealed a strong signal on goat chromosome 1. The 769-kb critical interval contained the polled intersex syndrome locus, confirming the genetic basis in non-European animals is the same as identified previously in Saanen goats. Interestingly, analysis of the haplotypes carried by a small set of sex-reversed animals, known to be associated with polledness, revealed some animals carried the wild-type chromosome associated with the presence of horns. This suggests a more complex basis for the relationship between polledness and the intersex condition than initially thought while validating the application of the goat SNP50 BeadChip for fine-mapping traits in goat. PMID:23216229

Kijas, James W; Ortiz, Judit S; McCulloch, Russell; James, Andrew; Brice, Blair; Swain, Ben; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

2013-06-01

299

Design and Characterization of a 52K SNP Chip for Goats  

PubMed Central

The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50–60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years. PMID:24465974

Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cedric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cecile; Eggen, Andre; Heuven, Henri C. M.; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T.; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R.; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhiere, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L.; Tircazes, Aurelie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

2014-01-01

300

Effects of dietary zinc on performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma zinc status in Cashmere goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six 1.0-year-old Liao Ning Cashmere goat wethers (BW=22.01±0.59kg) were used to determine the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) level on the performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma Zn status during the cashmere fiber growing period. The goats were randomly divided into four groups that were fed a basal diet containing 22.3mg Zn\\/kg dry matter (DM) with 0, 15, 30 or 45mg

Wenbin Jia; Zhihai Jia; Wei Zhang; Runlian Wang; Shiwei Zhang; Xiaoping Zhu

2008-01-01

301

Associations of mature live weight of Australian cashmere goats with farm of origin and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in live weight and mature size associated with farm of origin, age and sex were quantified for commercial Australian cashmere goats. Goats from 11 farms in four Australian states, consisting of 1367 does and 98 wethers aged 1–13-year-old were monitored between December and June (early summer to mid winter). We used the live weight for May, as this was

B. A. McGregor; K. L. Butler

2010-01-01

302

Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly. PMID:19559583

Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

2010-07-01

303

Design and characterization of a 52K SNP chip for goats.  

PubMed

The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50-60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years. PMID:24465974

Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Bardou, Philippe; Bouchez, Olivier; Cabau, Cédric; Crooijmans, Richard; Dong, Yang; Donnadieu-Tonon, Cécile; Eggen, André; Heuven, Henri C M; Jamli, Saadiah; Jiken, Abdullah Johari; Klopp, Christophe; Lawley, Cynthia T; McEwan, John; Martin, Patrice; Moreno, Carole R; Mulsant, Philippe; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Pailhoux, Eric; Palhière, Isabelle; Rupp, Rachel; Sarry, Julien; Sayre, Brian L; Tircazes, Aurélie; Jun Wang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenguang

2014-01-01

304

The effect of Haemonchus contortus on mohair production in Angora goats  

E-print Network

Committee: Dr. Margaret R. Slater The effect of Haemonchus conrortus parasitism on mohair production in Angora goats was investigated in a herd in East Texas. Two fecal egg counts were performed on all does of reproductive age in the herd to screen... for those animals that showed natural resistance and those more susceptible to infection. Forty five goats were allocated (based on fecal egg counts) to the resistant cohort and 40 to the cohort with high parasite burdens. After establishing the study...

Walsh, Barbara Anne

2012-06-07

305

Ovine and caprine toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma gondii ) in aborted animals in Jordanian goat and sheep flocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and fifty-five biological samples (106 aborted foetal tissue samples and 149 blood samples from aborted sheep\\u000a and goats) were collected from 188 animals during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region\\u000a of Jordan. The sampled animals belonged to 93 goat and sheep flocks that had cases of abortion. A total of 169

Mohamad Abed-alhaleem Abu-Dalbouh; Mustafa M. Ababneh; Nektarios D. Giadinis; Shawkat Q. Lafi

306

Experimental Model of Tuberculosis in the Domestic Goat after Endobronchial Infection with Mycobacterium caprae ?  

PubMed Central

Caprine tuberculosis (TB) has increased in recent years, highlighting the need to address the problem the infection poses in goats. Moreover, goats may represent a cheaper alternative for testing of prototype vaccines in large ruminants and humans. With this aim, a Mycobacterium caprae infection model has been developed in goats. Eleven 6-month-old goats were infected by the endobronchial route with 1.5 × 103 CFU, and two other goats were kept as noninfected controls. The animals were monitored for clinical and immunological parameters throughout the experiment. After 14 weeks, the goats were euthanized, and detailed postmortem analysis of lung lesions was performed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and direct observation. The respiratory lymph nodes were also evaluated and cultured for bacteriological analysis. All infected animals were positive in a single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test at 12 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Gamma interferon (IFN-?) antigen-specific responses were detected from 4 weeks p.i. until the end of the experiment. The humoral response to MPB83 was especially strong at 14 weeks p.i. (13 days after SICCT boost). All infected animals presented severe TB lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. M. caprae was recovered from pulmonary lymph nodes in all inoculated goats. MDCT allowed a precise quantitative measure of TB lesions. Lesions in goats induced by M. caprae appeared to be more severe than those induced in cattle by M. bovis over a similar period of time. The present work proposes a reliable new experimental animal model for a better understanding of caprine tuberculosis and future development of vaccine trials in this and other species. PMID:21880849

Perez de Val, Bernat; Lopez-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarias, Miquel; Martin, Maite; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Romera, Nadine; Escobar, Manel; Solanes, David; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Domingo, Mariano

2011-01-01

307

Histological Features of the Degenerating Intervertebral Disc in a Goat Disc-injury Model  

PubMed Central

Study Design An in vivo study to develop a goat large-animal model for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Objectives To determine an optimal method for inducing goat IVD degeneration suitable for testing disc regeneration therapies. Summary of Background Data Although rodent, rabbit, and other small animal studies are useful, the narrow dimensions of IVDs in these species limit studies requiring injection of a relevant volume of therapeutics or implantation of engineered tissue constructs. For this study, the goat was selected because the size and shape of their IVDs are comparable to those of adult humans. Methods A minimally invasive approach that did not cause significant morbidity or mortality to adult goats (n = 6) was used. Under fluoroscopic guidance, goat lumbar IVDs were injured with a 4.5 mm drill bit or #15 or #10 surgical blades. Two months post-injury, the goats were euthanized and their IVDs with adjacent endplates were isolated, decalcified and stained. Results A numerical histological scale to categorize the degree of goat IVD degeneration was developed based on the histological features of rabbit IVDs previously described by Masuda et al., goat IVDs described by Hoogendoorn et al., and human IVDs described by Boos et al. The inter-rater agreement of our scoring system was assessed (weighted Kappa value = 0.6646). Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the injured IVDs with uninjured control. A 4.5 mm drill bit inserted to a 15 mm depth resulted in a significantly higher histological score compared to uninjured controls (p = 0.01). Injury with a #15 or #10 blade did not result in increased histological scores compared with uninjured controls. Conclusions A comparison of the various injuries inflicted showed that the use of a 4.5 mm drill bit resulted in the most significant histological changes. PMID:21245789

Zhang, Yejia; Drapeau, Susan; An, Howard S.; Markova, Dessislava; Lenart, Brett A.; Anderson, D. Greg

2010-01-01

308

Effects of postmortem carcass electrical stimulation on goat meat quality characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical stimulation (ES) has been reported to improve meat quality, but the effects of postmortem ES have not been fully characterized in goats. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of postmortem ES on meat quality in two breeds of goats. Uncastrated Spanish and crossbreds (Boer×Spanish females×Kiko male) yearlings (n=10\\/breed, body weight 31.2±2.43kg) were transported to the slaughter facility,

K. M. Gadiyaram; G. Kannan; T. D. Pringle; B. Kouakou; K. W. McMillin; Y. W. Park

2008-01-01

309

Nutritional Profile and Intake of Forage Grazed by Spanish Goats in a Semi-arid Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramirez, R.G., Rios, E. and Garza, J. 1993. Nutritional profile and intake of forage grazed by Spanish goats in a semi-arid land. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 3: 113–122.Nutritional adequacy and voluntary intake of forage selected by Spanish goats, grazing a shrubland dominated by blackbrush (Acacia rigidula) were evaluated during one year (June, 1988 through may, 1989) in Marín, county, N.L.

R. G. Ramírez; E. Ríos; J. Garza

1993-01-01

310

Gender-specific effects of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and stress physiology of goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on the emotional reactivity, the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system of goat offspring according to their gender, and to investigate the role of maternal cortisol in prenatal stress effects. Goats were exposed to ten transports in isolation or ten ACTH injections (0.125

S. Roussel; A. Boissy; D. Montigny; P. H. Hemsworth; C. Duvaux-Ponter

2005-01-01

311

Toll-Like Receptor Responses to Peste des petits ruminants Virus in Goats and Water Buffalo.  

PubMed

Ovine rinderpest or goat plague is an economically important and contagious viral disease of sheep and goats, caused by the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Differences in susceptibility to goat plague among different breeds and water buffalo exist. The host innate immune system discriminates between pathogen associated molecular patterns and self antigens through surveillance receptors known as Toll like receptors (TLR). We investigated the role of TLR and cytokines in differential susceptibility of goat breeds and water buffalo to PPRV. We examined the replication of PPRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Indian domestic goats and water buffalo and demonstrated that the levels of TLR3 and TLR7 and downstream signalling molecules correlation with susceptibility vs resistance. Naturally susceptible goat breeds, Barbari and Tellichery, had dampened innate immune responses to PPRV and increased viral loads with lower basal expression levels of TLR 3/7. Upon stimulation of PBMC with synthetic TLR3 and TLR7 agonists or PPRV, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly higher while immunosuppressive interleukin (IL) 10 levels were lower in PPRV resistant Kanni and Salem Black breeds and water buffalo at transcriptional level, correlating with reduced viralloads in infected PBMC. Water buffalo produced higher levels of interferon (IFN) ? in comparison with goats at transcriptional and translational levels. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with human IFN? resulted in reduction of PPRV replication, confirming the role of IFN? in limiting PPRV replication. Treatment with IRS66, a TLR7 antagonist, resulted in the reduction of IFN? levels, with increased PPRV replication confirming the role of TLR7. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of TLR7 of these goat breeds did not show any marked nucleotide differences that might account for susceptibility vs resistance to PPRV. Analyzing other host genetic factors might provide further insights on susceptibility to PPRV and genetic polymorphisms in the host. PMID:25369126

Dhanasekaran, Sakthivel; Biswas, Moanaro; Vignesh, Ambothi R; Ramya, R; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G; Raja, Angamuthu; Kataria, Ranjit S; Parida, Satya; Subbiah, Elankumaran

2014-01-01

312

Microbiological Profile of Goat Meat Inoculated with Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultures and Stored at 30°C for 7 days  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to preserve goat meat at 30°C was evaluated in the present study. Strains\\u000a of Pediococcus pentosaceus GOAT 01 and Lactobacillus plantarum GOAT 012, individually and in combination, were applied as starters on sliced meat samples at 6 log cfu\\/g and stored for\\u000a 7 days at 30°C to simulate ambient temperature in Nigeria. They

Olusegun A. Olaoye; Abiodun A. Onilude; Oyeyemi A. Idowu

2011-01-01

313

Somatic Nuclear Transplantation and Serial Nuclear Transplantation of Human Finger-domain Lacking tPA Gene in Goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

To research developmental competence of transgenic somatic cell by serial nuclear transplantation, goat cloned embryos were compared with recloned embryos in ability of in vitro development. Fetal fibroblasts including human finger-domain lacking t-PA gene was microinjected into the cytoplasm of the MII oocytes. Goat embryos (G0) were cloned by this procedure. A single blastomere from 16-cell to 64-cell goat cloned

Xiao-E ZHAO; Bao-Hua MA; Hao WU; Yue-Mao ZHENG; Yong ZHANG

2007-01-01

314

Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Tissue Tropism and Pathogenesis in Sheep and Goats following Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B.; Babiuk, Shawn

2014-01-01

315

Swainsonine Induces Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathway and Caspase Activation in Goat Trophoblasts  

PubMed Central

The indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine (SW) has been reported to impair placentae and ultimately cause abortion in pregnant goats. Up to now, however, the precise effects of SW on goat trophoblast cells (GTCs) are still unclear. In this study, the cytotoxicity effects of SW on GTCs were detected and evaluated by MTT assay, AO/EB double staining, DNA fragmentation assay and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that SW treatment significantly suppressed GTCs viability and induced typical apoptotic features in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. SW treatment increased Bax protein levels, reduced Bcl-2 protein levels, induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, and triggered the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, which in turn activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, resulting in GTCs apoptosis. However, caspase-8 activity and the level of Bid did not exhibit significant changes in the process of SW-induced apoptosis. In addition, TUNEL assay suggested that SW induced GTCs apoptosis but not other cells in goat placenta cotyledons. Taken together, these data suggest that SW selectively induces GTCs apoptosis via the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in goat placenta cotyledons, which might contribute to placentae impairment and abortion in pregnant goats fed with SW-containing plants. These findings may provide new insights to understand the mechanisms involved in SW-caused goat's abortion. PMID:25076855

Huang, Yong; Dong, Feng; Du, Qian; Zhang, Hongling; Luo, Xiaomao; Song, Xiangjun; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

2014-01-01

316

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China. Results Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1%) serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461) and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290) dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location) reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province. PMID:21457538

2011-01-01

317

The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections  

PubMed Central

Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world. PMID:21291550

2011-01-01

318

Antibody preparation and identification of the Cashmere goat c-kit protein in the testes.  

PubMed

The c-kit protein plays a major role in the regulation of germ cell development. Its expression and distribution in rodent testes have been widely reported. However, research regarding c-kit expression in domestic animals is scarce, and the expression pattern and distribution of c-kit in germ cells have not been clearly defined. In this study, a specific antigenic region for goat c-kit was designed, and a c-kit polyclonal antibody was prepared. This antibody was then applied in a study evaluating c-kit expression in Cashmere goat tissues. A Western blot analysis showed that three forms of c-kit were expressed in goat testes: precursor, mature, and soluble c-kit. Fluorescent immunohistochemical analyses showed that c-kit was primarily expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of goat testes. These results not only clarify the expression and localization of c-kit in the goat testis, but also accelerate further research regarding the function of c-kit in goat spermatogenesis. PMID:25062419

Wu, S C L; Luo, F H; Kong, Q F; Wu, Y J

2014-01-01

319

Cerebellar Ataxia Suspected to Be Caused by Oxytropis glabra Poisoning in Western Mongolian Goats  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In the last five years in western Mongolia, a neurological disorder and resultant economic loss have developed in goats, sheep, cattle and horses: association of the disease with ingestion of Oxytropis glabra, a toxic plant, was suggested. Affected goats showed neurological signs, including ataxia, incoordination, hind limb paresis, fine head tremor and nystagmus. Three goats, one with moderate clinical signs and the other two with severe clinical signs, were necropsied and examined to describe and characterize the histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural lesions. Although no gross pathological changes were observed in a variety of organs including the central nervous system of these goats, microscopic examination of the cerebellum demonstrated degenerative changes in all these goats, such as vacuolar changes and loss of Purkinje cells, torpedo formation in the granular layer, increased number of spheroids in the cerebellar medulla, and loss of axons and myelin sheaths of Purkinje cells. The chemical analysis of the dried plant detected 0.02–0.05% (dry weight basis) of swainsonine. This is the first report describing the clinical and pathological findings in Mongolian goats suspected to be affected by O. glabra poisoning. PMID:24572629

TAKEDA, Shuji; TANAKA, Hiroyuki; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito; ISHIHARA, Atsushi; ADILBISH, Altanchimeg; DELGERMAA, Bayarmunkh; GUNGAA, Oyuntsetseg

2014-01-01

320

Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

2014-12-01

321

Detection of border disease virus (BDV) genotype 3 in Italian goat herds.  

PubMed

In January 2011, cases of abortion, stillbirth and weak live kids were reported in two goat herds in northern Italy. Samples from 18 kids found dead, 12 fetuses, and two stillborn kids were analyzed for pestivirus antigen using an ELISA kit and a border disease virus (BDV)-specific RT-PCR. Positive results were obtained in six kids and one fetus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 225 bp of the 5'UTR fragment of the BDV genome from positive samples showed that the goats were infected with BDV genotype 3. Serum and blood samples collected from all animals in both herds were analyzed using competitive ELISA to detect p80 antibodies and RT-PCR to detect viraemia. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in 61/67 goats in herd A and in 38/169 in herd B. A persistently infected (PI) goat was found in herd A. The PI animal was submitted to the laboratory for BDV diagnosis with Ag-ELISA, viral isolation, and nested RT-PCR on tissue samples from the spleen, kidney, brain, liver, lung, ileocaecal valve, mesenteric lymph nodes, and skin. All of the tests were positive for BDV in each of the tissues analyzed. The BDV sequence of the PI was identical to BDV sequences found in other positive animals. This is the first description of a BDV PI goat and the first evidence of BDV genotype 3 circulation in Italy. The study raises questions about the real impact this virus has on breeding goats. PMID:24418604

Rosamilia, A; Grattarola, C; Caruso, C; Peletto, S; Gobbi, E; Tarello, V; Caroggio, P; Dondo, A; Masoero, L; Acutis, P L

2014-03-01

322

Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

2013-06-01

323

Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

Debien, Elaine; Helie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sebastien; Leboeuf, Anne; Belanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

2013-01-01

324

Endocrine, blood metabolite, and meat quality changes in goats as influenced by short-term, preslaughter stress.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term, preslaughter stress on physiological responses and meat quality in goats of different age groups. The goats (n = 28) were classified into young (6 to 12 mo of age) and old (24 to 30 mo of age) groups, feed deprived overnight, and slaughtered at three different times (replicates). On each slaughter day, goats were either subjected to a 2-h transportation stressor (TS) or remained unstressed in holding pens (NS) before slaughter. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture from TS and NS goats at 2, 1, and 0 h before slaughter. Muscle glycogen and pH were measured on samples from longissimus muscle (LM) collected at 15 min and 24 h postmortem, and instrumental measures of meat color were obtained on the LM after a 24-h chilling period at 4 degrees C. The TS goats had higher plasma cortisol (P < 0.01) and glucose (P < 0.05) concentrations than NS goats. The rates of increase in plasma cortisol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were greater in TS than in NS goats (stressor treatment x blood sampling time, P < 0.01). Muscle glycogen concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in NS than in TS goats and higher (P < 0.01) in old vs. young goats; however, pH measured at 15 min and 24 h postmortem was not (P > 0.05) influenced by stressor treatment. Water-holding capacity of meat was not (P > 0.05) influenced by stressor treatment. Older goats had lower (P < 0.01) L* values and greater (P < 0.01) a* and chroma values than the younger goats. The a* and chroma values of loin cuts from young goat carcasses were lower in the TS than NS treatment groups, but this effect was absent in the old goat carcasses (stressor treatment x age, P < 0.05). Cooking loss percentages and shear force values for loin chops aged for 7 d were not (P < 0.05) affected by stressor treatment; however, old goats produced tougher (P < 0.01) loin chops than young goats. These results indicate that short-term preslaughter transport can cause noticeable changes in stress responses and muscle metabolism in goats. PMID:12817498

Kannan, G; Kouakou, B; Terrill, T H; Gelaye, S

2003-06-01

325

Overexpression of IGF2R and IGF1R mRNA in SCNT-produced goats survived to adulthood.  

PubMed

The procedure of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is likely to affect the expression level of growth-related genes especially imprinting genes. In this study, expressions of growth-related genes including three imprinting genes (H19, IGF2, and IGF2R) and four non-imprinting genes (IGF1, IGF1R, GHR, and GHSR) in adult nuclear transferred (NT) goats were investigated by real-time PCR. The expressions of these genes in adult clones were found largely normal, but IGF2R and IGF1R were more highly expressed in cloned goats than in non-NT goats (P < 0.01). Analysis on mono-allelic expression pattern of imprinting genes indicated that mono-allelic expression patterns of H19 and IGF2 in cloned goats were similar to that in non-NT goats. In addition, the sequence of goat IGF2 gene and the putative amino acid sequence were obtained. The 986 nucleotide cDNA of goat IGF2 gene contained an open-reading frame of 540 nucleotides coding for 179 amino acids. Both cDNA sequence and amino acid sequence of IGF2 in goat showed their higher homology with that in sheep than in cattle; the partial cDNA fragments of H19, IGF2R, GHSR, IGF1R, and GHR in goat were also cloned and sequenced, which shared higher sequence identities with those in sheep than in cattle. PMID:17707215

Xing, Baosong; Xu, Yinxue; Cheng, Yong; Liu, Honglin; Du, Miao

2007-08-01

326

Pathophysiological changes evoked by lipopolysaccharide administration in goats.  

PubMed

To establish an adequate experimental model for the study of immuno-neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the behavioral changes during the acute infection, temporal relationship of various physiological responses to endotoxin administration was examined in ovariectomized goats. Immediately after intravenous injection of 200 ng/kg of lipopolysaccharide, there were an abrupt decrease of white blood cell number and a gradual increase of rectal temperature, which were followed by elevation of plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, glucose, free fatty acids, and then later by an increase of heart rate. The results suggest that the endotoxin administration would evoke a stereotyped cascade of, febrile, neuroendocrine and metabolic as well as autonomic response to the activation of immune systems in the ruminant species. PMID:9070985

Takeuchi, Y; Kikusui, T; Kizumi, O; Ohnishi, H; Mori, Y

1997-02-01

327

Gastrointestinal parasites in goats from Monte Castelo, Santa Catarina, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was carried out with the aim of estimating the degree of gastrointestinal helminth infection in goats on the Northern Plateau of Santa Catarina. Twelve young females and 11 adult females were used. Every 28 days, feces samples were taken to quantify the nematode eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Larval culturing was performed on a pool of positive samples from the same group. The fecal egg counts (FECs) ranged from zero to 10,400 EPG in the young group and zero to 7,600 EPG in the adult group. The mean FECs were between 583.3 and 4441.7 in the young group and between 418.2 and 2181.8 in the adult group. Eggs of the order Strongylida and genera Moniezia and Toxocara, and oocysts of Coccidia, were observed. The young animals were more affected and Haemonchus was the most prevalent genus in the samples. PMID:22832756

Cardoso, Cristina Perito; Cardozo, Leonardo Leite; Silva, Bruna Fernanda da; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do

2012-01-01

328

A method for quantifying mixed goat cashmere and sheep wool.  

PubMed

Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets. PMID:21190801

Ji, Wan; Bai, Li; Ji, Ming; Yang, Xue

2011-05-20

329

Nutritional influences on reproduction in mature male sheep and goats.  

PubMed

Changes in the nutrition of mature rams and goat bucks lead to profound responses in testicular size and therefore the rate of production of spermatozoa. These effects are largely due to changes in the size of the seminiferous tubules and in the efficiency of spermatogenesis. With the exception of severe undernutrition, the effects on spermatogenic function are not accompanied by similar changes in endocrine function of the testes, as measured by the production of testosterone or inhibin. In rams, moderate changes in nutrition affect gonadotrophin secretion for only a few weeks, whereas testicular growth is affected for several months. In mature male goats during the non-breeding season, nutrition-induced testicular growth does not seem to be associated with a gonadotrophin response. Such observations have led us to develop the hypothesis that nutrition-driven testicular growth is at least partly independent of changes in gonadotrophin secretion. The energetic components of the diet, rather than the protein content, seem to be responsible for affecting gonadotrophin secretion in rams. The volatile fatty acids, and not glucose, are the active factors, although intracerebral insulin may also play a role. Where these substrates act and whether they are also involved in the gonadotrophin-independent pathways requires testing. In conclusion, nutritional signals exert powerful effects on the reproductive system of mature male ruminants, and the responses are partly independent of changes in gonadotrophin secretion. In the gonads, the gametogenic tissue responds rapidly to changes in nutrition, but the endocrine compartments are less affected. Variations in the expression of the nutritional responses among sexes, breeds and species probably reflect variations in the role of this environmental factor as a modulator of reproductive function. PMID:7623333

Martin, G B; Walkden-Brown, S W

1995-01-01

330

Multiple rostral medullary nuclei can influence breathing in awake goats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on breathing of neuronal dysfunction in the retrotrapezoid (RTN), facial (FN), gigantocellularis reticularis (RGN), or vestibular (VN) nuclei of adult awake goats. Microtubules were chronically implanted to induce neuronal dysfunction by microinjection of an excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonist or a neurotoxin. The EAA receptor antagonist had minimal effect on eupneic breathing, but 8--10 days after injection of the neurotoxin, 7 of 10 goats hypoventilated (arterial PCO(2) increased 3.2 +/- 0.7 Torr). Overall there were no significant (P > 0.10) effects of the EAA receptor antagonist on CO(2) sensitivity. However, for all nuclei, > or =66% of the antagonist injections altered CO(2) sensitivity by more than the normal 12.7 +/- 1.6% day-to-day variation. These changes were not uniform, inasmuch as the antagonist increased (RTN, n = 2; FN, n = 7; RGN, n = 6; VN, n = 1) or decreased (RTN, n = 2; RGN, n = 3; VN, n = 2) CO(2) sensitivity. Ten days after injection of the neurotoxin into the FN (n = 3) or RGN (n = 5), CO(2) sensitivity was also reduced. Neuronal dysfunction also did not have a uniform effect on the exercise arterial PCO(2) response, and there was no correlation between effects on CO(2) sensitivity and the exercise hyperpnea. We conclude that there is a heterogeneous population of neurons in these rostral medullary nuclei (or adjacent tissue) that can affect breathing in the awake state, possibly through chemoreception or chemoreceptor-related mechanisms. PMID:11457794

Wenninger, J M; Pan, L G; Martino, P; Geiger, L; Hodges, M; Serra, A; Feroah, T R; Forster, H V

2001-08-01

331

Prevalence, associated determinants, and in vivo chemotherapeutic control of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic goats ( Capra hircus ) of lower Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 800 goats of various breeds, age, and sex were randomly selected from Muzaffargarh (M. garh) and Layyah districts\\u000a of lower Punjab, Pakistan. The selected goats were visited twice a month to collect information about determinants influencing\\u000a goat tick infestation prevalence. For acaricidal efficacy, 360 tick-infested adult goats were subjected to an acaricidal treatment\\u000a and post-treatment quantitative assessment

Muhammad Sohail Sajid; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Nisar Khan; Ghulam Muhammad; Glen Needham; Muhammad Kasib Khan

2011-01-01

332

Influence of chronic undernutrition and leptin on GOAT mRNA levels in rat stomach mucosa.  

PubMed

The most unique feature of ghrelin is the acyl-modification of a hydroxyl group of the Ser3 in the N-terminus. The Ser3 is commonly modified by n-octanoic acid in vertebrates being needed for its biological effects, at least in terms of feeding. Therefore, a critical question regarding the role of ghrelin was to characterize the mechanism involved in its acylation. The acyltransferase that catalyzes ghrelin octanoylation has been recently identified and named ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological implications of GOAT in the regulation of energy balance, by assessing the effect of undernutrition, as well as fasting in adult male rats. We have determined GOAT mRNA expression levels by real time-PCR in the stomach mucosa. Our results show that chronic food restriction led to an increase in GOAT mRNA, particularly following long-term chronic malnutrition (21 days). Furthermore, following 48 h complete fasting, a situation with high-circulating ghrelin levels, we found similar mRNA expression of GOAT in fed and fasted rats; exogenous leptin administration markedly increase GOAT mRNA levels in the stomach mucosa of fasted rats. These findings suggest that increased GOAT mRNA levels may have a role in mediating the physiological responses to chronic undernutrition and could represent an adaptive response to prevent long-lasting alterations in energy balance and body weight homeostasis. Furthermore, our data also offer mechanistic insights into the reason why during fasting acylated ghrelin levels are not increased at a time when a marked increase in an orexigenic signal as important as acylated ghrelin will be expected. PMID:18835978

González, C Ruth; Vázquez, María J; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos

2008-12-01

333

Comparative pharmacokinetics of levamisole-oxyclozanide combination in sheep and goats following per os administration.  

PubMed

Since there is no registered anthelmintic drug available for use in goats, extra-label use of drugs is a common practice in most countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic disposition of levamisole (LVM)-oxyclozanide (OXZ) combination in sheep and goats following per os administration. Goats (n = 8) and sheep (n = 8) 12- to 16-months-old were used for this study. The animals received tablet formulation of LVM and OXZ combination orally at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Blood samples were collected by jugular vein at different times between 5 min and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of LVM and OXZ were analyzed by HPLC following liquid-liquid phase extraction procedures. The plasma concentrations and systemic availabilities of both LVM and OXZ in goats were lower and the plasma persistence of LVM was shorter compared with those observed in sheep. Terminal half-lives (t1/2?z) of both molecules are shorter in goats compared with those in sheep. Goats treated with LVM-OXZ combination at the recommended dose for sheep may result in a reduced efficacy, because of under-dosing, which may increase the risk of drug resistance in parasites. Increased or repeated dose could be a strategy to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to improve the efficacy against the target parasites in goats compared with sheep. However, some adverse reactions may occur since LVM has relatively very narrow therapeutic index due to its nicotine-like structure and effect. PMID:25356001

Gokbulut, Cengiz; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Aksit, Dilek; Veneziano, Vincenzo

2014-10-01

334

Introgression from Domestic Goat Generated Variation at the Major Histocompatibility Complex of Alpine Ibex  

PubMed Central

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. The extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. However, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. Here we provide evidence for introgression at the MHC in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). At a usually very polymorphic MHC exon involved in pathogen recognition (DRB exon 2), Alpine ibex carried only two alleles. We found that one of these DRB alleles is identical to a DRB allele of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). We sequenced 2489 bp of the coding and non-coding regions of the DRB gene and found that Alpine ibex homozygous for the goat-type DRB exon 2 allele showed nearly identical sequences (99.8%) to a breed of domestic goats. Using Sanger and RAD sequencing, microsatellite and SNP chip data, we show that the chromosomal region containing the goat-type DRB allele has a signature of recent introgression in Alpine ibex. A region of approximately 750 kb including the DRB locus showed high rates of heterozygosity in individuals carrying one copy of the goat-type DRB allele. These individuals shared SNP alleles both with domestic goats and other Alpine ibex. In a survey of four Alpine ibex populations, we found that the region surrounding the DRB allele shows strong linkage disequilibria, strong sequence clustering and low diversity among haplotypes carrying the goat-type allele. Introgression at the MHC is likely adaptive and introgression critically increased MHC DRB diversity in the genetically impoverished Alpine ibex. Our finding contradicts the long-standing view that genetic variability at the MHC is solely a consequence of ancient trans-species polymorphism. Introgression is likely an underappreciated source of genetic diversity at the MHC and other loci under balancing selection. PMID:24945814

Grossen, Christine; Keller, Lukas; Biebach, Iris; Croll, Daniel

2014-01-01

335

Testosterone-dependent primer pheromone production in the sebaceous gland of male goat.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that the primer pheromone responsible for inducing the "male effect" is produced in the sebaceous gland androgen dependently, we examined the correlation between morphological changes of sebaceous glands and the pheromone activity in skin samples taken from castrated goats that had been treated with testosterone. Five castrated goats were implanted s.c. with testosterone capsules to maintain physiological levels of plasma testosterone for four weeks. Skin samples were obtained from the head region on Day 0 (the day of testosterone implant), Day 7, Day 14, Day 28 (the day of testosterone removal), Day 36, Day 42, and Day 56. Matched blood samples were also collected for measurement of testosterone concentration. The pheromone activity of the ether-extracts of the upper dermal layer containing sebaceous glands was assessed by its stimulatory effect on the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator, which was monitored for changes of specific multiple unit activity (MUA) in ovariectomized estradiol-primed goats as described previously. The sebaceous gland enlarged during the testosterone treatment but reduced in size after testosterone removal. The pheromone activity first appeared in 2 out of 5 goats on Day 7 and in all the 5 goats by Day 28. Fourteen days after testosterone removal (Day 42), the pheromone activity was no longer detectable in any of the 5 goats. In short, the sebaceous gland size and the pheromone activity shifted almost in parallel. The present results provide strong support for the view that the primer pheromone is produced testosterone dependently in the sebaceous gland of the male goat. PMID:10684827

Iwata, E; Wakabayashi, Y; Kakuma, Y; Kikusui, T; Takeuchi, Y; Mori, Y

2000-03-01

336

Peripartal hormonal changes in Alpine goats: a comparison between physiological and pathological parturition.  

PubMed

In this study, 31 pregnant Alpine does were used to investigate the peripartal plasma profiles of progesterone, estradiol-17?, 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2?) and cortisol, assessing differences between goats with physiological and pathological parturition. The goats were observed around the time of parturition; all peripartum abnormalities were recorded, and veterinary assistance was provided if necessary. Blood samples were collected every 12 h from 7 days before to 7 days after delivery, and plasma used for hormonal analysis by radioimmunoassay. Two animals died during the study, and their data were excluded from the study. Of the remaining 29 animals, 23 goats had a spontaneous and physiological delivery, while six goats showed pathological parturition, including dystocia and retained placenta. The 65 alive kids were viable at birth and at 7 days of age. The results concerning the hormonal concentrations in the normal parturition confirm and define more precisely the patterns already described in the goat, while the comparison between physiological and pathological parturition has never been previously reported in this species. Highest peripartum levels of cortisol were found in the pathological group at delivery (30.6 vs 15.9 ng/ml) (p<0.01) and 12 h later (26.2 vs 11.1 ng/ml) (p<0.05); the greater cortisol concentrations found in goats with dystocia and retained placenta could suggest a higher level of stress. No significant differences between the two groups were found with respect to the circulating values of the other hormones, but the individual variability and the small number of goats enrolled in the pathological delivery group could have masked possible differences. PMID:21395842

Probo, M; Cairoli, F; Kindahl, H; Faustini, M; Galeati, G; Veronesi, M C

2011-12-01

337

Early Weight Development of Goats Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Johne’s disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne’s disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne’s disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne’s disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne’s disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne’s disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age. PMID:24349564

Malone, Alyssa N.; Fletcher, Darcy M.; Vogt, Megan B.; Meyer, Stephen K.; Hess, Ann M.; Eckstein, Torsten M.

2013-01-01

338

Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in cashmere goat skin by deep sequencing.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that play significant roles in regulating the expression of the post-transcriptional skin and hair follicle gene. In recent years, extensive studies on these microRNAs have been carried out in mammals such as mice, rats, pigs and cattle. By comparison, the number of microRNAs that have been identified in goats is relatively low; and in particular, the miRNAs associated with the processes of skin and hair follicle development remain largely unknown. In this study, areas of skin where the cashmere grows in anagen were sampled. A total of 10,943,292 reads were obtained using Solexa sequencing, a high-throughput sequencing technology. From 10,644,467 reads, we identified 3,381 distinct reads and after applying the classification statistics we obtained 316 miRNAs. Among them, using conservative identification, we found that 68 miRNAs (55 of these are confirmed to match known sheep and goat miRNAs in miRBase ) are conserved in goat and have been reported in NCBI; the remaining 248 miRNA were conserved in other species but have not been reported in goat. Furthermore, we identified 22 novel miRNAs. Both the known and novel miRNAs were confirmed by a second sequencing using the same method as was used in the first. This study confirmed the authenticity of 316 known miRNAs and the discovery of 22 novel miRNAs in goat. We found that the miRNAs that were co-expressed in goat and sheep were located in the same region of the respective chromosomes and may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. Identificaton of novel miRNAs resulted in significant enrichment of the repertoire of goat miRNAs. PMID:23236360

Liu, Zhihong; Xiao, Hongmei; Li, Huipeng; Zhao, Yanhong; Lai, Shuangying; Yu, Xinlei; Cai, Ting; Du, Chenguang; Zhang, Wenguang; Li, Jinquan

2012-01-01

339

Identification of Conserved and Novel microRNAs in Cashmere Goat Skin by Deep Sequencing  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that play significant roles in regulating the expression of the post-transcriptional skin and hair follicle gene. In recent years, extensive studies on these microRNAs have been carried out in mammals such as mice, rats, pigs and cattle. By comparison, the number of microRNAs that have been identified in goats is relatively low; and in particular, the miRNAs associated with the processes of skin and hair follicle development remain largely unknown. In this study, areas of skin where the cashmere grows in anagen were sampled. A total of 10,943,292 reads were obtained using Solexa sequencing, a high-throughput sequencing technology. From 10,644,467 reads, we identified 3,381 distinct reads and after applying the classification statistics we obtained 316 miRNAs. Among them, using conservative identification, we found that 68 miRNAs (55 of these are confirmed to match known sheep and goat miRNAs in miRBase ) are conserved in goat and have been reported in NCBI; the remaining 248 miRNA were conserved in other species but have not been reported in goat. Furthermore, we identified 22 novel miRNAs. Both the known and novel miRNAs were confirmed by a second sequencing using the same method as was used in the first. This study confirmed the authenticity of 316 known miRNAs and the discovery of 22 novel miRNAs in goat. We found that the miRNAs that were co-expressed in goat and sheep were located in the same region of the respective chromosomes and may play an essential role in skin and follicle development. Identificaton of novel miRNAs resulted in significant enrichment of the repertoire of goat miRNAs. PMID:23236360

Lai, Shuangying; Yu, Xinlei; Cai, Ting; Du, Chenguang; Zhang, Wenguang; Li, Jinquan

2012-01-01

340

Characterization of casein gene complex and genetic diversity analysis in Indian goats.  

PubMed

Milk protein polymorphism plays an important role in genetic diversity analysis, phylogenetic studies, establishing geographical diversity, conservation decision, and improving breeding goals. Milk protein polymorphism in Indian goat breeds has not been well studied; therefore, an investigation was carried out to analyze the genetic structure of the casein gene and milk protein diversity at six milk protein loci in nine Indian goat breeds/genetic groups from varied agro-climatic zones. Milk protein genotyping was carried out in 1098 individual milk samples by SDS-PAGE at alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1), beta-CN (CSN2), alphaS2-CN (CSN1S2), kappa-CN (CSN3), beta-LG, and alpha-LA loci. Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-casein A allele in higher frequency in the majority of breeds except Ganjam and local goats. The alphaS1-casein A allele frequencies varied from 0.45 to 0.77. A total of 16 casein haplotypes were observed in seven breeds and breed specific haplotypes were observed with respect to geographic region. The average number of alleles was lowest in Ganjam (1.66 +/- 0.81) and highest in Sirohi goats (2.50 +/- 1.05). Expected heterozygosity at six different loci demonstrated genetic diversity and breed fragmentation. Neighbor-Joining tree was built basing on Nei's distance. There was about 16.95% variability due to differences between breeds, indicating a strong subdivision. Principal component analysis was carried out to highlight the relationship among breeds. The variability among goat breeds was contributed by alphaS2-CN, beta-LG and alphaS1-CN. The Indian goats exhibited alphaS1-CN (CSN1S1) A allele in higher frequency in all the breeds indicating the higher casein yield in their milk. PMID:20379889

Rout, P K; Kumar, A; Mandal, A; Laloe, D; Singh, S K; Roy, R

2010-04-01

341

Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.  

PubMed

Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of ?s1-casein and also of ?-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of ?-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, ?s2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of ?s2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. PMID:24704223

Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

2014-06-01

342

Ruminal metabolism of leafy spurge in sheep and goats: A potential explanation for differential foraging on spurge by sheep, goats, and cattle.  

PubMed

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an introduced forb that is invading western rangelands. Goats (Capra hircus) readily graze the plant, but cattle (Bos tarus) generally and sheep (Ovis aries) locally appear to develop conditioned flavor aversions to leafy spurge. They either avoid the plant entirely or graze it reluctantly. We hypothesized that: (1) a diterpene diester that can occur in leafy spurge was an aversive agent, and (2) diet selection differences among ruminant species may be partly a function of differential ruminai metabolism of aversive phytochemicals, and further that cattle and sheep may be reluctant to graze leafy spurge because their ruminai microbes do not metabolize certain leafy spurge chemicals as do ruminai microbes in goats. Sheep did not develop an aversion to a novel food when its consumption was followed by an intravenous injection of ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (P=0.34). Sheep did develop an aversion to a novel food when its intake was followed by a dose of leafy spurge fermented with sheep ruminai digesta, but not when followed by a dose of leafy spurge fermented with goat ruminai digesta (P= 0.03). This suggests that goat ruminai microbes may modify leafy spurge such that it does not elicit an aversion in sheep. PMID:24249375

Kronberg, S L; Walker, J W

1993-09-01

343

The Garfagnina goat: a zootechnical overview of a local dairy population.  

PubMed

Domestic livestock with a limited distribution are increasingly recognized in the action plans of the European Union as a reason for protecting rural land. The preservation and enhancement of the native germplasm and traits selected through the ages in different areas of farming is the first step in increasing typical products at a time when high quality products are increasingly in demand. This is the first time that a zootechnical overview has been performed on the Italian native goat population named "Garfagnina," which is registered on the Tuscan regional repertory of genetic resources at risk of extinction. The aim of the study was to give added value to this population by focusing on particular traits that could be used for promoting typical products. Data on the size of the local goats, zoometric measures, breeding system, milk quality, and genetic polymorphisms were collected to get insight into the current state of the population of this type of goat. The native goat population is reared in Tuscany in central Italy, mostly for its milk. The local goat farms considered in our study are located in the hills and mountains of the northwestern Tuscan Apennine area. For every farm we measured at least 10% of the reproductive females (273), randomly chosen, and all reproductive males (47) for a total of 320 subjects. Regarding the management of the animals and the feeding system, semi-extensive farming is practiced in all the flocks. From a morphological point of view the animals are relatively homogeneous, especially in terms of zoometric data, whereas they show a wider variability regarding coat. Milk gross and fatty acid composition were similar to that reported in the literature for bulk goat milk. Moreover, the average of somatic cell count and standard plate count found in Garfagnina goat milk indicated good hygienic farm management and correct milking practices, although milking is mainly manual. The average number of globules per milliliter found in Garfagnina goat milk was almost double compared with the literature, whereas the average diameter was lower. Milk coagulation properties were scarce, thus indicating poor cheesemaking aptitude of Garfagnina milk. Selecting haplotypes carrying alleles associated with a higher expression of the specific casein could help improve milk cheesemaking aptitude. Moreover, the rather high frequency of the faint CSN1S1*F allele and the occurrence of CSN2*0 might suggest that Garfagnina goat milk could be used, after an appropriate selection, for direct consumption of milk at low casein content for intolerant human subjects. PMID:20855000

Martini, M; Salari, F; Altomonte, I; Rignanese, D; Chessa, S; Gigliotti, C; Caroli, A

2010-10-01

344

Association analysis between variants in KISS1 gene and litter size in goats  

PubMed Central

Background Kisspeptins are the peptide products of KISS1 gene, which operate via the G - protein-coupled receptor GPR54. These peptides have emerged as essential upstream regulators of neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the major hypothalamic node for the stimulatory control of the hypothalamic–pituitary– gonadal (HPG) axis. The present study detected the polymorphisms of caprine KISS1 gene in three goat breeds and investigated the associations between these genetic markers and litter size. Results Three goat breeds (n = 680) were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions with their intron–exon boundaries and the proximal flanking regions of KISS1 gene by DNA sequencing and PCR–RFLP. Eleven novel SNPs (g.384G>A, g.1147T>C, g.1417G>A, g.1428_1429delG, g.2124C>T, g.2270C>T, g.2489T>C, g.2510G>A, g.2540C>T, g.3864_3865delCA and g.3885_3886insACCCC) were identified. It was shown that Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong goat breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium at g.384G>A locus (P < 0.05). Both g.2510G>A and g.2540C>T loci were closely linked in Xinong Saanen (SN), Guanzhong (GZ) and Boer (BG) goat breeds (r2 > 0.33). The g.384G>A, g.2489T>C, g.2510G>A and g.2540C>T SNPs were associated with litter size (P<0.05). Individuals with AATTAATT combinative genotype of SN breed (SC) and TTAATT combinative genotype of BG breed (BC) had higher litter size than those with other combinative genotypes in average parity. The results extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the caprine KISS1 gene, which might contribute to goat genetic resources and breeding. Conclusions This study explored the genetic polymorphism of KISS1 gene, and indicated that four SNPs may play an important role in litter size. Their genetic mechanism of reproduction in goat breeds should be further investigated. The female goats with SC1 (AATTAATT) and BC7 (TTAATT) had higher litter size than those with other combinative genotypes in average parity and could be used for the development of new breeds of prolific goats. Further research on a large number of animals is required to confirm the link with increased prolificacy in goats. PMID:23915023

2013-01-01

345

Role of the Goat K222-PrPC Polymorphic Variant in Prion Infection Resistance  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The prion protein-encoding gene (prnp) strongly influences the susceptibility of small ruminants to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Hence, selective breeding programs have been implemented to increase sheep resistance to scrapie. For goats, epidemiological and experimental studies have provided some association between certain polymorphisms of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) and resistance to TSEs. Among them, the Q/K polymorphism at PrPC codon 222 (Q/K222) yielded the most promising results. In this work, we investigated the individual effects of the K222-PrPC variant on the resistance/susceptibility of goats to TSEs. For that purpose, we generated two transgenic mouse lines, expressing either the Q222 (wild type) or K222 variant of goat PrPC. Both mouse lines were challenged intracerebrally with a panel of TSE isolates. Transgenic mice expressing the wild-type (Q222) allele were fully susceptible to infection with all tested isolates, whereas transgenic mice expressing similar levels of the K222 allele were resistant to all goat scrapie and cattle BSE isolates but not to goat BSE isolates. Finally, heterozygous K/Q222 mice displayed a reduced susceptibility to the tested panel of scrapie isolates. These results demonstrate a highly protective effect of the K222 variant against a broad panel of different prion isolates and further reinforce the argument supporting the use of this variant in breeding programs to control TSEs in goat herds. IMPORTANCE The objective of this study was to determine the role of the K222 variant of the prion protein (PrP) in the susceptibility/resistance of goats to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Results showed that transgenic mice expressing the goat K222-PrP polymorphic variant are resistant to scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents. This protective effect was also observed in heterozygous Q/K222 animals. Therefore, the single amino acid exchange from Q to K at codon 222 of the cellular prion protein provides resistance against TSEs. All the results presented here support the view that the K222 polymorphic variant is a good candidate for selective breeding programs to control and eradicate scrapie in goat herds. PMID:24352451

Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Pintado, Belen; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Alamillo, Elia; Miranda, Alberto; Prieto, Irene; Bossers, Alex; Andreoletti, Olivier

2014-01-01

346

Controlling contagious agalactia in artificial insemination centers for goats and detection of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri in semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many goat artificial insemination (AI) centers in Spain have adopted new measures to control contagious agalactia (CA). To avoid the introduction of male goats carrying mycoplasma organisms subclinically in their external ear canal (auricular carriers) in these centers, two ear swabs and a blood sample are obtained from all candidate animals for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture (swabs) and serologic

A. Gómez-Martín; J. C. Corrales; J. Amores; A. Sánchez; A. Contreras; A. Paterna; C. De la Fe

347

Detection of Leptospira spp. in semen and vaginal fluids of goats and sheep by polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen goat herds and seven sheep flocks in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were screened for leptospirosis. From the three herds and three flocks with greatest seroreactivity, 19 goats (16 females and three bucks) and 40 sheep (26 ewes and 14 rams) that were seropositive (specific anti-Leptospira titres ?400, based on a microscopic agglutination test), were selected for

W. Lilenbaum; R. Varges; F. Z. Brandão; A. Cortez; S. O. de Souza; P. E. Brandão; L. J. Richtzenhain; S. A. Vasconcellos

2008-01-01

348

Effect of antioxidants on microscopic semen parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities in Angora goat semen following cryopreservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the antioxidants glutamine and hyaluronan and the inclusion of different levels on microscopic semen parameters, lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant activities following the freeze–thawing of Angora goat semen. Ejaculates collected from three Angora goat bucks, were evaluated and pooled at 37°C. The semen samples which were diluted with a

Mustafa Numan Bucak; Serpil Sar?özkan; Pürhan Barbaros Tuncer; P?nar Alk?m Uluta?; Halil ?brahim Akçada?

2009-01-01

349

Effect of cervical and vaginal insemination with liquid semen stored at room temperature on fertility of goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vaginal and cervical deposition of liquid semen stored at room temperature on the fertility of goats was tested in a field trial in which 217 Norwegian Dairy goats aged between 6 months and 7.5 years from 14 farms were inseminated after natural oestrous. Cervical insemination with 200 × 106 spermatozoa resulted in 25-day non-return and kidding rates

H. Paulenz; L. Söderquist; T. Ådnøy; K. Soltun; P. A. Sæther; K. R. Fjellsøy; K. Andersen Berg

2005-01-01

350

The effect of antioxidants on post-thawed Angora goat ( Capra hircus ancryrensis) sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the antioxidants curcumin, inositol and carnitine on microscopic seminal parameters, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant activities of sperm, following the freeze-thawing of Angora goat semen. Ejaculates were collected via artificial vagina from three Angora goats and microscopically evaluated and pooled at 37°C. The pooled semen samples were diluted

Mustafa Numan Bucak; Serpil Sar?özkan; Pürhan Barbaros Tuncer; Fatih Sakin; Ahmet Ate??ahin; Recai Kulaks?z; Mesut Çevik

2010-01-01

351

INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL INTRAUTERINA EN CABRAS CRIOLLAS CON SEMEN REFRIGERADO INTRAUTERINE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CREOLE GOATS WITH COOLED SEMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fertility rate and prolificity index of Creole goats, either inseminated into the uterus with cooled semen, or served by natural mating. The study took place during the breeding season. Goats were synchronized with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flurogestone acetate (FGA) during 11 d, plus an intramuscular injection of

Rubén D. Martínez-Rojero; Javier Hernández-Ignacio; Humberto Hernández-Hernández; Alejandro C. Michel-Aceves; Javier Valencia-Méndez; Medicina Veterinaria

352

Higher somatic cells counted by the electronic counter method do not influence renneting properties of goat milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laws of different countries regarding SCC of goat milk are not in agreement with each other and sometimes they fix a threshold for the enhancement of dairy products. The aim of this study was to assess if renneting properties of goat milk are influenced by higher somatic cell count (SCC) measured by an electronic cell counter. Milk samples, taken throughout

M. Pazzola; F. Balia; V. Carcangiu; M. L. Dettori; G. Piras; G. M. Vacca

353

A dig into the past mitochondrial diversity of Corsican goats reveals the influence of secular herding practices.  

PubMed

The goat (Capra hircus) is one of the earliest domesticated species ca. 10,500 years ago in the Middle-East where its wild ancestor, the bezoar (Capra aegagrus), still occurs. During the Neolithic dispersal, the domestic goat was then introduced in Europe, including the main Mediterranean islands. Islands are interesting models as they maintain traces of ancient colonization, historical exchanges or of peculiar systems of husbandry. Here, we compare the mitochondrial genetic diversity of both medieval and extant goats in the Island of Corsica that presents an original and ancient model of breeding with free-ranging animals. We amplified a fragment of the Control Region for 21 medieval and 28 current goats. Most of them belonged to the A haplogroup, the most worldwide spread and frequent today, but the C haplogroup is also detected at low frequency in the current population. Present Corsican goats appeared more similar to medieval goats than to other European goat populations. Moreover, 16 out of the 26 haplotypes observed were endemic to Corsica and the inferred demographic history suggests that the population has remained constant since the Middle Ages. Implications of these results on management and conservation of endangered Corsican goats currently decimated by a disease are addressed. PMID:22299033

Hughes, Sandrine; Fernández, Helena; Cucchi, Thomas; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Casabianca, François; Istria, Daniel; Pompanon, François; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine; Taberlet, Pierre

2012-01-01

354

Variation in terpene content and profile in milk in relation to the dominant plants in the diet of grazing goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the diet of grazing goats on the concentration and the profile of terpenes in their milk. This was tested during three seasons of the year using the two most preferred plant species in each season. Fifteen non-supplemented lactating goats grazed the pastures during the different seasons for 8 hours\\/day

V. Fedele; S. Claps; R. Rubino; L. Sepe; G. F. Cifuni

355

Caprine prion genen polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats

W. Goldmann; K. Ryan; P. Stewart; D. Parnham; R. Xicohtencatl; N. Fernandez; G. Saunders; O. Windl; L. Gonzalez; A. Bossers

2011-01-01

356

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

2009-01-01

357

Evaluating effects of an expanding mountain goat population on native bighorn sheep: a simulation model of competition and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological invasions create serious conservation problems at local to global scales, and decisions about their management require evaluation of the likely environmental consequences of an expanding population. An expanding population of exotic mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) occupy an area near Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA (RMNP), an area managed for preservation of natural communities and processes. If mountain goats

J. E Gross

2001-01-01

358

Comparative multivariate analysis of biometric traits of West African Dwarf and Red Sokoto goats.  

PubMed

The population structure of 302 randomly selected West African Dwarf (WAD) and Red Sokoto (RS) goats was examined using multivariate morphometric analyses. This was to make the case for conservation, rational management and genetic improvement of these two most important Nigerian goat breeds. Fifteen morphometric measurements were made on each individual animal. RS goats were superior (P<0.05) to the WAD for the body size and skeletal proportions investigated. The phenotypic variability between the two breeds was revealed by their mutual responses in the principal components. While four principal components were extracted for WAD goats, three components were obtained for their RS counterparts with variation in the loading traits of each component for each breed. The Mahalanobis distance of 72.28 indicated a high degree of spatial racial separation in morphology between the genotypes. The Ward's option of the cluster analysis consolidated the morphometric distinctness of the two breeds. Application of selective breeding to genetic improvement would benefit from the detected phenotypic differentiation. Other implications for management and conservation of the goats are highlighted. PMID:21080228

Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; Salako, Adebowale E; Imumorin, Ikhide G

2011-03-01

359

Regional differences of pheromone production in the sebaceous glands of castrated goats treated with testosterone.  

PubMed

The primer pheromone is responsible for the "male effects" in goats and produced in the sebaceous glands testosterone-dependently. In the present study, the responses of sebaceous glands obtained from the head and rump regions of castrated goats were examined by our bioassay system after testosterone treatment to demonstrate the presence of regional differences in the pheromone production in male goats. The testosterone treatment resulted in the marked development of sebaceous glands and the induction of pheromone bioactivity in the head region of the goats. On the contrary, this treatment brought neither development of the sebaceous glands nor induction of pheromone bioactivity in the rump region. The treatment increased immunoreactivities to androgen receptors (AR) and 5alpha-reductase in the sebaceous glands of both regions, although the activities were more apparent in the head region than the rump region. These findings suggest that the primer pheromone of male goats is produced specifically in the sebaceous glands of the head region due partly to regional differences in the expression of AR and 5alpha-reductase mediating testosterone bioactivities. PMID:11073077

Wakabayashi, Y; Iwata, E; Kikusui, T; Takeuch, Y; Mori, Y

2000-10-01

360

Divergent roles for estrogens and androgens in the expression of female goat sexual behavior.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) is required for full expression of female goat sexual behavior. Once a week for 6 weeks, ovariectomized (OVX) females were given priming doses of progesterone 72 and 48 h before behavioral observation. Estradiol (E(2); 100 microg), testosterone (T; 100 mg), or sesame oil was supplied 14 h before behavioral testing. Six goats received the AR antagonist flutamide (9 mg/kg sc) 8 h before and 4 h after steroid injection. Six goats received the carrier only. After 3 weeks, flutamide and carrier treatments were switched so that all females received all treatments. Treatments with E(2) and T were equally effective in eliciting estrus-typical behaviors (sniffing, courting, leg kicks, mount attempts by males, bouts of thrusting by males, ejaculations, and flehman responses) compared to treatment with oil. Flutamide treatment enhanced proceptive behaviors in E(2)-treated females compared to other treatment groups; this was most likely via enhanced tail wagging. Moreover, compared to goats given T + carrier, T + flutamide significantly reduced receptivity in females. The results of this experiment implicate the AR as an important facilitator of some aspects of the female goat sexual behavior. However, the results of this experiment do not show whether androgens influence estrous behaviors alone or in some combination with estrogen. PMID:15215042

Imwalle, D Bradley; Katz, Larry S

2004-06-01

361

Serological survey of leptospiral infections in sheep, goats and dogs in Cordillera province, Bolivta.  

PubMed

A serological survey for antibodies to Leptospira spp. was conducted on sheep, goat and dog serum samples collected in three localities in Cordillera province in the southern part of the Santa Cruz Department (Bolivia) in 1992. A total of 98 sheep, 218 goats and 43 dogs were tested against 29 leptospiral serovars using the microscopic agglutination test. At the time of blood collection all of the examined animals appeared healthy and presented no clinical sign suggestive of leptospirosis. Antibody prevalences, as determined by positive results at a 1:100 dilution or higher, was 14.3% in sheep, 19.7% in goats, and 14.0% in dogs. Agglutinins against six serovars (poi. shermani, pomona, canicola, javanica, djasiman) were found in positive animals. The highest serological prevalence in sheep and goats was recorded for serovar poi, followed by pomona in sheep and shermani in goats. Titres to shermani were the commonest in dogs. The results of this survey indicate that leptospiral infection is common in south-east Bolivia and that serovars of several serogroups concur in the etiology. PMID:9037672

Ciceroni, L; Bartoloni, A; Pinto, A; Guglielmetti, P; Valdez Vasquez, C; Gamboa Barahona, H; Roselli, M; Giannico, F; Paradisi, F

1997-01-01

362

Isolation and characterization of SSEA3(+) stem cells derived from goat skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Novel stem cells expressing stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA-3) reside among human dermal fibroblasts and are known as multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells. They enhance the generation efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells. However, Muse cells have only been found in humans. We aimed to isolate SSEA3-positive cells from terminally differentiated skin fibroblasts of adult goat and determine their pluripotency. Cell clusters from SSEA3(+) populations possessed stem cell-like morphological features and normal karyotypes, were consistently positive for alkaline phosphatase, and expressed stem cell pluripotency markers. These SSEA3(+) cells remained undifferentiated over eight passages in suspension culture and were able to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Our combined findings suggest that a subset of adult stem cells expressing SSEA3 also exist among adult goat skin fibroblasts. We are the first to report that multipotent adult goat cells exist among terminally differentiated goat skin in suspension culture. Our results also provide a promising platform for generation of a transgenic goat, because the undifferentiated state of stem cells was thought to be more efficient as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:23668861

Yang, Zhongcai; Liu, Jun; Liu, Hongliang; Qiu, Mingning; Liu, Qingqing; Zheng, Liming; Pang, Meijun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

2013-06-01

363

Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) potassium cyanide (KCN) at 3.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1), (3) potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) at 4.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and (4) ground frozen chokecherry leaves and flowers at a target dose of 2.5 mg HCN kg(-1) day(-1), all for 4 weeks. Clinical signs were observed in two goats treated with chokecherry. Only sporadic changes were found in the hematological and blood chemical panel. Goats treated with chokecherry and thiocyanate had an increased number of vacuoles in the colloid of thyroid glands. Spongiosis and spheroids were found in the mesencephalon from goats treated with KCN and chokecherry. These findings suggest the thyroid lesions can be attributed to thiocyanate, whereas the effects on the nervous system were most likely caused by cyanide. PMID:17631662

Soto-Blanco, B; Stegelmeier, B L; Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E

2008-04-01

364

Short Communication Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats.  

PubMed

Cytokines are small cell-signaling proteins that play an important role in the immune system, participating in intracellular communication. Four candidate genes of the cytokine family (IL2, IL4, IL13, and IFNG) were selected to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that might be associated with resistance to gastrointestinal endoparasites in goats. A population of 229 goats, F2 offspring from an F1 intercross was produced by crossing pure Saanen goats, considered as susceptible to gastrointestinal endoparasites, with pure Anglo-Nubian goats, considered resistant. Blood was collected for DNA extraction and fecal samples were also collected for parasite egg count. Polymorphisms were prospected by sequencing animals with extreme phenotype for fecal egg count (FEC) distribution. The association between SNPs and phenotype was determined by using the Fisher exact test with correction for multiple tests. Three of the 10 SNPs were identified as significant (P ? 0.03). They were found in intron 1 of IL2 (ENSBTA00000020883), intron 3 of IL13 (ENSBTA00000015953) and exon 3 of IFNG (ENSBTA00000012529), suggesting an association between them and gastrointestinal endoparasite resistance. Further studies will help describe the effects of these markers accurately before implementing them in marker assisted selection. This study is the pioneer in describing such associations in goats. PMID:25366747

Bressani, F A; Tizioto, P C; Giglioti, R; Meirelles, S L C; Coutinho, R; Benvenuti, C L; Malagó-Jr, W; Mudadu, M A; Vieira, L S; Zaros, L G; Carrilho, E; Regitano, L C A

2014-01-01

365

Morphological and molecular characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus from goat isolates in Iran.  

PubMed

Hydatidosis is considered to be an important economic and human public health problem in Iran, where a variety of animals act as intermediate hosts. There is limited information about the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats. In this study, 20 isolates of E. granulosus obtained from goats were characterised by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and morphology of the metacestode. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences were evaluated, and the sequence analysis indicated two genotypes within the isolates. 17 samples were identified as G1 strain, and 3 isolates were identified as G6 strain. The results of the morphological studies support the findings of the molecular studies. Two types of rostellar hooks were observed in the goat isolates, in agreement with the strain identification. Type 1 hooks were morphologically similar to those of the common sheep strains, whereas the dimensions of the hooks in type 2 were similar to those normally found in the camel strain. The morphological results suggest that Echinococcus of goat origin is phenotypically similar to either the sheep (G1) or the camel (G6) strains. Further, these results suggest that the transmission of the G1 genotype between sheep and goats seems to be the predominant mode of transmission, but further work is required to verify this. PMID:22484229

Rajabloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Jalousian, Fatemeh

2012-08-01

366

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats  

PubMed Central

Background Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV) are widespread in Canadian sheep and goats and represent an important health issue in these animals. There is however no data about the genetic diversity of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) or Maedi Visna Virus (MVV) in this country. Findings We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain. Conclusions The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low. PMID:21639904

2011-01-01

367

PiggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer in Cashmere goat fetal fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

PiggyBac (PB) has recently been found to be functional in various organisms. To verify and exploit its application in the cashmere goat, a PB transposon system including donor and helper vector of was developed, in which the EGFP gene in donor of vector was used as reporter. Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts cells (GFFs) were transfected with the PB transposon system and the efficiency of gene transfer was determined. Compared with random integration, PB-mediated EGFP expression levels increased 7.78-fold in the GFFs, confirming that the PB transposon system constructed successfully mediated efficient foreign gene integration in the GFFs. To further investigate the characteristics of PB-mediated integration instance, PB integration site distribution in the goat genome was examined. The results showed that PB had a preference for AT rich regions of the goat genome. Thus this study confirms the function of PB transposon in GFFs and provides a potential genetic tool for producing transgenic goats. PMID:22738962

Bai, Ding-Ping; Yang, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yu-Lin

2012-01-01

368

Phylogenetic analysis of Croatian orf viruses isolated from sheep and goats  

PubMed Central

Background The Orf virus (ORFV) is the prototype of the parapoxvirus genus and it primarily causes contagious ecthyma in goats, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. In this paper, we described the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the B2L gene of ORFV from two natural outbreaks: i) in autochthonous Croatian Cres-breed sheep and ii) on small family goat farm. Results Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the ORFV B2L gene showed that the Cro-Cres-12446/09 and Cro-Goat-11727/10 were not clustered together. Cro-Cres-12446/09 shared the highest similarity with ORFV NZ2 from New Zealand, and Ena from Japan; Cro-Goat-11727/10 was closest to the HuB from China and Taiping and Hoping from Taiwan. Conclusion Distinct ORFV strains are circulating in Croatia. Although ORFV infections are found ubiquitously wherever sheep and goats are farmed in Croatia, this is the first information on genetic relatedness of any Croatian ORFV with other isolates around the world. PMID:21073725

2010-01-01

369

DNA vaccine encoding Haemonchus contortus Actin induces partial protection in Goats.  

PubMed

Actin is a globular multi-functional protein that forms microfilaments, and participates in many important cellular processes. Previous study found that Haemonchus contortus actin could be recognized by the serum of goats infected with the homology parasite. This indicated that H. contortus actin could be a potential candidate for vaccine. In this study, DNA vaccine encoding H. contortus actin was tested for protection against experimental H. contortus infections in goats. Fifteen goats were allocated into three trial groups. The animals of Actin group were vaccinated with the DNA vaccine on day 0 and 14, and challenged with 5000 infective H. contortus third stage larval (L3) on day 28. An unvaccinated positive control group was challenged with L3 at the same time. An unvaccinated negative control group was not challenged with L3. The results showed that DNA vaccine were transcribed at local injection sites and expressed in vivo post immunizations respectively. For goats in Actin vaccinated group, higher levels of serum IgG, serum IgA and mucosal IgA were produced, the percentages of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes and the concentrations of TGF-? were increased significantly (P<0.05). Following L3 challenge, the mean eggs per gram feces (EPG) and worm burdens of Actin group were reduced by 34.4% and 33.1%, respectively. This study suggest that recombinant H. contortus Actin DNA vaccine induced partial immune response and has protective potential against goat haemonchosis. PMID:25236283

Yan, Ruofeng; Wang, Jingjing; Xu, Lixin; Song, Xiaokai; Li, Xiangrui

2014-10-01

370

Diverse host-virus interactions following caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in sheep and goats.  

PubMed

Interspecies transmissions substantially contribute to the epidemiology of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), including caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and visna-maëdi virus. However, comprehensive studies of host-virus interactions during SRLV adaptation to the new host are lacking. In this study, virological and serological features were analysed over a 6 month period in five sheep and three goats experimentally infected with a CAEV strain. Provirus load at the early stage of infection was significantly higher in sheep than in goats. A broad antibody reactivity against the matrix and capsid proteins was detected in goats, whereas the response to these antigens was mostly type-specific in sheep. The humoral response to the major immunodominant domain of the surface unit glycoprotein was type-specific, regardless of the host species. These species-specific immune responses were then confirmed in naturally infected sheep and goats using sera from mixed flocks in which interspecies transmissions were reported. Taken together, these results provide evidence that SRLV infections evolve in a host-dependent manner, with distinct host-virus interactions in sheep and goats, and highlight the need to consider both SRLV genotypes in diagnosis, particularly in sheep. PMID:23197577

Rachid, Antoine; Croisé, Benoit; Russo, Pierre; Vignoni, Michel; Lacerenza, Daniela; Rosati, Sergio; Kuzmak, Jacek; Valas, Stephen

2013-03-01

371

The effects of unilateral carotid body excision on ventilatory control in goats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not unilateral carotid body excision (UCBE) alters normal respiratory control in awake and otherwise intact goats. We measured resting VE and blood gas tensions and pH and ventilatory responses (VR) to NaCN, dopamine and Doxapram in awake goats before and after UCBE. Resting ventilation, blood gas tensions and pH, and the VR to the above stimuli were not altered by UCBE. During exposure to hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (PB = 450 torr), PaCO2 decreased in UCBE goats over the first hour, indicating acute hypoxic hyperventilation. During the subsequent 8 h, PaCO2 decreased an additional 5-6 torr, suggesting ventilatory acclimatization to chronic hypoxia (VACH). The response was similar to that observed in intact goats. Acute normoxia following 6 and 8 hr did not completely alleviate the hypocapnia of prolonged hypoxia, further suggesting VACH. We conclude that sufficient redundancy exists in the inputs from the paired carotid body chemoreceptors so that normal ventilatory responsiveness to acute and chronic stimuli is present in goats possessing only a single carotid body. PMID:6672918

Busch, M A; Bisgard, G E; Mesina, J E; Forster, H V

1983-12-01

372

Short communication: incorporation of inulin and transglutaminase in fermented goat milk containing probiotic bacteria.  

PubMed

Goat milk is a good carrier for probiotic bacteria; however, it is difficult to produce fermented goat milk with a consistency comparable to that of fermented cow milks. It can be improved by the addition of functional stabilizers, such as inulin, or treatment with transglutaminase. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cold storage of inulin and microbial transglutaminase on the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 in fermented goat milk. Microbiological analysis included the determination of the probiotic bacteria cell count in fermented milk samples, whereas physico-chemical analysis included the analysis of fat content, titratable acidity, and pH of raw, pasteurized, and fermented goat milk samples. No positive influence of inulin or microbial transglutaminase on the viability of probiotics in fermented goat's milk samples was observed. Nevertheless, the population of probiotics remained above 6 log cfu/g after 8 wk of storage at 5 °C. PMID:24704222

Mituniewicz-Ma?ek, A; Ziarno, M; Dmytrów, I

2014-06-01

373

Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task  

PubMed Central

Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could be the most efficient way to find patchily distributed resources in highly variable environments. Studies testing specific assumptions regarding the use of different sources of information can extend our understanding of decision making, including observed patterns of social learning. PMID:24109556

Baciadonna, Luigi

2013-01-01

374

Genetic structuring of nine Indian domestic goat breeds based on SNPs identified in IGF-1 gene.  

PubMed

The caprine Insulin like Growth Factor1 (IGF1) gene was analyzed for identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genetic structuring of Indian goat breeds. A panel of 80 samples belonging to nine Indian goat breeds (Capra hircus) including three large sized breeds (Jamunapari, Beetal and Jakhrana); three medium sized breeds (Sirohi, Barbari, and Osmanabadi) and three small sized breeds (Black Bengal, Changthangi, and Gaddi) were screened for SNP identification and diversity analysis. The comparative gene sequence analysis of all the nine goat breeds studied revealed a total of 18 SNPs in IGF1 gene. All the nucleotide changes were found to be synonymous. The mean observed heterozygosity was found to be maximum (0.074) in Sirohi, Beetal, Osmanabadi, and Gaddi breeds of goat, whereas it is found to be minimum (0.019) in Black Bengal breed of goat. The rest of the breeds were intermediate in terms of heterozygosity. The same has been confirmed by allele frequency distribution across the studied loci. Barbari and Gaddi were found to be more differentiated (0.0123), Changthangi and Jamunapari were least differentiated (0.00110) based on Nei's genetic distance. PMID:23534960

Sharma, Anurodh; Dutt, Gautam; Jayakumar, S; Saroha, Vinita; Verma, N K; Dixit, S P

2013-01-01

375

Epidemiological, bacteriological and molecular studies on caseous lymphadenitis in Sirohi goats of Rajasthan, India.  

PubMed

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CL), a chronic debilitating disease of goats. In the present study, a total of 575 goats of Sirohi breed on an organized farm situated in the semi-arid tropical region of Rajasthan, India were clinically examined. Pus samples from superficial lymph nodes of 27 (4.7%) adult goats presenting clinical lesions suggestive of CL were collected for bacteriological and molecular analyses. Of these goats, 51.9% yielded C. pseudotuberculosis on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting proline iminopeptidase gene specific to C. pseudotuberculosis was developed that confirmed all 14 bacterial isolates. The specificity of the PCR product was confirmed by sequencing of the 551-bp amplicon in both senses, showing 98-100% homology with published sequences. Thus, overall prevalence rate based on clinical, bacterial culture and PCR assay were found to be 4.7%, 2.4% and 2.4%, respectively. The PCR assay developed in this study was found to be specific and rapid, and could be used for confirmation of CL in goats as an alternative method to generally cumbersome, time-consuming and less reliable conventional methods. PMID:22371102

Kumar, Jyoti; Singh, Fateh; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Kumar, Rajiv; Dixit, Shivendra Kumar; Sonawane, Ganesh Gangaram

2012-10-01

376

Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality  

PubMed Central

Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg) and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance) effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection) in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance) effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population. PMID:21864407

2011-01-01

377

Age-Specificity of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Sheep, Goats and Cattle on Subsistence Farms in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats. PMID:24849051

RAHMAN, Moizur; AZAD, Md. Thoufic Anam; NAHAR, Lovely; ROUF, Shah Md. Abdur; OHYA, Kenji; CHIOU, Shih-Pin; BABA, Minami; KITOH, Katsuya; TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

378

Age-Specificity of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Sheep, Goats and Cattle on Subsistence Farms in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats. PMID:24849051

Rahman, Moizur; Azad, Md Thoufic Anam; Nahar, Lovely; Rouf, Shah Md Abdur; Ohya, Kenji; Chiou, Shih-Pin; Baba, Minami; Kitoh, Katsuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro

2014-10-01

379

Polymorphism of bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene and its relationship with litter size of Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

Two pairs of primers (P1 and P2) were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of exon 2 and intron 2 of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) gene in both high fecundity breed (Jining Grey goat) and low fecundity breeds (Boer, Angora and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats) by single strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that no polymorphism was detected for exon 2 (primer P1) of BMP4 gene in four goat breeds. For intron 2 (primer P2), three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in Jining Grey and Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats, two genotypes (AB and BB) in Angora goats, and only one genotype (AA) in Boer goats. Sequencing revealed one mutation (2203G>A) of BMP4 gene in the genotype BB in comparison to the genotype AA. The differences of litter size between AA, AB and BB genotypes were not significant (P > 0.05) in Jining Grey goats. A pair of primer (P3) was designed to detect polymorphism in the 3' flanking region of BMP4 gene that contained dinucleotide repeated sequence (CA) in the four goat breeds by microsatellite analysis. For primer P3, three genotypes (CC, CD and DD) were detected in four goat breeds. Sequencing revealed one more CA dinucleotide in genotype DD than in genotype CC. The Jining Grey does with genotype CC had 0.55 (P < 0.05) or 0.72 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with genotype CD or DD. These results preliminarily indicated that allele C of BMP4 gene is a potential DNA marker for improving litter size in goats. PMID:21140226

Chu, M X; Lu, L; Feng, T; Di, R; Cao, G L; Wang, P Q; Fang, L; Ma, Y H; Li, K

2011-10-01

380

Successful treatment of juvenile pemphigus foliaceus in a Nigerian Dwarf goat.  

PubMed

CASE DESCRIPTION-A 2-month-old female Nigerian Dwarf goat was evaluated for a generalized crusting dermatitis; signs of depression; and fever of 1 month's duration. CLINICAL FINDINGS-Histologic evaluation of skin biopsy specimens revealed subcorneal pustules and rafts of acantholytic cells. No etiologic agents were detected in the biopsy material, and bacterial culture of skin biopsy specimens yielded no growth of pathological organisms. A diagnosis of pemphigus foliaceus was made. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-Remission was achieved with a combination of SC administration of dexamethasone and IM administration of gold sodium thiomalate. The goat remained free of clinical signs for at least 26 months after discontinuation of all medications. No clinically apparent adverse effects of treatment were evident. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-This report represents the first description of successful treatment of juvenile pemphigus foliaceus in a goat by use of a novel protocol involving dexamethasone and gold sodium thiomalate. PMID:20225983

Cornish, Jennifer; Highland, Margaret

2010-03-15

381

Molecular Detection and Characterization of Goat Isolate of Taenia hydatigena in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to provide molecular detection and characterization of the goat isolate of Taenia hydatigena from Ankara province of Turkey. For this purpose, PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS) and partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) genes were performed in a one-month-old dead goat. According to rrnS-PCR results, parasites were identified as Taenia spp., and partial sequence of mt-CO1 gene was corresponding to T. hydatigena. At the end of the study, we concluded that molecular tools can be used to define species of parasites in cases where the key morphologic features cannot be detected. Nucleotide sequence data of Turkish goat isolate of T. hydatigena was submitted to GenBank for other researchers interested in this subject. By this study, molecular detection and characterization of T. hydatigena was done for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22500144

Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Piskin, Fatma Cigdem

2012-01-01

382

Evidence for the presence of oxytocin in the corpus luteum of the goat.  

PubMed Central

Purified acetic acid extracts of corpora lutea (CL) of non-pregnant goats were found to contain substantial amounts of oxytocin (OT) as measured by radioimmunoassay. OT standard and the CL extracts released prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) from rat isolated uteri in a quantitatively similar manner. Treatment of both OT standard and CL extract with sodium thioglycolate, oxytocin antiserum or oxytocin antagonist abolished this biological activity. Acid extracts of CL of pregnant goat were found to contain approximately 2% of levels during the cycle by day 21 after fertile mating and this had a reduced ability to release PGF2 alpha from rat uterus. It is concluded that both the immunoreactivity and the biological activity of the CL extracts are due to the presence of an oxytocin-like substance and that tissue levels of oxytocin are low in pregnant compared to non-pregnant goats. PMID:3458513

Homeida, A. M.

1986-01-01

383

Is the goat a new host for the G3 Indian buffalo strain of Echinococcus granulosus?  

PubMed

Four goats bred in Central Italy (province of Rieti) revealed, in the liver, metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus. The cysts, unilocular and fertile, were examined by microscopy and molecular diagnostics. Morphological data on the rostellar hooks are in agreement with the original description of the strain found in buffaloes and are largely compatible with those reported in Europe for cattle and humans. Specific PCR followed by DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene revealed for all the isolates 99.5% identity to the reference strain G3 genotype and 99.3% and 99.1% to G2 and G1, respectively. Further genetic markers (nad1 and 12S rRNA) confirmed the identity of the goat isolates to the G3 strain. This genotype, here reported for the first time in goats, proved to have a wider than previously supposed host range, therefore its relevance in human hydatidosis is expected to be more often evidenced. PMID:22666099

Calderini, Pietro; Gabrielli, Simona; Cancrini, Gabriella

2012-01-01

384

Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse.  

PubMed

To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-?-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

2014-09-01

385

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Liaoning cashmere goat from northeastern China.  

PubMed

In the present study, serum samples from 650 goats were collected from five counties between May and June 2012 and antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected by indirect haemagglutination assay; 58 (9%) had antibodies to T. gondii with antibody titres of 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive samples were distributed in all five counties: seroprevalences in Kuandian county (15%, 21/139, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9-21%) were statistically different from the four other counties (Gaizhou, Huanren, Xiuyan and Liaoyang), and the seroprevalence difference between Xiuyan county (12%, 15/127, 95% CI 6-17%) and two other counties (Huanren, Liaoyang) was significantly different (P < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the seroprevalence of T. gondii exposure in Liaoning cashmere goat in China. Our results indicated that Liaoning cashmere goat could be a potential reservoir for the transmission of T. gondii in Liaoning Province. PMID:24845552

Xu, Peng; Li, Xia; Guo, Ling; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun; Yu, Di; Zhao, Quan; Liu, Xiao-Gang

2014-01-01

386

Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse  

PubMed Central

To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-?-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

2014-01-01

387

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Liaoning cashmere goat from northeastern China  

PubMed Central

In the present study, serum samples from 650 goats were collected from five counties between May and June 2012 and antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected by indirect haemagglutination assay; 58 (9%) had antibodies to T. gondii with antibody titres of 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive samples were distributed in all five counties: seroprevalences in Kuandian county (15%, 21/139, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9–21%) were statistically different from the four other counties (Gaizhou, Huanren, Xiuyan and Liaoyang), and the seroprevalence difference between Xiuyan county (12%, 15/127, 95% CI 6–17%) and two other counties (Huanren, Liaoyang) was significantly different (P < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the seroprevalence of T. gondii exposure in Liaoning cashmere goat in China. Our results indicated that Liaoning cashmere goat could be a potential reservoir for the transmission of T. gondii in Liaoning Province. PMID:24845552

Xu, Peng; Li, Xia; Guo, Ling; Li, Bing; Wang, Jun; Yu, Di; Zhao, Quan; Liu, Xiao-Gang

2014-01-01

388

The endogenous GABA bioactivity of camel, bovine, goat and human milks.  

PubMed

GABA orally administered has several beneficial effects on health, including the regulation of hyperglycaemic states in humans. Those effects are similar to the effects reported for camel milk (CMk); however, it is not known whether compounds with GABAergic activity are present in milk from camels or other species. We determined CMk free-GABA concentration by LS/MS and its bioactivity on human GABA receptors. We found that camel and goat milks have significantly more bioavailable GABA than cow and human milks and are able to activate GABA? receptors. The relationship between GABA and taurine concentrations suggests that whole camel milk may be more efficient to activate GABA?1 receptors than goat milk. Because GABA? receptors are normally found in enteroendocrine cells in the lumen of the digestive tract, these results suggest that GABA in camel and goat milk may participate in GABA-modulated functions of enteroendocrine cells in the GI lumen. PMID:24128504

Limon, Agenor; Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Miledi, Ricardo

2014-02-15

389

Efficient Gene Knockout in Goats Using CRISPR/Cas9 System  

PubMed Central

The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been adapted as an efficient genome editing tool in laboratory animals such as mice, rats, zebrafish and pigs. Here, we report that CRISPR/Cas9 mediated approach can efficiently induce monoallelic and biallelic gene knockout in goat primary fibroblasts. Four genes were disrupted simultaneously in goat fibroblasts by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. The single-gene knockout fibroblasts were successfully used for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and resulted in live-born goats harboring biallelic mutations. The CRISPR/Cas9 system represents a highly effective and facile platform for targeted editing of large animal genomes, which can be broadly applied to both biomedical and agricultural applications. PMID:25188313

Ni, Wei; Qiao, Jun; Hu, Shengwei; Zhao, Xinxia; Regouski, Misha; Yang, Min; Polejaeva, Irina A.; Chen, Chuangfu

2014-01-01

390

Induction of sexual activity in lactating anovulatory female goats using male goats treated only with artificially long days.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine the response of Creole male goats treated with long days and melatonin implants, and the response of the anovulatory does to male effect using males treated only with artificially long days. All animals were allocated to open sheds. In Exp. 1, one group of males was under natural photoperiod (CG; n = 7); the second group was submitted to 2.5 mo of long days followed by the insertion of two s.c. melatonin implants (LD+MEL; n = 7); the third group was subjected only to 2.5 mo of long days (LD; n = 7). Testicular weight was measured every 2 wk. Plasma testosterone concentrations were determined weekly. A treatment x time interaction was detected (P < 0.001) for testicular weight and plasma testosterone concentration. In the LD+MEL and LD groups, testicular size and plasma testosterone levels varied in a similar way, but differed from those observed in CG (P < 0.001). In this latter group, testicular weight displayed seasonal variations and peaked in June, whereas in treated groups this peak occurred in March. In CG, testosterone varied in a seasonal manner and plasma concentrations increased in June and remained elevated throughout the study. In experimental groups, testosterone increased in February and peaked in March. In Exp. 2, one group of males was left under natural photoperiod (CG, n = 5) and the other one was submitted to 2.5 mo of artificially long days (LD, n = 4). On March 16, two control and two treated males were put in contact with 20 and 19 females, respectively. Sexual behavior of the bucks was observed during the 5 d following male introduction. Progesterone assays and estrous behavior were used to determine ovarian and behavioral responses of the females to teasing. The anogenital sniffing, nudging, and mount instances registered in LD-treated males were greater than those observed in CG (P < 0.05). Of the does exposed to CG, none ovulated and only two of 20 females displayed estrous behavior. All does in contact with LD-treated males ovulated and showed at least one estrous behavior during the 15 d following joining (P < 0.001). These results indicate that the sexual activity of male goats from subtropical latitudes can be induced using only artificially long days. In addition, males treated in this way are capable of stimulating sexual activity in anovulatory females by the male effect. PMID:12462243

Delgadillo, J A; Flores, J A; Véliz, F G; Hernández, H F; Duarte, G; Vielma, J; Poindron, P; Chemineau, P; Malpaux, B

2002-11-01

391

Seasonal variation in the reproductive hormones of male goats.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the circannual plasma profiles of LH, PRL, testosterone (T) and estrone sulfate (E1S) in different periods of the year and to characterize the possible variations in LH and PRL release patterns. We also tried to verify a possible relationship between plasma PRL fluctuations and ambient temperature, as well as the influence of an acute stress condition on levels of plasma PRL. Six adult male goats of the Ionica and Alpine breed reared in Southern Italy (40 degrees N lat.) were subjected to frequent samplings (every 15 min for 6 h) once a month for a whole year. The blood samples were assayed for plasma concentrations of E1S, LH and PRL by radioimmunoassay, and for T by enzymeimmunoassay. The ambient temperature was recorded on each day of bleeding. Sex steroids and PRL showed marked circannual variations, with the highest levels during the summer (July) and the lowest during the winter-early spring (March). The concentrations of plasma LH did not indicate significant seasonal variations. A positive relationship was observed between plasma levels of PRL and E1S and ambient temperature. The patterns of LH release seemed to change depending on season, but this was not an obvious and common feature in all bucks. The hormone concentrations for plasma PRL profiles seemed to be influenced by an acute stress condition (associated with cannula insertion and handling procedures), with the variations more marked when the plasma levels of PRL were low. PMID:1574957

Grasselli, F; Gaiani, R; Tamanini, C

1992-03-01

392

Hormone profile of crossbred goats during the periparturient period.  

PubMed

The plasma hormone profile of progesterone, 17 beta-oestradiol, prolactin, growth hormone (GH), cortisol, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and insulin were estimated by radioimmunoassay in jugular blood samples from 10 Alpine x Beetal crossbred goats during the periparturient period. The plasma progesterone concentrations declined from day 20 prior to kidding to the day of kidding and then remained at a basal level. 17 beta-Oestradiol concentrations declined from day 20 to day 4 prepartum, followed by a continuous increase to reach a peak at kidding. Plasma oestradiol declined abruptly on day 1 postpartum and remained low throughout the postpartum period. The plasma prolactin concentrations increased continuously from day 20 to day 10 prepartum but then increased to a peak on the day of kidding, followed by a transient decline by day 5 postpartum. The plasma GH concentrations varied significantly (p < 0.01) on the different days of sampling but were highest on the day of kidding. The plasma cortisol concentration declined from day 20 to day 2 prepartum, after which it abruptly increased on day 1 prepartum to reach a peak on the day of kidding. The concentrations of plasma T3 remained similar during the prepartum period but were minimal on the day of kidding and increased during the postpartum period. The concentration of plasma T4 was also lowest on the day of kidding and increased during the postpartum period. Plasma insulin concentrations were low in the day of kidding. PMID:11969112

Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

2002-03-01

393

[The virulence of L. leucocephala for goats in northeastern Mexico].  

PubMed

When fed 100% Leucaena during a period of 45 days goats with experience in L.-fodder took significantly (P less than 0.05) more dry matter (50.01 g/kg0.75) than those without or only possible experience (44.40 g/kg0.75 and 45.63 g/kg0.75). The uptake of Mimosine from animals with Mimosine experience (1.14 g/kg0.75) has also been significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than from two other groups with non or only possible experience (0.93 g/kg0.75 and 0.92 g/kg0.75). The Serum-Thyroxin level (T4) of the control group (5.12 micrograms/100 ml) and of the group with Leucaena experience (4.65 micrograms/100 ml) has been significantly higher (P less than 0.05) during the entire trial period than that of the two other trial groups (3.9 micrograms/100 ml). Hair-loss, reduced fodder uptake, increased salivation, excitation, ataxia of hind legs, vomit of fodder and uncoordinated chewing of fodder have been observed in animals without or only possible Leucaena experience. Three animals of those died through direct or indirect influence of the poisoning. Swollen buccal papillae, ulceration and necrosis of the oesophagus and haemorrhagic lesions in the reticulum and rumen have been observed in two of the dead animals. PMID:1930109

Martinez, M A; Seifert, H S

1991-08-01

394

Purification and characterization of catalase from goat (Capra capra) lung.  

PubMed

Catalase plays a major role in the protection of tissues from toxic effects of H2O2 and partially reduced oxygen species. In the present study catalase was extracted and purified 330-fold from goat lung by acetone fractionation and successive chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-200, Blue Sepharose CL-6B and Ultrogel AcA-34. The purified enzyme was almost homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and FPLC. The molecular weight and Stokes' radius of the purified enzyme were 339 kDa and 127 +/- 2 A. The enzyme had 11 sulfhydryl groups and 15 tryptophan groups per mol of the enzyme. A broad pH optimum in the range 5.2 to 7.8 was obtained. Sulfhydryl group binding agents, thiol reagents and N-Bromosuccinimide inhibited the enzyme activity. The kinetic data show no cooperativity between the substrate binding sites. Tryptophan, indole acetic acid, cysteine, formaldehyde and sodium azide inhibited the enzyme non-competitively with Ki values of 1.5, 1.6, 6.7, 0.55 and 0.0017 mM, respectively. PMID:8302290

Chatterjee, U; Sanwal, G G

1993-09-22

395

The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.  

PubMed

In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. PMID:24819129

Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

2014-07-01

396

Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2  

PubMed Central

Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25–35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam’s acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

2014-01-01

397

Plasma vasopressin and oxytocin concentrations increase simultaneously during suckling in goats.  

PubMed

Goats are often kept on small farms where they suckle kids and are hand milked for human consumption. Our first objective was to investigate whether vasopressin secretion increases together with oxytocin during hand milking and suckling in seven goats 6-8 weeks after parturition. Four goats suckled and three were hand milked on the first day and the treatments were reversed on the next day. Blood samples were taken via a semi-permanent catheter. Plasma concentrations of vasopressin and oxytocin increased during suckling, but not during hand milking. Plasma cortisol concentration was elevated for 10 min after both treatments. These results initiated a second series in which the objectives were to measure vasopressin and oxytocin concentrations during hand milking in a larger number of goats and to investigate whether the rise in cortisol concentration was due to the experimental conditions or to milking, by adding a no-milking treatment. Nine goats in lactation weeks 4-10 were studied. Heart rate and arterial blood pressure were registered in eight of the goats. Oxytocin concentration did not change during hand milking and the vasopressin concentration was below the detection limit. Heart rate and blood pressure were elevated during milking and for about 10 min thereafter. Cortisol concentration increased after milking, as above. None of the variables changed in the no-milking treatment. This suggests that the rise in cortisol concentration was due to milk excretion and was not a stress reaction. In conclusion, suckling increased plasma concentrations of vasopressin and oxytocin, but hand milking did not. In a mixed system, presence of the kids may be necessary to stimulate release of the peptides and thereby contraction of the myoepithelial cells. However, milk stored in the udder cisterns can be obtained by hand milking without presence of oxytocin or vasopressin. PMID:18922197

Olsson, Kerstin; Högberg, Madeleine

2009-02-01

398

Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2.  

PubMed

Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25-35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam's acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

Passler, Thomas; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Chamorro, Manuel F; Neill, John D; Brodersen, Bruce W; Walz, Heather L; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Walz, Paul H

2014-01-01

399

Risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on California dairies.  

PubMed

Log-linear methodology was used to examine relations among caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) seroreactivity and host/management factors in a cross-sectional study of 2,826 goats on 13 California dairies. The CAEV serologic status was associated with age and feeding method (pasteurized/unpasteurized milk), but not with breed. Data from a prevalence survey of 321 goats from 2 additional dairies demonstrated very good fit of the selected log-linear model (P = 1.00), indicating that the model was very appropriate to describe the relations. Odds of seropositivity and odds ratios were generated by use of a logit model derived from the log-linear model. Goats raised by the unpasteurized feeding method were estimated to have been 3.3 times more likely to be CAEV-seropositive than goats fed by the pasteurized method, when adjusted for the effects of age. Goats aged 2, 3, 4, and 5 or greater years were estimated to have been 1.7, 2.6, 4.5, and 5.7 times, respectively, more likely to be CAEV-seropositive than were yearling goats when ratios were adjusted for pasteurization status. Breed, gender, and herd of origin were not associated with CAEV seroreactivity when the effects of other factors were considered. Estimated odds of CAEV seroreactivity and the associated odds ratios for combinations of factor levels are reported. In this study, the magnitude and direction of the associations among CAEV serologic status, age, and pasteurized feeding methods were demonstrated. PMID:1852145

Rowe, J D; East, N E; Thurmond, M C; Franti, C E

1991-03-01

400

Development of an experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis subclinical mastitis in goats.  

PubMed

Streptococcus uberis is a major environmental mastitis-causing pathogen. The infections are predominantly subclinical and are frequently undetected and untreated for extended periods of time. More information about the pathogenesis of S. uberis mastitis would be useful. To our knowledge, no experimental studies into the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis have been described in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to reproduce an experimentally induced S. uberis subclinical mastitis in lactating goats aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response, dynamics of infection and the pathological findings within the first hours of intramammary inoculation with S. uberis. Six Saanen goats in mid-lactation were inoculated with 1.7 × 10(8)cfu of S. uberis. Bacterial growth peaked in milk from challenged right mammary halves (RMH) at 4h PI. Shedding of viable bacteria showed a marked decrease at 20 h PI. Mean somatic cell counts in milk from the RMH peaked at 20 h PI. Inoculation with S. uberis was followed by a decrease in the mean total number of leukocytes. Signs and systemic symptoms were not evoked by intramammary inoculation. S. uberis could be isolated in tissue from all RMH. Histological examination of specimens of the RMH and lymph nodes of the goats showed an increased inflammatory response throughout the experiment. The histological findings correlated with the immunohistochemical detection of S. uberis in RMH. In conclusion, the experimental inoculation of S. uberis in lactating goats is capable of eliciting an inflammatory response and causing pathological changes, resulting in a subclinical mastitis. This investigation shows that goat might to represent a valuable model for the study of the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis. PMID:21924846

Lasagno, Mirta C; Vissio, Claudina; Reinoso, Elina B; Raspanti, Claudia; Yaciuk, Raúl; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

2012-01-27

401

Clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus originating from the small ruminants goats and sheep.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and many animal species. The prevalence of different clonal types in animal species remains largely unknown. We analyzed 267 S. aureus from intramammary infections in goats (47) and sheep (220) by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility. The most frequent spa types in goats were t337 (N=9), t759 (N=6) and t1534 (N=5). Sheep isolates mainly belonged to spa types t1534 (N=72), t2678 (N=29) and t3576 (N=20). Eighteen novel spa-types were observed; two from goat strains, 13 from sheep and three in both species. The majority of the goat strains grouped in MLST CC133 (N=10) and ST522 (N=10), followed by CC9 (N=9), while the majority of the sheep strains were of ST522 (N=108) followed by CC133 (N=86) and CC130 (N=11). Nine new MLST types were detected; three in goat and sheep isolates (ST1739, ST1758 and ST1780), two identified in goats only (ST1740 and ST2061) and four in sheep only (ST1742, ST1743, ST1781 and ST2011). Strains showed resistance below 20% against penicillin and tetracycline; a strong association between CC-types and penicillin resistance was observed. No resistance was detected to cefoxitin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampicin and vancomycin. This study suggests that ST522 is the most common S. aureus clone associated with small ruminants followed by CC133. PMID:22112857

Porrero, M Concepción; Hasman, Henrik; Vela, Ana I; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F; Domínguez, Lucas; Aarestrup, Frank M

2012-04-23

402

Investigation of Salmonella infection in goats fed corn silage grown on land fertilized with sewage sludge.  

PubMed Central

A total of 36 goats were fed for 17 months with corn silage grown on land fertilized with human sewage sludge. These animals were investigated for salmonella infections. Salmonellae were not detected in cultures of fecal or silage samples. No significant agglutination titers were detected in goat sera examined. Salmonella newport C2 was isolated from the sludge used as fertilizer on the cornfields. The public health aspects of the findings are discussed as they relate to the increasing use of sewage sludge for agricultural fertilizers, as well as to the resultant effects on human food and livestock feed. PMID:6258474

Ayanwale, L F; Kaneene, J M; Sherman, D M; Robinson, R A

1980-01-01

403

Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task  

PubMed Central

Introduction The computational demands of sociality (maintaining group cohesion, reducing conflict) and ecological problems (extractive foraging, memorizing resource locations) are the main drivers proposed to explain the evolution cognition. Different predictions follow, about whether animals would preferentially learn new tasks socially or not, but the prevalent view today is that intelligent species should excel at social learning. However, the predictions were originally used to explain primate cognition, and studies of species with relatively smaller brains are rare. By contrast, domestication has often led to a decrease in brain size, which could affect cognition. In domestic animals, the relaxed selection pressures compared to a wild environment could have led to reduced social and physical cognition. Goats possess several features commonly associated with advanced cognition, such as successful colonization of new environments and complex fission-fusion societies. Here, we assessed goat social and physical cognition as well as long-term memory of a complex two-step foraging task (food box cognitive challenge), in order to investigate some of the main selection pressures thought to affect the evolution of ungulate cognition. Results The majority of trained goats (9/12) successfully learned the task quickly; on average, within 12 trials. After intervals of up to 10 months, they solved the task within two minutes, indicating excellent long-term memory. The goats did not learn the task faster after observing a demonstrator than if they did not have that opportunity. This indicates that they learned through individual rather than social learning. Conclusions The individual learning abilities and long-term memory of goats highlighted in our study suggest that domestication has not affected goat physical cognition. However, these cognitive abilities contrast with the apparent lack of social learning, suggesting that relatively intelligent species do not always preferentially learn socially. We propose that goat cognition, and maybe more generally ungulate cognition, is mainly driven by the need to forage efficiently in harsh environments and feed on plants that are difficult to access and to process, more than by the computational demands of sociality. Our results could also explain why goats are so successful at colonizing new environments. PMID:24666734

2014-01-01

404

Large-scale production of functional human lysozyme in transgenic cloned goats.  

PubMed

Human lysozyme (hLZ), an essential protein against many types of microorganisms, has been expressed in transgenic livestock to improve their health status and milk quality. However, the large-scale production of hLZ in transgenic livestock is currently unavailable. Here we describe the generation of transgenic goats, by somatic cell-mediated transgenic cloning, that express large amounts of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) in milk. Specifically, two optimized lysozyme expression cassettes (?-casein/hLZ and ?-lactoglobulin/hLZ) were designed and introduced into goat somatic cells by cell transfection. Using transgenic cell colonies, which were screened by 0.8 mg/mL G418, as a nuclear donor, we obtained 10 transgenic cloned goats containing one copy of hLZ hybrid gene. An ELISA assay indicated that the transgenic goats secreted up to 6.2 g/L of rhLZ in their milk during the natural lactation period, which is approximately 5-10 times higher than human milk. The average rhLZ expression levels in ?-casein/hLZ and ?-lactoglobulin/hLZ transgenic goats were 2.3 g/L and 3.6 g/L, respectively. Therefore, both rhLZ expression cassettes could induce high levels of expression of the rhLZ in goat mammary glands. In addition, the rhLZ purified from goat milk has similar physicochemical properties as the natural human lysozyme, including the molecular mass, N-terminal sequence, lytic activity, and thermal and pH stability. An antibacterial analysis revealed that rhLZ and hLZ were equally effective in two bacterial inhibition experiments using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Taken together, our experiments not only underlined that the large-scale production of biologically active rhLZ in animal mammary gland is realistic, but also demonstrated that rhLZ purified from goat milk will be potentially useful in biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24432381

Yu, Huiqing; Chen, Jianquan; Liu, Siguo; Zhang, Aimin; Xu, Xujun; Wang, Xuebin; Lu, Ping; Cheng, Guoxiang

2013-12-01

405

Anthelmintic effect of heather in goats experimentally infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis.  

PubMed

The effects of heather (composed primarily of Calluna vulgaris with a smaller content of Erica umbellata and Erica cinerea) consumption on the establishment of incoming infective larvae (experiment 1, preventive treatment) and an adult worm population (experiment 2, curative treatment) were investigated in Cashmere goats experimentally infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. In experiment 1, 12 castrated male goats were divided into two groups: heather-supplemented vs. non-supplemented animals. After 2 weeks of adaptation to the diet, all goats were experimentally infected per os with 6,000 T. colubriformis third-stage larvae. Three weeks post-infection, the goats were slaughtered, and worm counts as well as female worm fecundity and development were determined. Heather consumption was associated with a close to significant (P=0.092) reduction (mean 14 %) in larvae establishment. No effect on fecundity was observed, but the length of female worms in supplemented goats was greater (P<0.001). In experiment 2, 15 non-lactating does were experimentally infected with 6,000 T. colubriformis third-stage larvae. At 6 weeks post-infection, three groups were established: control, heather-supplemented and heather-supplemented with polyethylene glycol. Individual faecal nematode egg output was measured twice weekly to assess gastrointestinal nematode egg excretion. The goats were slaughtered 5 weeks after heather administration (11 weeks post-infection), and worm counts as well as female worm fecundity and development were subsequently determined. Heather administration was associated with a significant (P<0.001) decrease (between 47 and 66 % compared with control group) in egg excretion from 45 to 76 days post-infection. Although worm counts and female fecundity were lower in supplemented goats, no significant differences were observed. Overall, the results showed a reduction in T. colubriformis larvae establishment and a decrease in nematode egg excretion when heather was administered in experimentally infected goats. The heather plus polyethylene glycol treatment reduced nematode egg excretion levels at the same proportion as heather, thereby suggesting that the threshold of tannins required for an anthelmintic effect is most likely quite low. PMID:24271153

Moreno-Gonzalo, J; Osoro, K; García, U; Frutos, P; Celaya, R; Ferreira, L M M; Ortega-Mora, L M; Ferre, I

2014-02-01

406

Characterization and polymorphism of keratin associated protein 1.4 gene in goats.  

PubMed

Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are among the main structural components of the animal fibers and form semi-rigid matrix wherein the keratin intermediate filaments (KIFs) are embedded. Variation in the KAP genes has been reported to affect the structure of KAPs and hence fiber characteristics. As no information is available on this gene in Capra hircus therefore, present work was undertaken to characterize and explore the different polymorphic variants of KAP1.4 gene at DNA level in different breeds/genetic groups of goats of Kashmir. Cashmere (Changthangi, 30 animals) and non-Cashmere (Bakerwal and Kargil goats, 20 animals each) goats formed the experimental animals for the study. Single strand conformation polymorphism technique was employed for exploring variability at gene level. On exploring the size variability in KAP1.4 gene between Ovine and Caprine, it was concluded that sheep KAP1.4 gene has a deletion of 30 nucleotides. In comparison to published nucleotide sequences of sheep, goat sequences explored are differing at positions 174, 462 and 568 and at these positions "G", "T" and "T" nucleotides are present in sheep, but are replaced by "A", "C" and "C" respectively, in goats. By SSC studies, two genotypes were observed in each genetic group and in Bakerwal goats the genotypes were designated as A1A1 (0.40) and A1A2 (0.60) and were formed by two alleles A1 (0.70) andA2 (0.30). The different SSC patterns observed in Kargil goats were designated as B1B1 (0.35) and B1B2 (0.65) genotypes with frequencies of B1 and B2 alleles as 0.675 and 0.325, respectively. Similarly, two genotypes C1C1 (0.60) and C1C2 (0.40) were observed in Changthangi goats and the frequencies of C1 and C2 alleles were 0.80 and 0.20, respectively. These alleles were later confirmed by sequencing. The sequences of these alleles are available in NCBI under Acc. No's. JN012101.1, JN012102.1, JN000317.1, JN000318.1, JQ436929 and JQ627657. It was concluded that all the alleles observed in a breed were unique to the breed. The designated A1 and A2 alleles of Bakerwal goats differ from each other at positions 245 and the nucleotides observed were "C" or "A" and at position 605 of the nucleotide sequence "T" or "C", were observed. The designated B1 and B2 alleles of Kargil goats differed from each other at positions 224, 374, 375 and 521. The nucleotides observed in two SSC pattern were C?G, A?G, G?A and T?C, respectively. The designated C1 and C2 alleles of Changthangi goats differed from each other at one position 440 with the change of "A"?"C". Only two mutations C224G and G375A in Kargil goats resulted in change of the Cysteine (C)?Serine (S) and Alanine (A)?Threonine (T), respectively. The nucleotide sequences of KAP 1.4 gene in Bakerwal, Kargil and Changthangi goats showed 99.7% similarity with each other and 96.7% with sheep and 74.4% with mice. Average guard fiber length and diameter were 81.02±0.16 mm and 67.53±0.97 ?m, respectively, and average down fiber length and diameter was 48.38±0.70 mm and 13.32±0.29 ?m, respectively for Changthangi goats. Average guard fiber length and diameter were 63.51±4.52 mm and 105.31±4.48 ?m, respectively for Bakerwal goats and 62.60±5.03 mm and 107.18±2.30 ?m, respectively for Kargil goats. The effects of the observed genotypes on Cashmere fiber diameter, Cashmere fiber length in Changthangi goats and guard fiber length and guard fiber diameters in Changthangi, Kargil and Bakerwal goats were found to be non-significant (P>0.05).The nonsignificant association between the polymorphism and fiber attributes reported herein may be due to small sample size. PMID:23266633

Shah, R M; Ganai, T A S; Sheikh, F D; Shanaz, S; Shabir, M; Khan, H M

2013-04-15

407

Fracture-associated osteogenic sarcoma and a mandibular osteoma in two goats.  

PubMed

An osteogenic sarcoma in association with a previously repaired fracture site and an osteoma were recorded in two aged Toggenburg and Toggenburg-cross goats. In one animal, five years after the surgical repair of a comminuted mid-shaft humeral fracture with an intramedullary pin, a sarcoma with osteoid production developed at the fracture site. A review of records revealed the previous occurrence of a mandibular osteoma inducing both subluxation of the temporal mandibular joint and contralateral mandibular deviation in a second animal. Such lesions are rarely documented in goats. PMID:2760277

Steinberg, H; George, C

1989-05-01

408

The initial domestication of goats (Capra hircus) in the Zagros mountains 10,000 years ago.  

PubMed

Initial goat domestication is documented in the highlands of western Iran at 10,000 calibrated calendar years ago. Metrical analyses of patterns of sexual dimorphism in modern wild goat skeletons (Capra hircus aegagrus) allow sex-specific age curves to be computed for archaeofaunal assemblages. A distinct shift to selective harvesting of subadult males marks initial human management and the transition from hunting to herding of the species. Direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates on skeletal elements provide a tight temporal context for the transition. PMID:10731145

Zeder, M A; Hesse, B

2000-03-24

409

Effect of fall-grazed sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) on gastrointestinal nematode infections of growing goats.  

PubMed

High prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in goats has increased pressure to find effective, alternative non-synthetic control methods, one of which is adding forage of the high condensed tannin (CT) legume sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) to the animal's diet. Previous work has demonstrated good efficacy of dried SL (hay, pellets) against small ruminant GIN, but information is lacking on consumption of fresh SL, particularly during the late summer-autumn period in the southern USA when perennial warm-season grass pastures are often low in quality. A study was designed to determine the effects of autumn (September-November) consumption of fresh SL forage, grass pasture (predominantly bermudagrass, BG; Cynodon dactylon), or a combination of SL+BG forage by young goats [intact male Spanish kids, 9 months old (20.7 ± 1.1 kg), n = 10/treatment group] on their GIN infection status. Three forage paddocks (0.40 ha) were set up at the Fort Valley State University Agricultural Research Station (Fort Valley, GA) for an 8-week trial. The goats in each paddock were supplemented with a commercial feed pellet at 0.45 kg/head/d for the first 4 weeks of the trial, and 0.27 kg/head/d for the final 4 weeks. Forage samples taken at the start of the trial were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and a separate set of SL samples was analyzed for CT in leaves, stems, and whole plant using the benzyl mercaptan thiolysis method. Animal weights were taken at the start and end of the trial, and fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. Adult GIN was recovered from the abomasum and small intestines of all goats at the end of the experiment for counting and speciation. The CP levels were highest for SL forage, intermediate for SL+BG, and lowest for BG forage samples, while NDF and ADF values were the opposite, with highest levels in BG and lowest in SL forage samples. Sericea lespedeza leaves had more CT than stems (16.0 g vs. 3.3g/100g dry weight), a slightly higher percentage of PDs (98% vs. 94%, respectively) and polymers of larger mean degrees of polymerization (42 vs. 18, respectively). There were no differences in average daily gain or blood PCV between the treatment groups, but SL goats had lower FEC (P < 0.05) than the BG or SL+BG forage goats throughout most of the trial. The SL+BG goats had lower FEC than the BG forage animals by the end of the trial (week 8, P < 0.05). The SL goats had lower numbers (P < 0.05) of male Haemonchus contortus and tended to have fewer female (P < 0.10) and total (P < 0.07) H. contortus compared with the BG goats. The predominant GIN in all the goats was Trichostrongylus colubriformis (73% of total GIN). As a low-input forage with activity against pathogenic GIN (H. contortus), SL has a potential to reduce producers' dependence upon synthetic anthelmintics and also to fill the autumn 'window' in good-quality fresh forages for goat grazing in the southern USA. PMID:24996964

Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Gujja, S; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Kannan, G; Lee, J H; Kouakou, B; Terrill, T H

2014-08-29

410

Differences in the antigen structures of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and the induced humoral immune response in sheep and goats.  

PubMed

Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a disease affecting sheep and goats, is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp). Eradication programs are based on the serological identification of Cp infected animals. However, available diagnostic ELISAs are not similarly suitable for sheep and goats. In the present study the comparison of antigens revealed major species specific differences between sheep and goat derived Cp field isolates as well as between field isolates and the Cp ATCC reference strains. Furthermore, we found species-specific differences in the anti-Cp humoral immune response between sheep and goats. The analysis of band frequency was able to distinguish between immunodominant and non-immunodominant protein bands. The 150 kDa, 74 kDa, 48 kDa, and 30 kDa antigens were immunodominant in both, sheep and goats. Interestingly, the most commonly used diagnostic antigen, i.e. the 30 kDa phospholipase D (PLD), was recognized by 100% of the Cp positive goats but only by 70% of the Cp positive sheep. Furthermore, analysis of field sera revealed that there were a particular percentage of Cp positive sera which reacted negative with the PLD. In conclusion our results clearly showed that (1) the application of a combination of further defined immunodominant Cp antigens - in addition to the PLD antigen - and (2) consideration of species-specific differences in the anti-Cp immune response will substantially contribute to the improvement of Cp serological diagnostics and to effective eradication programs in both sheep and goats. PMID:23538285

Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Scherrer, Tanja; Muntwyler, Jeanette; Wittenbrink, Max M; Philipp, Werner; Hoelzle, Katharina

2013-06-28

411

Functional Analyse of GLUT1 and GLUT12 in Glucose Uptake in Goat Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Glucose transport, mediated by glucose transporters, is necessary for mammary gland development and lactation. GLUT1 and GLUT12 could both be expressed in the pregnant and lactating mammary gland to participate in the glucose uptake process. In this study, the goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 genes were cloned from Saanen dairy goats and transfected into goat mammary gland epithelial cells to assess their biological functions and distributions. The results showed that both goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 had 12 predicted membrane-spanning helices. Goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 each influenced the mRNA expression of the other transporter and increased the glucose consumption and lactose yield in GLUT1- and GLUT12-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells, respectively. The overexpression of GLUT1 or GLUT12 also increased the expression of amino acid transporters SLC1A5, SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 and affected genes expressions in GMGE cells. Using immunofluorescence staining, GLUT1 was detected throughout the cytoplasm and localized to the Golgi apparatus around the nuclear membrane, whereas GLUT12 was mainly distributed in the perinuclear region and cytoplasm. This study contributes to the understanding of how GLUT1 and GLUT12 cooperate in the incorporation of nutrient uptake into mammary gland epithelial cells and the promotion of milk synthesis in the goat mammary gland during lactation. PMID:23724114

Lin, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Qi; Hu, Weiwei; Yang, Qian

2013-01-01

412

Influence of sexually inactive bucks subjected to long photoperiod or testosterone on the induction of estrus in anovulatory goats.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treating sexually inactive bucks with artificial long photoperiod or testosterone on the induction of estrus in anovulatory grazing goats. A total of 91 multiparous mixed-breed anestrous goats were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) joining with bucks subjected to 2.5 month of artificial long days (16 h of light/day; n=31), (2) joining with testosterone-treated bucks (n=30), and (3) joining with untreated bucks (control; n=30). There were no differences between the light-treated (100%) and testosterone-treated (93%) bucks in their ability to induce estrus in anovulatory does. On the other hand, none of the goats in contact with control bucks exhibited estrus. The interval from start of mating to estrus was shorter in goats with the light-treated bucks (37.9 ± 4.8 h) compared with does in contact with testosterone-treated bucks (58.3 ± 8.7 h). The overall pregnancy rate in goats joined with light-treated, testosterone-treated and control bucks was 84%, 77% and 0%, respectively, with no difference (P>0.05) between the first two groups. Anogenital sniffing, approaches, mounting attempts, and mounts were highest (P<0.01) in light-treated bucks and lowest in control bucks. It was concluded that testosterone-treated bucks and long-day-treated bucks were equally effective in synchronizing estrus in anovulatory goats and resulted in similar levels of fertility. Given that light-treated bucks are unviable in communal production systems of goats raised by resource-poor farmers, the sexual arousal of bucks with testosterone is a practical and reliable method to induce ovulation in anovulatory goats in pastoral goat systems in hot environments. PMID:21655923

Luna-Orozco, Juan Ramón; Guillen-Muñoz, Juan Manuel; De Santiago-Miramontes, Ma de los Angeles; García, José Eduardo; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; Meza-Herrera, Cesar Alberto; Mellado, Miguel; Véliz, Francisco Gerardo

2012-01-01

413

Androgen suppresses corticotropin-induced increase in plasma cortisol level but enhances the increase in plasma aldosterone level in goats.  

PubMed

Previously we reported that androgen treatment reduced the extent of the increase in plasma cortisol (Cor) levels induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration in goats. In this study, we investigated the effect of androgen on the plasma levels of androstenedione and aldosterone. Four castrated male goats, which were treated with either 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or cholesterol (cho), were injected intravenously with 0.005, 0.02 or 0.1 mg of ACTH(1-24). Plasma Cor levels were increased significantly by all doses of ACTH injection, and these extents were lower in DHT-treated goats. Plasma androstenedione levels were also increased by ACTH injection, but DHT treatment seemed to little affect. Plasma aldosterone levels were also increased by ACTH injection, and there were no differences between cho- and DHT treated goats at 15 and 30 min after the ACTH injection. However, when goats were given the lower doses of ACTH (0.02 and 0.005 mg), plasma aldosterone levels were restored rapidly only in cho-treated goats, whereas those in DHT-treated goats were maintained throughout the 60 min experimental period. Consequently, plasma aldosterone levels in DHT-treated goats were higher than those in cho-treated goats at 45 and 60 min. One possible mechanism of the effect of DHT on the ACTH-induced increase in aldosterone synthesis may be the reduction of the activity of P450-17alpha, that is the enzyme to convert pregnenolone to 17alpha-OH-pregnenolone, and this mechanism may also be responsible to the suppressive effect of DHT on the ACTH-induced Cor synthesis. PMID:19346694

Aoyama, Masato; Maejima, Yuko; Suzuki, Toshio; Iigo, Masayuki; Sugita, Shoei

2009-03-01

414

High concentrate-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) increases plasma acute phase proteins (APPs) and cortisol in goats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate changes of stress status in dairy goats induced to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). The level of acute phase proteins (APPs) including haptoglobin (HP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in plasma and their mRNA expression in liver, as well as plasma cortisol and genes expression of key factors controlling cortisol synthesis in adrenal cortex were compared between SARA and control goats. SARA was induced by feeding high concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter) for 3 weeks (SARA, n=6), while control goats (Con, n=6) received a low concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter) during the experimental time. SARA goats showed ruminal pH below 5.8 for more than 3 h per day, which was significantly lower than control goats (pH>6.0). SARA goats demonstrated a significant increase of hepatic HP and SAA mRNA expression (P<0.05), and the level of HP but not SAA in plasma was markedly increased compared with control (P<0.05). The level of cortisol in plasma showed a trend to increase in SARA goats (0.05goats. The contents of 3?-HSD and P450 side-chain cleavage protein were increased by 58.6% and 39.4%, respectively, but did not reach the statistical significance (P>0.05). These results suggested that SARA goats experienced a certain stress status, exhibiting an increase in HP production and cortisol secretion. PMID:24852750

Jia, Y Y; Wang, S Q; Ni, Y D; Zhang, Y S; Zhuang, S; Shen, X Z

2014-09-01

415

Gene cloning, homology comparison and analysis of the main functional structure domains of beta estrogen receptor in Jining Gray goat.  

PubMed

To clarify the molecular evolution and characteristic of beta estrogen receptor (ER?) gene in Jining Gray goat in China, the entire ER? gene from Jining Gray goat ovary was amplified, identified and sequenced, and the gene sequences were compared with those of other animals. Functional structural domains and variations in DNA binding domains (DBD) and ligand binding domains (LBD) between Jining Gray goat and Boer goat were analyzed. The results indicate that the ER? gene in Jining Gray goat includes a 1584bp sequence with a complete open-reading-frame (ORF), encoding a 527 amino acid (aa) receptor protein. Compared to other species, the nucleotide homology is 73.9-98.9% and the amino acid homology is 79.5-98.5%. The main antigenic structural domains lie from the 97th aa to the 286th aa and from the 403rd aa to the 527th aa. The hydrophilicity and the surface probability of the structural domains are distributed throughout a range of amino acids. There are two different amino acids in the DBD and three different amino acids in the LBD between Jining Gray and Boer goats, resulting in dramatically different spatial structures for ER? protein. These differences may explain the different biological activities of ER? between the two goat species. This study firstly acquired the whole ER? gene sequence of Jining Gray goat with a complete open reading frame, and analyzed its gene evolutionary relationship and predicted its mainly functional structural domains, which may very help for further understanding the genome evolution and gene diversity of goat ER?. PMID:24929544

Liu, Hai-gang; Li, Hong-mei; Wang, Shu-ying; Huang, Li-bo; Guo, Hui-jun

2014-08-01

416

Comparison of two different cryopreservation protocols for freezing goat semen.  

PubMed

In this study, two different semen cryopreservation protocols were compared to freeze goat semen. The ejaculates (n=12) were collected by using electro-ejaculator from six mature bucks (two ejaculates per each buck). Each ejaculate was divided into two groups as Protocol 1 (P1) and Protocol 2 (P2). In P1, semen was diluted directly in an extender containing 15% egg yolk, 300mM Tris, 28mM glucose, 95mM citric acid 5% glycerol to a concentration of 200×10(6)sperm/mL. In P2, after the removal of seminal plasma by centrifugation, the semen sample was diluted with the first portion of milk extender consist of 100mg/mL skimmed milk powder and 27.75mM glucose (without glycerol) to a concentration of 400×10(6)sperm/mL. The second portion of the milk extender containing 14% glycerol was added to semen gradually in order to achieve sperm concentration 200×10(6)sperm/mL and 7% glycerol level in the final volume. Extended semen was loaded in 0.25mL straws, held for 2h at 4°C, frozen in nitrogen vapor and stored in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw motility and live sperm rate (mean±SEM) were significantly lower (P<0.05) in P1 as compared to P2 (47.50±1.23% vs. 55.63±1.72%; 80.04±1.29% vs. 84.04±1.08%, respectively). However, live intact, total intact, abnormal, reacted acrosome and DNA damaged sperm rates were similar (P>0.05) in both protocols. It was concluded that both protocols used in this study provided reasonable post-thaw parameters; however, P2 yielded better motility and live sperm rate compared to P1. PMID:24769311

Küçük, Niyazi; Aksoy, Melih; Uçan, U?ur; Ahmad, Ejaz; Naseer, Zahid; Ceylan, Ahmet; Serin, Ilker

2014-06-01

417

Polymorphisms of caprine POU1F1 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats.  

PubMed

Seven pairs of primers were designed to amplify 5' promoter region, six exons and partial introns and to detect the polymorphisms of POU1F1 gene in five goat breeds with different prolificacy. The results showed that six mutations were identified in caprine POU1F1 gene including C256T in exon 3, C53T and T123G in intron 3, and G682T (A228S), T723G and C837T in exon 6. The former four mutations were novel SNPs in goat POU1F1 gene. The 53 and 123 loci were in complete linkage disequilibrium in five caprine breeds. Regarding the 256 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype CT had 0.66 kids more than those with genotype CC (P < 0.05), while does with genotype GT had 0.63 (P < 0.05) kids more than those with genotype GG at the 682 locus. The present study preliminarily showed an association between allele T at the 256 and 682 loci of POU1F1 gene and high litter size in Jining Grey goats. Totally 16 haplotypes and 50 genotypes were identified at the above six loci in POU1F1 gene of five goat breeds. Three common haplotypes (hap2, hap3 and hap4) were identified in five goat breeds joined. Four specific haplotypes (hap7, hap9, hap11 and hap13) were detected in Jining Grey goats. The predominant haplotype was hap1 (35.29% and 48.25%) in both Jining Grey and Guizhou White goats, while hap4 (50%) in Boer goats, and hap2 (42.86% and 38.75%) in both Wendeng Dairy and Liaoning Cashmere goats. The most frequent genotypes at six loci in the above five goat breeds were hap1/hap2 (14.38%) and hap1/hap4 (14.38%), hap1/hap2 (38.60%), hap4/hap4 (40.91%), hap2/hap4 (26.53%), hap2/hap5 (20.00%), respectively. The Jining Grey goat does with nine genotypes analyzed of POU1F1 gene showed no obvious difference in litter size. PMID:21769479

Feng, T; Chu, M X; Cao, G L; Tang, Q Q; Di, R; Fang, L; Li, N

2012-04-01

418

Chronic arsenicosis in goats with special reference to its exposure, excretion and deposition in an arsenic contaminated zone.  

PubMed

Thirty goats were selected randomly from a village of Nadia district, West Bengal according to the previous reports of human being suffering from chronic arsenicosis. Environmental samples viz. drinking water, rice plants and grass used for goat and biological samples viz. blood, urine, faeces, hair and meat were collected to evaluate the arsenic status. It was found that arsenic concentration in both environmental and biological samples was significantly (p<0.01) higher rather than respective samples on control zone. Bio-concentration factor (BCF) and bio-transfer factor (BTF) are indicated to evaluate the subclinical toxicity in goat as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22306488

Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Das, Subhashree; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

2012-03-01

419

Serological evidence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection in indigenous goats in the Sultanate of Oman.  

PubMed

Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is a chronic debilitating disease of goats caused by a lentivirus responsible for economic losses as a result of a drop in milk production and weight loss. The objective of the study was to determine if indigenous goats from five different regions in the Sultanate of Oman exhibit serological evidence of exposure to CAEV using a competitive-inhibition ELISA technique. Blood samples were collected from slaughtered goats (N=1,110) and from the National Serum Bank (n=528). In total, 83 (5.1%) of screened samples were classed as seropositive. The results provide the first serological evidence for the presence of CAEV in Oman. PMID:21660649

Tageldin, Mohamed Hassan; Johnson, Eugene H; Al-Busaidi, Rashid M; Al-Habsi, Khalid R; Al-Habsi, Seif S

2012-01-01

420

Single-domain antibody-based ligands for immunoaffinity separation of recombinant human lactoferrin from the goat lactoferrin of transgenic goat milk.  

PubMed

Single-domain antibody generation technology was applied to make new Sepharose-bound ligands for affinity separation of closely related proteins, such as human and goat lactoferrin. We generated recombinant antibodies that can selectively bind/recognize only lactoferrins having amino acid sequences identical to that of human natural lactoferrin (anti-hLF Ab). Selected and purified histidine-tagged single-domain antibodies were used as ligands, and different lactoferrins were used as analytes in the kinetics analysis of lactoferrin binding to captured anti-hLF Abs using the Bio-Rad ProteOn XPR36 protein interaction array system. The data obtained were consistent with a 1:1 binding model with very high affinity, practically equal in the case of hLF and rec-hLF (calculated KD varied from 0.43nM to 3.7nM). Interaction of captured fsdAbs with goat LF was significantly weaker and not detectable under the same analysis conditions. We demonstrated the high efficiency of the recombinant human lactoferrin purification from goat lactoferrin and other proteins using the obtained single domain antibody-based affinity ligands. We believe this approach can be used for the generation of single-domain antibody-based affinity media for the efficient separation/purification of a wide spectrum of other highly homologous proteins. PMID:24463400

Tillib, S V; Privezentseva, M E; Ivanova, T I; Vasilev, L F; Efimov, G A; Gursky, Y G; Georgiev, G P; Goldman, I L; Sadchikova, E R

2014-02-15

421

Herbage intake rates and grazing behaviour of sheep and goats grazing grass or white clover  

E-print Network

replicated on three occasions. On each occasion different plots and animals were used and herbage intake the hours of darkness ( and grass were similar for sheep (both 2.52 kg DM/day) and goats (1.33 and 1.46 kg DM/day

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of calcium-fortified milk-rich diets (either goat's  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of calcium-fortified milk-rich diets (either goat's or cow's milk) on copper bioavailability in iron-deficient anemia Javier Díaz-Castro & María José Muñoz Alférez & Inmaculada López involved in the hematopoietic system whose deficiency is associated with anemia due to its requirement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Italian goat breeds measured  

E-print Network

of joint work with the Food and Agri- culture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Animals were and population structure grouped the three Egyptian goat breeds together, and separated them from the two Italian breeds. The studied Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and European populations seem to have

Merilä, Juha

424

Establishment of maternal bonding and its mediation by vaginocervical stimulation in goats.  

PubMed

To investigate the establishment of offspring recognition in mother goats, 11 females were subjected to two successive 5-min tests with their own kid and an alien, 2 h 30 min postpartum. All mothers accepted their own kid, while nine rejected the alien. This suggests that in goats, 2.5 h are sufficient for the development of an exclusive bond with the kid. We also studied the role of physiological factors mediating maternal bonding in this species. Eight of the nine goats that rejected alien kids were, therefore, submitted to 5 min of vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) immediately following the selectivity tests. Of these eight goats, five changed their behavior after VCS and accepted the alien kid (0/8 before VCS vs. 5/8 after VCS, p = 0.031). Thus, VCS appears to reduce rejection behavior towards alien kids while resulting in a significant increase in their rate of acceptance. Underlying physiological mechanisms by which VCS may act are discussed. PMID:8153185

Romeyer, A; Poindron, P; Porter, R H; Levy, F; Orgeur, P

1994-02-01